Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal PROMYELOCYTES predominate. It is frequently associated with DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A notch receptor that interacts with a variety of ligands and regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS for multiple cellular processes. It is widely expressed during EMBRYOGENESIS and is essential for EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. It plays a role in regulating IMMUNOGLOBULIN E expression.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
6-carbon straight-chain or branched ketones.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
Spontaneous aggregations of human embryonic stem cells that occur in vitro after culturing in a medium that lacks LEUKEMIC INHIBITORY FACTOR. The embryoid bodies can further differentiate into cells that represent different lineages.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.

In vitro effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) on bovine cells. (1/61862)

Bovine fetal muscle cells were exposed to culture media containing 2 mg and 20 mg per liter of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) for varying intervals to determine the in vitro response of mammalian cells to this compound. The concentrations of 2,4-D used were comparable to those used in spray programmes although the residues normally found in pasture are much lower since 2,4-D is rapidly degraded under field conditions. Untreated and treated cultures were analyzed for total cell count, mitotic index and the percentages of differentiating and degenerating cells. The response of cultures to treatment was similar irrespective of the concentrations of 2,4-D used although in higher concentrations there was an initial drop in mitotic index. Other changes noted in treated cultures included an increase in differentiating and degenerating cells compared to those in control. The mitotic cells in treated cultures exhibited unipolar and tripolar spindles and a variety of other abnormalities including malorientation of the mitotic apparatus in relation to the axis of the cell. Myoblasts in initial stages of myogenesis were noted to be in mitosis in treated cultures suggesting that 2,4-D may have a stimulatory effect on myoblasts which in normal myogenesis are in post mitotic stage.  (+info)

Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis. (2/61862)

The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation.  (+info)

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (3/61862)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (4/61862)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

oko meduzy mutations affect neuronal patterning in the zebrafish retina and reveal cell-cell interactions of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. (5/61862)

Mutations of the oko meduzy (ome) locus cause drastic neuronal patterning defect in the zebrafish retina. The precise, stratified appearance of the wild-type retina is absent in the mutants. Despite the lack of lamination, at least seven retinal cell types differentiate in oko meduzy. The ome phenotype is already expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium affecting morphology of the neuroepithelial cells. Our experiments indicate that previously unknown cell-cell interactions are involved in development of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. In genetically mosaic animals, cell-cell interactions are sufficient to rescue the phenotype of oko meduzy retinal neuroepithelial cells. These cell-cell interactions may play a critical role in the patterning events that lead to differentiation of distinct neuronal laminae in the vertebrate retina.  (+info)

Retinoids are produced by glia in the lateral ganglionic eminence and regulate striatal neuron differentiation. (6/61862)

In order to identify molecular mechanisms involved in striatal development, we employed a subtraction cloning strategy to enrich for genes expressed in the lateral versus the medial ganglionic eminence. Using this approach, the homeobox gene Meis2 was found highly expressed in the lateral ganglionic eminence and developing striatum. Since Meis2 has recently been shown to be upregulated by retinoic acid in P19 EC cells (Oulad-Abdelghani, M., Chazaud, C., Bouillet, P., Sapin, V., Chambon, P. and Dolle, P. (1997) Dev. Dyn. 210, 173-183), we examined a potential role for retinoids in striatal development. Our results demonstrate that the lateral ganglionic eminence, unlike its medial counterpart or the adjacent cerebral cortex, is a localized source of retinoids. Interestingly, glia (likely radial glia) in the lateral ganglionic eminence appear to be a major source of retinoids. Thus, as lateral ganglionic eminence cells migrate along radial glial fibers into the developing striatum, retinoids from these glial cells could exert an effect on striatal neuron differentiation. Indeed, the treatment of lateral ganglionic eminence cells with retinoic acid or agonists for the retinoic acid receptors or retinoid X receptors, specifically enhances their striatal neuron characteristics. These findings, therefore, strongly support the notion that local retinoid signalling within the lateral ganglionic eminence regulates striatal neuron differentiation.  (+info)

T-cell development: a new marker of differentiation state. (7/61862)

Differentiation of T cells is a complicated affair and there has been a dearth of markers that faithfully reflect thymocyte phenotype. A new strategy based on T-cell receptor gene sequencing has revealed a marker that can be used to monitor thymocyte differentiation with fidelity and without perturbation.  (+info)

Expression of the naturally occurring truncated trkB neurotrophin receptor induces outgrowth of filopodia and processes in neuroblastoma cells. (8/61862)

We have investigated the effects of the truncated trkB receptor isoform T1 (trkB.T1) by transient transfection into mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. We observed that expression of trkB.T1 leads to a striking change in cell morphology characterized by outgrowth of filopodia and processes. A similar morphological response was also observed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with trkB.T1. N2a cells lack endogenous expression of trkB isoforms, but express barely detectable amounts of its ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4). The morphological change was ligand-independent, since addition of exogenous BDNF or NT-4 or blockade of endogenous trkB ligands did not influence this response. Filopodia and process outgrowth was significantly suppressed when full-length trkB.TK+ was cotransfected together with trkB.T1 and this inhibitory effect was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a. Transfection of trkB.T1 deletion mutants showed that the morphological response is dependent on the extracellular, but not the intracellular domain of the receptor. Our results suggest a novel ligand-independent role for truncated trkB in the regulation of cellular morphology.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanistic contribution of ubiquitous 15-lipoxygenase-1 expression loss in cancer cells to terminal cell differentiation evasion. AU - Moussalli, Micheline J.. AU - Wu, Yuanqing. AU - Zuo, Xiangsheng. AU - Yang, Xiu L.. AU - Wistuba, Ignacio Ivan. AU - Raso, Maria G.. AU - Morris, Jeffrey S.. AU - Bowser, Jessica L.. AU - Minna, John D.. AU - Lotan, Reuben. AU - Shureiqi, Imad. PY - 2011/12. Y1 - 2011/12. N2 - Loss of terminal cell differentiation promotes tumorigenesis. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) contributes to terminal cell differentiation in normal cells. The mechanistic significance of 15-LOX-1 expression loss in human cancers to terminal cell differentiation suppression is unknown. In a screen of 128 cancer cell lines representing more than 20 types of human cancer, we found that 15-LOX-1 mRNA expression levels were markedly lower than levels in terminally differentiated cells. Relative expression levels of 15-LOX-1 (relative to the level in terminally differentiated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Krüppel-like factor 4, Elk-1, and histone deacetylases cooperatively suppress smooth muscle cell differentiation markers in response to oxidized phospholipids. AU - Yoshida, Tadashi. AU - Gan, Qiong. AU - Owens, Gary K.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/11. Y1 - 2008/11. N2 - Phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), such as increased proliferation, enhanced migration, and downregulation of SMC differentiation marker genes, is known to play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the factors and mechanisms controlling this process are not fully understood. We recently showed that oxidized phospholipids, including 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC), which accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions, are potent repressors of expression of SMC differentiation marker genes in cultured SMCs as well as in rat carotid arteries in vivo. Here, we examined the molecular mechanisms ...
Involucrin (Squamous Cell Terminal Differentiation Marker) Antibody - Without BSA and Azide, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone SY5 ] validated in IHC-P, IF, FC (AH10541-100), Abgent
Wright N.; Morley A.; Appleton D., 1971: The effect of testosterone on cell differentiation and proliferation in the castrate mouse small intestine
The use of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (hiPSC-NPCs) is an attractive therapeutic option for damaged nerve tissues. To direct neuronal differentiation of stem cells, we have previously developed an electrospun polycaprolactone nanofiber scaffold that was functionalized with siRNA targeting Re-1 silencing transcription factor (REST), by mussel-inspired bioadhesive coating. However, the efficacy of nanofiber-mediated RNA interference on hiPSC-NPCs differentiation remains unknown. Furthermore, interaction between such cell-seeded scaffolds with injured tissues has not been tested. In this study, scaffolds were optimized for REST knockdown in hiPSC-NPCs to enhance neuronal differentiation. Specifically, the effects of two different mussel-inspired bioadhesives and transfection reagents were analyzed. Scaffolds functionalized with RNAiMAX Lipofectamine-siREST complexes enhanced the differentiation of hiPSC-NPCs into TUJ1+ cells (60% as compared to 22% in ...
Notch2 interaction with its ligand, Dll1, is required in the mouse to drive MZP into the MZB cell lineage (Saito et al., 2003; Hozumi et al., 2004). Preliminary data based on humanized mouse models have also proposed a Notch2 dependence for the differentiation of IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells (Scheeren et al., 2008). Accordingly, we searched for an MZP in the spleen from young children, taking as diagnostic criteria its capacity to acquire an MZ phenotype when cultured in presence of OP9 cells expressing human DLL1, a differentiation which, moreover, should be specifically inhibited in presence of anti-NOTCH2 blocking antibodies. This precursor subset was identified using the recently described MEM55 antibody, which marks a glycosylated variant of the CD45RB molecule, harbored by CD27+ B cells and an immature B cell subset (Koethe et al., 2011). Surprisingly, these MZPs were further characterized as expressing the ABCB1 transporter reported so far as the unique hallmark of naive B cells (Wirths and ...
The process of generating hiPS cell-derived hepatocytes begins with the directed differentiation of hiPS cells into definitive endoderm (DE) cells, which are then differentiated further into hepatocytes. The complete system provides media, supplements, and coating reagents for each step of the hiPS-cell-to-hepatocyte differentiation protocol. Starting with approximately 3 x 106 undifferentiated hiPS cells, this system yields 5 x 106 hepatocytes-equivalent to a confluent monolayer of 50 cm2. Importantly, this do-it-yourself system offers a solution for the consistent production of assay-ready cells from patient-derived cells, or from Cellartis brand iPS cell lines-enabling highly reproducible results.. Successful differentiation depends on the quality of the starting material; a homogeneous, undifferentiated stem cell population is ideal. The iPS Cell to Hepatocyte Differentiation System promotes high-quality starting material by incorporating DEF-CS culture system components, which are designed ...
Renovos OPC differentiation assay is used to identify compounds that promote the production of oligodendrocytes from OPCs. In this assay, OPCs are cultured with or without compounds in differentiation media in 96-well plates. Following 5 days of differentiation, cells are stained and imaged in high-content ArrayScan™ reader in multiple channels. Computer algorithms are used to quantify the number of viable and pyknotic cells, and the number of EGFP+ oligodendrocytes in each well of the plate. Immunostaining of additional markers of different cell types can also be performed and quantified.. Applications of the OPC differentiation assay include:. ...
Background: The role of mesenchymal stem cell in cellular therapy is the subject of interest for many researchers. The differentiation potential of MSCs and abilities in modulations of the recipients immune system makes them important cells in tissue regenerative studies. MSCs by releasing the proinflammatory cytokines play important role in immunomodulatory systems; however the signaling pathways for releasing of these mediators are not well understood. Glutathione has been shown to play a role in modulation of cytokines in hepatogenic differentiation. Objective: In the current study we aimed to investigate the effects of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, inhibitor for glutathione synthesis) and N-acetylecystin (NAC, an inhibitor for ROS generation) on proinflammatory cytokines production in a hepatogenic differentiation model. Results: BSO and NAC significantly decreased IL-6 and TNF-α levels at 14 days of differentiation, whereas, NAC decreased the levels of IL-8 at days 2 and 14 of differentiation.
The development of tumor cell differentiation agents is new initiative in cancer treatment research. The goal of this project was to identify breast cancer differentiation agents by screening quinoline ring-containing compounds obtained form National Cancer Institute Compound Library. Of six differentiation-inducing quinolines NSC3852 was chosen as a lead compound. Our results demonstrate that NSC3852 is an inhibitor of HDAC activity in HeLa and MCF-7 cells nuclear extracts. NSC3852 caused superoxide generation in MCF-7 cells in a NADPH oxidase-dependent fashion, and NSC3852-induced oxidative stress led to the shift in a redox potential of the cells to a more oxidized state. This change in redox status of the cells was accompanied by the accumulation of hypophosphorylated pRb, downregulation of E2F-1 and Myc transcription factor protein levels, and cell differentiation. Superoxide formation in response to NSC3852 exposure caused DNA damage and subsequently apoptosis. MCF-7 cells growth was inhibited.
Background: We have previously shown that knockout of E2F1 in mice enhances angiogenesis following induction of hind limb ischemia. Recent studies suggest that suppression of E2F1 enhances oxidative phosphorylation in a variety of cell types. Since an increase in oxidative phosphorylation in stem/progenitor cells is often associated with cell differentiation, we hypothesize that E2F1-deficiency may promote bone marrow (BM) progenitor cell differentiation thereby impact on ischemic cardiac repair.. Methods and Results: We cultured bone marrow (BM) Lin- progenitor cells under hypoxic and normxic conditions for 24 h, then measured the expression of metabolism associated genes and evaluated cell proliferation and differentiation. We also performed adoptive BM transplantation to reconstitute BM of WT mice with E2F1-/- or WT BM, followed by surgical induction of myocardial infarction (MI), to compare the role of BM E2F1 in the cardiac repair in vivo. Notably, we found that the expression levels of ...
Bcl6 is required for CD4 T cell differentiation into T follicular helper cells (Tfh). In this study, we examined the role of IL-6 in early processes of in vivo Tfh differentiation, because the timing and mechanism of action of IL-6 in Tfh differentiation have been controversial in vivo. We found that early Bcl6(+)CXCR5(+) Tfh differentiation was severely impaired in the absence of IL-6; however, STAT3 deficiency failed to recapitulate that defect. IL-6R signaling activates the transcription factor STAT1 specifically in CD4 T cells. Strikingly, we found that STAT1 activity was required for Bcl6 induction and early Tfh differentiation in vivo. IL-6 mediated STAT3 activation is important for downregulation of IL-2Rα to limit Th1 cell differentiation in an acute viral infection. Thus, IL-6 signaling is a major early inducer of the Tfh differentiation program unexpectedly mediated by both STAT3 and STAT1 transcription factors. ...
Analysis of MM14 mouse myoblasts demonstrates that terminal differentiation is repressed by pure preparations of both acidic and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Basic FGF is approximately 30-fold more potent than acidic FGF and it exhibits half maximal activity in clonal assays at 0.03 ng/ml (2 pM). FGF repression occurs only during the G1 phase of the cell cycle by a mechanism that appears to be independent of ongoing cell proliferation. When exponentially growing myoblasts are deprived of FGF, cells become postmitotic within 2-3 h, express muscle-specific proteins within 6-7 h, and commence fusion within 12-14 h. Although expression of these three terminal differentiation phenotypes occurs at different times, all are initiated by a single regulatory commitment event in G1. The entire population commits to terminal differentiation within 12.5 h of FGF removal as all cells complete the cell cycle and move into G1. Differentiation does not require a new round of DNA synthesis. Comparison ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stomach Organ and Cell Lineage Differentiation. T2 - From Embryogenesis to Adult Homeostasis. AU - Willet, Spencer G.. AU - Mills, Jason C.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Gastric diseases cause considerable worldwide burden. However, the stomach is still poorly understood in terms of the molecular-cellular processes that govern its development and homeostasis. In particular, the complex relationship between the differentiated cell types located within the stomach and the stem and progenitor cells that give rise to them is significantly understudied relative to other organs. In this review, we highlight the current state of the literature relating to specification of gastric cell lineages from embryogenesis to adulthood. Special emphasis is placed on substantial gaps in knowledge about stomach specification that we think should be tackled to advance the field. For example, it has long been assumed that adult gastric units have a granule-free stem cell that gives rise to all ...
Nurr1, a transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor family, is essential for the generation of midbrain dopamine (DA) cellsduring embryonic development and it continues to be expressed in adult DA neurons. However, the mechanism by which Nurr1 promotes dopamine cell differentiation has remained unknown. In this study, I have used a neuronal progenitor cell line (NT2/D1), which retains some stem cell characteristics and is capable only of terminal differentiation into neurons, to analyze the function of Nurr1 in dopamine cell development. The results demonstrated that Nurr1 can induce cell cycle arrest and the cells differentiated with distinct neuronal morphology after all-trans retinoic acid treatment. It was also indicated that up-regulation of some dopaminergic neuron markers (e.g. TH, DAT and D2DR) while down-regulation of CyclinD1-Cdk6 activity marks the key events in the early stages of dopaminergic neuron differentiation. Furthermore, Pin1, a highly conserved isomerase, which ...
Background: MiR-499 is a cardiac-abundant miRNA. However, the biological functions of miR-499 in differentiated cardiomyocytes or in the cardiomyocyte differentiation process is not very clear. Sox6 is believed to be one of its targets, and is also believed to play a role in cardiac differentiation. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the association between Sox6 and miR-499 during cardiac differentiation.. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using a well-established in vitro cardiomyocyte differentiation system, mouse P19CL6 cells, we found that miR-499 was highly expressed in the late stage of cardiac differentiation. In cells stably transfected with miR-499 (P-499 cells), it was found that miR-499 could promote the differentiation into cardiomyocytes at the early stage of cardiac differentiation. Notably, cell viability assay, EdU incorporation assay, and cell cycle profile analysis all showed that the P-499 cells displayed the distinctive feature of hyperplastic growth. Further investigation ...
Terminal B cell differentiation is a complex process currently modeled upon the actions of a small number of master regulators, and the gaps in our understanding are clear. Insight into the mechanism of differentiation, both its initiation and its full execution, is advanced with the identification of each new contributing factor.. Here, we identify Zbtb20 as a new mediator of B cell differentiation specifically expressed in B1 and GC B cells and ASCs. Zbtb20 is a BTB-ZF transcription factor, and other members of the family have been shown to be active within the B cell lineage (Chevrier and Corcoran, 2014). For instance, early B lineage commitment is mediated by LRF, Bcl6, and Miz-1 (Maeda et al., 2007; Duy et al., 2010; Kosan et al., 2010), MZ B cell differentiation is controlled by LRF (Sakurai et al., 2011), and the GC reaction is driven by Bcl6 and LRF (Fukuda et al., 1997; Sakurai et al., 2011). Finally, Zbtb32 has been associated with plasma cell differentiation (Yoon et al., ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct differentiation of bone marrow mononucleated cells into insulin producing cells using pancreatic β-cell-derived components. AU - Oh, Ju Eun. AU - Choi, Ok Kyung. AU - Park, Ho Seon. AU - Jung, Hye Seung. AU - Ryu, Su Jeong. AU - Lee, Yong Deok. AU - Lee, Seung Ah. AU - Chung, Sung Soo. AU - Choi, Eun Young. AU - Lee, Dong Sup. AU - Gho, Yong Song. AU - Lee, Hakmo. AU - Park, Kyong Soo. PY - 2019/3/29. Y1 - 2019/3/29. N2 - Transplantation of stem cell-derived insulin producing cells (IPCs) has been proposed as an alternative to islet transplantation for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, current IPC differentiation protocols are focused on generating functional cells from the pluripotent stem cells and tend to rely on multistep, long-term exposure to various exogenous factors. In this study, we addressed the observation that under stress, pancreatic β-cells release essential components that direct the differentiation of the bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNCs) ...
Characterizing genes associated with leukemic cell differentiation may provide help for understanding mechanisms on the leukemia differentiation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the expression of melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) could be induced during leukemia differentiation and whether mda-7/IL-24 plays a role in leukemia differentiation. We showed that the expression of mda-7/IL-24 and IL-24 delE5, an mda-7/IL-24 splice variant, was induced in U937 and HL60 cells during 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-mediated monocytic differentiation. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway was required for their induction. Knockdown of mda-7/IL-24 and IL-24 delE5 resulted in significant inhibition of the monocytic differentiation induced by TPA. More importantly, ectopic overexpression of mda-7/IL-24 and IL-24 delE5 significantly induced U937 cells, HL60 cells, and blast cells from ...
In this directed differentiation protocol, Pax3-GFP is overexpressed in mesenchymal stem cells via viral transduction. After infection, cells are subjected to fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate the GFP-positive cells. Isolated cells are cultured in mesenchymal stem cell expansion medium without growth factors, to promote their differentiation into myogenic cells. The differentiated cells are multinucleated and express early-myogenic markers ...
Directed differentiation is a bioengineering methodology at the interface of stem cell biology, developmental biology and tissue engineering. It is essentially harnessing the potential of stem cells by constraining their differentiation in vitro toward a specific cell type or tissue of interest. Stem cells are by definition pluripotent, able to differentiate into several cell types such as neurons, cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes, etc. Efficient directed differentiation requires a detailed understanding of the lineage and cell fate decision, often provided by developmental biology. During differentiation, pluripotent cells make a number of developmental decisions to generate first the three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm) of the embryo and intermediate progenitors, followed by subsequent decisions or check points, giving rise to all the bodys mature tissues. The differentiation process can be modeled as sequence of binary decisions based on probabilistic or stochastic models. ...
The present studies were undertaken to determine whether the CDKI FP could enhance PMA-induced maturation in human leukemia cells. The rationale for this investigation stemmed from several considerations: (a) FP has been shown to induce differentiation in some cell types (e.g., non-small cell lung cancer cells; Ref. 21 ); and (b) inhibition of cell cycle progression by FP might promote a leukemic cell differentiation program (47) . Contrary to expectations, coexposure to FP for 24 h strikingly opposed PMA-induced differentiation in U937 cells and instead significantly increased apoptosis. These events were associated with increased mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of caspases, and loss of clonogenic survival; moreover, enhanced cell death after PMA/FP cotreatment was also observed in promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) and in U937 cells overexpressing the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. These events may reflect the complex reciprocal relationship that exists between differentiation and ...
The coordination of cell proliferation with the gradual differentiation of different cell types is essential for proper development and tissue homeostasis. However, little is known about the signals that couple cell cycle exit to differentiation switch during development. Here, we show that signaling mediated by integrins, the major cell-ECM receptors, contributes to the regulation of this switch in the posterior follicle cells of the Drosophila ovary. Furthermore, our experiments strongly suggest that one of the mechanisms by which integrins regulate epithelial cell differentiation is by modulating the activity of the Notch pathway through promoting the proper endosomal trafficking and/or processing of Notch.. Integrins are known to regulate cell differentiation and proliferation in other systems. The effects of particular integrins in regulating differentiation vary depending on the epithelial cell type. Thus, although β1 integrin signaling is inhibitory for differentiation in the epidermis ...
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of the mammalian blastocyst. Cellular differentiation entails loss of pluripotency and gain of lineage-specific characteristics. However, the molecular controls that govern the differentiation process remain poorly understood. We have characterized small RNA expression profiles in differentiating ES cells as a model for early mammalian development. High-throughput 454 pyro-sequencing was performed on 19-30 nt RNAs isolated from undifferentiated male and female ES cells, as well as day 2 and 5 differentiating derivatives. A discrete subset of microRNAs (miRNAs) largely dominated the small RNA repertoire, and the dynamics of their accumulation could be readily used to discriminate pluripotency from early differentiation events. Unsupervised partitioning around meloids (PAM) analysis revealed that differentiating ES cell miRNAs can be divided into three expression clusters with highly contrasted accumulation patterns. ...
Bromodomain-containing protein 2 (Brd2) is a BET family chromatin adaptor required for expression of cell cycle associated genes and therefore involved in cell cycle progression. Brd2 is expressed in proliferating neuronal progenitors, displays cell cycle-stimulating activity and, when overexpressed, impairs neuronal differentiation. Paradoxically, Brd2 is also detected in differentiating neurons. To shed light on the role of Brd2 in the transition from cell proliferation to differentiation we have looked for Brd2 interacting proteins upon induction of neuronal differentiation. Surprisingly, we have identified the growth factor Pleiotrophin (Ptn). Ptn antagonizes the cell cycle-stimulating activity associated with Brd2, thus enhancing induced neuronal differentiation. Moreover, Ptn knockdown reduces neuronal differentiation. Ptn-mediated antagonism of Brd2 has been assessed in a cell differentiation model and in two embryonic processes associated with the neural tube: spinal cord neurogenesis ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in positive regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Adipose stem cells (ASCs) are pluripotent cells with the ability of self-renewal and differentiation into various kinds of mesenchymal cells. a three-dimensional tradition. 10 and 20 M doses of Res demonstrated probably the most proliferating influence on ADSCs. The SIRT 1 genes manifestation and FRAP level also more than doubled set alongside the control group (3D tradition was the right condition for ASCs differentiation to chondrocyte, and lower dosages of Res exert proliferation influence on ASCs. gene manifestation.25,26 The purpose of the present research was to research the result of Res on differentiation of ASCs into chondrocyte in 3D tradition also to evaluate cell success, apoptosis, total antioxidants gene and capacity expression. Strategies and Components With this experimental research, subcutaneous adipose cells had been taken from individuals (20-40 years) during liposuction inside a sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) remedy. The adipose cells were cut into small pieces and ...
Upon activation, naive CD8 T cells undergo a program of proliferation and differentiation that results in the acquisition of effector functions. Optimal T cell activation requires the integration of multiple signals including cross-linking of the T cell receptor (signal 1), co-stimulation (signal 2) and soluble factors such as cytokines (signal 3). Once a CD8 T cell has received these three signals they differentiate into an effector cell, which are able to control infection by directly killing the infected cell. Once the infection is cleared, these effector cells contract by controlled cell death and a long-lived population of memory cells remain. These potent memory cells are the defining feature of adaptive immunity as they offer protection for the life of the host due to their unique capabilities to survive in the absence of antigen and respond rapidly to secondary challenge. Therefore, effective CD8 T cell memory is the goal of cell-mediated vaccination strategies. While it is well ...
Definition of Cell differentiation in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Cell differentiation? Meaning of Cell differentiation as a legal term. What does Cell differentiation mean in law?
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC)3 must choose between self-renewal and differentiation; if they differentiate they can become common myeloid progenitors (CMP) or common lymphoid progenitors (CLP). It is still unclear how environmental signals (1) and lineage-specific transcription factors work together to control the frequency with which dividing HSC either undergo self-renewal or commit to one or the other lineage. Transcription factors expressed in HSC can drive commitment to either the lymphoid or the myeloid lineage (2). For example, factors of the Ikaros family specifically favor differentiation down the lymphoid pathway (3), whereas other factors, such as GATA-1 and C/EBPα, favor differentiation down the myeloid pathway (4, 5).. We are particularly interested in mechanisms that influence the choice between self-renewal and differentiation. Thus we study the E2F family of transcription factors, which promotes cell cycle progression and exit; the latter is associated with terminal ...
Due to the pivotal role of stem cell differentiation in regeneration and disease cure, the study of it has always been a research highlight during the recent years. Stress microenvironment has a great impact on cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Twist1, as a core epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulatory factor, plays an important role in these processes. Moreover, Twist1 gene can express in alveolar bone - periodontal ligament interface and the expression can be regulated by changes in the occlusal force. In this article, we will present a review of Twist1 gene, especially in the aspect of the biological functions in stem cell differentiation under mechanical signals and explore whether Twist1 involved in tissue remodeling in alveolar bone - periodontal membrane interface under stress ...
Due to the pivotal role of stem cell differentiation in regeneration and disease cure, the study of it has always been a research highlight during the recent years. Stress microenvironment has a great impact on cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Twist1, as a core epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulatory factor, plays an important role in these processes. Moreover, Twist1 gene can express in alveolar bone - periodontal ligament interface and the expression can be regulated by changes in the occlusal force. In this article, we will present a review of Twist1 gene, especially in the aspect of the biological functions in stem cell differentiation under mechanical signals and explore whether Twist1 involved in tissue remodeling in alveolar bone - periodontal membrane interface under stress ...
The key advantage of iPS cells over other stem cells is that they are patient-specific (and therefore immuno-compatible) and can be grown in infinite amounts. Moreover, they are not dogged by the ethical and religious controversies associated with hES cells, yet still have the same properties as hES cells. They also offer the possibility of conducting clinical-trials-in-the-dish, providing a platform for drug screening, disease modelling and gene/cell therapy in pre-clinical studies.3,4. How are iPS cells made?. When cell differentiation occurs, the cell follows a process of changes in gene activity whereby embryonic-specific genes are inactivated and differentiation-specific genes are activated. The end result of this differentiation programme is a specialised cell of one type or another (e.g. cardiac muscle cells or neurons). To reprogramme a fully differentiated adult cell into an iPS cell is surprisingly straightforward - all that is needed is reactivation of the embryonic regulatory ...
The results presented here demonstrate that the luminal cell compartment in both the human and mouse mammary glands is much more heterogeneous than initially perceived since progenitors of varying levels of luminal cell differentiation can be identified and prospectively isolated. In the mouse, these populations resolve as separable ER+ and ER- subpopulations, whereas in the human the ALDH+ and ALDH- subpopulations appear to comprise a larger contiguous population. The cell types of the different species appear to be homologous to one another; for example, the ER- LPs in the mouse are equivalent to the ALDH+ cells in the human, and likewise for the ER+ luminal mouse progenitors and the ALDH- luminal human progenitor cells because both populations collectively express higher levels of luminal cell differentiation markers than the ER-/ALDH+ subpopulations. The ER+ cells in the mouse are probably ductal-restricted progenitors since they express higher levels of ER and FoxA1, transcription factors ...
We have shown in this study that activation of the canonical Wnt pathway promoted, and inhibition of this pathway blocked, neuronal differentiation both in cortical NPC cultures and in the developing neocortex. We emphasize two aspects of these findings: (1) Wnts appear to function as an extracellular cue that instructively triggers neuronal differentiation; and (2) this effect of Wnts is dependent on the stage of development. In this Discussion, we address these aspects and their possible underlying mechanisms.. In general, two models can explain how the fate of an uncommitted precursor cell is influenced by extrinsic cues. In one model, extrinsic cues instruct multipotent precursor cells to commit to a particular lineage. In the other model, multipotent precursor cells choose their fate stochastically, and the proliferation and/or survival of specific lineage-restricted cells is then supported by extrinsic cues. For example, Pdgf treatment increases the size of the neuronal population in ...
We have found that β-catenin signaling and neural differentiation of ES cells are inhibited by culture at high density. This observation is consistent with prior studies of neural/neuronal differentiation of ES cells that have all used relatively low densities irrespective of whether EB or dissociated cell culture techniques were used (Gratsch and OShea, 2002; Ying et al., 2003). The need to culture the cells at low density to achieve neuronal differentiation limits the number of cells that could potentially be obtained for transplantation strategies and raises questions about the mechanisms mediating neuronal differentiation of the cells. Our studies suggest that β-catenin signaling promotes both neural and neuronal differentiation of ES cells, and that the effects of increased cell density are mediated at least in part by inhibition of β-catenin signaling.. Similar to observations with keratinocytes (Dietrich et al., 2002), culture of ES cells at high density promotes membrane localization ...
Reduction of Prep1 Levels Affects Differentiation of Normal and Malignant B Cells and Accelerates Myc Driven Lymphomagenesis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
AIMS: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) play a critical role in negatively regulating the proliferation of cardiomyocytes, although their role in cardiac differentiation remains largely undetermined. We have shown that the most prominent CDKI in Xenopus, p27(Xic1)(Xic1), plays a role in neuronal and myotome differentiation beyond its ability to arrest the cell cycle. Thus, we investigated whether it plays a similar role in cardiomyocyte differentiation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Xenopus laevis embryos were sectioned, and whole-mount antibody staining and immunofluorescence studies were carried out to determine the total number and percentage of differentiated cardiomyocytes in mitosis. Capped RNA and/or translation-blocking Xic1 morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (Xic1Mo) were microinjected into embryos, and their role on cardiac differentiation was assessed by in situ hybridization and/or PCR. We show that cell-cycling post-gastrulation is not essential for cardiac differentiation in ...
The adult mammalian dermis contains a subpopulation of precursor cells that possess the capacity to differentiate into different lineages (16-18). These fibroblastic MSCs have attracted attention for their plasticity and, therefore, their potential therapeutic applications, including in transplantation for bone formation (19). In the present study, the role of BMP7 in the osteogenic differentiation of CD105+ hDDFCs was examined in vitro and in vivo, and the underlying Smad-dependent and -independent mechanisms were identified.. Conflicting reports exist on the differentiation potential of dermal fibroblasts, with certain studies suggesting limited potential and others demonstrating adipocytic, osteocytic and chondrocytic differentiation capacities (20-23). One reason for these controversial results is the heterogeneity of isolated dermal fibroblasts, which include populations with different differentiation capacities (5,13). Although dermal fibroblasts have a surface antigen profile similar to ...
NKT cells are potent regulatory T cells that prevent the development of several autoimmune diseases. Analysis of NKT cell regulatory function in the NOD mouse has revealed that NKT cells inhibit the development of type 1 diabetes by impairing the differentiation of anti-islet T cells into Th1 effector cells. In the present study, we have performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to determine the respective role of cytokines and cell contacts in the blockade of T cell differentiation by NKT cells. These experiments reveal that cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-beta, that have been involved in other functions of NKT cells, play only a minor role if any in the blockade of T cell differentiation by NKT cells. Diabetes is still prevented by NKT cells in the absence of functional IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-beta. In contrast, we show for the first time that cell contacts are crucial for the immunoregulatory function of NKT cells.
GATA-6, a zinc finger transcription factor, is important in the endodermal differentiation of organ tissues.[4] It is also indicated in proper lung development by controlling the late differentiation stages of alveolar epithelium and aquaporin-5 promoter activation. Furthermore, GATA-6 has been linked to the production of LIF, a cytokine that encourages proliferation of endodermal embryonic stem cells and blocks early epiblast differentiation. If left unregulated in the developing embryo, this cytokine production and chemical signal contributes to the phenotypes discussed further below.[5] Upon the disruption of GATA-6 in an embryo, the distal lung epithelial development is stunted in transgenic mice models[4] The progenitor cells, or stem cells, for alveolar epithelial tissues develop and are specified appropriately, however further differentiation does not occur. Also the distal-proximal bronchiole development is affected, resulting in a reduced quantity of airway exchange sites.[4] This ...
Current clinical judgment in bladder cancer (BC) relies primarily on pathological stage and grade. We investigated whether a molecular classification of tumor cell differentiation, based on a developmental biology approach, can provide additional prognostic information. Exploiting large preexisting gene-expression databases, we developed a biologically supervised computational model to predict markers that correspond with BC differentiation. To provide mechanistic insight, we assessed relative tumorigenicity and differentiation potential via xenotransplantation. We then correlated the prognostic utility of the identified markers to outcomes within gene expression and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue datasets. Our data indicate that BC can be subclassified into three subtypes, on the basis of their differentiation states: basal, intermediate, and differentiated, where only the most primitive tumor cell subpopulation within each subtype is capable of generating xenograft tumors and ...
Set of osteoblast-inducer reagents, including hydrocortisone, ß-glycerophosphate, and ascorbic acid. These reagents induce the efficient differentiation of bone marrow-derived cells and adipose-derived stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells) into osteoblasts.
BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer a virtually unlimited source of neural cells for structural repair in neurological disorders, such as stroke. Neural cells can be derived from hESCs either by direct enrichment, or by isolating specific growth factor-responsive and expandable populations of human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Studies have indicated that the direct enrichment method generates a heterogeneous population of cells that may contain residual undifferentiated stem cells that could lead to tumor formation in vivo. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated an expandable and homogenous population of hNSCs (named SD56) from hESCs using a defined media supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and leukemia inhibitory growth factor (LIF). These hNSCs grew as an adherent monolayer culture. They were fully neuralized and uniformly expressed molecular features of NSCs, including nestin, vimentin and radial glial markers. These hNSCs did ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Eomesodermin controls a unique differentiation program in human IL-10 and IFN-γ coproducing regulatory T cells. AU - Gruarin, Paola. AU - Maglie, Stefano. AU - De Simone, Marco. AU - Häringer, Barbara. AU - Vasco, Chiara. AU - Ranzani, Valeria. AU - Bosotti, Roberto. AU - Noddings, Johanna S. AU - Larghi, Paola. AU - Facciotti, Federica. AU - Sarnicola, Maria L. AU - Martinovic, Martina. AU - Crosti, Mariacristina. AU - Moro, Monica. AU - Rossi, Riccardo L. AU - Bernardo, Maria E. AU - Caprioli, Flavio. AU - Locatelli, Franco. AU - Rossetti, Grazisa. AU - Abrignani, Sergio. AU - Pagani, Massimiliano. AU - Geginat, Jens. N1 - © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.. PY - 2018/11/15. Y1 - 2018/11/15. N2 - Whether human IL-10-producing regulatory T cells (Tr1) represent a distinct differentiation lineage or an unstable activation stage remains a key unsolved issue. Here, we report that Eomesodermin (Eomes) acted as a lineage-defining transcription factor in human ...
The development of skeletal muscle is a multistep process in which pluripotent mesodermal cells give rise to myoblasts that subsequently withdraw from the cell cycle and differentiate into myotubes.2,13 These stages are controlled by the MyoD and myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) families of transcription factors, which interact with one another to establish a unique transcriptional code for activation of skeletal muscle-specific genes.14 It has been shown that such muscle differentiation-specific gene expression occurs in a stereotype pattern. Within 24 hours of switching to differentiation medium or serum withdrawal, proliferating myoblasts initiate the expression of myogenin, followed by the expression of MEF2 family of transcription factors, including MEF2D.15 Consistent with these observations, we showed in the present study that cell cycle withdrawal induced myogenin and MEF2D protein expression, peaking at 48 and 72 hours after medium switch, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated, for ...
The work of the Fasano team will allow a better understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of congenital visceral smooth muscle malformations (mus musculus).
Dr. Jeffrey Millman was co-first author with colleagues at Harvard University in a report published in Cell entitled Generation of Functional Human Pancreatic β Cells In Vitro demonstrating a strategy for producing functional stem cell-derived β cells from human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.. CBS Evening News report ...
Formulated Receptor Polypeptides and Related Methods | AGENT FOR PROMOTING SUBSTANCE INCORPORATION IN INTESTINAL TRACT | Materials and Methods of Treating Dyslipidemia | FORMULATIONS OF VANCOMYCIN | NOVEL ENTERIC COMBINATION THERAPY |
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In B-cell differentiation[edit]. A study that investigated the methylome of B cells along their differentiation cycle, using ... such as the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, primordial germ cells or embryonic stem cells. Since DNA methylation appears to ... "Cell. 156 (6): 1286-1297. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.01.029. PMC 3969382. PMID 24630728.. ... If the mismatch is not repaired and the cell enters the cell cycle the strand carrying the T will be complemented by an A in ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 5 (2): 187-96. PMID 8180132.. ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 143 (1): 1-4. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... Chin SS, Liem RK (December 1989). "Expression of rat neurofilament proteins NF-L and NF-M in transfected non-neuronal cells". ... European Journal of Cell Biology. 50 (2): 475-90. PMID 2516804.. *. Julien JP, Grosveld F, Yazdanbaksh K, Flavell D, Meijer D, ... Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 70 (5): 279-84. doi:10.1139/o92-044. PMID 1497855.. ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 5 (10): 1033-40. PMID 7848904.. ... If the mutation inhibits programmed cell death, the cell can ... If the mutation inhibits programmed cell death, the cell can survive to become a cancer, a cell that does not function like a ... Blood cells are naturally recycled after a certain period of time, allowing for the creation of new, functional red blood cells ... SCLC may originate from neuroendocrine cells located in the bronchus called Feyrter cells.[57] ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 6 (7): 871-7. PMID 7547509.. ... DNA and Cell Biology. 9 (1): 1-9. doi:10.1089/dna.1990.9.1. ... Atkins KB, Troen BR (July 1995). "Regulation of cathepsin D gene expression in HL-60 cells by retinoic acid and calcitriol". ... DNA and Cell Biology. 10 (6): 423-31. doi:10.1089/dna.1991.10.423. PMID 2069717.. ... and glycosylation of pro-cathepsin D in human mammary cancer cells". Cancer Research. 49 (14): 3904-9. PMID 2736531.. ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 2 (1): 15-22. PMID 1848773.. ... human NK-2 receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells". ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 5 (10): 1127-35. PMID 7848914.. ... positive regulation of cell proliferation. • cell proliferation ... "Endocytosis of gastrin in cancer cells expressing gastrin/CCK-B receptor". Cell and Tissue Research. 287 (2): 325-33. doi: ... A misspliced transcript variant including an intron has been observed in cells from colorectal and pancreatic tumors.[10] ... Kulaksiz H, Arnold R, Göke B, Maronde E, Meyer M, Fahrenholz F, Forssmann WG, Eissele R (Feb 2000). "Expression and cell- ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 4 (10): 821-30. PMID 8274451.. ... Cell division protein kinase 8 is an enzyme that in humans is ... Cell nucleus. • nucleolus. Biological process. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • phosphorylation. • protein ... "Molecular Cell. 27 (1): 121-33. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2007.05.026. PMC 2936241 . PMID 17612495.. ... Specifically, CDK8 promotes turnover of the notch intracellular domain,[9] and inhibits EGFR signaling-driven cell fates in C. ...
glial cell differentiation. • transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • retinal pigment epithelium development. • ... stem cell differentiation. • metanephric distal convoluted tubule development. • reactive oxygen species metabolic process. • ... cell differentiation. • negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • positive ... metanephric mesenchymal cell differentiation. • aging. • metanephric epithelium development. • mesenchymal to epithelial ...
Cell Death and Differentiation. 10 (7): 853-5. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4401263. PMID 12815469.. ... Cytochrome c also has an intermediate role in apoptosis, a controlled form of cell death used to kill cells in the process of ... Cytochrome c is known to play a role in the electron transport chain and cell apoptosis. However, a recent study has shown that ... A study has shown that cells are able to protect themselves from apoptosis by blocking the release of cytochrome c using Bcl-xL ...
... depletion in the absence of p53 promoted the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells and diminished clonogenic ... traversing start control point of mitotic cell cycle. • negative regulation of cell cycle arrest. • protein ubiquitination. • ... Cell Death and Differentiation. 15 (5): 841-8. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4402309. PMID 18219319.. ... "Molecular analysis and chromosomal mapping of amplified genes isolated from a transformed mouse 3T3 cell line". Somatic Cell ...
Cell Death and Differentiation. 7 (12): 1273-4. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4400774. PMID 11270363.. ... positive regulation of T-helper 17 cell differentiation. • defense response to virus. • protein oligomerization. • positive ... positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell differentiation. • regulation of inflammatory response. • interleukin-1 beta production ... cell nucleus. • NLRP3 inflammasome complex. • Golgi membrane. • Golgi apparatus. • membrane. Biological process. • defense ...
Omi interacts with caspase-inhibitor XIAP and induces enhanced caspase activity". Cell Death and Differentiation. 9 (1): 20-6. ... Cell Death and Differentiation. 15 (3): 453-60. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4402291. PMID 18174901.. ... Cell Death and Differentiation. 11 (2): 208-16. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4401343. PMID 14605674.. ... inducing cell death". Molecular Cell. 8 (3): 613-21. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(01)00341-0. PMID 11583623.. ...
"Cell Death and Differentiation. 21 (8): 1325-39. doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.65. PMC 4085538. PMID 24832468.. ... cell-cell signaling. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • cell surface receptor signaling pathway. • movement of ... immune cells, epithelial cells, muscle cells as well as their malignant counterparts.[12][13][14][15][16][17] In the case of ... Aust G, Wandel E, Boltze C, Sittig D, Schütz A, Horn LC, Wobus M (Apr 2006). "Diversity of CD97 in smooth muscle cells". Cell ...
METRN: encoding protein Meteorin, glial cell differentiation regulator. *MKL2: encoding protein MKL/myocardin-like protein 2 ...
... (EGF) is a protein that stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR. ... EGF plays an enhancer role on osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) because it is capable of increasing ... Stimulate growth of mesenchymal cells, promotes wound healing 3 Transforming growth factor (Alpha) Epithelial cell Similar to ... "Epidermal growth factor enhances osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells in vitro". Head & Face Medicine. 11: 29. ...
"Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping (3i) Consortium". Bouwens L (Mar 1998). "Cytokeratins and cell differentiation in the ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... Cell. 154 (2): 452-64. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.022. PMC 3717207 . PMID 23870131. " ... Epithelial cells of the lung and breast both contain keratin-7, but some other glandular epithelia, such as those of the colon ...
Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Gu W, Sun B (2014). "TH1/TH2 cell differentiation and molecular signals". T Helper Cell Differentiation and ... cell nucleus. Biological process. • cell differentiation. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • rhythmic process. • ... which promotes TH2 differentiation. Gata3 enhances T helper cell 2 (Th2) differentiation signals by regulating BHLHE41 ... in sarcoma cells and oral cancer cells. BHLHE41 also suppresses cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) in hepatocellular carcinoma cells ...
Cell differentiation[change , change source]. Differentiation is the formation of cell types, from what is originally one cell ... The formation of cell types like nerve cells occurs with a number of intermediary, less differentiated cell types. A cell stays ... The dividing cells tend to be distinct from differentiated cells (see stem cell). ... Modern developmental biology studies the genetic control of cell growth, differentiation and morphogenesis.[1] These are the ...
"Concepts of target cells in plant differentiation". Cell differentiation. 14 (3): 161-169. doi:10.1016/0045-6039(84)90042-3. ... Hormones, Signals and Target Cells in Plant Development (Developmental and Cell Biology Series no. 41) (Cambridge University ... This work led her to develop the idea of the target cell as a model for how a small number of plant hormones can exert many ... She also originated the concept of the target cell as a model for understanding plant hormone action. Born in India, where her ...
"Helper T cell differentiation is controlled by the cell cycle". Immunity. 9 (2): 229-37. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80605-6. ... "High-resolution tracking of cell division suggests similar cell cycle kinetics of hematopoietic stem cells stimulated in vitro ... December 1997). "Insulin has a limited effect on the cell cycle progression in 3T3 L1 fibroblasts". Molecules and Cells. 7 (6 ... Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) is a fluorescent cell staining dye. CFSE is cell permeable and covalently couples ...
... ubiquitous regulator of cell differentiation and adaptation". The Journal of Cell Biology. 156 (5): 771-4. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... "Host control of HIV-1 parasitism in T cells by the nuclear factor of activated T cells". Cell. 95 (5): 595-604. doi:10.1016/ ... negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation. • cytokine production. • aortic valve morphogenesis. • ... NFATC1, NF-ATC, NFAT2, NFATc, NF-ATc1.2, nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1, nuclear factor of activated T cells 1. ...
... cell growth and differentiation, gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome ... UPS proteolysis plays a major role in responses of cancer cells to stimulatory signals that are critical for the development of ... Goff SP (Aug 2003). "Death by deamination: a novel host restriction system for HIV-1". Cell. 114 (3): 281-3. doi:10.1016/S0092- ... Kleiger G, Mayor T (Jun 2014). "Perilous journey: a tour of the ubiquitin-proteasome system". Trends in Cell Biology. 24 (6): ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 6 (2): 199-210. PMID 7756179. Ho PP, Couch FJ, Brody LC, Abel KJ, Boehnke M, Shearon TH, ... Cell Growth & Differentiation. 11 (7): 409-16. PMID 10939594. Simpson JC, Wellenreuther R, Poustka A, Pepperkok R, Wiemann S ( ... "Rapid microtubule-independent dynamics of Cdc20 at kinetochores and centrosomes in mammalian cells". The Journal of Cell ... "Rapid microtubule-independent dynamics of Cdc20 at kinetochores and centrosomes in mammalian cells". The Journal of Cell ...
... induces their differentiation. In fact, in the neuronal PC12 cell line BTG2 is not able to trigger differentiation by ... Götz M, Huttner WB (October 2005). "The cell biology of neurogenesis". Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology. 6 (10): 777-88. ... Cell Growth & Differentiation. 7 (10): 1327-36. PMID 8891336. Rouault JP, Prévôt D, Berthet C, Birot AM, Billaud M, Magaud JP, ... Cell Growth & Differentiation. 7 (10): 1327-36. PMID 8891336. Guardavaccaro D, Corrente G, Covone F, Micheli L, D'Agnano I, ...
... that may be down-regulated in neoplastic mammary cells". Cell Growth & Differentiation. 3 (8): 507-13. PMID 1390337. Hermeking ... and the preponderance of its strong expression in epithelial cells of squamous cell lineage". Pathology International. 53 (6): ... The protein is named for its presence in stratified epithelial cells. Stratifin has been shown to interact with PLK4, ERRFI1, ... Lodygin D, Hermeking H (April 2005). "The role of epigenetic inactivation of 14-3-3sigma in human cancer". Cell Research. 15 (4 ...
... cell growth and differentiation, gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome ... Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. PMID 16169070. Gerards WL, de Jong WW, Bloemendal H, Boelens W (January ... hereby binding to p21 to induce cell death and inhibit cell proliferation. PSMA3 has been shown to interact with CRYAB, PLK1, ... UPS proteolysis plays a major role in responses of cancer cells to stimulatory signals that are critical for the development of ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 4 (10): 821-30. PMID 8274451. Nagase T, Seki N, Tanaka A, Ishikawa K, Nomura N (Aug 1995). " ... The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0121-KIAA0160) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from human cell line KG-1". DNA ... "Mammalian homologues of the plant Tousled gene code for cell-cycle-regulated kinases with maximal activities linked to ongoing ... "Mammalian homologues of the plant Tousled gene code for cell-cycle-regulated kinases with maximal activities linked to ongoing ...
... to adopt a tendon cell fate. This ultimately places future scleraxis-expressing cells between the two tissue types they will ... More precisely, they have critical roles in the control of cellular differentiation, proliferation and regulation of ... It is thought that early scleraxis-expressing progenitor cells lead to the eventual formation of tendon tissue and other muscle ... Most likely, the syndetomal cells, through careful reading of the FGF concentration (coming from the myotome), can precisely ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 11 (7): 409-16. PMID 10939594. Liu W, Youn HD, Zhou XZ, Lu KP, Liu JO (May 2001). "Binding and ... Expression levels fluctuate in normal, but not in cancerous cells. Expression is often associated with cell proliferation. ... signalling and consequently regulates cell proliferation (in part through control of cyclin D1 levels and stability) and cell ... It was found to be essential for cell division in some organisms. By 1999, however, it was apparent that Pin1 knockout mice had ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 4 (10): 821-30. PMID 8274451. Scanlan MJ, Gordan JD, Williamson B, Stockert E, Bander NH, ... is related to the NIMA cell cycle regulator and highly expressed in meiotic germ cells". The EMBO Journal. 11 (10): 3521-31. ... NIMA (never in mitosis gene a)-related kinase 1, also known as NEK1, is a human gene highly expressed in germ cells and thought ... "Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 83 (4): 456 ...
Certain cells in the brain respond specifically to an increase of CO2 in the blood.[4][24] The response involves vasodilatation ... A differentiation between these two conditions can be made with a computed tomography (CT) scan. The subarachnoid spaces are ... This differentiation has an important influence on the further treatment of the child.[16] ... The head circumference and the growth curve of the head provide important clues into making a differentiation between ...
... fully differentiated plasma cell.[4] Differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells is dependent upon the transcription ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...
Exhaustive differentiation of alloreactive CD8+ T cells: critical for determination of graft acceptance or rejection (PDF). ... T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ... 细胞毒性T细胞(CTLs, killer T cells)负责杀伤被病毒感染的细胞和癌细胞,在对器官移植的免疫排斥中也有参与。其特点在于细胞表面的CD8蛋白质。它通过识别所有有核细胞表
... and HOXD8 homeobox gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells following chemical induction of differentiation". Tumour Biol. ... cell nucleus. Biological process. • anterior/posterior pattern specification. • multicellular organism development. • anterior/ ... Scott MP (Dec 1992). "Vertebrate homeobox gene nomenclature". Cell. 71 (4): 551-3. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92)90588-4. PMID ...
"A strategy for isolation of cDNAs encoding proteins affecting human intestinal epithelial cell growth and differentiation: ... Cell. Biochem. 204 (1-2): 135-55. doi:10.1023/A:1007012622030. PMID 10718634. Geyer M, Fackler OT, Peterlin BM (2001). " ... and membrane association in COS cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (2): 728-32. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.2.728. PMC 53339 . ... characterization of a novel gut-specific N-myristoylated annexin". J. Cell Biol. 116 (2): 405-22. doi:10.1083/jcb.116.2.405. ...
Sertoli cell proliferation. • توصيل الإشارة. • peptide hormone processing. • positive regulation of gene expression. • cell- ... regulation of osteoclast differentiation. • transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation ... 1989). "Expression of biologically active human follitropin in Chinese hamster ovary cells". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (9): 4769-75. ... positive regulation of cell proliferation. • ovarian follicle development. • ...
Invasins, such as pneumolysin, an antiphagocytic capsule, various adhesins, and immunogenic cell wall components are all major ... pneumoniae and differentiation from closely related species.[30] ... and white blood cells to fill the alveoli. This condition is ...
... of CEBPA in MN1-overexpressing hematopoietic cells prevents their hyperproliferation and restores myeloid differentiation". ... "Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 39 (3): 336-9. doi:10.1016/j.bcmd.2007.06.009. PMC 2387274. PMID 17698380.. ... Cell. Proteomics. 7 (3): 499-508. doi:10.1074/mcp.M700325-MCP200. PMID 18029348.. ... 2009). "Meningioma 1 gene is differentially expressed in CD34 positive cells from bone marrow of patients with myelodysplastic ...
CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in differentiation, but it is absent on terminally ... cells in destroying these B cells. When an NK cell latched onto the cap, it had an 80% success rate at killing the cell. In ... It induces apoptosis of CD20+ cells.. The combined effect results in the elimination of B cells (including the cancerous ones) ... ocrelizumab, humanized (90%-95% human) B cell-depleting agent.. *ofatumumab (HuMax-CD20) a fully human B cell-depleting agent.[ ...
... and cellular differentiation. Caulobacter daughter cells have two very different forms. One daughter is a mobile "swarmer" cell ... Role of the swarmer cell stageEdit. The Caulobacter stalked cell stage provides a fitness advantage by anchoring the cell to ... Swarmer cells differentiate into stalked cells after a short period of motility. Chromosome replication and cell division only ... What is the offsetting fitness advantage of this motile cell stage? The swarmer cell is thought to provide cell dispersal, so ...
Three different classes of photopsins in the cones react to different ranges of light frequency, a differentiation that allows ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... ON bipolar cells or inhibit (hyperpolarize) OFF bipolar cells. Thus, it is at the photoreceptor-bipolar cell synapse where ... which releases a neurotransmitter called glutamate to bipolar cells. Farther back is the cell body, which contains the cell's ...
... the uncommitted stem cells of the embryo will undergo differentiation into certain cell lineages. However the exact mechanism ... Osteochondroprogenitor cells are progenitor cells that arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow. They have ... Differentiation into osteoblasts[edit]. Main article: Osteoblast. Osteoblasts are cells that group together to form units, ... Cell signalling and differentiation[edit]. Osteochondroprogenitor can be found between MSCs and the terminally differentiated ...
regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation. • cell differentiation. • mesonephric tubule ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ... cell-cycle processes). PAX8 is shown to be involved in tumor cell proliferation and differentiation, signal transduction, ... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ...
... the number of cell types or morphology all proposed as possible metrics.[2][3][4] ... "Transpositional shuffling and quality control in male germ cells to enhance evolution of complex organisms". Annals of the New ... Gamete differentiation/sexes. *Life cycles/nuclear phases. *Mating types. *Meiosis. *Sex-determination ...
... promotes the differentiation of Leydig cells and their production of androgens at week 8. Androgen action in target tissues ... The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ... These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. ... Dihydrotestosterone increased the number of BrdU cells, while flutamide inhibited these cells. ...
Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells,[223] while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... Due to planetary differentiation, the core region is believed to be primarily composed of iron (88.8%), with smaller amounts of ... The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane.[231] The cell membrane ... Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride.[118] On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but ...
158 Cells of the immune system, such as macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells and eosinophils are found scattered in loose ... Mesenchyme is a type of connective tissue found in developing organs of embryos that is capable of differentiation into all ... The cells of connective tissue include fibroblasts, adipocytes, macrophages, mast cells and leucocytes. ... Cells are spread through an extracellular fluid.. *Ground substance - A clear, colorless, and viscous fluid containing ...
Anaplasia or dedifferentiation: loss of differentiation of cells and of their orientation to one another and blood vessels, a ... Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ... Necrotic cells send the wrong chemical signals which prevent phagocytes from disposing of the dead cells, leading to a buildup ... Glial cells such as Schwann cells in the periphery or, within the cord itself, oligodendrocytes, wrap themselves around the ...
Cell Biol. 42 (6): 813-27. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2009.11.013. PMID 19931639.. ... In women who are pregnant, antiandrogens can interfere with the androgen-mediated sexual differentiation of the genitalia and ... Bennett NC, Gardiner RA, Hooper JD, Johnson DW, Gobe GC (2010). "Molecular cell biology of androgen receptor signalling". Int. ... cells in culture". Journal of Steroid Biochemistry. 31 (5): 845-52. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(88)90295-6. PMID 2462135.. ...
Unlike persister cells, endospores are the result of a morphological differentiation process triggered by nutrient limitation ( ... A stained preparation of the cell Bacillus subtilis showing endospores as green and the vegetative cell as red ... The DNA is replicated and a membrane wall known as a spore septum begins to form between it and the rest of the cell. The ... Sometimes the endospore can be so large the cell can be distended around the endospore. This is typical of Clostridium tetani. ...
"Enhanced differentiation of splenic plasma cells but diminished long-lived high-affinity bone marrow plasma cells in aged mice ... The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ... Mocchegiani, E; M. Malavolta (2004). "NK and NKT cell functions in immunosenescence". Aging Cell. 3 (4): 177-184. doi:10.1111/j ... "B cell diversity decreases in old age and is correlated with poor health status". Ageing Cell. 8: 18-25. doi:10.1111/j.1474- ...
cell adhesion. • hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation. • neuron differentiation. • cerebral cortex development. • ... Cajal-Retzius cell differentiation. • skin morphogenesis. • negative regulation of protein kinase activity. • cell fate ... myeloid leukocyte differentiation. • neuron apoptotic process. • single organismal cell-cell adhesion. • smooth endoplasmic ... cell nucleus. • kinetochore. • centrosome. • rough endoplasmic reticulum. • dendritic shaft. • aggresome. • cell surface. • ...
That as the body attempts to compensate for low iron levels by increasing red blood cell production in the young, sieve-like ... Trauma and social differentiation at Harappa". International Journal of Paleopathology. 2: 136-147. doi:10.1016/j.ijpp.2012.09. ...
Then these cells are injected into the patient. These cells are held in place by a small piece of soft tissue from the tibia, ... membrane protects and stabilizes the MSCs released through microfracture and enhances their chondrogenic differentiation. The ... 10,000 cells are harvested and grown in vitro for approximately six weeks until the population reaches 10-12 million cells. ... The cells grow in self-organized spheroid matrices which are implanted via injected fluid or inserted tissue matrix. For years ...
... happens in serotonergic cells such as neurons. This is part of the differentiation of the serotonergic cells. This post- ... SLBP levels are controlled by cell-cycle proteins, causing SLBP to accumulate as cells enter S phase and degrade as cells leave ... "Cell. 148 (4): 664-78. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.12.029. PMC 3281992. PMID 22325148.. ... "Cell. 153 (3): 590-600. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.03.025. PMC 3641580. PMID 23622243.. ...
"Pkn is a novel partner of cyclin T2a in muscle differentiation". J. Cell. Physiol. 207 (1): 232-7. doi:10.1002/jcp.20566. PMID ... "Abrogation of signal-dependent activation of the cdk9/cyclin T2a complex in human RD rhabdomyosarcoma cells". Cell Death Differ ... Cell. 19 (4): 523-34. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2005.06.027. PMID 16109376. Cottone G, Baldi A, Palescandolo E, Manente L, Penta R, ... Cell. Biol. 23 (14): 4859-69. doi:10.1128/MCB.23.14.4859-4869.2003. PMC 162212 . PMID 12832472. Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, ...
T cell differentiation in thymus. • chorionic trophoblast cell differentiation. • positive regulation of protein targeting to ... positive regulation of T cell cytokine production. • angiogenesis. • neuron differentiation. • Wnt signaling pathway involved ... cell maturation. • Wnt signaling pathway. • embryonic camera-type eye development. • multicellular organism development. • cell ... syncytiotrophoblast cell differentiation involved in labyrinthine layer development. • anterior/posterior axis specification, ...
1,0 1,1 Driss-Ecole D., Lefranc A. et Perbal G. A polarized cell: the root statocyte. Physiol. Plantarum 118:305-312(2003). DOI ... Spangenberg, D. B. Effects of Weightlessness of Aurelia Ephyra Differentiation and Statolith Synthesis. NASA Technical Reports ... The Dictionary of Cell & Molecular Biology. Google books. Páxina 400 [7]. *↑ ... Kinetics and Force Transduction to the Cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum in Gravity-Sensing Arabidopsis Columella Cells. The Plant ...
... cellular differentiation lineage).[6] Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. ... T cells: *CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ... B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... Natural killer cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. Deeply staining, eccentric. NK-cells and cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cells. Years ...
... promotes the differentiation of cancer cells, probably reducing malignancy, which is strongly associated with a loss of cell ... differentiation. They report their findings in a manuscript published online ahead of print, in the journal Molecular and ... promotes the differentiation of cancer cells, probably reducing malignancy, which is strongly associated with a loss of cell ... Cancer cells have shorter telomeres compared to healthy cells, but they guard their immortality by maintaining these telomeres ...
... a Johns Hopkins-led team of scientists has produced the first-ever epigenetic landscape map for tissue differentiation. ... Having charted the occurrence of a common chemical change that takes place while stem cells decide their fates and progress ... Scientists Map Epigenetic Changes During Blood Cell Differentiation. Potential Application For Stem Cell Therapies ... The team could tell which types of stem cells the blood cells had come from, because epigenetically those blood cells had not ...
IFN-β-1a directly inhibits Th17 cell differentiation. A direct effect of IFN-β-1a on Th17 cell differentiation was investigated ... IFN-β-1a directly inhibits Th17 cell differentiation. A, IFN-β-1a inhibits RORc gene expression in CD4+CD45RA+ T cells cultured ... Dendritic cells transduced with SOCS-3 exhibit a tolerogenic/DC2 phenotype that directs type 2 Th cell differentiation in vitro ... and the Th17 cell surface marker IL-23R. The IFN-β-1a-mediated suppression of Th17 cell differentiation is also supported by ...
What is Cell differentiation? Meaning of Cell differentiation as a legal term. What does Cell differentiation mean in law? ... Definition of Cell differentiation in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Th17 Cell Differentiation. For directed differentiation of Th17 cells, 1 x [10.sup.6] [CD4.sup.+] T cells from C57BL/6 mice ... differentiation during the initiation of T cell differentiation by DCs [7].. The Role of Dendritic Cells in the Differentiation ...
It covers programmed cell death, cell death induced by toxic agents, differentiation and their relation to cell proliferation. ... Cell death and Differentiation provides an accessible source of up-to-date information for scientists and clinicians. ... Welcome to Cell Death & Differentiation Devoted to the cell biology, molecular biology and biochemistry of cell death and ... cell types, and cellular processes, such as signaling, proliferation, differentiation, remodeling and neuronal plasticity. In ...
It covers programmed cell death, cell death induced by toxic agents, differentiation and their relation to cell proliferation. ... Cell death and Differentiation provides an accessible source of up-to-date information for scientists and clinicians. ... Welcome to Cell Death & Differentiation Devoted to the cell biology, molecular biology and biochemistry of cell death and ... PD-1 is required to maintain stem cell properties in human dental pulp stem cells *Yao Liu ...
Secondary Metabolism and Differentiation In addition to the primary metabolic reactions, which are similar in all living beings ... Cell Cell Differentiation Endoplasmatisches Reticulum Stoffwechsel Zelldifferenzierung metabolism proteins Authors and ... Secondary Metabolism in Cell Cultures of Higher Plants and Problems of Differentiation ... the cell walls, or in special excretory cells or spaces of the organism ("metabolic excretion," cf. FREY-WYSSLING, 1935, 1970; ...
MicroRNAs in neural cell differentiation.. Lau P1, Hudson LD.. Author information. 1. Section of Developmental Genetics, ... and expressed regionally or specifically in some cell types (dopaminergic neurons, neural stem cells or neurons). Because ... The proposed model also implies that miRNAs are dynamically regulated during neural differentiation (e.g. increase inexpression ... MicroRNAs are temporally expressed during neural differentiation, spatially regulated and embedded in molecular feedback loops ...
Discover how these can be incorporated into your cell culture systems to support advanced cell growth and cell differentiation ... PureCoat™ Amine for Neural Cell Differentiation PureCoat™ Amine for Neural Cell Differentiation Surface coatings have profound ... The interaction between ECM and neural cells is important in cell differentiation and morphogenesis of the nervous system. ... The interaction between ECM and neural cells is important in cell differentiation and morphogenesis of the nervous system. ...
... "cell differentiation"[MeSH Terms] OR ("cell"[All Fields] AND "differentiation"[All Fields]) OR "cell differentiation"[All ... "cell"[All Fields]) OR "differentiation, cell"[All Fields]) AND ("cell movement"[MeSH Terms] OR ("cell"[All Fields] AND " ... Search: genomics, differentiation, cell motility, amoeba, signaling *. Format. Summary. Summary (text). Abstract. Abstract ( ... The Evolution of Aggregative Multicellularity and Cell-Cell Communication in the Dictyostelia. ...
Macrophages differentiate into foam cells during the formation and progression of atherosclerosis. Understanding the process of ... Elucidation of the mechanisms of macrophage to foam cell differentiation will help to steer us in the right direction with ... Macrophage to Foam Cell Transition. The induction of foam cell formation has several causes. The most prominent being the death ... www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Macrophage-to-Foam-Cell-Differentiation-Pathway.aspx. (accessed July 19, 2019). ...
Purchase Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Volume 138 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128128909, ... Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Volume 138 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ... 2. Role of lncRNAs in stem cell maintenance and differentiation. Meghali Aich and Debojyoti Chakraborty. 3. Regulation of ... Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Volume 138, the latest release in the Current Topics in Developmental Biology ...
Ovarian Basaloid Carcinoma with Shadow Cell Differentiation. Michal Zamecnik,1,2 Daniel Jando,3 and Peter Kascak4,5 ... Michal Zamecnik, Daniel Jando, and Peter Kascak, "Ovarian Basaloid Carcinoma with Shadow Cell Differentiation," Case Reports in ...
The shadow cells represent "dead" cells, and thus SCD can be regarded as a mode of terminal differentiation. Nakamura [19] ... So-called shadow cell differentiation (SCD) is typical for pilomatrixoma and other skin lesions with follicular differentiation ... So-called shadow cells (ghost cells) are specialized form of cornified cells in which, as a consequence of karyolysis, nuclei ... squamous cell differentiation (lacking shadow cells) [8]. In tumorigenesis, beta-catenin in the nucleus acts as a key component ...
Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for cell differentiation All GO annotations for Irx5 (18) ...
... Michael Holloway mhollowa at ccnova.sunysb.edu Tue Jul 21 18:08:00 EST 1992 *Previous ... Apparently, the way cell density is followed on a practical basis is to split the cells when a certain degree of confluence is ... This is supposed to send the cells off toward a mature chromaffin cell morphology. As Ive tried to repeat observations Im ... The practical problem Im having as I start to culture them though is that getting a good cell count is impossible. They do not ...
Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for cell differentiation All GO annotations for Vmn2r120 (5) ...
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The invention provides means of manipulating hematopoietic stem cell differentiation by modulation of levels of NR2F6 (EAR2). ... cord blood stem cells, placental stem cells, bone marrow stem cells, amniotic fluid stem cells, neuronal stem cells, ... cord blood stem cells, placental stem cells, bone marrow stem cells, amniotic fluid stem cells, neuronal stem cells, ... Control of stem cell differentiation would allow for expansion of primitive stem cell or progenitor cell populations, thus ...
The Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens Workshops (HLDA) have since 1984 provided a forum for the characterization and ... CD molecules 2006--human cell differentiation molecules J Immunol Methods. 2007 Jan 30;319(1-2):1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jim.2006.11 ... and changed the name of the organization to Human Cell Differentiation Molecules (HCDM) to reflect the broader objectives. ... The Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens Workshops (HLDA) have since 1984 provided a forum for the characterization and ...
Tfh cells are also generated from the conversion of other effector T cells as exemplified by Th1 cells converting into Tfh ... Tfh cells are also generated from the conversion of other effector T cells as exemplified by Th1 cells converting into Tfh ... Tfh cells are generated from naïve CD4 T cells with sequential steps involving cytokine signaling (IL-21, IL-6, IL-12, activin ... Tfh cells are generated from naïve CD4 T cells with sequential steps involving cytokine signaling (IL-21, IL-6, IL-12, activin ...
... the immortalized human fetal midbrain stem cell line ReNcell VM was analyzed in order to detect stem cell differentiation ... Neuroproteomics in stem cell differentiation Proteomics Clin Appl. 2007 Nov;1(11):1513-23. doi: 10.1002/prca.200700324. Epub ... the differentiation process of neural progenitor cells and their modification by neurotrophic factors like the glial cell line- ... Thereby native stem cells and cells transfected with GDNF gene were investigated at the proliferative state and at seven time ...
Vertebrate Neurogenesis: Cell Polarity. Flavio R Zolessi. Published online: February 2016. Regeneration of Organs and ... Cornification Diseases (Skin Cell Death). Eleonora Candi, William Henry Irwin McLean, Biagio Didona, Alessandro Terrinoni, ... Germ Cell Fate Determination in C. elegans. Ekaterina Voronina, David Greenstein. Published online: April 2016. ... Evaluation of Evidence: Stem Cells as a Treatment Option for Traumatic Brain Injury. Maha Tabet, Hiba Hasan, Samar Abdelhady, ...
The nucleus of a cell from a frogs intestine is transplanted into a frogs egg and gives rise to a normal frog. Such ... Transplanted Nuclei and Cell Differentiation, by Sir John B. Gurdon. The nucleus of a cell from a frogs intestine is ... percent of the intestine epithelium cells must have retained the genes necessary for muscle-cell and nerve-cell differentiation ... if a normal embryo containing a specialized cell type such as blood cells can be obtained by transplanting an intestine-cell ...
Lysosomal signaling enables stem cell differentiation by sequestering the transcription factor Tfe3 in the cytoplasm. ... Lysosomal signaling enables stem cell differentiation by sequestering the transcription factor Tfe3 in the cytoplasm. ...
A cell that is able to differentiate into many cell types is known as pluripotent. Such cells are called stem cells in animals ... Cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. It is part of ... Differentiation is also common process in adults: adult stem cells divide to make fully-differentiated daughter cells during ... Differentiation dramatically changes a cells size, shape, metabolic activity, and responsiveness to signals. These changes are ...
Communication received through cell contact is critical for the differentiation of specialized effector cell populations during ... Daughter cells that received more antigen were better able to stimulate T cells. Because cues received through T lymphocyte ... T lymphocytes, in turn, provide key differentiation signals to B lymphocytes. To learn more about this process, Thaunat et al. ... Antigen acquired by B lymphocytes exhibited a polarized distribution that was sustained over several rounds of cell division. ...
Genistein inhibits cell invasion and motility by inducing cell differentiation in murine osteosarcoma cell line LM8.Dec 31, ... Vitamin K2 induces programmed cell death and differentiation in human leukemia cells.Jul 01, 2001. ... 11 Abstracts with Cell Differentiation Inducer Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Sulforaphane induces differentiation in human promyelocytic cells, indicating it may be a promising antileukemic agent.Aug 01, ...
In the dimorphic cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus , differ- AU:1 ences in the proteins assembled at cell… ... In the dimorphic cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus , differ- AU:1 ences in the proteins assembled at cell poles cause cell ... inside which cells change into spores. The regulatory cascades leading to differentiation evolved completely independently in ... In Bacillus subtilis , an endospore forms inside a mother cell; in the mycelial Streptomyces coelicolor , long hyphae grow into ...
... cells and a wide variety of other transformed cells. HMBA has been shown to induce differentiation of neoplastic cells in ... Second generation hybrid polar compounds are potent inducers of transformed cell differentiation. V M Richon, Y Webb, R Merger ... Second generation hybrid polar compounds are potent inducers of transformed cell differentiation ... Second generation hybrid polar compounds are potent inducers of transformed cell differentiation ...
mTORC1-dependent and -independent regulation of stem cell renewal, differentiation, and mobilization. Boyi Gan, Ergün Sahin, ... Rheb1 loss leads to increased hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and myeloid-biased differentiation in vivo ... L-Leucine Alters Pancreatic {beta}-Cell Differentiation and Function via the mTor Signaling Pathway ... mTORC1-dependent and -independent regulation of stem cell renewal, differentiation, and mobilization ...
Our results demonstrate the requirement of plasmalogens for the correct and timely differentiation of Schwann cells and for the ... We determined that plasmalogens are crucial for Schwann cell development and differentiation and that plasmalogen defects ... Treatment with GSK3β inhibitors, lithium, or 4-benzyl-2-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione (TDZD-8) restored Schwann cell ... implicating plasmalogens as regulators of membrane and cell signaling. ...
Our results demonstrate the requirement of plasmalogens for the correct and timely differentiation of Schwann cells and for the ... Lithium administration to inhibit GSK3β is able to rescue Schwann cell differentiation and maturation in the absence of ... We determined that plasmalogens are crucial for Schwann cell development and differentiation and that plasmalogen defects ... Active GSK3β inhibits Schwann cell differentiation, impairing axonal sorting and myelination. ...
Drosophila Embryonic CNS Development: Neurogenesis, Gliogenesis, Cell Fate, and Differentiation Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Drosophila Embryonic CNS Development: Neurogenesis, Gliogenesis, Cell Fate, and Differentiation. Stephen T. Crews ... Features of CNS development covered in this review are neurogenesis, gliogenesis, cell fate specification, and differentiation. ... Drosophila Embryonic CNS Development: Neurogenesis, Gliogenesis, Cell Fate, and Differentiation. Stephen T. Crews ...
  • One apparent application of this work might be to employ these same techniques to assess how completely an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) has been reprogrammed. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Lymphoid and myeloid constitute the two major types of progenitor blood cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Notably, we demonstrate that the transcription factor FoxO1 is present in the human fetal pancreatic progenitor cells and acts as a repressor for cell differentiation during the early fetal pancreatic development. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • MS pathology is mediated by complex interactions between invading immune cells, neurons, glia, and endogenous stores of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). (uvm.edu)
  • He's a great stem cell biologist and he lent a whole level of expertise that we didn't have. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The mammary gland undergoes significant remodeling during pregnancy and lactation, which is fuelled by controlled mammary stem cell (MaSC) proliferation. (technologynetworks.com)
  • They also highlight the potential of these cells to be used as novel models to understand adult stem cell plasticity and breast cancer, with potential use in bioengineering and tissue regeneration. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Embryonic stem cell microRNAs: defining factors in induced pluripotent (iPS) and cancer (CSC) stem cells? (qxmd.com)
  • Role of stem cell proteins and microRNAs in embryogenesis and germ cell cancer. (qxmd.com)
  • Lpr NPCs exhibited decreased apoptosis, decreased proliferation, and increased differentiation to oligoprogenitor and neuronal lineages. (uvm.edu)
  • Th1 cells were the only subtype capable of inducing NPC apoptosis. (uvm.edu)
  • On the other hand, NPCs were able to induce significant apoptosis in pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 cells without affecting anti-inflammatory Th2 cells. (uvm.edu)
  • gene manifestation.25,26 The purpose of the present research was to research the result of Res on differentiation of ASCs into chondrocyte in 3D tradition also to evaluate cell success, apoptosis, total antioxidants gene and capacity expression. (lxsustentavel.com)
  • T cells and eventually induce [T.sub.FH] differentiation during the initiation of T cell differentiation by DCs [7]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They looked at eight types of cells in various stages of commitment, including very early blood stem cells that had yet to differentiate into red and white blood cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • That's why we wanted to know what was happening generally to the levels of DNA methylation as cells differentiate. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • One of the surprising finds was how widely DNA methylation patterns vary in cells as they differentiate. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Once a CD8 T cell has received these three signals they differentiate into an effector cell, which are able to control infection by directly killing the infected cell. (edu.au)
  • In the present study, we have performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to determine the respective role of cytokines and cell contacts in the blockade of T cell differentiation by NKT cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, the molecular controls that govern the differentiation process remain poorly understood. (qxmd.com)
  • Further, the effect that CD4 help has on the transcriptional profiles of CD8 T cells and the molecular pathways they use during the generation and maintenance of memory CD8 T cells remains elusive. (edu.au)
  • However, upon reactivation, helped memory CD8 T cells exhibited greater transcriptional up-regulation than their unhelped counterparts and utilization of alternate molecular pathways. (edu.au)
  • The data shown in this thesis suggests each of these genes may be molecular signatures used to identify memory cells. (edu.au)
  • In the study, the forced elongation of cancer cells' telomeres suppressed a number of genes and proteins that appear to be involved in tumor malignancy, according to the report. (asm.org)
  • This change is found in one of the building blocks of DNA, is remembered by a cell when it divides, and often is associated with turning off genes. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Genes themselves aren't going to tell us what's really responsible for the great diversity in cell types in a complex organism like ourselves," Feinberg says. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The data shows that when all is said and done, the lymphocytes had many more methylated genes than myeloid cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Breastmilk cells from different donors displayed variable expression of pluripotency genes normally found in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). (technologynetworks.com)
  • The SIRT 1 genes manifestation and FRAP level also more than doubled set alongside the control group (3D tradition was the right condition for ASCs differentiation to chondrocyte, and lower dosages of Res exert proliferation influence on ASCs. (lxsustentavel.com)
  • Genome wide RNA sequencing analysis of the transcriptional signatures between resting helped and unhelped memory CD8 T cells revealed surprisingly few differentially expressed genes. (edu.au)
  • This thesis has compared the transcriptional profiles of each of these cell stages, aiming to identify any previously unappreciated genes, gene networks or TFs that may be vital during the differentiation of memory CD8 T cells. (edu.au)
  • Based on transcriptional profiles of gene expression across each of the cell stages, two key genes were identified, Dmrta1 and Zbtb32. (edu.au)
  • Each gene should be further evaluated, but alone have validated the method of data mining and comparison to identify previously undescribed genes as having a role in cell differentiation. (edu.au)
  • Upon activation, naive CD8 T cells undergo a program of proliferation and differentiation that results in the acquisition of effector functions. (edu.au)
  • Moreover, ICOS deficiency significantly inhibits Bcl6 induction to further inhibit CXCR5 expression, indicating that the ICOSL-ICOS signalling pathway guides Bcl6 expression in T cells to promote CXCR5 expression in [CD4.sup. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Intriguing metabolism defects combined with similarities to an 'exhausted phenotype' suggest that help is required to defer a cell away from terminal differentiation, towards a memory cell. (edu.au)
  • abstract = "Matthew Dalby and colleagues describe a materials solution in which mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on a nanostructured substrate maintain their multipotency for up to eight weeks. (northwestern.edu)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of the mammalian blastocyst. (qxmd.com)
  • The team chose the blood cell system as its model because it's well-understood in terms of cellular development. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • This study demonstrates that small RNA sampling throughout early ES cell differentiation enables the definition of statistically significant expression patterns for most cellular miRNAs. (qxmd.com)
  • For directed differentiation of Th17 cells, 1 x [10.sup.6] [CD4.sup. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Th17 cell differentiation was correlated with the phosphate level, age, and albumin level, but not with the iPTH level (Figure 1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To determine the role of Fas/FasL in neuroimmune cross-talk, co-cultures of wild-type or lpr NPCs with different T-cell subtypes (Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells) were performed. (uvm.edu)
  • NPC-induced Th17 cell death was mediated via Fas. (uvm.edu)
  • Based on their results, the investigators now propose that telomeres also modulate the behavior of cells by controlling gene expression, by as yet unknown mechanisms, says Seimiya. (asm.org)
  • To identify the factor that suppresses xylem cell differentiation downstream of TDIF--TDR, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening with the TDR cytoplasmic kinase domain, and found BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE2 (BIN2), a member of the plant Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 protein (GSK3) family. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inhibition of T cell differentiation into effectors by NKT cells requires cell contacts. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Having charted the occurrence of a common chemical change that takes place while stem cells decide their fates and progress from precursor to progeny, a Johns Hopkins-led team of scientists has produced the first-ever epigenetic landscape map for tissue differentiation. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • After enzymatic digestion, the cell suspension was passed through 70 and 40 m filter mesh (cell strainer) to eliminate undigested tissue fragments. (lxsustentavel.com)
  • Optimal T cell activation requires the integration of multiple signals including cross-linking of the T cell receptor (signal 1), co-stimulation (signal 2) and soluble factors such as cytokines (signal 3). (edu.au)
  • Finally, using mathematical modelling of in vitro activated cells combined with bioinformatic analysis of ATACSeq, this thesis also has explored the role of signal three on chromatin remodelling during CD8 T cell activation. (edu.au)
  • The researchers, using blood-forming stem cells from mice, focused their investigation specifically on an epigenetic mark known as methylation. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Employing a customized genome-wide methylation-profiling method dubbed CHARM (comprehensive high-throughput arrays for relative methylation), the team analyzed 4.6 million potentially methylated sites in a variety of blood cells from mice to see where DNA methylation changes occurred during the normal differentiation process. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • T cells from C57BL/6 mice were activated with 2 f g/ml anti-CD3, 2 f g/ml anti-CD28 for 3 days in the presence of 5 ng/ml TGF-beta, 20 ng/ml IL-6 and 20 ng/ml IL-23. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A discrete subset of microRNAs (miRNAs) largely dominated the small RNA repertoire, and the dynamics of their accumulation could be readily used to discriminate pluripotency from early differentiation events. (qxmd.com)
  • Discovery of pluripotency-associated microRNAs in rabbit preimplantation embryos and embryonic stem-like cells. (qxmd.com)
  • We have further shown that the transience of some of these miRNA patterns provides highly discriminative markers of particular ES cell states during their differentiation, an approach that might be broadly applicable to the study of early mammalian development. (qxmd.com)
  • Further, our analysis revealed that CD4 T cell help during initial priming is essential for establishing a memory cell pool with enhanced transcriptional potential. (edu.au)
  • These transcriptional profiles were first compared globally, which highlighted the similarities between each of the cell stages. (edu.au)
  • By elucidating the role of ERKs in B cell differentiation , the current research provides valuable insight into a little-understood area of immune response, promising advances in drug discovery and offering hope to autoimmune disease and allergy sufferers around the world. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Factors critical to NPC/immune cell communication as well as the survival, differentiation, and proliferation of NPCs are not well defined. (uvm.edu)
  • Fas - a member of the tumor necrosis superfamily of death receptors - has diverse, cell-specific functions and is a major modulator of autoregulation within the immune system. (uvm.edu)
  • Identifying the chromatin remodelling and E2F-dependent transcription repressors Ari4a and Arid4b as additional targets of miR-302 and miR-290 supports and possibly expands a model integrating possible overlapping functions of the two miRNA families in mouse cell totipotency during early development. (qxmd.com)