The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Unequal cell division that results in daughter cells of different sizes.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A hexosyltransferase involved in the transfer of disaccharide molecules to the peptidoglycan structure of the CELL WALL SKELETON. It plays an important role in the genesis of the bacterial CELL WALL.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Basic functional unit of plants.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod- or vibroid-shaped or fusiform bacteria that commonly produce a stalk. They are found in fresh water and soil and divide by binary transverse fission.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
An amidinopenicillanic acid derivative with broad spectrum antibacterial action.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; COCHLEA; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
Those genes found in an organism which are necessary for its viability and normal function.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A layer of living cells between the bark and hardwood that each year produces additional wood and bark cells, forming concentric growth rings.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.
An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.

In vitro effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) on bovine cells. (1/46946)

Bovine fetal muscle cells were exposed to culture media containing 2 mg and 20 mg per liter of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) for varying intervals to determine the in vitro response of mammalian cells to this compound. The concentrations of 2,4-D used were comparable to those used in spray programmes although the residues normally found in pasture are much lower since 2,4-D is rapidly degraded under field conditions. Untreated and treated cultures were analyzed for total cell count, mitotic index and the percentages of differentiating and degenerating cells. The response of cultures to treatment was similar irrespective of the concentrations of 2,4-D used although in higher concentrations there was an initial drop in mitotic index. Other changes noted in treated cultures included an increase in differentiating and degenerating cells compared to those in control. The mitotic cells in treated cultures exhibited unipolar and tripolar spindles and a variety of other abnormalities including malorientation of the mitotic apparatus in relation to the axis of the cell. Myoblasts in initial stages of myogenesis were noted to be in mitosis in treated cultures suggesting that 2,4-D may have a stimulatory effect on myoblasts which in normal myogenesis are in post mitotic stage.  (+info)

Electronic volume analysis of L1210 chemotherapy. (2/46946)

The rapid analysis of in vivo chemotherapy on the L1210 ascites tumor grown in C57BL/6 X DBA/2F1 mice has been shown by means of an electronic volume analysis. The drugs were injected on the 4th day of tumor growth, and the cells in the peritoneal cavity were studied at 24-hr intervals on the 5th through 7th day. Using the electronic cell volume distributions, combined with labeling indices, cell morphology, and cell counts, it was found that the alkylating agents. 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and cyclophosphamide, at the dosages used, were more effective than the S-phase-specific drugs, palmitoyl ester of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, vincristine, and methotrexate.  (+info)

Stimulation of thymidine uptake and cell proliferation in mouse embryo fibroblasts by conditioned medium from mammary cells in culture. (3/46946)

Undialyzed conditioned medium from several cell culture sources did not stimulate thymidine incorporation or cell overgrowth in quiescent, density-inhibited mouse embryo fibroblast cells. However, dialyzed conditioned medium (DCM) from clonal mouse mammary cell lines MCG-V14, MCG-T14, MCG-T10; HeLa cells; primary mouse adenocarcinoma cells; and BALB/c normal mouse mammary epithelial cells promoted growth in quiescent fibroblasts. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell varied from 24% (HeLa) to 213% (MCG-V14) of the activity produced by primary tumor cells. The production of growth-promoting activity was not unique to tumor-derived cells or cells of high tumorigenicity. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell in the active cultures was not correlated with any of the following: tumorigenicity, growth rat, cell density achieved at saturation, cell type, or species of cell origin. It is concluded that transformed and non-transformed cells of diverse origin, cell type, and tumorigenicity can produce growth factors in culture. The growth-promoting potential of the active media from primary tumor cultures accumulated with time of contact with cells and was too great to be accounted for entirely by the removal of low-molecular-weight inhibitors by dialysis. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that conditioned medium from the active cultures contained a dialyzable, growth-promoting activity. Different cell lines exhibited differential sensitivity to tumor cell DCM and fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, quiescent fibroblasts were stimulated by primary tumor cell DCM in the presence of saturating concentrations of fetal bovine serum. These observations support the notion that the active growth-promoting principle in primary tumor cell DCM may not be a serum factor(s).  (+info)

Blood thymidine level and iododeoxyuridine incorporation and reutilization in DNA in mice given long-acting thymidine pellets. (4/46946)

A long-acting thymidine pellet consisting of 190 mg of cholesterol and 60 mg of thymidine has been developed for the study of thymidine metabolism and reutilization in vivo. Implantation of such a pellet s.c. in adult mice will maintain the blood plasma concentration of thymidine at levels between 40 and 8 X 10(-6) M, which are from 36 to 7 times those of normal mice, for periods up to 48 hr. During this period, in vivo uptake and reutilization of [125I]iododeoxyuridine, a thymidine analog, into intestinal and tumor DNA were almost completely suppressed. While iododeoxyuridine reutilization is not large in normal proliferative tissue even in the absence of pellet implants, reutilization of over 30% was measured in large, rapidly growing ascites tumors. The inhibition of iododeoxyuridine incorporation by elevated thymidine blood levels is directly proportional to serum concentration. This appears to be due to a thymidine pool in rapid equilibrium with blood thymidine. This pool is at least 10 times larger than the 4-nmole pool of extracellular thymidine.  (+info)

The effects of estrogens and antiestrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (5/46946)

We have established or characterized six lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture for at least 1 year and have examined these lines for estrogen responsiveness. One of these cell lines, MCF-7, shows marked stimulation of macromolecular synthesis and cell division with physiological concentrations of estradiol. Antiestrogens are strongly inhibitory, and at concentrations greater than 3 X 10(-7) M they kill cells. Antiestrogen effects are prevented by simultaneous treatment with estradiol or reversed by addition of estradiol to cells incubated in antiestrogen. Responsive cell lines contain high-affinity specific estradiol receptors. Antiestrogens compete with estradiol for these receptors but have a lower apparent affinity for the receptor than estrogens. Stimulation of cells by estrogens is biphasic, with inhibition and cell death at concentrations of 17beta-estradiol or diethylstilbestrol exceeding 10(-7) M. Killing by high concentrations of estrogen is probably a nonspecific effect in that we observe this response with 17alpha-estradiol at equivalent concentrations and in the otherwise unresponsive cells that contain no estrogen receptor sites.  (+info)

The effects of glucocorticoids and progesterone on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (6/46946)

Glucocorticoids, at physiological concentration, inhibit cell division and thymidine incorporation in three lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture. At steroid concentrations sufficient to inhibit thymidine incorporation 50%, little or no effect is seen on protein synthesis 48 hr after hormone addition. All three of these lines are shown to have glucocorticoid receptors demonstrable by competitive protein binding assays. Receptors are extensively characterized in one line by sucrose density gradient analysis and binding specificity studies. Good correlation between receptor-binding specificity and biological activity is found except for progesterone, which binds to glucocorticoid receptor but is noninhibitory. Cross-competition and quantification studies demonstrate a separate receptor for progesterone. This receptor has limited binding specificities restricted largely to progestational agents, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor bound both glucocorticoids and progesterone. Two other human breast cancer lines neither contain glucocorticoid receptor nor are inhibited by glucocorticoids. It is concluded that in some cases glucocorticoids can directly limit growth in human breast cancer in vitro without requiring alterations in other trophic hormones.  (+info)

The effects of androgens and antiandrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (7/46946)

We have examined five human breast cancer cell lines in continuous tissue culture for androgen responsiveness. One of these cell lines shows a 2- to 4-fold stimulation of thymidine incorporation into DNA, apparent as early as 10 hr following androgen addition to cells incubated in serum-free medium. This stimulation is accompanied by an acceleration in cell replication. Antiandrogens [cyproterone acetate (6-chloro-17alpha-acetate-1,2alpha-methylene-4,6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) and R2956 (17beta-hydroxy-2,2,17alpha-trimethoxyestra-4,9,11-triene-1-one)] inhibit both protein and DNA synthesis below control levels and block androgen-mediated stimulation. Prolonged incubation (greater than 72 hr) in antiandrogen is lethal. The MCF- cell line contains high-affinity receptors for androgenic steroids demonstrable by sucrose density gradients and competitive protein binding analysis. By cross-competition studies, androgen receptors are distinguishable from estrogen receptors also found in this cell line. Concentrations of steroid that saturate androgen receptor sites in vitro are about 1000 times lower than concentrations that maximally stimulate the cells. Changes in quantity and affinity of androgen binding to intact cells at 37 degrees as compared with usual binding techniques using cytosol preparation at 0 degrees do not explain this difference between dissociation of binding and effect. However, this difference can be explained by conversion of [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone to 5alpha-androstanediol and more polar metabolites at 37 degrees. An examination of incubation media, cytoplasmic extracts and crude nuclear pellets reveals probable conversion of [3H]testosterone to [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Our data provide compelling evidence that some human breast cancer, at least in vitro, may be androgen dependent.  (+info)

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) in alcoholic liver disease. (8/46946)

Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory factor (PIF) was determined in the supernatants of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic liver disease. PIF was assayed by determining inhibition of DNA synthesis in WI-38 human lung fibroblasts. A two-fold greater inhibition in thymidine incorporation into DNA by lung fibroblasts was observed in supernatants of PHA stimulated lymphocytes from patients with alcoholic hepatitis or active Laennec's cirrhosis as compared with that found in control subjects or patients with fatty liver. It is suggested that decreased liver cell regeneration seen in some patients with alcoholic hepatitis may be due to increased elaboration of PIF.  (+info)

EzrA: a spectrin-like scaffold in the bacterial cell division machinery - EzrA contains a single transmembrane helix at its N-terminus followed by the 540 amino acid cytoplasmic domain. The structure of the B. subtilis EzrA cytoplasmic domain reveals an extended rod with three alpha helices packed together along its length. The rod comprises five repeats of a ~100 amino acid triple helical bundle, connected in a (...)
Mutants of FtsZ targeting the protofilament interface: effects on cell division and GTPase activity.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Oriented cell division is an integral part of pattern development in processes ranging from asymmetric segregation of cell-fate determinants to the shaping of tissues. Despite proposals that it has an important function in tissue elongation, the mechanisms regulating division orientation have been l …
Simple unicellular organisms must undergo cell division in order to generate progeny. This is one of the most critical processes in biology. In the current study, we uncovered a novel role for yofA in septum formation during cell division in B. subtilis. We showed that yofA has a role in maintaining cell density after the end of exponential growth. Our analysis further indicated that YofA plays an important role in cell division through the regulation of expression of ftsW, which is an essential component of the cell division machinery in B. subtilis.. YofA is composed of 285 amino acids and shares sequence similarity with members of the LysR family of transcriptional regulators. Among the LysR family members in B. subtilis with known functions, AlsR (37), GltC (1, 3), and YtlI (5) act as positive regulators of target genes located close to them, whereas CysL (15) and CitR (26, 27) act as negative regulators that inhibit the transcription of neighboring genes. Other LysR-type regulators, such as ...
Cyclin Dependent Kinase 1 (p34 Protein Kinase or Cell Division Protein Kinase 1 or Cell Division Control Protein 2 Homolog or CDK1 or EC or EC - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-08-29 Available for US$ 3500 at
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.[1] Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a reproductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half to produce haploid gametes (meiosis).[2] Meiosis results in four haploid daughter cells by undergoing one round of DNA replication followed by two divisions. Homologous chromosomes are separated in the first division, and sister chromatids are separated in the second division. Both of these cell division cycles are used in the process of sexual reproduction at some point in their life cycle. Both are believed to be present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor. Prokaryotes (bacteria) undergo a vegetative cell division known as binary fission, where their genetic ...
Bacterial cell division requires the formation of a mature divisome complex positioned at the midcell. The localization of the divisome complex is determined by the correct positioning, assembly, and constriction of the FtsZ ring (Z-ring). Z-ring constriction control remains poorly understood and (to some extent) controversial, probably due to the fact that this phenomenon is transient and controlled by numerous factors. Here, we characterize ZapE, a novel ATPase found in Gram-negative bacteria, which is required for growth under conditions of low oxygen, while loss of zapE results in temperature-dependent elongation of cell shape. We found that ZapE is recruited to the Z-ring during late stages of the cell division process and correlates with constriction of the Z-ring. Overexpression or inactivation of zapE leads to elongation of Escherichia coli and affects the dynamics of the Z-ring during division. In vitro, ZapE destabilizes FtsZ polymers in an ATP-dependent manner. IMPORTANCE Bacterial cell
A discussion and sharing among teachers on Cell Division at the voluntary forum, a self-learning as well as peer learning platform. The Azim Premji Foundation District Institute team of Janjgir-Champa is organizing this discussion.. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The mechanisms orchestrating spatial cell division control remain poorly understood. In animal cells, the position of the mitotic spindle dictates cleavage furrow placement, and thus plays a key role in governing spatial relationships between resulting daughter cells. The one-cell stage Caenorhabditis elegans embryo is an attractive model system to investigate the mechanisms underlying spindle positioning in metazoans. In this review, the experimental advantages of this model system for an in vivo dissection of cell division processes are first discussed. Next, three lines of experiments that were conducted to dissect the mechanisms governing spindle positioning in one-cell stage C. elegans embryos are summarized. First, localized laser micro-irradiations were utilized to identify the forces acting on spindle poles during anaphase. This work revealed that there is a precise imbalance of pulling forces acting on the two spindle poles, with the forces acting on the posterior spindle pole being in ...
The mechanisms orchestrating spatial cell division control remain poorly understood. In animal cells, the position of the mitotic spindle dictates cleavage furrow placement, and thus plays a key role in governing spatial relationships between resulting daughter cells. The one-cell stage Caenorhabditis elegans embryo is an attractive model system to investigate the mechanisms underlying spindle positioning in metazoans. In this review, the experimental advantages of this model system for an in vivo dissection of cell division processes are first discussed. Next, three lines of experiments that were conducted to dissect the mechanisms governing spindle positioning in one-cell stage C. elegans embryos are summarized. First, localized laser micro-irradiations were utilized to identify the forces acting on spindle poles during anaphase. This work revealed that there is a precise imbalance of pulling forces acting on the two spindle poles, with the forces acting on the posterior spindle pole being in ...
How does a plant regulate the rate at which its organs grow? This question is important because as a plant develops and responds to the environment, organ growth rate is regulated carefully. The rate at which organs grow depends on the rates of cell division and expansion. However, this straightforward answer belies considerable complexity. Division and expansion are not alternative or sequential processes, but instead are interdependent processes whose coordinated regulation we scarcely understand.. The regulation of organ growth rate involves the rate at which new cells are produced and how fast these cells expand. Strictly, cell division does not enlarge an organ, but builds partitions within component cells (Green, 1976). Nevertheless, meristematic cells typically expand and divide at comparable rates, maintaining an approximately constant average cell size. Through this expansion, dividing cells do contribute to organ growth, albeit to a much lesser extent than non-meristematic cells ...
Cell division cycle 5-like protein contains a PF00249 domain.. Cell division cycle 5-like protein contains a PF00249 domain.. Cell division cycle 5-like protein is proteolytically cut by caspase () cleavage. HESD-FSGV.. Cell division cycle 5-like protein is proteolytically cut by granzyme B, human-type (S01.010) cleavage. IDMD-EDEL.. ...
2017 China University of Geosciences (Beijing) and Peking University. Bacteria appeared early in the evolution of cellular life on planet Earth, and therefore the universally essential genes or biological pathways found across bacterial domains may represent fundamental genetic or cellular systems used in early life. The essential genes and the minimal gene set required to support bacterial life have recently been experimentally and computationally identified. It is, however, still hard to estimate the ancient genes present in primitive cells compared to the essential genes in contemporary bacteria, because we do not know how ancestral primitive cells lived and proliferated, and therefore cannot directly evaluate the essentiality of the genes in ancestral primitive cells. The cell wall is normally essential for bacterial proliferation and cellular division of walled bacterial cells is normally highly controlled by the essential FtsZ cell division machinery. But, bacteria are capable of reverting ...
Stunted Plant 1** mediates effects of cytokinin, but not of auxin, on cell division and expansion in the root of **Arabidopsis** ...
CCAR1; cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1; cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator protein 1; CARP 1; CARP1; FLJ10590; death inducer with SAP domain; cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein 1; MGC44628; RP11-437A18.1; novel protein similar to vertebrate cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1 ...
When an essential nutrient is depleted from the medium, cultures of wildtype. E. coli cells enter a period called stationary phase. The transition into. stationary phase is marked by distinct changes in cell physiology, gene. expression, and morphology. Pr???? and Matsumura (18) found a mutant strain of. E. coli that was able to continue growing exponentially at a time when wild-type. cells had stopped growing and entered stationary phase. They concluded that. FlhD, a transcriptional activator of flagellar genes, was responsible for this. growth phenotype and that it is a regulator of cell division (17, 18). Contrary to. the findings of Pr???? and Matsumura, research in our lab has shown that the. mutant growth phenotype observed in the strain used by Matsumura and Pr???? is. flhD independent. This study sought to identify the second mutation, which we. call cdr (cell division regulator) in the strain used by Matsumura and Pr????. We. used Hfr mapping and P1 transduction to localize the mutation ...
Streptomyces coelicolor has several unique features that make it ideal for analysis of bacterial cell division. First, it is the only known FtsZ-containing bacterium in which the ftsZ gene is dispensable and can be deleted. Second, this organism has two forms of cell division, of which one is the developmentally regulated sporulation septation that converts aerial hyphae into chains of spores (Fig. 1; Flärdh et al., 2000). Third, the spore pigment works as an excellent built-in reporter in genetic analyses of this cell division. Finally, the formation of many tens of closely spaced Z rings in a single cell involves remodelling of highly dynamic helical structures into a series of rings (Fig. 1 and 2; Grantcharova et al., 2005). This makes the sporulation process highly sensitive to disturbances in FtsZ polymerisation dynamics, and it is therefore a great model to investigate this central aspect of cell division.. ...
The principle of new plant life is very similar to that of humans and animals: a single fertilized egg grows into a complex organism with millions of cells. Such a complex body plan can be created only if the rate and direction of cell division are strictly regulated. In plants, this control is very important, as plants do not contain mechanisms for cell migration or quick cell replacement like animals do: A rigid cell wall is formed soon after cell division, which fixes the new cell permanently. Regulation of the direction of cell division is especially important in early embryos and stem cell niches (meristems), because these few cells lay the foundations for all future organs. Defects in the cell patterns of embryos and meristems can therefore be catastrophic for development ...
thanks currie!!! this helps me out a lot!!! now i wont be up that late studying!!! haha and i agree answers would be pretty sweet but ill take what i can get ...
SUMMARY: Recent evidence supporting a proposed model (Koch & Schaechter, 1962) for the control of bacterial cell division is reviewed. Calculations from the published work of others are presented which show that the standard deviation of length of time between a cell division and Nth cell division does not increase, at least up to N = 9. This finding implies that each cell has an excellent clock, which is handed to the daughters without significant error, and that the observed fluctuations in age of cells at division are largely due to an additional fluctuation associated with cell division, but not timing it. In terms of our model, it is strong support for the deterministic growth of cell constituents and the equipartition of cell constituents at division. An expansion of the original model is considered which accounts for the difference between the original model and the finding regarding the correlation coefficients of the ages of mothers and daughters and that between sisters, and the skewed
Dueling kinases regulate cell size at division through the SAD kinase Cdr2. Deng L, Baldissard S, Kettenbach AN, Gerber SA, Moseley JB. Current Biology. Feb 17;24(4):428-33. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.01.009. Epub 2014 Feb 6. pubmed ...
The use of acoustic, frequency or ultra-sound devices have any known effect on cell division or cell healing? Or cell signaling could be effected by
As living things grow, the number of cells in them increases. This brings significant advantages, and requires the development of complex organ systems. This item looks at the two ways cells divide, mitosis and meiosis, and the differences between these types of cell division. Software simulations and video clips which show cell division are uses of ICT in teaching and learning. ...
The work by Negishi et al., published recently in the electronic journal eLife, has revealed that in the sea squirt embryo, the orientation of the cell division machinery in epithelial cells is controlled by a unique cell membrane structure, which we call an invagination.
The cellular organization of plant tissues is determined by patterns of cell division and growth coupled with cellular differentiation. Cells proliferate mainly via symmetric division, whereas asymmetric divisions are associated with initiation of new developmental patterns and cell types. Division …
Each tissue and organ in the body is composed of vast populations of cells, totaling more than 1014 (100 000 000 000 000). An astonishing 1012 (1 000 000 000 000) cells die or are shed in the normal course of each day and must be replaced to sustain life.. The process by which cells grow and divide to replenish lost cells is termed cell proliferation. This is a highly regulated activity in normal, healthy tissue. The synthesis of new cells is balanced against cell loss so that the total number of cells composing all tissues and organs in the body remains essentially unchanged.4-7. Cell growth, the replication of genetic material and cell division are all governed by the cell cycle, a highly-ordered series of events that culminates in mitosis (the division of a cell, giving rise to two daughter cells). Progression through the cell cycle depends on successful passage through a number of critical phases, known as checkpoints, which function to ensure the synthesis of fully functioning daughter ...
IU research associate Jane Stouts stunning image of a dividing mammalian cell with chromosomes shown aligned on cell division machinery at the sites of attachment was announced as a winner in the international GE Healthcare Life Sciences 2012 Cell Imaging Competition.
Product Pig Cell division cycle associated protein 3(CDCA3) ELISA kit From B-Gene - A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Cell division cycle associated protein 3(CDCA3) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species. Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUTION*1 vial 12. WASH SOLUTION (100 x)*1 vial 13. BALANCE SOLUTION*1 vial 14. INSTRUCTION*1
Animal cell division under DIC microscope. Here is some information about cell division: Cell division is the process by which a cell, called the parent cell, divides into two cells, called...
Director: Joan Garfinkel. AGING IS INEVITABLE. We all agree that growing old is a fact of life and is indeed inevitable. When our bones become brittle, skin starts to wrinkle, muscles get weaker, and energy plummets. These are the typical signs of aging.. CELL DIVISION. NewULife states our cells naturally divide only a certain amount of times in the body. The cell division process begins at the time of conception and is necessary for the development and growth of a life. As we grow, cells divide and multiply; however, as we continue to get older cell division slows down.. EPIGENETIC FACTORS. According to NewULife, many People have a common, pre-conceived understanding that only genetics play a key role in how long we. While to some degree this is true, there are other positive epigenetic factors that play an even bigger role. Epigenetic factors are essentially the overall lifestyle changes made that can disrupt your own genetic make-up. Perhaps, this is how we can extend not just our lives, but ...
In most bacteria and archaea, filaments of FtsZ protein organize cell division. FtsZ forms a ring structure at the division site and starts the recruitment of 10 to 20 downstream proteins that together form a multiprotein complex termed the divisome. The divisome is thought to facilitate many of the steps required to make two cells out of one. FtsQ and FtsB are part of the divisome, with FtsQ being a central hub, interacting with most... ...
View Notes - Chapter 9 spring 2011 from BIO 111 at Moraine Valley Community College. Chapter 9 Cell Reproduction Different Kinds of Cell Division Different Binary Fission = Cell division
Cell Division Current Events, Cell Division news articles. The latest Cell Division stories, articles, research, discoveries, current news and events from Brightsurf.
Johns Hopkins scientists have discovered that a deceptively simple sugar is in fact a critical regulator of cells natural life cycle
Script: Approximately 24 to 30 hours after fertilization, the zygote completes its first cell division. Through the process of mitosis, one cell splits into two, two into four, and so on. ...
Bacterial cell division occurs by a highly conserved process predominantly, termed binary fission, that requires the microbial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. of VX-765 manufacture the unipolar development and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid patient. This system of cell department offers not really been recorded in additional human being microbial pathogens recommending the potential for developing is definitely the leading microbial trigger of sexually sent attacks. will not really communicate FtsZ, which is definitely required for the extremely conserved procedure of binary fission that most bacterias use to separate. non-etheless, it provides been believed that this microbial virus splits by binary fission. We Rabbit Polyclonal to Cox1 present right here that splits VX-765 manufacture by a polarized cell department procedure that can be identical to the flourishing procedure of some various other bacterias that absence FtsZ, such as the Planctomycetes. This story setting of cell ...
Cell division Cell division Reasons for cell division Cell Cycle All cells are derived from preexisting cells. Cell division is the process by wich cells produce new cells. Reasons for cell division Cell growth Repair and replacement of damaged cell parts: some tissues must be repaired often such as the lining of gut, white blood cells, skin cells with a short lifespan. Other cells do not divide at all after birth such as muscle and nerve. Reproduction of the species. Cell Cycle During a cells life cycle there are various different phases. The Cell Cycle includes two main parts: Interphase: is the longest part of a cells life cycle and is called
12:10 In the car analogy, oncogenes are the gas pedal for abnormal growth, while tumor suppressor genes are the brakes. Oncogenes encourage cell division. Each cell divides to become two, the number of cells goes up and growth occurs. Tumor suppressors block cell division. Taking the car analogy further, one then has to consider how much gas is in the tank. DNA within a human cell, packaged in chromosomes, can be copied into a new generation of cells only so many times. Each time a cell divides, the tail end of the chromosome called the telomere gets a little shorter until it is gone. Like the amount of gas in a tank, this serves as a physical limit on cell division, limiting the lifespan of a line of cells and its ability to drive tissue growth. Limited telomere length also serves as another protection against tumors as cancer cells seek to become immortal ...
Mitosis video below, 4min: The cells in your body divide and arrange themselves in organized structures, called tissues. The cell division process is called Mitosis. If you have taken Biology, you are already familiar with the cell cycle and mitosis. The topic of cell division is critical to understanding cancer, which is actually 200 separate diseases which effect various tissues in the body. Our case study will explore a controversial episode involving a cancer patient ...
The cell cycle is broken down into 4 main phases: G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase and M phase. The ultimate goal is cell division. M phase is where the chromosomes segregate and the cell physically divides into two daughter cells [1]. Cell division (M-phase) at first glance appears to be a simple and common process. However, as each step is broken down it becomes evident how many processes there are and how many things could go wrong, illustrating that cell division is anything but simple. During cell division there are various steps that need tight regulation, for instance the entry into M-phase, the spindle checkpoint, the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, distribution of organelles and fragmentation of the nuclear envelope [1]. The regulation of cell division is essential and even the breakdown of one seemingly small component of this regulation could be catastrophic [2]. Due to the immense nature of the regulation of cell division, for the purpose of this page, only a couple of key ...
All cells interact with each other with a system of control signals, passed from one cell to another or through the bloodstream. Once cells receive this information, they know what to do. All biological processes, whether genetic transcription, repair, regeneration, cellular division, metabolism, even cellular death, are strictly controlled by these Regulatory Signals. This process is known as Regulatory Transduction. If these signals are not heard by the cells or they pass through distorted, cells lose their functional purpose, leading to chaos in the processes that maintain cellular metabolism, propagation and organ function balance. The consequence of such cellular malfunction is a development of degenerative processes in the body tissues, accelerated aging, formation of autonomous growth (neoplasm, tumors), etc. processes that maintain cellular metabolism, propagation and organ function balance. The consequence of such cellular malfunction is a development of degenerative processes in ...
The automotive industry has been witnessing several changes and in those terms, 2019 was a noteworthy year for many major players.
5 1) Cell Cycle: life of a cell from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into 2 a) Interphase- preparation for Mitosis b) Mitosis- nuclear division c) Cytokinesis- cytoplasmic division ...
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DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
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Centriole staining in human, mouse and zebrafish cells". Cell Division. 7 (1): 21. doi:10.1186/1747-1028-7-21. PMC 3541999. ... the time it takes for half of the amount of protein in a cell to break down after its synthesis in the cell, is predicted to be ... Machado C, Andrew DJ (2000). "Titin as a chromosomal protein". Elastic Filaments of the Cell. Advances in Experimental Medicine ... Trinick J, Tskhovrebova L (October 1999). "Titin: a molecular control freak". Trends in Cell Biology. 9 (10): 377-80. doi: ...
Cell Division. 5 (1): 25. doi:10.1186/1747-1028-5-25. ISSN 1747-1028. PMC 2955731. PMID 20920249. Castro, Edouard. "PROSITE". ... A study of Rho kinase inhibitor effect on primary cell lines also showed that C5orf34 is expressed in dermal fibroblasts of ... In addition, C5orf34 is predicted to be nuclear, thus it has potential involvement in gene regulation and cell proliferation ... "Comparative gene expression profiling in three primary human cell lines after treatment with a novel inhibitor of Rho kinase or ...
Park YY, Cho H (2012). "Mitofusin 1 is degraded at G2/M phase through ubiquitylation by MARCH5". Cell Division. 7 (1): 25. doi: ... "The mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH5 is required for Drp1 dependent mitochondrial division". The Journal of Cell ... Lehner PJ, Hoer S, Dodd R, Duncan LM (Oct 2005). "Downregulation of cell surface receptors by the K3 family of viral and ... From a pathological perspective, in a neuronal cell model, dominant-negative MARCH5 prevents mitochondrial fragmentation during ...
Valentine MT, Fordyce PM, Block SM (December 2006). "Eg5 steps it up!". Cell Division. 1 (1): 31. doi:10.1186/1747-1028-1-31. ... "Cell cycle-dependent dynamics and regulation of mitotic kinesins in Drosophila S2 cells". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 16 (8 ... cell division). Kinesins are important for proper spindle length and are involved in sliding microtubules apart within the ... In the cell, small molecules, such as gases and glucose, diffuse to where they are needed. Large molecules synthesised in the ...
Kohoutek J, Blazek D (April 2012). "Cyclin K goes with Cdk12 and Cdk13". Cell Division. 7: 12. doi:10.1186/1747-1028-7-12. PMC ... Targeted proteins can then ultimately regulate decisions of a cell's progression within the cell cycle to occur. This gene ... Cell. 125 (4): 801-14. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen ... Cell. 172 (5): 1007-1021.e17. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.032. PMC 6052445. PMID 29474905. Lin X, Taube R, Fujinaga K, Peterlin ...
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and adult stem cells, are undifferentiated cells which when they divide have the potential to ... either remain a stem cell or to differentiate into other specialized cells. Adult stem cells are multipotent progenitor cells ... Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are ESC-like cells that can generate scalable quantities of relevant tissue and are of ... In addition, TBX3 is overexpressed in fibrosarcoma cells and removing TBX3 from these cells led to a more aggressive phenotype ...
When certain diploid cells in animals undergo cytokinesis after meiosis to produce egg cells, they sometimes divide unevenly. ... the cell must divide asymmetrically, which is fueled by furrowing (formation of a trench) near a particular point on the cell ... A polar body is a small haploid cell that is formed at the same time as an egg cell during oogenesis, but generally does not ... Cell Division. 6: 17. doi:10.1186/1747-1028-6-17. PMC 3179692. PMID 21867530. Geraedts, J.; Collins, J.; Gianaroli, L.; ...
"Live cell division dynamics monitoring in 3D large spheroid tumor models using light sheet microscopy". Cell Division. 6 (1): ... Cell. 163 (7): 1796-1806. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.061. ISSN 0092-8674. PMC 4775738. PMID 26687363. A. H. Voie; D. H. Burns; ... Adherent cells can be grown on small glass plates that are hanging in the sample chamber. Plants can be grown in clear gels ... Play media HeLa cells expressing tetramers of the green fluorescent protein. On the left a transmission illumination image and ...
Martin AC, Wieschaus EF (2010). "Tensions divide". Nat Cell Biol. 12 (1): 5-7. doi:10.1038/ncb0110-5. PMID 20027198.. ... Parameters used to measure cell bond tension are based cell-cell adhesion and cortical tension input. It has also been ... orientation of cell divisions was random and there is no evidence that increased cell death or zones of non-proliferating cells ... In posterior cells engrailed prevents the expression of Ci, such it is only expressed in anterior cells and hence only these ...
Intra-cellular processes: cell motility and division; cell death; intra-cellular transport; secretion. Extra-cellular processes ... Metabolism: Anabolic and catabolic processes; cell maintenance and homeostasis; secondary metabolism. ... inter-, extr-cellular processes like cell adhesion; organismal process like blood clotting or the immune system. General: ...
Cell division becomes uncontrolled. Cell nuclei become less uniform. Pathologists describe cells as well differentiated (low- ... One of the hallmarks of cancer is that cells divide uncontrollably. The more cells that are dividing, the worse the cancer. ... The closer the appearance of the cancer cells to normal cells, the slower their growth and the better the prognosis. If cells ... Isolated Tumor Cell clusters (ITC), which are small clusters of cells not greater than 0.2 mm, or single tumor cells, or a ...
Figge J, Smith TF (14 July 1988). "Cell division sequence motif". Nature. 334 (6178): 109. doi:10.1038/334109a0. PMID 3290690. ... After entering the cell, the viral genes are transcribed by host cell RNA polymerase II to produce early mRNAs. Because of the ... Therefore, it is essential for the host cell to enter S phase, when cell DNA and the viral genome are replicated together. ... SV40 was isolated by Sweet and Maurice Hilleman in 1960 in primary monkey kidney cell cultures being used to grow Sabin OPV. ...
Cytostatics inhibit cell division. In immunotherapy, they are used in smaller doses than in the treatment of malignant diseases ... In this way, it prevents the cell from transitioning from the G0 into G1 phase of the cell cycle. Tacrolimus is more potent ... This lowers the number of available T-cells, perhaps by sensitizing them for the uptake by the epithelial reticular cells. The ... They affect the proliferation of both T cells and B cells. Due to their highest effectiveness, purine analogs are most ...
Steady state economy Nurkse's Balanced Growth economic theory Campbell, Allan (1957-12-01). "SYNCHRONIZATION OF CELL DIVISION ... where some cells are alive and others are dead). Machines like chemostats can be used to culture bacteria and keep them in a ...
Cell division in Tetraspora species has been described. It is noted that prior to mitosis beginning, cells become immotile and ... Asexual division in Tetraspora occurs via mitotic division; the products can be two or four uninucleate daughter cells. In ... Cell division involves elaborate arrangement of microtubules, basal body complexes and involve the use of structures like ... These individual cells are arranged in sets or multiples of four; these could be in the arrangement of four-by-four cells or ...
Szent-Gyoergyi A (July 1965). "Cell-Division and Cancer". Science. 149 (3679): 34-7. Bibcode:1965Sci...149...34S. doi:10.1126/ ... Allen RE, Lo TW, Thornalley PJ (April 1993). "A simplified method for the purification of human red blood cell glyoxalase. I. ... This reaction occurs spontaneously in the cell, without the involvement of the enzyme. This hemithioacetal is then bound by the ... The glyoxalase system has also been suggested to play a role in regulating cell growth and in assembling microtubules. ...
Wadman, Meredith (June 27, 2013). "Medical research: Cell division". Nature. 498 (7455): 422-426. Bibcode:2013Natur.498..422W. ... Descendants of the fibroblast cells from these fetuses have been growing in labs ever since, as the WI-38 and MRC-5 cell lines ... human fetal cells. Since the cell strains in use originate from abortions, there has been opposition to the practice and the ... Fetal cell lines have been used in the manufacture of vaccines since 1930s. One of the first medical applications of fetal ...
Raposo, A. E., & Piller, S. C. (2018). Protein arginine methylation: an emerging regulator of the cell cycle. Cell Division, 13 ... Piller also worked with the John Curtin School of Medical Research, where she became a visiting fellow with their Division of ... 2009). Proteolytic Cleavage of HIV-1 GFP-Vpr Fusions at Novel Sites Within Virions and Living Cells: Concerns for Intracellular ... Extracellular HIV-1 virus protein R causes a large inward current and cell death in cultured.. Proceedings of the National ...
"Cell Biology & Physiology Division". Indian Institute of Chemical Biology. 24 November 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017. " ... chief scientist at the Cell Biology and Physiology Division and as the head of the Project Monitoring and Evaluation Division, ... "Editorial Board Anatomy and Cell Biology". Anatomy and Cell Biology. 24 November 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017. "Editorial ... Cell. Biochem. 389 (1-2): 277-291. doi:10.1007/s11010-013-1951-9. PMID 24374792. S2CID 12998766. Chakraborty J, Nthenge-Ngumbau ...
Molecular Cell. 8 (1): 129-136. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(01)00267-2. ISSN 1097-2765. PMID 11511366. "Cell Division Cycle ... After earning her doctorate, Green moved to the Curie Institute, where she studied DNA damage in human cells as a Marie Curie ... The spike protein, an external protein that enables the virus to enter cells, is responsible for the immune system response. In ... Understanding the process that underpins this replication, and how cells control this replication, allows Green to better ...
Levine, A. (1997). "P53, the Cellular Gatekeeper for Growth and Division". Cell. 88 (3): 323-331. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00) ... It blocks cell progression in response to cellular stress or DNA damage. Many viruses replicate by altering the cell cycle and ... Tumours form in cells when mutations in genes involved in cell cycle control and apoptosis accumulate over time. Most tumours ... This allows the virus to replicate, package its genome, lyse the cell and spread to new cells. This gave rise to the idea that ...
In the human embryo, after about three days, the zygote forms a solid mass of cells by mitotic division, called a morula. This ... Through cell signaling cascades and interactions with the ectodermal and endodermal cells, the mesodermal cells begin the ... Weyers, Wolfgang (2002). 150 Years of cell division. Dermatopathology: Practical & Conceptual, Vol. 8, No. 2. link. Gilbert, ... During the next stage, cleavage, mitotic cell divisions transform the zygote into a hollow ball of cells, a blastula. This ...
"Cell Division Biology - Newcastle University". Retrieved 2020-02-18. FM, Player. "Episode 49 - Dr Viji ... Before the work of Dravian it was known that checkpoint proteins work to limit abnormal cell division, but not clear why ... Her research considers the molecular level mechanisms that underpin cell division. Whilst working at Massachusetts Institute of ... that both the adenomatous polyposis coli and EB1 proteins to support normal cell division. During her time at MIT Dravian ...
Furthermore, acronycin inhibits cell division. Entry on Acridone. at: Römpp Online. Georg Thieme Verlag, retrieved 21 April ...
... is formed from the mitotic spindle and cell division involves the use of this phragmoplast in the production of a cell plate. ... Members of the class Chlorophyceae undergo closed mitosis in the most common form of cell division among the green algae, which ... Haploid algal cells (containing only one copy of their DNA) can fuse with other haploid cells to form diploid zygotes. When ... Pickett-Heaps J (1976). "Cell division in eucaryotic algae". BioScience. 26 (7): 445-450. doi:10.2307/1297481. JSTOR 1297481. P ...
ISBN 978-3-319-43397-4. "Milestone 3". web focus on cell division. nature publishing group. Kiefer, Jürgen, ed. (2004). Life ... "cell-cycle studies have flourished ... the concept was later developed and the checkpoints in cell-cycle regulation and ... creating the concept of the cell cycle. Their nomenclature for the stages of cell replication is used universally and appears ... "The cell cycle concept and its application. A symposium held in memory of Dr. Alma Howard". International Journal of Radiation ...
Cell Division and Colony Formation". Journal of Phycology. 11 (2): 186-202. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.1975.tb02766.x. Staehelin L ... These daughter cells typically link up with other daughter cells to form a colony within the parental cell wall to be later ... The cells at either end of the coenobium are different in morphology from those in the center. How the cells adhere to one ... This threat can be so significant that the cells will coalesce into these 8-cell colonies even in severely limiting growth ...
... is the major component in forming cell membranes, enables smooth cell division and removes harmful substances by binding with ... Deficiency hinders cell division and reproduction. Symptoms first appear on the petiole and veins of older leaves. New leaves ... Phosphoric acid makes up part of the cell nucleus and reproductive system. Phosphoric acid is involved in photo phosphorylation ...
Gabrielle Dunlevy (11 October 2007). "Stem cell vote divides Queensland MPs". The Age. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 28 December ... A division of seats was decided upon for new seats or seats that have never been won by the Coalition. In practice, most LNP ... This division into urban, regional and rural areas was, for most of the twentieth century, reflected in a system of ... As such, the urban-rural divide is not as pronounced in Queensland as in the rest of Australia; in other states, 60% or more of ...
... nucleus and cell division). On the basis of his discoveries, Flemming surmised for the first time that all cell nuclei came ... Flemming investigated the process of cell division and the distribution of chromosomes to the daughter nuclei, a process he ... Lukács (1981). "Walter Flemming, discoverer of chromatin and mitotic cell division". Orvosi Hetilap. 122 (6): 349-50. PMID ... Reprinted in J. Cell Biol. 25:581-589 (1965).[verification needed] Flemming, W. Zur Kenntniss der Zelle und ihrer Theilungs- ...
The sagittal suture 'divides' the coronal suture in two halves; unilateral meaning that either the right side or the left side ... Certain cells in the brain respond specifically to an increase of CO2 in the blood.[4][24] The response involves vasodilatation ... the result of a disturbance in the fine balance that regulates the multiplication and maturation of the precursor bone cells in ...
They divide rapidly and are still capable of internalizing antigens and presenting them to T cells.[4] A cell may stay in this ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...
... perforating the middle lamella but damage to either the plasmalemma or cell walls was not observed.[29] The disease is often ... Division: Ascomycota Class: Leotiomycetes Order: Helotiales Family: Helotiaceae Genus: Hymenoscyphus Species: H. fraxineus ...
The cells met to read Marxist texts and hold self-criticism sessions.[51] Sâr joined a cell that met on the rue Lacepède; his ... the basic societal division remained between the "base" people and the "new" people.[243] It was never Pol Pot and the party's ... They established party cells, emphasising the recruitment of small numbers of dedicated members, and organized political ... a Marxist-Leninist organisation arranged in a clandestine cell system.[50] ...
The] clave pattern has two opposing rhythm cells: the first cell consists of three strokes, or the rhythm cell, which is called ... 4; L=low bell, H=high bell, O = open surdo hit, X = muffled surdo hit, and , divides the measure: *Style: Samba 3:2; LL.L.H.H,L ... The second cell has two strokes and is called the two-side of the weak part of the clave. . . The different accent types in the ... Clave is the basic period, composed of two rhythmically opposed cells, one antecedent and the other consequent.[d][e] Clave was ...
Bax DV, Rodgers UR, Bilek MM, Weiss AS (2009). «Cell adhesion to tropoelastin is mediated via the C-terminal GRKRK motif and ... cell proliferation. •organ morphogenesis. •extracellular matrix organization. •regulation of actin filament polymerization. • ... Bertram C, Hass R (2009). «Cellular senescence of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) is associated with an altered MMP-7/HB- ...
They are a class of cell cycle-specific cytotoxic drugs that work by inhibiting the ability of cancer cells to divide: Acting ... The newer semi-synthetic chemotherapeutic agent vinorelbine is used in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer[7][9] and is ... "Safety and efficacy of vinorelbine in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer". Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology. 5 ... upon tubulin, they prevent it from forming into microtubules, a necessary component for cellular division.[13] The vinca ...
IUPAC's Inorganic Chemistry Division Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances. 70 (1): 237-257. doi:10.1351/ ... The element is known to damage cell membranes of water animals, causing several negative influences on reproduction and on the ... The high radioactivity of lawrencium would make it highly toxic to living cells, causing radiation poisoning. The same is true ... The radioactivity of the actinides generally makes them highly toxic to living cells, causing radiation poisoning. ...
... epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in the stomatal complex; guard cells and subsidiary cells. The epidermal cells are the ... However, these simplified systems allow for further division into multiple subtypes. Simpson,[24] (and others)[54] divides ... Cells that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf.. Phloem. Cells that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose( ... Its cells contain many more chloroplasts than the spongy layer. Cylindrical cells, with the chloroplasts close to the walls of ...
... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... Clark DV, Jahrling PB, Lawler JV (September 2012). "Clinical management of filovirus-infected patients". Viruses. 4 (9): 1668- ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ... liver cells, and several types of immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells are the main targets of ...
Kuklev DV, Smith WL: Synthesis of four isomers of parinaric acid. Chem. Phys. Lipids, 2004, 131. vsk, nro 2, s. 215-22. ... Cornelius AS, Yerram NR, Kratz DA, Spector AA: Cytotoxic effect of cis-parinaric acid in cultured malignant cells. Cancer Res. ...
Therefore, if a person gifted $60,000 and the average monthly cost of a nursing home was $6,000, one would divide $6000 into $ ... T-cell count drops below 200).[76] The Medicaid eligibility policy contrasts with the Journal of the American Medical ... Population Division. December 1, 2017. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved October 18, 2018. Estimated ... sickle cell anemia; sepsis; congestive heart failure; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and complications of devices, ...
Many became exaptations, taking on new functions like participating in cell division, protein routing, and even disease ... Because the cell acquiring a chloroplast already had mitochondria (and peroxisomes, and a cell membrane for secretion), the new ... and therefore topologically outside of the cell, because to reach the chloroplast from the cytosol, you have to cross the cell ... "The Plant Cell. 12 (1): 53-64. doi:10.1105/tpc.12.1.53. PMC 140214. PMID 10634907.. ...
Low operating voltages compatible with batteries of only a few cells.. *Circuits with greater energy efficiency are usually ... Produced as a joint venture between the Regency Division of Industrial Development Engineering Associates, I.D.E.A. and Texas ... Solaristor (from solar cell transistor), a two-terminal gate-less self-powered phototransistor. ... AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-8144-7190-6. .. ...
... and Th1 cells.[45] IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ... Division. p. 2. ISBN 978-0071440196. .. *^ Hoeger PH, Irvine AD, Yan AC (2011). "Chapter 79: Acne". Harper's Textbook of ... and accumulation of skin cells in the hair follicle.[1] In healthy skin, the skin cells that have died come up to the surface ... the increased production of oily sebum causes the dead skin cells to stick together.[10] The accumulation of dead skin cell ...
In medicine, this era brought innovations such as open-heart surgery and later stem cell therapy along with new medications and ... National Research Council; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Energy Engineering Board; Commission on Engineering ...
The formation of the ascospores occurs through the conjugation of the haploid cells preceding the formation of the ascus.[8] ... the yeast cells appear globose, ellipsoidal or cylindrical, 2-6 x 3-11 μm in size.[6] In a glucose-yeast extract broth, K. ... Alternatively, ascosporogensis can arise directly from diploid cells.[8] Each ascus contains 1-4 ascospores.[8] The ploidy of K ...
The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting ... The eggs have large yolks; cleavage (division) is superficial and a germinal disc develops at the pole. During gastrulation, ... Other colour-changing cells are reflective iridophores and white leucophores.[93] This colour-changing ability is also used to ... The lens is suspended behind the pupil and photoreceptive retinal cells cover the back of the eye. The pupil can be adjusted in ...
Swarmer cells differentiate into stalked cells after a short period of motility. Chromosome replication and cell division only ... TipN localizes to the new pole in both daughter cells after division and relocalizes to the cell division site in the late ... Caulobacter is an important model organism for studying the regulation of the cell cycle, asymmetric cell division, and ... The formation of new cell poles at division implies that cell polarity must be re-established in the stalked progeny and ...
... "decapentaplegic is essential for the maintenance and division of germline stem cells in the Drosophila ovary". Cell 94 (2): 251 ... Lindvall O (2003). "Stem cells for cell therapy in Parkinson's disease". Pharmacol Res 47 (4): 279-87. PMID 12644384. ... "Researchers find new method for turning adult cells into stem cells". Amherst Daily News. Canadian Press. 2009-01-03. Vaadatud ... California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Tumor Cells Become Drug Resistant by Reverting to a Stem Cell-Like State, New ...
Tange also enrolled in the film division at Nihon University's art department to dodge Japan's drafting of young men to its ... In his speech he used words such as "cell" and "metabolism" in relation to urban design. The Metabolist movement grew out of ...
The first uncovered and excavated was to the north of A division and was built of bluestone in the 1850s. The circular design, ... Cells of Pentridge Prison. The prison was split into many divisions, named using letters of the alphabet. ... Ryan was hanged in "D" Division at 8.00 on 3 February 1967 after being convicted of the shooting death of a prison officer ... The footings of the first panopticon that was excavated and uncovered is located to the north of A Division and remains ...
... discovered by Paul Ehrlich in 1908 after he observed that bacteria took up toxic dyes that human cells did not. The first major ... anesthesiology is part of the division of surgery (for historical and logistical reasons), although it is not a surgical ...
Several cells may live together, forming filaments (or colonies). Andres 09:28, 11 Aug 2004 (UTC). *If someone knows more (or ... DIV ( (talk) 01:44, 14 December 2017 (UTC)). BacteriaEdit. I think this should be changed to Cyanoprokaryote(s). ... In a colony, a term quite loosely defined, the cells are stuck together due to the extracellular polysacharides, whereas in ... the nitrogen-fixing protein complex may be packaged into specialized cells called heterocysts." Aren't bacteria single-celled? ...
They saw bursts throughout the lifetime of the cell cultures, beginning at 4-7 days in vitro (DIV) and continuing until culture ... One study, however, did make use of human neural stem cells grown into a network to control a robotic actuator. These cells ... Harvesting neural stem cells requires sacrificing the developing fetus, a process considered too costly to perform on many ... Like most cell cultures, neuron cultures are highly susceptible to infection. They are also susceptible to hyperosmolality from ...
Multiple tornadoes produced by the same storm cell are referred to as a "tornado family".[21] Several tornadoes are sometimes ... "Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. National Oceanic and Atmospheric ... Tornadic storms do not contain more lightning than other storms and some tornadic cells never produce lightning at all. More ... Climate Services and Monitoring Division (2006-08-17). "Tornado Myths, Facts, and Safety". National Climatic Data Center. ...
"The Resurrection of Cell and Frieza" / "The Villains Of Hell!! The Revival of Cell and Frieza". Transcription: "Jigoku no ... Goku is forced to enter the Junior Division, since he is a child again; when he asks Mr. Satan about this, he states it is ... Cell and Frieza show up, and now that he's trapped in hell, he has no choice but to fight them. ... He says that there is a single cell on the chest of the robot, and that hitting it with simultaneous blasts from the inside and ...
The generative cell in the pollen grain divides into two haploid sperm cells by mitosis leading to the development of the ... Then, the first tracheids of the transition zone are formed, where the radial size of cells and thickness of their cell walls ... At fertilization, one of the sperm cells unites its haploid nucleus with the haploid nucleus of an egg cell. The female cone ... The division name Pinophyta conforms to the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) ...
... and participate in the NCAA's Division I in all sports (Division I FBS in football) and the Big Ten Conference in most sports ... engineering students and engineers from the Ford Motor Company and will seek to break the land speed record for hydrogen cell ... Ohio State athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are known as the Ohio State Buckeyes. As of the 2016 Summer ...
The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... Managing Urban Deer in Connecticut (2nd ed.). Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection - Wildlife Division. June 2007 ... However, PCR tests are susceptible to false positive results, e.g. by detection of debris of dead Borrelia cells or specimen ... 2010). "Chapter 6, Structure, Function and Biogenesis of the Borrelia Cell Envelope". Borrelia: Molecular Biology, Host ...
When cells divide, two daughter cells are produced from one mother cell. Each new cell has exactly the same genetic material ( ... Cell Division Cell division is the basis of life itself; it is how animals grow and reproduce. ... Cell division. Cell division is the process by which a single living cell splits to become two cells. All cells divide at some ... Cell Division Animal Sciences COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Cell Division. Cell division is the basis of life itself; it ...
... everything you need for studying or teaching Cell division. ... Immediately download the Cell division summary, chapter-by- ... Cell Division Cell division is the basis of life itself; it is how animals grow and reproduce. When cells divide, two daughter ... Cell Division Cell division is the process where a single living cell splits to become two or more distinct new cells. All ... Cell Division Cell division is the process by which an organism grows or replaces damaged tissue. The growth of a fertilized ...
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually occurs as ... Also, the pattern of cell division that transforms eukaryotic stem cells into gametes (sperm cells in males or egg cells in ... Multicellular organisms replace worn-out cells through cell division. In some animals, however, cell division eventually halts ... Binary fission Cell biology Cell fusion gametic fusion Cell growth Cyclin-dependent kinase Labile cells, cells that constantly ...
Newly Found Filaments Inside Cells Might Be the Key to How They Divide. Biologists have studied cell division for decades, yet ... Cells Cant Divide And Invade At The Same Time. And that could lead to a totally new strategy in combatting cancer ... the mechanics of how cells physically separate from one another have remained … Continued ...
cell division The process resulting in division and partitioning of components of a cell to form more cells; may or may not be ... Abnormal-number-cell-division-of-human-thyroid-anaplastic-carcinoma-cell-line-SW-1736-mmc1.ogv 15 s, 512 × 512; 1.24 MB. ... The process resulting in division and partitioning of components of a cell to form more cells; may or may not be accompanied by ... A-distributed-cell-division-counter-reveals-growth-dynamics-in-the-gut-microbiota-ncomms10039-s2.ogv 6.2 s, 623 × 623; 5.62 MB ...
Cell division orientation is the direction along which the new daughter cells are formed. Cell division orientation is ... Along with cell shape changes, cell rearrangements, apoptosis and growth, oriented cell division modifies the geometry and ... Factors that influence cell division orientation are cell shape, anisotropic localization of specific proteins and mechanical ... More than a century ago Oskar Hertwig proposed that the cell division orientation is determined by the shape of the cell (1884 ...
... an enzyme that disentangles DNA molecules and is essential for proper cell division. ... The study published in the Journal of Cell Biology describes how Topo 2, ... Unraveling cell division. Center for Genomic Regulation. Journal. Journal of Cell Biology. Funder. European Comission, European ... The correct functioning of cell division is key to the survival of every cell and, by extension, of all living beings. ...
... fundamental discoveries that have a great impact on all aspects of cell growth and may open new ways to treat cancer ... This protein is formed and broken down during the course of the cell cycle and is a key overall control mechanism of the cell ... Hartwell was recognized for his discovery of more than 100 genes that regulate the cell cycle in which a single cell grows, ... duplicates the DNA in its nucleus and then divides, leaving two new cells to begin the cycle again. ...
... phase of how cells divide. Errors in cell division can cause mutations that lead to cancer, and this study could shed light on ... equal division of genetic material between two daughter cells of cell division. They also found that this interaction is ... In cell division "" the creation of two daughter cells from one -- it is the doubled chromosomes that are piled in the middle ... The cell condenses the chromosomes, arranges them at the midpoint of the dividing cell, sends half to either end of the cell, ...
This paper shows that changes in stem cell orientation within the niche during ageing contribute to the decline in spermatog… ... Asymmetric division of adult stem cells generates one self-renewing stem cell and one differentiating cell, thereby maintaining ... Asymmetric division of adult stem cells generates one self-renewing stem cell and one differentiating cell, thereby maintaining ... Normally, germ-cell centrosomes are precisely oriented within their niche and asymmetric stem cell division is assured. The ...
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually occurs as ... Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually occurs as ... In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically ... In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically ...
... the division rate increases steeply with cell size for small cells, and saturates for larger cells. Importantly, (iv) the ... the relevant properties of cell division control are all contained in the division rate hd. The model assumes that at cell ... 4A) indicates that cells of equal size modulate their division rate hd based on the time t spent in the cell cycle, and this ... 1969) Cell growth and division. IV. Determination of volume growth rate and division probability. Biophys J 9(2):246-263. ...
That would tip the scales in favour of his cell-division model. "Three large planets spiralling inside the star, and all of ... splitting into daughter worlds in a process reminiscent of cell division. ...
The length of the cell cycle can be controlled, and data related to the number of cells present and their current phase can be ... The cells will go through the steps of interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis. ... Begin with a single cell and watch as mitosis and cell division occurs. ... Begin with a single cell and watch as mitosis and cell division occurs. The cells will go through the steps of interphase, ...
Human Egg Cell Division 3D Model available on Turbo Squid, the worlds leading provider of digital 3D models for visualization ... cell division cells science mitosis dividing egg 3d vintage stem nucleus biology zygote illustration black research membrane ...
... by ramyb $19.00 In Stock Apparel & Accessories $19.00 USD false 1 ... Well, wheat does, and oats, but does that look like an oat cell? We figure and oat cell would have a big whiskery Wilford ... A wolverine has 42 chromosomes, but if this was supposed to be a wolverine cell, do you really think one of our artists could ... We all learned in our Biology classes about mitosis and meiosis and chromosomes and the way cells change from one thing to the ...
... by ramyb $19.00 In Stock Apparel & Accessories $19.00 USD false 1 ... laughalot shows his nerdy, Cells are the only things that can divide and multiply at the same time!" ... laughalot shows his nerdy, Cells are the only things that can divide and multiply at the same time!" ... Well, wheat does, and oats, but does that look like an oat cell? We figure and oat cell would have a big whiskery Wilford ...
... uncovered a mechanism that allows a protein complex to bind to DNA without impeding some of the important processes of cell ... division. Their findings could further understandings of developmental disorders arising from mutations in the gene that codes ... Cohesin opens up for cell division. Nagoya University. Journal. Cell Reports. Funder. JSPS, JST-PRESTO, Naito Foundation. ... DNA condenses during cell division to form structures called chromosomes that are formed of two identical copies, called sister ...
Differentiation of the bacterial cell division site.. Cook WR1, de Boer PA, Rothfield LI. ...
A pathway involved in asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, ces-1 Snail ... Cell cycle and cell division Is the Subject Area "Cell cycle and cell division" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Cell division is synonymous with life.. The mystery of how a cell knows when to divide and when to cease division is one of the ... at least a trillion cells divide. White blood cells proliferate into fresh legions of T cells, B cells, macrophages and other ... The hormones would prompt a cell to divide by linking to receptors, proteins studding the surface of the cell that are designed ... How then could it know the difference between a quiet cell, a dividing cell, or a cell somewhere in between? Two Proteins Must ...
Learn more about what happens to cells during each of these processes. ... There are two types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis. ... How do cells divide?. *How do genes control the growth and ... "cell division," they mean mitosis, the process of making new body cells. Meiosis is the type of cell division that creates egg ... The other type of cell division, meiosis, ensures that humans have the same number of chromosomes in each generation. It is a ...
Johns Hopkins scientists have discovered that a deceptively simple sugar is in fact a critical regulator of cells natural life ... The comings and goings of the sugar on proteins seem to be important controllers of cell division, say the researchers. ... and found at locations important for various steps in cell division to figure out why an imbalance of O-GlcNAc on the cells ... this process could contribute to cancer or other diseases by failing to properly control the steps and timing of cell division ...
... encoding the central organizer of cell division that directs cell wall synthesis in the division septum. These Gram-negative ... Division without Binary Fission: Cell Division in the FtsZ-Less Chlamydia Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular bacterial ... Regulation of Cell Division in Bacteria by Monitoring Genome Integrity and DNA Replication Status All organisms regulate cell ... Chlamydiae divide by a unique MreB-dependent polarized cell division process. In this study, we investigated unique properties ...
Cell division is the process whereby the two daughter cells are separated. It is striking that these cell division proteins are ... Archaea »Division »ESCRT »HIV »NWO »PNAS »Protein »Sulfolobus acidocaldarius »acidocaldarius »cell division »discovered » ... not related to other proteins known to be involved in cell division. Some of the proteins in the new type of cell division are ... A Swedish research group, partly financed by NWO, has discovered a new mechanism for cell division in a microorganism found in ...
Two 18 x 24 charts detail mitotic and meiotic cell division in both plants and animals. Mitosis features color illustrations ... Two 18 x 24" charts detail mitotic and meiotic cell division in both plants and animals. Mitosis features color illustrations ... Two 18 x 24" charts detail mitotic and meiotic cell division in both plants and animals. Mitosis features color illustrations ... Cell Division Charts. 3 Items *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-4.0.0 ... Carolina plants are a great tool for teaching cell respiration ...
... cell division , cellular mechanism , communication process , human cell , synthetic biology , systems biology of mitosis ... He has received a number of awards for his research on cell division, including the EMBO Young Investigator Award, the Novartis ... multi-national research effort that aims to deepen our understanding of how cells divide. To make this project more accessible ... Further reports about: , IMP , Merit Award , MitoSys , Mitocheck , Molecular Target , Molecular machines , Pathology , cell ...
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.[1] Cell division usually occurs as ... Also, the pattern of cell division that transforms eukaryotic stem cells into gametes (sperm cells in males or egg cells in ... Multicellular organisms replace worn-out cells through cell division. In some animals, however, cell division eventually halts ... How Cells Divide: Mitosis vs. Meiosis. *The Mitosis and Cell Cycle Control Section from the Landmark Papers in Cell Biology ( ...
CDC25C cell division cycle 25C [Homo sapiens] CDC25C cell division cycle 25C [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:995 ... Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystemThe cell cycle is the series of events that takes place in a cell leading to its ... They activate the cell division kinases throughout the cell cycle progression. Cdc25 phosphatases dephosphorylate ... They activate the cell division kinases throughout the cell cycle progression. Cdc25 phosphatases dephosphorylate ...
Reminder Cell phone allowances are being paid over 2 payroll cycles not one payroll cycle as they have been in the past. ... Division of Finance Cell Phone Reimbursement. Reminder Cell phone allowances are being paid over 2 payroll cycles not one ... Cell Phone Reimbursement Employees seeking approval for a cell phone reimbursement are required to complete the Cell Phone ... University-owned cell phone plans are provided by exception only where a health, safety, or regulatory justification can be ...
  • Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell, pulled there by microtubules. (
  • At the end of anaphase, there is one complete set of chromosomes on each side of the cell and the sets are identical. (
  • a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a reproductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half to produce haploid gametes (meiosis). (
  • In cell biology, mitosis (/maɪˈtoʊsɪs/) is a part of the cell cycle, in which, replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei. (
  • Cell division gives rise to genetically identical cells in which the total number of chromosomes is maintained. (
  • Homologous chromosomes are separated in the first division, and sister chromatids are separated in the second division. (
  • Before division can occur, the genomic information that is stored in chromosomes must be replicated, and the duplicated genome must be separated cleanly between cells. (
  • Forms of mitosis (of karyokinesis step) in eukaryotes closed intranuclear pleuromitosis closed extranuclear pleuromitosis closed orthomitosis semiopen pleuromitosis semiopen orthomitosis open orthomitosis In mitotic metaphase (see below), typically the chromosomes (each with 2 sister chromatid that they developed due to replication in the S phase of interphase) arranged and sister chromatids split and distributed towards daughter cells. (
  • In meiosis, typically in Meiosis-I the homologous chromosomes are paired and then separated and distributed into daughter cells. (
  • When a cell prepares to divide, it duplicates its DNA and compacts it into pairs of identical chromosomes. (
  • Topo 2 is, therefore, a molecule responsible for cutting DNA knots between replicated DNA molecules, untangling the pairs of chromosomes and closing up the cuts afterwards, so that each member of the pair of chromosomes can migrate to the opposite side of the cell as it splits in half. (
  • In principle, if the number of entanglements between the chromosomes in each cell is the same, independently of whether the chromosomes are long or short, then the time Topo2 needs to untwine them should always be the same too. (
  • However, they have found that in cells with chromosomes that are longer than normal, Topo2 needs an extra amount of "help" to undo the knots, suggesting it has to be active for longer. (
  • The microtubules are anchored to the chromosomes at a precise point (the centromere) and pull them apart so that one copy goes to each side of the cell. (
  • In cell division "" the creation of two daughter cells from one -- it is the doubled chromosomes that are piled in the middle to be sorted. (
  • The cell condenses the chromosomes, arranges them at the midpoint of the dividing cell, sends half to either end of the cell, and then forms a new cell membrane around each pool. (
  • Anaphase is the step in cellular division during which the chromosomes physically separate and are dragged to either end of the cell. (
  • From fixed points called spindle poles, at either end of the cell, microtubules extend towards the midline of the cell, some capturing and positioning chromosomes at the midline, others reaching further to overlap with microtubules originating from the other side of the cell. (
  • According to Tran, the findings have potential implications for cancer biology, in that inappropriate chromosomal segregation can lead to aneuploidies (cells lacking the proper number of chromosomes), which is a hallmark of many cancers. (
  • Work from the laboratory of Andrew Holland shows how a healthy cell quickly lines up its chromosomes in the middle and then pulls them apart into what will become two new cells after division is complete. (
  • We all learned in our Biology classes about mitosis and meiosis and chromosomes and the way cells change from one thing to the other and all that. (
  • A wolverine has 42 chromosomes, but if this was supposed to be a wolverine cell, do you really think one of our artists could resist making little claws, or at the very least yellow and blue glasses? (
  • DNA condenses during cell division to form structures called chromosomes that are formed of two identical copies, called sister chromatids. (
  • Biologists believe they are close to a deep understanding of the cell cycle, the intricate dance that begins when a cell awakens from its normal state of rest and glissades with balletic precision through the replication of its chromosomes and the apportioning of them into two progeny cells. (
  • During mitosis, a cell duplicates all of its contents, including its chromosomes, and splits to form two identical daughter cells. (
  • The other type of cell division, meiosis, ensures that humans have the same number of chromosomes in each generation. (
  • When the sperm and egg cells unite at conception, each contributes 23 chromosomes so the resulting embryo will have the usual 46. (
  • Failure to resolve dimeric chromosomes can lead to cell division defects in a percentage of the cell population. (
  • However, mitosis is the process whereby the chromosomes are distributed between the two daughter cells. (
  • Meiosis is a type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in the parent cell. (
  • Chromosomes begin to migrate to cell equator. (
  • Captivated by this process while a graduate student in biology, Cheeseman began focusing on the kinetochore, a key structure that helps to divvy up DNA molecules shortly before cells divide, ensuring that each daughter cell receives a proper set of chromosomes and the genetic material they contain. (
  • The type of cell division, which occurs in the ovaries and testes, to produce cells with a haploid number of chromosomes. (
  • The part of a cell that controls the cell function and contains the chromosomes. (
  • Division of a cell nucleus which results in each daughter cell having the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. (
  • Meiosis results in daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell. (
  • Eukaryotic cells divide by separating the duplicated chromosomes, through movements directed by microtubles. (
  • Then hollow rods of protein - microtubules composed of a cellular structure called the spindle apparatus - grab onto the chromosomes and essentially pull each set away from the center in opposite directions, ensuring that each cell receives a full copy of the genetic material. (
  • Typically, in the cells of fungi, plants and many animals, one or more microtubules attach to each chromosome before the spindle separates the sets of chromosomes from one another. (
  • Instead, they discovered a cell with fewer microtubules used than chromosomes. (
  • The investigators located the smallest known eukaryote, Ostreococcus tauri , a cell with 20 chromosomes, and imaged it with ECT. (
  • The fact that tumor cells often have abnormal numbers of chromosomes supports this theory, and two papers published by Harvard Medical School researchers provide new, more direct evidence to support this. (
  • Cell division is controlled by telomeres found at the ends of chromosomes. (
  • The cell division cannot be indefinite and is controlled by the telomere that sits at the ends of chromosomes. (
  • It was seen that the telomerase unit is incomplete during the genome duplication process and forms the complete unit at the end, replenishing the eroding chromosomes for further cell division. (
  • At the end of anaphase, each pole has a complete set of chromosomes, the same number of chromosomes as the original cell. (
  • When cells divide, a spindle-like structure composed of thousands of filaments called microtubules attaches to chromosomes and pulls equal numbers of them into each newly forming cell. (
  • Branching microtubule nucleation, in which a new microtubule forms from the side of an existing one, is crucial to this process because it allows the cell to form large numbers of microtubules that all point toward chromosomes, enabling their capture by the spindle. (
  • Processes at work inside the cell somehow ensure that enough of every required part makes it into both daughter cells, whether it is a complete set of chromosomes, at least one each of every organelle (in eukaryotic cells), and thousands of required proteins. (
  • When a cell divides, the genetic information in the chromosomes must be passed on error-free to the daughter cells. (
  • The chromosomes are separated and distributed to the daughter cells with the help of a spindle apparatus. (
  • How do cells package long, tangled strands of chromosomes into tightly compact structures before cell division. (
  • So the cell has to figure out a way to shorten the chromosomes in order to create structures that are the right sort of size to line-up in the middle of the cell and be partitioned equally between the two daughter cells. (
  • In Cell Division I: The Cell Cycle , we learned that Flemming observed how chromosomes became visible in patterns that repeated each time the cells of fire salamanders divided. (
  • When he observed cell division in the fire salamander embryos, he saw the same pattern of events occur in each cell, beginning with the appearance of visible chromosomes. (
  • Scientists have previously used such egg extracts to reconstitute microtubule-based structures called mitotic spindles that align chromosomes properly in preparation for cell division . (
  • Nanowerk News ) Canadian and British researchers have discovered that chromosomes play an active role in animal cell division. (
  • In animal cells, division involves mitosis, the separation of chromosomes followed by splitting of the cell into two new daughter cells by cytokinesis. (
  • It is well known that microscopic cable-like structures, called microtubules, were involved in pulling chromosomes to opposite poles of the cell during the division process. (
  • At this time, microtubules physically separate the chromosomes via their central kinetochores while other microtubules signal to the cortex of the cell where its equator is, i.e., where division will take place, Hickson explained. (
  • Initially working with the cells of fruit flies using powerful genetic tools and sophisticated microscopy, the research team discovered that chromosomes emit signals that influence the cortex of the cell to reinforce microtubule action. (
  • When chromosomes are segregated, they approach the membrane at the poles of the cell, and thanks to this enzyme s actions, this contributes to the softening of the polar membrane, facilitating the elongation of the cell and the ensuing division that occurs at the equator. (
  • Found at the ends of chromosomes, telomerase allows cells to divide but degrades over time. (
  • The cell is actually split in two in a process called cytokinesis, in which the cellular membrane is pinched in the middle like a balloon squeezed in the center. (
  • Cytokinesis then divides the rest of the cell, and two identical cells result. (
  • And this is what the cell does using Topo 2", explains Manuel Mendoza, head of the Coordination of Cytokinesis with Chromosome Segregation group at the CRG. (
  • Bacterial cell division is essential and requires the recruitment and regulation of a complex network of proteins needed to initiate and guide constriction and cytokinesis. (
  • Interphase is the process a cell must go through before mitosis, meiosis, and cytokinesis . (
  • After the cell proceeds successfully through the M phase, it may then undergo cell division through cytokinesis. (
  • At the peak of the cyclin attached to the cyclin dependent kinases this system pushes the cell out of interphase and into the M phase, where mitosis, meiosis, and cytokinesis occur. (
  • Mitosis is specifically the division happening of the nucleus whereas cytokinesis follows to do the actual splitting of the cell (mentioned at 7:30 ). (
  • Mitosis and cytokinesis, the period of active cell division, is followed by a period of non-division known as interphase. (
  • Cytokinesis , the physical separation of the cell, occurs immediately. (
  • In particular, disabling peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis proteins or penicillin binding proteins (PBP) just before division stops cytokinesis ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • Nuclear division divides the genetic material in the nucleus, while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm. (
  • Simultaneously, cytokinesis occurs, dividing the cytoplasm into two cells. (
  • This led Flemming to discover the cell process that we call mitosis: division of the eukaryotic cell nucleus that occurs just prior to cytokinesis , which is the division of the cell itself. (
  • Both the cell-free egg extract system and embryos recruit critical signaling molecules necessary for cytokinesis signaling. (
  • The name given to this process by those early biologists, cytokinesis, translates as "cell movement" and captures the sense of a highly active and organized series of events. (
  • Now Harvard Medical School systems biologists report in Science that they have reconstituted cytokinesis-complete with signals that direct molecular traffic-without the cell. (
  • Quickly removing and returning proteins to see how changes in the molecular players affect cytokinesis is impossible when the cell is whole, but easy when the cellular innards are spread out on a microscope slide. (
  • The key challenge, though, was that the behavior of cytokinesis is entirely dependent on having a membrane to furrow-and membranes are exactly what have to be removed to make the system cell-free. (
  • To really prove that we reconstituted the cytokinesis signal, we needed to add the bilayer membrane and then see if it could recruit the proteins that would be on the cortex of the cell," Field said about the specialized layer beneath the cell membrane. (
  • This occurs at a precise stage cytokinesis when the cell splits into two new daughter cells. (
  • Division is a complex and robust process that is generally performed flawlessly, but when an error occurs in DNA separation or during cytokinesis, it can be a source for triggering cancer, for example, said Hickson. (
  • Before cell division takes place, the entire genome (the genetic material) has been copied, and there are now two complete copies in the cell nucleus. (
  • The nucleus always divides before the rest of the cell divides. (
  • Hartwell was recognized for his discovery of more than 100 genes that regulate the cell cycle in which a single cell grows, duplicates the DNA in its nucleus and then divides, leaving two new cells to begin the cycle again. (
  • Cells with more than one nucleus can survive, but they are dysregulated -- things just don't go right," says Slawson. (
  • Instead of being disseminated fairly uniformly through the entire nucleus, the genetic material of these cells was bunched up, giving the contents of the nucleus a "wrinkly" appearance. (
  • To be specific, it's a division happening within the cell - in the nucleus. (
  • Specifically, mitosis is the phase of cell division in which the nucleus, which holds all of the cell's genetic material, divides to form two new cells, each with a full complement of genes. (
  • They are in the nucleus of every human cell. (
  • A distinct part of the cell, such as the nucleus, ribosome or mitochondrion, which has structure and function. (
  • The basic unit from which all living organisms are built up, consisting of a cell membrane surrounding cytoplasm and a nucleus. (
  • This is a sequence of events including the replication of the DNA and the cell organelles prior to cell division, the division of the nucleus and the subsequent division of the cytoplasm with all its contents. (
  • The division of the nucleus takes place as part in a sequence of events known as the cell cycle. (
  • They contain non-membranous organelles, lack a cell nucleus , and have a simplistic genome: only one circular chromosome of limited size. (
  • The division of the nucleus, separating the duplicated genome into two sets identical to the parent's. (
  • The division of the nucleus in sex cells, making one cell into four sex cells identical to the parent sex cell. (
  • as the life cycle goes on, the nucleus replicates and each of the two nuclei move to opposite ends of the cell. (
  • High-resolution 3-D imaging of a cell's nucleus undergoing cell division is now possible, thanks to a combination of plunge-freezing and a new method of sample slicing. (
  • Diagram showing the change which occur in the centrosomes and nucleus of a cell n the process of mitotic division (mitosis). (
  • Mitosis divides the nucleus so that both daughter cells are genetically identical. (
  • When a cell is not dividing, the chromatin is enclosed within a clearly defined nuclear envelope, one or more nucleoli are visible within the nucleus, and two centrosomes (each containing two centrioles) lie adjacent to one another outside the nuclear envelope. (
  • One way of thinking about this is if the cell nucleus was the size of a tennis ball, the length of the DNA in the largest chromosome would span 40 tennis courts! (
  • When DNA is replicated before the cell divides, each chromosome has two identical copies of DNA called sister chromatids. (
  • Errors in cell division can cause mutations that lead to cancer, and this study could shed light on the role of chromosome abnormalities in uncontrolled cell replication. (
  • Additionally, the scientists found that this ring needs to open for two other processes to occur: one involving chromosome segregation during cell division and another involving the formation of DNA loops. (
  • It is a two-step process that reduces the chromosome number by half-from 46 to 23-to form sperm and egg cells. (
  • Once the whole chromosome has been replicated, these three proteins form a band-like structure over the cell equator. (
  • Cell division involves mechanical processes, such as chromosome transport and centrosome separation. (
  • 2) Our video is intended to focus on animal cells (as drawn) - specifically human cells - as we use human chromosome numbers. (
  • During meiosis, the genetic material replicates and is divided between daughter cells so that each gamete contains a single copy of each chromosome instead of two copies. (
  • Most eukaryotic cells have 2 copies of every chromosome. (
  • Early during cell division, each chromosome is duplicated and split into two identical copies known as chromatids, which must be sorted and organized to ensure that new cells receive a single copy of each chromosome. (
  • The chromosome is duplicated prior to division. (
  • Cells stop dividing because the telomeres , protective bits of DNA on the end of a chromosome , become shorter with each division and eventually can no longer protect the chromosome. (
  • In order to replicate its entire DNA, that is to say nearly 6.4 billion pairs of nucleotides in just a few hours, the cell organizes the preparation of this process at thousands of sites on each chromosome simultaneously. (
  • A complete chromosome set must be apportioned to each daughter cell during cell division. (
  • Phosphorylation of the chromatin protein histone H2A plays a critical role in chromosome segregation during cell division. (
  • It appears that cells lacking pericentrin have abnormal chromosome segregation, which leads, in some fraction of cells, to arrest of the cell cycle and possibly cell death. (
  • Although the cell's chromosome-containing nuclei divided normally, the cells themselves didn't divide, resulting in too many nuclei per cell - a condition known as polyploidy that's exhibited by many cancer cells. (
  • Now researchers from the European Molecular Biology Laboratory for the first time tracked chromosome condensation in mammalian cells over the entire course of cell division. (
  • In this week's advanced online publication of Nature Cell Biology they report crucial new insights into timing, function and molecular basis of chromosome condensation. (
  • Several other proteins are involved in different steps of the cell division process such as site selection (Min proteins, Noc, SlmA) and chromosome segregation (Smc proteins) (for review see Goehring and Beckwith, 2005). (
  • Somatic cells (all body cells except eggs and sperm) are diploid cells because each cell contains two copies of every chromosome. (
  • It is a huge challenge to divide these long tangled chromosome strands correctly. (
  • In biochemical experiments where you look at an average of what is going on in all cells of a population, that synchrony meant we could see every step along the pathway of chromosome formation. (
  • Trends in Cell Biology. (
  • Nature Cell Biology. (
  • Work published today in the Journal of Cell Biology and carried out by a team of researchers from the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) sheds new and revealing light on this complex mechanism. (
  • The decisional process controlling cell division is a long-standing question in biology, but the answers were traditionally hindered by limited statistics on single cells. (
  • The coordination of cell growth and division is a long-standing problem in biology. (
  • The mystery of how a cell knows when to divide and when to cease division is one of the fundamental puzzles of biology. (
  • He studied Biology in Kiel and Heidelberg and in 1991 obtained his PhD in Cell Biology. (
  • Research areas include cell and molecular biology, neurobiology, disease mechanisms and computational biology. (
  • To answer these questions, I use a combination of genetics, cell biology, proteomics and microscopy techniques. (
  • Cell division is one of the most fundamental aspects of biology, the process that makes life," says Iain Cheeseman, PhD. "And it has an intrinsic beauty. (
  • Your submission to Division of Anatomy and Cell Biology has been sent. (
  • Rush University / Division of Anatomy and Cell Biology is located in Chicago, IL, in an urban setting. (
  • A team of scientists, led by Dr Stephen Royle, associate professor and senior Cancer Research UK Fellow at the division of biomedical cell biology at Warwick Medical School, found this latest evidence that is a pointer towards a nostrum for cancer. (
  • We wanted to understand why numerous mutations accumulate in cells with activated oncogenes," said Thanos Halazonetis, Professor at the Department of Molecular Biology of the UNIGE Faculty of Science. (
  • The course will also include some aspects of bacterial genetics and physiology, immune response to infection, and the cell biology of host-parasite interactions. (
  • This course will introduce students to key concepts in genetic analysis, eukaryotic cell biology, and state-of-the-art approaches in genomic medicine. (
  • Prerequisite courses will have introduced students to the concepts of cells, the central dogma of molecular biology, and gene regulation. (
  • Molecular biology and biochemical processes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and their viruses. (
  • This course will be of great interest to all students who wish to pursue a career in the sciences, medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biology or biodiversity or the individual learner who simply wants to learn more about mitosis, meiosis and their role in cell division and replication. (
  • To better understand the mechanism of branching microtubule nucleation, we set out to reconstitute the process outside of the cell using purified proteins," said Sabine Petry, PhD, assistant professor of molecular biology at Princeton. (
  • Silke Hauf and Boris Macek combined their respective expertise in cell biology and proteomics to obtain an overview of the range of proteins that are altered by the Aurora enzymes. (
  • The study, published in The Journal of Cell Biology, focuses on the development of the sperm tail, the structure that enables sperm cells to swim and is therefore critical for male fertility. (
  • The last stage, when two daughter cells split from each other, has fascinated scientists since the dawn of cell biology in the Victorian era. (
  • We really built what goes on in the cell," said Timothy Mitchison, the Hasib Sabbagh Professor of Systems Biology at HMS. (
  • This is important because cell division is so central to life, and to certain diseases, said Hickson, who has devoted the last 15 years of his research life to cell biology. (
  • The new findings from the researchers in Sweden and the U.K. were published in Cell Chemical Biology. (
  • We contribute expertise in molecular and cell biology, molecular structure and molecular cell imaging. (
  • Recently, we have made several new appointments of young PIs to strengthen our research in cell motility, structural biology, cell imaging and muscle signalling. (
  • His lab currently focuses on the essential coordination of activities on either side of the cell membrane during bacterial cell division in Gram positive model organisms and pathogens, using structural biology and biochemistry approaches. (
  • This phase in the cell cycle is called interphase. (
  • [9] There are checkpoints during interphase that allow the cell to be either advance or halt further development. (
  • As the amount of cyclin increases, more and more cyclin dependent kinases attach to cyclin signaling the cell further into interphase. (
  • Explain how interphase prepares a cell for mitosis. (
  • These features are characteristic of interphase, the nondividing but metabolically active period of the cell cycle (Figure 1). (
  • Once mitosis is completed and interphase begins, the cell begins a period of growth. (
  • Named Mitotic Cell Atlas , the model uses 4D image data to demonstrate the changes that occur in human cells during the 5 mitotic phases: the interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. (
  • which divides the cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane of one cell into two new cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. (
  • may or may not be accompanied by the physical separation of a cell into distinct, individually membrane-bounded daughter cells. (
  • Microneedle-based micromanipulation can be a useful technique to examine cellular scale mechanics, but its use has been restricted by the difficulty in getting probes to penetrate the plasma membrane without disrupting cell physiology. (
  • What kind of molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily? (
  • The type of molecules that pass most readily through a cell membrane are nonpolar molecules, such as water, oxygen, carbon dioxide and fatty substrates. (
  • The outer membrane furrows and seems to pinch in, but ultimately does not close itself off to form two complete cells. (
  • The red outer membrane is complete around each new cell, while the green midbody still remains between them. (
  • published recently in the electronic journal eLife, has revealed that in the sea squirt embryo, the orientation of the cell division machinery in epithelial cells is controlled by a unique cell membrane structure, which we call an 'invagination. (
  • This protein polymerizes to form the Z-ring, a structure associated to the cytosolic face of the inner membrane at midcell and essential for recruitment of other proteins to the division site. (
  • As the microfilaments shorten, they act like purse strings to pull the plasma membrane into the center, dividing the cell into two daughter cells. (
  • Combining frog-egg extracts with lipid membranes that mimic the membrane of the cell, they built a cell-free system that recapitulates how the cleavage furrow is assembled. (
  • What made this work possible was the realization that a controlled, flat membrane-made from two layers of artificial lipid supported on glass-could substitute for the curved, constantly moving and complex membrane of the cell. (
  • The final component was the model of the cell membrane. (
  • DHODH also binds a lipid in the cell's mitochondrial respiratory chain complex, suggesting the enzyme might use special lipids to locate the correct binding site on the cell membrane, Landreh said. (
  • Bacterial cell division requires precise spatiotemporal regulation of the synthesis and the remodelling of the peptidoglycan layer that surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane. (
  • Second, the cytoplasm (the rest of the content of the cell) is divided. (
  • To maintain a healthy balance of cells in the body, it is important that before cells divide they are the right size with plenty of cytoplasm and replicated organelles, that the DNA has replicated and is error free (or any errors have been repaired) and that once mitosis gets under way, the pairs of chromatids are attached to the spindle in the correct positions by the centromere. (
  • The division of the cytoplasm, separating the organelles and other cellular components. (
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) egg-extract preparation involves collecting unfertilized eggs, crushing them, and separating out fractions of the cytoplasm through centrifugation, a process that divides membranes, organelles and cytoplasm by density. (
  • Meiosis is the process of cellular division that produces the gametes which take part in sexual reproduction. (
  • Where mitosis produces two daughter cells from one mother cell, meiosis produces four daughter cells from one mother cell. (
  • Meiosis II is similar to mitosis - sister chromatids split apart into new cells - and the same steps occur in the same order. (
  • Meiosis results in four haploid daughter cells by undergoing one round of DNA replication followed by two divisions. (
  • Eukaryotic cell divisions can be classified as Mitosis (equational division) and Meiosis (reductional division). (
  • There are two types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis. (
  • Meiosis is the type of cell division that creates egg and sperm cells. (
  • Meiosis also allows genetic variation through a process of gene shuffling while the cells are dividing. (
  • Mitosis and meiosis, the two types of cell division. (
  • Meiosis features color photomicrographs (2,400x) of lily pollen and color diagrams of centrioles and asters found only in animal cells. (
  • The M phase, can be either mitosis or meiosis depending on the type of cell. (
  • Germ cells , or gametes, undergo meiosis, while somatic cells will undergo mitosis. (
  • 10) is parent cell pat of meiosis? (
  • Meiosis is the type of cell division that produces gametes, the reproductive cells of a sexually reproducing organism. (
  • Meiosis only occurs in primordial germ cells in the reproductive organs and not in somatic cells, which make up the majority of the cells in the body. (
  • In males, meiosis is called spermatogenesis because it produces sperm cells. (
  • Maternal age and environmental factors may contribute to meiosis errors, although in some cases errors occur simply as a result of natural inefficiencies in the process of cell division. (
  • Meiosis produces four gamete cells. (
  • The other type of cell division is called meiosis, and it is how the body produces eggs or sperm. (
  • In meiosis however, a cell is permanently transformed and cannot divide again. (
  • In contrast, meiosis is a reduction division, producing daughter cells that contain half the genetic information of the parent cell. (
  • All cell divisions, regardless of organism, are preceded by a single round of DNA replication. (
  • All organisms regulate cell cycle progression by coordinating cell division with DNA replication status. (
  • In eukaryotes, DNA damage or problems with replication fork progression induce the DNA damage response (DDR), causing cyclin-dependent kinases to remain active, preventing further cell cycle progression until replication and repair are complete. (
  • G 1 is a time of growth for the cell where specialized cellular functions occur in order to prepare the cell for DNA Replication. (
  • In humans, telomeres limit cells to ~50 divisions, which is probably related to how DNA replication is only 99.9998% accurate. (
  • Human DNA replication (in normal cells with no damage) is 99.99999999% accurate (i.e. about 1 mutation per 10^-10 base pairs). (
  • This consists of isolating and sequencing the newly synthesized DNA from cells that have just entered the replication phase, in order to map on the genome the sites where replication has begun. (
  • Initially, the cell identifies all potential replication origins with a molecular marker. (
  • We have discovered that in normal cells, the aberrant replication origins are subsequently eliminated. (
  • The activation of the oncogenes Cyclin E or Myc, on the other hand, induces the cells to begin replication of their DNA prematurely, without having had time to eliminate all the replication origins present in the genes. (
  • Our earlier data showed that cancer cells utilize this unusual form of DNA replication far more often than normal cells, because cancer cells have a lot of 'replication stress' in S-phase due to the cell division cycle being perturbed by the over-activity of cancer-causing genes called oncogenes,' says Ian Hickson. (
  • MiDAS helps cells to finish DNA replication that is not completed in S-phase. (
  • Cell division and replication are fundamental biological processes that occur in all organisms. (
  • And without DNA replication, cell division would not occur. (
  • Bacterial cell division happens through binary fission or budding. (
  • The physiology of bacterial cell division. (
  • Bacterial cell division is facilitated by the divisome, a dynamic multiprotein assembly localizing at mid-cell to synthesize the stress-bearing peptidoglycan and to constrict all cell envelope layers. (
  • The mechanics and the dynamics of the cell wall must be considered on an equal footing for quantifying bacterial cell division. (
  • This article develops a mathematical model of bacterial cell division that incorporates realistic cell wall mechanical properties. (
  • Bacterial cell division has been studied mainly in model systems such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis , where it is described as a complex process with the participation of a group of proteins which assemble into a multiprotein complex called the septal ring. (
  • Cell division occurs in single-cel. (
  • Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. (
  • Divisome assembly occurs in two steps and involves multiple interactions between more than 20 essential and accessory cell division proteins. (
  • Begin with a single cell and watch as mitosis and cell division occurs. (
  • One of the body's most important processes is cell division, which occurs throughout life. (
  • You will also look at how cells divide and replicate allowing us grow and repair body tissues, and if damage occurs, how some cells can replicate faster than surrounding cells to form tumours. (
  • The log phase is when the greatest increase in cell numbers occurs. (
  • If any division phase occurs too soon or out of order, the cell will fail to survive. (
  • Cell division occurs in discrete phases, with specific objectives obtained in each phase. (
  • In the majority of species, division occurs primarily in the dark period (5, 14). (
  • The different stages of Mitosis all together define the mitotic (M) phase of an animal cell cycle-the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells genetically identical daughter cells. (
  • Both of these cell division cycles are used in the process of sexual reproduction at some point in their life cycle. (
  • Nurse discovered another gene that regulates different phases of the cell reproductive cycle, while Hunt discovered the first "cyclin" molecule in the early 1980s. (
  • This protein is formed and broken down during the course of the cell cycle and is a key overall control mechanism of the cell reproductive process. (
  • The findings in the cell cycle field are about to be applied to tumour diagnostics. (
  • Throughout the cell cycle, centrosomes in germline stem cells (GSCs) are oriented within their niche and this ensures asymmetric division. (
  • We found that GSCs containing misoriented centrosomes accumulate with age and that these GSCs are arrested or delayed in the cell cycle. (
  • The cell cycle arrest is transient, and GSCs appear to re-enter the cell cycle on correction of centrosome orientation. (
  • On the basis of these findings, we propose that cell cycle arrest associated with centrosome misorientation functions as a mechanism to ensure asymmetric stem cell division, and that the inability of stem cells to maintain correct orientation during ageing contributes to the decline in spermatogenesis. (
  • Conversely, a description where division rate is determined jointly by cell size and time into the cell cycle reproduces well the available measurements. (
  • Importantly, ( iv ) the current size is not the only variable controlling cell division, but the time spent in the cell cycle appears to play a role, and ( v ) common tests of cell size control may fail when such concerted control is in place. (
  • The phenomenological framework presented is sufficiently general to be widely applicable and opens the way for rigorous tests of molecular cell-cycle models. (
  • Cell cycle control is generally described in terms of the two categories of "timer" and "sizer" ( 5 ). (
  • The length of the cell cycle can be controlled, and data related to the number of cells present and their current phase can be recorded. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Cell cycle and cell division" applicable to this article? (
  • Our knowledge of the cell cycle compared to just two or three years ago is really the difference between day and night," said Dr. David Beach of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on Long Island. (
  • But the coupling is short-lived: researchers have discovered that after each cycle of division, one of the two proteins rapidly disintegrates, an event that seems to protect against untrammeled cell growth. (
  • Among the many exciting findings about the cell cycle is this universality of the central players: the same proteins commanding cell division in primitive cells like yeast are also at the helm in human tissue. (
  • Scientists are also beginning to knit together the findings about the cell cycle with recent studies of the hormones and peptides in the bloodstream known to stimulate cell growth. (
  • Some scientists say an understanding of the nuts and bolts of the cell cycle could provide novel ways to attack cancer cells. (
  • Johns Hopkins scientists have discovered that a deceptively simple sugar is in fact a critical regulator of cells' natural life cycle. (
  • Moreover, new cell cycles of S. warneri can be initiated before the previous cell cycle is complete. (
  • Visual artists Lucy and Jorge Orta will interpret the work of cell-cycle expert Jan-Michael Peters. (
  • If the cell does not pass this checkpoint, then the cell will exit the cell cycle. (
  • Cell phone allowances are being paid over 2 payroll cycles not one payroll cycle as they have been in the past. (
  • The Immortal Life Cycle of Turritopsis, with diagrams [] __ Inmmortal human cells. (
  • 10)is two daughter cells part of cycle? (
  • This is possibly a protective mechanism that prevents damage to DNA during this part of the cell cycle," said Dr. Beutler, who shared the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his groundbreaking work on innate immunity. (
  • In eukaryotic cells, the timing of the cell cycle is regulated by what? (
  • The rate of mitosis is controlled within the cell cycle. (
  • If control of the cell cycle is lost, tumours and cancer may result. (
  • Enzymes involved in controlling the rate of the cell cycle through interactions with the cyclins. (
  • Small molecules involved in controlling the rate of the cell cycle. (
  • The length of the cell cycle is variable. (
  • The cell cycle has a number of checkpoints that monitor progress and determine whether the process have been completed properly at each stage of the cycle. (
  • If all is well the cell continues in the cycle. (
  • The cyclin/CDK complex phosphorylates other proteins, changing their shape and bringing about the next stage in the cell cycle. (
  • Cell division is usually a small segment of a larger cell cycle . (
  • 2007) "The Cell Cycle: Principles of Control" London: New Science Press. (
  • When they are mutated, for example in response to a carcinogen, these genes induce cells to start replicating their DNA prematurely during the cell cycle. (
  • The life cycle of bacterial cells consists of repeated elongation, septum formation, and division. (
  • It was found that the cell wall turns over a significant fraction of its mass in one life cycle. (
  • The centrioles are supposed to replicate only once during the cell cycle. (
  • The cell division cycle contains several phases. (
  • Studies using yeast genetics have provided new, fundamental insights into the cell-division cycle, researchers at the University of Michigan Life Sciences Institute report. (
  • A Florida State University College of Medicine research team led by Yanchang Wang has discovered an important new layer of regulation in the cell division cycle, which could lead to a greater understanding of the way cancer begins. (
  • Despite rapid progress in characterizing the yeast metabolic cycle, its connection to the cell division cycle (CDC) has remained unclear. (
  • Stages of the cell cycle. (
  • The time span from one cell division through G 1 , S, and G 2 is called a cell cycle (Figure 1). (
  • Mitosis, the division of a single cell into two identical cells, is part of the natural process of a cell's life cycle. (
  • The cell division cycle of most phytoplankton cells is phased by the environmental light/dark cycle in some fashion. (
  • The divisome is a protein complex in bacteria that is responsible for cell division, constriction of inner and outer membranes during division, and peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis at the division site. (
  • A tubulin-like protein, FtsZ plays a critical role in formation of a contractile ring for the cell division. (
  • In the August 14 issue of Developmental Cell, the team reports that a molecular motor protein called Klp9p and the microtubule-associated protein Ase1p form a complex and bind to the midzone of the spindle "" a sort of molecular scaffold that ensures a critical step: equal division of genetic material between two daughter cells of cell division. (
  • But, taking away phosphates from Klp9p and Ase1p by the other protein Clp1p just prior to Anaphase B releases the block, enabling the two proteins to form their complex so cellular division can continue. (
  • Scientists at Nagoya University, with colleagues at Kyoto University in Japan, have uncovered a mechanism that allows a protein complex to bind to DNA without impeding some of the important processes of cell division. (
  • FtsZ serves as a master regulator for this process, and its function is highly dependent on both its assembly into the canonical Z ring and interactions with protein binding partners, all of which results in the activation of enzymes that remodel the cell wall to. (
  • In eukaryotes, and therefore also in humans, these proteins are involved in protein transport within the cell. (
  • Here we identify the plant-specific protein POLAR as a stomatal lineage scaffold for a subset of GSK3-like kinases that confines them to the cytosol and subsequently transiently polarizes them within the cell, together with BREAKING OF ASYMMETRY IN THE STOMATAL LINEAGE (BASL), before ACD. (
  • This movie shows cell division without the presence of a key protein. (
  • One protein that makes up the mesh and which is called TACC3 is present in large quantities in cancer cells. (
  • Suspecting that the sugar known as O-GlcNAc might play a role in cell division, the Hopkins team devised a protein-mapping scheme using new mass spectrometric methods. (
  • A Florida State University researcher has identified the important role that a key protein plays in cell division, and that discovery could lead to a greater understanding of stem cells. (
  • In a new study, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have discovered two important functions of a protein called RTEL1 during cell division. (
  • It was a surprise to the researchers to see how big a role the RTEL1 protein plays in cell division. (
  • In most bacteria and archaea, filaments of FtsZ protein organize cell division. (
  • A wide variety of research has shown that γ-tubulin activates during cell division and that it is overexpressed in a portion of cancer cells, so it holds potential as a target protein for new anticancer agents with few side effects. (
  • Genetically engineered E. coli containing a fluorescing red protein enabled a Wyss Institute and Harvard Medical School team to analyze the population fluctuations of gut microbes by comparing proportion of "marked" to "unmarked" cells. (
  • M. synoviae FtsZ presents an extended amino acid sequence at the C-terminal portion of the protein, which may participate in interactions with other still unknown proteins crucial for the cell division process. (
  • The tubulin-like protein FtsZ, virtually present in all eubacteria, several archaeas, chloroplasts of plants and some mitochondria, plays a central role in cell division (for review see Margolin, 2005). (
  • By moving beyond individual proteins and studying the networks of proteins active in living human cells, they have succeeded in creating the first dynamic protein model of human cell division. (
  • To create their dynamic protein atlas of human cell division, the scientists used a generic approach. (
  • The approach can therefore be applied to mapping and mining dynamic protein networks that cause cell division in different cell types. (
  • Scientists at Princeton University report that they have recreated a key process involved in cell division in a test tube, uncovering the role played by a protein that is elevated in over 25% of all cancers. (
  • The genetic information encoded in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules, which are both necessary for producing more cells and performing other cellular functions. (
  • Essential cell division protein that forms a contractile ring structure (Z ring) at the future cell division site. (
  • A University of Rochester team used CRISPR to remove Tudor-SN , a protein that plays a role in a preparatory phase of cell division. (
  • Cells without the protein took much longer to prepare for division, suggesting that the approach could be used to inhibit fast-growing cancer cells. (
  • The GpsB protein regulates cell wall synthesis by binding to the penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) that polymerize and crosslink the glycan strands in cell wall peptidoglycan. (
  • Cellular division has three main functions: (1) the reproduction of an entire unicellular organism, (2) the growth and repair of tissues in multicellular animals, and (3) the formation of gametes (eggs and sperm) for sexual reproduction in multicellular animals. (
  • The growth of a fertilized embryo is accomplished through the division and differentiation of cells, a. (
  • After growth, cell division by mitosis allows for continual construction and repair of the organism. (
  • Along with cell shape changes, cell rearrangements, apoptosis and growth, oriented cell division modifies the geometry and topology of live tissue in order to create new organs and shape the organisms. (
  • These fundamental discoveries have a great impact on all aspects of cell growth" and "may in the long term open new possibilities for cancer treatment," said the prize citation. (
  • Focusing on Escherichia coli in steady growth, we quantify cell division control using a stochastic model, by inferring the division rate as a function of the observable parameters from large empirical datasets of dividing cells. (
  • Cell division control couples growth and division, influencing most aspects of cellular physiology ( 1 ). (
  • By combining discoveries about the growth signals that bombard the cell from the outside with knowledge of the internal machinery that orchestrates growth, scientists hope to form a complete and finely detailed portrait of the dividing cell. (
  • [10] During G 2 , the cell undergoes the final stages of growth before it enters the M phase, where spindles are synthesized. (
  • Cell division has three purposes for an organism: reproduction, growth and maintenance. (
  • Microbial population growth is typically measured when cells can be directly observed, or when death is rare. (
  • Here we introduce a new method (distributed cell division counting, DCDC) that uses the accurate segregation at cell division of genetically encoded fluorescent particles to measure microbial growth rates. (
  • Cells can only reach a certain size due to a lack of balanced growth between their parts, so they have to divide once they reach a certain point. (
  • The elasticity and growth of the cell wall is incorporated in the model to predict the contraction speed, the cell shape, and the contraction force. (
  • Growth and synthesis of the bacterial cell wall is a complex process. (
  • How are wall mechanics, wall growth, and Z-ring contraction combined to achieve cell division? (
  • The model also considers the kinetics of cell wall growth and turnover and gives a mechanism and quantitative description of cell wall viscoelasticity. (
  • Each component of the telomerase complex was studied during cell growth and division in yeast used to make wine and bread. (
  • In this stem cell from bone marrow are injected into a recipient after treating them with growth factor. (
  • As the number of cycles increases, the number of cells jumps drastically, making it hard to visualize the growth rate. (
  • During the G 2 period of growth, materials for the next mitotic division are prepared. (
  • The researchers say their findings, described in a pair of papers published in the journals eLife (" Biochemical reconstitution of branching microtubule nucleation ") and Nature Communications (" Phase separation of TPX2 enhances and spatially coordinates microtubule nucleation "), are a key step toward recreating the entire cell division machinery and could lead to new therapies aimed at preventing the growth of cancer cells. (
  • Cells carry on the many functions needed to sustain life, including cell growth and development. (
  • The Cell Division and Differentiation Enhanced E-boo*k explores these cellular processes for growth and development, including the selective expression of specific genes, which allow for the differentiation and specialization of cells. (
  • We use Drosophila to unveil the basic principles that govern cell proliferation and malignant growth. (
  • The molecular basis of the contribution of germline functions to malignant growth in Drosophila somatic cells " (ONCOGERM), cofinanciado por el Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad - Agencia Estatal de Investigación y el Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER) de la Unión Europea. (
  • Targeting cell division is an attractive approach to slowing or preventing cancer growth. (
  • Researchers from Sweden and the U.K. have devised a new method to curb cancer growth by shutting down a single enzyme and stopping cells from dividing. (
  • Attacking cell division to slow cancer growth is a popular idea, for the simple reason that the abnormal growth of cells is the very definition of cancer. (
  • In cooperation with various institutes for material research we are investigating how biomaterials, surface topography, and elasticity impact on growth and differentiation of stem cells. (
  • Each new cell has exactly the same genetic material (DNA) as the cell that produced it. (
  • Because each gamete has half the genetic material of the mother cell, this fusion results in a zygote with the correct amount of genetic material. (
  • Prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) usually undergo a vegetative cell division known as binary fission, where their genetic material is segregated equally into two daughter cells. (
  • It involves a fairly complex process known as "mitosis", during which the cell duplicates its genetic material and separates it into two identical halves, which are then split apart. (
  • A change in the arrangement or amount of genetic material in a cell. (
  • Two is important," Megraw said, "because you divide your genetic material into two equal sets. (
  • Human cells use a timer to divide: each cell gets at least 30 minutes to divide its genetic material between the nuclei of two daughter cells. (
  • During cell division, each daughter cell receives a complete copy of the mother cell's genetic information. (
  • When trying to divide and produce two daughters, one problem the cell has is there is such a huge length of DNA encoding our genetic blueprint. (
  • These must be duplicated prior to division so that each of the daughter cells can receive a full complement of identical genetic material. (
  • Cells reproduce by splitting and passing on their genes (hereditary information) to Daughter cells. (
  • Among the genes that Chlamydia has eliminated is ftsZ , encoding the central organizer of cell division that directs cell wall synthesis in the division septum. (
  • This is confirmed by the fact that genes involved in cell division in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius are related to eukaryotic genes. (
  • Leading biologists, mathematicians, biochemists and biophysicists working at thirteen research institutes, universities, international organizations and companies in eight European countries collaborate to reveal how genes and proteins orchestrate mitosis in human cells. (
  • In general, fatal mutations don't matter, the stem cell will just divide again (or be dead), and cells are specialized so only a small number of genes are relevant. (
  • The Cyclin E and Myc genes are active in the control of cell division. (
  • Cell division is notably regulated by specific genes, including the proto-oncogenes Cyclin E and Myc. (
  • Dr. Robert Husson and colleagues have found two serine threonine kinase genes (pknA and pknB) that regulate cell shape, and possibly cell division, in the bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (
  • only a smaller subset of CDC genes correlated with cell division. (
  • Thus, it was important to compare their genomes to analyze putative genes involved in cell division processes. (
  • The division and cell wall ( dcw ) cluster, which in E. coli and B. subtilis is composed of 16 and 17 genes, respectively, is represented by only three to four genes in mycoplasmas. (
  • Furthermore, we differentiate induced pluripotent stem cells towards hematopoietic lineages that may be used for disease modeling and address the relevance of specific genes and splice variants (e.g. by CRISPR-Cas9n technology). (
  • When cells divide, two daughter cells are produced from one mother cell. (
  • Mitosis is the process of cellular division that produces identical daughter cells from one mother cell. (
  • Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. (
  • Cell division orientation is the direction along which the new daughter cells are formed. (
  • The band then squeezes the cell into two so that two new daughter cells are formed. (
  • Cell division is the process whereby the two daughter cells are separated. (
  • 7) is 2 daughter cells part of phase? (
  • The enzyme was previously known only for its involvement in cell division, or mitosis, a process that involves the creation of two daughter cells from one parental cell. (
  • In eukaryotic organisms, mitosis results in two daughter cells with identical copies of the parent cell DNA. (
  • When a cell divides into two daughter cells, it must replicate its entire genome and transcribe part of it to make new proteins. (
  • For the actual division step, the radius of the Z-ring is seen to decrease over several minutes, after which a septum is formed and the bacterium separates into two daughter cells ( 1 , 6 ). (
  • The two most important are S-phase when the cell's DNA is duplicated or replicated, and mitosis when the duplicated DNA is divided equally between the two daughter cells. (
  • One cell replicates itself and splits into two daughter cells, enabling an organism to develop, grow, and replace cells in its body. (
  • The DNA (green) is distributed evenly into both daughter cells. (
  • The DNA is incorrectly distributed among the daughter cells. (
  • And lately, through an extraordinary convergence of research from a broad spectrum of disciplines, scientists have made enormous progress in unraveling the pivotal molecular events that control cell division. (
  • The paired proteins seem to work by altering the shapes and duties of a string of other proteins in the cell, and scientists have identified many of those target proteins. (
  • The latest cell research engaged in by scientists has helped immensely in finding a possible cure for cancer. (
  • Cell structure has aided scientists in finding the ins and outs of cancer and cancerous growths in humans. (
  • Scientists have been looking at cells since the 17th Century and so to find something that no-one has seen before is amazing. (
  • Using an elaborate sleuthing system they developed to probe how cells manage their own division, Johns Hopkins scientists have discovered that common but hard-to-see sugar switches are partly in control. (
  • Using a standard human cell line (HeLa cells), the scientists discovered abnormalities when they disrupted the cell division process by adding extra O-GlcNAc. (
  • The scientists published their study in the journal Developmental Cell . (
  • By controlling the enzyme telomerase which directs the division, scientists now hope to be able to delay or trigger cell division. (
  • Scientists at Salk Institute have found a cellular switch that could be controlled to encourage cells to divide and generate in old age, while preventing some others like cancer cells from dividing. (
  • Scientists at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation have discovered a way in which cells duplicate themselves accurately and completely. (
  • The Indian Council of Medical Research and the Department of Biotechnology have jointly formulated guidelines for stem cell research and therapy to help experts and scientists working in the field conduct research responsibly and ethically sensitive manner. (
  • While up to now most research laboratories have focused on single proteins in living cells, scientists working on the EU-funded iNEXT and CohesinMolMech projects have taken a more comprehensive approach. (
  • Scientists in the preceding years had already been seeing faint structures in cells , but their dyes were not good enough to reveal what any of these structures did. (
  • Throughout the 19th century, as microscopes developed, scientists had been seeing clues of structures in dividing cells of eukaryotes . (
  • Scientists have now learned much more about the proteins involved and their behavior, and yet a central mystery remains: How does the cell signal where the furrow should be? (
  • Scientists at the Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology and Cancer Research UK created radiation-carrying gold nanoparticles that target cell division by entering cells and shutting down telomerase. (
  • Cell Division Cell division is the process by which an organism grows or replaces damaged tissue. (
  • Cell Division Cell division is the process where a single living cell splits to become two or more distinct new cells. (
  • The "help" which Topo2 receives comes from the microtubules, a type of tiny wire that makes up part of the mitotic spindle, a structure similar to a rugby ball that is created when the cell begins the process of duplication and division. (
  • The process is akin to two children dividing up their Halloween candy: collect your candy, pile it in the middle, and divide it into two equal portions. (
  • But it spiralled too close, and got pulled apart by the star's gravity, splitting into daughter worlds in a process reminiscent of cell division. (
  • Most of the time when people refer to "cell division," they mean mitosis, the process of making new body cells. (
  • The discovery reveals that, when disturbed, this process could contribute to cancer or other diseases by failing to properly control the steps and timing of cell division, the researchers say. (
  • The researchers' next steps are to examine select proteins modified by O-GlcNAc and found at locations important for various steps in cell division to figure out why an imbalance of O-GlcNAc on the cells' proteins has such a dramatic effect on the process. (
  • Chlamydiae divide by a unique MreB-dependent polarized cell division process. (
  • Studying the process of cell division in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius could therefore lead to new insights into the processes involving ESCRT proteins, such as HIV particle release. (
  • Mitosis: The Amazing Cell Process that Uses Division to Multiply! (
  • In females, the process is called oogenesis because it produces egg cells, also known as ova. (
  • The cell has to monitor and control its activities to coordinate with the cell division process. (
  • Conventional wisdom was that the job of turning these proteins on and off - thus determining if, how and when a cell divides - fell to phosphates, chemical compounds containing the element phosphorus, which fasten to and unfasten from proteins in a process called phosphorylation. (
  • Now, Professor Carl-Philipp Heisenberg and his team at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria discovered how mechanical tension from surrounding tissue influences the division process. (
  • A novel connection between primordial organisms and complex life has been discovered, as new evidence sheds light on the evolutionary origins of the cell division process that is fundamental to complex life on Earth. (
  • A study led by the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona has determined the three-dimensional structure of certain proteins linked to the correct functioning of the cell division process: The LC8 and Nek9 pair. (
  • Researchers at the University of Liverpool have resolved the debate over the mechanisms involved in the shut-down process during cell division in the body. (
  • She will grow and develop as new cells are formed by the process of mitosis (cell division). (
  • Cell division in bacteria is a complex process involving the coordinated participation of a group of proteins which assemble at the division site into a multiprotein complex called the septal ring (for reviews see Errington et al . (
  • Binary fission, which is used by many bacteria, is a process in which the growing cell first replicates its DNA and then the cell wall constricts, dividing the cell into two. (
  • Their role in cell division is also especially important, since they control all parts of the process, from beginning to end. (
  • By entering any combination of up to seven proteins, users will be able to see the relevant cell division process in real time. (
  • How do cells keep all of this straight, and how do they continually repeat the process with such precision? (
  • The success of the process is crucial for any dividing cell, which includes all cells and therefore all living systems. (
  • 1 Cdk activates a host of subsidiary oscillators, each one in charge of activating a separate but necessary process at a distinct phase of cell division. (
  • We have found that neural stem cells originate tumours when the delicately balanced process of self-renewing asymmetric division is disrupted. (
  • They were part of the life process of the cells . (
  • It's important to remember that the process of cell division is cyclical, with one phase feeding into the next. (
  • -The process of cell division is central to life. (
  • They then mimicked fertilization and added labeled antibodies or proteins to visualize the self-organization of structures required for the cell division process, using fluorescence microscopy in ways that aren't possible with actual living cells in tissue cultures. (
  • The discovery of this mechanism is a significant breakthrough in advancing knowledge about the cell division process. (
  • He wanted to understand what happens during Anaphase B. So his team, led by postdoctoral fellow Chuanhai Fu, PhD, began systematically mutating molecular motors in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and then clocking each mutant's cell division. (
  • Working in yeast, the C. elegans worm and human cells, Cheeseman has helped to identify dozens of the kinetochore's molecular components and their specific roles. (
  • This link between Bub1, histone H2A phosphorylation, and shugoshin is conserved in budding yeast and mammalian cells. (
  • Some bacteria and fungi, like yeast, form new cells through budding. (
  • Therefore, fission yeast, which has a small genome and can easily be reproduced, lends itself well to the study of basic cell functions. (
  • Silke Hauf, Independent Research Group Leader at the Max Planck Society's Friedrich Miescher Laboratory and her colleague André Koch, together with Boris Macek, Director of the Proteome Center at the University of Tübingen and his colleagues Karsten Krug and Stuart Pengelley, carried out in-depth research on cell division in fission yeast. (
  • Left: Fission yeast cells with an active Aurora enzyme. (
  • Nonetheless, many vital processes proceed in a very similar way in yeast and in human cells. (
  • The 2001 Nobel prize for physiology or medicine has been awarded for research on the molecular elements that control cell division. (
  • Anaphase B is just one part of the complex molecular choreography that is cell division. (
  • Pillitteri, L. J., Peterson, K. M., Horst, R. J. & Torii, K. U. Molecular profiling of stomatal meristemoids reveals new component of asymmetric cell division and commonalities among stem cell populations in Arabidopsis . (
  • Essentially, they applied a combination of chemical modification and enrichment methods, and new fragmentation technology to proteins that comprise the cell division machinery in order to figure out and analyze their molecular makeup, identifying more than 150 sites where the sugar molecule known as O-GlcNAc was attached. (
  • This course for upper division and graduate students will explore the molecular and cellular basis of microbial pathogenesis. (
  • Through its research, CohesinMolMech (Molecular mechanisms of cohesin-mediated sister chromatid cohesion and chromatin organization) aims to advance our understanding of cell division, chromatin structure and gene regulation. (
  • We have been watching cells divide for more than 100 years, but we continue to seek to understand the molecular mechanisms involved. (
  • For example, stem cells divide asymmetrically, while most other cells divide symmetrically, and we still do not understand these differences in molecular terms. (
  • The Randall Division of Cell & Molecular Biophysics is based in New Hunt's House on the Guy's Campus and has strong collaborative links with other biomedical and clinical researchers in King's Health Schools. (
  • Our research focusses on molecular mechanisms that regulate human stem cells, particularly hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. (
  • We are working on optimized culture conditions and definition of molecular markers for quality control of mesenchymal stem cells. (
  • Aging of the organism as well as replicative senescence during culture expansion of stem cells is associated with various functional and molecular changes. (
  • For simple unicellular microorganisms such as the amoeba, one cell division is equivalent to reproduction - an entire new organism is created. (
  • Even in the simple model organism E. coli , a fully quantitative characterization of how cell division time and size are determined is lacking ( 6 ), with most attempts dating back to the 1960s ( 2 , 7 , 8 ). (
  • The principle of new plant life is very similar to that of humans and animals: a single fertilized egg grows into a complex organism with millions of cells. (
  • The rate of mitosis varies greatly, depending on many factors including the life stage of an organism and the type of cells involved. (
  • For simple unicellular organisms such as the Amoeba , one cell division reproduces an entire organism. (
  • While binary fission may be the means of division by most prokaryotes, there are alternative manners of division, such as budding, that have been observed. (
  • Isolated midbodies are also pictured in green around the cells to show the organelles in more detail. (
  • Pairs of sister chromatids split and are pulled to opposite sides of the cell by the microtubules. (
  • Microtubules pull each homologue to opposite sides of the cell. (
  • He also has started to define how the attachments between kinetochores and spindle microtubules are regulated throughout cell division. (
  • The microtubules that are part and parcel of the inner "bone-work" of the cell seem to be involved here. (
  • Centrosomes organize microtubules, which are structures in the cell that many important anti-cancer drugs target. (
  • Cellular division has two steps. (
  • Now, however, "we have a very detailed and complete description of four molecules" -- Klp9p, Ase1p, Cdc2p, and Clp1p "" each playing a role in one aspect of cellular division, Anaphase B. (
  • Researchers report in bioRxiv that they combined lattice light sheet microscopy, which increases the speed of image acquisition and reduces phototoxic damage to cells, with two-channel adaptive optics to image multiple cellular processes in vivo. (
  • Emphasis in this course will be on eukaryotic cell processes, including cellular organization, dynamics, and signaling. (
  • As the project's researchers explain in a paper published in the journal 'Nature', the model can also be used to study the role that proteins play in other cellular functions, such as cell death or the metastasis of cancer cells. (
  • Cellular differentiation is governed by epigenetic changes - and hence the epigenetic makeup is ideally suited to characterize cells. (
  • dramatically increase the activity of this gene when they regenerate, allowing stem cells to maintain their telomeres as they divide to replace missing tissues. (
  • Telomeres also help divvy-up the workload among stem cells so the most eager doesn't monopolize the work. (
  • An enzyme called telomerase , present in large quantites in cancerous cells, rebuilds the telomeres, allowing division to continue indefinitely. (
  • It rebuilds telomeres and allows cells to divide indefinitely. (
  • Mitotic cell division enables sexually reproducing organisms to develop from the one-celled zygote, which itself was produced by meiotic cell division from gametes. (
  • I am wondering now how Humans survive for more than 50 generations, since gametes are also fomred by cell division. (
  • What type of cell division produces gametes? (
  • Furthermore, the pattern of cell division that transforms eukaryotic stem cells into gametes ( sperm in males or ova in females) is different from that of eukaryotic somatic (non-germ) cells. (
  • The comings and goings of the sugar on proteins seem to be important controllers of cell division, say the researchers. (
  • With the use of immunofluorescence the researchers determined the location of these proteins in the cell and in doing so discovered that three proteins play a crucial role in the cell division of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. (
  • UT Southwestern Medical Center and California researchers provide the first report that an enzyme previously known solely for its role in cell division also acts as an on-off switch in the innate immune system -- the body's first defense against infection. (
  • Researchers are in desperate need of single-cell analysis techniques and those that allow the isolation of high-value T-cells for research and development. (
  • The researchers not only mapped O-GlcNAc and phosphorylation sites but also measured changes in the cell division machinery, because, Hart says, the chemical changes act more like "dimmer" switches, than simple on/off ones. (
  • However, when researchers at California Institute of Technology observed this step using their new technique, what they saw was not the usual cell division. (
  • The researchers are now using the same method to try to image human cells. (
  • In the new study, which is a continuation of the previous findings in the CCS, the researchers have primarily done tests on different types of cancer cells including bone, cervical and colon cancer. (
  • Researchers from the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, have uncovered a remarkable property of the contractile ring, a structure required for cell division. (
  • Reporting in the journal Cell , researchers found that a particular enzyme called Cdk operates as a master oscillator, undergoing rhythmic periods of activity. (
  • The researchers meticulously compared the phosphorylation events present on proteins of dividing cells in which Aurora enzymes were active with cells in which these enzymes were inhibited. (
  • This cell-free system has two huge advantages: It expands the scale of the furrow-building events, making them easier to see, and it gives the researchers an easy way to manipulate the proteins involved. (
  • The human body experiences about 10 quadrillion cell divisions in a lifetime. (
  • Reproducible patterns of oriented cell divisions were described during morphogenesis of Drosophila embryos, Arabidopsis thaliana embryos, Drosophila pupa, zebrafish embryos and mouse early embryos. (
  • Oriented cell divisions contribute to the tissue elongation and the release of mechanical stress. (
  • Such divisions insert new formed cells in the epithelium layer. (
  • The disregulation of the orientation of cell divisions result in the creation of the cell out of epithelium and is observed at the initial stages of cancer. (
  • MacAlister, C. A., Ohashi-Ito, K. & Bergmann, D. C. Transcription factor control of asymmetric cell divisions that establish the stomatal lineage. (
  • Normal cells only have a limited number of divisions, while in cancer cells the cell division goes awry and is uncontrollable. (
  • During one lifetime, the human body experiences ten quadrillion cell divisions. (
  • Several factors could regulate cell shape and therefore orientation of cell division. (
  • These proteins localize to specific parts of the cell and regulate cell division from there. (
  • Well before constriction and while the cell is still elongating, the tubulin-like FtsZ and early cell division proteins form a ring-like structure at mid-cell. (
  • Cell division starts once certain peptidoglycan enzymes and their activators have moved to the FtsZ-ring. (
  • Escherichia coli cells divide using a cytokinetic ring composed of polymers of the tubulin-like FtsZ. (
  • Before septum formation, a division ring called the Z-ring, which is made of a filamentous tubulin analog, FtsZ, is seen at the mid cell. (
  • Together with several other proteins, FtsZ is essential for cell division. (
  • Visualization of strains with GFP-labeled FtsZ shows that the Z-ring contracts before septum formation and pinches the cell into two equal halves. (
  • In rod-like bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis , a conserved cell division gene is FtsZ, which forms a filamentous ring structure (Z-ring) at the mid cell before division ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • It has been postulated that the Z-ring generates forces and "pinches" the cell into halves ( 7 ), although whether FtsZ generates force is debatable. (
  • FtsZ forms a ring structure at the division site and starts the recruitment of 10 to 20 downstream proteins that together form a multiprotein complex termed the divisome. (
  • One of the functions of the FtsZ ring is to recruit other cell division proteins to the septum to produce a new cell wall between the dividing cells. (
  • Some of the proteins in the new type of cell division are similar to proteins in other eukaryotes that have a completely different function. (
  • During the first 8 or 9 days after conception, the cells that will eventually form the embryo continue to divide. (
  • A decline in stem cell function has been proposed to contribute to tissue ageing, although the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. (
  • A Swedish research group, partly financed by NWO, has discovered a new mechanism for cell division in a microorganism found in extremely hot and acidic conditions. (
  • The new mechanism for cell division was discovered in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, a microorganism found in hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. (
  • Motor proteins have not been discovered for prokaryotic cells, and the mechanism of Z-ring contraction is unknown. (
  • And this is just one mechanism, tightly linked with many other major cell processes, that ensures cell division is properly regulated. (
  • Cancer cells are able to replicate by overcoming the normal controls of cell division. (
  • Gram-negative bacteria like Escherichia coli simultaneously synthesize and cleave the septum peptidoglycan during division leading to a constriction. (
  • Indeed, families of PBPs are found in bacteria, with some localized near the furrow during division and some uniformly distributed ( 10 , 14 , 15 ). (
  • The mechanical properties of the PG cell wall have been investigated, and the Young's moduli for several bacteria have been estimated ( 22 , 23 ). (
  • Mycoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria presenting a reduced genome. (
  • Given the importance of GpsB:PBP interactions in pathogenic bacteria, the crystal structure presents a promising starting point for design of new antibiotics and provides an important step forward in understanding the regulation of cell wall synthesis in cell division in several different important bacterial species. (
  • Otherwise, they will not be able to separate during cell division, and the DNA within could be cut or divided badly, which might lead to cell death or harmful mutations - and possibly cancer. (
  • That information will in turn permit them to better understand cell division gone awry, the hallmark of cancer. (
  • Cancer cells, on the other hand, are "immortal. (
  • Thus cancer involves a glitch in cell division. (
  • Their overexpression or mutation into oncogenes, following exposure of cells to a carcinogen for example, leads to uncontrolled proliferation of cells and promotes the formation of cancer. (
  • In the case of cancer, this means that the cancer cell has the potential to become even more abnormal due to the new mutations,' Ying Liu explains. (
  • We were investigating which proteins help cancer cells to use MiDAS. (
  • We believe that this RTEL1 function is critical for any cancer cells that rely on MiDAS, which is more than 80 percent of the known cancer types based on our knowledge. (
  • Therefore, we can use this to design drugs to inhibit RTEL1 and hopefully selectively kill cancer cells,' says Ying Liu. (
  • In this interview, News-Medical speaks to Dr. Cristina Branco from Breast Cancer Now about the spread of breast cancer cells to the lungs. (
  • Understanding how the contractile ring works to divide the cell may facilitate development of therapies to prevent uncontrolled cell division in cancer. (
  • The idea that a failure of proper cell division produces genomic instability and promotes the development of cancer was first proposed by German biologist Theodor Boveri in 1915. (
  • Cancer is a disease that originates in our own cells. (
  • Cancer cells may spread from the original (primary) tumour to form new (secondary) tumours throughout the body. (
  • This resource looks at how cancer cells develop, the causes of cancer and how treatments are used to tackle cancer. (
  • Sometimes mitosis can go wrong and cause cancer cells to develop. (
  • The new 4D model was used to integrate data on fluorescently knocked-in mitotic proteins taken from HeLa cells, an immortal line of human cancer cells commonly used in scientific research. (
  • Elevated TPX2 levels lead to both aberrant microtubule assembly in cells and poor outcomes in cancer patients. (
  • Because uncontrolled cell division is a feature of tumours, Aurora enzyme inhibitors are already being tested as new cancer treatments, and these new insights from basic research may prove to be of use for this clinical research. (
  • If this turns out to be correct, the results of the study will be relevant for the development of new cancer treatments that aim to attack the uncontrolled cell division of tumours. (
  • In fact, all cancers are characterised by unchecked cell division, and the underpinning processes are potential targets for therapeutic interventions that prevent cancer onset and spread. (
  • Ultimately, this could help the rational design of more specific therapies to inhibit the division of cancer cells, ideally without affecting the healthy cells that are dividing at the same time, Hickson said. (
  • Cancer is characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of cells. (
  • In cancer, this breakdown is sabotaged, allowing the cells to multiply freely. (
  • Cancer initiating cells are often derived from stem and progenitor cells. (
  • As detailed here, the use of cell-free extracts prepared from metaphase-arrested Xenopus eggs can address this limitation. (
  • Two 18 x 24" charts detail mitotic and meiotic cell division in both plants and animals. (
  • On a larger scale, mitotic cell division can create progeny from multicellular organisms, such as plants that grow from cuttings. (
  • The amitotic or mitotic cell division is more atypical and diverse in the various groups of organisms such as protists (namely diatoms, dinoflagellates etc) and fungi. (
  • The 10 million Euro, five-year scientific project is a joint research effort, bringing together the expertise of thirteen European institutions and companies to generate a comprehensive mathematical understanding of mitotic cell division. (
  • Mitotic cell division does not take place at random. (
  • On the other hand, cells that had higher than normal amounts of the enzyme that removes the sugar from proteins ended up with nuclei that didn't look right under a powerful microscope. (
  • Instead, the cell is left with two complete nuclei, which is a fatal flaw. (
  • How does cell division provide for continuity of life processes in an individual and in a species? (
  • FtsH and FtsY, even if they were initially identified by mutants that showed a filamentation phenotype, they are in fact involved in general processes that have pleiotropic effects on cell division (Tomoyasu et al . (
  • Learn more about the biological processes of cell division. (
  • This course about cell division will explain the complex processes of cell division in detail. (
  • To make this possible, hundreds of different proteins work together in a single cell, driving its various processes. (
  • In the long run, a full overview of all the cell's proteins will allow us to see how different important processes of life, like cell division and cell death for example, are linked to one another. (
  • Such evolutionary conservation from flies to humans is expected for processes as fundamental as cell division, he explained. (
  • But before we get there, we must continue to expand our knowledge about the basic processes and signals involved in normal cell division to understand how they can go awry, or how they can be exploited. (
  • TCJ provide mechanical and geometrical clues for the spindle apparatus to ensure that cell divide along its long axis. (
  • Their findings, published in the journal Cell Reports , could further understandings of developmental disorders arising from mutations in the gene that codes for the complex. (
  • If MiDAS cannot take place, it leads to cell death or mutations in the surviving cells. (
  • Blood stem cell transplantation and stem cell treatment in India, the possibilities and challenges ahead and the need for cord blood banks were discussed at a Jeevan oration meet in Chennai. (
  • Preferred Term is Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • For decades, cord blood donation has served an important role in facilitating stem cell transplantation for the treatment of various blood and immune disorders. (
  • Spinal cord injury has been recognized as one of the conditions for which stem cell transplantation might be beneficial. (
  • Without Cdk and its associate enzymes comprising what the authors call a 'phase-locking model,' cell division would not work. (
  • Like many other regulatory enzymes, Aurora enzymes trigger changes in the cell by attaching phosphate groups to other proteins. (
  • Sex cells, such as eggs and sperm, are only created through specialized cell division. (
  • The sex cells (ova and sperm) that join together to form a new unique diploid cell in sexual reproduction. (
  • Cell division orientation is one of the mechanisms that shapes tissue during development and morphogenesis. (
  • We find that ( i ) cells have mechanisms to control their size, ( ii ) size control is effected by changes in the doubling time, rather than in the single-cell elongation rate, ( iii ) the division rate increases steeply with cell size for small cells, and saturates for larger cells. (
  • Our analysis illustrates the mechanisms of cell division control in E. coli . (
  • Pillitteri, L. J., Guo, X. & Dong, J. Asymmetric cell division in plants: mechanisms of symmetry breaking and cell fate determination. (
  • In plants, this control is very important, as plants do not contain mechanisms for cell migration or quick cell replacement like animals do: A rigid cell wall is formed soon after cell division, which fixes the new cell permanently. (
  • Asymmetric division of adult stem cells generates one self-renewing stem cell and one differentiating cell, thereby maintaining tissue homeostasis. (
  • This project aims at understanding how neurons are "born" under normal conditions during development (asymmetric division) and to apply this knowledge to improve culture conditions subsequently. (
  • These Gram-negative pathogens have cell envelopes that lack peptidoglycan (PG), yet they use PG for cell. (
  • The chemical is called putrescine (1,4 diaminobutane), a malodorous organic compound within the polyamine family-a group of molecules already known to play a crucial role in important functions like cell division. (
  • They point out that however aggressive and deranged tumor cells become, they still must proceed through the steps of cell division. (
  • This abnormal cell division causes a tumor to develop. (
  • This study presents an entirely new influence on cell division and could also be important for tumor research. (
  • A mass of abnormal cells which keep multiplying in an uncontrolled way. (
  • But many more years of work are required before the team can create a data set for the 600 or so proteins that drive mitosis in human cells. (
  • The study shows that the proteins involved in cell division in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius are related to the so-called ESCRT proteins. (
  • The proteins involved in cell division weren't phosphorylated and activated until O-GlcNAc detached. (
  • Regulation of the direction of cell division is especially important in early embryos and stem cell niches (meristems), because these few cells lay the foundations for all future organs. (
  • Defects in the cell patterns of embryos and meristems can therefore be catastrophic for development. (
  • This work introduces a quantitative method for estimating the variables controlling division rate and uses it to construct a minimal model from large-scale dynamic data on the size of dividing Escherichia coli cells. (
  • With reasonable parameters, the model shows that a small force from the Z-ring (8 pN in Escherichia coli ) is sufficient to accomplish division. (
  • Here we show that changes in the stem cell orientation with respect to the niche during ageing contribute to the decline in spermatogenesis in the male germ line of Drosophila . (
  • However, the telomere is controlled by an enzyme found in some cells called telomerase. (
  • However, the present research discovered a way to switch off the enzyme so that it vanishes from the cell till recalled. (
  • Whenever multicellular organisms grow, more cells are required. (
  • Multicellular organisms replace worn-out cells through cell division. (
  • Observing the cell in its native state: Imaging subcellular dynamics in multicellular organisms," bioRxiv , doi:10.1101/243352, 2018. (