Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal PROMYELOCYTES predominate. It is frequently associated with DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A notch receptor that interacts with a variety of ligands and regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS for multiple cellular processes. It is widely expressed during EMBRYOGENESIS and is essential for EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. It plays a role in regulating IMMUNOGLOBULIN E expression.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
6-carbon straight-chain or branched ketones.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
Spontaneous aggregations of human embryonic stem cells that occur in vitro after culturing in a medium that lacks LEUKEMIC INHIBITORY FACTOR. The embryoid bodies can further differentiate into cells that represent different lineages.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from:
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.

In vitro effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) on bovine cells. (1/61862)

Bovine fetal muscle cells were exposed to culture media containing 2 mg and 20 mg per liter of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) for varying intervals to determine the in vitro response of mammalian cells to this compound. The concentrations of 2,4-D used were comparable to those used in spray programmes although the residues normally found in pasture are much lower since 2,4-D is rapidly degraded under field conditions. Untreated and treated cultures were analyzed for total cell count, mitotic index and the percentages of differentiating and degenerating cells. The response of cultures to treatment was similar irrespective of the concentrations of 2,4-D used although in higher concentrations there was an initial drop in mitotic index. Other changes noted in treated cultures included an increase in differentiating and degenerating cells compared to those in control. The mitotic cells in treated cultures exhibited unipolar and tripolar spindles and a variety of other abnormalities including malorientation of the mitotic apparatus in relation to the axis of the cell. Myoblasts in initial stages of myogenesis were noted to be in mitosis in treated cultures suggesting that 2,4-D may have a stimulatory effect on myoblasts which in normal myogenesis are in post mitotic stage.  (+info)

Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis. (2/61862)

The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation.  (+info)

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (3/61862)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (4/61862)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

oko meduzy mutations affect neuronal patterning in the zebrafish retina and reveal cell-cell interactions of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. (5/61862)

Mutations of the oko meduzy (ome) locus cause drastic neuronal patterning defect in the zebrafish retina. The precise, stratified appearance of the wild-type retina is absent in the mutants. Despite the lack of lamination, at least seven retinal cell types differentiate in oko meduzy. The ome phenotype is already expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium affecting morphology of the neuroepithelial cells. Our experiments indicate that previously unknown cell-cell interactions are involved in development of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. In genetically mosaic animals, cell-cell interactions are sufficient to rescue the phenotype of oko meduzy retinal neuroepithelial cells. These cell-cell interactions may play a critical role in the patterning events that lead to differentiation of distinct neuronal laminae in the vertebrate retina.  (+info)

Retinoids are produced by glia in the lateral ganglionic eminence and regulate striatal neuron differentiation. (6/61862)

In order to identify molecular mechanisms involved in striatal development, we employed a subtraction cloning strategy to enrich for genes expressed in the lateral versus the medial ganglionic eminence. Using this approach, the homeobox gene Meis2 was found highly expressed in the lateral ganglionic eminence and developing striatum. Since Meis2 has recently been shown to be upregulated by retinoic acid in P19 EC cells (Oulad-Abdelghani, M., Chazaud, C., Bouillet, P., Sapin, V., Chambon, P. and Dolle, P. (1997) Dev. Dyn. 210, 173-183), we examined a potential role for retinoids in striatal development. Our results demonstrate that the lateral ganglionic eminence, unlike its medial counterpart or the adjacent cerebral cortex, is a localized source of retinoids. Interestingly, glia (likely radial glia) in the lateral ganglionic eminence appear to be a major source of retinoids. Thus, as lateral ganglionic eminence cells migrate along radial glial fibers into the developing striatum, retinoids from these glial cells could exert an effect on striatal neuron differentiation. Indeed, the treatment of lateral ganglionic eminence cells with retinoic acid or agonists for the retinoic acid receptors or retinoid X receptors, specifically enhances their striatal neuron characteristics. These findings, therefore, strongly support the notion that local retinoid signalling within the lateral ganglionic eminence regulates striatal neuron differentiation.  (+info)

T-cell development: a new marker of differentiation state. (7/61862)

Differentiation of T cells is a complicated affair and there has been a dearth of markers that faithfully reflect thymocyte phenotype. A new strategy based on T-cell receptor gene sequencing has revealed a marker that can be used to monitor thymocyte differentiation with fidelity and without perturbation.  (+info)

Expression of the naturally occurring truncated trkB neurotrophin receptor induces outgrowth of filopodia and processes in neuroblastoma cells. (8/61862)

We have investigated the effects of the truncated trkB receptor isoform T1 (trkB.T1) by transient transfection into mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. We observed that expression of trkB.T1 leads to a striking change in cell morphology characterized by outgrowth of filopodia and processes. A similar morphological response was also observed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with trkB.T1. N2a cells lack endogenous expression of trkB isoforms, but express barely detectable amounts of its ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4). The morphological change was ligand-independent, since addition of exogenous BDNF or NT-4 or blockade of endogenous trkB ligands did not influence this response. Filopodia and process outgrowth was significantly suppressed when full-length trkB.TK+ was cotransfected together with trkB.T1 and this inhibitory effect was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a. Transfection of trkB.T1 deletion mutants showed that the morphological response is dependent on the extracellular, but not the intracellular domain of the receptor. Our results suggest a novel ligand-independent role for truncated trkB in the regulation of cellular morphology.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanistic contribution of ubiquitous 15-lipoxygenase-1 expression loss in cancer cells to terminal cell differentiation evasion. AU - Moussalli, Micheline J.. AU - Wu, Yuanqing. AU - Zuo, Xiangsheng. AU - Yang, Xiu L.. AU - Wistuba, Ignacio Ivan. AU - Raso, Maria G.. AU - Morris, Jeffrey S.. AU - Bowser, Jessica L.. AU - Minna, John D.. AU - Lotan, Reuben. AU - Shureiqi, Imad. PY - 2011/12. Y1 - 2011/12. N2 - Loss of terminal cell differentiation promotes tumorigenesis. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) contributes to terminal cell differentiation in normal cells. The mechanistic significance of 15-LOX-1 expression loss in human cancers to terminal cell differentiation suppression is unknown. In a screen of 128 cancer cell lines representing more than 20 types of human cancer, we found that 15-LOX-1 mRNA expression levels were markedly lower than levels in terminally differentiated cells. Relative expression levels of 15-LOX-1 (relative to the level in terminally differentiated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Krüppel-like factor 4, Elk-1, and histone deacetylases cooperatively suppress smooth muscle cell differentiation markers in response to oxidized phospholipids. AU - Yoshida, Tadashi. AU - Gan, Qiong. AU - Owens, Gary K.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/11. Y1 - 2008/11. N2 - Phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), such as increased proliferation, enhanced migration, and downregulation of SMC differentiation marker genes, is known to play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the factors and mechanisms controlling this process are not fully understood. We recently showed that oxidized phospholipids, including 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC), which accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions, are potent repressors of expression of SMC differentiation marker genes in cultured SMCs as well as in rat carotid arteries in vivo. Here, we examined the molecular mechanisms ...
Involucrin (Squamous Cell Terminal Differentiation Marker) Antibody - Without BSA and Azide, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone SY5 ] validated in IHC-P, IF, FC (AH10541-100), Abgent
Wright N.; Morley A.; Appleton D., 1971: The effect of testosterone on cell differentiation and proliferation in the castrate mouse small intestine
The use of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (hiPSC-NPCs) is an attractive therapeutic option for damaged nerve tissues. To direct neuronal differentiation of stem cells, we have previously developed an electrospun polycaprolactone nanofiber scaffold that was functionalized with siRNA targeting Re-1 silencing transcription factor (REST), by mussel-inspired bioadhesive coating. However, the efficacy of nanofiber-mediated RNA interference on hiPSC-NPCs differentiation remains unknown. Furthermore, interaction between such cell-seeded scaffolds with injured tissues has not been tested. In this study, scaffolds were optimized for REST knockdown in hiPSC-NPCs to enhance neuronal differentiation. Specifically, the effects of two different mussel-inspired bioadhesives and transfection reagents were analyzed. Scaffolds functionalized with RNAiMAX Lipofectamine-siREST complexes enhanced the differentiation of hiPSC-NPCs into TUJ1+ cells (60% as compared to 22% in ...
Notch2 interaction with its ligand, Dll1, is required in the mouse to drive MZP into the MZB cell lineage (Saito et al., 2003; Hozumi et al., 2004). Preliminary data based on humanized mouse models have also proposed a Notch2 dependence for the differentiation of IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells (Scheeren et al., 2008). Accordingly, we searched for an MZP in the spleen from young children, taking as diagnostic criteria its capacity to acquire an MZ phenotype when cultured in presence of OP9 cells expressing human DLL1, a differentiation which, moreover, should be specifically inhibited in presence of anti-NOTCH2 blocking antibodies. This precursor subset was identified using the recently described MEM55 antibody, which marks a glycosylated variant of the CD45RB molecule, harbored by CD27+ B cells and an immature B cell subset (Koethe et al., 2011). Surprisingly, these MZPs were further characterized as expressing the ABCB1 transporter reported so far as the unique hallmark of naive B cells (Wirths and ...
The process of generating hiPS cell-derived hepatocytes begins with the directed differentiation of hiPS cells into definitive endoderm (DE) cells, which are then differentiated further into hepatocytes. The complete system provides media, supplements, and coating reagents for each step of the hiPS-cell-to-hepatocyte differentiation protocol. Starting with approximately 3 x 106 undifferentiated hiPS cells, this system yields 5 x 106 hepatocytes-equivalent to a confluent monolayer of 50 cm2. Importantly, this do-it-yourself system offers a solution for the consistent production of assay-ready cells from patient-derived cells, or from Cellartis brand iPS cell lines-enabling highly reproducible results.. Successful differentiation depends on the quality of the starting material; a homogeneous, undifferentiated stem cell population is ideal. The iPS Cell to Hepatocyte Differentiation System promotes high-quality starting material by incorporating DEF-CS culture system components, which are designed ...
Renovos OPC differentiation assay is used to identify compounds that promote the production of oligodendrocytes from OPCs. In this assay, OPCs are cultured with or without compounds in differentiation media in 96-well plates. Following 5 days of differentiation, cells are stained and imaged in high-content ArrayScan™ reader in multiple channels. Computer algorithms are used to quantify the number of viable and pyknotic cells, and the number of EGFP+ oligodendrocytes in each well of the plate. Immunostaining of additional markers of different cell types can also be performed and quantified.. Applications of the OPC differentiation assay include:. ...
Glioma differentiation therapy is a novel strategy that has been used to induce glioma cells to differentiate into glia-like cells. Although some advances in experimental methods for exploring the molecular mechanisms involved in differentiation therapy have been made, a model-based comprehensive analysis is still needed to understand these differentiation mechanisms and improve the effects of anti-cancer therapeutics. This type of analysis becomes necessary in stochastic cases for two main reasons: stochastic noise inherently exists in signal transduction and phenotypic regulation during targeted therapy and chemotherapy, and the relationship between this noise and drug efficacy in differentiation therapy is largely unknown. In this study, we developed both an additive noise model and a Chemical-Langenvin-Equation model for the signaling pathways involved in glioma differentiation therapy to investigate the functional role of noise in the drug response. Our model analysis revealed an ultrasensitive
Background: The role of mesenchymal stem cell in cellular therapy is the subject of interest for many researchers. The differentiation potential of MSCs and abilities in modulations of the recipients immune system makes them important cells in tissue regenerative studies. MSCs by releasing the proinflammatory cytokines play important role in immunomodulatory systems; however the signaling pathways for releasing of these mediators are not well understood. Glutathione has been shown to play a role in modulation of cytokines in hepatogenic differentiation. Objective: In the current study we aimed to investigate the effects of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, inhibitor for glutathione synthesis) and N-acetylecystin (NAC, an inhibitor for ROS generation) on proinflammatory cytokines production in a hepatogenic differentiation model. Results: BSO and NAC significantly decreased IL-6 and TNF-α levels at 14 days of differentiation, whereas, NAC decreased the levels of IL-8 at days 2 and 14 of differentiation.
The development of tumor cell differentiation agents is new initiative in cancer treatment research. The goal of this project was to identify breast cancer differentiation agents by screening quinoline ring-containing compounds obtained form National Cancer Institute Compound Library. Of six differentiation-inducing quinolines NSC3852 was chosen as a lead compound. Our results demonstrate that NSC3852 is an inhibitor of HDAC activity in HeLa and MCF-7 cells nuclear extracts. NSC3852 caused superoxide generation in MCF-7 cells in a NADPH oxidase-dependent fashion, and NSC3852-induced oxidative stress led to the shift in a redox potential of the cells to a more oxidized state. This change in redox status of the cells was accompanied by the accumulation of hypophosphorylated pRb, downregulation of E2F-1 and Myc transcription factor protein levels, and cell differentiation. Superoxide formation in response to NSC3852 exposure caused DNA damage and subsequently apoptosis. MCF-7 cells growth was inhibited.
Background: We have previously shown that knockout of E2F1 in mice enhances angiogenesis following induction of hind limb ischemia. Recent studies suggest that suppression of E2F1 enhances oxidative phosphorylation in a variety of cell types. Since an increase in oxidative phosphorylation in stem/progenitor cells is often associated with cell differentiation, we hypothesize that E2F1-deficiency may promote bone marrow (BM) progenitor cell differentiation thereby impact on ischemic cardiac repair.. Methods and Results: We cultured bone marrow (BM) Lin- progenitor cells under hypoxic and normxic conditions for 24 h, then measured the expression of metabolism associated genes and evaluated cell proliferation and differentiation. We also performed adoptive BM transplantation to reconstitute BM of WT mice with E2F1-/- or WT BM, followed by surgical induction of myocardial infarction (MI), to compare the role of BM E2F1 in the cardiac repair in vivo. Notably, we found that the expression levels of ...
Bcl6 is required for CD4 T cell differentiation into T follicular helper cells (Tfh). In this study, we examined the role of IL-6 in early processes of in vivo Tfh differentiation, because the timing and mechanism of action of IL-6 in Tfh differentiation have been controversial in vivo. We found that early Bcl6(+)CXCR5(+) Tfh differentiation was severely impaired in the absence of IL-6; however, STAT3 deficiency failed to recapitulate that defect. IL-6R signaling activates the transcription factor STAT1 specifically in CD4 T cells. Strikingly, we found that STAT1 activity was required for Bcl6 induction and early Tfh differentiation in vivo. IL-6 mediated STAT3 activation is important for downregulation of IL-2Rα to limit Th1 cell differentiation in an acute viral infection. Thus, IL-6 signaling is a major early inducer of the Tfh differentiation program unexpectedly mediated by both STAT3 and STAT1 transcription factors. ...
Analysis of MM14 mouse myoblasts demonstrates that terminal differentiation is repressed by pure preparations of both acidic and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Basic FGF is approximately 30-fold more potent than acidic FGF and it exhibits half maximal activity in clonal assays at 0.03 ng/ml (2 pM). FGF repression occurs only during the G1 phase of the cell cycle by a mechanism that appears to be independent of ongoing cell proliferation. When exponentially growing myoblasts are deprived of FGF, cells become postmitotic within 2-3 h, express muscle-specific proteins within 6-7 h, and commence fusion within 12-14 h. Although expression of these three terminal differentiation phenotypes occurs at different times, all are initiated by a single regulatory commitment event in G1. The entire population commits to terminal differentiation within 12.5 h of FGF removal as all cells complete the cell cycle and move into G1. Differentiation does not require a new round of DNA synthesis. Comparison ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stomach Organ and Cell Lineage Differentiation. T2 - From Embryogenesis to Adult Homeostasis. AU - Willet, Spencer G.. AU - Mills, Jason C.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Gastric diseases cause considerable worldwide burden. However, the stomach is still poorly understood in terms of the molecular-cellular processes that govern its development and homeostasis. In particular, the complex relationship between the differentiated cell types located within the stomach and the stem and progenitor cells that give rise to them is significantly understudied relative to other organs. In this review, we highlight the current state of the literature relating to specification of gastric cell lineages from embryogenesis to adulthood. Special emphasis is placed on substantial gaps in knowledge about stomach specification that we think should be tackled to advance the field. For example, it has long been assumed that adult gastric units have a granule-free stem cell that gives rise to all ...
Nurr1, a transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor family, is essential for the generation of midbrain dopamine (DA) cellsduring embryonic development and it continues to be expressed in adult DA neurons. However, the mechanism by which Nurr1 promotes dopamine cell differentiation has remained unknown. In this study, I have used a neuronal progenitor cell line (NT2/D1), which retains some stem cell characteristics and is capable only of terminal differentiation into neurons, to analyze the function of Nurr1 in dopamine cell development. The results demonstrated that Nurr1 can induce cell cycle arrest and the cells differentiated with distinct neuronal morphology after all-trans retinoic acid treatment. It was also indicated that up-regulation of some dopaminergic neuron markers (e.g. TH, DAT and D2DR) while down-regulation of CyclinD1-Cdk6 activity marks the key events in the early stages of dopaminergic neuron differentiation. Furthermore, Pin1, a highly conserved isomerase, which ...
Background: MiR-499 is a cardiac-abundant miRNA. However, the biological functions of miR-499 in differentiated cardiomyocytes or in the cardiomyocyte differentiation process is not very clear. Sox6 is believed to be one of its targets, and is also believed to play a role in cardiac differentiation. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the association between Sox6 and miR-499 during cardiac differentiation.. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using a well-established in vitro cardiomyocyte differentiation system, mouse P19CL6 cells, we found that miR-499 was highly expressed in the late stage of cardiac differentiation. In cells stably transfected with miR-499 (P-499 cells), it was found that miR-499 could promote the differentiation into cardiomyocytes at the early stage of cardiac differentiation. Notably, cell viability assay, EdU incorporation assay, and cell cycle profile analysis all showed that the P-499 cells displayed the distinctive feature of hyperplastic growth. Further investigation ...
Terminal B cell differentiation is a complex process currently modeled upon the actions of a small number of master regulators, and the gaps in our understanding are clear. Insight into the mechanism of differentiation, both its initiation and its full execution, is advanced with the identification of each new contributing factor.. Here, we identify Zbtb20 as a new mediator of B cell differentiation specifically expressed in B1 and GC B cells and ASCs. Zbtb20 is a BTB-ZF transcription factor, and other members of the family have been shown to be active within the B cell lineage (Chevrier and Corcoran, 2014). For instance, early B lineage commitment is mediated by LRF, Bcl6, and Miz-1 (Maeda et al., 2007; Duy et al., 2010; Kosan et al., 2010), MZ B cell differentiation is controlled by LRF (Sakurai et al., 2011), and the GC reaction is driven by Bcl6 and LRF (Fukuda et al., 1997; Sakurai et al., 2011). Finally, Zbtb32 has been associated with plasma cell differentiation (Yoon et al., ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct differentiation of bone marrow mononucleated cells into insulin producing cells using pancreatic β-cell-derived components. AU - Oh, Ju Eun. AU - Choi, Ok Kyung. AU - Park, Ho Seon. AU - Jung, Hye Seung. AU - Ryu, Su Jeong. AU - Lee, Yong Deok. AU - Lee, Seung Ah. AU - Chung, Sung Soo. AU - Choi, Eun Young. AU - Lee, Dong Sup. AU - Gho, Yong Song. AU - Lee, Hakmo. AU - Park, Kyong Soo. PY - 2019/3/29. Y1 - 2019/3/29. N2 - Transplantation of stem cell-derived insulin producing cells (IPCs) has been proposed as an alternative to islet transplantation for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, current IPC differentiation protocols are focused on generating functional cells from the pluripotent stem cells and tend to rely on multistep, long-term exposure to various exogenous factors. In this study, we addressed the observation that under stress, pancreatic β-cells release essential components that direct the differentiation of the bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNCs) ...
negative regulation of anterior neural cell fate commitment of the neural plate by fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway - Ontology Report - Rat Genome Database
Characterizing genes associated with leukemic cell differentiation may provide help for understanding mechanisms on the leukemia differentiation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the expression of melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) could be induced during leukemia differentiation and whether mda-7/IL-24 plays a role in leukemia differentiation. We showed that the expression of mda-7/IL-24 and IL-24 delE5, an mda-7/IL-24 splice variant, was induced in U937 and HL60 cells during 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-mediated monocytic differentiation. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway was required for their induction. Knockdown of mda-7/IL-24 and IL-24 delE5 resulted in significant inhibition of the monocytic differentiation induced by TPA. More importantly, ectopic overexpression of mda-7/IL-24 and IL-24 delE5 significantly induced U937 cells, HL60 cells, and blast cells from ...
In this directed differentiation protocol, Pax3-GFP is overexpressed in mesenchymal stem cells via viral transduction. After infection, cells are subjected to fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate the GFP-positive cells. Isolated cells are cultured in mesenchymal stem cell expansion medium without growth factors, to promote their differentiation into myogenic cells. The differentiated cells are multinucleated and express early-myogenic markers ...
Directed differentiation is a bioengineering methodology at the interface of stem cell biology, developmental biology and tissue engineering. It is essentially harnessing the potential of stem cells by constraining their differentiation in vitro toward a specific cell type or tissue of interest. Stem cells are by definition pluripotent, able to differentiate into several cell types such as neurons, cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes, etc. Efficient directed differentiation requires a detailed understanding of the lineage and cell fate decision, often provided by developmental biology. During differentiation, pluripotent cells make a number of developmental decisions to generate first the three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm) of the embryo and intermediate progenitors, followed by subsequent decisions or check points, giving rise to all the bodys mature tissues. The differentiation process can be modeled as sequence of binary decisions based on probabilistic or stochastic models. ...
The present studies were undertaken to determine whether the CDKI FP could enhance PMA-induced maturation in human leukemia cells. The rationale for this investigation stemmed from several considerations: (a) FP has been shown to induce differentiation in some cell types (e.g., non-small cell lung cancer cells; Ref. 21 ); and (b) inhibition of cell cycle progression by FP might promote a leukemic cell differentiation program (47) . Contrary to expectations, coexposure to FP for 24 h strikingly opposed PMA-induced differentiation in U937 cells and instead significantly increased apoptosis. These events were associated with increased mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of caspases, and loss of clonogenic survival; moreover, enhanced cell death after PMA/FP cotreatment was also observed in promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) and in U937 cells overexpressing the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. These events may reflect the complex reciprocal relationship that exists between differentiation and ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Info Supplementary Numbers 1-3, Supplementary Furniture 1-5 and Supplementary References ncomms9487-s1. ducts that drain alveoli during lactation. The nature of the stem cell(s) that maintain this epithelium is definitely controversial. Initial transplantation experiments using purified cell subsets shown that only the basal cells experienced the potential to regenerate ductalClobular outgrowths or engrafting capacity colony-forming cells (CFCs) in the luminal compartment can also be recognized: Sca1?CD49b+ luminal progenitors (termed Sca1? progenitors) that express low levels of luminal cell differentiation markers and Sca1+CD49b+ luminal progenitors (termed Sca1+ progenitors) that express high levels of luminal cell differentiation markers3,8,9,10. Analogous luminal cell subpopulations have also been recognized in the human being mammary epithelium, as EpCAM+CD49f? NCL cells, ALDH+EpCAM+CD49f+ luminal progenitors that communicate low levels of luminal ...
The coordination of cell proliferation with the gradual differentiation of different cell types is essential for proper development and tissue homeostasis. However, little is known about the signals that couple cell cycle exit to differentiation switch during development. Here, we show that signaling mediated by integrins, the major cell-ECM receptors, contributes to the regulation of this switch in the posterior follicle cells of the Drosophila ovary. Furthermore, our experiments strongly suggest that one of the mechanisms by which integrins regulate epithelial cell differentiation is by modulating the activity of the Notch pathway through promoting the proper endosomal trafficking and/or processing of Notch.. Integrins are known to regulate cell differentiation and proliferation in other systems. The effects of particular integrins in regulating differentiation vary depending on the epithelial cell type. Thus, although β1 integrin signaling is inhibitory for differentiation in the epidermis ...
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of the mammalian blastocyst. Cellular differentiation entails loss of pluripotency and gain of lineage-specific characteristics. However, the molecular controls that govern the differentiation process remain poorly understood. We have characterized small RNA expression profiles in differentiating ES cells as a model for early mammalian development. High-throughput 454 pyro-sequencing was performed on 19-30 nt RNAs isolated from undifferentiated male and female ES cells, as well as day 2 and 5 differentiating derivatives. A discrete subset of microRNAs (miRNAs) largely dominated the small RNA repertoire, and the dynamics of their accumulation could be readily used to discriminate pluripotency from early differentiation events. Unsupervised partitioning around meloids (PAM) analysis revealed that differentiating ES cell miRNAs can be divided into three expression clusters with highly contrasted accumulation patterns. ...
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Stem cell interactions through paracrine cell signalling can regulate a range of cell responses, including metabolic activity, proliferation and differentiation. Moving towards the development of optimized tissue-engineering strategies with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), the focus of this study was on developing indirect co-culture models to study the effects of mature adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts on bovine ASC multilineage differentiation. For each lineage, ASC differentiation was characterized by histology, gene expression and protein expression, in the absence of key inductive differentiation factors for the ASCs. Co-culture with each of the mature cell populations was shown to successfully induce or enhance lineage-specific differentiation of the ASCs. In general, a more homogeneous but lower-level differentiation response was observed in co-culture as compared to stimulating the bovine ASCs with inductive differentiation media. To explore the role of
Bromodomain-containing protein 2 (Brd2) is a BET family chromatin adaptor required for expression of cell cycle associated genes and therefore involved in cell cycle progression. Brd2 is expressed in proliferating neuronal progenitors, displays cell cycle-stimulating activity and, when overexpressed, impairs neuronal differentiation. Paradoxically, Brd2 is also detected in differentiating neurons. To shed light on the role of Brd2 in the transition from cell proliferation to differentiation we have looked for Brd2 interacting proteins upon induction of neuronal differentiation. Surprisingly, we have identified the growth factor Pleiotrophin (Ptn). Ptn antagonizes the cell cycle-stimulating activity associated with Brd2, thus enhancing induced neuronal differentiation. Moreover, Ptn knockdown reduces neuronal differentiation. Ptn-mediated antagonism of Brd2 has been assessed in a cell differentiation model and in two embryonic processes associated with the neural tube: spinal cord neurogenesis ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in positive regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Adipose stem cells (ASCs) are pluripotent cells with the ability of self-renewal and differentiation into various kinds of mesenchymal cells. a three-dimensional tradition. 10 and 20 M doses of Res demonstrated probably the most proliferating influence on ADSCs. The SIRT 1 genes manifestation and FRAP level also more than doubled set alongside the control group (3D tradition was the right condition for ASCs differentiation to chondrocyte, and lower dosages of Res exert proliferation influence on ASCs. gene manifestation.25,26 The purpose of the present research was to research the result of Res on differentiation of ASCs into chondrocyte in 3D tradition also to evaluate cell success, apoptosis, total antioxidants gene and capacity expression. Strategies and Components With this experimental research, subcutaneous adipose cells had been taken from individuals (20-40 years) during liposuction inside a sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) remedy. The adipose cells were cut into small pieces and ...
Upon activation, naive CD8 T cells undergo a program of proliferation and differentiation that results in the acquisition of effector functions. Optimal T cell activation requires the integration of multiple signals including cross-linking of the T cell receptor (signal 1), co-stimulation (signal 2) and soluble factors such as cytokines (signal 3). Once a CD8 T cell has received these three signals they differentiate into an effector cell, which are able to control infection by directly killing the infected cell. Once the infection is cleared, these effector cells contract by controlled cell death and a long-lived population of memory cells remain. These potent memory cells are the defining feature of adaptive immunity as they offer protection for the life of the host due to their unique capabilities to survive in the absence of antigen and respond rapidly to secondary challenge. Therefore, effective CD8 T cell memory is the goal of cell-mediated vaccination strategies. While it is well ...
Definition of Cell differentiation in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Cell differentiation? Meaning of Cell differentiation as a legal term. What does Cell differentiation mean in law?
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC)3 must choose between self-renewal and differentiation; if they differentiate they can become common myeloid progenitors (CMP) or common lymphoid progenitors (CLP). It is still unclear how environmental signals (1) and lineage-specific transcription factors work together to control the frequency with which dividing HSC either undergo self-renewal or commit to one or the other lineage. Transcription factors expressed in HSC can drive commitment to either the lymphoid or the myeloid lineage (2). For example, factors of the Ikaros family specifically favor differentiation down the lymphoid pathway (3), whereas other factors, such as GATA-1 and C/EBPα, favor differentiation down the myeloid pathway (4, 5).. We are particularly interested in mechanisms that influence the choice between self-renewal and differentiation. Thus we study the E2F family of transcription factors, which promotes cell cycle progression and exit; the latter is associated with terminal ...
Due to the pivotal role of stem cell differentiation in regeneration and disease cure, the study of it has always been a research highlight during the recent years. Stress microenvironment has a great impact on cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Twist1, as a core epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulatory factor, plays an important role in these processes. Moreover, Twist1 gene can express in alveolar bone - periodontal ligament interface and the expression can be regulated by changes in the occlusal force. In this article, we will present a review of Twist1 gene, especially in the aspect of the biological functions in stem cell differentiation under mechanical signals and explore whether Twist1 involved in tissue remodeling in alveolar bone - periodontal membrane interface under stress ...
Due to the pivotal role of stem cell differentiation in regeneration and disease cure, the study of it has always been a research highlight during the recent years. Stress microenvironment has a great impact on cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Twist1, as a core epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulatory factor, plays an important role in these processes. Moreover, Twist1 gene can express in alveolar bone - periodontal ligament interface and the expression can be regulated by changes in the occlusal force. In this article, we will present a review of Twist1 gene, especially in the aspect of the biological functions in stem cell differentiation under mechanical signals and explore whether Twist1 involved in tissue remodeling in alveolar bone - periodontal membrane interface under stress ...
The key advantage of iPS cells over other stem cells is that they are patient-specific (and therefore immuno-compatible) and can be grown in infinite amounts. Moreover, they are not dogged by the ethical and religious controversies associated with hES cells, yet still have the same properties as hES cells. They also offer the possibility of conducting clinical-trials-in-the-dish, providing a platform for drug screening, disease modelling and gene/cell therapy in pre-clinical studies.3,4. How are iPS cells made?. When cell differentiation occurs, the cell follows a process of changes in gene activity whereby embryonic-specific genes are inactivated and differentiation-specific genes are activated. The end result of this differentiation programme is a specialised cell of one type or another (e.g. cardiac muscle cells or neurons). To reprogramme a fully differentiated adult cell into an iPS cell is surprisingly straightforward - all that is needed is reactivation of the embryonic regulatory ...
The results presented here demonstrate that the luminal cell compartment in both the human and mouse mammary glands is much more heterogeneous than initially perceived since progenitors of varying levels of luminal cell differentiation can be identified and prospectively isolated. In the mouse, these populations resolve as separable ER+ and ER- subpopulations, whereas in the human the ALDH+ and ALDH- subpopulations appear to comprise a larger contiguous population. The cell types of the different species appear to be homologous to one another; for example, the ER- LPs in the mouse are equivalent to the ALDH+ cells in the human, and likewise for the ER+ luminal mouse progenitors and the ALDH- luminal human progenitor cells because both populations collectively express higher levels of luminal cell differentiation markers than the ER-/ALDH+ subpopulations. The ER+ cells in the mouse are probably ductal-restricted progenitors since they express higher levels of ER and FoxA1, transcription factors ...
We have shown in this study that activation of the canonical Wnt pathway promoted, and inhibition of this pathway blocked, neuronal differentiation both in cortical NPC cultures and in the developing neocortex. We emphasize two aspects of these findings: (1) Wnts appear to function as an extracellular cue that instructively triggers neuronal differentiation; and (2) this effect of Wnts is dependent on the stage of development. In this Discussion, we address these aspects and their possible underlying mechanisms.. In general, two models can explain how the fate of an uncommitted precursor cell is influenced by extrinsic cues. In one model, extrinsic cues instruct multipotent precursor cells to commit to a particular lineage. In the other model, multipotent precursor cells choose their fate stochastically, and the proliferation and/or survival of specific lineage-restricted cells is then supported by extrinsic cues. For example, Pdgf treatment increases the size of the neuronal population in ...
We have found that β-catenin signaling and neural differentiation of ES cells are inhibited by culture at high density. This observation is consistent with prior studies of neural/neuronal differentiation of ES cells that have all used relatively low densities irrespective of whether EB or dissociated cell culture techniques were used (Gratsch and OShea, 2002; Ying et al., 2003). The need to culture the cells at low density to achieve neuronal differentiation limits the number of cells that could potentially be obtained for transplantation strategies and raises questions about the mechanisms mediating neuronal differentiation of the cells. Our studies suggest that β-catenin signaling promotes both neural and neuronal differentiation of ES cells, and that the effects of increased cell density are mediated at least in part by inhibition of β-catenin signaling.. Similar to observations with keratinocytes (Dietrich et al., 2002), culture of ES cells at high density promotes membrane localization ...
Reduction of Prep1 Levels Affects Differentiation of Normal and Malignant B Cells and Accelerates Myc Driven Lymphomagenesis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
AIMS: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) play a critical role in negatively regulating the proliferation of cardiomyocytes, although their role in cardiac differentiation remains largely undetermined. We have shown that the most prominent CDKI in Xenopus, p27(Xic1)(Xic1), plays a role in neuronal and myotome differentiation beyond its ability to arrest the cell cycle. Thus, we investigated whether it plays a similar role in cardiomyocyte differentiation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Xenopus laevis embryos were sectioned, and whole-mount antibody staining and immunofluorescence studies were carried out to determine the total number and percentage of differentiated cardiomyocytes in mitosis. Capped RNA and/or translation-blocking Xic1 morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (Xic1Mo) were microinjected into embryos, and their role on cardiac differentiation was assessed by in situ hybridization and/or PCR. We show that cell-cycling post-gastrulation is not essential for cardiac differentiation in ...
The adult mammalian dermis contains a subpopulation of precursor cells that possess the capacity to differentiate into different lineages (16-18). These fibroblastic MSCs have attracted attention for their plasticity and, therefore, their potential therapeutic applications, including in transplantation for bone formation (19). In the present study, the role of BMP7 in the osteogenic differentiation of CD105+ hDDFCs was examined in vitro and in vivo, and the underlying Smad-dependent and -independent mechanisms were identified.. Conflicting reports exist on the differentiation potential of dermal fibroblasts, with certain studies suggesting limited potential and others demonstrating adipocytic, osteocytic and chondrocytic differentiation capacities (20-23). One reason for these controversial results is the heterogeneity of isolated dermal fibroblasts, which include populations with different differentiation capacities (5,13). Although dermal fibroblasts have a surface antigen profile similar to ...
NKT cells are potent regulatory T cells that prevent the development of several autoimmune diseases. Analysis of NKT cell regulatory function in the NOD mouse has revealed that NKT cells inhibit the development of type 1 diabetes by impairing the differentiation of anti-islet T cells into Th1 effector cells. In the present study, we have performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to determine the respective role of cytokines and cell contacts in the blockade of T cell differentiation by NKT cells. These experiments reveal that cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-beta, that have been involved in other functions of NKT cells, play only a minor role if any in the blockade of T cell differentiation by NKT cells. Diabetes is still prevented by NKT cells in the absence of functional IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-beta. In contrast, we show for the first time that cell contacts are crucial for the immunoregulatory function of NKT cells.
GATA-6, a zinc finger transcription factor, is important in the endodermal differentiation of organ tissues.[4] It is also indicated in proper lung development by controlling the late differentiation stages of alveolar epithelium and aquaporin-5 promoter activation. Furthermore, GATA-6 has been linked to the production of LIF, a cytokine that encourages proliferation of endodermal embryonic stem cells and blocks early epiblast differentiation. If left unregulated in the developing embryo, this cytokine production and chemical signal contributes to the phenotypes discussed further below.[5] Upon the disruption of GATA-6 in an embryo, the distal lung epithelial development is stunted in transgenic mice models[4] The progenitor cells, or stem cells, for alveolar epithelial tissues develop and are specified appropriately, however further differentiation does not occur. Also the distal-proximal bronchiole development is affected, resulting in a reduced quantity of airway exchange sites.[4] This ...
Current clinical judgment in bladder cancer (BC) relies primarily on pathological stage and grade. We investigated whether a molecular classification of tumor cell differentiation, based on a developmental biology approach, can provide additional prognostic information. Exploiting large preexisting gene-expression databases, we developed a biologically supervised computational model to predict markers that correspond with BC differentiation. To provide mechanistic insight, we assessed relative tumorigenicity and differentiation potential via xenotransplantation. We then correlated the prognostic utility of the identified markers to outcomes within gene expression and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue datasets. Our data indicate that BC can be subclassified into three subtypes, on the basis of their differentiation states: basal, intermediate, and differentiated, where only the most primitive tumor cell subpopulation within each subtype is capable of generating xenograft tumors and ...
Set of osteoblast-inducer reagents, including hydrocortisone, ß-glycerophosphate, and ascorbic acid. These reagents induce the efficient differentiation of bone marrow-derived cells and adipose-derived stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells) into osteoblasts.
BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer a virtually unlimited source of neural cells for structural repair in neurological disorders, such as stroke. Neural cells can be derived from hESCs either by direct enrichment, or by isolating specific growth factor-responsive and expandable populations of human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Studies have indicated that the direct enrichment method generates a heterogeneous population of cells that may contain residual undifferentiated stem cells that could lead to tumor formation in vivo. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated an expandable and homogenous population of hNSCs (named SD56) from hESCs using a defined media supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and leukemia inhibitory growth factor (LIF). These hNSCs grew as an adherent monolayer culture. They were fully neuralized and uniformly expressed molecular features of NSCs, including nestin, vimentin and radial glial markers. These hNSCs did ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Eomesodermin controls a unique differentiation program in human IL-10 and IFN-γ coproducing regulatory T cells. AU - Gruarin, Paola. AU - Maglie, Stefano. AU - De Simone, Marco. AU - Häringer, Barbara. AU - Vasco, Chiara. AU - Ranzani, Valeria. AU - Bosotti, Roberto. AU - Noddings, Johanna S. AU - Larghi, Paola. AU - Facciotti, Federica. AU - Sarnicola, Maria L. AU - Martinovic, Martina. AU - Crosti, Mariacristina. AU - Moro, Monica. AU - Rossi, Riccardo L. AU - Bernardo, Maria E. AU - Caprioli, Flavio. AU - Locatelli, Franco. AU - Rossetti, Grazisa. AU - Abrignani, Sergio. AU - Pagani, Massimiliano. AU - Geginat, Jens. N1 - © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.. PY - 2018/11/15. Y1 - 2018/11/15. N2 - Whether human IL-10-producing regulatory T cells (Tr1) represent a distinct differentiation lineage or an unstable activation stage remains a key unsolved issue. Here, we report that Eomesodermin (Eomes) acted as a lineage-defining transcription factor in human ...
The development of skeletal muscle is a multistep process in which pluripotent mesodermal cells give rise to myoblasts that subsequently withdraw from the cell cycle and differentiate into myotubes.2,13 These stages are controlled by the MyoD and myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) families of transcription factors, which interact with one another to establish a unique transcriptional code for activation of skeletal muscle-specific genes.14 It has been shown that such muscle differentiation-specific gene expression occurs in a stereotype pattern. Within 24 hours of switching to differentiation medium or serum withdrawal, proliferating myoblasts initiate the expression of myogenin, followed by the expression of MEF2 family of transcription factors, including MEF2D.15 Consistent with these observations, we showed in the present study that cell cycle withdrawal induced myogenin and MEF2D protein expression, peaking at 48 and 72 hours after medium switch, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated, for ...
In B-cell differentiation[edit]. A study that investigated the methylome of B cells along their differentiation cycle, using ... such as the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, primordial germ cells or embryonic stem cells. Since DNA methylation appears to ... "Cell. 156 (6): 1286-1297. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.01.029. PMC 3969382. PMID 24630728.. ... If the mismatch is not repaired and the cell enters the cell cycle the strand carrying the T will be complemented by an A in ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 5 (2): 187-96. PMID 8180132.. ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 143 (1): 1-4. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... Chin SS, Liem RK (December 1989). "Expression of rat neurofilament proteins NF-L and NF-M in transfected non-neuronal cells". ... European Journal of Cell Biology. 50 (2): 475-90. PMID 2516804.. *. Julien JP, Grosveld F, Yazdanbaksh K, Flavell D, Meijer D, ... Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 70 (5): 279-84. doi:10.1139/o92-044. PMID 1497855.. ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 5 (10): 1033-40. PMID 7848904.. ... If the mutation inhibits programmed cell death, the cell can ... If the mutation inhibits programmed cell death, the cell can survive to become a cancer, a cell that does not function like a ... Blood cells are naturally recycled after a certain period of time, allowing for the creation of new, functional red blood cells ... SCLC may originate from neuroendocrine cells located in the bronchus called Feyrter cells.[57] ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 6 (7): 871-7. PMID 7547509.. ... DNA and Cell Biology. 9 (1): 1-9. doi:10.1089/dna.1990.9.1. ... Atkins KB, Troen BR (July 1995). "Regulation of cathepsin D gene expression in HL-60 cells by retinoic acid and calcitriol". ... DNA and Cell Biology. 10 (6): 423-31. doi:10.1089/dna.1991.10.423. PMID 2069717.. ... and glycosylation of pro-cathepsin D in human mammary cancer cells". Cancer Research. 49 (14): 3904-9. PMID 2736531.. ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 2 (1): 15-22. PMID 1848773.. ... human NK-2 receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells". ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 5 (10): 1127-35. PMID 7848914.. ... positive regulation of cell proliferation. • cell proliferation ... "Endocytosis of gastrin in cancer cells expressing gastrin/CCK-B receptor". Cell and Tissue Research. 287 (2): 325-33. doi: ... A misspliced transcript variant including an intron has been observed in cells from colorectal and pancreatic tumors.[10] ... Kulaksiz H, Arnold R, Göke B, Maronde E, Meyer M, Fahrenholz F, Forssmann WG, Eissele R (Feb 2000). "Expression and cell- ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 4 (10): 821-30. PMID 8274451.. ... Cell division protein kinase 8 is an enzyme that in humans is ... Cell nucleus. • nucleolus. Biological process. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • phosphorylation. • protein ... "Molecular Cell. 27 (1): 121-33. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2007.05.026. PMC 2936241 . PMID 17612495.. ... Specifically, CDK8 promotes turnover of the notch intracellular domain,[9] and inhibits EGFR signaling-driven cell fates in C. ...
glial cell differentiation. • transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • retinal pigment epithelium development. • ... stem cell differentiation. • metanephric distal convoluted tubule development. • reactive oxygen species metabolic process. • ... cell differentiation. • negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process. • positive ... metanephric mesenchymal cell differentiation. • aging. • metanephric epithelium development. • mesenchymal to epithelial ...
Cell Death and Differentiation. 10 (7): 853-5. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4401263. PMID 12815469.. ... Cytochrome c also has an intermediate role in apoptosis, a controlled form of cell death used to kill cells in the process of ... Cytochrome c is known to play a role in the electron transport chain and cell apoptosis. However, a recent study has shown that ... A study has shown that cells are able to protect themselves from apoptosis by blocking the release of cytochrome c using Bcl-xL ...
... depletion in the absence of p53 promoted the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells and diminished clonogenic ... traversing start control point of mitotic cell cycle. • negative regulation of cell cycle arrest. • protein ubiquitination. • ... Cell Death and Differentiation. 15 (5): 841-8. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4402309. PMID 18219319.. ... "Molecular analysis and chromosomal mapping of amplified genes isolated from a transformed mouse 3T3 cell line". Somatic Cell ...
Cell Death and Differentiation. 7 (12): 1273-4. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4400774. PMID 11270363.. ... positive regulation of T-helper 17 cell differentiation. • defense response to virus. • protein oligomerization. • positive ... positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell differentiation. • regulation of inflammatory response. • interleukin-1 beta production ... cell nucleus. • NLRP3 inflammasome complex. • Golgi membrane. • Golgi apparatus. • membrane. Biological process. • defense ...
Omi interacts with caspase-inhibitor XIAP and induces enhanced caspase activity". Cell Death and Differentiation. 9 (1): 20-6. ... Cell Death and Differentiation. 15 (3): 453-60. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4402291. PMID 18174901.. ... Cell Death and Differentiation. 11 (2): 208-16. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4401343. PMID 14605674.. ... inducing cell death". Molecular Cell. 8 (3): 613-21. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(01)00341-0. PMID 11583623.. ...
"Cell Death and Differentiation. 21 (8): 1325-39. doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.65. PMC 4085538. PMID 24832468.. ... cell-cell signaling. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • cell surface receptor signaling pathway. • movement of ... immune cells, epithelial cells, muscle cells as well as their malignant counterparts.[12][13][14][15][16][17] In the case of ... Aust G, Wandel E, Boltze C, Sittig D, Schütz A, Horn LC, Wobus M (Apr 2006). "Diversity of CD97 in smooth muscle cells". Cell ...
METRN: encoding protein Meteorin, glial cell differentiation regulator. *MKL2: encoding protein MKL/myocardin-like protein 2 ...
... (EGF) is a protein that stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR. ... EGF plays an enhancer role on osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) because it is capable of increasing ... Stimulate growth of mesenchymal cells, promotes wound healing 3 Transforming growth factor (Alpha) Epithelial cell Similar to ... "Epidermal growth factor enhances osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells in vitro". Head & Face Medicine. 11: 29. ...
"Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping (3i) Consortium". Bouwens L (Mar 1998). "Cytokeratins and cell differentiation in the ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... Cell. 154 (2): 452-64. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.022. PMC 3717207 . PMID 23870131. " ... Epithelial cells of the lung and breast both contain keratin-7, but some other glandular epithelia, such as those of the colon ...
Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Gu W, Sun B (2014). "TH1/TH2 cell differentiation and molecular signals". T Helper Cell Differentiation and ... cell nucleus. Biological process. • cell differentiation. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • rhythmic process. • ... which promotes TH2 differentiation. Gata3 enhances T helper cell 2 (Th2) differentiation signals by regulating BHLHE41 ... in sarcoma cells and oral cancer cells. BHLHE41 also suppresses cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) in hepatocellular carcinoma cells ...
Cell differentiation[change , change source]. Differentiation is the formation of cell types, from what is originally one cell ... The formation of cell types like nerve cells occurs with a number of intermediary, less differentiated cell types. A cell stays ... The dividing cells tend to be distinct from differentiated cells (see stem cell). ... Modern developmental biology studies the genetic control of cell growth, differentiation and morphogenesis.[1] These are the ...
Cell Differentiation. 8 (3): 223-33. doi:10.1016/0045-6039(79)90049-6. PMID 288514. Olivo, M.; Bhuvaneswari, R.; Keogh, I. ( ... Cancer cells lack or have reduced ferrochelatase activity and this results in accumulation of Protoporphyrin IX, a fluorescent ... In contrast to larger photosensitizer molecules, it is predicted by computer simulations to be able to penetrate tumor cell ... Gardener, L.C.; Cox, T.M. (1988). "Biosynthesis of heme in immature erythroid cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 263 ...
"Concepts of target cells in plant differentiation". Cell Differentiation. 14 (3): 161-169. doi:10.1016/0045-6039(84)90042-3. ... Hormones, Signals and Target Cells in Plant Development (Developmental and Cell Biology Series no. 41) (Cambridge University ... This work led her to develop the idea of the target cell as a model for how a small number of plant hormones can exert many ... She also originated the concept of the target cell as a model for understanding plant hormone action. Born in India, where her ...
"Helper T cell differentiation is controlled by the cell cycle". Immunity. 9 (2): 229-37. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80605-6. ... "High-resolution tracking of cell division suggests similar cell cycle kinetics of hematopoietic stem cells stimulated in vitro ... December 1997). "Insulin has a limited effect on the cell cycle progression in 3T3 L1 fibroblasts". Molecules and Cells. 7 (6 ... Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) is a fluorescent cell staining dye. CFSE is cell permeable and covalently couples ...
... ubiquitous regulator of cell differentiation and adaptation". The Journal of Cell Biology. 156 (5): 771-4. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... "Host control of HIV-1 parasitism in T cells by the nuclear factor of activated T cells". Cell. 95 (5): 595-604. doi:10.1016/ ... negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation. • cytokine production. • aortic valve morphogenesis. • ... NFATC1, NF-ATC, NFAT2, NFATc, NF-ATc1.2, nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1, nuclear factor of activated T cells 1. ...
... cell growth and differentiation, gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome ... UPS proteolysis plays a major role in responses of cancer cells to stimulatory signals that are critical for the development of ... Goff SP (Aug 2003). "Death by deamination: a novel host restriction system for HIV-1". Cell. 114 (3): 281-3. doi:10.1016/S0092- ... Kleiger G, Mayor T (Jun 2014). "Perilous journey: a tour of the ubiquitin-proteasome system". Trends in Cell Biology. 24 (6): ...
Cell Death & Differentiation. 18 (6): 1057-70. doi:10.1038/cdd.2010.181. PMC 3131941. PMID 21252914. Liotta LA, Mandler R, ... In addition, GPI is secreted exclusively by tumor cells and not normal cells. For these reasons, GPI inhibitors may be a safer ... Neuroleukin also acts as a lymphokine secreted by T cells stimulated by lectin. It induces immunoglobulin secretion in B cells ... AMF produced and secreted by cancer cells and stimulates cell growth and motility as a growth factor. AMF is thought to play a ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 6 (2): 199-210. PMID 7756179. Ho PP, Couch FJ, Brody LC, Abel KJ, Boehnke M, Shearon TH, ... Cell Growth & Differentiation. 11 (7): 409-16. PMID 10939594. Simpson JC, Wellenreuther R, Poustka A, Pepperkok R, Wiemann S ( ... "Rapid microtubule-independent dynamics of Cdc20 at kinetochores and centrosomes in mammalian cells". The Journal of Cell ... "Rapid microtubule-independent dynamics of Cdc20 at kinetochores and centrosomes in mammalian cells". The Journal of Cell ...
... induces their differentiation. In fact, in the neuronal PC12 cell line BTG2 is not able to trigger differentiation by ... Götz M, Huttner WB (October 2005). "The cell biology of neurogenesis". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 6 (10): 777-88. ... Cell Growth & Differentiation. 7 (10): 1327-36. PMID 8891336. Guardavaccaro D, Corrente G, Covone F, Micheli L, D'Agnano I, ... while in vivo BTG2 is fully able to induce differentiation of progenitor cells, i.e., during embryonic development in the ...
... which are mediators of cell proliferation and differentiation. HOXA genes are known to play a role in the differentiation of ... Shan L, Yu M, Qiu C, Snyderwine EG (2004). "Id4 regulates mammary epithelial cell growth and differentiation and is ... It is complexly involved in regulating neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation by inhibiting proliferation of ... Cell Growth & Differentiation. 6: 837-843. Pagliuca A, Cannada-Bartoli P, Lania L (March 1998). "A role for Sp and helix-loop- ...
... that may be down-regulated in neoplastic mammary cells". Cell Growth & Differentiation. 3 (8): 507-13. PMID 1390337. Hermeking ... and the preponderance of its strong expression in epithelial cells of squamous cell lineage". Pathology International. 53 (6): ... The protein is named for its presence in stratified epithelial cells. Stratifin has been shown to interact with PLK4, ERRFI1, ... Lodygin D, Hermeking H (April 2005). "The role of epigenetic inactivation of 14-3-3sigma in human cancer". Cell Research. 15 (4 ...
... cell growth and differentiation, gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome ... Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8592-0. PMID 16169070. S2CID 8235923. ... hereby binding to p21 to induce cell death and inhibit cell proliferation. PSMA3 has been shown to interact with CRYAB, PLK1, ... UPS proteolysis plays a major role in responses of cancer cells to stimulatory signals that are critical for the development of ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 4 (10): 821-30. PMID 8274451. Creasy CL, Chernoff J (December 1995). "Cloning and ... Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. Seidel C, Schagdarsurengin U, Blümke K, ... Research has shown that in cells with loss of PTEN (gene), a tumor suppressor that is frequently mutated in cancers, Akt ... Nguyen LK, Matallanas DG, Romano D, Kholodenko BN, Kolch W (Jan 2015). "Competing to coordinate cell fate decisions: the MST2- ...
Certain cells in the brain respond specifically to an increase of CO2 in the blood.[4][24] The response involves vasodilatation ... A differentiation between these two conditions can be made with a computed tomography (CT) scan. The subarachnoid spaces are ... This differentiation has an important influence on the further treatment of the child.[16] ... The head circumference and the growth curve of the head provide important clues into making a differentiation between ...
... fully differentiated plasma cell.[4] Differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells is dependent upon the transcription ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...
Exhaustive differentiation of alloreactive CD8+ T cells: critical for determination of graft acceptance or rejection (PDF). ... T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ... 细胞毒性T细胞(CTLs, killer T cells)负责杀伤被病毒感染的细胞和癌细胞,在对器官移植的免疫排斥中也有参与。其特点在于细胞表面的CD8蛋白质。它通过识别所有有核细胞表
... and HOXD8 homeobox gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells following chemical induction of differentiation". Tumour Biol. ... cell nucleus. Biological process. • anterior/posterior pattern specification. • multicellular organism development. • anterior/ ... Scott MP (Dec 1992). "Vertebrate homeobox gene nomenclature". Cell. 71 (4): 551-3. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92)90588-4. PMID ...
"A strategy for isolation of cDNAs encoding proteins affecting human intestinal epithelial cell growth and differentiation: ... Cell. Biochem. 204 (1-2): 135-55. doi:10.1023/A:1007012622030. PMID 10718634. Geyer M, Fackler OT, Peterlin BM (2001). " ... and membrane association in COS cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (2): 728-32. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.2.728. PMC 53339 . ... characterization of a novel gut-specific N-myristoylated annexin". J. Cell Biol. 116 (2): 405-22. doi:10.1083/jcb.116.2.405. ...
Sertoli cell proliferation. • توصيل الإشارة. • peptide hormone processing. • positive regulation of gene expression. • cell- ... regulation of osteoclast differentiation. • transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation ... 1989). "Expression of biologically active human follitropin in Chinese hamster ovary cells". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (9): 4769-75. ... positive regulation of cell proliferation. • ovarian follicle development. • ...
Invasins, such as pneumolysin, an antiphagocytic capsule, various adhesins, and immunogenic cell wall components are all major ... pneumoniae and differentiation from closely related species.[30] ... and white blood cells to fill the alveoli. This condition is ...
... of CEBPA in MN1-overexpressing hematopoietic cells prevents their hyperproliferation and restores myeloid differentiation". ... "Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 39 (3): 336-9. doi:10.1016/j.bcmd.2007.06.009. PMC 2387274. PMID 17698380.. ... Cell. Proteomics. 7 (3): 499-508. doi:10.1074/mcp.M700325-MCP200. PMID 18029348.. ... 2009). "Meningioma 1 gene is differentially expressed in CD34 positive cells from bone marrow of patients with myelodysplastic ...
CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in differentiation, but it is absent on terminally ... cells in destroying these B cells. When an NK cell latched onto the cap, it had an 80% success rate at killing the cell. In ... It induces apoptosis of CD20+ cells.. The combined effect results in the elimination of B cells (including the cancerous ones) ... ocrelizumab, humanized (90%-95% human) B cell-depleting agent.. *ofatumumab (HuMax-CD20) a fully human B cell-depleting agent.[ ...
... and cellular differentiation. Caulobacter daughter cells have two very different forms. One daughter is a mobile "swarmer" cell ... Role of the swarmer cell stageEdit. The Caulobacter stalked cell stage provides a fitness advantage by anchoring the cell to ... Swarmer cells differentiate into stalked cells after a short period of motility. Chromosome replication and cell division only ... What is the offsetting fitness advantage of this motile cell stage? The swarmer cell is thought to provide cell dispersal, so ...
Three different classes of photopsins in the cones react to different ranges of light frequency, a differentiation that allows ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... ON bipolar cells or inhibit (hyperpolarize) OFF bipolar cells. Thus, it is at the photoreceptor-bipolar cell synapse where ... which releases a neurotransmitter called glutamate to bipolar cells. Farther back is the cell body, which contains the cell's ...
... the uncommitted stem cells of the embryo will undergo differentiation into certain cell lineages. However the exact mechanism ... Osteochondroprogenitor cells are progenitor cells that arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow. They have ... Differentiation into osteoblasts[edit]. Main article: Osteoblast. Osteoblasts are cells that group together to form units, ... Cell signalling and differentiation[edit]. Osteochondroprogenitor can be found between MSCs and the terminally differentiated ...
regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation. • cell differentiation. • mesonephric tubule ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ... cell-cycle processes). PAX8 is shown to be involved in tumor cell proliferation and differentiation, signal transduction, ... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ...
... the number of cell types or morphology all proposed as possible metrics.[2][3][4] ... "Transpositional shuffling and quality control in male germ cells to enhance evolution of complex organisms". Annals of the New ... Gamete differentiation/sexes. *Life cycles/nuclear phases. *Mating types. *Meiosis. *Sex-determination ...
The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... "Differentiation of reinfection from relapse in recurrent Lyme disease". N Engl J Med. 367 (20): 1883-90. doi:10.1056/ ... However, PCR tests are susceptible to false positive results, e.g. by detection of debris of dead Borrelia cells or specimen ... 2010). "Chapter 6, Structure, Function and Biogenesis of the Borrelia Cell Envelope". Borrelia: Molecular Biology, Host ...
... promotes the differentiation of Leydig cells and their production of androgens at week 8. Androgen action in target tissues ... The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ... These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. ... Dihydrotestosterone increased the number of BrdU cells, while flutamide inhibited these cells. ...
Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells,[223] while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... Due to planetary differentiation, the core region is believed to be primarily composed of iron (88.8%), with smaller amounts of ... The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane.[231] The cell membrane ... Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride.[118] On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but ...
158 Cells of the immune system, such as macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells and eosinophils are found scattered in loose ... Mesenchyme is a type of connective tissue found in developing organs of embryos that is capable of differentiation into all ... The cells of connective tissue include fibroblasts, adipocytes, macrophages, mast cells and leucocytes. ... Cells are spread through an extracellular fluid.. *Ground substance - A clear, colorless, and viscous fluid containing ...
Anaplasia or dedifferentiation: loss of differentiation of cells and of their orientation to one another and blood vessels, a ... Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ... Necrotic cells send the wrong chemical signals which prevent phagocytes from disposing of the dead cells, leading to a buildup ... Glial cells such as Schwann cells in the periphery or, within the cord itself, oligodendrocytes, wrap themselves around the ...
Cell Biol. 42 (6): 813-27. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2009.11.013. PMID 19931639.. ... In women who are pregnant, antiandrogens can interfere with the androgen-mediated sexual differentiation of the genitalia and ... Bennett NC, Gardiner RA, Hooper JD, Johnson DW, Gobe GC (2010). "Molecular cell biology of androgen receptor signalling". Int. ... cells in culture". Journal of Steroid Biochemistry. 31 (5): 845-52. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(88)90295-6. PMID 2462135.. ...
Unlike persister cells, endospores are the result of a morphological differentiation process triggered by nutrient limitation ( ... A stained preparation of the cell Bacillus subtilis showing endospores as green and the vegetative cell as red ... The DNA is replicated and a membrane wall known as a spore septum begins to form between it and the rest of the cell. The ... Sometimes the endospore can be so large the cell can be distended around the endospore. This is typical of Clostridium tetani. ...
"Enhanced differentiation of splenic plasma cells but diminished long-lived high-affinity bone marrow plasma cells in aged mice ... The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ... Mocchegiani, E; M. Malavolta (2004). "NK and NKT cell functions in immunosenescence". Aging Cell. 3 (4): 177-184. doi:10.1111/j ... "B cell diversity decreases in old age and is correlated with poor health status". Ageing Cell. 8: 18-25. doi:10.1111/j.1474- ...
cell adhesion. • hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation. • neuron differentiation. • cerebral cortex development. • ... Cajal-Retzius cell differentiation. • skin morphogenesis. • negative regulation of protein kinase activity. • cell fate ... myeloid leukocyte differentiation. • neuron apoptotic process. • single organismal cell-cell adhesion. • smooth endoplasmic ... cell nucleus. • kinetochore. • centrosome. • rough endoplasmic reticulum. • dendritic shaft. • aggresome. • cell surface. • ...
That as the body attempts to compensate for low iron levels by increasing red blood cell production in the young, sieve-like ... Trauma and social differentiation at Harappa". International Journal of Paleopathology. 2: 136-147. doi:10.1016/j.ijpp.2012.09. ...
Then these cells are injected into the patient. These cells are held in place by a small piece of soft tissue from the tibia, ... membrane protects and stabilizes the MSCs released through microfracture and enhances their chondrogenic differentiation. The ... 10,000 cells are harvested and grown in vitro for approximately six weeks until the population reaches 10-12 million cells. ... The cells grow in self-organized spheroid matrices which are implanted via injected fluid or inserted tissue matrix. For years ...
... happens in serotonergic cells such as neurons. This is part of the differentiation of the serotonergic cells. This post- ... SLBP levels are controlled by cell-cycle proteins, causing SLBP to accumulate as cells enter S phase and degrade as cells leave ... "Cell. 148 (4): 664-78. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.12.029. PMC 3281992. PMID 22325148.. ... "Cell. 153 (3): 590-600. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.03.025. PMC 3641580. PMID 23622243.. ...
"Pkn is a novel partner of cyclin T2a in muscle differentiation". J. Cell. Physiol. 207 (1): 232-7. doi:10.1002/jcp.20566. PMID ... "Abrogation of signal-dependent activation of the cdk9/cyclin T2a complex in human RD rhabdomyosarcoma cells". Cell Death Differ ... Cell. 19 (4): 523-34. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2005.06.027. PMID 16109376. Cottone G, Baldi A, Palescandolo E, Manente L, Penta R, ... Cell. Biol. 23 (14): 4859-69. doi:10.1128/MCB.23.14.4859-4869.2003. PMC 162212 . PMID 12832472. Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, ...
T cell differentiation in thymus. • chorionic trophoblast cell differentiation. • positive regulation of protein targeting to ... positive regulation of T cell cytokine production. • angiogenesis. • neuron differentiation. • Wnt signaling pathway involved ... cell maturation. • Wnt signaling pathway. • embryonic camera-type eye development. • multicellular organism development. • cell ... syncytiotrophoblast cell differentiation involved in labyrinthine layer development. • anterior/posterior axis specification, ...
1,0 1,1 Driss-Ecole D., Lefranc A. et Perbal G. A polarized cell: the root statocyte. Physiol. Plantarum 118:305-312(2003). DOI ... Spangenberg, D. B. Effects of Weightlessness of Aurelia Ephyra Differentiation and Statolith Synthesis. NASA Technical Reports ... The Dictionary of Cell & Molecular Biology. Google books. Páxina 400 [7]. *↑ ... Kinetics and Force Transduction to the Cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum in Gravity-Sensing Arabidopsis Columella Cells. The Plant ...
It covers programmed cell death, cell death induced by toxic agents, differentiation and their relation to cell proliferation. ... Cell death and Differentiation provides an accessible source of up-to-date information for scientists and clinicians. ... Welcome to Cell Death & Differentiation Devoted to the cell biology, molecular biology and biochemistry of cell death and ... cell types, and cellular processes, such as signaling, proliferation, differentiation, remodeling and neuronal plasticity. In ...
It covers programmed cell death, cell death induced by toxic agents, differentiation and their relation to cell proliferation. ... Cell death and Differentiation provides an accessible source of up-to-date information for scientists and clinicians. ... Welcome to Cell Death & Differentiation Devoted to the cell biology, molecular biology and biochemistry of cell death and ... PD-1 is required to maintain stem cell properties in human dental pulp stem cells *Yao Liu ...
Secondary Metabolism and Differentiation In addition to the primary metabolic reactions, which are similar in all living beings ... Cell Cell Differentiation Endoplasmatisches Reticulum Stoffwechsel Zelldifferenzierung metabolism proteins Authors and ... Secondary Metabolism in Cell Cultures of Higher Plants and Problems of Differentiation ... the cell walls, or in special excretory cells or spaces of the organism ("metabolic excretion," cf. FREY-WYSSLING, 1935, 1970; ...
MicroRNAs in neural cell differentiation.. Lau P1, Hudson LD.. Author information. 1. Section of Developmental Genetics, ... and expressed regionally or specifically in some cell types (dopaminergic neurons, neural stem cells or neurons). Because ... The proposed model also implies that miRNAs are dynamically regulated during neural differentiation (e.g. increase inexpression ... MicroRNAs are temporally expressed during neural differentiation, spatially regulated and embedded in molecular feedback loops ...
Discover how these can be incorporated into your cell culture systems to support advanced cell growth and cell differentiation ... PureCoat™ Amine for Neural Cell Differentiation PureCoat™ Amine for Neural Cell Differentiation Surface coatings have profound ... The interaction between ECM and neural cells is important in cell differentiation and morphogenesis of the nervous system. ... The interaction between ECM and neural cells is important in cell differentiation and morphogenesis of the nervous system. ...
... This resource is a component of an open course developed by Open Michigan. Scroll down ... You just viewed M1 Immunology- B-Cell Differentiation. Please take a moment to rate this material. ... The sequence explores the elements of innate and acquired immune defense mecahnisms, the cells involved, their development and ... The sequence explores the elements of innate and acquired immune defense mecahnisms, the cells involved, their development and ...
... "cell differentiation"[MeSH Terms] OR ("cell"[All Fields] AND "differentiation"[All Fields]) OR "cell differentiation"[All ... "cell"[All Fields]) OR "differentiation, cell"[All Fields]) AND ("cell movement"[MeSH Terms] OR ("cell"[All Fields] AND " ... Search: genomics, differentiation, cell motility, amoeba, signaling *. Format. Summary. Summary (text). Abstract. Abstract ( ... The Evolution of Aggregative Multicellularity and Cell-Cell Communication in the Dictyostelia. ...
Macrophages differentiate into foam cells during the formation and progression of atherosclerosis. Understanding the process of ... Elucidation of the mechanisms of macrophage to foam cell differentiation will help to steer us in the right direction with ... Macrophage to Foam Cell Transition. The induction of foam cell formation has several causes. The most prominent being the death ... (accessed July 19, 2019). ...
Purchase Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Volume 138 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128128909, ... Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Volume 138 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ... 2. Role of lncRNAs in stem cell maintenance and differentiation. Meghali Aich and Debojyoti Chakraborty. 3. Regulation of ... Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Volume 138, the latest release in the Current Topics in Developmental Biology ...
... Michal Zamecnik,1,2 Daniel Jando,3 and Peter Kascak4,5 ... Michal Zamecnik, Daniel Jando, and Peter Kascak, "Ovarian Basaloid Carcinoma with Shadow Cell Differentiation," Case Reports in ...
The shadow cells represent "dead" cells, and thus SCD can be regarded as a mode of terminal differentiation. Nakamura [19] ... So-called shadow cell differentiation (SCD) is typical for pilomatrixoma and other skin lesions with follicular differentiation ... So-called shadow cells (ghost cells) are specialized form of cornified cells in which, as a consequence of karyolysis, nuclei ... squamous cell differentiation (lacking shadow cells) [8]. In tumorigenesis, beta-catenin in the nucleus acts as a key component ...
Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for cell differentiation All GO annotations for Irx5 (18) ...
... Michael Holloway mhollowa at Tue Jul 21 18:08:00 EST 1992 *Previous ... Apparently, the way cell density is followed on a practical basis is to split the cells when a certain degree of confluence is ... This is supposed to send the cells off toward a mature chromaffin cell morphology. As Ive tried to repeat observations Im ... The practical problem Im having as I start to culture them though is that getting a good cell count is impossible. They do not ...
Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for cell differentiation All GO annotations for Vmn2r120 (5) ...
... plays a key role in the differentiation of brown and beige adipocytes, suggesting that the small, non-coding RNA could be a ... And because inhibition of the miRNA by 50 percent in mice boosts recruitment of beige far cells and differentiation of brown ... The number and activity of these beige cells can be increased by cold exposure through a process known as browning, and while ... The researchers found that mice lacking miR-155 have increased brown adipose tissue functioning and white fat cell browning. ...
The invention provides means of manipulating hematopoietic stem cell differentiation by modulation of levels of NR2F6 (EAR2). ... cord blood stem cells, placental stem cells, bone marrow stem cells, amniotic fluid stem cells, neuronal stem cells, ... cord blood stem cells, placental stem cells, bone marrow stem cells, amniotic fluid stem cells, neuronal stem cells, ... Control of stem cell differentiation would allow for expansion of primitive stem cell or progenitor cell populations, thus ...
The Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens Workshops (HLDA) have since 1984 provided a forum for the characterization and ... CD molecules 2006--human cell differentiation molecules J Immunol Methods. 2007 Jan 30;319(1-2):1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jim.2006.11 ... and changed the name of the organization to Human Cell Differentiation Molecules (HCDM) to reflect the broader objectives. ... The Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens Workshops (HLDA) have since 1984 provided a forum for the characterization and ...
Tfh cells are also generated from the conversion of other effector T cells as exemplified by Th1 cells converting into Tfh ... Tfh cells are also generated from the conversion of other effector T cells as exemplified by Th1 cells converting into Tfh ... Tfh cells are generated from naïve CD4 T cells with sequential steps involving cytokine signaling (IL-21, IL-6, IL-12, activin ... Tfh cells are generated from naïve CD4 T cells with sequential steps involving cytokine signaling (IL-21, IL-6, IL-12, activin ...
Each cell starts off as a stem cell- an undifferentiated cell that has the ability to become specialised. A tissue is a ... which is the process of cell differentiation. I think, I dropped AS biology lol. ... which is the process of cell differentiation. I think, I dropped AS biology lol. ... All cells are the same at the beginning and they become specialised for their function when they express the relevant genetic ...
... the immortalized human fetal midbrain stem cell line ReNcell VM was analyzed in order to detect stem cell differentiation ... Neuroproteomics in stem cell differentiation Proteomics Clin Appl. 2007 Nov;1(11):1513-23. doi: 10.1002/prca.200700324. Epub ... the differentiation process of neural progenitor cells and their modification by neurotrophic factors like the glial cell line- ... Thereby native stem cells and cells transfected with GDNF gene were investigated at the proliferative state and at seven time ...
Vertebrate Neurogenesis: Cell Polarity. Flavio R Zolessi. Published online: February 2016. Regeneration of Organs and ... Cornification Diseases (Skin Cell Death). Eleonora Candi, William Henry Irwin McLean, Biagio Didona, Alessandro Terrinoni, ... Germ Cell Fate Determination in C. elegans. Ekaterina Voronina, David Greenstein. Published online: April 2016. ... Evaluation of Evidence: Stem Cells as a Treatment Option for Traumatic Brain Injury. Maha Tabet, Hiba Hasan, Samar Abdelhady, ...
The nucleus of a cell from a frogs intestine is transplanted into a frogs egg and gives rise to a normal frog. Such ... Transplanted Nuclei and Cell Differentiation, by Sir John B. Gurdon. The nucleus of a cell from a frogs intestine is ... percent of the intestine epithelium cells must have retained the genes necessary for muscle-cell and nerve-cell differentiation ... if a normal embryo containing a specialized cell type such as blood cells can be obtained by transplanting an intestine-cell ...
Purchase Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells, Volume 365 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780121822682, ... Differentiation of Mouse ES Cells Differentiation of Mouse EG Cells Gene Discovery by Manipulation of Mouse ES Cells ... This volume covers all aspects of embryonic stem cell differentiation, including mouse embryonic stem cells, mouse embryonic ... Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells, Volume 365 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ...
Lysosomal signaling enables stem cell differentiation by sequestering the transcription factor Tfe3 in the cytoplasm. ... Lysosomal signaling enables stem cell differentiation by sequestering the transcription factor Tfe3 in the cytoplasm. ...
A cell that is able to differentiate into many cell types is known as pluripotent. Such cells are called stem cells in animals ... Cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. It is part of ... Differentiation is also common process in adults: adult stem cells divide to make fully-differentiated daughter cells during ... Differentiation dramatically changes a cells size, shape, metabolic activity, and responsiveness to signals. These changes are ...
Communication received through cell contact is critical for the differentiation of specialized effector cell populations during ... Daughter cells that received more antigen were better able to stimulate T cells. Because cues received through T lymphocyte ... T lymphocytes, in turn, provide key differentiation signals to B lymphocytes. To learn more about this process, Thaunat et al. ... Antigen acquired by B lymphocytes exhibited a polarized distribution that was sustained over several rounds of cell division. ...
Genistein inhibits cell invasion and motility by inducing cell differentiation in murine osteosarcoma cell line LM8.Dec 31, ... Vitamin K2 induces programmed cell death and differentiation in human leukemia cells.Jul 01, 2001. ... 11 Abstracts with Cell Differentiation Inducer Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Sulforaphane induces differentiation in human promyelocytic cells, indicating it may be a promising antileukemic agent.Aug 01, ...
In the dimorphic cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus , differ- AU:1 ences in the proteins assembled at cell… ... In the dimorphic cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus , differ- AU:1 ences in the proteins assembled at cell poles cause cell ... inside which cells change into spores. The regulatory cascades leading to differentiation evolved completely independently in ... In Bacillus subtilis , an endospore forms inside a mother cell; in the mycelial Streptomyces coelicolor , long hyphae grow into ...
... cells and a wide variety of other transformed cells. HMBA has been shown to induce differentiation of neoplastic cells in ... Second generation hybrid polar compounds are potent inducers of transformed cell differentiation. V M Richon, Y Webb, R Merger ... Second generation hybrid polar compounds are potent inducers of transformed cell differentiation ... Second generation hybrid polar compounds are potent inducers of transformed cell differentiation ...
mTORC1-dependent and -independent regulation of stem cell renewal, differentiation, and mobilization. Boyi Gan, Ergün Sahin, ... Rheb1 loss leads to increased hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and myeloid-biased differentiation in vivo ... L-Leucine Alters Pancreatic {beta}-Cell Differentiation and Function via the mTor Signaling Pathway ... mTORC1-dependent and -independent regulation of stem cell renewal, differentiation, and mobilization ...
  • For example, Matrigel matrix , coupled with a variety of culture media, has been widely accepted as an alternative substrate to feeder-dependent culture of hESCs, and it has been used to culture induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (
  • Subramaniam and colleagues report their findings in a paper titled, " Temporal mechanisms of myogenic specification in human induced pluripotent stem cells . (
  • Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) could feasibly be used to create new muscle tissue, and generate or repair skeletal muscle for patients with skeletal muscle diseases. (
  • Understanding the mechanisms of myogenesis in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is a prerequisite to achieving patient-specific therapy for diseases of skeletal muscle. (
  • Within this course we will study how hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are generated during embryogenesis and development, and how we can make HSCs from embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells. (
  • Serotonergic neurons are concentrated in the raphe nuclei of the brain We aimed at directing the differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into an enriched population of serotonin producing cells to identify novel genes that are essential for the development and function of serotonergic system. (
  • One way to circumvent the dearth of primary human hepatocytes is to generate them from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (
  • As an alternative and desirable approach for regenerative medicine, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology raises the possibility of developing patient-tailored cell therapies to treat intractable degenerative diseases in the future. (
  • The clinical translation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) techniques to cell-based regenerative therapies in human degenerative diseases has been made a priority worldwide. (
  • 8-12 The "induced" pluripotent stem (iPS) cells created from both mouse and human somatic cells appear similar to ESCs in terms of both self-renewal and differentiation capacity. (
  • Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Volume 138, the latest release in the Current Topics in Developmental Biology series, highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters. (
  • The invention provides means of manipulating hematopoietic stem cell differentiation by modulation of levels of NR2F6 (EAR2). (
  • Each cell starts off as a stem cell- an undifferentiated cell that has the ability to become specialised. (
  • In addition, the immortalized human fetal midbrain stem cell line ReNcell VM was analyzed in order to detect stem cell differentiation associated changes of the protein profile. (
  • This review gives also an outlook on technical improvements and perspectives of application of neural stem cell proteomics. (
  • This volume covers all aspects of embryonic stem cell differentiation, including mouse embryonic stem cells, mouse embryonic germ cells, monkey and human embryonic stem cells, and gene discovery. (
  • Lysosomal signaling enables stem cell differentiation by sequestering the transcription factor Tfe3 in the cytoplasm. (
  • Here, we explored the role of TSC1 in various aspects of stem cell biology and dissected the extent to which TSC1 functions are executed via mTORC1-dependent versus mTORC1-independent pathways. (
  • Using hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as a model system, we demonstrate that somatic deletion of TSC1 produces striking stem cell and derivative effector cell phenotypes characterized by increased HSC cell cycling, mobilization, marked progressive depletion, defective long-term repopulating potential, and hematopoietic lineage developmental aberrations. (
  • A study led by researchers at the University of California (UC) San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering has offered up new insights into the mechanisms of stem cell differentiation that could one day help scientists develop regenerative therapies for muscle disease, injury and atrophy. (
  • By studying how easily different pluripotent stem cell lines differentiated into muscle cells, and comparing time-dependent changes in the cells' transcriptomic profiles, the researchers discovered epigenetic mechanisms that can be triggered to accelerate muscle cell growth at different stages of stem cell differentiation. (
  • They found that triggering several epigenetic mechanisms at different time points sped up muscle growth in the slower of the pluripotent stem cell lines. (
  • The research team finds that cellular machines called ribosomes are linked to blood stem cell differentiation. (
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) - is the only curative for DBA. (
  • The research article, titled "Stress-stiffening-mediated stem-cell commitment switch in soft responsive hydrogels" introduces a new extracellular parameter, stress stiffening, as an important variable that governs stem cell fate. (
  • This work reveals a correlation between the onset of stiffening and the expression of the microtubule associated protein DCAMKL1, thus implicating DCAMKL1 in a stress-stiffening-mediated, mechanostransduction pathway that involves microtubule dynamics in the mechanisms underlying stem cell differentiation and commitment to a specific cell lineage. (
  • These results are the first report of a microtubule-associated protein mediating microenvironmental signaling for stem cell fate guidance. (
  • Omar F. Zouani, PhD, Chief Scientific Officer at Histide, commented, "This study is an important contribution to our understanding of the role played by the signaling mechanisms regulating microtubule dynamics in stem cell differentiation control. (
  • Stress-stiffening-mediated stem-cell commitment switch in soft responsive hydrogels. (
  • The research team, led by bioengineering professor Adam Engler, also found that a protein binding the stem cell to the hydrogel is not a factor in the differentiation of the stem cell as previously suggested. (
  • Their findings affirm Engler's prior work on the relationship between matrix stiffness and stem cell differentiations. (
  • Engler's team, which includes bioengineering graduate student researchers Ludovic Vincent and Jessica Wen, found that the stem cell differentiation is a response to the mechanical deformation of the hydrogel from the force exerted by the cell. (
  • We're only giving them one cue out of dozens that are important in stem cell differentiation," said Engler. (
  • The paper is "Interplay of matrix stiffness and protein tethering in stem cell differentiation," by Jessica H. Wen, Ludovic G. Vincent, Alexander Fuhrmann, Yu Suk Choi, Kolin Hribar, Hermes Taylor-Weiner, Shaochen Chen and Adam J. Engler in the Departments of Bioengineering and NanoEngineering at UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering. (
  • What are the current state-of-the-art treatment options, what are bone marrow stem cell transplantations, and what about immune therapy to treat hematological malignancies? (
  • the lineage fate of bioprinted stem cell must be controllable. (
  • it is discussed that the stimulation of stem cell differentiation by bioprinting may lead to the remodeling and modification of the scaffold over time matching the concept of 4D bioprinting. (
  • The ability to tune bioprinting properties as an approach to fabricate stem cell bearing scaffolds and to also harness the benefits of the cells multipotency is of considerable relevance to the field of biomaterials and bioengineering. (
  • Panel A. RT-qPCR analysis indicates down-regulation of the expression of stem cell markers OCT4 ( A1 ) and NANOG ( A2 ) in DE cells. (
  • The final size of a specific tissue is largely dependent on the number of stem-cell divisions before and during differentiation. (
  • If differentiation occurs too early, the stem-cell pool remains small, and the final number of differentiated cells is abnormally low. (
  • After 20 days of induction of differentiation, we analyzed the stem cell populations using gene and protein expression assays as well as biochemical functions. (
  • Compared with traditional methods, the team's novel matrix can reduce the risk of carcinogenesis or inflammation in stem cell therapy - a treatment that offers hope of a cure for incurable diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, chronic systemic diseases and degenerative joint diseases. (
  • Recently, scientists have turned their focus on cell replacement therapies, including stem cell therapy, which have shown huge promise in treating neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • Stem cell therapy is a treatment using stem cells to cultivate new and normal cells, tissues or organs and then transplanted to people to restore physiological function by replacing damaged or dead cells. (
  • After growth and cell differentiation, it is hoped that the mature cell can turn into a therapeutic agent for stem cell therapy. (
  • Professor Ken Yung said, 'The novel matrix enables scientists to cultivate NSCs by adopting the usual method, however with the added advantage of organic compounds (like Polylysine and Polyornithine) being excluded from the process, thereby reducing the potential risk of carcinogenesis or inflammation in stem cell therapy. (
  • It could provide a safe platform for research into stem cell therapies using the latest, novel nanotechnology, and also help boost the development of regenerative medicine. (
  • Balance between cell loss and cell renewal through strict control of stem cell division guarantees the maintenance of organ size and function. (
  • Precise control of differentiation in adult stem cell lines is important for the development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. (
  • Stem cell dysfunction can disturb this process, which can lead to tissue degeneration and cancer. (
  • An ISC renews by dividing into another stem cell and an enteroblast (EB) daughter cell. (
  • HUNTINGTON, W.Va. - New findings reveal the importance of the Na/K-ATPase protein in stem cell differentiation and organogenesis, in a study led by scientists at Marshall University that involves the scaffolding function of the Na/K-ATPase. (
  • The research, published today in Science Advances , indicates that a sequence in the Na/K-ATPase, also known as the sodium pump, that is not involved in the ion pumping function of this protein is critical to stem cell differentiation and organogenesis across the animal kingdom. (
  • This whole functionality underlies a previously unrecognized common mechanism essential for stem cell differentiation and organogenesis in multi-cellular organisms within the animal kingdom. (
  • The differentiation of nerve cells and nematocytes from interstitial stem cells in Hydra has been investigated under conditions of changing stem cell density. (
  • Nerve differentiation was scored by labelling the stem cell population with [3H]-thymidine and counting nests of 4 proliferating nematoblasts. (
  • In both cases the numbers of differentiating cells were normalized to the size of the stem cell population. (
  • The results indicate that nerve commitment remains constant at about 0.13 stem cells per generation over a wide range of stem cell concentration. (
  • Nematocyte commitment, by comparison, increases from 0.15 to 0.21 stem cells per generation as stem cell concentration increases in aggregates. (
  • The fact that the ratio of nerve to nematocyte commitment changes under our conditions suggests that stem cell commitment is not a stochastic process but subject to control by environmental stimuli. (
  • You will hear from Museum scientists, medical researchers at the frontiers of the field, and a panel of bioethics experts who will address the ethical implications of stem cell research and therapy. (
  • Dr. Mazzoni will also talk about new stem cell-assisted technologies such as mitochondrial replacement therapy and generating chimeras for organ transplantation. (
  • Webinar presented by Vasilis Toxavidis, MChS, HCPR Resource Director, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Flow Cytometry Core Facility, Harvard Stem Cell Institute and John Tigges, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Flow Cytometry Core Facility, Harvard Stem Cell Institute. (
  • Alterations in neural stem cell niches have been associated with spatial learning and memory and cognition. (
  • We propose to examine how selective activation of the angiotensin system through either the AT1 or AT2 receptor affects human neural stem cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. (
  • These findings may demonstrate a role for theangiotensin system as a novel target to regulate neural stem cell function with implications for enhancing age-related detriments in learning and memory, regeneration following injury, and therapeutic intervention across a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • Stem Cell, 25, 1940-1953. (
  • Yang, L.J. (2006) Liver Stem Cell-Derived β-Cell Surrogates for Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes. (
  • Blastocyst injection and teratoma studies demonstrate that the environment into which pluripotent cells are introduced can influence differentiation, however, in vivo studies are limited in their ability to attain mechanistic insights into the effects of environmental factors on stem cell differentiation. (
  • In contrast, differentiation of ESCs in vitro, affords more controlled methods to present morphogenic cues in the stem cell microenvironment and directly assess differentiated cell phenotypes. (
  • Long-term glycemic control using polymer-encapsulated human stem cell-derived beta cells in immune-competent mice. (
  • EATONTOWN, N.J., April 24, 2014 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- American CryoStem Corporation (OTCQB:CRYO), a leading biotechnology developer and licensor of patented adipose tissue-based adult stem cell technologies, today announced that its ACS Laboratory division has completed its quarterly laboratory R&D program ahead of schedule, yielding new intellectual property and positive results for expanding and differentiating adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). (
  • A.-R. Prusa, E. Marton, M. Rosner, G. Bernaschek, and M. Hengstschläger, "Oct-4-expressing cells in human amniotic fluid: a new source for stem cell research? (
  • Sox2 suppression by miR-21 governs human mesenchymal stem cell properties," Stem Cells Translational Medicine , vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 54-68, 2014. (
  • Promoter CpG methylation contributes to ES cell gene regulation in parallel with Oct4/Nanog, PcG complex, and histone H3 K4/K27 trimethylation," Cell Stem Cell , vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 160-169, 2008. (
  • Stem cell homeostasis is maintained through epigenetic mechanisms that are highly dynamic in regulating the chromatin structure as well as specific gene transcription programs. (
  • The mammalian epigenome undergoes global remodeling during early stem cell development that requires commitment of cells to be restricted to the desired lineage. (
  • examined the effects of epigenetic modifications on the chromatin structure and the modulation of these epigenetic markers during stem cell differentiation through in vitro differentiation of murine embryonic stem (ES) cells. (
  • performed an experiment to determine the importance of deacetylation and acetylation for stem cell differentiation by looking at global acetylation and methylation levels at certain site-specific modification in histone sites H3K9 and H3K4. (
  • Gene expression at these histones regulated by epigenetic modifications is critical in restricting the embryonic stem cell to desired cell lineages and developing cellular memory. (
  • Histones modifications in chromatin were analyzed at various time intervals (along a 6-day period) following the initiation of in vitro embryonic stem cell differentiation. (
  • These results indicate a decrease in the level of active euchromatin epigenetic marks upon initiation of embryonic stem cell differentiation which is then followed immediately by reprogramming of the epigenome. (
  • citation needed] As the embryonic stem cell undergoes differentiation the markers for active euchromatin (histone acetylation and H3K4 methylation) are decreased after the removal of LIF showing that the cell is indeed becoming more differentiated. (
  • Save time and resources normally spent qualifying reagents by creating a culture environment for human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) consisting of both a serum-free, defined medium and cell culture surface specifically qualified for hESCs cells. (
  • Such hybrids typically die before they reach the gastrula stage, the point in embryonic development at which major cell differences first become obvious. (
  • It allows the nucleus from one of several different cell types to be combined with egg cytoplasm in such a way that normal embryonic development can take place. (
  • In mammals, only the zygote and early embryonic cells are totipotent, while in plants many differentiated cells can become totipotent with simple laboratory techniques. (
  • To evaluate candidate genes we reprogrammed mouse and rat embryonic fibroblast to iPS cells and subsequently differentiated them to serotonergic neurons. (
  • Using a protocol that combines media, supplements, and coating reagents optimized for 2D monolayer culture, the pluripotent stem cells are then differentiated into definitive endoderm, which is an essential embryonic mid-stage for all endodermal cell types (6). (
  • When rat embryonic pancreatic epithelium was cultured without mesenchyme, endocrine cell differentiation occurred ( 8 , 9 ), supporting previous in vivo data ( 10 ). (
  • Auditory sensory progenitors exit the cell cycle at embryonic day (E)13.5-E14.5 in a gradient from apex to base, opposite their differentiation gradient from base to apex. (
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells form spontaneous aggregates during differentiation, and cell-cell communication in the aggregates plays an important role in differentiation. (
  • Such a pre-determination model of germ cell specification assures that germ cells are set-aside during the earliest steps of embryonic development, protecting them from the lineage specification and differentiation events that craft the body plan of the embryo. (
  • In egg-laying species, which have limited control over the embryo's extra-embryonic milieu, the specification of germ cells through pre-localized germ-plasm may protect the germline against environmental influences. (
  • Recent work from the laboratory of Dr. Azim Surani has identified Blimp-1 ( Prdm1 ) as an early marker of the first primordial germ cells that can be detected in a small cluster of 6-10 cells in the proximal epiblast at E6.5 of murine embryonic development (Ohinata et al. (
  • I also found that survival responses to BMP2/4 differ between embryonic and postnatal Schwann cell. (
  • Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are capable of limitless self-renewal in vitro and differentiate into cells constituting all three primitive germ layers-mesoderm, ectoderm and endoderm, as well as germ cells (sperm and ova). (
  • Recently, an alternative method for deriving pluripotent cells by retroviral transduction of a combination of embryonic genes into somatic cells was reported, first by Yamanaka's group, followed shortly thereafter by several other groups independently. (
  • One advantage of in vitro differentiation studies is that genetic manipulation of ES cells can be studied for gene mutations or knockouts that prove to be lethal during normal embryonic development in vivo. (
  • Embryonic stem cells are capable of self-renewing and differentiating to the desired fate depending on its position within the body. (
  • Embryonic stem cells exhibit dramatic and complex alterations to both global and site-specific chromatin structures. (
  • Embryonic stem cells containing reduced or elevation levels of methylation are viable but unable to differentiate and therefore require critical regulation of cytosine methylation for mammalian development. (
  • Histone modifications of H3K9 position show a decrease in di- and tri-methylation of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and had a gradual increase in methylation during the six-day time course of in vitro differentiation, which indicated that there is a global increase of inactive heterochromatin levels at this histone mark. (
  • In addition, this issue also includes several reviews on tangential topics, such as viral hijacking of host caspases, metacaspase functions, non-lethal functions of BCL-2 family proteins, and alternative, caspase-independent developmental cell death pathways. (
  • 1. Secondary Metabolism and Differentiation In addition to the primary metabolic reactions, which are similar in all living beings (formation and breakdown of nucleic acids and proteins as well as of their precursors, of most carbohy- drates, of some carboxylic acids, etc. ), a vast number of metab- olic pathways lead to the formation of compounds peculiar to a few species or even to a single chemical race only. (
  • B cell developmental pathways in teleost fishes are poorly understood. (
  • Microarray analysis revealed enhancements in IL-6- and IL-21-induced Th17 differentiation pathways in these T cells. (
  • Thus, our study identifies miR-146a as an important molecular brake that blocks the autocrine IL-6- and IL-21-induced Th17 differentiation pathways in autoreactive CD4 T cells, highlighting its potential as a therapeutic target for treating autoimmune diseases. (
  • Based on known signaling pathways in neural stem cells that promote either proliferation or differentiation and similarities with signaling pathways for each receptor, we hypothesize that agonism of the AT1 receptor will promote proliferation and decrease cell death, while agonism of the AT2 receptor will promote differentiation of neural stem cells. (
  • Along with TFs, many growth factors and signaling pathways have been reported to be involved in LFC differentiation ( Lovicu and McAvoy, 2005 ). (
  • One such study, however, identified shared signaling pathways active during mouse and human EB differentiation, suggesting that mechanisms regulating differentiation may be conserved between the species. (
  • Beta-catenin showed nuclear and cytoplasmic positivity, indicating possible tumor proliferation/differentiation via Wnt signaling pathway. (
  • This effect of the mesenchyme on Ngn3 induction was mediated by cell-cell contacts and required a functional Notch pathway. (
  • Interestingly, PD-1/PD-L1 pathway promoted Treg cell differentiation in PIH, indicating a potential therapeutic value of PD-L1 Fc for PIH treatment. (
  • Moreover, ICOS deficiency significantly inhibits Bcl6 induction to further inhibit CXCR5 expression, indicating that the ICOSL-ICOS signalling pathway guides Bcl6 expression in T cells to promote CXCR5 expression in [CD4.sup. (
  • To calculate the numbers of stem cells entering each pathway per generation, a computer was programmed to simulate the growth and differentiation of interstitial stem cells. (
  • Standard curves were prepared from the simulations relating the rates of nerve and nematocyte differentiation to the fraction of stem cells committed to each pathway per generation. (
  • Using Cre/loxP mutagenesis, we somatically inactivated Pax6 and Sox2 in the developing mouse lens during differentiation of the secondary lens fibers and explored the regulatory interactions of these two intrinsic factors with the canonical Wnt pathway. (
  • The architecture and functioning of the mammalian nervous system are partly based on the complexity of combinatorial gene expression in the developing brain that results in a tremendous diversity of neural cells. (
  • It also influences the pattern of gene expression of the cells in which it is in contact. (
  • Thereby native stem cells and cells transfected with GDNF gene were investigated at the proliferative state and at seven time points up to 72 h after induction of differentiation. (
  • Based on their results, the investigators now propose that telomeres also modulate the behavior of cells by controlling gene expression, by as yet unknown mechanisms, says Seimiya. (
  • The Molecular Cell study focused on a gene called hunchback ( hb ), which makes cells in the head region of the fly embryo that are different from cells in the abdomen. (
  • More specifically, muscle growth in these cell lines was increased by inhibiting a gene called ZIC3 at the outset of differentiation-"… we show that targeted knockdown of ZIC3 at the outset of differentiation leads to improved myogenic specification in blunted hiPSC lines"- followed by then adding beta-catenin transcriptional cofactors later on in the growth process. (
  • This is at the heart of Histide's Recoding Therapeutics TM , a groundbreaking approach of addressing diseases that goes beyond traditional cell, gene or RNA based therapies. (
  • Possible future studies in teleost B cell development are suggested in the context of gene regulation. (
  • Using RNA isolated at different time points during the course of ES cell differentiation we identified genes specifically enriched in the serotonergic lineage by Affymetrix gene array. (
  • The changes in phenotype and function that characterize the differentiation of naïve T cells to effector and memory states are underscored by large-scale, coordinated, and stable changes in gene expression. (
  • CD4 + CD45RA + naive T cells cocultured with supernatants from IFN-β-1a-treated DCs exhibited decreased gene expression of the Th17 cell markers retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear hormone receptor c ( RORc ), IL-17A , and IL-23R . (
  • A direct IFN-β-1a treatment of CD45RA + T cells cultured in Th17-polarizing conditions also down-regulated RORc , IL-17A , and IL-23R , but up-regulated IL-10 gene expression. (
  • Hair cells first appear at the midbasal region at E14.5, expressing Atoh1 , a gene whose expression is required for hair cell development, and their development progresses along the longitudinal cochlear axis toward the apex and base, and laterally from the inner to outer hair cells. (
  • During EB differentiation, the transcription factor Klu acts to control Notch target gene expression. (
  • It acts by binding to heteromeric serine/threonine kinase receptors on the cell surface that transmit a signal to nucleus via Smad proteins to ultimately regulate changes in gene expression. (
  • 2002 ). The functional significance of both these early germ cell markers is unclear, but Blimp-1 knockout studies have demonstrated an essential role for this gene in germ cell determination (Ohinata et al. (
  • In the absence of Blimp-1 expression, early PGCs fail to suppress Hox gene expression, resulting in the activation of a somatic differentiation program. (
  • Finally, Rfx3 was found to bind in Min6 cells and human islets to two well-known regulatory sequences, Pal-1 and Pal-2, in the neuroendocrine promoter of the glucokinase gene. (
  • CONCLUSIONS Our results show that Rfx3 is required for the differentiation and function of mature β-cells and regulates the β-cell promoter of the glucokinase gene. (
  • However, the roles of Pax6 and Sox2 in the control of crystallin gene expression during LFC differentiation have not been studied in vivo. (
  • By mimicking RGC genesis, we deliberately administered the whole differentiation process and directed the stage-specific differentiation of human TiPSCs toward an RGC fate via manipulation of the retinal inducers (DKK1+Noggin+Lefty A) alongside master gene ( Atoh7 ) sequentially. (
  • TGFβ regulates the expression of key transcription factors, Snail and Slug, which mediate changes in cell shape. (
  • TGFβ regulates differentiation through Smads by mediating changes in chromatin structure and binding to master transcriptional regulators. (
  • Second , to obtain insights in how this translational control circuit regulates cell cycle progression by establishing a molecular circuit, stabilized by positive and negative feed-back loops to generate an irreversible self sustain hysteric system with molecular memory and switch-like phase transitions. (
  • Provided are compositions of matter, protocols and methods of use by which inhibiting expression of NR2F6 or activity thereof promotes differentiation of selective hematopoietic lineages, or conversely overexpression of NR2F6 or activity thereof inhibits differentiation. (
  • Genistein inhibits cell invasion and motility by inducing cell differentiation in murine osteosarcoma cell line LM8. (
  • Active GSK3β inhibits Schwann cell differentiation, impairing axonal sorting and myelination. (
  • Studies of the mechanisms involved in the Th17 cell differentiation suggest that IFN-β-1a inhibits IL-17 and induces IL-10 secretion via activated STAT1 and STAT3, respectively. (
  • Conclusions- Human recombinant CRP, at concentrations known to predict adverse vascular outcomes, directly inhibits EPC differentiation, survival, and function, key components of angiogenesis and the response to chronic ischemia. (
  • TGFβ inhibits the cell cycle by regulating the activity of cyclin dependent kinases. (
  • Enasidenib inhibits m IDH2 , leading to leukemic cell differentiation with emergence of functional m IDH2 neutrophils in rrAML patients. (
  • MicroRNAs are temporally expressed during neural differentiation, spatially regulated and embedded in molecular feedback loops that may contribute to the robustness of the neural networks. (
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor expressed markers of squamous cell differentiation, such as p63, cytokeratin 5/6, and high-molecular-weight keratin. (
  • Hence, in this review, we have highlighted and interlinked molecular signaling from cytokines, surface receptors, transcription factors, ubiquitin ligase, and microRNA as positive and negative regulators for Tfh differentiation. (
  • In 1972 he joined the faculty of the Dept. Biological Chemistry at Harvard Medical School and in 1986 moved to the Roche Institute of Molecular Biology where he was Chair of the Dept. Cell and Developmental Biology and Adjunct Professor in the Dept. Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine. (
  • In 1996 he moved to the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai where he was the Lillian and Henry M. Stratton Professorial Chair of the Dept. Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology. (
  • Scientists have known for many years that changing which genes are turned on in a particular cell can lead to birth defects and cancer," explains Stephen Small, a professor in New York University's Department of Biology and the senior author of the paper, which appears in the journal Molecular Cell . (
  • The dynamics of cells and cellular organelles are considered in the context of growth and differentiation, made possible particularly by advances in molecular genetics and the visualization of organelles using molecular probes. (
  • The book is targeted at plant cell biologists, molecular biologists, plant physiologists and biochemists, developmental biologists and those interested in plant growth and development. (
  • They must deepen our fundamental understanding of how cells develop and differentiate, providing insights into mechanisms, molecular machinery, dynamics, and cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, and use this understanding to manipulate cells purposefully. (
  • Molecular lesions underlying diamond-blackfan anemia reduce ribosome levels in hematopoietic cells. (
  • We will study the molecular mechanisms that underlie the self-renewal properties of HSCs, and which molecular mechanisms drive differentiation of HSCs towards mature erythrocytes, blood platelets and innate or adaptive immune cells. (
  • Rat serum fraction two (apparent molecular size 67-150 kD) promoted greater differentiation of S-V cells than other rat serum fractions or pig serum fraction two. (
  • Fraction three (apparent molecular size 17-43 kD) of both sera inhibited differentiation and lipid filling in cultures of S-V cells but only rat fraction three promoted cell proliferation. (
  • The primary interest of our group has been to understand the molecular mechanisms that dictate alternative 3' UTR formation and the temporal and spatial translational control of specific mRNAs during cell cycle progression and chromosome segregation, senescence and related pathologies. (
  • Human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells from second- and third-trimester amniocentesis: differentiation potential, molecular signature, and proteome analysis," Stem Cells International , vol. 2015, Article ID 319238, 15 pages, 2015. (
  • Molecular and proteomic characterization of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from amniotic fluid: comparison to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells," Stem Cells and Development , vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 931-952, 2007. (
  • Molecular and phenotypic characterization of human amniotic fluid cells and their differentiation potential," Cell Research , vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 329-336, 2006. (
  • Pluripotency can be rapidly and efficiently induced in human amniotic fluid-derived cells," Human Molecular Genetics , vol. 18, no. 22, pp. 4340-4349, 2009. (
  • Collaboration of the laboratories with expertise in (i) molecular plant physiology, (ii) molecular mechanisms maintaining the genome stability, (iii) proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death of cancer cells and (iv) bioinformatics will result into a multidisciplinary, while still functional team that will guarantee successful solution of scheduled tasks. (
  • This regulation of chromatin through epigenetic modifications is a molecular mechanism that will determine whether the cell will continue to differentiate into the desired fate. (
  • It is the main objective of this review to illustrate the potential of neuroproteomics as a tool to unravel the differentiation of neural stem or progenitor cells to terminally differentiated neurons. (
  • Experimental results regarding the rat striatal progenitor model cell line ST14A are presented to illustrate the large rearrangements of the proteome during the differentiation process of neural progenitor cells and their modification by neurotrophic factors like the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). (
  • The importance of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in the proliferation of pancreatic progenitor cells is well established. (
  • No data are available on the mechanisms by which extracellular signals regulate the combined timing of both progenitor-cell proliferation and cell differentiation. (
  • The pancreas is an ideal model for studying the coordinate control between proliferation and differentiation of epithelial progenitor cells and for understanding how these two processes are kept in balance during development. (
  • Inductive signals originating in the mesenchyme play an essential role in the proliferation of pancreatic epithelial cells ( 5 , 6 ), and recent evidence indicates that a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, FGF10, is pivotal in the proliferation of epithelial progenitor cells ( 7 ). (
  • Notably, we demonstrate that the transcription factor FoxO1 is present in the human fetal pancreatic progenitor cells and acts as a repressor for cell differentiation during the early fetal pancreatic development. (
  • Endothelial progenitor cells : a source for therapeutic vasculogenesis? (
  • Background- Myocardial ischemia provides a potent stimulus to angiogenesis, and the mobilization and differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has been shown to be important in this process. (
  • 1-5 The mobilization and differentiation of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has recently been shown to be important in this process of adult neovascularization. (
  • An undifferentiated cell therefore would be a primitive cell or a progenitor cell that is yet to undergo cellular differentiation. (
  • Upon retinal differentiation, a large fraction of the cells developed characteristics of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) in response to simulated environment signaling (DKK1+Noggin+Lefty A), which was selectively recovered with manual isolation approaches and then maintained in the presence of mitogen for multiple passages. (
  • Adapted from an open access image attributed to ZooFari and Mikael Häggström ( ) and augmented from literature and NHLBI Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium (PCBC) collaborators. (
  • MicroRNAs in erythroid and megakaryocytic differentiation and megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor lineage commitment. (
  • Inhibition of miR-155, meantime, enhances brown adipocyte differentiation and induces browning. (
  • And because inhibition of the miRNA by 50 percent in mice boosts recruitment of beige far cells and differentiation of brown adipose tissue, "therapeutic attempts to reduce miR-155 might be a promising approach to treat obesity," they concluded. (
  • In one embodiment inhibition of differentiation is performed in other cell lineages besides hematopoietic. (
  • Ascorbic acid induces growth inhibition and redifferentiation of human gastric cancer cells through the production of hydrogen peroxide. (
  • Previous in vitro studies have suggested that the beneficial effects of IFN-β-1a in MS are due, at least in part, to an antiviral effect, the inhibition of APC maturation and T cell proliferation, the regulation of IL-12 and IL-10 cytokine transcription ( 2 ), and the blocking of cell transmigration through the blood-brain barrier ( 3 ). (
  • The inhibition of Th17 differentiation may serve as a protective strategy to 'fine-tune' the expression IL-17 so it does not cause excessive inflammation. (
  • Attenuated Glut-2 and glucokinase expression, and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, were also induced by RNA interference-mediated inhibition of Rfx3 expression in Min6 cells. (
  • Furthermore, we used flow cytometry to assess inhibition of mIDH2 on hematopoietic differentiation. (
  • Macrophages differentiate into foam cells during the formation and progression of atherosclerosis. (
  • A cell that is able to differentiate into many cell types is known as pluripotent . (
  • However, different hIPSC cell lines show different levels of ability to differentiate into myocytes, and so scientists need to better understand the mechanisms of myogenesis in hIPSCs. (
  • To try and identify mechanisms that prompt fast, robust differentiation of hIPSCs into muscle cells, the UCSD researchers studied how time-related changes in the transcriptome profiles of three different hIPSC cell lines that can differentiate into myocytes. (
  • Autoreactive CD4 T cells that differentiate into pathogenic Th17 cells can trigger autoimmune diseases. (
  • miR-146a-deficient 2D2 T cells induced more severe EAE and were more prone to differentiate into Th17 cells. (
  • The Cellartis iPS to Hepatocyte Differentiation System is a complete system that includes all media, supplements, and a protocol to differentiate any iPS cell line into hepatocytes (5). (
  • It is currently unclear as to whether memory cells differentiate directly from naïve cells, or must first become effector cells. (
  • Owing to the appropriate design and choice of materials and structure of the matrix, the 'physical massage' resembles the Chinese medicine acupuncture technique which causes the cells to differentiate into functional cells that are in urgent demand in cell replacement therapy to treat neurodegenerative diseases, cancers and tumors. (
  • After Ag encounter, naive B cells become activated and differentiate into memory B cells, or Ab-producing plasma cells (PC). (
  • This daughter cell can then differentiate into two different types of differentiated cells depending on signaling cues: absorptive enterocytes (EC), cells that take up nutrients and are responsible for immune defense or enteroendocrine cells (EE) that produce gastrointestinal hormones. (
  • Many protocols to differentiate mouse iPS cells and ES cells require the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs) followed by subculture in lineage-specific differentiation conditions. (
  • This week, New York University's Dr. Esteban Mazzoni will discuss how scientists can coax stem cells to differentiate into particular cell types. (
  • By contrast, the posterior cells elongate and differentiate into primary LFCs and lose Pax6 expression. (
  • Because ductal epithelial cells were earlier demonstrated to differentiate into pancreatic endocrine mass, we evaluated their proliferation and differentiation in chronic pancreatitis. (
  • Conclusion: Enhanced capability of PDECs to proliferate and differentiate into endocrine mass suggests that PDECs form a source of progenitors for cell based therapy in chronic pancreatitis. (
  • Zulewski, H., Abraham, E.J. and Gerlach, M.J. (2001) Multipotential Nestinpositive Stem Cells Isolated from Adult Pancreatic Islets Differentiate ex Vivo into Pancreatic Endocrine, Exocrine, and Hepatic Phenotypes. (
  • This study was undertaken to guide human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts-derived iPSCs (TiPSCs) to differentiate along the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) lineage, aiming at producing appropriate cellular material for RGC regeneration. (
  • Our DKK1+Noggin+Lefty A/ Atoh7 -based RGC-induction regime could efficiently direct TiPSCs to differentiate along RGC lineage in a stage-specific manner, which may provide a benefit to develop possible cell therapies to treat retinal degenerative diseases such as glaucoma. (
  • This special issue brings a comprehensive collection of reviews highlighting diverse non-lethal functions of caspases in a variety of organisms, cell types, and cellular processes, such as signaling, proliferation, differentiation, remodeling and neuronal plasticity. (
  • Because transcription factors and miRNAs are co-expressed during a specific time window, the proposed function of these miRNAs is to insure the proper timing of differentiation, as opposed to a more prevalent fail-safe function in maintaining cellular homeostasis in neural cells by preventing the expression of leaky transcripts (i.e. expression buffering characterized by mutual exclusion of miRNAs and mRNA targets, not described here). (
  • Several major classes of molecules regulate cellular development and function, including growth and differentiation factors, cell adhesion molecules, and the components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). (
  • Cancer cells exhibit altered cellular functions compared to the normal functioning, non-malignant cells from which they are derived. (
  • The sequence explores the elements of innate and acquired immune defense mecahnisms, the cells involved, their development and maturation, and biomolecular cellular communication mechanisms required to successfully fight off infection. (
  • Cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. (
  • With a few exceptions, cellular differentiation almost never involves a change in the DNA sequence itself. (
  • The Tuberous Sclerosis Complex component, TSC1, functions as a tumor suppressor via its regulation of diverse cellular processes, particularly cell growth. (
  • Traditional methods for proliferation and differentiation of NSCs require a large number of additional growth factors in a culture medium, which are kinds of polypeptides and can regulate many aspects of cellular function that may stimulate the growth of cancer cells and increase the risk of developing tumors in vivo after transplantation. (
  • We found Klu to be expressed specifically in EBs to regulate cellular differentiation towards the enterocyte lineage", tells Dr. Korzelius, who is currently working at the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing in Cologne, Germany. (
  • Cellular signaling mediated by extracellular membrane vesicles in the application of stem cells as therapeutics. (
  • Breakthroughs in American CryoStem's proprietary cell culture medium (ACSelerate TM ) and culturing methodology have enabled the Company to accelerate the robust cellular expansion and rapid differentiation of ADSCs to adipocytes (fat cells), chondrocytes (cartilage-producing cells) and osteocytes (bone-producing cells). (
  • A biotechnology pioneer in the fields of Regenerative and Personalized Medicine, American CryoStem operates a state-of-the-art, FDA-registered, clinical laboratory dedicated to processing, bio-banking and development of cellular applications using autologous adipose (fat) tissue and adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs). (
  • Caspase 3 is responsible for cellular differentiation, although it is unclear how this kind of protein can promote the cell apoptosis. (
  • The lack of mechanisms for true excretion in higher plants may result in this unequal distribution, the "waste products" of metabolism in plants instead being accumulated in the vacuoles, the cell walls, or in special excretory cells or spaces of the organism ("metabolic excretion," cf. (
  • The number and activity of these beige cells can be increased by cold exposure through a process known as browning, and while activation of beta-adrenergic signaling is known to be an important stimulus for browning, "not much is known about other mechanisms including microRNAs that might regulate this," the scientists wrote in Nature Communications . (
  • Such control of differentiation will be valuable to answer mechanistic questions about basic biological processes that govern physiological function of specific cells, tissues, and organs, as well as mechanisms for processes involved in symbiosis and disease, and immunological responses to infection. (
  • Proposals will not be responsive to this solicitation if they address only one aspect of the differentiation process or aim to create a functional living product without improving our understanding and control of the mechanisms that underlie developmental processes. (
  • Here, we focus on the mechanisms that control T cell differentiation, with a particular focus on the role of regulatory elements encoded within the genome, known as transcriptional enhancers (TEs). (
  • However, the mechanisms by which the mesenchyme controlled endocrine-cell differentiation remained unknown. (
  • In the current study, we therefore investigated whether human basophils and B cells interact and which mechanisms underlie this interaction. (
  • Researchers of the Leibniz Institute on Aging in Jena, Germany, and their colleagues of the Buck Institute for Research on Aging in Novato, USA, investigated the mechanisms of intestinal cell renewal in the model organism Drosophila. (
  • Understanding the basic mechanisms through which TGFβ mediates cell growth, shape, migration and differentiation should lead to therapeutic interventions for a number of common diseases. (
  • TGFβ is secreted from cells in a latent, inactive form that is activated through proteolytic and nonproteolytic mechanisms. (
  • The inheritance of germ plasm in lower organisms is sufficient to install a germ cell identity, but the specific mechanisms by which this occurs remain unknown. (
  • There has been multiple evidence suggesting that the maintenance of the lineage commitment of stem cells are controlled by epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and regulation of ATP-dependent remolding of chromatin structure. (
  • The means by which cells first come to differ from one another during animal development has interested humans for nearly 2,000 years, and it still constitutes one of the major unsolved problems of biology. (
  • Xie's discovery has had tremendous applications in both cell biology and medicine and opened the door to this new area of research. (
  • In this five-part online course you will explore the history and basic biology of stem cells, learn about new research techniques, and find out how stem cells could lead to cures for diseases and to individualized medicine. (
  • CDK1-dependent phosphorylation of EZH2 suppresses methylation of H3K27 and promotes osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells," Nature Cell Biology , vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 87-94, 2011. (
  • A key takeaway here is that all pluripotent stem cells do not have the same capacity to regenerate," Subramaniam said. (
  • We have over 15 years' experience differentiating pluripotent cells along the endodermal lineage. (
  • Our differentiation protocols start from pluripotent cells cultured in the Cellartis DEF-CS 500 Culture System , which maintains cells in a highly pluripotent state and ensures a stable karyotype. (
  • A homogeneous culture of highly pluripotent iPS cells is an essential starting point for efficient and reproducible hepatocyte differentiation. (
  • DEF-CS enables monolayer culture of iPS cells that are highly pluripotent and exhibit low spontaneous differentiation and stable karyotypes, thereby providing iPS cells that are highly amenable to downstream differentiation (5). (
  • The in vitro culture of ESCs as EBs affords opportunities to mechanistically study early differentiation events of 3D assemblies of pluripotent cells. (
  • You just viewed M1 Immunology- B-Cell Differentiation . (
  • The induction of foam cell formation has several causes. (
  • The team showed that miR-155 is enriched in brown adipose tissue, and is "highly expressed" in proliferating brown pre-adipocytes only to decline after the induction of differentiation. (
  • However, based upon their effective concentrations, the cross-resistance or sensitivity of an HMBA-resistant MEL cell variant, and differences in c-myb expression during induction, these differentiation-inducing hybrid polar compounds can be grouped into two subsets, HMBA/EMBA and SAHA/CBHA. (
  • While individual inducers of native differentiation have been identified and employed to create specialized cell types, we generally lack fundamental understanding of the roles of biochemical and environmental regulators necessary for synthetic induction of differentiation along a predetermined path and the ability to actively monitor and manipulate that path dynamically. (
  • The convergence of many disciplines is necessary to answer the fundamental questions and devise the tools needed to realize truly deterministic cell induction and differentiation strategies. (
  • H ) qPCR analysis of miR-146a expression in spinal cord-infiltrating CD4 + T cells harvested from WT mice at the indicated time points after EAE induction. (
  • In the presence of mesenchyme, Ngn3 induction was delayed, and few β-cells developed. (
  • Although the transcription factors Pax6 and Sox2 have been shown to be essential for lens induction, their later roles during lens fiber differentiation remain largely unknown. (
  • Follicular helper T cell (Tfh), a subset of helper CD4 + T cells, is involved in providing critical help for antibody maturation and germinal center (GC) formation ( 1 ). (
  • Robust regulation of Tfh cell response and subsequent antibody maturation are critical for infection clearance ( 2 , 3 ), whereas aberrancy in controlling Tfh immune response is implicated in progression of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), arthritis, and type I/II diabetes ( 4 - 10 ). (
  • Lithium administration to inhibit GSK3β is able to rescue Schwann cell differentiation and maturation in the absence of plasmalogens. (
  • According to previous studies, many patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia have mutated ribosomal protein genes and only the maturation of red blood cells is impaired. (
  • For instance, CD4 + T cells that adopt the Th2 phenotype secrete IL-4, which elicits maturation of the B cell-mediated antibody response while regulatory T cells (Tregs) function to maintain immune homeostasis through the secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines, including IL-10 and TGF-β. (
  • Using two different methods to induce PC differentiation, we found that human basophils enhance B cell proliferation, class switching, differentiation into PC, maturation of PC, and production of Igs, especially IgG. (
  • Cell differentiation refers to the normal process by which a less specialized cell goes through development and maturation in order to become more distinct in terms of form and function . (
  • Hybrid polar compounds, of which hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) is the prototype, are potent inducers of differentiation of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells and a wide variety of other transformed cells. (
  • Furthermore, murine basophils or their mediators enhance memory responses and plasma cell (PC) survival, suggesting that they directly modulate the function of B cells. (
  • Reprogramming committed murine blood cells to induced hematopoietic stem cells with defined factors. (
  • The Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens Workshops (HLDA) have since 1984 provided a forum for the characterization and study of leucocyte surface molecules and antibodies against them. (
  • The HLDA Council reviewed and modified the objectives of HLDA in 2004, and changed the name of the organization to Human Cell Differentiation Molecules (HCDM) to reflect the broader objectives. (
  • The process of differentiation involves a multiplex combination of signaling molecules, receptors, promoters, markers, and chemical and mechanical regulators that dynamically interact to direct cell development and behavior. (
  • SCHINDELLEGI, Switzerland--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Histide AG, a biotech intellectual property platform company focused on developing Cell Recoding Molecules TM , announced today that the results from a collaboration study with Prof. Alan E. Rowan (Radboud University, The Netherlands) were published in the current online edition of Nature Materials . (
  • Based on its expertise in providing targeted extracellular signals with high specificity for the regulation of microtubule dynamics and associated proteins like DCAMKL1, Histide has created an innovative platform of nonmutagenic extracellular therapeutic agents called Cell Recoding Molecules TM (CRMs) with the capacity to dictate the precise commitment of various cell types. (
  • Histide™ is a biotech intellectual property platform company pioneering a new class of nonmutagenic extracellular therapeutic agents called Cell Recoding Molecules™ (CRMs). (
  • pathogen recognition results in the differentiation of naïve, quiescent T cells to short-lived effector cells that have gained the capacity to express the effector molecules required to clear the infection. (
  • Vice versa, cell surface molecules are suggested to mediate extracellular signals to the genome. (
  • Most of these molecules integrated in the cell membrane have been proven to be glycoconjugates. (
  • Thus, lectins have been used as appropriate tools for studying the modulation of functionally important membrane-associated molecules during the differentiation of cells, in particular of B- and T-lymphocytes. (
  • Since lectins, like monoclonal antibodies, make it possible to study functionally important molecules that are associated with differentiation and malignancy, they might be of value for diagnostic purposes and, moreover, for analyzing malignant transformation. (
  • To create physiologically relevant in vitro models that support normal cell growth and function, the components of the in vivo environment must be incorporated. (
  • Using ECM proteins as a coating for tissue culture surfaces permits the development of cell type-specific model systems that closely mimic in vivo conditions. (
  • This technical report supports the use of Matrigel matrix for such in vivo applications as angiogenesis and human tumor cell implantation in mice. (
  • In vivo, loss of donor heart expression of apelin facilitated graft immune cell infiltration, blunted vascular repair, and worsened occlusive vasculopathy in mice. (
  • In vivo, Th17 differentiation requires antigen presentation and co-stimulation, and activation of antigen presenting-cells (APCs) to produce TGF-beta, IL-6, IL-1, IL-23 and IL-21. (
  • I examined the role of STAT3 in Schwann cells both in vitro and in vivo using mice with a conditional mutation of STAT3 specifically in Schwann cells. (
  • I found that STAT3 is activated by, and supports survival following stimulation by autocrine factors secreted by Schwann cells both in vitro and following nerve injury in vivo. (
  • Rosenberg, L. (2001) In Vivo Cell Transformation: Neogenesis of Beta Cells from Pancreatic Ductal Cells. (
  • Human amniotic fluid stem cells seeded in fibroin scaffold produce in vivo mineralized matrix," Tissue Engineering-Part A , vol. 17, no. 21-22, pp. 2833-2843, 2011. (
  • To manipulate Tfh cells for therapeutic implication and or for effective vaccination strategies, it is important to know positive and negative regulators of Tfh generation. (
  • HMBA has been shown to induce differentiation of neoplastic cells in patients, but is not an adequate therapeutic agent because of dose-limiting toxicity. (
  • The team plans to explore therapeutic intervention, such as drugs, that can stimulate and accelerate muscle growth at different stages of differentiation in hIPSC. (
  • Therefore, investigating the regulatory network that modulates Th17 differentiation may yield important therapeutic insights. (
  • This is highly relevant with respect to human allergy and autoimmunity because a possible modulation of B cell differentiation by basophils could point to new therapeutic targets. (
  • Amniotic fluid as a novel source of mesenchymal stem cells for therapeutic transplantation," Blood , vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 1548-1549, 2003. (
  • our analyses and perturbation experiment suggest the key role played by the beta-catenin cofactors at the outset of differentiation and on downstream targets for myogenic differentiation," they noted. (
  • Thus, in addition to its effect upstream of Ngn3 , the mesenchyme regulated β-cell differentiation downstream of Ngn3 . (
  • In conclusion, these data indicate that the mesenchyme controls the timing of β-cell differentiation both upstream and downstream of Ngn3 . (
  • To identify the factor that suppresses xylem cell differentiation downstream of TDIF--TDR, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening with the TDR cytoplasmic kinase domain, and found BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE2 (BIN2), a member of the plant Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 protein (GSK3) family. (
  • To answer this question, list and give features of cells associated with each type of tissue, ie epithelial=goblet/ciliated nervous=neurone/schwann cells. (
  • Curcumin derivatives promote Schwann cell differentiation and improve neuropathy in R98C CMT1B mice. (
  • We determined that plasmalogens are crucial for Schwann cell development and differentiation and that plasmalogen defects impaired radial sorting, myelination, and myelin structure. (
  • Treatment with GSK3β inhibitors, lithium, or 4-benzyl-2-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione (TDZD-8) restored Schwann cell defects, effectively bypassing plasmalogen deficiency. (
  • Our results demonstrate the requirement of plasmalogens for the correct and timely differentiation of Schwann cells and for the process of myelination. (
  • The deficiency in plasmalogens at the plasma membrane of Schwann cells causes reduced phosphorylation of AKT, leading to an overt activation of GSK3β by reducing the inhibitory phosphorylation at Ser9. (
  • During aging, lack of plasmalogens causes demyelination and axonal loss, and Schwann cells extend processes in failed attempts to remyelinate existing axons. (
  • The generation of mature Schwann cells from the neural crest occurs by a transition through two intermediate cell types, namely the Schwann cell precursor and the immature Schwann cell. (
  • Immature Schwann cells mature into the myelinating and non-myelinaling Schwann cells present in the adult nerve. (
  • In this study I investigated the effects of BMP in the Schwann cell lineage in vitro. (
  • I found that BMP2/4 acts to maintain the immature Schwann cell type by promoting its differentiation from the Schwann cell precursor and inhibiting the upregulation of myelin proteins. (
  • I also investigated the repression of the transcription factor c-Jun, by itself and by Krox-20, in immature Schwann cells and found that this occurs mainly at the protein, rather than the transcriptional level. (
  • We have investigated the effect of IFN-β-1a on dendritic cells (DCs) and naive CD4 + CD45RA + T cells derived from untreated MS patients and healthy controls in the context of Th17 cell differentiation. (
  • IFN-β's suppression of Th17 cell differentiation may represent its most relevant mechanism of selective suppression of the autoimmune response in MS. (
  • The Th17 cell differentiation was correlated with the phosphate level, age, and albumin level, but not with the iPTH level (Figure 1). (
  • Differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells can be readily switched from adipogenesis to osteogenesis by modulating expression of microtubule-associated protein DCAMKL1. (
  • Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that plays a prominent role in mediating many of the central features associated with mesenchymal differentiation. (
  • Moreover, both the intrinsic changes within mesenchymal GBM cells and the microenvironmental factors that modify the overall NF-κB response are detailed. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Mesenchymal stem cells" applicable to this article? (
  • Amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells lead to bone differentiation when cocultured with dental pulp stem cells," Tissue Engineering-Part A , vol. 17, no. 5-6, pp. 645-653, 2011. (
  • Role of amniotic fluid mesenchymal cells engineered on MgHA/collagen-based scaffold allotransplanted on an experimental animal study of sinus augmentation," Clinical Oral Investigations , vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1661-1675, 2013. (
  • So-called shadow cell differentiation (SCD) is typical for pilomatrixoma and other skin lesions with follicular differentiation, but it was rarely described also in some visceral carcinomas. (
  • Many of the Drosophila germ plasm components are conserved and play an essential role in mammalian germ cell formation as well, but it is interesting to note that the key factor in Drosophila, Oskar, has no known orthologs in any other species. (
  • 2002 ). Mammalian germ cell specification is a plastic process and occurs after the embryo has implanted into the uterus. (
  • This study reveals that Pax6 is pivotal for initiation of the lens fiber differentiation program in the mammalian eye. (
  • For mammalian cells, the maintenance of cytosine methylation is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases and any disruption to these methyltransferases will cause a lethal phenotype to the embryo. (
  • Apoptosis is a cell self-destruct process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during mammalian development and other life processes. (
  • The investigators also found that the miRNA and one of its targets, the adipogenic transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta, form a "bistable feedback loop integrating hormonal signals that regulate proliferation or differentiation. (
  • For example, does an intestine-cell nucleus retain the genes needed for the synthesis of hemoglobin, the protein characteristic of red blood cells, and a nerve-cell nucleus the genes needed for making myosin, a protein characteristic of muscle cells? (
  • Storage Cells - Oil and Protein Bodies. (
  • Ribosomes are the protein builders in the cells. (
  • Your search returned 17 mal, T cell differentiation protein Biomolecules across 5 suppliers. (
  • In a series of experiments, the team found that this happens whether the protein tethering the cell to the matrix is tight, loose or nonexistent. (
  • We made the stiffness the same and changed how the protein is presented to the cells (by varying the size of the pores and tethering) and ask whether or not the cells change their behavior," Vincent said. (
  • Mis-localization of Oskar RNA or protein to the distal pole results in germ cell formation at the distal site (Ephrussi and Lehmann, 1992 ). (
  • Post-translational control of T cell development by the ESCRT protein CHMP5. (
  • Bioengineers at the University of California, San Diego have proven that when it comes to guiding stem cells into a specific cell type, the stiffness of the extracellular matrix used to culture them really does matter. (
  • Interleukin (IL)-17-producing helper T (Th17) cells serve as a subset of CD4+ T cells involved in epithelial cell- and neutrophil mediated immune responses against extracellular microbes and in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. (
  • Based on the histone code hypothesis, distinct covalent histone modifications can lead to functionally distinct chromatin structures that influence the fate of the cell. (
  • Caspase signals resulting from the activation of nuclease CAD indicate that the cell differentiation is due to a CAD modification in chromatin structure. (
  • TGFβs regulate many basic biological processes including cell proliferation, shape, adhesion, migration and differentiation. (
  • Discover how these can be incorporated into your cell culture systems to support advanced cell growth and cell differentiation applications. (
  • From cell culture reagents such as Matrigel high concentration to membrane insert systems, like Falcon® permeable supports , discover how Corning cell culture products can help you gain greater insights into tumor cell growth, morphology, and migration. (
  • In case of infection, HIV virus drives expansion of Tfh cell and blocking of programed death 1 (PD-1) receptor in HIV-infected humanized mice, inhibited HIV viral growth ( 14 , 15 ). (
  • One of the cell lines grew into muscle much faster than the other two, so the researchers looked at what factors made this line different from the rest, and then induced these factors in the other lines to see if they could accelerate muscle growth. (
  • Signaling - Dependent Cytoskeletal Dynamics and Plant Cell Growth. (
  • How Plant Hormones and Their Interactions Affect Cell Growth. (
  • Panel D. Multiple iPS cell lines exhibit robust cell growth and a uniform doubling time in DEF-CS. (
  • Dr Jeffery Huang said that the layer of nanostructure of their new invention is made of biocompatible materials, and avoids the use of additional growth factor or other biochemical for cultivating cells. (
  • Cells were cultured in endothelial cell basal medium-2 in the absence and presence of CRP (5 to 20 μg/mL), rosiglitazone (1 μmol/L), and/or vascular endothelial growth factor. (
  • Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is the prototype for a family of multifunctional secreted peptides that control many aspects of growth and development in a cell‐type‐specific manner. (
  • Rat neural stem cells (NSCs) were cultured in monolayer or in porous collagen scaffolds and exposed to neurogenic or non-neurogenic medium to determine the effects on neural differentiation and neurite growth. (
  • Overall, NSCs cultured in DM for at least 14 days resulted in the most neuronal differentiation and neurite growth. (
  • S-V cells from newborn pigs replicated faster and appeared more responsive to serum borne factors influencing S-V cell growth and development in culture. (
  • Growth factors and miRNA regulating differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) to various blood-related cell types. (
  • Because cues received through T lymphocyte interactions are likely to influence B lymphocyte fate decisions, unequal distribution of antigen in dividing B lymphocytes may influence their differentiation. (
  • Vascular endothelial cells respond to proangiogenic cues in the embryo by differentiation to specialized phenotypes, associated with expression of apelin. (
  • Although the differentiation of hair cells is known to require the expression of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Atoh1 , the control of cell proliferation in the region of the developing cochlea that will ultimately become the sensory epithelium and the cues that initiate Atoh1 expression remain obscure. (
  • The developing ocular lens provides an excellent model system with which to study the intrinsic and extrinsic cues governing cell differentiation. (
  • WASHINGTON, DC - June 27, 2013 - Researchers from the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research in Tokyo have discovered that forced elongation of telomeres (extensions on the end of chromosomes) promotes the differentiation of cancer cells, probably reducing malignancy, which is strongly associated with a loss of cell differentiation. (
  • Tenomodulin promotes human adipocyte differentiation and beneficial visceral adipose tissue expansion. (
  • Ferutinin promotes proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation in human amniotic fluid and dental pulp stem cells," Life Sciences , vol. 92, no. 20-21, pp. 993-1003, 2013. (
  • It breaks up the DNA during apoptosis and promotes cell differentiation. (
  • While primarily located in brown adipose tissue, brown adipocytes can also be found in white adipose tissue, which is largely used to store energy, as so-called beige cells. (
  • The researchers found that mice lacking miR-155 have increased brown adipose tissue functioning and white fat cell browning. (
  • How cells have differentiated to become this tissue? (
  • A tissue is a collection of differentiated cells that perform one function. (
  • Differentiation is also common process in adults: adult stem cells divide to make fully-differentiated daughter cells during tissue repair and during normal cell turnover. (
  • These include cells from different tissue origins and in contrasting stages of differentiation, ranging from stem cells to specialized mature cells. (
  • The mature pancreas contains two types of tissue: endocrine islets composed of cells that produce hormones such as insulin (β-cells) and glucagon (α-cells) and exocrine tissue composed of acinar cells that produce enzymes (e.g., carboxypeptidase) secreted via pancreatic ducts into the intestine. (
  • Stem cells react to tissue damage with an increase in their proliferation rate, leading to the production of new differentiated cells. (
  • The researchers studied the differentiation of adult stem cells during tissue homeostasis in the midgut of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) because it bears many similarities with the human gastrointestinal tract in both structure and function. (
  • With its stem cells, the intestine is able to regenerate itself continuously and to ensure the function and integrity of the tissue during the lifespan of an organism", says Dr. Jerome Korzelius, first author of the study published in Nature Communications. (
  • The term undifferentiated is used to describe a cell (or a tissue) that has not yet acquired a special structure and function. (
  • Interstitial stem cells were cultured in a feeder layer system consisting of aggregates of nitrogen mustard-inactivated tissue. (
  • Primary cultures of stromal-vascular (S-V) cells from adipose tissue were used to investigate the regulation of preadipocyte development. (
  • S-V cells from both newborn and mature pig adipose tissue and sera from both ages were used to examine the effect of age on preadipocyte development. (
  • Serum source (newborn vs mature) did not affect differentiation of S-V cells from newborn or mature pig adipose tissue. (
  • In addition, generating multilayered mature retinal tissue may not be required for future cell-therapy strategies that are based on purified retinal specific cells. (
  • 13 , 14 Similarly, ESCs injected into various tissue sites of adult organisms spontaneously form teratomas, benign tumors composed of a disorganized mix of cells from all three germ layers. (
  • Dr. Michael Moeller, Chief Scientist at American CryoStem, stated, "The development of rapid, efficient and reproducible methods of differentiating distinct mature cells from adipose tissue will prove invaluable to the Regenerative Medicine industry. (
  • Thus, these studies prove that Tfh immune response can be regulated positively or negatively, and to better understand Tfh response modulation, it is important to characterize Tfh differentiation and its regulators. (
  • This is thought to be accompanied by a modulation of cell surface determinants expressed on the outer cell membrane. (
  • The transition from macrophages to foam cells is a key step that occurs when fatty streaks are formed during the development of atherosclerotic plaques. (
  • The formation of foam cells occurs when macrophages engulf an excess of many types of LDL, including oxidized LDL (OxLDL) and minimally modified LDL (mmLDL), which result in the death of the macrophages once they become oversaturated with LDLs. (
  • Differentiation occurs many times during the development of a multicellular organism . (
  • Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) occurs when the bone marrow does not make sufficient red blood cells necessary for carrying oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body. (
  • The first T cell fate decision occurs in the thymus, where CD4 + CD8 + (double positive) T cells selectively and stably down-regulate CD4 or CD8 before exiting the thymus as mature, single positive (CD4 + or CD8 + ), naïve T cells. (
  • Since there is also an increase throughout the six-day period in H3K9me, a marker for active heterochromatin, once differentiation occurs it is concluded that the formation of heterochromatin occurs as the cell is differentiated into its desired fate making the cell inactive to prevent further differentiation. (
  • CAD leads to the initiation of the DNA strand breakage, which occurs during terminal differentiation of some cell, such as skeletal muscle cell. (
  • Our data demonstrate that β-catenin plays a role in cell division and differentiation in the cochlear sensory epithelium. (
  • Furthermore, the researchers found that Klu and Notch signaling together play a role in ISC division and differentiation. (
  • In the dimorphic cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus , differ- AU:1 ences in the proteins assembled at cell poles cause cell division to generate a stalked cell rich in regulator DivK-P, and competent for continued proliferation, and a swarmer cell rich in regulator CtrA-P, and unable to proliferate until it discards its flagellum and grows a stalk. (
  • In the study, the forced elongation of cancer cells' telomeres suppressed a number of genes and proteins that appear to be involved in tumor malignancy, according to the report. (
  • Now the team has definitively found that a reduced number of ribosomes slashes the output of GATA1 proteins inside blood stem cells, therefore impairing their differentiation into mature red blood cells. (
  • According to the research team, the presence of GATA1 proteins in early blood stem cells helps prime them for differentiation into red blood cells. (
  • Without enough ribosomes to produce enough GATA1 proteins, these early cells simply never receive the signal to become red blood cells. (
  • OxLDL signals through TLR4, as well as CD36 and TLR6, which impairs the LPS-induce immune response and induces the formation of foam cells. (
  • The control of differentiation will also enable the realization of enhanced biomanufacturing, leading to novel products, biomaterials, and significant improvements in individualized medicine, environmental control and monitoring, adaptive sensing, as well as the scalable and reproducible application of 3D organoids in drug testing. (
  • The Regulation of Plant Cell Expansion-Auxin-Induced Turgor-Driven Cell Elongation. (
  • This initial activation results in the activation and up-regulation of STAT3, ROR(gamma)t and other transcriptional factors in CD4+ T cells, which bind to the promoter regions of the IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22 genes and induce IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22. (
  • Researchers of the Leibniz Institute on Aging - Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI) in Jena, Germany, together with colleagues of the Buck Institute for Research on Aging in Novato, USA, have identified a novel player in the regulation of cell renewal and differentiation in the midgut of the model organism Drosophila. (
  • Plants and animals evolved significantly different strategies of regulation of the cell proliferation and differentiation. (
  • CXCL12 binds to receptors such as C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and CXCR7, which allows it to regulate cell migration, adhesion, and survival. (
  • In vitro, an apelin receptor agonist analog elicited endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation to promote endothelial monolayer wound repair, and reduce immune cell adhesion. (
  • 24 EB differentiation begins with the formation of an aggregate of ESCs, the size of which is dependent on the number of cells which initially self-assemble via cell-cell adhesion receptors. (
  • Tfh cells are also generated from the conversion of other effector T cells as exemplified by Th1 cells converting into Tfh during viral infection. (
  • The mechanistic details of effector T cells conversion into Tfh are yet to be clear. (
  • Communication received through cell contact is critical for the differentiation of specialized effector cell populations during the immune response. (
  • Correlation of interleukin-17-producing effector memory T cells and [CD4.sup. (
  • Several different kinds of experiment have revealed the dependence of cell differentiation on the activity of the genes in the cell's nucleus. (
  • The question is whether or not the progressive specialization of cells during development is accompanied by the loss of genes no longer required in each cell type. (
  • If unwanted genes are lost, the possibility exists that it is the progressive loss of different genes that itself determines the specialization of cells, as August Weismann originally proposed in 1892. (
  • The clearest alternative is that all genes are retained in all cells and that the genes are inactive in those cells in which they are not required. (
  • The bodies of complex animals contain many types of cells, and each cell type is unique because it turns on a specific set of genes," he adds. (
  • This paper describes how one of the first cell-specific genes is turned on in a particular region of the early embryo. (
  • Klu suppresses the differentiation of enteroendocrine cells from EBs by downregulating genes necessary for EE differentiation. (
  • Differential expression of surprisingly few genes accompany CD4 or CD8 commitment, a similarity that carries through to peripheral T cells and their activation, revealed by mass cytometry phosphoproteomics. (
  • Research using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) discovered that both P. gingivalis and C. pneumoniae induce the formation of foam cells. (
  • When placed in a dish of a very stiff material, or hydrogel, most stem cells become bone-like cells. (
  • What's remarkable is that you can see that the cells have made the first decisions to become bone cells, with just this one cue. (
  • Across multiple samples using a stiff matrix, while varying the degree of tethering, the researchers found no difference in the rate at which stem cells showed signs of turning into bone-like cells. (
  • Kim Y, Zhang Z, Shim JH, Lee TS, Tung CH. A cell surface clicked navigation system to direct specific bone targeting. (
  • In the hypothetical model, the transcription factors (Pitx3, Tlx and REST) induce transcription of the miRNAs during neural differentiation. (
  • Dissecting teleost B cell differentiation using transcription factors. (
  • In the absence of serological reagents, an alternative approach to dissecting teleost B cell development is to use transcription factors that are differentially expressed during B cell development. (
  • This review discusses the structure and function of six transcription factors that play essential roles during teleost B cell development: Ikaros, E2A, EBF, Pax5, Blimp1, and XbpI. (
  • An application is discussed that should aid in elucidating teleost B cell development and activation, by using transcription factors as developmental markers in flow cytometric analysis. (
  • This process takes 7 days, during which the pluripotency transcription factor OCT4 is downregulated and several markers of DE cells ( SOX17 , FOXA2 , CXCR4 , and HHEX ) are upregulated (5). (
  • 8 ). Our recent study has identified an accumulation of Th17 cells in MS lesions, as evidenced by the increased expression of IL-17 , retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear hormone receptor c (RORc) transcription factor, and multiple cytokines that mediate Th17 cell expansion ( 9 ). (
  • Their results show that the transcription factor Klumpfuss plays a key role in this process by precisely regulating the differentiation of cell types in the fly intestine. (
  • OBJECTIVE Pancreatic islets of perinatal mice lacking the transcription factor Rfx3 exhibit a marked reduction in insulin-producing β-cells. (
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Immunofluorescence studies and quantitative RT-PCR experiments were used to study the emergence of insulin-positive cells, the expression of transcription factors implicated in the differentiation of β-cells from endocrine progenitors, and the expression of mature β-cell markers during development in Rfx3 −/− and pancreas-specific Rfx3 -knockout mice. (
  • The cell diversity is originated by cell differentiation, which has been attributed to the activation of specific transcription factors. (
  • We then showed that associating Ngn3 -expressing epithelial cells with mesenchyme resulted in poor β-cell development via a mechanism mediated by soluble factors. (
  • It is caused by depletion of pancreatic epithelial precursors due to accelerated differentiation generating postmitotic endocrine cells expressing glucagon ( 2 ). (
  • I am trying to induce organoid formation in bovine mammary epithelial cells using type 1 rat-tail collagen gel as the substrate for cell attachment. (
  • Some epithelial cells may not form aggregates readily in collagen gel, so a different method may need to be tried. (
  • In addition, Pax6 disruption led to apoptosis of lens epithelial cells. (
  • Although Pax6 expression is maintained in the LE and in the equatorial transitional zone, its role in maintaining an epithelial phenotype or in LFC differentiation remains largely unknown. (
  • Results: In comparison to the controls, a greater number of proliferating pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (PDECs) were observed under conditions of CP. (
  • The research team studied human cell samples from patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia and finds that the quantity of ribosomes within blood cell precursors directly influences their ability to produce effective levels of GATA1, which is needed for hemoglobin production and also for red blood cell production. (
  • αβT cell differentiation from thymic precursors is a complex process, explored here with the breadth of ImmGen expression datasets, analyzing how differentiation of thymic precursors gives rise to transcriptomes. (
  • RESULTS Reduced development of insulin-positive cells in Rfx3 −/− mice was not due to deficiencies in endocrine progenitors or β-lineage specification, but reflected the accumulation of insulin-positive β-cell precursors and defective β-cells exhibiting reduced insulin, Glut-2, and Gck expression. (
  • Panel C. iPS cells cultured in DEF-CS highly express pluripotency markers OCT4 (green, top panel) and SSEA-4 (green, bottom panel). (
  • A functional test of pluripotency is whether introduction of the cells into a blastocyst stage embryo results in a chimera with ESCs (or iPS cells) contributing to all tissues of the organism. (
  • The accumulation of foam cells contributes to the development of atherosclerosis by progressing plaque formation and causing the formation of unstable plaques. (
  • As with most animal eggs, the early events of amphibian development are largely independent of the environment, and the processes leading to cell differentiation must involve a redistribution and interaction of constituents already present in the fertilized egg. (
  • The importance of the egg's non-nuclear material-the cytoplasm-in early development is apparent in the consistent relation that is seen to exist between certain regions in the cytoplasm of a fertilized egg and certain kinds or directions of cell differentiation. (
  • Features of CNS development covered in this review are neurogenesis, gliogenesis, cell fate specification, and differentiation. (
  • Asymmetric Cell Division in the Zygote of Flowering Plants: The Continuing Polarized Event of Embryo Sac Development. (
  • A study of Diamond-Blackfan anemia finds the mechanism that drives the development of mature red blood cells from the earliest form of blood cells, called hematopoietic (blood-forming) stem cells. (
  • This book presents the current state of knowledge on the origin and differentiation of cell lines involved in the development of the vertebrate male and female gonads with particular emphasis on the mouse. (
  • In the last few years, important findings have shed light on the processes controlling pancreatic endocrine-cell development. (
  • The effect of IFN-β-1a on Th17 cells, which play a critical role in the development of the autoimmune response, has not been extensively studied in humans. (
  • The Th17 cell lineage is thought to play a critical role in the development of the autoimmune response in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, juvenile diabetes, and autoimmune uveitis ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • The development of a controlled differentiation scheme for ES cells has been hindered by the lack of a reliable method to produce uniform aggregate sizes. (
  • Loss of Notch in ISC lineages leads to the development of tumors, likely because of impaired EB differentiation that leads to an increased frequency of symmetric divisions and excess EE differentiation. (
  • An example of cell differentiation is the development of a single-celled zygote into a multicellular embryo that further develops into a more complex multisystem of distinct cell types of a fetus . (
  • As mentioned, in many species, including mammals, orthologs of other Drosophila germ plasm components have been identified and have been shown to play a role in germ cell development. (
  • Both cells responded differently to sera obtained from pigs of differing ages and development of rat S-V cells was influenced by anatomic site. (
  • Here, we have reported that miR-146a-deficient mice developed more severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of human multiple sclerosis (MS). We bred miR-146a-deficient mice with 2D2 T cell receptor-Tg mice to generate 2D2 CD4 T cells that are deficient in miR-146a and specific for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), an autoantigen in the EAE model. (
  • E ) ELISA analysis of cytokine production by splenic cells harvested from day-28 EAE mice and stimulated with MOG 35-55 . (
  • F ) Representative FACS plots showing the intracellular IL-17A staining of spinal cord-infiltrating lymphocytes (pregated on TCRβ + CD4 + cells) harvested from day-18 EAE mice ( n = 3). (
  • For instance, in the brain of mice deficient in specific members of the basic helix-loop-helix Hairy and Enhancer-of-Split family (Hes), virtually the entire pool of neural stem cells differentiates simultaneously and prematurely into neurons, without generating the later-born cell types ( 1 ). (
  • T cells from C57BL/6 mice were activated with 2 f g/ml anti-CD3, 2 f g/ml anti-CD28 for 3 days in the presence of 5 ng/ml TGF-beta, 20 ng/ml IL-6 and 20 ng/ml IL-23. (
  • In addition, these studies identify a mechanism by which the lack of a membrane phospholipid causes neuropathology, implicating plasmalogens as regulators of membrane and cell signaling. (
  • Mechanism of Organelle Inheritance in Dividing Plant Cells. (
  • The ability of CRP to inhibit EPC differentiation and survival may represent an important mechanism that further links inflammation to cardiovascular disease. (
  • Therefore, the interaction between human B cells and basophils and the mechanism underlying this interaction were investigated in detail. (
  • With this, we provide an in-depth insight into the impact and mechanism by which human basophils modulate B cell functions in the healthy situation. (
  • MicroRNAs in neural cell differentiation. (