Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Asymmetric Cell Division: Unequal cell division that results in daughter cells of different sizes.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Caulobacter crescentus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Peptidoglycan Glycosyltransferase: A hexosyltransferase involved in the transfer of disaccharide molecules to the peptidoglycan structure of the CELL WALL SKELETON. It plays an important role in the genesis of the bacterial CELL WALL.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Caulobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod- or vibroid-shaped or fusiform bacteria that commonly produce a stalk. They are found in fresh water and soil and divide by binary transverse fission.ThymidineBacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Nalidixic Acid: A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cleavage Stage, Ovum: The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Centrioles: Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Telophase: The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Amdinocillin: An amidinopenicillanic acid derivative with broad spectrum antibacterial action.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.PeptidoglycanCytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Kinetin: A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Neuroepithelial Cells: Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; COCHLEA; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Genes, Helminth: The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.TritiumSOS Response (Genetics): An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Blastoderm: A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.Genes, Essential: Those genes found in an organism which are necessary for its viability and normal function.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cambium: A layer of living cells between the bark and hardwood that each year produces additional wood and bark cells, forming concentric growth rings.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins: A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 220.127.116.11.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase: Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Succinimides: A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Aurora Kinase B: An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Mitotic Index: An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.Hydroxyurea: An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
In vitro effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) on bovine cells. (1/46946)Bovine fetal muscle cells were exposed to culture media containing 2 mg and 20 mg per liter of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) for varying intervals to determine the in vitro response of mammalian cells to this compound. The concentrations of 2,4-D used were comparable to those used in spray programmes although the residues normally found in pasture are much lower since 2,4-D is rapidly degraded under field conditions. Untreated and treated cultures were analyzed for total cell count, mitotic index and the percentages of differentiating and degenerating cells. The response of cultures to treatment was similar irrespective of the concentrations of 2,4-D used although in higher concentrations there was an initial drop in mitotic index. Other changes noted in treated cultures included an increase in differentiating and degenerating cells compared to those in control. The mitotic cells in treated cultures exhibited unipolar and tripolar spindles and a variety of other abnormalities including malorientation of the mitotic apparatus in relation to the axis of the cell. Myoblasts in initial stages of myogenesis were noted to be in mitosis in treated cultures suggesting that 2,4-D may have a stimulatory effect on myoblasts which in normal myogenesis are in post mitotic stage. (+info)
Electronic volume analysis of L1210 chemotherapy. (2/46946)The rapid analysis of in vivo chemotherapy on the L1210 ascites tumor grown in C57BL/6 X DBA/2F1 mice has been shown by means of an electronic volume analysis. The drugs were injected on the 4th day of tumor growth, and the cells in the peritoneal cavity were studied at 24-hr intervals on the 5th through 7th day. Using the electronic cell volume distributions, combined with labeling indices, cell morphology, and cell counts, it was found that the alkylating agents. 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and cyclophosphamide, at the dosages used, were more effective than the S-phase-specific drugs, palmitoyl ester of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, vincristine, and methotrexate. (+info)
Stimulation of thymidine uptake and cell proliferation in mouse embryo fibroblasts by conditioned medium from mammary cells in culture. (3/46946)Undialyzed conditioned medium from several cell culture sources did not stimulate thymidine incorporation or cell overgrowth in quiescent, density-inhibited mouse embryo fibroblast cells. However, dialyzed conditioned medium (DCM) from clonal mouse mammary cell lines MCG-V14, MCG-T14, MCG-T10; HeLa cells; primary mouse adenocarcinoma cells; and BALB/c normal mouse mammary epithelial cells promoted growth in quiescent fibroblasts. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell varied from 24% (HeLa) to 213% (MCG-V14) of the activity produced by primary tumor cells. The production of growth-promoting activity was not unique to tumor-derived cells or cells of high tumorigenicity. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell in the active cultures was not correlated with any of the following: tumorigenicity, growth rat, cell density achieved at saturation, cell type, or species of cell origin. It is concluded that transformed and non-transformed cells of diverse origin, cell type, and tumorigenicity can produce growth factors in culture. The growth-promoting potential of the active media from primary tumor cultures accumulated with time of contact with cells and was too great to be accounted for entirely by the removal of low-molecular-weight inhibitors by dialysis. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that conditioned medium from the active cultures contained a dialyzable, growth-promoting activity. Different cell lines exhibited differential sensitivity to tumor cell DCM and fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, quiescent fibroblasts were stimulated by primary tumor cell DCM in the presence of saturating concentrations of fetal bovine serum. These observations support the notion that the active growth-promoting principle in primary tumor cell DCM may not be a serum factor(s). (+info)
Blood thymidine level and iododeoxyuridine incorporation and reutilization in DNA in mice given long-acting thymidine pellets. (4/46946)A long-acting thymidine pellet consisting of 190 mg of cholesterol and 60 mg of thymidine has been developed for the study of thymidine metabolism and reutilization in vivo. Implantation of such a pellet s.c. in adult mice will maintain the blood plasma concentration of thymidine at levels between 40 and 8 X 10(-6) M, which are from 36 to 7 times those of normal mice, for periods up to 48 hr. During this period, in vivo uptake and reutilization of [125I]iododeoxyuridine, a thymidine analog, into intestinal and tumor DNA were almost completely suppressed. While iododeoxyuridine reutilization is not large in normal proliferative tissue even in the absence of pellet implants, reutilization of over 30% was measured in large, rapidly growing ascites tumors. The inhibition of iododeoxyuridine incorporation by elevated thymidine blood levels is directly proportional to serum concentration. This appears to be due to a thymidine pool in rapid equilibrium with blood thymidine. This pool is at least 10 times larger than the 4-nmole pool of extracellular thymidine. (+info)
The effects of estrogens and antiestrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (5/46946)We have established or characterized six lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture for at least 1 year and have examined these lines for estrogen responsiveness. One of these cell lines, MCF-7, shows marked stimulation of macromolecular synthesis and cell division with physiological concentrations of estradiol. Antiestrogens are strongly inhibitory, and at concentrations greater than 3 X 10(-7) M they kill cells. Antiestrogen effects are prevented by simultaneous treatment with estradiol or reversed by addition of estradiol to cells incubated in antiestrogen. Responsive cell lines contain high-affinity specific estradiol receptors. Antiestrogens compete with estradiol for these receptors but have a lower apparent affinity for the receptor than estrogens. Stimulation of cells by estrogens is biphasic, with inhibition and cell death at concentrations of 17beta-estradiol or diethylstilbestrol exceeding 10(-7) M. Killing by high concentrations of estrogen is probably a nonspecific effect in that we observe this response with 17alpha-estradiol at equivalent concentrations and in the otherwise unresponsive cells that contain no estrogen receptor sites. (+info)
The effects of glucocorticoids and progesterone on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (6/46946)Glucocorticoids, at physiological concentration, inhibit cell division and thymidine incorporation in three lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture. At steroid concentrations sufficient to inhibit thymidine incorporation 50%, little or no effect is seen on protein synthesis 48 hr after hormone addition. All three of these lines are shown to have glucocorticoid receptors demonstrable by competitive protein binding assays. Receptors are extensively characterized in one line by sucrose density gradient analysis and binding specificity studies. Good correlation between receptor-binding specificity and biological activity is found except for progesterone, which binds to glucocorticoid receptor but is noninhibitory. Cross-competition and quantification studies demonstrate a separate receptor for progesterone. This receptor has limited binding specificities restricted largely to progestational agents, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor bound both glucocorticoids and progesterone. Two other human breast cancer lines neither contain glucocorticoid receptor nor are inhibited by glucocorticoids. It is concluded that in some cases glucocorticoids can directly limit growth in human breast cancer in vitro without requiring alterations in other trophic hormones. (+info)
The effects of androgens and antiandrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (7/46946)We have examined five human breast cancer cell lines in continuous tissue culture for androgen responsiveness. One of these cell lines shows a 2- to 4-fold stimulation of thymidine incorporation into DNA, apparent as early as 10 hr following androgen addition to cells incubated in serum-free medium. This stimulation is accompanied by an acceleration in cell replication. Antiandrogens [cyproterone acetate (6-chloro-17alpha-acetate-1,2alpha-methylene-4,6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) and R2956 (17beta-hydroxy-2,2,17alpha-trimethoxyestra-4,9,11-triene-1-one)] inhibit both protein and DNA synthesis below control levels and block androgen-mediated stimulation. Prolonged incubation (greater than 72 hr) in antiandrogen is lethal. The MCF- cell line contains high-affinity receptors for androgenic steroids demonstrable by sucrose density gradients and competitive protein binding analysis. By cross-competition studies, androgen receptors are distinguishable from estrogen receptors also found in this cell line. Concentrations of steroid that saturate androgen receptor sites in vitro are about 1000 times lower than concentrations that maximally stimulate the cells. Changes in quantity and affinity of androgen binding to intact cells at 37 degrees as compared with usual binding techniques using cytosol preparation at 0 degrees do not explain this difference between dissociation of binding and effect. However, this difference can be explained by conversion of [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone to 5alpha-androstanediol and more polar metabolites at 37 degrees. An examination of incubation media, cytoplasmic extracts and crude nuclear pellets reveals probable conversion of [3H]testosterone to [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Our data provide compelling evidence that some human breast cancer, at least in vitro, may be androgen dependent. (+info)
Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) in alcoholic liver disease. (8/46946)Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) was determined in the supernatants of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic liver disease. PIF was assayed by determining inhibition of DNA synthesis in WI-38 human lung fibroblasts. A two-fold greater inhibition in thymidine incorporation into DNA by lung fibroblasts was observed in supernatants of PHA stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic hepatitis or active Laennec's cirrhosis as compared with that found in control subjects or patients with fatty liver. It is suggested that decreased liver cell regeneration seen in some patients with alcoholic hepatitis may be due to increased elaboration of PIF. (+info)
Mutants of FtsZ targeting the protofilament interface: effects on cell division and GTPase activity. | [email protected]
Mutants of FtsZ targeting the protofilament interface: effects on cell division and GTPase activity.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Cyclin Dependent Kinase 1 (p34 Protein Kinase or Cell Division Protein Kinase 1 or Cell Division Control Protein 2 Homolog or...
Cyclin Dependent Kinase 1 (p34 Protein Kinase or Cell Division Protein Kinase 1 or Cell Division Control Protein 2 Homolog or CDK1 or EC 18.104.22.168 or EC 22.214.171.124) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-08-29 Available for US$ 3500 at Researchmoz.us
A discussion and sharing among teachers on Cell Division at the voluntary forum, a self-learning as well as peer learning platform. The Azim Premji Foundation District Institute team of Janjgir-Champa is organizing this discussion.. ...
Planar cell polarity signalling controls cell division orientation during zebrafish gastrulation. - PubMed - NCBI
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The mechanisms orchestrating spatial cell division control remain poorly understood. In animal cells, the position of the mitotic spindle dictates cleavage furrow placement, and thus plays a key role in governing spatial relationships between resulting daughter cells. The one-cell stage Caenorhabditis elegans embryo is an attractive model system to investigate the mechanisms underlying spindle positioning in metazoans. In this review, the experimental advantages of this model system for an in vivo dissection of cell division processes are first discussed. Next, three lines of experiments that were conducted to dissect the mechanisms governing spindle positioning in one-cell stage C. elegans embryos are summarized. First, localized laser micro-irradiations were utilized to identify the forces acting on spindle poles during anaphase. This work revealed that there is a precise imbalance of pulling forces acting on the two spindle poles, with the forces acting on the posterior spindle pole being in ...
Cell division cycle 5-like protein contains a PF00249 domain.. Cell division cycle 5-like protein contains a PF00249 domain.. Cell division cycle 5-like protein is proteolytically cut by caspase () cleavage. HESD-FSGV.. Cell division cycle 5-like protein is proteolytically cut by granzyme B, human-type (S01.010) cleavage. IDMD-EDEL.. ...
Essential cellular modules for the proliferation of the primitive cell - ePrints - Newcastle University
2017 China University of Geosciences (Beijing) and Peking University. Bacteria appeared early in the evolution of cellular life on planet Earth, and therefore the universally essential genes or biological pathways found across bacterial domains may represent fundamental genetic or cellular systems used in early life. The essential genes and the minimal gene set required to support bacterial life have recently been experimentally and computationally identified. It is, however, still hard to estimate the ancient genes present in primitive cells compared to the essential genes in contemporary bacteria, because we do not know how ancestral primitive cells lived and proliferated, and therefore cannot directly evaluate the essentiality of the genes in ancestral primitive cells. The cell wall is normally essential for bacterial proliferation and cellular division of walled bacterial cells is normally highly controlled by the essential FtsZ cell division machinery. But, bacteria are capable of reverting ...
Stunted Plant 1** mediates effects of cytokinin, but not of auxin, on cell division and expansion in the root of **Arabidopsis*...
Stunted Plant 1** mediates effects of cytokinin, but not of auxin, on cell division and expansion in the root of **Arabidopsis** ...
CCAR1; cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1; cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator protein 1; CARP 1; CARP1; FLJ10590; death inducer with SAP domain; cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein 1; MGC44628; RP11-437A18.1; novel protein similar to vertebrate cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1 ...
An unknown regulator affects cell division and the timing of entry into stationary phase in Escherichia coli - OpenThesis
When an essential nutrient is depleted from the medium, cultures of wildtype. E. coli cells enter a period called stationary phase. The transition into. stationary phase is marked by distinct changes in cell physiology, gene. expression, and morphology. Pr???? and Matsumura (18) found a mutant strain of. E. coli that was able to continue growing exponentially at a time when wild-type. cells had stopped growing and entered stationary phase. They concluded that. FlhD, a transcriptional activator of flagellar genes, was responsible for this. growth phenotype and that it is a regulator of cell division (17, 18). Contrary to. the findings of Pr???? and Matsumura, research in our lab has shown that the. mutant growth phenotype observed in the strain used by Matsumura and Pr???? is. flhD independent. This study sought to identify the second mutation, which we. call cdr (cell division regulator) in the strain used by Matsumura and Pr????. We. used Hfr mapping and P1 transduction to localize the mutation ...
Streptomyces coelicolor has several unique features that make it ideal for analysis of bacterial cell division. First, it is the only known FtsZ-containing bacterium in which the ftsZ gene is dispensable and can be deleted. Second, this organism has two forms of cell division, of which one is the developmentally regulated sporulation septation that converts aerial hyphae into chains of spores (Fig. 1; Flärdh et al., 2000). Third, the spore pigment works as an excellent built-in reporter in genetic analyses of this cell division. Finally, the formation of many tens of closely spaced Z rings in a single cell involves remodelling of highly dynamic helical structures into a series of rings (Fig. 1 and 2; Grantcharova et al., 2005). This makes the sporulation process highly sensitive to disturbances in FtsZ polymerisation dynamics, and it is therefore a great model to investigate this central aspect of cell division.. ...
thanks currie!!! this helps me out a lot!!! now i wont be up that late studying!!! haha and i agree answers would be pretty sweet but ill take what i can get ...
Dueling kinases regulate cell size at division through the SAD kinase Cdr2. Deng L, Baldissard S, Kettenbach AN, Gerber SA, Moseley JB. Current Biology. Feb 17;24(4):428-33. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.01.009. Epub 2014 Feb 6. pubmed ...
The use of acoustic, frequency or ultra-sound devices have any known effect on cell division or cell healing? Or cell signaling could be effected by
As living things grow, the number of cells in them increases. This brings significant advantages, and requires the development of complex organ systems. This item looks at the two ways cells divide, mitosis and meiosis, and the differences between these types of cell division. Software simulations and video clips which show cell division are uses of ICT in teaching and learning. ...
Animal cell division under DIC microscope. Here is some information about cell division: Cell division is the process by which a cell, called the parent cell, divides into two cells, called...
Director: Joan Garfinkel. AGING IS INEVITABLE. We all agree that growing old is a fact of life and is indeed inevitable. When our bones become brittle, skin starts to wrinkle, muscles get weaker, and energy plummets. These are the typical signs of aging.. CELL DIVISION. NewULife states our cells naturally divide only a certain amount of times in the body. The cell division process begins at the time of conception and is necessary for the development and growth of a life. As we grow, cells divide and multiply; however, as we continue to get older cell division slows down.. EPIGENETIC FACTORS. According to NewULife, many People have a common, pre-conceived understanding that only genetics play a key role in how long we. While to some degree this is true, there are other positive epigenetic factors that play an even bigger role. Epigenetic factors are essentially the overall lifestyle changes made that can disrupt your own genetic make-up. Perhaps, this is how we can extend not just our lives, but ...
In most bacteria and archaea, filaments of FtsZ protein organize cell division. FtsZ forms a ring structure at the division site and starts the recruitment of 10 to 20 downstream proteins that together form a multiprotein complex termed the divisome. The divisome is thought to facilitate many of the steps required to make two cells out of one. FtsQ and FtsB are part of the divisome, with FtsQ being a central hub, interacting with most... ...
Chapter 9 spring 2011 - Chapter 9 Cell Reproduction Different Kinds of Cell Division Different Binary Fission = Cell division...
View Notes - Chapter 9 spring 2011 from BIO 111 at Moraine Valley Community College. Chapter 9 Cell Reproduction Different Kinds of Cell Division Different Binary Fission = Cell division
Johns Hopkins scientists have discovered that a deceptively simple sugar is in fact a critical regulator of cells natural life cycle
Script: Approximately 24 to 30 hours after fertilization, the zygote completes its first cell division. Through the process of mitosis, one cell splits into two, two into four, and so on. ...
Bacterial cell division occurs by a highly conserved process predominantly, termed | Beneficial Effects of RAF Inhibitor i
Bacterial cell division occurs by a highly conserved process predominantly, termed binary fission, that requires the microbial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. of VX-765 manufacture the unipolar development and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid patient. This system of cell department offers not really been recorded in additional human being microbial pathogens recommending the potential for developing is definitely the leading microbial trigger of sexually sent attacks. will not really communicate FtsZ, which is definitely required for the extremely conserved procedure of binary fission that most bacterias use to separate. non-etheless, it provides been believed that this microbial virus splits by binary fission. We Rabbit Polyclonal to Cox1 present right here that splits VX-765 manufacture by a polarized cell department procedure that can be identical to the flourishing procedure of some various other bacterias that absence FtsZ, such as the Planctomycetes. This story setting of cell ...
Cell division Cell division Reasons for cell division Cell Cycle All cells are derived from preexisting cells. Cell division is the process by wich cells produce new cells. Reasons for cell division Cell growth Repair and replacement of damaged cell parts: some tissues must be repaired often such as the lining of gut, white blood cells, skin cells with a short lifespan. Other cells do not divide at all after birth such as muscle and nerve. Reproduction of the species. Cell Cycle During a cells life cycle there are various different phases. The Cell Cycle includes two main parts: Interphase: is the longest part of a cells life cycle and is called
12:10 In the car analogy, oncogenes are the gas pedal for abnormal growth, while tumor suppressor genes are the brakes. Oncogenes encourage cell division. Each cell divides to become two, the number of cells goes up and growth occurs. Tumor suppressors block cell division. Taking the car analogy further, one then has to consider how much gas is in the tank. DNA within a human cell, packaged in chromosomes, can be copied into a new generation of cells only so many times. Each time a cell divides, the tail end of the chromosome called the telomere gets a little shorter until it is gone. Like the amount of gas in a tank, this serves as a physical limit on cell division, limiting the lifespan of a line of cells and its ability to drive tissue growth. Limited telomere length also serves as another protection against tumors as cancer cells seek to become immortal ...
Cell Division. 1) Binary Fission: division of a prokaryote cell into 2 identical offspring Binary Fission a) Chromosome are...
5 1) Cell Cycle: life of a cell from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into 2 a) Interphase- preparation for Mitosis b) Mitosis- nuclear division c) Cytokinesis- cytoplasmic division ...
Get FREE question bank, notes, formulae, tips and tricks. Solved practice questions for COMEDK Medical, Find all the formulas, full chapter notes, tips and tricks to prepare on Cell Division for COMEDK Medical
... Stock Vector Conceptual Health Medicine Microscope Microscopic Microbiology Micro Medicine Membrane Mitosis GraphicRiver Cell Division 4405597 Stock Vector
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
The Cell Division document template can be used to prepare manuscripts according to the citation style and authoring guidelines of Cell Division
Obtain a slide of a whitefish blastula for observation of the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Since early embryogenesis involves rapid cellular division, the whitefish blastula has long served as a model of mitotic division in animals. It also has the advantage of demonstrating clear spindle formation in the cytoplasm. ...
Introduction. In order for organisms to grow, repair, maintain, and reproduce, cells undergo cell division. Sometimes, cells uncontrollably divide, resulting in cancer. In the first part of the Cancer and Cell Division Lab, you will learn about normal cell division and will compare it to cell division that occurs in cancer cells. You will then visit a website to find out more information about cancer. You will learn why it occurs, why it kills, and new treatments that are being tested and used to treat cancer.. Objectives. ...
When it comes to looking and feeling youthful, creams, lotions, and other topical treatments can certainly help you maintain a younger appearance. However, real anti-aging work needs to be done at the cellular level, as the aging process is ultimately determined by your bodys cell division processes.. Before a cell can divide, it needs to replicate all of the DNA material necessary for ensuring its survival. This is a controlled and highly intricate process, where the double helix needs to be unwound in order for all the genetic material to be copied. This process usually encounters difficulty when it reaches the telomeres, or the end of the chromosomes within the […]. ...
Top performende anti-Human CDC5 Cell Division Cycle 5-Like (S. Pombe) Antikörper für Immunocytochemistry (ICC) vergleichen & kaufen.
High School Life Science. HS-LS1-1 Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells.. HS-LS1-4 Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms.. High School Engineering, Technology, and the Applications of Science. HS-ETS1-1. Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.. High School ELA. RST.9-10.2 Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; trace the texts explanation or depiction of a complex process, phenomenon, or concept; provide an accurate summary of the text.. RST.9-10.3 Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions ...
The study of biology works from several basic foundations: 1. The cellular theory of life. All life is composed of at least once cell, which undergoes the classical processes of cellular life, such as reproduction; the cell is the basic unit of all macrobiotic life. The chemical composition of all cells in nature is similar, and all existing cells have emerged from prior cells through the processes of cellular division, generally through mitosis but with meiosis playing a significant role. 2. Genetic theory. All cells encode their genetic information in the form of DNA, the fundamental component of genes. These genes transfer the physical, and often psychological, traits of one generation of organism to the next. 3. Homeostasis. All living organisms will attempt to reach some form of dynamic equilibrium with their environment - both through the metabolism of individual creatures, and the population dynamics of whole populations. ...
Lactic acid and energy are produced in muscle cells during Answer cellular respiration. aerobic respiration. cellular division. anaerobic...
Artwork page for Ceramic Skull, Paul Neagu, 1973 In this work rectangular shapes are stacked in tiers to form the shape of a human skull. The spaces between the individual shapes create cellular divisions. As with many of Neagus anthropocosmic works, this head, formed of cellular elements addresses the nature of the human body and experience. It is an apparent whole, yet divisible into a number of discrete parts, sensations and experiences.
RACK1 RNAi-treated embryo. This movie shows cell division without the presence of a key protein. The nucleus is the dark circle inside the cell; as the life cycle goes on, the nucleus replicates and each of the two nuclei move to opposite ends of the cell. The outer membrane furrows and seems to pinch in, but ultimately does not close itself off to form two complete cells. Instead, the cell is left with two complete nuclei, which is a fatal flaw. Date: May 2004 ...
CRG researchers shed new light on mitosis. The study published in the Journal of Cell Biology describes how Topo 2, an enzyme that disentangles DNA molecules and is essential for proper cell division.
Cells do not usually proliferate out of control, because they only divide in response to a signal that they receive from the outside. This molecular message is picked up by receptors such as FGFR4 and is then relayed through the cell membrane into the interior of the cell, thus setting in motion a cascade of molecular interactions with molecules such as STAT3 that culminates in the cell nucleus, where genes are activated that direct the actual process of cell division.. This hierarchical process is often undermined in cancer. The cells divide without an external command. That is the case, for example, when STAT3 is activated by abnormal binding to the defective receptor. Such interaction of STAT3 close to the inner cell membrane was previously unknown and unexpected. "I wasnt really convinced until various experimental approaches produced matching results," says Vijay K. Ulaganathan, lead author of the study.. The scientists have also shown that the growth of cells carrying this gene variant ...
Animations show cell division, mitosis and meiosis. Follow chromosomes during interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. See how carcinogens, oncogenes and mutations lead to cancer cells and tumours.
Reduced changes in protein compared to mRNA levels across non-proliferating tissues. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Genetics: Mutation, Cell Division and Chromosomes/The Transmission Genetics of Eukaryotes/Gene Transfer in Bacteria and...
Genetics: Mutation, Cell Division and Chromosomes/The Transmission Genetics of Eukaryotes/Gene Transfer in Bacteria and Bacteriophages Unit 3-5, 9780335163014, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
How DNA mutations during cell division cause cancer. Understand cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. See how the human body is organised into cells, tissues, organs and systems.
ps. michaelxy... there is no clinical interest in trying to detect microscopic tumours and i doubt there ever will be... many people have microscopic tumours, however, over 99% of these never develop a blood supply and remain as microscopic tumours that will never grow beyond 1mm in size... thus most can stay small and be detected and cleared by our immune system... the reason why the vast majority of tumours never grow beyond microscopic is that they are severely hypoxic and in order to grow futher the need to induce our bodies to supply the tumour with blood... this is very hard to do for a tumour to induce angiogenesis and so most never make it and lie dormant for years... there are also many stages a cancer will go through before they become macroscopic - it isnt as simple as continuous proliferation of cells... certainly not all cancers proliferate exponentially... as for treatment the only cancers we have a good hope of curing with chemotherapy and radiotherapy alone is testicular ...
JAMES WRIGHT, Community Ensemble Participant The umbrella cell cycle presented within the Operatic eukaryote provides fascinating examples of inverse mitosis, or reverse cell division; this is literally a case of zygotes amalgamating into larger organisms, with previously fertilised unicellular gametes clapping in order to gain a form of genetic acceptance so that they can then…
B311080114 - B311D080114 Index card information Course organization Life cycles and cell division What is a homologous pair...
View Notes - B311080114 from BIO 311D at University of Texas. B311D080114 Index card information Course organization Life cycles and cell division What is a homologous pair? What happens in
Everything you need to know about Cell Division for the GCSE Biology (Triple) AQA exam, totally free, with assessment questions, text & videos.
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Rudd NL, Teshima IE, Martin RH, Sisken JE, Weksberg R (1983) A dominantly inherited anomaly: a possible cell division mutant. Hum Genet 65:117-121. ...
How is Management and Organization Division abbreviated? MOD stands for Management and Organization Division. MOD is defined as Management and Organization Division rarely.
The division of a cell in two requires the assembly of the mitotic spindle, an extremely complex structure, which is the result of the coordinated action of a multitude of proteins and a finely tuned balance of their activities. ...
Biz bakteriyel FtsZ-ring yapısal organizasyonu, hücre bölünmesi için gerekli bir aparat soruşturma için görüntüleme yöntemi bir...
Despite more than a century of study, there are many remaining mysteries about how cells divide. A new study from the lab of Michael Glotzer, PHD, now describes a novel mechanism for how cells determine where to begin dividing.
The cell division You should understand that the cell division is a complicated process through which the living cell divides into two cells or more to aim the growth or the reproduction , There ...
Avoid the doom, reach the highest population! Try to make as many cells as you can! Your cell divides when Mass reaches 300. You have to avoid one fast enemy ce
New findings on how the cells in our bodies are able to renew themselves could aid our understanding of health disorders, including cancer.
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An irreversible increase in the size of a plant. Because plants (Fig. 1), like other organisms, are made up of cells, plant growth involves an increase in cell numbers by cell division and an increase in cell size. Cell division itself is not ...
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Recruitment of quiescent tumor by humoral stimulatory activity: requirements for successful chemotherapy.
Acute leukemia is a heterogeneous tumor with respect to cellular proliferation and is sensitive to positive and negative growth control factors. Tumor associated inhibitory activity (TAIA) and simultaneously present humoral stimulatory activity (HSA)
Martin, H. Newell & Martin, Ernest G. The Human Body: An Account of Its Structure and Activities and the Conditions of its Healthy Working (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1917) 26. ...
Cancer is a result of uncontrollable cell division. When cells divide excessively, they form tumors. Tumors are also known as an abnormal mass of tissue. There are two types of tumors: Malignant and Benign. Malignant is a Latin word and literally it means badly born. Malignant tumors invade neighboring tissues and metastasize. Benign is another Latin word and it means kind, gentle. Those types of tumors do not spread to other parts of the body ...
Cancer is a result of uncontrollable cell division. When cells divide excessively, they form tumors. Tumors are also known as an abnormal mass of tissue. There are two types of tumors: Malignant and Benign. Malignant is a Latin word and literally it means badly born. Malignant tumors invade neighboring tissues and metastasize. Benign is another Latin word and it means kind, gentle. Those types of tumors do not spread to other parts of the body ...
Cells divide as a way of reproducing or growing or to create sex cells. Cells can only reach a certain size due to a lack of balanced growth between their parts, so they have to divide once they...
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All cancers begin in your cells -- the bodys basic unit of life. Your body is made up of many types of cells. These cells grow and divide in a controlled way to produce more cells as they are needed to keep the body healthy. When cells become old or damaged, they die and are replaced with new cells. However, sometimes this orderly process goes wrong. The genetic material (DNA) of a cell can become damaged or changed, producing mutations that affect normal cell growth and division. When this happens, cells do not die when they should and new cells form when the body does not need them. The extra cells may form a mass of tissue called a tumor. Not all tumors are cancerous; tumors can be benign or malignant. Malignant tumors are cancerous. ...
Cancer is a disorder of cell growth (uncontrolled cell division) that results in an abnormal mass of tissue (tumor) without a purpose. The growth exceeds that of normal tissue, is un-coordinated, and persists after the cause has gone. There are many different types of cancers. ...
Materials used by Aero-Products Inc. in producing Division 3s product are currently purchasing from outside suppliers at a cost of $5 per unit. However, the same materials are available from Division 6. Division 6 has unused.
Power point over Unit 3 material which includes DNA, Protein Synthesis, Cell Division, Gene Regulation, and Mendelian Genetics ...
Define divide: to separate into two or more parts, areas, or groups; to separate into classes, categories, or divisions - divide in a sentence
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Knowledgeable enthusiasts agree that Chevys current C6 Corvette is the best ever, and few question that the racer-like limited-production 505-horsepower $75,000 Z06 and the faster-still, and surprisingly refined supercharged 638-horse $108K ZR1 models are the best high-performance sports-car values on the market. But until now, there has been a substantial price gap between the roughly…. Details ...
... _Crushing 4 AfricaThe preferred scope of work was Crushing and Screening of Aggregate This division Crushing 4 AfricaThe preferred scope of work was Crushing and Screening of Aggregate This division
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Looking for definition of cellular division? cellular division explanation. Define cellular division by Websters Dictionary, WordNet Lexical Database, Dictionary of Computing, Legal Dictionary, Medical Dictionary, Dream Dictionary.
Essential cell division protein that forms a contractile ring structure (Z ring) at the future cell division site. The regulation of the ring assembly controls the timing and the location of cell division. One of the functions of the FtsZ ring is to recruit other cell division proteins to the septum to produce a new cell wall between the dividing cells. Binds GTP and shows GTPase activity.
Essential cell division protein that forms a contractile ring structure (Z ring) at the future cell division site. The regulation of the ring assembly controls the timing and the location of cell division. One of the functions of the FtsZ ring is to recruit other cell division proteins to the septum to produce a new cell wall between the dividing cells. Binds GTP and shows GTPase activity.
An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates. This is in contrast to symmetric cell divisions which give rise to daughter cells of equivalent fates. Notably, stem cells divide asymmetrically to give rise to two distinct daughter cells: one copy of the original stem cell as well as a second daughter programmed to differentiate into a non-stem cell fate. (In times of growth or regeneration, stem cells can also divide symmetrically, to produce two identical copies of the original cell.) In principle, there are two mechanisms by which distinct properties may be conferred on the daughters of a dividing cell. In one, the daughter cells are initially equivalent but a difference is induced by signaling between the cells, from surrounding cells, or from the precursor cell. This mechanism is known as extrinsic asymmetric cell division. In the second mechanism, the prospective daughter cells are inherently different at the time of division of the mother cell. ...
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Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog | definition of Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog in the Medical Dictionary? Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog explanation free. What is Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog? Meaning of Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog medical term. What does Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog mean?
Inhibitory effect of adenosine 3',5'-phosphate on cell division of Escherichia coli K-12 mutant derivatives. | Journal of...
Cell division of Escherichia coli K-12 strain PA3092 was inhibited by the addition of adenosine 3,5-phosphate (cAMP), and the cellular morphology was changed from rods into filaments. Nucleoids in the filaments were regularly distributed and septum formation was perfectly inhibited. This inhibition of cell division by cAMP was reversed by the addition of guanosine 3,5-monophosphate. To examine whether the inhibitory effect of cAMP on cell division in E. coli PA3092 was specific, its effect in several parental strains was investigated. Induction of cell filamentation by cAMP was observed in E. coli PA309 and P678, but not in E. coli W505, W1, Y10, or the wild-type strain. This result suggests that filamentation by cAMP in E. coli PA3092, PA309, and P678 was due to the mutagenesis by which E. coli P678 was derived from E. coli W595. ...
Like almost any other body part, organ or gland, the human penis is composed of numerous tissues. Each tissue, in turn, consists of multiple cells performing similar function. These cells, like any other cell, depend on "cell division". Hence, cell division has a vital role in the development, growth and strength of male reproductive parts including testis and penis.. It is thought that cell division in the penis causes dramatic changes in the whole organ. As a result, the vascular vessels, urethra, corpus cavernosum and spongiosum, cutaneous cover, muscle and fasciae are all subjected to proliferation. Because this proliferation takes place throughout the penis, it increases both the length and girth of the penis.. Mitosis occurs when cells within the existing penis tissue begin to divide, known as cellular division, where one cell divides into two. In the simplest sense, the nucleus of a cell divides within itself then splits in two, each containing a mirror image of the original nucleus. The ...
Cells grow abundant when oxygen is available, and generally stop when it is scarce. Although this seems straightforward, no direct link ever has been established between the cellular machinery that senses oxygen and that which controls cell division. Now, in the June 10 issue of Molecular Cell, researchers at Johns Hopkins report that the MCM proteins, which promote cell division, also directly control the oxygen-sensing HIF-1 protein.. "Its always been a mystery why a vast excess of MCM proteins is present in cells, but now we have discovered at least one reason," says Gregg Semenza, M.D., Ph.D., the C. Michael Armstrong Professor of Medicine, director of the vascular program in Hopkins Institute for Cell Engineering and a member of the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine. "Our data indicate that MCMs mediate crosstalk between the cell division machinery and proteins that help cells react to changes in their surroundings.". Since discovering HIF-1 in the 1990s, Semenzas team has ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predicting division planes of three-dimensional cells by soap-film minimization. AU - Martinez, Pablo. AU - Allsman, Lindy A.. AU - Brakke, Kenneth A.. AU - Hoyt, Christopher. AU - Hayes, Jordan. AU - Liang, Hong. AU - Neher, Wesley. AU - Rui, Yue. AU - Roberts, Allyson M.. AU - Moradifam, Amir. AU - Goldstein, Bob. AU - Anderson, Charles T.. AU - Rasmussen, Carolyn G.. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - One key aspect of cell division in multicellular organisms is the orientation of the division plane. Proper division plane establishment contributes to normal plant body organization. To determine the importance of cell geometry in division plane orientation, we designed a three-dimensional probabilistic mathematical model to directly test the century-old hypothesis that cell divisions mimic soap-film minima. According to this hypothesis, daughter cells have equal volume and the division plane occurs where the surface area is at a minimum. We compared predicted division planes to ...
Modulation of in vitro proliferation kinetics and primitive hematopoietic potential of individual human CD34+CD38-/lo cells in...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of in vitro proliferation kinetics and primitive hematopoietic potential of individual human CD34+CD38-/lo cells in G0 AU - Srour, Edward F.. AU - Tong, Xia. AU - Ki, Woong Sung. AU - Plett, P. Artur. AU - Rice, Susan. AU - Daggy, Joanne. AU - Yiannoutsos, Constantin T.. AU - Abonour, Rafat. AU - Orschell, Christie M.. PY - 2005/4/15. Y1 - 2005/4/15. N2 - Whether cytokines can modulate the fate of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) through successive in vitro cell divisions has not been established. Single human marrow CD34+CD38-/lo cells in the G0 phase of cell cycle were cultured under 7 different cytokine combinations, monitored for proliferation on days 3, 5, and 7, then assayed for long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) function on day 7. LTC-IC function was then retrospectively correlated with prior number of in vitro cell divisions to determine whether maintenance of LTC-IC function after in vitro cell division is dependent on cytokine exposure. ...
Cyclin Dependent Kinase 6 (Cell Division Protein Kinase 6 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PLSTIRE or CDK6 or EC 126.96.36.199) -...
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Advanced imaging tools reveal architecture of cell division machinery | VUMC Reporter | Vanderbilt University
Using super-resolution microscopy tools in the Nikon Center of Excellence, Vanderbilt investigators have determined the molecular architecture of the contractile ring machinery that functions during cell division - a process that is essential for life.
Semaphorin signaling via MICAL3 induces symmetric cell division to expand breast cancer stem-like cells. | Nature Index
The Nature Index tracks the affiliations of high-quality scientific articles. Updated monthly, the Nature Index presents research outputs by institution and country. Use the Nature Index to interrogate publication patterns and to benchmark research performance.
Live cell division dynamics monitoring in 3D large spheroid tumor models using light sheet microscopy | Cell Division | Full...
Multicellular tumor spheroids are models of increasing interest for cancer and cell biology studies. They allow considering cellular interactions in exploring cell cycle and cell division mechanisms. However, 3D imaging of cell division in living spheroids is technically challenging and has never been reported. Here, we report a major breakthrough based on the engineering of multicellular tumor spheroids expressing an histone H2B fluorescent nuclear reporter protein, and specifically designed sample holders to monitor live cell division dynamics in 3D large spheroids using an home-made selective-plane illumination microscope. As illustrated using the antimitotic drug, paclitaxel, this technological advance paves the way for studies of the dynamics of cell divion processes in 3D and more generally for the investigation of tumor cell population biology in integrated system as the spheroid model.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proliferation kinetics of recruited cells in a mouse mammary carcinoma. AU - Pollack, Alan. AU - Terry, Nicholas H A. AU - White, R. Allen. AU - Cao, Shilong. AU - Meistrich, Marvin L.. AU - Milas, Luka. PY - 1994/2/1. Y1 - 1994/2/1. N2 - Solid tumors contain populations of proliferating (P) and quiescent (Q) cells. Shifting between these populations occurs continuously and cells are recruited from quiescence to proliferate (Q→P) as a result of exogenously applied or endogenous cell depleting stimuli. Direct measurements of the proliferation kinetics of these Q→P cells in solid tumors are difficult to make because of the much larger percentage of P-cells. In order to specifically analyze the kinetics of the Q→P cells, double thymidine analogue labeling was used. This was accomplished by first labeling in vivo all of the P-cells in MCaK tumors using continuous exposure to chlorodeoxyuridine (CldUrd) administered by a minipump over 21 h. About 75% of the aneuploid cells are ...
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Definition of cell division in the Fine Dictionary. Meaning of cell division with illustrations and photos. Pronunciation of cell division and its etymology. Related words - cell division synonyms, antonyms, hypernyms and hyponyms. Example sentences containing cell division
I have been trying to do a 3[H] thymidine incorporation assay with CD4+CD25- cells isolated from mouse spleen. Unfortunately, I have been very unlucky. I plated 2.5 x 10^4 T cells and the same number of APC (T cell-depleted, 3000rads irradiated splenocytes) in 96 well plate pre-coated with 10ug/ml anti-CD3 Ab, and cultured for 72 hrs. Then I pulsed with 1uCi/well [3H] thymidine for 18 hrs, harvested on a cell harverster onto a glass filter, let dry, and read the next day. But for some reason, my reading was very low, so low that it seemed to me theres no proliferation at all (somewhere between 2 to 100). I have been very frustrated with it. One person has suggested that 10ug/mL CD3 is too concentrated, and maybe T cells are activated and underwent apoptosis, thats why I didnt see any proliferation ...
BOSTON - HIV elite controllers can maintain sufficient counts of total CD4 T cells compared with highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated patients, HIV progressors and HIV-negative patients, despite severe depletion of naive CD4 T cells. According to data presented here, this is due to their ability to expand peripheral precursor T cells and through peripheral homeostatic
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protein kinase activity involved in regulation of protein localization to cell division site involved in cytokinesis Antibodies...
Antibodies for proteins involved in protein kinase activity involved in regulation of protein localization to cell division site involved in cytokinesis pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Spatial Distribution of Cell Division Rate Can Be Deduced from that of p34cdc2 Kinase Activity in Maize Leaves Grown at...
Leaf area and final cell number can vary severalfold in leaves located at a given position on the stem of a given genotype, depending on environmental conditions (Dale, 1992; Granier et al., 2000). Cell division rate can be greatly affected by a reduction in soil water content (Lecoeur et al.,1995;Granier and Tardieu, 1999a), in incident light (Dengler, 1980; Granier and Tardieu, 1999b), or in leaf temperature (Francis and Barlow, 1988;Ben Haj Salah and Tardieu, 1995). These changes in cell division rate with environmental conditions are superimposed onto a change with time during leaf development (Poethig, 1997). This natural variability in cell division rate provides an interesting system for analyzing the regulation of cell cycle in leaves, and its response to environmental conditions.. In sunflower leaves, the lengthening of cell cycle due to stresses or to cell aging is linked to a progressive arrest of nuclei in the G1 phase of cell cycle, without changes in the durations of the S-G2-M ...
NOPR: Screening of natural phenolic compounds for potential to inhibit bacterial cell division protein FtsZ
FtsZ plays an important role in bacterial cell division by polymerizing to form the Z ring at the site of cytokinesis. Phytochemicals are known to disrupt bacterial cell division through inhibition of FtsZ assembly. In the present study phytochemicals like eugenol, trans-cinnamic acid, 4-formyl cinnamic acid, naringenin and caffeic acid were were tested for their potential to inhibit cell division. Effect of these antimicrobial compounds on the growth of E. coli was determined and the inhibition of FtsZ assembly in vitro was investigated. The present study revealed trans-cinnamic acid as the most potent inhibitor of FtsZ assembly ...
sidecar pollen, an Arabidopsis thaliana male gametophytic mutant with aberrant cell divisions during pollen development |...
During pollen development each product of meiosis undergoes a stereotypical pattern of cell divisions to give rise to a three-celled gametophyte, the pollen grain. First an asymmetric mitosis generates a larger vegetative cell and a smaller generative cell, then the generative cell undergoes a second mitosis to give rise to two sperm cells. It is unknown how this pattern of cell divisions is controlled. We have identified an Arabidopsis gene, SIDECAR POLLEN, which is required for the normal cell division pattern during pollen development. In the genetic background of the NoO ecotype, sidecar pollen heterozygotes have about 45% wild-type pollen, 48% aborted pollen and 7% pollen with an extra cell. Homozygous sidecar pollen plants have about 20% wild-type pollen, 53% aborted pollen and 27% extra-celled pollen. Similar ratios of sidecar pollen phenotypes are seen in the Columbia ecotype but sidecar pollen is a gametophytic lethal in the Landsberg erecta ecotype. Thus this allele of sidecar pollen ...
MreB of Streptomyces coelicolor is not essential for vegetative growth but is required for the integrity of aerial hyphae and...
Cell division in the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor starts with the assembly of the tubulin homologue FtsZ into a cytokinetic ring (the Z ring) at the site of septation. In stark contrast to the binary fission of most bacteria, the syncytial hyphal cells of S. coelicolor exploit two types of cell division with strikingly different outcomes depending on the developmental stage. The main goal of this study has been to identify developmental mechanisms that modulate this differential performance of the basic cell division machinery.. By isolation and characterization of a non-sporulating ftsZ mutant, we demonstrated that the requirements for Z-ring formation differ between the two types of septation. The ftsZ17(Spo) mutation abolished septation without overtly affecting vegetative growth. This mutant was defective in the assembly of FtsZ into regularly spaced Z rings in sporogenic hyphae, suggesting that the assembly of Z rings is developmentally controlled during ...
Retinoic acid promotes density-dependent growth arrest in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. | IOVS | ARVO Journals
After retinal detachment the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) undergoes a striking phenotypic change. It becomes dedifferentiated, proliferates to form multilayered colonies, and migrates into the subretinal space. These processes are important because they have been implicated in proliferative vitreoretinopathy and poor visual recovery after retinal reattachment; however the mechanisms by which they occur are unknown. In this study, the effect of retinoic acid on RPE cell morphology and growth in culture was examined. Cells grown in the presence of 1 microM retinoic acid do not exhibit cellular overgrowth and maintain characteristics associated with the morphologic appearance of mature RPE cells in vivo. Growth curves and 3H-thymidine incorporation suggest that retinoic acid inhibits RPE cell growth primarily after the cells have reached confluence. It may act by promoting density-dependent growth arrest. Dibutryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate also inhibits RPE cell growth and 3H-thymidine ...
Mast cell growth factor (c-kit ligand) enhances cytokine stimulation of proliferation of the human factor-dependent cell line,...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mast cell growth factor (c-kit ligand) enhances cytokine stimulation of proliferation of the human factor-dependent cell line, M07e. AU - Hendrie, P. C.. AU - Miyazawa, K.. AU - Yang, Y. C.. AU - Langefeld, C. D.. AU - Broxmeyer, Hal. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Murine mast cell growth factor (muMGF), a c-kit ligand, has additive to greater-than-additive effects on in vitro colony formation of murine and human myeloid progenitor cells stimulated with erythropoietin, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and/or interleukin (IL)-3. To confirm direct-acting effects on responding cells, MGF was assessed alone and in combination with other cytokines for effects on the proliferation of the human factor-dependent cell line, M07e. Proliferation was assayed in liquid culture by [3H]thymidine uptake and in semisolid medium by colony formation. Purified recombinant (r) muMGF (25-50 ng/ml) by itself had proliferative activity but less than r human (hu) GM-CSF. In ...
Distinct penicillin binding proteins involved in the division, elongation, and shape of Escherichia coli K12 | PNAS
The varied effects of beta-lactam antibiotics on cell division, cell elongation, and cell shape in E. coli are shown to be due to the presence of three essential penicillin binding proteins with distinct roles in these three processes. (A) Cell shape: beta-Lactams that specifically result in the production of ovoid cells bind to penicillin binding protein 2 (molecular weight 66,000). A mutant has been isolated that fails to bind beta-lactams to protein 2, and that grows as round cells. (B) Cell division: beta-Lactams that specifically inhibit cell division bind preferentially to penicillin binding protein 3 (molecular weight 60,000). A temperature-sensitive cell division mutant has been shown to have a thermolabile protein 3. (C) Cell elongation: One beta-lactam that preferentially inhibits cell elongation and causes cell lysis binds preferentially to binding protein 1 (molecular weight 91,000). Evidence is presented that penicillin bulge formation is due to the inhibition of proteins 2 and 3 in ...
Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor levels by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human breast cancer cells | Garvan...
Specific, high affinity receptors for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] have been demonstrated in human breast cancer cells. In addition, 1,25-(OH)2D3 has been shown to inhibit replication in some human breast cancer cell lines, although the mechanism(s) of this anti-tumor activity remain undefined. There is currently considerable interest in the role of autocrine growth factors in the control of breast cancer cell proliferation and the effects of steroid hormones on their production, receptor binding, and action. Since the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor mediates the effects of both EGF and the autocrine growth factor, alpha-transforming growth factor, we investigated the effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3 on EGF receptor levels in several human breast cancer cell lines. Preincubation of T-47D cells with 1,25-(OH)2D3 for 24 h resulted in a significant concentration-dependent decline in the specific binding of [125I]EGF. The effect was observed when EGF binding was assayed at either 0 or 37 degrees C,
Main article: Cell division. Cell division involves a single cell (called a mother cell) dividing into two daughter cells. This ... In mammals, major cell types include skin cells, muscle cells, neurons, blood cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, and others. Cell ... single cells, colonies, higher multicellular organisms with specialized cells Cell division binary fission (simple division) ... Cell wall. Further information: Cell wall. Many types of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have a cell wall. The cell wall acts ...
... but differ in that in cell division the daughter nuclei are separated by a phragmoplast. They are eukaryotic, with a cell ... Pickett-Heaps, J. (1976). "Cell division in eucaryotic algae". BioScience. 26 (7): 445-450. doi:10.2307/1297481.. ... In all land plants a disc-like structure called a phragmoplast forms where the cell will divide, a trait only found in the land ... The tiny gametophyte inside the pollen grain then produces sperm cells which move to the egg cell and fertilize it. Seed ...
... is formed from the mitotic spindle and cell division involves the use of this phragmoplast in the production of a cell plate.[ ... Pickett-Heaps J (1976). "Cell division in eucaryotic algae". BioScience. 26 (7): 445-450. doi:10.2307/1297481. JSTOR 1297481.. ... Members of the class Chlorophyceae undergo closed mitosis in the most common form of cell division among the green algae, which ... Haploid algal cells (containing only one copy of their DNA) can fuse with other haploid cells to form diploid zygotes. When ...
RBA - National Socialist Factory Cell Division. *RFV - Reichskommissariat für die Festigung des deutschen Volkes, Reich ... By mid-1943 it had grown into a full Waffen-SS Panzer division known as "1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler". ... Also the specific name for both the Waffen-SS 3rd SS Panzer Division armored unit, and the Luftwaffe's Kampfgeschwader 54 ... Jungvolk (Young People) - the junior division of the Hitler Youth which consisted of boys between 10 and 14 years of age. ...
"High-resolution tracking of cell division suggests similar cell cycle kinetics of hematopoietic stem cells stimulated in vitro ... "Cell division regulates the T cell cytokine repertoire, revealing a mechanism underlying immune class regulation". Proceedings ... due to the progressive halving of CFSE fluorescence within daughter cells following each cell division. The only limitation ... Lyons AB, Doherty KV (February 2004). "Flow cytometric analysis of cell division by dye dilution". Current Protocols in ...
The resistance-nodulation-cell division superfamily (RND). *The Multi antimicrobial extrusion protein family (MATE). ... In eukaryotic cells, the existence of efflux pumps has been known since the discovery of P-glycoprotein in 1976 by Juliano and ... Efflux pumps are proteinaceous transporters localized in the cytoplasmic membrane of all kinds of cells. They are active ... Juliano, R.L.; Ling, V. (1976). "A surface glycoprotein modulating drug permeability in Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants". ...
Cell division[change , change source]. Mature neurons never divide: that is the general rule. They do not do not undergo cell ... A neuron (also known as a neurone or nerve cell) is a cell that carries electrical impulses. Neurons are the basic units of ... division. In most cases, neurons are generated by special types of stem cells. A type of glial cell, called astrocytes, have ... Synapses are microscopic voids between cells where chemicals are released from the axon terminal of one cell to specialized ...
The centrosome cycle is important to ensure that daughter cells receive a centrosome after cell division. As the cell cycle ... Each daughter cell inherits two centrioles (one centrosome) surrounded by pericentriolar material as a result of cell division ... Vorobjev, IA; Chentsov, YuS (June 1982). "Centrioles in the cell cycle. I. Epithelial cells". The Journal of Cell Biology. 93 ( ... Cell Cycle Regulation of Centrosome Duplication Centrosome duplication is heavily regulated by cell cycle controls. This link ...
Sillibourne, James E.; Bornens, Michel (2010-09-29). "Polo-like kinase 4: the odd one out of the family". Cell Division. 5 (1 ... A study of Rho kinase inhibitor effect on primary cell lines also showed that C5orf34 is expressed in dermal fibroblasts of ... "Comparative gene expression profiling in three primary human cell lines after treatment with a novel inhibitor of Rho kinase or ... In addition, C5orf34 is predicted to be nuclear, thus it has potential involvement in gene regulation and cell proliferation ...
Park YY, Cho H (2012). "Mitofusin 1 is degraded at G2/M phase through ubiquitylation by MARCH5". Cell Division. 7 (1): 25. doi: ... "The mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH5 is required for Drp1 dependent mitochondrial division". The Journal of Cell ... Lehner PJ, Hoer S, Dodd R, Duncan LM (Oct 2005). "Downregulation of cell surface receptors by the K3 family of viral and ... From a pathological perspective, in a neuronal cell model, dominant-negative MARCH5 prevents mitochondrial fragmentation during ...
"Live cell division dynamics monitoring in 3D large spheroid tumor models using light sheet microscopy". Cell Division. 6 (1): ... Cell. 163 (7): 1796-1806. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.061. ISSN 0092-8674. PMC 4775738 . PMID 26687363. A. H. Voie; D. H. Burns ... Adherent cells can be grown on small glass plates that are hanging in the sample chamber. Plants can be grown in clear gels ... Play media HeLa cells expressing tetramers of the green fluorescent protein. On the left a transmission illumination image and ...
Intra-cellular processes: cell motility and division; cell death; intra-cellular transport; secretion. Extra-cellular processes ... Metabolism: Anabolic and catabolic processes; cell maintenance and homeostasis; secondary metabolism. ... inter-, extr-cellular processes like cell adhesion; organismal process like blood clotting or the immune system. General: ...
Levine, A. (1997). "P53, the Cellular Gatekeeper for Growth and Division". Cell. 88 (3): 323-331. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00) ... It blocks cell progression in response to cellular stress or DNA damage. Many viruses replicate by altering the cell cycle and ... Tumours form in cells when mutations in genes involved in cell cycle control and apoptosis accumulate over time. Most tumours ... This allows the virus to replicate, package its genome, lyse the cell and spread to new cells. This gave rise to the idea that ...
Oncogenes are genes that promote cell growth and reproduction. Tumor suppressor genes are genes that inhibit cell division and ... In order for a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, the genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation must be ... Traditional chemotherapeutic agents act by killing cells that divide rapidly, a critical property of most cancer cells. ... Germ cell tumor: Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle or the ovary (seminoma and ...
Cell division control protein 42 homolog, also known as Cdc42, is a protein involved in regulation of the cell cycle. It was ... single organismal cell-cell adhesion. • cell differentiation. • positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation involved ... Normal cancer cells and Cdc42-deficient cancer cells have also been compared in vivo. When both types of cells were injected ... cell projection. • myelin. • extracellular exosome. • filopodium. • plasma membrane. • spindle. • apical part of cell. • ...
Uncontrolled division of cancer cells *Crohn's disease. Inflammation confined to the colon; abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea ... Cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) testing is a non-invasive (for the fetus) test. It is performed on a sample of venous blood from ... For example, a medical procedure called a buccal smear uses a small brush or cotton swab to collect a sample of cells from the ... Alternatively, a small amount of saline mouthwash may be swished in the mouth to collect the cells. The sample is sent to a ...
Martin AC, Wieschaus EF (2010). "Tensions divide". Nat Cell Biol. 12 (1): 5-7. doi:10.1038/ncb0110-5. PMID 20027198. ... Parameters used to measure cell bond tension are based cell-cell adhesion and cortical tension input. It has also been ... orientation of cell divisions was random and there is no evidence that increased cell death or zones of non-proliferating cells ... In posterior cells engrailed prevents the expression of Ci, such it is only expressed in anterior cells and hence only these ...
A cell inherits a single centrosome at cell division, which is duplicated by the cell before a new round of mitosis begins, ... Related cell processes. Cell rounding. Cell shape changes through mitosis for a typical animal cell cultured on a ... In animal cells, cell division with mitosis was discovered in frog, rabbit, and cat cornea cells in 1873 and described for the ... Most human cells are produced by mitotic cell division. Important exceptions include the gametes - sperm and egg cells - which ...
To become a cancer cell, a cell has to accumulate mutations in a number of genes (three to seven). A cancer cell can divide ... When cells divide, their full genome is copied and each daughter cell inherits one copy. This process, called mitosis, is the ... Then, as the cell divides, chromosome copies separate into the daughter cells. ... All the cells in a multicellular organism derive from a single cell, differentiating into variant cell types in response to ...
Biological cells, given suitable environments, reproduce by cell division. During cell division, DNA is replicated and can be ... For example, an autotrophic self-replicating machine could cover a moon or planet with solar cells, and beam the power to the ... Power would be provided by a "canopy" of solar cells supported on pillars. The other machinery could run under the canopy. A " ... Biological viruses can replicate, but only by commandeering the reproductive machinery of cells through a process of infection ...
Relationship to cell divisionEdit. Despite predictions that circadian clocks would not be expressed by cells that are doubling ... Mori, T., Binder, B., and Johnson, C.H. (1996) Circadian gating of cell division in cyanobacteria growing with average doubling ... Sweeney BM, and Borgese MB (1989) A circadian rhythm in cell division in a prokaryote, the cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH7803 ... Mori, T., and Johnson, C.H. (2001). Independence of circadian timing from cell division in cyanobacteria. J Bacteriol. 183, ...
Cell division becomes uncontrolled. Cell nuclei become less uniform. Pathologists describe cells as well differentiated (low- ... One of the hallmarks of cancer is that cells divide uncontrollably. The more cells that are dividing, the worse the cancer. ... The closer the appearance of the cancer cells to normal cells, the slower their growth and the better the prognosis. If cells ... which are small clusters of cells not greater than 0.2 mm, or single tumor cells, or a cluster of fewer than 200 cells in a ...
Wadman, Meredith (2013-06-27). "Medical research: Cell division". Nature. pp. 422-426. doi:10.1038/498422a. Retrieved 2018-01- ... The same fibroblast cells from these pregnancies that were originally used to grow vaccine viruses have been growing in labs ... For example, in the 1950s, scientists at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden propagated a polio virus in fetal cells to make ... "Human Cell Strains in Vaccine Development". History of Vaccines. Retrieved 2018-01-26. Wadman, Meredith (2017-03-02). " ...
Cdh1 plays a pivotal role in controlling cell division at the end of mitosis (telophase) and in the subsequent G1 phase of cell ... Li M, Zhang P (2009). "The function of APC/CCdh1 in cell cycle and beyond". Cell Div. 4: 2. doi:10.1186/1747-1028-4-2. PMC ... "APCcdh1 activity in mouse oocytes prevents entry into the first meiotic division". Nat. Cell Biol. 8 (5): 539-40. doi:10.1038/ ... In healthy cells Cdh1 stays inactive from late G1 to early mitosis. It stays inactive in early mitosis and only becomes active ...
Figge J, Smith TF (14 July 1988). "Cell division sequence motif". Nature. 334 (6178): 109. doi:10.1038/334109a0. PMID 3290690. ... After entering the cell, the viral genes are transcribed by host cell RNA polymerase II to produce early mRNAs. Because of the ... Therefore, it is essential for the host cell to enter S phase, when cell DNA and the viral genome are replicated together. ... SV40 was isolated by Sweet and Maurice Hilleman in 1960 in primary monkey kidney cell cultures being used to grow Sabin OPV. ...
Cytostatics inhibit cell division. In immunotherapy, they are used in smaller doses than in the treatment of malignant diseases ... In this way, it prevents the cell from transitioning from the G0 into G1 phase of the cell cycle. Tacrolimus is more potent ... This lowers the number of available T-cells, perhaps by sensitizing them for the uptake by the epithelial reticular cells. The ... They affect the proliferation of both T cells and B cells. Due to their highest effectiveness, purine analogs are most ...
They divide rapidly and are still capable of internalizing antigens and presenting them to T cells. A cell may stay in this ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...
Steady state economy Nurkse's Balanced Growth economic theory Campbell, Allan (1957-12-01). "SYNCHRONIZATION OF CELL DIVISION ... where some cells are alive and others are dead). Machines like chemostats can be used to culture bacteria and keep them in a ...
When cells divide, two daughter cells are produced from one mother cell. Each new cell has exactly the same genetic material ( ... Cell Division Cell division is the basis of life itself; it is how animals grow and reproduce. ... Cell division. Cell division is the process by which a single living cell splits to become two cells. All cells divide at some ... Cell Division Animal Sciences COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Cell Division. Cell division is the basis of life itself; it ...
cell division The process resulting in division and partitioning of components of a cell to form more cells; may or may not be ... Abnormal-number-cell-division-of-human-thyroid-anaplastic-carcinoma-cell-line-SW-1736-mmc1.ogv 15 s, 512 × 512; 1.24 MB. ... The process resulting in division and partitioning of components of a cell to form more cells; may or may not be accompanied by ... A-distributed-cell-division-counter-reveals-growth-dynamics-in-the-gut-microbiota-ncomms10039-s2.ogv 6.2 s, 623 × 623; 5.62 MB ...
... an enzyme that disentangles DNA molecules and is essential for proper cell division. ... The study published in the Journal of Cell Biology describes how Topo 2, ... Unraveling cell division. Center for Genomic Regulation. Journal. Journal of Cell Biology. Funder. European Comission, European ... The correct functioning of cell division is key to the survival of every cell and, by extension, of all living beings. ...
... fundamental discoveries that have a great impact on all aspects of cell growth and may open new ways to treat cancer ... This protein is formed and broken down during the course of the cell cycle and is a key overall control mechanism of the cell ... Hartwell was recognized for his discovery of more than 100 genes that regulate the cell cycle in which a single cell grows, ... duplicates the DNA in its nucleus and then divides, leaving two new cells to begin the cycle again. ...
... phase of how cells divide. Errors in cell division can cause mutations that lead to cancer, and this study could shed light on ... equal division of genetic material between two daughter cells of cell division. They also found that this interaction is ... In cell division "" the creation of two daughter cells from one -- it is the doubled chromosomes that are piled in the middle ... The cell condenses the chromosomes, arranges them at the midpoint of the dividing cell, sends half to either end of the cell, ...
This paper shows that changes in stem cell orientation within the niche during ageing contribute to the decline in spermatog… ... Asymmetric division of adult stem cells generates one self-renewing stem cell and one differentiating cell, thereby maintaining ... Asymmetric division of adult stem cells generates one self-renewing stem cell and one differentiating cell, thereby maintaining ... Normally, germ-cell centrosomes are precisely oriented within their niche and asymmetric stem cell division is assured. The ...
... the division rate increases steeply with cell size for small cells, and saturates for larger cells. Importantly, (iv) the ... the relevant properties of cell division control are all contained in the division rate hd. The model assumes that at cell ... 4A) indicates that cells of equal size modulate their division rate hd based on the time t spent in the cell cycle, and this ... 1969) Cell growth and division. IV. Determination of volume growth rate and division probability. Biophys J 9(2):246-263. ...
... the tubulin-like FtsZ and early cell division proteins form a ring-like structure at mid-cell. Cell division starts once ... The physiology of bacterial cell division.. Egan AJ1, Vollmer W.. Author information. 1. Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology, ... Bacterial cell division is facilitated by the divisome, a dynamic multiprotein assembly localizing at mid-cell to synthesize ... assembly occurs in two steps and involves multiple interactions between more than 20 essential and accessory cell division ...
... quickly lines up its chromosomes in the middle and then pulls them apart into what will become two new cells after division is ... Work from the laboratory of Andrew Holland shows how a healthy cell ...
That would tip the scales in favour of his cell-division model. "Three large planets spiralling inside the star, and all of ... splitting into daughter worlds in a process reminiscent of cell division. ...
The length of the cell cycle can be controlled, and data related to the number of cells present and their current phase can be ... The cells will go through the steps of interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis. ... Begin with a single cell and watch as mitosis and cell division occurs. ... Begin with a single cell and watch as mitosis and cell division occurs. The cells will go through the steps of interphase, ...
... by ramyb https://shirt.woot.com/offers/cell-division $19.00 In Stock Apparel & Accessories $19.00 USD false 1 ... Well, wheat does, and oats, but does that look like an oat cell? We figure and oat cell would have a big whiskery Wilford ... A wolverine has 42 chromosomes, but if this was supposed to be a wolverine cell, do you really think one of our artists could ... We all learned in our Biology classes about mitosis and meiosis and chromosomes and the way cells change from one thing to the ...
Differentiation of the bacterial cell division site.. Cook WR1, de Boer PA, Rothfield LI. ...
A pathway involved in asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, ces-1 Snail ... Cell cycle and cell division Is the Subject Area "Cell cycle and cell division" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Cell division is synonymous with life.. The mystery of how a cell knows when to divide and when to cease division is one of the ... at least a trillion cells divide. White blood cells proliferate into fresh legions of T cells, B cells, macrophages and other ... The hormones would prompt a cell to divide by linking to receptors, proteins studding the surface of the cell that are designed ... How then could it know the difference between a quiet cell, a dividing cell, or a cell somewhere in between? Two Proteins Must ...
Johns Hopkins scientists have discovered that a deceptively simple sugar is in fact a critical regulator of cells natural life ... The comings and goings of the sugar on proteins seem to be important controllers of cell division, say the researchers. ... and found at locations important for various steps in cell division to figure out why an imbalance of O-GlcNAc on the cells ... this process could contribute to cancer or other diseases by failing to properly control the steps and timing of cell division ...
Cell division is the process whereby the two daughter cells are separated. It is striking that these cell division proteins are ... Archaea »Division »ESCRT »HIV »NWO »PNAS »Protein »Sulfolobus acidocaldarius »acidocaldarius »cell division »discovered » ... not related to other proteins known to be involved in cell division. Some of the proteins in the new type of cell division are ... A Swedish research group, partly financed by NWO, has discovered a new mechanism for cell division in a microorganism found in ...
Two 18 x 24 charts detail mitotic and meiotic cell division in both plants and animals. Mitosis features color illustrations ... Two 18 x 24" charts detail mitotic and meiotic cell division in both plants and animals. Mitosis features color illustrations ... Two 18 x 24" charts detail mitotic and meiotic cell division in both plants and animals. Mitosis features color illustrations ... Cell Division Charts. 3 Items *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-4.0.0 ... Carolina plants are a great tool for teaching cell respiration ...
... cell division , cellular mechanism , communication process , human cell , synthetic biology , systems biology of mitosis ... He has received a number of awards for his research on cell division, including the EMBO Young Investigator Award, the Novartis ... multi-national research effort that aims to deepen our understanding of how cells divide. To make this project more accessible ... Further reports about: , IMP , Merit Award , MitoSys , Mitocheck , Molecular Target , Molecular machines , Pathology , cell ...
Tag: cell division. Chemical Behind the Smell of Rotting Flesh Prevents Seizures (in Tadpoles). By Patrick Morgan , March 14, ... within the polyamine family-a group of molecules already known to play a crucial role in important functions like cell division ...
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually occurs as ... Also, the pattern of cell division that transforms eukaryotic stem cells into gametes (sperm cells in males or egg cells in ... Multicellular organisms replace worn-out cells through cell division. In some animals, however, cell division eventually halts ... How Cells Divide: Mitosis vs. Meiosis. *The Mitosis and Cell Cycle Control Section from the Landmark Papers in Cell Biology ( ...
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually occurs as ... Also, the pattern of cell division that transforms eukaryotic stem cells into gametes (sperm cells in males or egg cells in ... ISBN 0-674-30692-9 Cell division: binary fission and mitosis How Cells Divide: Mitosis vs. Meiosis The Mitosis and Cell Cycle ... Multicellular organisms replace worn-out cells through cell division. In some animals, however, cell division eventually halts ...
Reminder Cell phone allowances are being paid over 2 payroll cycles not one payroll cycle as they have been in the past. ... Division of Finance Cell Phone Reimbursement. Reminder Cell phone allowances are being paid over 2 payroll cycles not one ... Cell Phone Reimbursement Employees seeking approval for a cell phone reimbursement are required to complete the Cell Phone ... University-owned cell phone plans are provided by exception only where a health, safety, or regulatory justification can be ...
Flatworms Defy Aging Through Cell Division Tricks 106 Posted by Unknown Lamer on Tuesday February 28, 2012 @12:06AM. from the ... I am wondering now how Humans survive for more than 50 generations, since gametes are also fomred by cell division. ... allowing stem cells to maintain their telomeres as they divide to replace missing tissues." ... Research Council and may shed light on the possibilities of alleviating aging and age-related characteristics in human cells." ...
In general, fatal mutations dont matter, the stem cell will just divide again (or be dead), and cells are specialized so only ... Flatworms Defy Aging Through Cell Division Tricks 106 Posted by Unknown Lamer on Tuesday February 28, 2012 @12:06AM. from the ... Furthermore, cells work together, so if two nearby cells have different lineages then they have different errors, and can ... Still, you dont want too many errors in your cell replication control genes (i.e. protooncogenes ==, cancer), nor can cells ...
CytoplasmChromosomeCell'sMeiosisCycleMitotic cell divisionYeastReplicateScientistsMicrotubulesEukaryotic cellGeneticMoleculeEukaryotesOccursGenetically identicalMoleculesBacterialDaughterResearchersOrganismNucleiIdentical cellsMechanismMeiotic cell divisionDiploidCentriolesCancerStem cell transplantOrganellesTelophaseDistinctGametesTelomeresChromatidsDevelopmental CellReplicatesStages of mitosisEnzymesProcessesChromatinCancerousMitosis in human cellsProteins involved in cell divisionStructuresTumorOccurProkaryotes
- Second, the cytoplasm (the rest of the content of the cell) is divided. (encyclopedia.com)
- To maintain a healthy balance of cells in the body, it is important that before cells divide they are the right size with plenty of cytoplasm and replicated organelles, that the DNA has replicated and is error free (or any errors have been repaired) and that once mitosis gets under way, the pairs of chromatids are attached to the spindle in the correct positions by the centromere. (abpischools.org.uk)
- This "cell-cycle-entrained behavior" in the cortex -- a thin layer of organized cytoplasm associated with the cell membrane -- is present in vertebrates and invertebrates, the researchers show in their paper. (eurekalert.org)
- African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) egg-extract preparation involves collecting unfertilized eggs, crushing them, and separating out fractions of the cytoplasm through centrifugation, a process that divides membranes, organelles and cytoplasm by density. (phys.org)
- When DNA is replicated before the cell divides, each chromosome has two identical copies of DNA called sister chromatids. (encyclopedia.com)
- Errors in cell division can cause mutations that lead to cancer, and this study could shed light on the role of chromosome abnormalities in uncontrolled cell replication. (redorbit.com)
- Once the whole chromosome has been replicated, these three proteins form a band-like structure over the cell equator. (innovations-report.com)
- 2) Our video is intended to focus on animal cells (as drawn) - specifically human cells - as we use human chromosome numbers. (youtube.com)
- During meiosis, the genetic material replicates and is divided between daughter cells so that each gamete contains a single copy of each chromosome instead of two copies. (reference.com)
- Most eukaryotic cells have 2 copies of every chromosome. (prezi.com)
- Early during cell division, each chromosome is duplicated and split into two identical copies known as chromatids, which must be sorted and organized to ensure that new cells receive a single copy of each chromosome. (news-medical.net)
- by the end of this phase each chromosome in the cell consists of two chromatids attached at the centromere. (flashcardmachine.com)
- In order to replicate its entire DNA, that is to say nearly 6.4 billion pairs of nucleotides in just a few hours, the cell organizes the preparation of this process at thousands of sites on each chromosome simultaneously. (eurasiareview.com)
- A complete chromosome set must be apportioned to each daughter cell during cell division. (sciencemag.org)
- Phosphorylation of the chromatin protein histone H2A plays a critical role in chromosome segregation during cell division. (sciencemag.org)
- It appears that cells lacking pericentrin have abnormal chromosome segregation, which leads, in some fraction of cells, to arrest of the cell cycle and possibly cell death. (gnxp.com)
- Although the cell's chromosome-containing nuclei divided normally, the cells themselves didn't divide, resulting in too many nuclei per cell - a condition known as polyploidy that's exhibited by many cancer cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Several other proteins are involved in different steps of the cell division process such as site selection (Min proteins, Noc, SlmA) and chromosome segregation (Smc proteins) (for review see Goehring and Beckwith, 2005). (scielo.br)
- Somatic cells (all body cells except eggs and sperm) are diploid cells because each cell contains two copies of every chromosome. (cliffsnotes.com)
- It is a huge challenge to divide these long tangled chromosome strands correctly. (ed.ac.uk)
- In biochemical experiments where you look at an average of what is going on in all cells of a population, that synchrony meant we could see every step along the pathway of chromosome formation. (ed.ac.uk)
- Together the kinetochore and microtubules provide the structure and force that pull the two duplicate halves of the chromosome apart and direct them to each daughter cell. (carnegiescience.edu)
- Our work demonstrates the importance of expanding the scope of study to include other cellular components because this is critical to achieving an in depth understanding of the mechanisms underlying chromosome alignment in preparation for dividing the DNA into two new cells. (carnegiescience.edu)
- Chromosome misalignment leads to its mis-segregation during cell division. (carnegiescience.edu)
- Many of the genes involved in meiotic homologous recombination are meiosis-specific however, they also constitute a latent toolbox of chromosome remodelling and recombination factors, which can be exploited by cancer cells. (findaphd.com)
- The primary concern of cell division is the maintenance of the original cell's genome. (wikipedia.org)
- Mitosis, the division of a single cell into two identical cells, is part of the natural process of a cell's life cycle. (europa.eu)
- In the long run, a full overview of all the cell's proteins will allow us to see how different important processes of life, like cell division and cell death for example, are linked to one another. (europa.eu)
- The obvious suspect was a protein called Cln3 - as the first protein in the chain of molecular events leading to the G1/S transition, it was the likely trigger to any change regarding cell size and, ultimately, the cell's decision to divide into two cells. (stanford.edu)
- The M phase, can be either mitosis or meiosis depending on the type of cell. (wikipedia.org)
- Germ cells undergo meiosis, while somatic cells will undergo mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
- Meiosis is the process of cellular division that produces the gametes which take part in sexual reproduction. (encyclopedia.com)
- Where mitosis produces two daughter cells from one mother cell, meiosis produces four daughter cells from one mother cell. (encyclopedia.com)
- Meiosis II is similar to mitosis - sister chromatids split apart into new cells - and the same steps occur in the same order. (encyclopedia.com)
- Meiosis features color photomicrographs (2,400x) of lily pollen and color diagrams of centrioles and asters found only in animal cells. (carolina.com)
- 10) is parent cell pat of meiosis? (smore.com)
- Meiosis is the type of cell division that produces gametes, the reproductive cells of a sexually reproducing organism. (reference.com)
- Meiosis only occurs in primordial germ cells in the reproductive organs and not in somatic cells, which make up the majority of the cells in the body. (reference.com)
- In males, meiosis is called spermatogenesis because it produces sperm cells. (reference.com)
- Maternal age and environmental factors may contribute to meiosis errors, although in some cases errors occur simply as a result of natural inefficiencies in the process of cell division. (reference.com)
- Meiosis produces four gamete cells. (reference.com)
- The other type of cell division is called meiosis, and it is how the body produces eggs or sperm. (reference.com)
- There are two kinds of nuclear division-mitosis and meiosis. (cliffsnotes.com)
- In contrast, meiosis is a reduction division, producing daughter cells that contain half the genetic information of the parent cell. (cliffsnotes.com)
- Meiosis is a specialised type of cell division which involves genome rearrangements. (findaphd.com)
- Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Both of these cell division cycles are used in the process of sexual reproduction at some point in their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Nurse discovered another gene that regulates different phases of the cell reproductive cycle, while Hunt discovered the first "cyclin" molecule in the early 1980s. (newscientist.com)
- This protein is formed and broken down during the course of the cell cycle and is a key overall control mechanism of the cell reproductive process. (newscientist.com)
- The findings in the cell cycle field are about to be applied to tumour diagnostics. (newscientist.com)
- Throughout the cell cycle, centrosomes in germline stem cells (GSCs) are oriented within their niche and this ensures asymmetric division. (nature.com)
- We found that GSCs containing misoriented centrosomes accumulate with age and that these GSCs are arrested or delayed in the cell cycle. (nature.com)
- The cell cycle arrest is transient, and GSCs appear to re-enter the cell cycle on correction of centrosome orientation. (nature.com)
- On the basis of these findings, we propose that cell cycle arrest associated with centrosome misorientation functions as a mechanism to ensure asymmetric stem cell division, and that the inability of stem cells to maintain correct orientation during ageing contributes to the decline in spermatogenesis. (nature.com)
- Conversely, a description where division rate is determined jointly by cell size and time into the cell cycle reproduces well the available measurements. (pnas.org)
- Importantly, ( iv ) the current size is not the only variable controlling cell division, but the time spent in the cell cycle appears to play a role, and ( v ) common tests of cell size control may fail when such concerted control is in place. (pnas.org)
- The phenomenological framework presented is sufficiently general to be widely applicable and opens the way for rigorous tests of molecular cell-cycle models. (pnas.org)
- Cell cycle control is generally described in terms of the two categories of "timer" and "sizer" ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
- The length of the cell cycle can be controlled, and data related to the number of cells present and their current phase can be recorded. (explorelearning.com)
- Is the Subject Area "Cell cycle and cell division" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
- Our knowledge of the cell cycle compared to just two or three years ago is really the difference between day and night," said Dr. David Beach of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on Long Island. (nytimes.com)
- Among the many exciting findings about the cell cycle is this universality of the central players: the same proteins commanding cell division in primitive cells like yeast are also at the helm in human tissue. (nytimes.com)
- Some scientists say an understanding of the nuts and bolts of the cell cycle could provide novel ways to attack cancer cells. (nytimes.com)
- Johns Hopkins scientists have discovered that a deceptively simple sugar is in fact a critical regulator of cells' natural life cycle. (medindia.net)
- Visual artists Lucy and Jorge Orta will interpret the work of cell-cycle expert Jan-Michael Peters. (innovations-report.com)
- If the cell does not pass this checkpoint, then the cell will exit the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Cell phone allowances are being paid over 2 payroll cycles not one payroll cycle as they have been in the past. (uvm.edu)
- The Immortal Life Cycle of Turritopsis, with diagrams http://9e.devbio.com/preview_article.php?ch=2&id=6 [devbio.com] __ Inmmortal human cells. (slashdot.org)
- 1. Based on your data, what can you infer about the length of time spent in each stage of the cell cycle? (prezi.com)
- 3. What is a distinguishing visible feature of each stage of the cell cycle? (prezi.com)
- 10)is two daughter cells part of cycle? (smore.com)
- This is possibly a protective mechanism that prevents damage to DNA during this part of the cell cycle," said Dr. Beutler, who shared the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his groundbreaking work on innate immunity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In eukaryotic cells, the timing of the cell cycle is regulated by what? (reference.com)
- The rate of mitosis is controlled within the cell cycle. (abpischools.org.uk)
- If control of the cell cycle is lost, tumours and cancer may result. (abpischools.org.uk)
- Enzymes involved in controlling the rate of the cell cycle through interactions with the cyclins. (abpischools.org.uk)
- Small molecules involved in controlling the rate of the cell cycle. (abpischools.org.uk)
- The length of the cell cycle is variable. (abpischools.org.uk)
- The cell cycle has a number of checkpoints that monitor progress and determine whether the process have been completed properly at each stage of the cycle. (abpischools.org.uk)
- If all is well the cell continues in the cycle. (abpischools.org.uk)
- The cyclin/CDK complex phosphorylates other proteins, changing their shape and bringing about the next stage in the cell cycle. (abpischools.org.uk)
- When they are mutated, for example in response to a carcinogen, these genes induce cells to start replicating their DNA prematurely during the cell cycle. (eurasiareview.com)
- The centrioles are supposed to replicate only once during the cell cycle. (scienceblog.com)
- Stages of the cell cycle. (cliffsnotes.com)
- The time span from one cell division through G 1 , S, and G 2 is called a cell cycle (Figure 1). (cliffsnotes.com)
- The cell division cycle of most phytoplankton cells is phased by the environmental light/dark cycle in some fashion. (springer.com)
- Tons of things have been learned from studying the yeast cell cycle that apply directly to human cells," Skotheim said. (stanford.edu)
- Monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) is a dual-specificity protein kinase that has important roles in the prevention of aneuploidy during the cell cycle, and might therefore be a potential target for new therapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer. (diamond.ac.uk)
- On a larger scale, mitotic cell division can create progeny from multicellular organisms, such as plants that grow from cuttings. (wikipedia.org)
- Mitotic cell division enables sexually reproducing organisms to develop from the one-celled zygote, which itself was produced by meiotic cell division from gametes. (wikipedia.org)
- The 10 million Euro, five-year scientific project is a joint research effort, bringing together the expertise of thirteen European institutions and companies to generate a comprehensive mathematical understanding of mitotic cell division. (innovations-report.com)
- Mitotic cell division does not take place at random. (abpischools.org.uk)
- Working in yeast, the C. elegans worm and human cells, Cheeseman has helped to identify dozens of the kinetochore's molecular components and their specific roles. (news-medical.net)
- This link between Bub1, histone H2A phosphorylation, and shugoshin is conserved in budding yeast and mammalian cells. (sciencemag.org)
- Rather than inhibiting caspase-mediated cell death, yeast IAP proteins have roles in cell division and appear to act in a similar way to the IAPs from Caenorhabditis elegans and the mammalian IAP Survivin. (pnas.org)
- Cells were grown in rich medium (YPD: 1% yeast extract/2% bactopeptone/2% glucose) at 30°C to late log phase and transferred to presporulation medium (YEPA: 1% yeast extract/2% bactopeptone/0.2 M potassium acetate) for a further 24 hr and then resuspended in sporulation medium (SM: 30 mM potassium acetate/0.3 mM raffinose), incubated for up to 12 days, and prepared for tetrad dissection ( 12 ) or microscopy. (pnas.org)
- Some bacteria and fungi, like yeast, form new cells through budding. (dummies.com)
- The search started in yeast, and specifically in the molecular pathway controlling cell division. (stanford.edu)
- When a cell divides into two daughter cells, it must replicate its entire genome and transcribe part of it to make new proteins. (eurasiareview.com)
- You will also look at how cells divide and replicate allowing us grow and repair body tissues, and if damage occurs, how some cells can replicate faster than surrounding cells to form tumours. (alison.com)
- Cell size was known to affect the first part of the cell division pathway to control when cells begin to replicate their DNA, known as the G1/S transition. (stanford.edu)
- Bacterial cells replicate by doubling their contents and then splitting into two distinct cells - an incredibly complex process that requires extensive coordination within the cell. (uoguelph.ca)
- And lately, through an extraordinary convergence of research from a broad spectrum of disciplines, scientists have made enormous progress in unraveling the pivotal molecular events that control cell division. (nytimes.com)
- The paired proteins seem to work by altering the shapes and duties of a string of other proteins in the cell, and scientists have identified many of those target proteins. (nytimes.com)
- To uncover which genes are involved in this process, the scientists developed a new method using high-throughput imaging of living cells. (medgadget.com)
- Having a person - or even a group of people - process such vast amounts of information would be almost impossible, so the scientists created a new computer program that analyses the footage and automatically detects what characteristic defects cells display, and in what order. (medgadget.com)
- Now that they have narrowed the search from a daunting 22,000 to a more manageable 600 genes, the scientists would like to investigate how these same genes act in other cancers and in healthy cells, as such comparisons could help to identify markers which could be used for diagnosis or to help make better-informed treatment decisions. (medgadget.com)
- The latest cell research engaged in by scientists has helped immensely in finding a possible cure for cancer. (i4u.com)
- Cell structure has aided scientists in finding the ins and outs of cancer and cancerous growths in humans. (i4u.com)
- Scientists have been looking at cells since the 17th Century and so to find something that no-one has seen before is amazing. (i4u.com)
- Using an elaborate sleuthing system they developed to probe how cells manage their own division, Johns Hopkins scientists have discovered that common but hard-to-see sugar switches are partly in control. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Using a standard human cell line (HeLa cells), the scientists discovered abnormalities when they disrupted the cell division process by adding extra O-GlcNAc. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- By controlling the enzyme telomerase which directs the division, scientists now hope to be able to delay or trigger cell division. (ibtimes.co.uk)
- Scientists at Salk Institute have found a cellular switch that could be controlled to encourage cells to divide and generate in old age, while preventing some others like cancer cells from dividing. (ibtimes.co.uk)
- Scientists at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation have discovered a way in which cells duplicate themselves accurately and completely. (journalrecord.com)
- The Indian Council of Medical Research and the Department of Biotechnology have jointly formulated guidelines for stem cell research and therapy to help experts and scientists working in the field conduct research responsibly and ethically sensitive manner. (medindia.net)
- While up to now most research laboratories have focused on single proteins in living cells, scientists working on the EU-funded iNEXT and CohesinMolMech projects have taken a more comprehensive approach. (europa.eu)
- Scientists in the preceding years had already been seeing faint structures in cells , but their dyes were not good enough to reveal what any of these structures did. (visionlearning.com)
- Throughout the 19th century, as microscopes developed, scientists had been seeing clues of structures in dividing cells of eukaryotes . (visionlearning.com)
- Scientists have now learned much more about the proteins involved and their behavior, and yet a central mystery remains: How does the cell signal where the furrow should be? (phys.org)
- Scientists at the Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology and Cancer Research UK created radiation-carrying gold nanoparticles that target cell division by entering cells and shutting down telomerase. (fiercebiotech.com)
- Cells were discovered in 1676, and almost immediately afterward scientists began wondering why cells are so perfectly small. (stanford.edu)
- Through identifying new molecules responsible for this, scientists are able to appreciate both how they act in a normal healthy cell, and importantly how their dysregulation might contribute to cell division-associated diseases. (phys.org)
- Pairs of sister chromatids split and are pulled to opposite sides of the cell by the microtubules. (encyclopedia.com)
- Microtubules pull each homologue to opposite sides of the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
- The "help" which Topo2 receives comes from the microtubules, a type of tiny wire that makes up part of the mitotic spindle, a structure similar to a rugby ball that is created when the cell begins the process of duplication and division. (eurekalert.org)
- He also has started to define how the attachments between kinetochores and spindle microtubules are regulated throughout cell division. (news-medical.net)
- The microtubules that are part and parcel of the inner "bone-work" of the cell seem to be involved here. (i4u.com)
- Centrosomes organize microtubules, which are structures in the cell that many important anti-cancer drugs target. (scienceblog.com)
- Cell division is helped along by a complex of more than 90 proteins, called a kinetochore, interacting with scaffolding-like structural fibers called microtubules. (carnegiescience.edu)
- Prokaryotes undergo a vegetative cell division known as binary fission, where their genetic material is segregated equally into two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Each new cell has exactly the same genetic material (DNA) as the cell that produced it. (encyclopedia.com)
- Because each gamete has half the genetic material of the mother cell, this fusion results in a zygote with the correct amount of genetic material. (encyclopedia.com)
- It involves a fairly complex process known as "mitosis", during which the cell duplicates its genetic material and separates it into two identical halves, which are then split apart. (eurekalert.org)
- A change in the arrangement or amount of genetic material in a cell. (abpischools.org.uk)
- This knowledge allows us to mechanistically dissect the regulation of oriented cell division by geometric and genetic cues. (wur.nl)
- Genetic control of plant development by overriding a geometric division rule. (wur.nl)
- Two is important," Megraw said, "because you divide your genetic material into two equal sets. (scienceblog.com)
- When trying to divide and produce two daughters, one problem the cell has is there is such a huge length of DNA encoding our genetic blueprint. (ed.ac.uk)
- These must be duplicated prior to division so that each of the daughter cells can receive a full complement of identical genetic material. (ed.ac.uk)
- Furthermore, they have discovered the molecule, known as FAM83D, responsible for coordinating the role of CK1α in cell division. (phys.org)
- They only have one DNA molecule, so what happens is that DNA molecule is replicated (copied), then cell walls form around each of the DNA molecules and you get two identical cells. (biology-online.org)
- Divisome assembly occurs in two steps and involves multiple interactions between more than 20 essential and accessory cell division proteins. (nih.gov)
- Begin with a single cell and watch as mitosis and cell division occurs. (explorelearning.com)
- The log phase is when the greatest increase in cell numbers occurs. (dummies.com)
- If any division phase occurs too soon or out of order, the cell will fail to survive. (icr.org)
- Cell division occurs in discrete phases, with specific objectives obtained in each phase. (icr.org)
- In the majority of species, division occurs primarily in the dark period (5, 14). (springer.com)
- The chemical is called putrescine (1,4 diaminobutane), a malodorous organic compound within the polyamine family-a group of molecules already known to play a crucial role in important functions like cell division. (discovermagazine.com)
- In single-celled organisms, homologs of cell death molecules may be involved in cell death or may have unrelated roles. (pnas.org)
- The physiology of bacterial cell division. (nih.gov)
- Bacterial cell division is facilitated by the divisome, a dynamic multiprotein assembly localizing at mid-cell to synthesize the stress-bearing peptidoglycan and to constrict all cell envelope layers. (nih.gov)
- Bacterial cell division has been studied mainly in model systems such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis , where it is described as a complex process with the participation of a group of proteins which assemble into a multiprotein complex called the septal ring. (scielo.br)
- Given the importance of GpsB:PBP interactions in pathogenic bacteria, the crystal structure presents a promising starting point for design of new antibiotics and provides an important step forward in understanding the regulation of cell wall synthesis in cell division in several different important bacterial species. (edu.au)
- Studying bacterial cell division is like completing a puzzle with many pieces. (uoguelph.ca)
- Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Cell division orientation is the direction along which the new daughter cells are formed. (wikipedia.org)
- When cells divide, two daughter cells are produced from one mother cell. (encyclopedia.com)
- Mitosis is the process of cellular division that produces identical daughter cells from one mother cell. (encyclopedia.com)
- But it spiralled too close, and got pulled apart by the star's gravity, splitting into daughter worlds in a process reminiscent of cell division. (newscientist.com)
- The band then squeezes the cell into two so that two new daughter cells are formed. (innovations-report.com)
- Cell division is the process whereby the two daughter cells are separated. (innovations-report.com)
- 7) is 2 daughter cells part of phase? (smore.com)
- The enzyme was previously known only for its involvement in cell division, or mitosis, a process that involves the creation of two daughter cells from one parental cell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In eukaryotic organisms, mitosis results in two daughter cells with identical copies of the parent cell DNA. (abpischools.org.uk)
- in animal cells the cleavage furrow continure pinching together and eventually drawing together completely separating the cell into two distinct daughter cells. (flashcardmachine.com)
- When a cell is ready to divide, it typically has two centrosomes, each containing a "mother and daughter" pair of centrioles tightly connected to each other, or "engaged. (scienceblog.com)
- One cell replicates itself and splits into two daughter cells, enabling an organism to develop, grow, and replace cells in its body. (icr.org)
- cell divisino is the formation of two or more daughter cells from a single mother cell. (biology-online.org)
- The discovery reveals that, when disturbed, this process could contribute to cancer or other diseases by failing to properly control the steps and timing of cell division, the researchers say. (medindia.net)
- The comings and goings of the sugar on proteins seem to be important controllers of cell division, say the researchers. (medindia.net)
- The researchers' next steps are to examine select proteins modified by O-GlcNAc and found at locations important for various steps in cell division to figure out why an imbalance of O-GlcNAc on the cells' proteins has such a dramatic effect on the process. (medindia.net)
- With the use of immunofluorescence the researchers determined the location of these proteins in the cell and in doing so discovered that three proteins play a crucial role in the cell division of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. (innovations-report.com)
- UT Southwestern Medical Center and California researchers provide the first report that an enzyme previously known solely for its role in cell division also acts as an on-off switch in the innate immune system -- the body's first defense against infection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Researchers are in desperate need of single-cell analysis techniques and those that allow the isolation of high-value T-cells for research and development. (news-medical.net)
- EUGENE, Ore. -- Oct. 23, 2015 -- Basic research into the mechanisms of cell division, using eggs and embryos from frogs and starfish, has led researchers to an unexpected discovery about how animal cells control the forces that shape themselves. (eurekalert.org)
- The researchers not only mapped O-GlcNAc and phosphorylation sites but also measured changes in the cell division machinery, because, Hart says, the chemical changes act more like "dimmer" switches, than simple on/off ones. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- However, when researchers at California Institute of Technology observed this step using their new technique, what they saw was not the usual cell division. (photonics.com)
- The researchers are now using the same method to try to image human cells. (photonics.com)
- Researchers report in bioRxiv that they combined lattice light sheet microscopy, which increases the speed of image acquisition and reduces phototoxic damage to cells, with two-channel adaptive optics to image multiple cellular processes in vivo. (the-scientist.com)
- As the project's researchers explain in a paper published in the journal 'Nature', the model can also be used to study the role that proteins play in other cellular functions, such as cell death or the metastasis of cancer cells. (europa.eu)
- Reporting in the journal Cell , researchers found that a particular enzyme called Cdk operates as a master oscillator, undergoing rhythmic periods of activity. (icr.org)
- This cell-free system has two huge advantages: It expands the scale of the furrow-building events, making them easier to see, and it gives the researchers an easy way to manipulate the proteins involved. (phys.org)
- Researchers in Jan Skotheim's lab have discovered a previously unknown mechanism that controls how large cells grow, an insight that could one day provide insight into attacking diseases such as cancer. (stanford.edu)
- By lowering the concentration to a certain level, the researchers forced the cells to initiate division at a smaller-than-usual size. (stanford.edu)
- Researchers at the University of Dundee have solved one of the mysteries of cell division, a discovery which may shed light on cancer development and one day help develop new drugs to treat the disease. (phys.org)
- For simple unicellular microorganisms such as the amoeba, one cell division is equivalent to reproduction - an entire new organism is created. (wikipedia.org)
- Even in the simple model organism E. coli , a fully quantitative characterization of how cell division time and size are determined is lacking ( 6 ), with most attempts dating back to the 1960s ( 2 , 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
- The rate of mitosis varies greatly, depending on many factors including the life stage of an organism and the type of cells involved. (abpischools.org.uk)
- If so, that would not explain how a cell replicates in a living organism , or in vivo . (visionlearning.com)
- A decline in stem cell function has been proposed to contribute to tissue ageing, although the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. (nature.com)
- A Swedish research group, partly financed by NWO, has discovered a new mechanism for cell division in a microorganism found in extremely hot and acidic conditions. (innovations-report.com)
- The new mechanism for cell division was discovered in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, a microorganism found in hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. (innovations-report.com)
- Furthermore, the conservation of this hormone-dependent mechanism will be explored in a variety of cell geometries, plant organs and plant species. (wur.nl)
- And this is just one mechanism, tightly linked with many other major cell processes, that ensures cell division is properly regulated. (icr.org)
- The inhibitor-dilution mechanism, where the cells dilute out an inhibitor of cell division, is very elegant and, in retrospect, seems almost obvious. (stanford.edu)
- The sex cells (ova and sperm) that join together to form a new unique diploid cell in sexual reproduction. (abpischools.org.uk)
- Several years ago, during the course of our studies on lysosomes in aging human diploid cells, we observed a small but consistent increase in the lifespan of cultures grown in the presence of 14μM hydrocortisone (HC). (springer.com)
- Metabolic aspects of aging in diploid human cells. (springer.com)
- The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains. (springer.com)
- The limited in vitro lifetime of human diploid cell strains. (springer.com)
- Thymidine incorporation as a measure of population age in human diploid cells. (springer.com)
- Animal cells: centrioles divide. (prezi.com)
- the replicated pairs of centrioles migrate to opposite poles of the cell. (flashcardmachine.com)
- The paper concludes with a description of centriole malfunction and overduplication (supernumerary centrioles), leading to clusters of centrioles -a hallmark of cancer cells. (scirp.org)
- This paper presents a selective review of some recently published research findings about centrioles, their duplication, and then their role in cell duplication. (scirp.org)
- The third section describes the role of centrioles in cell division (mitosis). (scirp.org)
- Otherwise, they will not be able to separate during cell division, and the DNA within could be cut or divided badly, which might lead to cell death or harmful mutations - and possibly cancer. (eurekalert.org)
- That information will in turn permit them to better understand cell division gone awry, the hallmark of cancer. (nytimes.com)
- The current study looked at HeLa cells, a widely studied line of cancer cells. (medgadget.com)
- Thus cancer involves a glitch in cell division. (i4u.com)
- Cancer is a disease of the cells, which are the body's basic building blocks. (cancervic.org.au)
- The new 4D model was used to integrate data on fluorescently knocked-in mitotic proteins taken from HeLa cells, an immortal line of human cancer cells commonly used in scientific research. (europa.eu)
- Elevated TPX2 levels lead to both aberrant microtubule assembly in cells and poor outcomes in cancer patients. (genengnews.com)
- In cancer, this breakdown is sabotaged, allowing the cells to multiply freely. (fiercebiotech.com)
- Cancer initiating cells are often derived from stem and progenitor cells. (ukaachen.de)
- If we can understand fully how cell division works, if we can gain some insight into which cell division components are the key players, we can begin to appreciate how this process works in a healthy individual, and perhaps identify vulnerabilities in diseases such as cancer. (phys.org)
- In certain cancers, FAM83D has been reported to be amplified, suggesting such cancer cells could be vulnerable to its loss. (phys.org)
- As a result of our discovery, future research will aim to address whether disruption of the FAM83D-dependent CK1α activity in cell division is a promising therapeutic approach for killing cancer cells. (phys.org)
- Cancer, in its simplest terms, is uncontrolled cell division. (phys.org)
- In mice, where there is more cell division in the small intestines than the colon, cancer rates were higher in the small intestines. (lexology.com)
- On the other hand, in humans, where the rate of cell division is higher in the colon than in the small intestine, the rate of cancer is higher in the colon. (lexology.com)
- Twenty-two of the 31 different types of cancer they studied could largely be explained by "bad luck," or the random chance of cell division, without reference to environmental factors. (lexology.com)
- In this study, the correlation of the rate of cell division and the prevalence of cancer remained over 10,000 different simulations of this model. (lexology.com)
- Blood stem cell transplantation and stem cell treatment in India, the possibilities and challenges ahead and the need for cord blood banks were discussed at a Jeevan oration meet in Chennai. (medindia.net)
- Preferred Term is Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (medindia.net)
- For decades, cord blood donation has served an important role in facilitating stem cell transplantation for the treatment of various blood and immune disorders. (stanford.edu)
- Spinal cord injury has been recognized as one of the conditions for which stem cell transplantation might be beneficial. (wingsforlife.com)
- 1 Cdk activates a host of subsidiary oscillators, each one in charge of activating a separate but necessary process at a distinct phase of cell division. (icr.org)
- We have demonstrated that the microtubule cytoskeleton of Drosophila neural stem cells is governed by the distinct behaviour displayed by centrosomes in these cells. (irbbarcelona.org)
- dramatically increase the activity of this gene when they regenerate, allowing stem cells to maintain their telomeres as they divide to replace missing tissues. (slashdot.org)
- Telomeres also help divvy-up the workload among stem cells so the most eager doesn't monopolize the work. (slashdot.org)
- It rebuilds telomeres and allows cells to divide indefinitely. (ibtimes.co.uk)
- Timothy L. Megraw, an associate professor in the College of Medicine, has outlined his findings in the cover story of the June 15 issue of Developmental Cell . (scienceblog.com)
- College of Medicine student Zach Folzenlogen created the cover design for this issue of Developmental Cell . (scienceblog.com)
- It is published by Developmental Cell . (carnegiescience.edu)
- They appear to function like an amplifier, tuning in faint signals from deep in the cell to accurately and precisely delineate the working conditions for contractile proteins and other enzymes to assemble at the right place, in the right amount and at the right time during cell division, or, as the research team theorized, during other important cell-shape changes. (eurekalert.org)
- Without Cdk and its associate enzymes comprising what the authors call a 'phase-locking model,' cell division would not work. (icr.org)
- Studying the process of cell division in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius could therefore lead to new insights into the processes involving ESCRT proteins, such as HIV particle release. (innovations-report.com)
- How does cell division provide for continuity of life processes in an individual and in a species? (prezi.com)
- FtsH and FtsY, even if they were initially identified by mutants that showed a filamentation phenotype, they are in fact involved in general processes that have pleiotropic effects on cell division (Tomoyasu et al . (scielo.br)
- Learn more about the biological processes of cell division. (alison.com)
- This course about cell division will explain the complex processes of cell division in detail. (alison.com)
- To make this possible, hundreds of different proteins work together in a single cell, driving its various processes. (europa.eu)
- In addition to thinking about these implications, Skotheim's group plans to conduct a genome-wide analysis to identify other biologic processes that might be impacted by cell size. (stanford.edu)
- Abnormalities in the cell division orientation leads to the malformations during development and cancerous tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- For instance, diseases can manipulate that pathway, a prime example being cancerous cells that grow rapidly and proliferate. (stanford.edu)
- However, if a cell becomes cancerous, it can evade these rules and continuously divide and grow. (phys.org)
- NRLP3 is one of several inflammasomes - multiprotein structures in disease-fighting white blood cells - the first of which was identified less than 15 years ago. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Unfortunately, the dyes killed the cells, and since the structures under the microscope were difficult to see as it was, Flemming's forerunners weren't sure they were seeing anything characteristic of a live, functional cell. (visionlearning.com)
- They then mimicked fertilization and added labeled antibodies or proteins to visualize the self-organization of structures required for the cell division process, using fluorescence microscopy in ways that aren't possible with actual living cells in tissue cultures. (phys.org)
- By using a variety of specific dyes which stain particular structures, different areas of the cell can be observed. (sciencephoto.com)