Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Mice, Inbred C57BLSex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute: A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Plasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Myoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Nerve Tissue ProteinsGATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Myogenin: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute: An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal PROMYELOCYTES predominate. It is frequently associated with DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Receptor, Notch1: A notch receptor that interacts with a variety of ligands and regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS for multiple cellular processes. It is widely expressed during EMBRYOGENESIS and is essential for EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Mice, Inbred BALB CMicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 2: A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. It plays a role in regulating IMMUNOGLOBULIN E expression.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins: Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1: A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Cell SeparationWnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Myoblasts, Skeletal: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Hexanones: 6-carbon straight-chain or branched ketones.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3: An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Embryoid Bodies: Spontaneous aggregations of human embryonic stem cells that occur in vitro after culturing in a medium that lacks LEUKEMIC INHIBITORY FACTOR. The embryoid bodies can further differentiate into cells that represent different lineages.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.

In vitro effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) on bovine cells. (1/61862)

Bovine fetal muscle cells were exposed to culture media containing 2 mg and 20 mg per liter of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) for varying intervals to determine the in vitro response of mammalian cells to this compound. The concentrations of 2,4-D used were comparable to those used in spray programmes although the residues normally found in pasture are much lower since 2,4-D is rapidly degraded under field conditions. Untreated and treated cultures were analyzed for total cell count, mitotic index and the percentages of differentiating and degenerating cells. The response of cultures to treatment was similar irrespective of the concentrations of 2,4-D used although in higher concentrations there was an initial drop in mitotic index. Other changes noted in treated cultures included an increase in differentiating and degenerating cells compared to those in control. The mitotic cells in treated cultures exhibited unipolar and tripolar spindles and a variety of other abnormalities including malorientation of the mitotic apparatus in relation to the axis of the cell. Myoblasts in initial stages of myogenesis were noted to be in mitosis in treated cultures suggesting that 2,4-D may have a stimulatory effect on myoblasts which in normal myogenesis are in post mitotic stage.  (+info)

Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis. (2/61862)

The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation.  (+info)

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (3/61862)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (4/61862)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

oko meduzy mutations affect neuronal patterning in the zebrafish retina and reveal cell-cell interactions of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. (5/61862)

Mutations of the oko meduzy (ome) locus cause drastic neuronal patterning defect in the zebrafish retina. The precise, stratified appearance of the wild-type retina is absent in the mutants. Despite the lack of lamination, at least seven retinal cell types differentiate in oko meduzy. The ome phenotype is already expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium affecting morphology of the neuroepithelial cells. Our experiments indicate that previously unknown cell-cell interactions are involved in development of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. In genetically mosaic animals, cell-cell interactions are sufficient to rescue the phenotype of oko meduzy retinal neuroepithelial cells. These cell-cell interactions may play a critical role in the patterning events that lead to differentiation of distinct neuronal laminae in the vertebrate retina.  (+info)

Retinoids are produced by glia in the lateral ganglionic eminence and regulate striatal neuron differentiation. (6/61862)

In order to identify molecular mechanisms involved in striatal development, we employed a subtraction cloning strategy to enrich for genes expressed in the lateral versus the medial ganglionic eminence. Using this approach, the homeobox gene Meis2 was found highly expressed in the lateral ganglionic eminence and developing striatum. Since Meis2 has recently been shown to be upregulated by retinoic acid in P19 EC cells (Oulad-Abdelghani, M., Chazaud, C., Bouillet, P., Sapin, V., Chambon, P. and Dolle, P. (1997) Dev. Dyn. 210, 173-183), we examined a potential role for retinoids in striatal development. Our results demonstrate that the lateral ganglionic eminence, unlike its medial counterpart or the adjacent cerebral cortex, is a localized source of retinoids. Interestingly, glia (likely radial glia) in the lateral ganglionic eminence appear to be a major source of retinoids. Thus, as lateral ganglionic eminence cells migrate along radial glial fibers into the developing striatum, retinoids from these glial cells could exert an effect on striatal neuron differentiation. Indeed, the treatment of lateral ganglionic eminence cells with retinoic acid or agonists for the retinoic acid receptors or retinoid X receptors, specifically enhances their striatal neuron characteristics. These findings, therefore, strongly support the notion that local retinoid signalling within the lateral ganglionic eminence regulates striatal neuron differentiation.  (+info)

T-cell development: a new marker of differentiation state. (7/61862)

Differentiation of T cells is a complicated affair and there has been a dearth of markers that faithfully reflect thymocyte phenotype. A new strategy based on T-cell receptor gene sequencing has revealed a marker that can be used to monitor thymocyte differentiation with fidelity and without perturbation.  (+info)

Expression of the naturally occurring truncated trkB neurotrophin receptor induces outgrowth of filopodia and processes in neuroblastoma cells. (8/61862)

We have investigated the effects of the truncated trkB receptor isoform T1 (trkB.T1) by transient transfection into mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. We observed that expression of trkB.T1 leads to a striking change in cell morphology characterized by outgrowth of filopodia and processes. A similar morphological response was also observed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with trkB.T1. N2a cells lack endogenous expression of trkB isoforms, but express barely detectable amounts of its ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4). The morphological change was ligand-independent, since addition of exogenous BDNF or NT-4 or blockade of endogenous trkB ligands did not influence this response. Filopodia and process outgrowth was significantly suppressed when full-length trkB.TK+ was cotransfected together with trkB.T1 and this inhibitory effect was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a. Transfection of trkB.T1 deletion mutants showed that the morphological response is dependent on the extracellular, but not the intracellular domain of the receptor. Our results suggest a novel ligand-independent role for truncated trkB in the regulation of cellular morphology.  (+info)

*Epigenetics in stem-cell differentiation

LIF inhibits cell differentiation, and its removal allows the cell lines to go through cell differentiation. The cell lines ... In embryonic stem cells, DNMT1 depletion within the undifferentiated progenitor cell compartment led to cell cycle arrest, ... following the initiation of in vitro embryonic stem cell differentiation. Differentiation was triggered by the removal of ... "Hematopoietic commitment during embryonic stem cell differentiation in culture". Molecular Cell Biology. 13: 473-486. doi: ...

*Cell Death & Differentiation

... is a peer reviewed academic journal published by Nature Publishing Group. BIOBASE/Current ...

*Daphne Osborne

"Concepts of target cells in plant differentiation". Cell differentiation. 14 (3): 161-169. doi:10.1016/0045-6039(84)90042-3. ... Hormones, Signals and Target Cells in Plant Development (Developmental and Cell Biology Series no. 41) (Cambridge University ... This work led her to develop the idea of the target cell as a model for how a small number of plant hormones can exert many ... She also originated the concept of the target cell as a model for understanding plant hormone action. Born in India, where her ...

*Alexander Fleming Biomedical Sciences Research Center

Stem Cell differentiation; Epigenetics; Learning and memory; ECM biology. Fields of excellence: Molecular mechanisms of disease ...

*Fibronectin type II domain

... cell differentiation and migration; maintenance of the cellular cytoskeleton; and tumour metastasis. The major part of the ... "The receptor DEC-205 expressed by dendritic cells and thymic epithelial cells is involved in antigen processing". Nature. 375 ( ... Pankov R, Yamada KM (2002). "Fibronectin at a glance". J Cell Sci. 115: 3861-3863. doi:10.1242/jcs.00059. PMID 12244123. ... Fibronectins are involved in a number of important functions e.g., wound healing; cell adhesion; blood coagulation; ...

*GLIS1

It is believed that the role of Glis1 in this disease is to promote cell differentiation in the skin by changing the increasing ... cells which have not reprogrammed properly and make up the vast majority of cells in a dish of treated cells. Glis1 actively ... "Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors". Cell. 131 (5): 861-72. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... 1 (1). Boyerinas B, Park SM, Hau A, Murmann AE, Peter ME (March 2010). "The role of let-7 in cell differentiation and cancer". ...

*Len R. Troncale

Theoretical models of cell differentiation. Troncale has written and edited several books, articles and research papers. Books ...

*Microfold cell

"M Cell Differentiation: Distinct Lineage or Phenotypic Transition? Salmonella Provides Answers". Cell Host & Microbe. 12: 607- ... is another example of a cell surface receptor on M cells. M cells lack microvilli but, like other epithelial cells, they are ... Pathogens can take advantage of cell differentiation pathways in order to invade host cells. This is done by inducing ... Though many studies have shown various cell types directing the differentiation of M cells, new research characterizes the ...

*MiR-338

Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation. Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation. 48: 225-42. doi:10.1007/400_2009_1 ... Cell. 123 (4): 631-40. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.10.022. PMID 16271387. Barik S (Sep 2008). "An intronic microRNA silences genes ... Ambros V (Dec 2001). "microRNAs: tiny regulators with great potential". Cell. 107 (7): 823-6. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00616-X ... are involved in neuroblast differentiation and apoptosis". Journal of Molecular Medicine. 88 (10): 1041-53. doi:10.1007/s00109- ...

*NHLRC2

Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation. Springer-Verlag. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-69185-3. ISBN 978-3-662-21625-5. "NHLRC2 ... It has been found in the cytosol, mitochondria, and/or peroxisomes of cells in which it is expressed. NHLRC2 is a part of the ... Ruffolo, R.R. Jr.; Feuerstein, G.Z.; Hunter, A.J.; Poste, George; Metcalf, B.W. (2004). Inflammatory Cells and Mediators in CNS ...

*Chemoreceptor

Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation. 47. pp. 57-75. doi:10.1007/400_2008_4. ISBN 978-3-540-69918-7. Chapman RF (1998 ... Embedded in the olfactory epithelium are three types of cells: supporting cells, basal cells, and OSNs. While all three types ... Plant hormone receptors can either be integrated in plant cells or situate outside the cell, in order to facilitate chemical ... sometimes coupling the signaling to ciliary motility or alternatively to cell division and differentiation." When inputs from ...

*Swarming motility

Kim, W.; Killam, T.; Sood, V.; Surette, M. G. (2003). "Swarm-Cell Differentiation in Salmonellaenterica Serovar Typhimurium ... Alberti, L; Harshey, RM (1990). "Differentiation of Serratia marcescens 274 into swimmer and swarmer cells". Journal of ... Swarming bacteria undergo morphological differentiation that distinguish them from their planktonic state. Cells localized at ... Rather, Philip N. (2005). "Swarmer cell differentiation in Proteus mirabilis". Environmental Microbiology. 7 (8): 1065-73. doi: ...

*Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1

Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation. Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation. 46: 159-79. doi:10.1007/400_2007_ ... Verlaet M, Adamantidis A, Coumans B, Chanas G, Zorzi W, Heinen E, Grisar T, Lakaye B (Sep 2002). "Human immune cells express ... "SVK14 cells express an MCH binding site different from the MCH1 or MCH2 receptor". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ...

*Vasoactive intestinal peptide

Fahrenkrug J (2010-01-01). "VIP and PACAP". Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation. 50: 221-34. doi:10.1007/400_2009_24. ... The SCN coordinates daily timekeeping in the body and VIP plays a key role in communication between individual brain cells ... The ability of the population to remain synchronized as well as the ability of single cells to generate oscillations is ... The presence of VPAC2 in ventrolateral side suggests that VIP signals can actually signal back to regulate VIP secreting cells ...

*Sensory rhodopsin II

Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation. 45. pp. 73-122. doi:10.1007/400_2007_041. ISBN 978-3-540-78621-4. PMID 17898961. ...

*Neuromedin S

Mori K, Miyazato M, Kangawa K (2008). "Neuromedin S: discovery and functions". Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation. 46 ...

*GLD-2

Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) 8. ↑ "GO:0002244 » Hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation". NextProt BETA. ... We can also find them in some other source tissues are the fibroblast, HeLa cell, MCF-7 cell, melanoma cell line and thymus. ... a kind of cell types including myeloid progenitor cells and lymphoid progenitor cells. The polyadenylation activity of GLD-2, ... This is the process in which precursor cell type acquires the specialized features of a hematopoietic progenitor cell, ...

*Neuropeptide B

Results and problems in cell differentiation. 46: 239-56. doi:10.1007/400_2007_056. PMID 18204824. Uniprot: Neuropeptide B ...

*V-erbA-related gene

In situations where differentiation of stem cells into a cell of increased maturity is desired, inhibition of NR2F6 activity ... So, when inhibition of differentiation of stem cell is desired, inhibition of differentiation is achieved through induction of ... Ichim, C.V. and Ichim, T., (2015). Modulation of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation. U.S. Patent 20,150,299,712. Ichim, C ... Mice that over expression of NR2F6 in their bone marrow cells have a block at the pro-erythroblast stage of blood cell ...

*Nanotopography

"The control of human mesenchymal cell differentiation using nanoscale symmetry and disorder". Nature Materials. 6 (12): 997- ... Nanotopography is readily applied to cell culture and has been shown to have a significant impact on cell behavior across ... Subjected solely to topographical cues, a wide variety of cells demonstrate responses including changes in cell growth and gene ... "Nanotopographical Control of Stem Cell Differentiation". Journal of Tissue Engineering. 1 (1): 120623-120623. doi:10.4061/2010/ ...

*Neuropeptide S

Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation. 46: 145-58. doi:10.1007/400_2007_051. PMID 18204825. Xu YL, Reinscheid RK, ...

*Prolactin-releasing hormone

Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation. 46. pp. 57-88. doi:10.1007/400_2007_048. ISBN 978-3-540-78350-3. PMID 18204826. ...

*BHLHE41

... which promotes TH2 differentiation. Gata3 enhances T helper cell 2 (Th2) differentiation signals by regulating BHLHE41 ... in sarcoma cells and oral cancer cells. BHLHE41 also suppresses cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) in hepatocellular carcinoma cells ... Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Gu W, Sun B (2014). "TH1/TH2 cell differentiation and molecular signals". Advances in Experimental Medicine ... and metastasis in sarcoma cells and hepatocellular carcinoma cells. It has been shown that the normal tissue adjacent to colon ...

*METRN

... glial cell differentiation regulator is a protein that in humans is encoded by the METRN gene. Meteorin regulates glial cell ... glial cell differentiation regulator". Retrieved 2016-02-25. This article incorporates text from the United States National ... differentiation and promotes the formation of axonal networks during neurogenesis (Nishino et al., 2004 [PubMed 15085178]). ...

*Differentiation-inducing factor

discoideum,Suppresses Cell Growth and Promotes Retinoic Acid-Induced Cell Differentiation in HL-60". Biochemical and ... pre-stalk cells coming from the anterior side and pre-spore cells from the posterior. Early evidence showed the differentiation ... as well as DIF-1 does to induce differentiation in stalk cells. Despite this similarity in function during differentiation, ... Differentiation-inducing factor (DIF) is one of a class of effector molecules that induce changes in cell chemistry, inhibiting ...

*Atrioventricular node

BMP (Bone morphogenetic protein) cell signaling plays a key role in diverse aspects of cardiac differentiation and ... Contraction of heart muscle cells requires depolarization and repolarization of their cell membranes. Movement of ions across ... cell membranes causes these events. The cardiac conduction system (and AV node part of it) coordinates myocyte mechanical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanistic contribution of ubiquitous 15-lipoxygenase-1 expression loss in cancer cells to terminal cell differentiation evasion. AU - Moussalli, Micheline J.. AU - Wu, Yuanqing. AU - Zuo, Xiangsheng. AU - Yang, Xiu L.. AU - Wistuba, Ignacio Ivan. AU - Raso, Maria G.. AU - Morris, Jeffrey S.. AU - Bowser, Jessica L.. AU - Minna, John D.. AU - Lotan, Reuben. AU - Shureiqi, Imad. PY - 2011/12. Y1 - 2011/12. N2 - Loss of terminal cell differentiation promotes tumorigenesis. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) contributes to terminal cell differentiation in normal cells. The mechanistic significance of 15-LOX-1 expression loss in human cancers to terminal cell differentiation suppression is unknown. In a screen of 128 cancer cell lines representing more than 20 types of human cancer, we found that 15-LOX-1 mRNA expression levels were markedly lower than levels in terminally differentiated cells. Relative expression levels of 15-LOX-1 (relative to the level in terminally differentiated ...
Involucrin (Squamous Cell Terminal Differentiation Marker) Antibody - Without BSA and Azide, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone SY5 ] validated in IHC-P, IF, FC (AH10541-100), Abgent
Wright N.; Morley A.; Appleton D., 1971: The effect of testosterone on cell differentiation and proliferation in the castrate mouse small intestine
Notch2 interaction with its ligand, Dll1, is required in the mouse to drive MZP into the MZB cell lineage (Saito et al., 2003; Hozumi et al., 2004). Preliminary data based on humanized mouse models have also proposed a Notch2 dependence for the differentiation of IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells (Scheeren et al., 2008). Accordingly, we searched for an MZP in the spleen from young children, taking as diagnostic criteria its capacity to acquire an MZ phenotype when cultured in presence of OP9 cells expressing human DLL1, a differentiation which, moreover, should be specifically inhibited in presence of anti-NOTCH2 blocking antibodies. This precursor subset was identified using the recently described MEM55 antibody, which marks a glycosylated variant of the CD45RB molecule, harbored by CD27+ B cells and an immature B cell subset (Koethe et al., 2011). Surprisingly, these MZPs were further characterized as expressing the ABCB1 transporter reported so far as the unique hallmark of naive B cells (Wirths and ...
The process of generating hiPS cell-derived hepatocytes begins with the directed differentiation of hiPS cells into definitive endoderm (DE) cells, which are then differentiated further into hepatocytes. The complete system provides media, supplements, and coating reagents for each step of the hiPS-cell-to-hepatocyte differentiation protocol. Starting with approximately 3 x 106 undifferentiated hiPS cells, this system yields 5 x 106 hepatocytes-equivalent to a confluent monolayer of 50 cm2. Importantly, this do-it-yourself system offers a solution for the consistent production of assay-ready cells from patient-derived cells, or from Cellartis brand iPS cell lines-enabling highly reproducible results.. Successful differentiation depends on the quality of the starting material; a homogeneous, undifferentiated stem cell population is ideal. The iPS Cell to Hepatocyte Differentiation System promotes high-quality starting material by incorporating DEF-CS culture system components, which are designed ...
Renovos OPC differentiation assay is used to identify compounds that promote the production of oligodendrocytes from OPCs. In this assay, OPCs are cultured with or without compounds in differentiation media in 96-well plates. Following 5 days of differentiation, cells are stained and imaged in high-content ArrayScan™ reader in multiple channels. Computer algorithms are used to quantify the number of viable and pyknotic cells, and the number of EGFP+ oligodendrocytes in each well of the plate. Immunostaining of additional markers of different cell types can also be performed and quantified.. Applications of the OPC differentiation assay include:. ...
Background: The role of mesenchymal stem cell in cellular therapy is the subject of interest for many researchers. The differentiation potential of MSCs and abilities in modulations of the recipients immune system makes them important cells in tissue regenerative studies. MSCs by releasing the proinflammatory cytokines play important role in immunomodulatory systems; however the signaling pathways for releasing of these mediators are not well understood. Glutathione has been shown to play a role in modulation of cytokines in hepatogenic differentiation. Objective: In the current study we aimed to investigate the effects of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, inhibitor for glutathione synthesis) and N-acetylecystin (NAC, an inhibitor for ROS generation) on proinflammatory cytokines production in a hepatogenic differentiation model. Results: BSO and NAC significantly decreased IL-6 and TNF-α levels at 14 days of differentiation, whereas, NAC decreased the levels of IL-8 at days 2 and 14 of differentiation.
Background: We have previously shown that knockout of E2F1 in mice enhances angiogenesis following induction of hind limb ischemia. Recent studies suggest that suppression of E2F1 enhances oxidative phosphorylation in a variety of cell types. Since an increase in oxidative phosphorylation in stem/progenitor cells is often associated with cell differentiation, we hypothesize that E2F1-deficiency may promote bone marrow (BM) progenitor cell differentiation thereby impact on ischemic cardiac repair.. Methods and Results: We cultured bone marrow (BM) Lin- progenitor cells under hypoxic and normxic conditions for 24 h, then measured the expression of metabolism associated genes and evaluated cell proliferation and differentiation. We also performed adoptive BM transplantation to reconstitute BM of WT mice with E2F1-/- or WT BM, followed by surgical induction of myocardial infarction (MI), to compare the role of BM E2F1 in the cardiac repair in vivo. Notably, we found that the expression levels of ...
Bcl6 is required for CD4 T cell differentiation into T follicular helper cells (Tfh). In this study, we examined the role of IL-6 in early processes of in vivo Tfh differentiation, because the timing and mechanism of action of IL-6 in Tfh differentiation have been controversial in vivo. We found that early Bcl6(+)CXCR5(+) Tfh differentiation was severely impaired in the absence of IL-6; however, STAT3 deficiency failed to recapitulate that defect. IL-6R signaling activates the transcription factor STAT1 specifically in CD4 T cells. Strikingly, we found that STAT1 activity was required for Bcl6 induction and early Tfh differentiation in vivo. IL-6 mediated STAT3 activation is important for downregulation of IL-2Rα to limit Th1 cell differentiation in an acute viral infection. Thus, IL-6 signaling is a major early inducer of the Tfh differentiation program unexpectedly mediated by both STAT3 and STAT1 transcription factors. ...
Nurr1, a transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor family, is essential for the generation of midbrain dopamine (DA) cellsduring embryonic development and it continues to be expressed in adult DA neurons. However, the mechanism by which Nurr1 promotes dopamine cell differentiation has remained unknown. In this study, I have used a neuronal progenitor cell line (NT2/D1), which retains some stem cell characteristics and is capable only of terminal differentiation into neurons, to analyze the function of Nurr1 in dopamine cell development. The results demonstrated that Nurr1 can induce cell cycle arrest and the cells differentiated with distinct neuronal morphology after all-trans retinoic acid treatment. It was also indicated that up-regulation of some dopaminergic neuron markers (e.g. TH, DAT and D2DR) while down-regulation of CyclinD1-Cdk6 activity marks the key events in the early stages of dopaminergic neuron differentiation. Furthermore, Pin1, a highly conserved isomerase, which ...
Background: MiR-499 is a cardiac-abundant miRNA. However, the biological functions of miR-499 in differentiated cardiomyocytes or in the cardiomyocyte differentiation process is not very clear. Sox6 is believed to be one of its targets, and is also believed to play a role in cardiac differentiation. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the association between Sox6 and miR-499 during cardiac differentiation.. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using a well-established in vitro cardiomyocyte differentiation system, mouse P19CL6 cells, we found that miR-499 was highly expressed in the late stage of cardiac differentiation. In cells stably transfected with miR-499 (P-499 cells), it was found that miR-499 could promote the differentiation into cardiomyocytes at the early stage of cardiac differentiation. Notably, cell viability assay, EdU incorporation assay, and cell cycle profile analysis all showed that the P-499 cells displayed the distinctive feature of hyperplastic growth. Further investigation ...
Terminal B cell differentiation is a complex process currently modeled upon the actions of a small number of "master regulators," and the gaps in our understanding are clear. Insight into the mechanism of differentiation, both its initiation and its full execution, is advanced with the identification of each new contributing factor.. Here, we identify Zbtb20 as a new mediator of B cell differentiation specifically expressed in B1 and GC B cells and ASCs. Zbtb20 is a BTB-ZF transcription factor, and other members of the family have been shown to be active within the B cell lineage (Chevrier and Corcoran, 2014). For instance, early B lineage commitment is mediated by LRF, Bcl6, and Miz-1 (Maeda et al., 2007; Duy et al., 2010; Kosan et al., 2010), MZ B cell differentiation is controlled by LRF (Sakurai et al., 2011), and the GC reaction is driven by Bcl6 and LRF (Fukuda et al., 1997; Sakurai et al., 2011). Finally, Zbtb32 has been associated with plasma cell differentiation (Yoon et al., ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct differentiation of bone marrow mononucleated cells into insulin producing cells using pancreatic β-cell-derived components. AU - Oh, Ju Eun. AU - Choi, Ok Kyung. AU - Park, Ho Seon. AU - Jung, Hye Seung. AU - Ryu, Su Jeong. AU - Lee, Yong Deok. AU - Lee, Seung Ah. AU - Chung, Sung Soo. AU - Choi, Eun Young. AU - Lee, Dong Sup. AU - Gho, Yong Song. AU - Lee, Hakmo. AU - Park, Kyong Soo. PY - 2019/3/29. Y1 - 2019/3/29. N2 - Transplantation of stem cell-derived insulin producing cells (IPCs) has been proposed as an alternative to islet transplantation for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, current IPC differentiation protocols are focused on generating functional cells from the pluripotent stem cells and tend to rely on multistep, long-term exposure to various exogenous factors. In this study, we addressed the observation that under stress, pancreatic β-cells release essential components that direct the differentiation of the bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNCs) ...
In this directed differentiation protocol, Pax3-GFP is overexpressed in mesenchymal stem cells via viral transduction. After infection, cells are subjected to fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate the GFP-positive cells. Isolated cells are cultured in mesenchymal stem cell expansion medium without growth factors, to promote their differentiation into myogenic cells. The differentiated cells are multinucleated and express early-myogenic markers ...
Directed differentiation is a bioengineering methodology at the interface of stem cell biology, developmental biology and tissue engineering. It is essentially harnessing the potential of stem cells by constraining their differentiation in vitro toward a specific cell type or tissue of interest. Stem cells are by definition pluripotent, able to differentiate into several cell types such as neurons, cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes, etc. Efficient directed differentiation requires a detailed understanding of the lineage and cell fate decision, often provided by developmental biology. During differentiation, pluripotent cells make a number of developmental decisions to generate first the three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm) of the embryo and intermediate progenitors, followed by subsequent decisions or check points, giving rise to all the bodys mature tissues. The differentiation process can be modeled as sequence of binary decisions based on probabilistic or stochastic models. ...
The present studies were undertaken to determine whether the CDKI FP could enhance PMA-induced maturation in human leukemia cells. The rationale for this investigation stemmed from several considerations: (a) FP has been shown to induce differentiation in some cell types (e.g., non-small cell lung cancer cells; Ref. 21 ); and (b) inhibition of cell cycle progression by FP might promote a leukemic cell differentiation program (47) . Contrary to expectations, coexposure to FP for 24 h strikingly opposed PMA-induced differentiation in U937 cells and instead significantly increased apoptosis. These events were associated with increased mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of caspases, and loss of clonogenic survival; moreover, enhanced cell death after PMA/FP cotreatment was also observed in promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) and in U937 cells overexpressing the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. These events may reflect the complex reciprocal relationship that exists between differentiation and ...
The coordination of cell proliferation with the gradual differentiation of different cell types is essential for proper development and tissue homeostasis. However, little is known about the signals that couple cell cycle exit to differentiation switch during development. Here, we show that signaling mediated by integrins, the major cell-ECM receptors, contributes to the regulation of this switch in the posterior follicle cells of the Drosophila ovary. Furthermore, our experiments strongly suggest that one of the mechanisms by which integrins regulate epithelial cell differentiation is by modulating the activity of the Notch pathway through promoting the proper endosomal trafficking and/or processing of Notch.. Integrins are known to regulate cell differentiation and proliferation in other systems. The effects of particular integrins in regulating differentiation vary depending on the epithelial cell type. Thus, although β1 integrin signaling is inhibitory for differentiation in the epidermis ...
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of the mammalian blastocyst. Cellular differentiation entails loss of pluripotency and gain of lineage-specific characteristics. However, the molecular controls that govern the differentiation process remain poorly understood. We have characterized small RNA expression profiles in differentiating ES cells as a model for early mammalian development. High-throughput 454 pyro-sequencing was performed on 19-30 nt RNAs isolated from undifferentiated male and female ES cells, as well as day 2 and 5 differentiating derivatives. A discrete subset of microRNAs (miRNAs) largely dominated the small RNA repertoire, and the dynamics of their accumulation could be readily used to discriminate pluripotency from early differentiation events. Unsupervised partitioning around meloids (PAM) analysis revealed that differentiating ES cell miRNAs can be divided into three expression clusters with highly contrasted accumulation patterns. ...
Bromodomain-containing protein 2 (Brd2) is a BET family chromatin adaptor required for expression of cell cycle associated genes and therefore involved in cell cycle progression. Brd2 is expressed in proliferating neuronal progenitors, displays cell cycle-stimulating activity and, when overexpressed, impairs neuronal differentiation. Paradoxically, Brd2 is also detected in differentiating neurons. To shed light on the role of Brd2 in the transition from cell proliferation to differentiation we have looked for Brd2 interacting proteins upon induction of neuronal differentiation. Surprisingly, we have identified the growth factor Pleiotrophin (Ptn). Ptn antagonizes the cell cycle-stimulating activity associated with Brd2, thus enhancing induced neuronal differentiation. Moreover, Ptn knockdown reduces neuronal differentiation. Ptn-mediated antagonism of Brd2 has been assessed in a cell differentiation model and in two embryonic processes associated with the neural tube: spinal cord neurogenesis ...
Upon activation, naive CD8 T cells undergo a program of proliferation and differentiation that results in the acquisition of effector functions. Optimal T cell activation requires the integration of multiple signals including cross-linking of the T cell receptor (signal 1), co-stimulation (signal 2) and soluble factors such as cytokines (signal 3). Once a CD8 T cell has received these three signals they differentiate into an effector cell, which are able to control infection by directly killing the infected cell. Once the infection is cleared, these effector cells contract by controlled cell death and a long-lived population of memory cells remain. These potent memory cells are the defining feature of adaptive immunity as they offer protection for the life of the host due to their unique capabilities to survive in the absence of antigen and respond rapidly to secondary challenge. Therefore, effective CD8 T cell memory is the goal of cell-mediated vaccination strategies. While it is well ...
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC)3 must choose between self-renewal and differentiation; if they differentiate they can become common myeloid progenitors (CMP) or common lymphoid progenitors (CLP). It is still unclear how environmental signals (1) and lineage-specific transcription factors work together to control the frequency with which dividing HSC either undergo self-renewal or commit to one or the other lineage. Transcription factors expressed in HSC can drive commitment to either the lymphoid or the myeloid lineage (2). For example, factors of the Ikaros family specifically favor differentiation down the lymphoid pathway (3), whereas other factors, such as GATA-1 and C/EBPα, favor differentiation down the myeloid pathway (4, 5).. We are particularly interested in mechanisms that influence the choice between self-renewal and differentiation. Thus we study the E2F family of transcription factors, which promotes cell cycle progression and exit; the latter is associated with terminal ...
Due to the pivotal role of stem cell differentiation in regeneration and disease cure, the study of it has always been a research highlight during the recent years. Stress microenvironment has a great impact on cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Twist1, as a core epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulatory factor, plays an important role in these processes. Moreover, Twist1 gene can express in alveolar bone - periodontal ligament interface and the expression can be regulated by changes in the occlusal force. In this article, we will present a review of Twist1 gene, especially in the aspect of the biological functions in stem cell differentiation under mechanical signals and explore whether Twist1 involved in tissue remodeling in alveolar bone - periodontal membrane interface under stress ...
Due to the pivotal role of stem cell differentiation in regeneration and disease cure, the study of it has always been a research highlight during the recent years. Stress microenvironment has a great impact on cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Twist1, as a core epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulatory factor, plays an important role in these processes. Moreover, Twist1 gene can express in alveolar bone - periodontal ligament interface and the expression can be regulated by changes in the occlusal force. In this article, we will present a review of Twist1 gene, especially in the aspect of the biological functions in stem cell differentiation under mechanical signals and explore whether Twist1 involved in tissue remodeling in alveolar bone - periodontal membrane interface under stress ...
The key advantage of iPS cells over other stem cells is that they are patient-specific (and therefore immuno-compatible) and can be grown in infinite amounts. Moreover, they are not dogged by the ethical and religious controversies associated with hES cells, yet still have the same properties as hES cells. They also offer the possibility of conducting clinical-trials-in-the-dish, providing a platform for drug screening, disease modelling and gene/cell therapy in pre-clinical studies.3,4. How are iPS cells made?. When cell differentiation occurs, the cell follows a process of changes in gene activity whereby embryonic-specific genes are inactivated and differentiation-specific genes are activated. The end result of this differentiation programme is a specialised cell of one type or another (e.g. cardiac muscle cells or neurons). To reprogramme a fully differentiated adult cell into an iPS cell is surprisingly straightforward - all that is needed is reactivation of the embryonic regulatory ...
The results presented here demonstrate that the luminal cell compartment in both the human and mouse mammary glands is much more heterogeneous than initially perceived since progenitors of varying levels of luminal cell differentiation can be identified and prospectively isolated. In the mouse, these populations resolve as separable ER+ and ER- subpopulations, whereas in the human the ALDH+ and ALDH- subpopulations appear to comprise a larger contiguous population. The cell types of the different species appear to be homologous to one another; for example, the ER- LPs in the mouse are equivalent to the ALDH+ cells in the human, and likewise for the ER+ luminal mouse progenitors and the ALDH- luminal human progenitor cells because both populations collectively express higher levels of luminal cell differentiation markers than the ER-/ALDH+ subpopulations. The ER+ cells in the mouse are probably ductal-restricted progenitors since they express higher levels of ER and FoxA1, transcription factors ...
We have shown in this study that activation of the canonical Wnt pathway promoted, and inhibition of this pathway blocked, neuronal differentiation both in cortical NPC cultures and in the developing neocortex. We emphasize two aspects of these findings: (1) Wnts appear to function as an extracellular cue that instructively triggers neuronal differentiation; and (2) this effect of Wnts is dependent on the stage of development. In this Discussion, we address these aspects and their possible underlying mechanisms.. In general, two models can explain how the fate of an uncommitted precursor cell is influenced by extrinsic cues. In one model, extrinsic cues instruct multipotent precursor cells to commit to a particular lineage. In the other model, multipotent precursor cells choose their fate stochastically, and the proliferation and/or survival of specific lineage-restricted cells is then supported by extrinsic cues. For example, Pdgf treatment increases the size of the neuronal population in ...
We have found that β-catenin signaling and neural differentiation of ES cells are inhibited by culture at high density. This observation is consistent with prior studies of neural/neuronal differentiation of ES cells that have all used relatively low densities irrespective of whether EB or dissociated cell culture techniques were used (Gratsch and OShea, 2002; Ying et al., 2003). The need to culture the cells at low density to achieve neuronal differentiation limits the number of cells that could potentially be obtained for transplantation strategies and raises questions about the mechanisms mediating neuronal differentiation of the cells. Our studies suggest that β-catenin signaling promotes both neural and neuronal differentiation of ES cells, and that the effects of increased cell density are mediated at least in part by inhibition of β-catenin signaling.. Similar to observations with keratinocytes (Dietrich et al., 2002), culture of ES cells at high density promotes membrane localization ...
Reduction of Prep1 Levels Affects Differentiation of Normal and Malignant B Cells and Accelerates Myc Driven Lymphomagenesis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
AIMS: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) play a critical role in negatively regulating the proliferation of cardiomyocytes, although their role in cardiac differentiation remains largely undetermined. We have shown that the most prominent CDKI in Xenopus, p27(Xic1)(Xic1), plays a role in neuronal and myotome differentiation beyond its ability to arrest the cell cycle. Thus, we investigated whether it plays a similar role in cardiomyocyte differentiation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Xenopus laevis embryos were sectioned, and whole-mount antibody staining and immunofluorescence studies were carried out to determine the total number and percentage of differentiated cardiomyocytes in mitosis. Capped RNA and/or translation-blocking Xic1 morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (Xic1Mo) were microinjected into embryos, and their role on cardiac differentiation was assessed by in situ hybridization and/or PCR. We show that cell-cycling post-gastrulation is not essential for cardiac differentiation in ...
The adult mammalian dermis contains a subpopulation of precursor cells that possess the capacity to differentiate into different lineages (16-18). These fibroblastic MSCs have attracted attention for their plasticity and, therefore, their potential therapeutic applications, including in transplantation for bone formation (19). In the present study, the role of BMP7 in the osteogenic differentiation of CD105+ hDDFCs was examined in vitro and in vivo, and the underlying Smad-dependent and -independent mechanisms were identified.. Conflicting reports exist on the differentiation potential of dermal fibroblasts, with certain studies suggesting limited potential and others demonstrating adipocytic, osteocytic and chondrocytic differentiation capacities (20-23). One reason for these controversial results is the heterogeneity of isolated dermal fibroblasts, which include populations with different differentiation capacities (5,13). Although dermal fibroblasts have a surface antigen profile similar to ...
NKT cells are potent regulatory T cells that prevent the development of several autoimmune diseases. Analysis of NKT cell regulatory function in the NOD mouse has revealed that NKT cells inhibit the development of type 1 diabetes by impairing the differentiation of anti-islet T cells into Th1 effector cells. In the present study, we have performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to determine the respective role of cytokines and cell contacts in the blockade of T cell differentiation by NKT cells. These experiments reveal that cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-beta, that have been involved in other functions of NKT cells, play only a minor role if any in the blockade of T cell differentiation by NKT cells. Diabetes is still prevented by NKT cells in the absence of functional IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-beta. In contrast, we show for the first time that cell contacts are crucial for the immunoregulatory function of NKT cells.
GATA-6, a zinc finger transcription factor, is important in the endodermal differentiation of organ tissues.[4] It is also indicated in proper lung development by controlling the late differentiation stages of alveolar epithelium and aquaporin-5 promoter activation. Furthermore, GATA-6 has been linked to the production of LIF, a cytokine that encourages proliferation of endodermal embryonic stem cells and blocks early epiblast differentiation. If left unregulated in the developing embryo, this cytokine production and chemical signal contributes to the phenotypes discussed further below.[5] Upon the disruption of GATA-6 in an embryo, the distal lung epithelial development is stunted in transgenic mice models[4] The progenitor cells, or stem cells, for alveolar epithelial tissues develop and are specified appropriately, however further differentiation does not occur. Also the distal-proximal bronchiole development is affected, resulting in a reduced quantity of airway exchange sites.[4] This ...
Current clinical judgment in bladder cancer (BC) relies primarily on pathological stage and grade. We investigated whether a molecular classification of tumor cell differentiation, based on a developmental biology approach, can provide additional prognostic information. Exploiting large preexisting gene-expression databases, we developed a biologically supervised computational model to predict markers that correspond with BC differentiation. To provide mechanistic insight, we assessed relative tumorigenicity and differentiation potential via xenotransplantation. We then correlated the prognostic utility of the identified markers to outcomes within gene expression and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue datasets. Our data indicate that BC can be subclassified into three subtypes, on the basis of their differentiation states: basal, intermediate, and differentiated, where only the most primitive tumor cell subpopulation within each subtype is capable of generating xenograft tumors and ...
BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer a virtually unlimited source of neural cells for structural repair in neurological disorders, such as stroke. Neural cells can be derived from hESCs either by direct enrichment, or by isolating specific growth factor-responsive and expandable populations of human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Studies have indicated that the direct enrichment method generates a heterogeneous population of cells that may contain residual undifferentiated stem cells that could lead to tumor formation in vivo. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated an expandable and homogenous population of hNSCs (named SD56) from hESCs using a defined media supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and leukemia inhibitory growth factor (LIF). These hNSCs grew as an adherent monolayer culture. They were fully neuralized and uniformly expressed molecular features of NSCs, including nestin, vimentin and radial glial markers. These hNSCs did ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Eomesodermin controls a unique differentiation program in human IL-10 and IFN-γ coproducing regulatory T cells. AU - Gruarin, Paola. AU - Maglie, Stefano. AU - De Simone, Marco. AU - Häringer, Barbara. AU - Vasco, Chiara. AU - Ranzani, Valeria. AU - Bosotti, Roberto. AU - Noddings, Johanna S. AU - Larghi, Paola. AU - Facciotti, Federica. AU - Sarnicola, Maria L. AU - Martinovic, Martina. AU - Crosti, Mariacristina. AU - Moro, Monica. AU - Rossi, Riccardo L. AU - Bernardo, Maria E. AU - Caprioli, Flavio. AU - Locatelli, Franco. AU - Rossetti, Grazisa. AU - Abrignani, Sergio. AU - Pagani, Massimiliano. AU - Geginat, Jens. N1 - © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.. PY - 2018/11/15. Y1 - 2018/11/15. N2 - Whether human IL-10-producing regulatory T cells ("Tr1") represent a distinct differentiation lineage or an unstable activation stage remains a key unsolved issue. Here, we report that Eomesodermin (Eomes) acted as a lineage-defining transcription factor in human ...
The development of skeletal muscle is a multistep process in which pluripotent mesodermal cells give rise to myoblasts that subsequently withdraw from the cell cycle and differentiate into myotubes.2,13 These stages are controlled by the MyoD and myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) families of transcription factors, which interact with one another to establish a unique transcriptional code for activation of skeletal muscle-specific genes.14 It has been shown that such muscle differentiation-specific gene expression occurs in a stereotype pattern. Within 24 hours of switching to differentiation medium or serum withdrawal, proliferating myoblasts initiate the expression of myogenin, followed by the expression of MEF2 family of transcription factors, including MEF2D.15 Consistent with these observations, we showed in the present study that cell cycle withdrawal induced myogenin and MEF2D protein expression, peaking at 48 and 72 hours after medium switch, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated, for ...
The work of the Fasano team will allow a better understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of congenital visceral smooth muscle malformations (mus musculus).
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The superoxide anion (O(2)(-))-generating system is an important mechanism of innate immune response against microbial infection in phagocytes and is involved in signal transduction mediated by various physiological and pathological signals in phagocytes and other cells, including B lymphocytes. The O(2)(-)-generating system is composed of five specific proteins: p22-phox, gp91-phox, p40-phox, p47-phox, p67-phox, and a small G protein, Rac. Little is known regarding epigenetic regulation of the genes constituting the O(2)(-)-generating system. In this study, by analyzing the GCN5 (one of most important histone acetyltransferases)-deficient DT40 cell line, we show that GCN5 deficiency causes loss of the O(2)(-)-generating activity. Interestingly, transcription of the gp91-phox gene was drastically downregulated (to ∼4%) in GCN5-deficient cells. To further study the involvement of GCN5 in transcriptional regulation of gp91-phox, we used in vitro differentiation system of U937 cells. When human ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence for a role of p38 MAP kinase in expression of alkaline phosphatase during osteoblastic cell differentiation. AU - Suzuki, A.. AU - Guicheux, J.. AU - Palmer, G.. AU - Miura, Y.. AU - Oiso, Y.. AU - Bonjour, J. P.P.. AU - Caverzasio, J.. PY - 2002/1/18. Y1 - 2002/1/18. N2 - In the present study, we investigate the implication of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) Erk, p38, and JNK in mediating the effect of fetal calf serum (FCS) on the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. Erk is stimulated by FCS in proliferating, early-differentiating, as well as in mature cells. Activation of p38 by FCS is not detected in proliferating cells but is observed as the cells differentiate. JNK is activated in response to FCS throughout the entire differentiation process, but a maximal stimulation is observed in early differentiating cells. The roles of Erk and p38 pathways in mediating MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation was determined using specific inhibitors such as ...
This protocol presents a novel method for derivation of floor-plate progenitor cells for the later derivation of human dopaminergic neurons that can be efficiently engrafted in vivo. The progenitor cell name reflects the specific growth factor mixture used in the protocol.. ...
There is a great interest in application of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in cell therapy and tissue engineering due to their self-renewal, multi-lineage differentiation, immunomodulation, and trophic potential. One of the challenges faced in the clinical application of hMSCs is the need for efficient expansion of these cells in vitro without altering their capacity. Serum-free mammalian cell culture media, in particular, require optimization of the expansion protocols. Even subtle changes in routine handling can have a significant impact on the cells potential. This seminar will cover the variables that can influence the desired regenerative and differentiation properties including medium selection, vessel surface treatment, impact of the cell source, and seeding density. We will also discuss how users can select the correct conditions for optimized growth and functionality. Biography ...
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a leading cause of neurological disability in young adults. Although current treatments can reduce symptomology and relapse rate, they are unable to prevent the chronic neurodegeneration that occurs at later stages. MS pathology is mediated by complex interactions between invading immune cells, neurons, glia, and endogenous stores of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Factors critical to NPC/immune cell communication as well as the survival, differentiation, and proliferation of NPCs are not well defined. Elucidation of these factors will allow for the advancement of NPC transplantation therapies as well as the identification of novel pharmacological targets. Fas - a member of the tumor necrosis superfamily of death receptors - has diverse, cell-specific functions and is a major modulator of autoregulation within the immune system. Although Fas is expressed by NPCs, its exact role in this cell type was previously unknown. To contribute to this body of knowledge, the experiments
WASHINGTON, DC - June 27, 2013 - Researchers from the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research in Tokyo have discovered that forced elongation of telomeres (extensions on the end of chromosomes) promotes the differentiation of cancer cells, probably reducing malignancy, which is strongly associated with a loss of cell differentiation. They report their findings in a manuscript published online ahead of print, in the journal Molecular and Cellular Biology.
Recent studies in mice deficient for IFN-β (26), type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) (27), and the Toll-IL-1R domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-β molecule involved in its downstream signaling (28) have demonstrated an increased susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) due to the lack of endogenous IFN-β signaling. These findings point to the role of endogenous IFN-β in the regulation of the adaptive immune response through the suppression of Th17 cells.. Our study has demonstrated that IFN-β-1a treatment decreases IL-1β gene expression in the DCs derived from MS patients and HCs. Moreover, the effect of IFN-β-1a-induced change in this cytokine production on Th17 cell differentiation was confirmed by adding back IL-1β to the SNs derived from IFN-β-1a-treated DCs, which reversed the SN suppressive effect on the Th17 cell differentiation (Fig. 3⇑B). The reversal of the IFN-β-1a-treated DC SN inhibitory effect on the Th17 cell differentiation, which was achieved by ...
MSCs are another well-characterized multipotent stem cell type that can be isolated from the bone marrow compartment. As typically prepared, MSCs are a fairly heterogenous cell population, but they generally express markers including Sca-1, CD29, CD44, CD81, and CD106 in the mouse42 and CD29, CD44, CD71, CD90, CD106, CD120a, and CD124 in humans.43 MSCs differentiate into adipocyte, chondrocyte, and osteogenic phenotypes under specific media conditions,43 and they can mediate immunomodulatory actions that help them avoid rejection after allotransplantation.44. The capacity of MSCs to differentiate into mesodermal lineages generated considerable interest in exploring the potential of these cells for cardiogenic differentiation and infarct repair. Makino et al26 observed that the exposure of immortalized murine MSCs to 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), an inhibitor of DNA methylation previously reported to promote the differentiation of pluripotent P19 embryonal carcinoma cells, resulted in the ...
To develop an effective therapeutic technique for cardiac regeneration using bone tissue marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) the principal mouse BM-MSCs (1st BM-MSCs) and 5th passing BM-MSCs from β-galactosidase transgenic mice were respectively intramyocardially transplanted in to the acute myocardial infarction (AMI) style of outdoors type mice. higher differentiation potentials towards cardiomocytes or vascular endothelial cells is a conventional method of getting a large numbers of BM-MSCs as needed by transplantation. Nevertheless through the sub-culture control BM-MSCs gradually reduce their differentiation strength towards cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells which will probably result in much less adequate improvement in cardiac efficiency [13]. Previous research suggest that natural properties of BM-MSCs arent everlasting features and their proliferation and differentiation properties decrease along with passaging procedure [13] [14]. How exactly to obtain sufficient ...
Coordinating terminal differentiation and cell cycle arrest involves coupling the activity of the transcriptional regulators that activate lineage‐specific gene expression programs to the cell cycle machinery. The importance of such coordination is illustrated by the observation that ectopic expression of cell cycle promoting factors is able to interfere with differentiation of numerous cell types. Well‐characterized examples include the ability of the c‐Myc oncoprotein to block the differentiation of adipocytes by repressing the transcription of C/EBPα, a key inducer of adipogenesis (Freytag and Geddes, 1992), and the ability of Cyclin D1/Cdk4 to inhibit myogenesis through binding to MyoD (Zhang et al, 1999). However, in other cases, the molecular mechanisms are not clear. E2F‐1 can block granulopoiesis (Strom et al, 1998), adipogenesis (Porse et al, 2001) and myogenesis (Wang et al, 1995), but the relevant molecular targets are not defined. Cdk6 inhibits osteogenic differentiation by ...
The DREAM complex plays an important role in regulation of gene expression during the cell cycle. We have previously shown that the DREAM subunit LIN9 is required for early embryonic development and for the maintenance of the inner cell mass in vitro. In this study we examined the effect of knocking down LIN9 on ESCs. We demonstrate that depletion of LIN9 alters the cell cycle distribution of ESCs and results in an accumulation of cells in G2 and M and in an increase of polyploid cells. Genome-wide expression studies showed that the depletion of LIN9 results in downregulation of mitotic genes and in upregulation of differentiation-specific genes. ChIP-on chip experiments showed that mitotic genes are direct targets of LIN9 while lineage specific markers are regulated indirectly. Importantly, depletion of LIN9 does not alter the expression of pluripotency markers SOX2, OCT4 and Nanog and LIN9 depleted ESCs retain alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that LIN9 is essential for proliferation ...
Most human lymphoid malignancies preserve a pattern of gene expression reflecting their proliferative activity and the development level of clonal expansion and maturation arrest. Characteristics of leukemia and other cancer cells frequently considered to reflect aberrant differentiation may more often reflect clonal selection of cell types that are normally infrequent and transitory. The differentiation status of progenitor or mature lymphoid cells influences which genetic elements are at risk of being exploited, via mutation, recombination, or deletion, for clonal advantage. These alterations may frequently arise spontaneously as a consequence of the unique developmental and functional programs of lymphoid cells and have as a major phenotypic consequence the stabilization of transitory cellular phenotypes. ...
As cells mature, from the most immature or blast cell to the final mature stage, they undergo numerous biochemical, structural and metabolic changes. The cytologic features of cells, as observed on Wrights stained peripheral blood and bone marrow smears, reflect such biochemical and structural developments. The general features of cell differentiation are common to most blood cells. Immature cells have delicate, fine nuclear chromatin which gradually becomes coarsely clumped or condensed. The size of the nucleus decreases; nucleoli are reduced in number or lost completely as in red cells. The nuclear shape which is initially round or oval may become uniquely confirgured as in myeloid cells. Mitotic competence is lost as cells differentiate.. ...
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Lakshmana Reddy, B H (2009) Synthesis and characterisation of sulphonates of phenol from renewable sources and its applications. Doctoral thesis, Kuvempu University. ...
(Phys.org)-One of the greatest challenges in generating energy from renewable sources is finding a way to store the continuously fluctuating energy being produced. Batteries, supercapacitors, and most other energy-storage ...
The MHJ2-523 clone reacts with the Jagged2 protein which is one of the several mammalian Notch ligands. Jagged2 is expressed by various organs and cell types and is involved in regulation of cell differentiation processes, such as lymphocyte development, myogenesis, and neurogenesis. Jagged2 is reported to be essential for the regulation of spermatogenesis. Jagged2 is also expressed on some lymphoma and leukemia cells and various other tumor cells. Jagged2 can be expressed by various antigen-presenting cells and may contribute to APC-directed peripheral T cell differentiation. - Principat dAndorra
This site is intended for Healthcare Professionals in Australia. This information is not intended as medical advice. Cell-Innovations does not treat or refer patients or provide information to patients. Cell-Innovations provides a patented process for use by healthcare professionals within a hospital environment. The information within this site is intended to provide balanced, scientific, and evidence-based answers to unsolicited medical questions. This resource may discuss regimens that have not been approved by Australias Therapeutic Goods Administration. The technology discussed herein may have different labelling in other countries. Responsibility for patient care resides with the healthcare professional on the basis of his or her professional licence, experience and knowledge of the patient ...
2040 Attempts by our lab to regulate ectopic bone formation in vivo have inadvertently revealed a very important biological phenomenon: excessive expression of the BMP antagonist, Noggin, in the presence of BMP4 induces tumor formation. BMP4:Noggin co-expression at specific ratios generated a malignant mesenchyoma, a mixture of osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and undifferentiated neoplastic cells, derived from our implanted muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs). We believe that these cells displayed aberrant differentiation or became "stuck" in a mixed differentiated state and underwent oncogenesis as a result of "conflicting signals" attributable to concurrent Noggin and BMP4 expression. To investigate this hypothesis, we cultured populations of BMP4- and Noggin-expressing MDSCs at various ratios. When grown for 7 weeks, mixed populations cultured at ratios of 1:2 and 1:3 (BMP4-:Noggin-expressing MDSCs) formed more colonies on soft agar than did either mixed populations cultured at a ratio of 1:1 or ...
Recently developed pre-clinical bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic models have provided the field with tools that can be used to systematically investigate roles for LRRK2 during neuronal differentiation. These pre-clinical models express LRRK2, LRRK2 G2019S, or a LRRK2 kinase dead mutant in a cell type specific manner that closely resembles native LRRK2 expression. Native LRRK2 is expressed throughout hippocampus, and hippocampal neurons grown in culture have served as an excellent model system in which to evaluate neural differentiation. The pre-clinical and culture model systems together will permit us to determine definitively the role that LRRK2 plays in neural differentiation.. Relevance to Diagnosis/Treatment of Parkinson s Disease ...
The FlowCellect Mouse Th1 Differentiation Tool Kit for Flow Cytometry includes a CD3 Coated Activation Plate, complete Differentiation Media & Activator/Re-Stimulation Reagents. Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Results Cultured cells started to express CD14 on the day 12 and more than 90% of the cells expressed CD14 on the day 21 in the monocyte differentiation induction course. According to the expression levels of CD14, the cell population was divided into three groups: CD14 (−), CD14 (+) and CD14 (++). CD15 (+) cells were observed in CD14 (−) and CD14 (+) population but not in CD14 (++) population. The CD15+ cells in CD14 (+) transiently appeared in RA-iPS derived cells at 11.9±2.8% (mean ± SE) on day15. However these cell proportion in NOF was1.7±2.0%. Meanwhile, CD15+ cells in CD14 (−) proportion decreased during monocyte differentiation in RA-iPS cells, but remained in NOF-iPS cells (representative data, RA 31.5, 20.6, 15.6%, NOF 47.3, 46.1, 47.3%, on day15, 18 and 21).. ...
Evidence indicates that vitamin A and its active derivatives (retinoids) are critical throughout mammalian development. Retinoids exert biological effects on cell differentiation, proliferation, and morphogenesis by binding to their cognate receptors, the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid ...
Spontaneous differentiation of PBMC CD8αα+CD3− cells into DC-like cells after a short-term in vitro culture(a) Phase-contrast micrographs show morphological
Development of the cerebellum proceeds under the precise spatio-temporal control of several key developmental signalling pathways, including the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. We recently reported the activity of Wnt/β-catenin signalling in the perinatal c
1,25-dihydroxy-23-thiavitamin D3: shows differentiation-inducing activity of human myeloid leukemia cells into macrophages; structure given in first source
The fertilised embryo possesses the greatest plasticity; it is totipotent and can differentiate into all cell types of the foetus as well as the placenta. One of the first definitive divergences in cell differentiation pathways is the point where cells that will form the placenta are set aside from those that will form the foetus. Once this decision has been made, it was thought that there is no turning back or crossover between future placental and embryonic cells. How this strict lineage separation is achieved, however, has remained elusive. Since all cells in an individual contain the same genetic material, but behave differently depending on which organs eventually comprise, an elaborate mechanism has evolved to fine tune our genes and their expression in different places at different times, leading to the amazing complexity we see in humans despite the relatively small number of unique genes. This process involves specific chemical modifications to the DNA, such as methylation, which modify ...
ERK1 / ERK2, 0.1 ml. Erk1 and Erk2 are closely related mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases which are activated by many growth factors, mitogens and differentiation-promoting agents via a protein kinase cascade.
Having charted the occurrence of a common chemical change that takes place while stem cells decide their fates and progress from precursor to progeny, a Johns Hopkins-led team of scientists has produced the first-ever epigenetic landscape map for tissue differentiation.
E2Fs play a central role in cell proliferation and growth arrest through their ability to regulate genes involved in cell cycle progression, arrest and apoptosis. Recent studies further indicate that this family of transcriptional regulators participate in cell fate/differentiation events. They are thus likely to have a prominent role in controlling the terminal differentiation process and its irreversibility. Here we have specifically examined the role of E2F2 in neuronal differentiation using a gain-of-function approach. Endogenous E2F2 increased in PC12 cells in response to nerve growth factor (NGF) and was also expressed in cerebellar granule neurons undergoing terminal differentiation. While PC12 cells normally undergo reversible dedifferentiation and cell cycle re-entry upon NGF removal, forced expression of E2F2 inhibited these events and induced apoptosis. Thus, E2F2 converted PC12-derived neurons from a reversible to a terminally differentiated, NGF-dependent state, analogous to postmitotic
Website: http://depts.washington.edu/iscrm/research/faculty/vincenzo-cirulli. Netrin protein nanomaterials as regulators of stem cell differentiation toward pancreatic β-cells. Cell interactions with the extracellular microenvironment play critical roles in tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. In the pancreas, development of insulin-producing islet cells (b-cells) depends on a series of highly regulated processes that include branching morphogenesis, proliferation, migration and differentiation of progenitors into the surrounding mesenchyme where they organize into cell clusters (islets of Langerhans). Despite significant advances in our understanding of pathways regulating the specification, expansion and differentiation of the islet cell lineage, mechanisms governing the recruitment and delamination of pancreatic progenitors from the ductal tree remain largely unknown. Among components of the extracellular microenvironment that can significantly affect cellular development and function, ...
Cellular therapies have great potential to provide alternative treatment options for those suffering from heart disease. In order to optimize cell delivery for therapeutic efficacy, a greater understanding of parameters that impact stem cell differentiation, survival, growth, and development are needed. In t
I wanted to understand the cell differentiation process," explained Masai. One might expect that a zebrafish without a fully functional SLBP gene would simply die, since the embryo would never be able to undergo cell division and pass the one-cell stage. But this is not the case; somehow the fish bypass the SLBP pathway, continuing proliferation so that the embryo can survive. Masai focused on the zebrafishs retina to compare development between the mutant strain and the normally functioning, wild type strain. In the SLBP mutant embryos, retinal cells proliferate much more slowly than wild type embryos, and differentiate into fewer types of cells. The mutant embryos form less orderly layers of retinal tissue, making it difficult for signals to travel from light sensitive photoreceptors through the network of neurons in the retina. Finally, the mutant embryos retinal axon, which should carry visual signals from the retina to the brain, never exits the eye. Even if the mutant fishs ...
B‐cell differentiation is one of the most recognized examples of the progressive lineage commitment that is distinctive for stem cell systems. However, the characteristics of the stage just before a cell becomes restricted to the B‐cell lineage are less understood. Using single‐cell RNA sequencing technology, Rolink and colleagues are able to define the cellular heterogeneity at this step and challenge our understanding of developmental trajectories in early B‐lymphoid development (Alberti‐Servera et al, 2017).. See also: L Alberti-Servera et al (December 2017) ...
T cells are known to be plastic and to change their phenotype according to the cellular and biochemical milieu they are embedded in. In this study, we transposed this concept at a macroscopic level assessing whether changes in the environmental housing conditions of C57/BL6 mice would influence the phenotype and function of T cells. Our study shows that exposure to 2 weeks in an enriched environment (EE) does not impact the T cell repertoire in vivo and causes no changes in the early TCR-driven activation events of these cells. Surprisingly, however, T cells from enriched mice showed a unique T helper effector cell phenotype upon differentiation in vitro. This was featured by a significant reduction in their ability to produce IFN-γ and by an increased release of IL-10 and IL-17. Microarray analysis of these cells also revealed a unique gene fingerprint with key signaling pathways involved in autoimmunity being modulated. Together, our results provide first evidence for a specific effect of EE on T
In this study we provide evidence that Nox4 acts as a switch from proliferation to differentiation. Nox4, through an indirect effect, facilitates the tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, which is required for the insulin-induced differentiation. This process appears to involve MKP-1: Nox4 controls the expression of MKP-1 and thereby limits the contribution of the proliferative Ras-Raf-ERK1/2 pathway to insulin signaling. ERK1/2 phosphorylates IRS-1 on serine-residues and thereby prevents IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. The Nox4-dependent induction of MKP-1 prevents this effect and therefore promotes insulin-induced differentiation but attenuated insulin-induced proliferation.. Nox4 expression has been demonstrated to be regulated, and differentiating factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 are known to induce this NADPH oxidase, as also observed in the present study. Interestingly, high glucose also appears to induce Nox4 (Schröder K. et al, unpublished observation, 2008). Thus, it ...
Principal Investigator:KITAMURA Toshio, Project Period (FY):2010-04-01 - 2015-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area), Project Area:Molecular mechanisms of cell fate determination in the cells that undergo stepwise differentiation to multiple pathways
In this application note a synthetic, xeno-free surface, Corning® Synthemax™ Surface, is assessed for use in stem cell culture. A normal karyotype, pluripotency and stem cell phenotypic markers were analysed to assess efficacy.
Caroline Mouline, Guillaume Béranger, Heidy Schmid-Antomarchi, Danielle Quincey, David Momier, et al.. Monocytes differentiation upon treatment with a peptide corresponding to the C-terminus of activated T cell-expressed Tirc7 protein. Journal of Cellular Physiology, Wiley, 2012, 227 (8), pp.3088-3098. ⟨10.1002/jcp.23059⟩. ⟨hal-02404327⟩ ...
Two defining characteristics of stem cells are their multilineage differentiation potential (multipotency or pluripotency) and their capacity for self-renewal. Growth factors are well-established regulators of stem cell ...
Georgiev, Svetlin. "Asymptotic behaviour of positive solutions of the model which describes cell differentiation.." Electronic Journal of Qualitative Theory of Differential Equations [electronic only] 2000 (2000): Paper No. 6, 17 p., electronic only-Paper No. 6, 17 p., electronic only. ,http://eudml.org/doc/121146,.. ...
So, the fertilized egg starts dividing and it divides until various layers of cells have been created (each layer taking a different route of division and function). This adoption of different route of function and division is differentiation. Some layer would develop into nervous system, while other into circulatory or excretory system etc. Differentiation therefore decides the fate of the newly formed cells as to what system they will create or join in future ...
Vertical differentiation is the comparing of many products in a single market and ordering them from lowest to highest, according to their perceived quality. In other words, it is saying one product is better than another based on your own opinion.Decisive FeatureVertical differentiation can be determined by comparing one key feature, such as taste, usability or color.Wide RangeThe differences in multiple goods can be ordered according to multiple values. One good may be "better" in one aspect and "worse" in another.Identifying TraitsThe goods can be ordered depending on whether or not certain traits are present--for example, the presence ...
Hematopoietic differentiation of the H1-GATA2−/− ES cell line. a CFUs of H1 or H1-GATA2−/− derived CD34+ cells. H1 or H1-GATA2−/− cells were co-cult
Growth:, Organs:, Tissue Culture:, Genes: Sl - Steel, sl - Steel series, Sl - Steel, W series, W - Dominant spotting, W*v - Viable dominant spotting, Unknown:. ...
Protein-DNA interactions during phenotypic differentiation.: We have been studying the molecular mechanism of neuronal differentiation through which the multipo
PubMedID: 23658157 | Loss of Ahi1 affects early development by impairing BM88/Cend1-mediated neuronal differentiation. | The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience | 5/8/2013
J:164103 Du Y, Xiao Q, Yip HK, Regulation of retinal progenitor cell differentiation by bone morphogenetic protein 4 is mediated by the smad/id cascade. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Jul;51(7):3764-73 ...
Neurotrophins regulate critical cell fate decisions, by modulating neuronal survival, differentiation, and morphology during development. Neurotrophins are init...
Interleukin-1 (IL-1)-mediated signaling in T cells is essential for T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation. We showed here that SIGIRR, a negative regulator of IL-1 receptor and Toll-like receptor signaling, was induced during Th17 cell lineage commitment and governed Th17 cell differentiation and expansion through its inhibitory effects on IL-1 ...
Recent experimental results in culture and in vivoare summarized that show the existence of developmental relationships between cells that build up blood vessel walls and some previously unrelated...
Differentiation is a multidisciplinary journal dealing with topics relating to cell differentiation, development, cellular structure and function,...
The process in which immature B cells from the bone marrow acquire the specialized features of T1 stage B cells in the spleen. T1 stage B cells do not express either CD23 or CD21.
IL-25 stands for interleukin 25. It is also known as IL-17E. Mouse IL-25 is a recombinant protein optimized for use in cell culture, differentiation studies, and functional assays. - Great Britain
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neural crest cell differentiation and carcinogenesis. T2 - Capability of goldfish erythrophoroma cells for multiple differentiation and clonal polymorphism in their melanogenic variants. AU - Matsumoto, Jiro. AU - Wada, Kumiko. AU - Akiyama, Toyoko. PY - 1989/5. Y1 - 1989/5. N2 - Multiple differentiation shown by a single cell line (GEM 81) of goldfish erythrophoroma (tumors of integumental erythrophores) cells after administration of chemical induction in vitro includes 1) melanogenesis, 2) formation of reflecting platelets, 3) synthesis of pteridines heterogeneous to this species, 4) formation of dermal skeletons such as teeth and fin rays, 5) production of neuronal characters, and 6) genesis of lentoid bodies. Melanogenic cells, highest in inducibility, also show remarkable phenotypic diversification in their cell morphology, pigmentation, and physiologic response. In this paper, the following findings are presented; a) multiple differentiation shown by erythrophoroma cells ...
Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a recently described population of stem cells derived from the bone marrow stroma. multipotent adult progenitor cells along mesodermal lineages and exhibited the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase and production of calcium-containing mineral debris by multipotent adult progenitor cells, necessary precursors for osteogenesis. In combination with a demineralized bone matrix scaffold, multipotent adult progenitor cells exhibited enhanced revascularization and new bone formation in vivo in an orthotopic defect model when compared to mesenchymal stem cells on demineralized bone matrix or demineralized bone matrixConly control groups. The potent combination of angiogenic and osteogenic properties provided by multipotent adult progenitor cells appears to create a synergistic amplification of the bone healing process. Our results indicate that multipotent adult progenitor cells have the potential to better promote tissue regeneration and healing and to be ...
Looking for online definition of multipotent adult progenitor cell in the Medical Dictionary? multipotent adult progenitor cell explanation free. What is multipotent adult progenitor cell? Meaning of multipotent adult progenitor cell medical term. What does multipotent adult progenitor cell mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hypoxia-preconditioned adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell increase the survival and gene expression of engineered neural stem cells in a spinal cord injury model. AU - Oh, Jin Soo. AU - Ha, Yoon. AU - An, Sung Su. AU - Khan, Momin. AU - Pennant, William A.. AU - Kim, Hyo Jin. AU - Yoon, Do Heum. AU - Lee, Minhyung. AU - Kim, Keung Nyun. PY - 2010/3/26. Y1 - 2010/3/26. N2 - Hypoxic preconditioning (HP) is a novel strategy to make stem cells resistant to the ischemic environment they encounter after transplantation into injured tissue; this strategy improves survival of both the transplanted cells and the host cells at the injury site. Using both in vitro and in vivo injury models, we confirmed that HP-treated adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HP-AT-MSCs) increased cell survival and enhanced the expression of marker genes in DsRed-engineered neural stem cells (NSCs-DsRed). Similar to untreated AT-MSCs, HP-AT-MSCs had normal morphology and were positive for ...
ATCC ® Normal Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, when grown in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Basal Media supplemented with Mesenchymal Stem Cell Growth Kit Low serum components, provide an ideal cell system to propagate mesenchymal stem cells in low serum (2% FBS) conditions. When maintained under optimal growth conditions, ATCC Normal Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells have been shown to be multipotent, capable of differentiating down the adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. The cells are cryopreserved at the second passage to ensure the highest viability and plating efficiency. ATCC ® Primary Cell Solutions™ cells, media, supplements and reagents are quality tested together to guarantee optimum performance and reliability.
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the potential tools for treatment of the spinal cord injury; however, the survival and differentiation of MSCs in an injured spinal cord still need to be improved. In the present study, we investigated whether Governor Vessel electro-acupuncture (EA) could efficiently promote bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) survival and differentiation, axonal regeneration and finally, functional recovery in the transected spinal cord. The spinal cords of adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were completely transected at T10, five experimental groups were performed: 1. sham operated control (Sham-control); 2. operated control (Op-control); 3. electro-acupuncture treatment (EA); 4. MSCs transplantation (MSCs); and 5. MSCs transplantation combined with electro-acupuncture (MSCs+EA). After 2-8 weeks of MSCs transplantation plus EA treatment, we found that the neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), cAMP level, the differentiation of MSCs, the 5-HT positive and CGRP positive nerve
Cell therapy is a potential therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer disease (AD). Neuronal differentiation of stem cells before transplantation is a promising procedure for cell therapy. However, the therapeutic impact and mechanisms of action of neuron-like cells differentiated from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in AD have not been determined. In this study, we used tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609) to induce human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton jelly of the umbilical cord (HUMSCs) to differentiate into neuron-like cells (HUMSC-NCs), and transplanted the HUMSC-NCs into an AβPP/PS1 transgenic AD mouse model. The effects of HUMSC-NC transplantation on the cognitive function, synapsin I level, amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) deposition, and microglial function of the mice were investigated. We found that transplantation of HUMSC-NCs into AβPP/PS1 mice improved the cognitive function, increased synapsin I level, and significantly reduced Aβ
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The muscle-specific miRNAs miR-1 and miR-206 have been shown to regulate muscle development and promote myogenic differentiation; however, it is likely that a number of other miRNAs play important roles in regulating myogenesis as well. microRNA-128 (miR-128) has been reported to be highly expressed in brain and skeletal muscle, and we found that miR-128 is also up-regulated during bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell differentiation using microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. However, little is known about the functions of miR-128 in bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell development. In this study, we investigated the biological functions of miR-128 in bovine skeletal muscle cell development. Using a dual-luciferase reporter assay, we confirmed that miR-128 regulates the Sp1 gene. Over-expression of miR-128 reduced Sp1 protein levels and inhibited muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. ...
0060] The term "cell proliferation control" means a procedure in which cell proliferative capacity is stopped at a desired time, the cell concentration is maintained without significant damage affecting the viability of cells to the cells, and subsequently cell proliferation is restarted at a desired time. In other words, in a method for controlling cell proliferation of the present invention, the proliferation of primate pluripotent stem cells can be inhibited with a maintenance medium for pluripotent stem cells of the present invention, and after a desired period elapsed, the proliferation of primate pluripotent stem cells can be promoted with a culture medium containing glucose. In a method for controlling cell proliferation of the present invention, the growth rate and the morphology of pluripotent stem cells following the procedure in which the proliferation is inhibited with a maintenance medium for pluripotent stem cells of the present invention, and after an inhibition period passed, the ...

In vitro and in vivo arterial differentiation of human multipotent adult progenitor cellsIn vitro and in vivo arterial differentiation of human multipotent adult progenitor cells

... Xabier L. Aranguren (1), Aernout ... Many stem cell types have been shown to differentiate into endothelial cells (ECs); however, their specification to arterial or ... 2) Stem Cell Institute, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis. (3) Center for Molecular and Vascular Biology, ... We tested whether a specific arterial or venous EC fate could be induced in human multipotent adult progenitor cells (hMAPCs) ...
more infohttps://www.cun.es/en/research/scientific-publications/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-arterial-differentiation-of-human-multipotent-adult-progenitor-cells

Functional dissection of HOXD cluster genes in regulation of neuroblastoma cell proliferation and differentiation<...Functional dissection of HOXD cluster genes in regulation of neuroblastoma cell proliferation and differentiation<...

Functional dissection of HOXD cluster genes in regulation of neuroblastoma cell proliferation and differentiation. In: PloS one ... Retinoic acid (RA) can induce growth arrest and neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells and has been used in clinic for ... Functional dissection of HOXD cluster genes in regulation of neuroblastoma cell proliferation and differentiation. PloS one. ... N2 - Retinoic acid (RA) can induce growth arrest and neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells and has been used in ...
more infohttps://augusta.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/functional-dissection-of-hoxd-cluster-genes-in-regulation-of-neur

Differentiation of extraembryonic endoderm stem cell lines and parietal endoderm into visceral endoderm: the art of XEN cellsDifferentiation of extraembryonic endoderm stem cell lines and parietal endoderm into visceral endoderm: the art of XEN cells

... ... Extraembryonic endoderm (XEN) cell lines derived from the primitive endoderm of mouse blastocysts represent a cell culture ... Here, I further characterise XEN cells and show that these cell lines exhibit high levels of heterogeneity. In an effort for ... Generation of visceral endoderm from XEN cells uncovers the true potential of these blastocyst-derived cells and is a ...
more infohttps://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/6227

Opposite effects of the acute promyelocytic leukemia PML-retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) and PLZF-RAR alpha fusion...Opposite effects of the acute promyelocytic leukemia PML-retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) and PLZF-RAR alpha fusion...

PLZF-RAR alpha expression blocks terminal differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cell lines (U937 and HL-60) in response to ... Cholecalciferol; HL-60 Cells; DNA-Binding Proteins; Humans; Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; Transglutaminases; Cell ... increases RA sensitivity of hematopoietic precursor cells and restores RA sensitivity of RA-resistant hematopoietic cells; (iii ... effects on RA-independent differentiation and opposite (stimulatory or inhibitory) effects on RA-dependent differentiation and ...
more infohttps://air.unimi.it/handle/2434/195550

Secondary Metabolism and Cell Differentiation | SpringerLinkSecondary Metabolism and Cell Differentiation | SpringerLink

Secondary Metabolism and Differentiation In addition to the primary metabolic reactions, which are similar in all living beings ... Cell Cell Differentiation Endoplasmatisches Reticulum Stoffwechsel Zelldifferenzierung metabolism proteins Authors and ... Secondary Metabolism in Cell Cultures of Higher Plants and Problems of Differentiation ... the cell walls, or in special excretory cells or spaces of the organism ("metabolic excretion," cf. FREY-WYSSLING, 1935, 1970; ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-642-81102-9

Cell differentiation* | Molecular & Cellular ProteomicsCell differentiation* | Molecular & Cellular Proteomics

2020 American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology , Privacy Policy. MCP Print ISSN 1535-9476 Online ISSN 1535-9484. ...
more infohttps://www.mcponline.org/keyword/cell-differentiation

Macrophage to Foam Cell Differentiation PathwayMacrophage to Foam Cell Differentiation Pathway

Macrophages differentiate into foam cells during the formation and progression of atherosclerosis. Understanding the process of ... Elucidation of the mechanisms of macrophage to foam cell differentiation will help to steer us in the right direction with ... Macrophage to Foam Cell Transition. The induction of foam cell formation has several causes. The most prominent being the death ... www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Macrophage-to-Foam-Cell-Differentiation-Pathway.aspx. (accessed July 19, 2019). ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Macrophage-to-Foam-Cell-Differentiation-Pathway.aspx

MicroRNAs in neural cell differentiation.  - PubMed - NCBIMicroRNAs in neural cell differentiation. - PubMed - NCBI

MicroRNAs in neural cell differentiation.. Lau P1, Hudson LD.. Author information. 1. Section of Developmental Genetics, ... and expressed regionally or specifically in some cell types (dopaminergic neurons, neural stem cells or neurons). Because ... The proposed model also implies that miRNAs are dynamically regulated during neural differentiation (e.g. increase inexpression ... MicroRNAs are temporally expressed during neural differentiation, spatially regulated and embedded in molecular feedback loops ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20382133?dopt=Abstract

Vmn2r120 cell differentiation gene ontologyVmn2r120 cell differentiation gene ontology

Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for cell differentiation All GO annotations for Vmn2r120 (5) ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/go/marker/MGI:3644483?header=cell%20differentiation

Ccdc3 cell differentiation gene ontologyCcdc3 cell differentiation gene ontology

Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for cell differentiation All GO annotations for Ccdc3 (5) ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/go/marker/MGI:1921436?header=cell%20differentiation

Ovarian Basaloid Carcinoma with Shadow Cell DifferentiationOvarian Basaloid Carcinoma with Shadow Cell Differentiation

... Michal Zamecnik,1,2 Daniel Jando,3 and Peter Kascak4,5 ... Michal Zamecnik, Daniel Jando, and Peter Kascak, "Ovarian Basaloid Carcinoma with Shadow Cell Differentiation," Case Reports in ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2014/391947/cta/

Ovarian Basaloid Carcinoma with Shadow Cell DifferentiationOvarian Basaloid Carcinoma with Shadow Cell Differentiation

The shadow cells represent "dead" cells, and thus SCD can be regarded as a mode of terminal differentiation. Nakamura [19] ... So-called shadow cell differentiation (SCD) is typical for pilomatrixoma and other skin lesions with follicular differentiation ... So-called shadow cells (ghost cells) are specialized form of cornified cells in which, as a consequence of karyolysis, nuclei ... squamous cell differentiation (lacking shadow cells) [8]. In tumorigenesis, beta-catenin in the nucleus acts as a key component ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2014/391947/

Secondary Metabolism and Cell Differentiation | SpringerLinkSecondary Metabolism and Cell Differentiation | SpringerLink

Secondary Metabolism and Differentiation In addition to the primary metabolic reactions, which are similar in all living beings ... Cell Cell Differentiation Endoplasmatisches Reticulum Stoffwechsel Zelldifferenzierung metabolism proteins Authors and ... Secondary Metabolism in Cell Cultures of Higher Plants and Problems of Differentiation ... the cell walls, or in special excretory cells or spaces of the organism ("metabolic excretion," cf. FREY-WYSSLING, 1935, 1970; ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-642-81102-9

Culture - Stem Cell Differentiation | Sigma-AldrichCulture - Stem Cell Differentiation | Sigma-Aldrich

USA Home > Product Directory > Cell Biology > Stem Cell Biology > General Stem Cell Biology > Stem Cell Differentiation > ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/cell-biology/cell-biology-products.html?TablePage=19924033

cell differentiation | Biochemical Journalcell differentiation | Biochemical Journal

Identification of a pancreatic stellate cell population with properties of progenitor cells: new role for stellate cells in the ... Stem cells in the adult pancreas and liver Zoë D. Burke, Shifaan Thowfeequ, Macarena Peran, David Tosh ... Regulation of embryonic stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency by leukaemia inhibitory factor Hiroyuki Hirai, Peter Karian, ... Urokinase-receptor-mediated phenotypic changes in vascular smooth muscle cells require the involvement of membrane rafts Julia ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/keyword/cell-differentiation-1

Chromatin architecture reorganization during stem cell differentiation.  - PubMed - NCBIChromatin architecture reorganization during stem cell differentiation. - PubMed - NCBI

Chromatin architecture reorganization during stem cell differentiation.. Dixon JR1, Jung I2, Selvaraj S3, Shen Y2, Antosiewicz- ... By mapping genome-wide chromatin interactions in human embryonic stem (ES) cells and four human ES-cell-derived lineages, we ... a, First principle component (PC1) values and Hi-C interaction heat maps in H1 ES cells and H1-derived lineages. PC1 values are ... Also shown are domain calls in ES cells and the directionality index (DI) in each lineage. b, Changes in interaction frequency ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=25693564%5BPMID%5D

Cell Differentiation Inducer | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological ActionCell Differentiation Inducer | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological Action

Genistein inhibits cell invasion and motility by inducing cell differentiation in murine osteosarcoma cell line LM8.Dec 31, ... Vitamin K2 induces programmed cell death and differentiation in human leukemia cells.Jul 01, 2001. ... 11 Abstracts with Cell Differentiation Inducer Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Sulforaphane induces differentiation in human promyelocytic cells, indicating it may be a promising antileukemic agent.Aug 01, ...
more infohttps://www.greenmedinfo.com/pharmacological-action/cell-differentiation-inducer

Cell Differentiation - Cell BiologyCell Differentiation - Cell Biology

Top : Forum Archives: : Cell Biology. Cell Differentiation - Time periods and environment for proper cell differentiation (Aug/ ... What cells/cell line are you using?. For THP-1 cells - Vit D3 72h, PMA 24h ... I am developing a protocol that involves both Vitamin D3 differentiation and PMA differentiation. How long do each of these two ... I am developing a protocol that involves both Vitamin D3 differentiation and PMA differentiation. How long do each of these two ...
more infohttp://www.protocol-online.org/biology-forums/posts/18799.html

Telomere Length Influences Cancer Cell DifferentiationTelomere Length Influences Cancer Cell Differentiation

... promotes the differentiation of cancer cells, probably reducing malignancy, which is strongly associated with a loss of cell ... differentiation. They report their findings in a manuscript published online ahead of print, in the journal Molecular and ... promotes the differentiation of cancer cells, probably reducing malignancy, which is strongly associated with a loss of cell ... Cancer cells have shorter telomeres compared to healthy cells, but they guard their immortality by maintaining these telomeres ...
more infohttps://www.asm.org/index.php/asm-newsroom/journal-tip-sheets/88-news-room/journal-tipsheets/91725-telomere-length-influences-cancer-cell-differentiation

Frontiers | Regulators of Tfh Cell Differentiation | ImmunologyFrontiers | Regulators of Tfh Cell Differentiation | Immunology

Tfh cells are also generated from the conversion of other effector T cells as exemplified by Th1 cells converting into Tfh ... Tfh cells are also generated from the conversion of other effector T cells as exemplified by Th1 cells converting into Tfh ... Tfh cells are generated from naïve CD4 T cells with sequential steps involving cytokine signaling (IL-21, IL-6, IL-12, activin ... Tfh cells are generated from naïve CD4 T cells with sequential steps involving cytokine signaling (IL-21, IL-6, IL-12, activin ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2016.00520/full

Phys.org - stem cell differentiationPhys.org - stem cell differentiation

Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Space Science, Earth Science, Health and Medicine
more infohttps://phys.org/tags/stem+cell+differentiation/sort/liverank/1w/

Cell differentiation - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaCell differentiation - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A cell that is able to differentiate into many cell types is known as pluripotent. Such cells are called stem cells in animals ... Cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. It is part of ... Differentiation is also common process in adults: adult stem cells divide to make fully-differentiated daughter cells during ... Differentiation dramatically changes a cells size, shape, metabolic activity, and responsiveness to signals. These changes are ...
more infohttps://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_differentiation

Modulation of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation - ICHIM CHRISTINE VICTORIAModulation of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation - ICHIM CHRISTINE VICTORIA

The invention provides means of manipulating hematopoietic stem cell differentiation by modulation of levels of NR2F6 (EAR2). ... cord blood stem cells, placental stem cells, bone marrow stem cells, amniotic fluid stem cells, neuronal stem cells, ... cord blood stem cells, placental stem cells, bone marrow stem cells, amniotic fluid stem cells, neuronal stem cells, ... Control of stem cell differentiation would allow for expansion of primitive stem cell or progenitor cell populations, thus ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2015/0299712.html

Linking lysosomes to stem cell differentiation | Science SignalingLinking lysosomes to stem cell differentiation | Science Signaling

Lysosomal signaling enables stem cell differentiation by sequestering the transcription factor Tfe3 in the cytoplasm. ... Lysosomal signaling enables stem cell differentiation by sequestering the transcription factor Tfe3 in the cytoplasm. ...
more infohttps://stke.sciencemag.org/content/12/570/eaax0926/tab-article-info
  • Recent work from the laboratory of Dr. Azim Surani has identified Blimp-1 ( Prdm1 ) as an early marker of the first primordial germ cells that can be detected in a small cluster of 6-10 cells in the proximal epiblast at E6.5 of murine embryonic development (Ohinata et al. (stembook.org)
  • 1. Secondary Metabolism and Differentiation In addition to the primary metabolic reactions, which are similar in all living beings (formation and breakdown of nucleic acids and proteins as well as of their precursors, of most carbohy- drates, of some carboxylic acids, etc. ), a vast number of metab- olic pathways lead to the formation of compounds peculiar to a few species or even to a single chemical race only. (springer.com)
  • The lack of mechanisms for true excretion in higher plants may result in this unequal distribution, the "waste products" of metabolism in plants instead being accumulated in the vacuoles, the cell walls, or in special excretory cells or spaces of the organism ("metabolic excretion," cf. (springer.com)
  • The cell size, shape, polarity , metabolism and responsiveness to signals change dramatically such that a less specialized cell becomes more specialized and acquires a more specific role. (biology-online.org)
  • WASHINGTON, DC - June 27, 2013 - Researchers from the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research in Tokyo have discovered that forced elongation of telomeres (extensions on the end of chromosomes) promotes the differentiation of cancer cells, probably reducing malignancy, which is strongly associated with a loss of cell differentiation. (asm.org)
  • Tenomodulin promotes human adipocyte differentiation and beneficial visceral adipose tissue expansion. (umassmed.edu)
  • Such a pre-determination model of germ cell specification assures that germ cells are set-aside during the earliest steps of embryonic development, protecting them from the lineage specification and differentiation events that craft the body plan of the embryo. (stembook.org)
  • Recognizing the vital importance of germ cells to species survival, in many lower organisms including Drosophila Melanogaster , Xenopus Laevis and the Zebrafish ( Danio Rerio ) germ cell formation is rigidly programmed. (stembook.org)
  • The inheritance of germ plasm in lower organisms is sufficient to install a germ cell identity, but the specific mechanisms by which this occurs remain unknown. (stembook.org)
  • Mis-localization of Oskar RNA or protein to the distal pole results in germ cell formation at the distal site (Ephrussi and Lehmann, 1992 ). (stembook.org)
  • As mentioned, in many species, including mammals, orthologs of other Drosophila germ plasm components have been identified and have been shown to play a role in germ cell development. (stembook.org)
  • 2002 ). The functional significance of both these early germ cell markers is unclear, but Blimp-1 knockout studies have demonstrated an essential role for this gene in germ cell determination (Ohinata et al. (stembook.org)
  • Dynamic changes in the expression of transcription factors (TFs) can influence the specification of distinct CD8 + T cell fates, but the observation of equivalent expression of TFs among differentially fated precursor cells suggests additional underlying mechanisms. (nature.com)
  • Tfh cells are also generated from the conversion of other effector T cells as exemplified by Th1 cells converting into Tfh during viral infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mechanistic details of effector T cells conversion into Tfh are yet to be clear. (frontiersin.org)
  • The TFs YY1 and Nr3c1, both constitutively expressed during CD8 + T cell differentiation, regulated the formation of terminal-effector cell fates and memory-precursor cell fates, respectively. (nature.com)
  • Because the data seem to indicate discreet stages of cell differentiation characterized by waves of changes in one direction and subsequent waves in another, cell types conceivably could be redefined according to epigenetic marks that will provide new insights into both normal development and disease processes. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Cell differentiation refers to the normal process by which a less specialized cell goes through development and maturation in order to become more distinct in terms of form and function . (biology-online.org)
  • Because of association of Tfh cell with pathogenic as well as autoimmune diseases, attempts were made to increase or decrease Tfh cell number in order to reduce disease severity, pathology, and infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cytoplasm of the shadow cells is fine, filamentous or granular, eosinophilic, often with yellowish (amber- or honey-like) shade. (hindawi.com)
  • The importance of the egg's non-nuclear material-the cytoplasm-in early development is apparent in the consistent relation that is seen to exist between certain regions in the cytoplasm of a fertilized egg and certain kinds or directions of cell differentiation. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Such facts have justified the belief that the early events in cell differentiation depend on an interaction between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. (scientificamerican.com)
  • It allows the nucleus from one of several different cell types to be combined with egg cytoplasm in such a way that normal embryonic development can take place. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Until this technique was developed the only kind of nucleus that could be made to penetrate an egg was the nucleus of a sperm cell, and this was obviously of limited use for an analysis of those interactions between nucleus and cytoplasm that lead to the majority of cell differences in an individual. (scientificamerican.com)
  • As with most animal eggs, the early events of amphibian development are largely independent of the environment, and the processes leading to cell differentiation must involve a redistribution and interaction of constituents already present in the fertilized egg. (scientificamerican.com)
  • CXCL12 binds to receptors such as C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and CXCR7, which allows it to regulate cell migration, adhesion, and survival. (news-medical.net)
  • This signaling changes the metabolic state of macrophages resulting in decreased cholesterol efflux, which causes increased foam cell formation. (news-medical.net)
  • The slight rebound in each of these marks allows for further differentiation to occur by allowing another opportunity to decrease the markers once again, bringing the cell closer to its desired fate. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, AHR activation by 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole interfered with T reg cell development, boosted T H 17 cell differentiation and increased the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. (nature.com)
  • The accumulation of foam cells contributes to the development of atherosclerosis by progressing plaque formation and causing the formation of unstable plaques. (news-medical.net)
  • An example of cell differentiation is the development of a single-celled zygote into a multicellular embryo that further develops into a more complex multisystem of distinct cell types of a fetus . (biology-online.org)
  • This book presents the current state of knowledge on the origin and differentiation of cell lines involved in the development of the vertebrate male and female gonads with particular emphasis on the mouse. (ebooks.com)
  • Possible future studies in teleost B cell development are suggested in the context of gene regulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Post-translational control of T cell development by the ESCRT protein CHMP5. (umassmed.edu)
  • Such hybrids typically die before they reach the gastrula stage, the point in embryonic development at which major cell differences first become obvious. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The question is whether or not the progressive specialization of cells during development is accompanied by the loss of genes no longer required in each cell type. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Finally, they looked at older cells that were close to their ultimate fates to get more complete pictures of the precursor-progeny relationships - for example, at white blood cells that had gone fairly far in T-cell lymphocyte development. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Instead, we saw these waves of change during the development of these cell types. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The development of T reg cells is reciprocally related to that of pro-inflammatory T cells producing interleukin-17 (T H 17). (nature.com)
  • The organism changes from a single zygote to a complex system of tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, only the zygote and early embryonic cells are totipotent, while in plants many differentiated cells can become totipotent with simple laboratory techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • In egg-laying species, which have limited control over the embryo's extra-embryonic milieu, the specification of germ cells through pre-localized germ-plasm may protect the germline against environmental influences. (stembook.org)
  • Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs. (umassmed.edu)
  • Robust regulation of Tfh cell response and subsequent antibody maturation are critical for infection clearance ( 2 , 3 ), whereas aberrancy in controlling Tfh immune response is implicated in progression of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), arthritis, and type I/II diabetes ( 4 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • As an example, improvement in beta cell function as a result of reduction in Tfh number was observed upon treatment of rituximab (anti-CD20) in patient with type I diabetes ( 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • It is the process in which a cell changes into another cell type. (biology-online.org)
  • You might want to have an incompletely reprogrammed cell type from blood, for example, that you take just to a certain point because then you want to turn it into a different kind of blood cell," Feinberg says, cautioning that the various applications are strictly theoretical. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Histone modifications of H3K9 position show a decrease in di- and tri-methylation of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and had a gradual increase in methylation during the six-day time course of in vitro differentiation, which indicated that there is a global increase of inactive heterochromatin levels at this histone mark. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before describing the nuclear-transplant experiments that distinguish between these two possibilities, we must outline the methods used to transplant living cell nuclei into eggs. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The aim of a nuclear-transplant experiment is to insert the nucleus of a specialized cell into an unfertilized egg whose nucleus has been removed. (scientificamerican.com)