Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal PROMYELOCYTES predominate. It is frequently associated with DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A notch receptor that interacts with a variety of ligands and regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS for multiple cellular processes. It is widely expressed during EMBRYOGENESIS and is essential for EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. It plays a role in regulating IMMUNOGLOBULIN E expression.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
6-carbon straight-chain or branched ketones.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
Spontaneous aggregations of human embryonic stem cells that occur in vitro after culturing in a medium that lacks LEUKEMIC INHIBITORY FACTOR. The embryoid bodies can further differentiate into cells that represent different lineages.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from:
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.

In vitro effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) on bovine cells. (1/61862)

Bovine fetal muscle cells were exposed to culture media containing 2 mg and 20 mg per liter of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) for varying intervals to determine the in vitro response of mammalian cells to this compound. The concentrations of 2,4-D used were comparable to those used in spray programmes although the residues normally found in pasture are much lower since 2,4-D is rapidly degraded under field conditions. Untreated and treated cultures were analyzed for total cell count, mitotic index and the percentages of differentiating and degenerating cells. The response of cultures to treatment was similar irrespective of the concentrations of 2,4-D used although in higher concentrations there was an initial drop in mitotic index. Other changes noted in treated cultures included an increase in differentiating and degenerating cells compared to those in control. The mitotic cells in treated cultures exhibited unipolar and tripolar spindles and a variety of other abnormalities including malorientation of the mitotic apparatus in relation to the axis of the cell. Myoblasts in initial stages of myogenesis were noted to be in mitosis in treated cultures suggesting that 2,4-D may have a stimulatory effect on myoblasts which in normal myogenesis are in post mitotic stage.  (+info)

Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis. (2/61862)

The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation.  (+info)

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (3/61862)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (4/61862)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

oko meduzy mutations affect neuronal patterning in the zebrafish retina and reveal cell-cell interactions of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. (5/61862)

Mutations of the oko meduzy (ome) locus cause drastic neuronal patterning defect in the zebrafish retina. The precise, stratified appearance of the wild-type retina is absent in the mutants. Despite the lack of lamination, at least seven retinal cell types differentiate in oko meduzy. The ome phenotype is already expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium affecting morphology of the neuroepithelial cells. Our experiments indicate that previously unknown cell-cell interactions are involved in development of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. In genetically mosaic animals, cell-cell interactions are sufficient to rescue the phenotype of oko meduzy retinal neuroepithelial cells. These cell-cell interactions may play a critical role in the patterning events that lead to differentiation of distinct neuronal laminae in the vertebrate retina.  (+info)

Retinoids are produced by glia in the lateral ganglionic eminence and regulate striatal neuron differentiation. (6/61862)

In order to identify molecular mechanisms involved in striatal development, we employed a subtraction cloning strategy to enrich for genes expressed in the lateral versus the medial ganglionic eminence. Using this approach, the homeobox gene Meis2 was found highly expressed in the lateral ganglionic eminence and developing striatum. Since Meis2 has recently been shown to be upregulated by retinoic acid in P19 EC cells (Oulad-Abdelghani, M., Chazaud, C., Bouillet, P., Sapin, V., Chambon, P. and Dolle, P. (1997) Dev. Dyn. 210, 173-183), we examined a potential role for retinoids in striatal development. Our results demonstrate that the lateral ganglionic eminence, unlike its medial counterpart or the adjacent cerebral cortex, is a localized source of retinoids. Interestingly, glia (likely radial glia) in the lateral ganglionic eminence appear to be a major source of retinoids. Thus, as lateral ganglionic eminence cells migrate along radial glial fibers into the developing striatum, retinoids from these glial cells could exert an effect on striatal neuron differentiation. Indeed, the treatment of lateral ganglionic eminence cells with retinoic acid or agonists for the retinoic acid receptors or retinoid X receptors, specifically enhances their striatal neuron characteristics. These findings, therefore, strongly support the notion that local retinoid signalling within the lateral ganglionic eminence regulates striatal neuron differentiation.  (+info)

T-cell development: a new marker of differentiation state. (7/61862)

Differentiation of T cells is a complicated affair and there has been a dearth of markers that faithfully reflect thymocyte phenotype. A new strategy based on T-cell receptor gene sequencing has revealed a marker that can be used to monitor thymocyte differentiation with fidelity and without perturbation.  (+info)

Expression of the naturally occurring truncated trkB neurotrophin receptor induces outgrowth of filopodia and processes in neuroblastoma cells. (8/61862)

We have investigated the effects of the truncated trkB receptor isoform T1 (trkB.T1) by transient transfection into mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. We observed that expression of trkB.T1 leads to a striking change in cell morphology characterized by outgrowth of filopodia and processes. A similar morphological response was also observed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with trkB.T1. N2a cells lack endogenous expression of trkB isoforms, but express barely detectable amounts of its ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4). The morphological change was ligand-independent, since addition of exogenous BDNF or NT-4 or blockade of endogenous trkB ligands did not influence this response. Filopodia and process outgrowth was significantly suppressed when full-length trkB.TK+ was cotransfected together with trkB.T1 and this inhibitory effect was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a. Transfection of trkB.T1 deletion mutants showed that the morphological response is dependent on the extracellular, but not the intracellular domain of the receptor. Our results suggest a novel ligand-independent role for truncated trkB in the regulation of cellular morphology.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanistic contribution of ubiquitous 15-lipoxygenase-1 expression loss in cancer cells to terminal cell differentiation evasion. AU - Moussalli, Micheline J.. AU - Wu, Yuanqing. AU - Zuo, Xiangsheng. AU - Yang, Xiu L.. AU - Wistuba, Ignacio Ivan. AU - Raso, Maria G.. AU - Morris, Jeffrey S.. AU - Bowser, Jessica L.. AU - Minna, John D.. AU - Lotan, Reuben. AU - Shureiqi, Imad. PY - 2011/12. Y1 - 2011/12. N2 - Loss of terminal cell differentiation promotes tumorigenesis. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) contributes to terminal cell differentiation in normal cells. The mechanistic significance of 15-LOX-1 expression loss in human cancers to terminal cell differentiation suppression is unknown. In a screen of 128 cancer cell lines representing more than 20 types of human cancer, we found that 15-LOX-1 mRNA expression levels were markedly lower than levels in terminally differentiated cells. Relative expression levels of 15-LOX-1 (relative to the level in terminally differentiated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Krüppel-like factor 4, Elk-1, and histone deacetylases cooperatively suppress smooth muscle cell differentiation markers in response to oxidized phospholipids. AU - Yoshida, Tadashi. AU - Gan, Qiong. AU - Owens, Gary K.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/11. Y1 - 2008/11. N2 - Phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), such as increased proliferation, enhanced migration, and downregulation of SMC differentiation marker genes, is known to play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the factors and mechanisms controlling this process are not fully understood. We recently showed that oxidized phospholipids, including 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC), which accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions, are potent repressors of expression of SMC differentiation marker genes in cultured SMCs as well as in rat carotid arteries in vivo. Here, we examined the molecular mechanisms ...
Involucrin (Squamous Cell Terminal Differentiation Marker) Antibody - Without BSA and Azide, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone SY5 ] validated in IHC-P, IF, FC (AH10541-100), Abgent
Wright N.; Morley A.; Appleton D., 1971: The effect of testosterone on cell differentiation and proliferation in the castrate mouse small intestine
The use of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (hiPSC-NPCs) is an attractive therapeutic option for damaged nerve tissues. To direct neuronal differentiation of stem cells, we have previously developed an electrospun polycaprolactone nanofiber scaffold that was functionalized with siRNA targeting Re-1 silencing transcription factor (REST), by mussel-inspired bioadhesive coating. However, the efficacy of nanofiber-mediated RNA interference on hiPSC-NPCs differentiation remains unknown. Furthermore, interaction between such cell-seeded scaffolds with injured tissues has not been tested. In this study, scaffolds were optimized for REST knockdown in hiPSC-NPCs to enhance neuronal differentiation. Specifically, the effects of two different mussel-inspired bioadhesives and transfection reagents were analyzed. Scaffolds functionalized with RNAiMAX Lipofectamine-siREST complexes enhanced the differentiation of hiPSC-NPCs into TUJ1+ cells (60% as compared to 22% in ...
Notch2 interaction with its ligand, Dll1, is required in the mouse to drive MZP into the MZB cell lineage (Saito et al., 2003; Hozumi et al., 2004). Preliminary data based on humanized mouse models have also proposed a Notch2 dependence for the differentiation of IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells (Scheeren et al., 2008). Accordingly, we searched for an MZP in the spleen from young children, taking as diagnostic criteria its capacity to acquire an MZ phenotype when cultured in presence of OP9 cells expressing human DLL1, a differentiation which, moreover, should be specifically inhibited in presence of anti-NOTCH2 blocking antibodies. This precursor subset was identified using the recently described MEM55 antibody, which marks a glycosylated variant of the CD45RB molecule, harbored by CD27+ B cells and an immature B cell subset (Koethe et al., 2011). Surprisingly, these MZPs were further characterized as expressing the ABCB1 transporter reported so far as the unique hallmark of naive B cells (Wirths and ...
The process of generating hiPS cell-derived hepatocytes begins with the directed differentiation of hiPS cells into definitive endoderm (DE) cells, which are then differentiated further into hepatocytes. The complete system provides media, supplements, and coating reagents for each step of the hiPS-cell-to-hepatocyte differentiation protocol. Starting with approximately 3 x 106 undifferentiated hiPS cells, this system yields 5 x 106 hepatocytes-equivalent to a confluent monolayer of 50 cm2. Importantly, this do-it-yourself system offers a solution for the consistent production of assay-ready cells from patient-derived cells, or from Cellartis brand iPS cell lines-enabling highly reproducible results.. Successful differentiation depends on the quality of the starting material; a homogeneous, undifferentiated stem cell population is ideal. The iPS Cell to Hepatocyte Differentiation System promotes high-quality starting material by incorporating DEF-CS culture system components, which are designed ...
Renovos OPC differentiation assay is used to identify compounds that promote the production of oligodendrocytes from OPCs. In this assay, OPCs are cultured with or without compounds in differentiation media in 96-well plates. Following 5 days of differentiation, cells are stained and imaged in high-content ArrayScan™ reader in multiple channels. Computer algorithms are used to quantify the number of viable and pyknotic cells, and the number of EGFP+ oligodendrocytes in each well of the plate. Immunostaining of additional markers of different cell types can also be performed and quantified.. Applications of the OPC differentiation assay include:. ...
Glioma differentiation therapy is a novel strategy that has been used to induce glioma cells to differentiate into glia-like cells. Although some advances in experimental methods for exploring the molecular mechanisms involved in differentiation therapy have been made, a model-based comprehensive analysis is still needed to understand these differentiation mechanisms and improve the effects of anti-cancer therapeutics. This type of analysis becomes necessary in stochastic cases for two main reasons: stochastic noise inherently exists in signal transduction and phenotypic regulation during targeted therapy and chemotherapy, and the relationship between this noise and drug efficacy in differentiation therapy is largely unknown. In this study, we developed both an additive noise model and a Chemical-Langenvin-Equation model for the signaling pathways involved in glioma differentiation therapy to investigate the functional role of noise in the drug response. Our model analysis revealed an ultrasensitive
Background: The role of mesenchymal stem cell in cellular therapy is the subject of interest for many researchers. The differentiation potential of MSCs and abilities in modulations of the recipients immune system makes them important cells in tissue regenerative studies. MSCs by releasing the proinflammatory cytokines play important role in immunomodulatory systems; however the signaling pathways for releasing of these mediators are not well understood. Glutathione has been shown to play a role in modulation of cytokines in hepatogenic differentiation. Objective: In the current study we aimed to investigate the effects of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, inhibitor for glutathione synthesis) and N-acetylecystin (NAC, an inhibitor for ROS generation) on proinflammatory cytokines production in a hepatogenic differentiation model. Results: BSO and NAC significantly decreased IL-6 and TNF-α levels at 14 days of differentiation, whereas, NAC decreased the levels of IL-8 at days 2 and 14 of differentiation.
The development of tumor cell differentiation agents is new initiative in cancer treatment research. The goal of this project was to identify breast cancer differentiation agents by screening quinoline ring-containing compounds obtained form National Cancer Institute Compound Library. Of six differentiation-inducing quinolines NSC3852 was chosen as a lead compound. Our results demonstrate that NSC3852 is an inhibitor of HDAC activity in HeLa and MCF-7 cells nuclear extracts. NSC3852 caused superoxide generation in MCF-7 cells in a NADPH oxidase-dependent fashion, and NSC3852-induced oxidative stress led to the shift in a redox potential of the cells to a more oxidized state. This change in redox status of the cells was accompanied by the accumulation of hypophosphorylated pRb, downregulation of E2F-1 and Myc transcription factor protein levels, and cell differentiation. Superoxide formation in response to NSC3852 exposure caused DNA damage and subsequently apoptosis. MCF-7 cells growth was inhibited.
Background: We have previously shown that knockout of E2F1 in mice enhances angiogenesis following induction of hind limb ischemia. Recent studies suggest that suppression of E2F1 enhances oxidative phosphorylation in a variety of cell types. Since an increase in oxidative phosphorylation in stem/progenitor cells is often associated with cell differentiation, we hypothesize that E2F1-deficiency may promote bone marrow (BM) progenitor cell differentiation thereby impact on ischemic cardiac repair.. Methods and Results: We cultured bone marrow (BM) Lin- progenitor cells under hypoxic and normxic conditions for 24 h, then measured the expression of metabolism associated genes and evaluated cell proliferation and differentiation. We also performed adoptive BM transplantation to reconstitute BM of WT mice with E2F1-/- or WT BM, followed by surgical induction of myocardial infarction (MI), to compare the role of BM E2F1 in the cardiac repair in vivo. Notably, we found that the expression levels of ...
Bcl6 is required for CD4 T cell differentiation into T follicular helper cells (Tfh). In this study, we examined the role of IL-6 in early processes of in vivo Tfh differentiation, because the timing and mechanism of action of IL-6 in Tfh differentiation have been controversial in vivo. We found that early Bcl6(+)CXCR5(+) Tfh differentiation was severely impaired in the absence of IL-6; however, STAT3 deficiency failed to recapitulate that defect. IL-6R signaling activates the transcription factor STAT1 specifically in CD4 T cells. Strikingly, we found that STAT1 activity was required for Bcl6 induction and early Tfh differentiation in vivo. IL-6 mediated STAT3 activation is important for downregulation of IL-2Rα to limit Th1 cell differentiation in an acute viral infection. Thus, IL-6 signaling is a major early inducer of the Tfh differentiation program unexpectedly mediated by both STAT3 and STAT1 transcription factors. ...
Analysis of MM14 mouse myoblasts demonstrates that terminal differentiation is repressed by pure preparations of both acidic and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Basic FGF is approximately 30-fold more potent than acidic FGF and it exhibits half maximal activity in clonal assays at 0.03 ng/ml (2 pM). FGF repression occurs only during the G1 phase of the cell cycle by a mechanism that appears to be independent of ongoing cell proliferation. When exponentially growing myoblasts are deprived of FGF, cells become postmitotic within 2-3 h, express muscle-specific proteins within 6-7 h, and commence fusion within 12-14 h. Although expression of these three terminal differentiation phenotypes occurs at different times, all are initiated by a single regulatory commitment event in G1. The entire population commits to terminal differentiation within 12.5 h of FGF removal as all cells complete the cell cycle and move into G1. Differentiation does not require a new round of DNA synthesis. Comparison ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stomach Organ and Cell Lineage Differentiation. T2 - From Embryogenesis to Adult Homeostasis. AU - Willet, Spencer G.. AU - Mills, Jason C.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Gastric diseases cause considerable worldwide burden. However, the stomach is still poorly understood in terms of the molecular-cellular processes that govern its development and homeostasis. In particular, the complex relationship between the differentiated cell types located within the stomach and the stem and progenitor cells that give rise to them is significantly understudied relative to other organs. In this review, we highlight the current state of the literature relating to specification of gastric cell lineages from embryogenesis to adulthood. Special emphasis is placed on substantial gaps in knowledge about stomach specification that we think should be tackled to advance the field. For example, it has long been assumed that adult gastric units have a granule-free stem cell that gives rise to all ...
Nurr1, a transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor family, is essential for the generation of midbrain dopamine (DA) cellsduring embryonic development and it continues to be expressed in adult DA neurons. However, the mechanism by which Nurr1 promotes dopamine cell differentiation has remained unknown. In this study, I have used a neuronal progenitor cell line (NT2/D1), which retains some stem cell characteristics and is capable only of terminal differentiation into neurons, to analyze the function of Nurr1 in dopamine cell development. The results demonstrated that Nurr1 can induce cell cycle arrest and the cells differentiated with distinct neuronal morphology after all-trans retinoic acid treatment. It was also indicated that up-regulation of some dopaminergic neuron markers (e.g. TH, DAT and D2DR) while down-regulation of CyclinD1-Cdk6 activity marks the key events in the early stages of dopaminergic neuron differentiation. Furthermore, Pin1, a highly conserved isomerase, which ...
Background: MiR-499 is a cardiac-abundant miRNA. However, the biological functions of miR-499 in differentiated cardiomyocytes or in the cardiomyocyte differentiation process is not very clear. Sox6 is believed to be one of its targets, and is also believed to play a role in cardiac differentiation. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the association between Sox6 and miR-499 during cardiac differentiation.. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using a well-established in vitro cardiomyocyte differentiation system, mouse P19CL6 cells, we found that miR-499 was highly expressed in the late stage of cardiac differentiation. In cells stably transfected with miR-499 (P-499 cells), it was found that miR-499 could promote the differentiation into cardiomyocytes at the early stage of cardiac differentiation. Notably, cell viability assay, EdU incorporation assay, and cell cycle profile analysis all showed that the P-499 cells displayed the distinctive feature of hyperplastic growth. Further investigation ...
Terminal B cell differentiation is a complex process currently modeled upon the actions of a small number of master regulators, and the gaps in our understanding are clear. Insight into the mechanism of differentiation, both its initiation and its full execution, is advanced with the identification of each new contributing factor.. Here, we identify Zbtb20 as a new mediator of B cell differentiation specifically expressed in B1 and GC B cells and ASCs. Zbtb20 is a BTB-ZF transcription factor, and other members of the family have been shown to be active within the B cell lineage (Chevrier and Corcoran, 2014). For instance, early B lineage commitment is mediated by LRF, Bcl6, and Miz-1 (Maeda et al., 2007; Duy et al., 2010; Kosan et al., 2010), MZ B cell differentiation is controlled by LRF (Sakurai et al., 2011), and the GC reaction is driven by Bcl6 and LRF (Fukuda et al., 1997; Sakurai et al., 2011). Finally, Zbtb32 has been associated with plasma cell differentiation (Yoon et al., ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct differentiation of bone marrow mononucleated cells into insulin producing cells using pancreatic β-cell-derived components. AU - Oh, Ju Eun. AU - Choi, Ok Kyung. AU - Park, Ho Seon. AU - Jung, Hye Seung. AU - Ryu, Su Jeong. AU - Lee, Yong Deok. AU - Lee, Seung Ah. AU - Chung, Sung Soo. AU - Choi, Eun Young. AU - Lee, Dong Sup. AU - Gho, Yong Song. AU - Lee, Hakmo. AU - Park, Kyong Soo. PY - 2019/3/29. Y1 - 2019/3/29. N2 - Transplantation of stem cell-derived insulin producing cells (IPCs) has been proposed as an alternative to islet transplantation for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, current IPC differentiation protocols are focused on generating functional cells from the pluripotent stem cells and tend to rely on multistep, long-term exposure to various exogenous factors. In this study, we addressed the observation that under stress, pancreatic β-cells release essential components that direct the differentiation of the bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNCs) ...
negative regulation of anterior neural cell fate commitment of the neural plate by fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway - Ontology Report - Rat Genome Database
Characterizing genes associated with leukemic cell differentiation may provide help for understanding mechanisms on the leukemia differentiation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the expression of melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) could be induced during leukemia differentiation and whether mda-7/IL-24 plays a role in leukemia differentiation. We showed that the expression of mda-7/IL-24 and IL-24 delE5, an mda-7/IL-24 splice variant, was induced in U937 and HL60 cells during 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-mediated monocytic differentiation. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway was required for their induction. Knockdown of mda-7/IL-24 and IL-24 delE5 resulted in significant inhibition of the monocytic differentiation induced by TPA. More importantly, ectopic overexpression of mda-7/IL-24 and IL-24 delE5 significantly induced U937 cells, HL60 cells, and blast cells from ...
In this directed differentiation protocol, Pax3-GFP is overexpressed in mesenchymal stem cells via viral transduction. After infection, cells are subjected to fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate the GFP-positive cells. Isolated cells are cultured in mesenchymal stem cell expansion medium without growth factors, to promote their differentiation into myogenic cells. The differentiated cells are multinucleated and express early-myogenic markers ...
Directed differentiation is a bioengineering methodology at the interface of stem cell biology, developmental biology and tissue engineering. It is essentially harnessing the potential of stem cells by constraining their differentiation in vitro toward a specific cell type or tissue of interest. Stem cells are by definition pluripotent, able to differentiate into several cell types such as neurons, cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes, etc. Efficient directed differentiation requires a detailed understanding of the lineage and cell fate decision, often provided by developmental biology. During differentiation, pluripotent cells make a number of developmental decisions to generate first the three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm) of the embryo and intermediate progenitors, followed by subsequent decisions or check points, giving rise to all the bodys mature tissues. The differentiation process can be modeled as sequence of binary decisions based on probabilistic or stochastic models. ...
The present studies were undertaken to determine whether the CDKI FP could enhance PMA-induced maturation in human leukemia cells. The rationale for this investigation stemmed from several considerations: (a) FP has been shown to induce differentiation in some cell types (e.g., non-small cell lung cancer cells; Ref. 21 ); and (b) inhibition of cell cycle progression by FP might promote a leukemic cell differentiation program (47) . Contrary to expectations, coexposure to FP for 24 h strikingly opposed PMA-induced differentiation in U937 cells and instead significantly increased apoptosis. These events were associated with increased mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of caspases, and loss of clonogenic survival; moreover, enhanced cell death after PMA/FP cotreatment was also observed in promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) and in U937 cells overexpressing the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. These events may reflect the complex reciprocal relationship that exists between differentiation and ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Info Supplementary Numbers 1-3, Supplementary Furniture 1-5 and Supplementary References ncomms9487-s1. ducts that drain alveoli during lactation. The nature of the stem cell(s) that maintain this epithelium is definitely controversial. Initial transplantation experiments using purified cell subsets shown that only the basal cells experienced the potential to regenerate ductalClobular outgrowths or engrafting capacity colony-forming cells (CFCs) in the luminal compartment can also be recognized: Sca1?CD49b+ luminal progenitors (termed Sca1? progenitors) that express low levels of luminal cell differentiation markers and Sca1+CD49b+ luminal progenitors (termed Sca1+ progenitors) that express high levels of luminal cell differentiation markers3,8,9,10. Analogous luminal cell subpopulations have also been recognized in the human being mammary epithelium, as EpCAM+CD49f? NCL cells, ALDH+EpCAM+CD49f+ luminal progenitors that communicate low levels of luminal ...
The coordination of cell proliferation with the gradual differentiation of different cell types is essential for proper development and tissue homeostasis. However, little is known about the signals that couple cell cycle exit to differentiation switch during development. Here, we show that signaling mediated by integrins, the major cell-ECM receptors, contributes to the regulation of this switch in the posterior follicle cells of the Drosophila ovary. Furthermore, our experiments strongly suggest that one of the mechanisms by which integrins regulate epithelial cell differentiation is by modulating the activity of the Notch pathway through promoting the proper endosomal trafficking and/or processing of Notch.. Integrins are known to regulate cell differentiation and proliferation in other systems. The effects of particular integrins in regulating differentiation vary depending on the epithelial cell type. Thus, although β1 integrin signaling is inhibitory for differentiation in the epidermis ...
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of the mammalian blastocyst. Cellular differentiation entails loss of pluripotency and gain of lineage-specific characteristics. However, the molecular controls that govern the differentiation process remain poorly understood. We have characterized small RNA expression profiles in differentiating ES cells as a model for early mammalian development. High-throughput 454 pyro-sequencing was performed on 19-30 nt RNAs isolated from undifferentiated male and female ES cells, as well as day 2 and 5 differentiating derivatives. A discrete subset of microRNAs (miRNAs) largely dominated the small RNA repertoire, and the dynamics of their accumulation could be readily used to discriminate pluripotency from early differentiation events. Unsupervised partitioning around meloids (PAM) analysis revealed that differentiating ES cell miRNAs can be divided into three expression clusters with highly contrasted accumulation patterns. ...
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Stem cell interactions through paracrine cell signalling can regulate a range of cell responses, including metabolic activity, proliferation and differentiation. Moving towards the development of optimized tissue-engineering strategies with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), the focus of this study was on developing indirect co-culture models to study the effects of mature adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts on bovine ASC multilineage differentiation. For each lineage, ASC differentiation was characterized by histology, gene expression and protein expression, in the absence of key inductive differentiation factors for the ASCs. Co-culture with each of the mature cell populations was shown to successfully induce or enhance lineage-specific differentiation of the ASCs. In general, a more homogeneous but lower-level differentiation response was observed in co-culture as compared to stimulating the bovine ASCs with inductive differentiation media. To explore the role of
Bromodomain-containing protein 2 (Brd2) is a BET family chromatin adaptor required for expression of cell cycle associated genes and therefore involved in cell cycle progression. Brd2 is expressed in proliferating neuronal progenitors, displays cell cycle-stimulating activity and, when overexpressed, impairs neuronal differentiation. Paradoxically, Brd2 is also detected in differentiating neurons. To shed light on the role of Brd2 in the transition from cell proliferation to differentiation we have looked for Brd2 interacting proteins upon induction of neuronal differentiation. Surprisingly, we have identified the growth factor Pleiotrophin (Ptn). Ptn antagonizes the cell cycle-stimulating activity associated with Brd2, thus enhancing induced neuronal differentiation. Moreover, Ptn knockdown reduces neuronal differentiation. Ptn-mediated antagonism of Brd2 has been assessed in a cell differentiation model and in two embryonic processes associated with the neural tube: spinal cord neurogenesis ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in positive regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Adipose stem cells (ASCs) are pluripotent cells with the ability of self-renewal and differentiation into various kinds of mesenchymal cells. a three-dimensional tradition. 10 and 20 M doses of Res demonstrated probably the most proliferating influence on ADSCs. The SIRT 1 genes manifestation and FRAP level also more than doubled set alongside the control group (3D tradition was the right condition for ASCs differentiation to chondrocyte, and lower dosages of Res exert proliferation influence on ASCs. gene manifestation.25,26 The purpose of the present research was to research the result of Res on differentiation of ASCs into chondrocyte in 3D tradition also to evaluate cell success, apoptosis, total antioxidants gene and capacity expression. Strategies and Components With this experimental research, subcutaneous adipose cells had been taken from individuals (20-40 years) during liposuction inside a sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) remedy. The adipose cells were cut into small pieces and ...
Upon activation, naive CD8 T cells undergo a program of proliferation and differentiation that results in the acquisition of effector functions. Optimal T cell activation requires the integration of multiple signals including cross-linking of the T cell receptor (signal 1), co-stimulation (signal 2) and soluble factors such as cytokines (signal 3). Once a CD8 T cell has received these three signals they differentiate into an effector cell, which are able to control infection by directly killing the infected cell. Once the infection is cleared, these effector cells contract by controlled cell death and a long-lived population of memory cells remain. These potent memory cells are the defining feature of adaptive immunity as they offer protection for the life of the host due to their unique capabilities to survive in the absence of antigen and respond rapidly to secondary challenge. Therefore, effective CD8 T cell memory is the goal of cell-mediated vaccination strategies. While it is well ...
Definition of Cell differentiation in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Cell differentiation? Meaning of Cell differentiation as a legal term. What does Cell differentiation mean in law?
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC)3 must choose between self-renewal and differentiation; if they differentiate they can become common myeloid progenitors (CMP) or common lymphoid progenitors (CLP). It is still unclear how environmental signals (1) and lineage-specific transcription factors work together to control the frequency with which dividing HSC either undergo self-renewal or commit to one or the other lineage. Transcription factors expressed in HSC can drive commitment to either the lymphoid or the myeloid lineage (2). For example, factors of the Ikaros family specifically favor differentiation down the lymphoid pathway (3), whereas other factors, such as GATA-1 and C/EBPα, favor differentiation down the myeloid pathway (4, 5).. We are particularly interested in mechanisms that influence the choice between self-renewal and differentiation. Thus we study the E2F family of transcription factors, which promotes cell cycle progression and exit; the latter is associated with terminal ...
Due to the pivotal role of stem cell differentiation in regeneration and disease cure, the study of it has always been a research highlight during the recent years. Stress microenvironment has a great impact on cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Twist1, as a core epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulatory factor, plays an important role in these processes. Moreover, Twist1 gene can express in alveolar bone - periodontal ligament interface and the expression can be regulated by changes in the occlusal force. In this article, we will present a review of Twist1 gene, especially in the aspect of the biological functions in stem cell differentiation under mechanical signals and explore whether Twist1 involved in tissue remodeling in alveolar bone - periodontal membrane interface under stress ...
Due to the pivotal role of stem cell differentiation in regeneration and disease cure, the study of it has always been a research highlight during the recent years. Stress microenvironment has a great impact on cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Twist1, as a core epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulatory factor, plays an important role in these processes. Moreover, Twist1 gene can express in alveolar bone - periodontal ligament interface and the expression can be regulated by changes in the occlusal force. In this article, we will present a review of Twist1 gene, especially in the aspect of the biological functions in stem cell differentiation under mechanical signals and explore whether Twist1 involved in tissue remodeling in alveolar bone - periodontal membrane interface under stress ...
The key advantage of iPS cells over other stem cells is that they are patient-specific (and therefore immuno-compatible) and can be grown in infinite amounts. Moreover, they are not dogged by the ethical and religious controversies associated with hES cells, yet still have the same properties as hES cells. They also offer the possibility of conducting clinical-trials-in-the-dish, providing a platform for drug screening, disease modelling and gene/cell therapy in pre-clinical studies.3,4. How are iPS cells made?. When cell differentiation occurs, the cell follows a process of changes in gene activity whereby embryonic-specific genes are inactivated and differentiation-specific genes are activated. The end result of this differentiation programme is a specialised cell of one type or another (e.g. cardiac muscle cells or neurons). To reprogramme a fully differentiated adult cell into an iPS cell is surprisingly straightforward - all that is needed is reactivation of the embryonic regulatory ...
The results presented here demonstrate that the luminal cell compartment in both the human and mouse mammary glands is much more heterogeneous than initially perceived since progenitors of varying levels of luminal cell differentiation can be identified and prospectively isolated. In the mouse, these populations resolve as separable ER+ and ER- subpopulations, whereas in the human the ALDH+ and ALDH- subpopulations appear to comprise a larger contiguous population. The cell types of the different species appear to be homologous to one another; for example, the ER- LPs in the mouse are equivalent to the ALDH+ cells in the human, and likewise for the ER+ luminal mouse progenitors and the ALDH- luminal human progenitor cells because both populations collectively express higher levels of luminal cell differentiation markers than the ER-/ALDH+ subpopulations. The ER+ cells in the mouse are probably ductal-restricted progenitors since they express higher levels of ER and FoxA1, transcription factors ...
We have shown in this study that activation of the canonical Wnt pathway promoted, and inhibition of this pathway blocked, neuronal differentiation both in cortical NPC cultures and in the developing neocortex. We emphasize two aspects of these findings: (1) Wnts appear to function as an extracellular cue that instructively triggers neuronal differentiation; and (2) this effect of Wnts is dependent on the stage of development. In this Discussion, we address these aspects and their possible underlying mechanisms.. In general, two models can explain how the fate of an uncommitted precursor cell is influenced by extrinsic cues. In one model, extrinsic cues instruct multipotent precursor cells to commit to a particular lineage. In the other model, multipotent precursor cells choose their fate stochastically, and the proliferation and/or survival of specific lineage-restricted cells is then supported by extrinsic cues. For example, Pdgf treatment increases the size of the neuronal population in ...
We have found that β-catenin signaling and neural differentiation of ES cells are inhibited by culture at high density. This observation is consistent with prior studies of neural/neuronal differentiation of ES cells that have all used relatively low densities irrespective of whether EB or dissociated cell culture techniques were used (Gratsch and OShea, 2002; Ying et al., 2003). The need to culture the cells at low density to achieve neuronal differentiation limits the number of cells that could potentially be obtained for transplantation strategies and raises questions about the mechanisms mediating neuronal differentiation of the cells. Our studies suggest that β-catenin signaling promotes both neural and neuronal differentiation of ES cells, and that the effects of increased cell density are mediated at least in part by inhibition of β-catenin signaling.. Similar to observations with keratinocytes (Dietrich et al., 2002), culture of ES cells at high density promotes membrane localization ...
Reduction of Prep1 Levels Affects Differentiation of Normal and Malignant B Cells and Accelerates Myc Driven Lymphomagenesis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
AIMS: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) play a critical role in negatively regulating the proliferation of cardiomyocytes, although their role in cardiac differentiation remains largely undetermined. We have shown that the most prominent CDKI in Xenopus, p27(Xic1)(Xic1), plays a role in neuronal and myotome differentiation beyond its ability to arrest the cell cycle. Thus, we investigated whether it plays a similar role in cardiomyocyte differentiation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Xenopus laevis embryos were sectioned, and whole-mount antibody staining and immunofluorescence studies were carried out to determine the total number and percentage of differentiated cardiomyocytes in mitosis. Capped RNA and/or translation-blocking Xic1 morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (Xic1Mo) were microinjected into embryos, and their role on cardiac differentiation was assessed by in situ hybridization and/or PCR. We show that cell-cycling post-gastrulation is not essential for cardiac differentiation in ...
The adult mammalian dermis contains a subpopulation of precursor cells that possess the capacity to differentiate into different lineages (16-18). These fibroblastic MSCs have attracted attention for their plasticity and, therefore, their potential therapeutic applications, including in transplantation for bone formation (19). In the present study, the role of BMP7 in the osteogenic differentiation of CD105+ hDDFCs was examined in vitro and in vivo, and the underlying Smad-dependent and -independent mechanisms were identified.. Conflicting reports exist on the differentiation potential of dermal fibroblasts, with certain studies suggesting limited potential and others demonstrating adipocytic, osteocytic and chondrocytic differentiation capacities (20-23). One reason for these controversial results is the heterogeneity of isolated dermal fibroblasts, which include populations with different differentiation capacities (5,13). Although dermal fibroblasts have a surface antigen profile similar to ...
NKT cells are potent regulatory T cells that prevent the development of several autoimmune diseases. Analysis of NKT cell regulatory function in the NOD mouse has revealed that NKT cells inhibit the development of type 1 diabetes by impairing the differentiation of anti-islet T cells into Th1 effector cells. In the present study, we have performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to determine the respective role of cytokines and cell contacts in the blockade of T cell differentiation by NKT cells. These experiments reveal that cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-beta, that have been involved in other functions of NKT cells, play only a minor role if any in the blockade of T cell differentiation by NKT cells. Diabetes is still prevented by NKT cells in the absence of functional IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-beta. In contrast, we show for the first time that cell contacts are crucial for the immunoregulatory function of NKT cells.
GATA-6, a zinc finger transcription factor, is important in the endodermal differentiation of organ tissues.[4] It is also indicated in proper lung development by controlling the late differentiation stages of alveolar epithelium and aquaporin-5 promoter activation. Furthermore, GATA-6 has been linked to the production of LIF, a cytokine that encourages proliferation of endodermal embryonic stem cells and blocks early epiblast differentiation. If left unregulated in the developing embryo, this cytokine production and chemical signal contributes to the phenotypes discussed further below.[5] Upon the disruption of GATA-6 in an embryo, the distal lung epithelial development is stunted in transgenic mice models[4] The progenitor cells, or stem cells, for alveolar epithelial tissues develop and are specified appropriately, however further differentiation does not occur. Also the distal-proximal bronchiole development is affected, resulting in a reduced quantity of airway exchange sites.[4] This ...
Current clinical judgment in bladder cancer (BC) relies primarily on pathological stage and grade. We investigated whether a molecular classification of tumor cell differentiation, based on a developmental biology approach, can provide additional prognostic information. Exploiting large preexisting gene-expression databases, we developed a biologically supervised computational model to predict markers that correspond with BC differentiation. To provide mechanistic insight, we assessed relative tumorigenicity and differentiation potential via xenotransplantation. We then correlated the prognostic utility of the identified markers to outcomes within gene expression and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue datasets. Our data indicate that BC can be subclassified into three subtypes, on the basis of their differentiation states: basal, intermediate, and differentiated, where only the most primitive tumor cell subpopulation within each subtype is capable of generating xenograft tumors and ...
Set of osteoblast-inducer reagents, including hydrocortisone, ß-glycerophosphate, and ascorbic acid. These reagents induce the efficient differentiation of bone marrow-derived cells and adipose-derived stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells) into osteoblasts.
BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer a virtually unlimited source of neural cells for structural repair in neurological disorders, such as stroke. Neural cells can be derived from hESCs either by direct enrichment, or by isolating specific growth factor-responsive and expandable populations of human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Studies have indicated that the direct enrichment method generates a heterogeneous population of cells that may contain residual undifferentiated stem cells that could lead to tumor formation in vivo. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated an expandable and homogenous population of hNSCs (named SD56) from hESCs using a defined media supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and leukemia inhibitory growth factor (LIF). These hNSCs grew as an adherent monolayer culture. They were fully neuralized and uniformly expressed molecular features of NSCs, including nestin, vimentin and radial glial markers. These hNSCs did ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Eomesodermin controls a unique differentiation program in human IL-10 and IFN-γ coproducing regulatory T cells. AU - Gruarin, Paola. AU - Maglie, Stefano. AU - De Simone, Marco. AU - Häringer, Barbara. AU - Vasco, Chiara. AU - Ranzani, Valeria. AU - Bosotti, Roberto. AU - Noddings, Johanna S. AU - Larghi, Paola. AU - Facciotti, Federica. AU - Sarnicola, Maria L. AU - Martinovic, Martina. AU - Crosti, Mariacristina. AU - Moro, Monica. AU - Rossi, Riccardo L. AU - Bernardo, Maria E. AU - Caprioli, Flavio. AU - Locatelli, Franco. AU - Rossetti, Grazisa. AU - Abrignani, Sergio. AU - Pagani, Massimiliano. AU - Geginat, Jens. N1 - © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.. PY - 2018/11/15. Y1 - 2018/11/15. N2 - Whether human IL-10-producing regulatory T cells (Tr1) represent a distinct differentiation lineage or an unstable activation stage remains a key unsolved issue. Here, we report that Eomesodermin (Eomes) acted as a lineage-defining transcription factor in human ...
The development of skeletal muscle is a multistep process in which pluripotent mesodermal cells give rise to myoblasts that subsequently withdraw from the cell cycle and differentiate into myotubes.2,13 These stages are controlled by the MyoD and myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) families of transcription factors, which interact with one another to establish a unique transcriptional code for activation of skeletal muscle-specific genes.14 It has been shown that such muscle differentiation-specific gene expression occurs in a stereotype pattern. Within 24 hours of switching to differentiation medium or serum withdrawal, proliferating myoblasts initiate the expression of myogenin, followed by the expression of MEF2 family of transcription factors, including MEF2D.15 Consistent with these observations, we showed in the present study that cell cycle withdrawal induced myogenin and MEF2D protein expression, peaking at 48 and 72 hours after medium switch, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated, for ...
... is a peer reviewed academic journal published by Nature Research. BIOBASE/Current Awareness in ...
LIF inhibits cell differentiation, and its removal allows the cell lines to go through cell differentiation. The cell lines ... In embryonic stem cells, DNMT1 depletion within the undifferentiated progenitor cell compartment led to cell cycle arrest, ... "Hematopoietic commitment during embryonic stem cell differentiation in culture". Molecular Cell Biology. 13 (1): 473-486. doi: ... Embryonic stem cell proliferation was unaffected by the loss of either HDAC1 or HDAC2 but the differentiation of embryonic stem ...
February 1983). "B cell growth factors and B cell differentiation factor from human T hybridomas. Two distinct kinds of B cell ... IL-2 - a cytokine key activating factor for T cells and B cells secreted by T cells. Cells in early-stage activation ... B-cell growth factor I or B-cell-stimulating factor, provisional 1) is a differentiation factor for resting B cells and may not ... B-cell growth factor, and a B-cell differentiation factor on resting and activated human B cells". Cellular Immunology. 96 (1 ...
"hcdm, Human Cell Differentiation Molecules". Retrieved 2015-10-15. "hcdm, Human Cell Differentiation Molecules". ... "hcdm, Human Cell Differentiation Molecules". Retrieved 2015-10-15. "hcdm, Human Cell Differentiation Molecules". ... "hcdm, Human Cell Differentiation Molecules". Retrieved 2015-10-13. "hcdm, Human Cell Differentiation Molecules". ... "hcdm, Human Cell Differentiation Molecules". Retrieved 2015-10-13. "IL10RA - Interleukin-10 receptor subunit ...
discoideum,Suppresses Cell Growth and Promotes Retinoic Acid-Induced Cell Differentiation in HL-60". Biochemical and ... pre-stalk cells coming from the anterior side and pre-spore cells from the posterior. Early evidence showed the differentiation ... as well as DIF-1 does to induce differentiation in stalk cells. Despite this similarity in function during differentiation, ... Differentiation-inducing factor (DIF) is one of a class of effector molecules that induce changes in cell chemistry, inhibiting ...
... fat cells, and types of bone cells Epithelial stem cells (progenitor cells) that give rise to the various types of skin cells ... Cell differentiation is thus a transition of a cell from one cell type to another and it involves a switch from one pattern of ... During terminal differentiation, a precursor cell formerly capable of cell division, permanently leaves the cell cycle, ... Such cells, called somatic cells, make up most of the human body, such as skin and muscle cells. Cells differentiate to ...
... is a method to treating advanced cancers in which malignant cells are encouraged to differentiate into ... 2004). "Stem cell origin of cancer and differentiation therapy". Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology. 51 (1): 1-28. doi: ... The basis of the therapy stems from the tendency of malignant tumor cells to assume a less specialized, stem cell-like ... The first differentiation agent found to be successful was all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) in the treatment of acute ...
Sox9 regulates cell proliferation and is required for Paneth cell differentiation in the intestinal epithelium. J. Cell Biol. ... SAM pointed domain ETS factor (SPDEF) regulates terminal differentiation and maturation of intestinal goblet cells. Exp Cell ... Intestinal Neurogenin 3 directs differentiation of a bipotential secretory progenitor to endocrine cell rather than goblet cell ... "Lgr4 is required for Paneth cell differentiation and maintenance of intestinal stem cells ex vivo". EMBO Rep. 12 (6): 558-64. ...
This CD combination typically corresponds to a stem cell, as opposed to a fully differentiated endothelial cell. Some cell ... see cell signaling). Some CD proteins do not play a role in cell signaling, but have other functions, such as cell adhesion. CD ... White Cell Differentiation Antigens. Oxford University Press. Knapp, W; et al. (1989). Leucocyte Typing IV. Oxford University ... Molecule search maintained by the Human Cell Differentiation Molecules Council (successor to the HLDA Workshops) Table of CD ...
Differentiation is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering cell differentiation and cell development. It was established in ... "Differentiation". 2016 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2017. Official website ... International Society of Differentiation v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, ... 1973 and is published 10 times per year by Elsevier, on behalf of the International Society of Differentiation. The editor-in- ...
Cell Differentiation. 8 (3): 223-33. doi:10.1016/0045-6039(79)90049-6. PMID 288514. Olivo, M.; Bhuvaneswari, R.; Keogh, I. ( ... Cancer cells lack or have reduced ferrochelatase activity and this results in accumulation of Protoporphyrin IX, a fluorescent ... In contrast to larger photosensitizer molecules, it is predicted by computer simulations to be able to penetrate tumor cell ... Gardener, L.C.; Cox, T.M. (1988). "Biosynthesis of heme in immature erythroid cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 263 ...
Cell Differentiation. 17 (1): 29-43. doi:10.1016/0045-6039(85)90535-4. PMID 3875415. Maglott, D.R. (1985). "Two-dimensional ... Maglott, D.R. (1985). "Dissociation of cells from sea urchin embryos alters the synthesis of actins and other proteins". ... by analyzing fluorescently labeled PCR products from hybrid cell panels". Genomics. 14 (3): 808-810. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(05) ...
"Concepts of target cells in plant differentiation". Cell Differentiation. 14 (3): 161-169. doi:10.1016/0045-6039(84)90042-3. ... Hormones, Signals and Target Cells in Plant Development (Developmental and Cell Biology Series no. 41) (Cambridge University ... This work led her to develop the idea of the target cell as a model for how a small number of plant hormones can exert many ... She also originated the concept of the target cell as a model for understanding plant hormone action. Born in India, where her ...
... cell growth and differentiation, gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome ... UPS proteolysis plays a major role in responses of cancer cells to stimulatory signals that are critical for the development of ... Goff SP (Aug 2003). "Death by deamination: a novel host restriction system for HIV-1". Cell. 114 (3): 281-3. doi:10.1016/S0092- ... Kleiger G, Mayor T (Jun 2014). "Perilous journey: a tour of the ubiquitin-proteasome system". Trends in Cell Biology. 24 (6): ...
... synuclein-mediated apoptotic cell death". Cell Death & Differentiation. 22 (12): 2107-2122. doi:10.1038/cdd.2015.79. ISSN 1476- ...
Overexpression of Nuclear receptor 4A1 inhibits effector T cell differentiation, whereas deletion of NR4A1 overcomes T cell ... Cell Growth & Differentiation. 2 (4): 203-208. PMID 1651101. Nakai A, Kartha S, Sakurai A, Toback FG, DeGroot LJ (October 1990 ... NR4A1 can mediate T cell function, the transcription factor NR4A1 is stably expressed at high levels in tolerant T cells. ... "Dual roles of Nur77 in selective regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle by TPA and ATRA in gastric cancer cells". ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 6 (2): 199-210. PMID 7756179. Ho PP, Couch FJ, Brody LC, Abel KJ, Boehnke M, Shearon TH, ... Cell Growth & Differentiation. 11 (7): 409-16. PMID 10939594. Simpson JC, Wellenreuther R, Poustka A, Pepperkok R, Wiemann S ( ... "Rapid microtubule-independent dynamics of Cdc20 at kinetochores and centrosomes in mammalian cells". The Journal of Cell ... "Rapid microtubule-independent dynamics of Cdc20 at kinetochores and centrosomes in mammalian cells". The Journal of Cell ...
... induces their differentiation. In fact, in the neuronal PC12 cell line BTG2 is not able to trigger differentiation by ... Götz M, Huttner WB (October 2005). "The cell biology of neurogenesis". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 6 (10): 777-88. ... Cell Growth & Differentiation. 7 (10): 1327-36. PMID 8891336. Guardavaccaro D, Corrente G, Covone F, Micheli L, D'Agnano I, ... while in vivo BTG2 is fully able to induce differentiation of progenitor cells, i.e., during embryonic development in the ...
... which are mediators of cell proliferation and differentiation. HOXA genes are known to play a role in the differentiation of ... Shan L, Yu M, Qiu C, Snyderwine EG (2004). "Id4 regulates mammary epithelial cell growth and differentiation and is ... It is complexly involved in regulating neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation by inhibiting proliferation of ... Cell Growth & Differentiation. 6: 837-843. Pagliuca A, Cannada-Bartoli P, Lania L (March 1998). "A role for Sp and helix-loop- ...
... that may be down-regulated in neoplastic mammary cells". Cell Growth & Differentiation. 3 (8): 507-13. PMID 1390337. Hermeking ... and the preponderance of its strong expression in epithelial cells of squamous cell lineage". Pathology International. 53 (6): ... The protein is named for its presence in stratified epithelial cells. Stratifin has been shown to interact with PLK4, ERRFI1, ... Lodygin D, Hermeking H (April 2005). "The role of epigenetic inactivation of 14-3-3sigma in human cancer". Cell Research. 15 (4 ...
... cell growth and differentiation, gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome ... Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8592-0. PMID 16169070. S2CID 8235923. ... hereby binding to p21 to induce cell death and inhibit cell proliferation. PSMA3 has been shown to interact with CRYAB, PLK1, ... UPS proteolysis plays a major role in responses of cancer cells to stimulatory signals that are critical for the development of ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 4 (10): 821-30. PMID 8274451. Creasy CL, Chernoff J (December 1995). "Cloning and ... Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. Seidel C, Schagdarsurengin U, Blümke K, ... Research has shown that in cells with loss of PTEN (gene), a tumor suppressor that is frequently mutated in cancers, Akt ... Nguyen LK, Matallanas DG, Romano D, Kholodenko BN, Kolch W (Jan 2015). "Competing to coordinate cell fate decisions: the MST2- ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 4 (10): 821-30. PMID 8274451. Nagase T, Seki N, Tanaka A, Ishikawa K, Nomura N (Aug 1995). " ... The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0121-KIAA0160) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from human cell line KG-1". DNA ... "Mammalian homologues of the plant Tousled gene code for cell-cycle-regulated kinases with maximal activities linked to ongoing ... "Mammalian homologues of the plant Tousled gene code for cell-cycle-regulated kinases with maximal activities linked to ongoing ...
... to adopt a tendon cell fate. This ultimately places future scleraxis-expressing cells between the two tissue types they will ... More precisely, they have critical roles in the control of cellular differentiation, proliferation and regulation of ... It is thought that early scleraxis-expressing progenitor cells lead to the eventual formation of tendon tissue and other muscle ... Most likely, the syndetomal cells, through careful reading of the FGF concentration (coming from the myotome), can precisely ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 11 (7): 409-16. PMID 10939594. Liu W, Youn HD, Zhou XZ, Lu KP, Liu JO (May 2001). "Binding and ... Expression levels fluctuate in normal, but not in cancerous cells. Expression is often associated with cell proliferation. ... signalling and consequently regulates cell proliferation (in part through control of cyclin D1 levels and stability) and cell ... It was found to be essential for cell division in some organisms. By 1999, however, it was apparent that Pin1 knockout mice had ...
Cell Growth & Differentiation. 4 (10): 821-30. PMID 8274451. Scanlan MJ, Gordan JD, Williamson B, Stockert E, Bander NH, ... is related to the NIMA cell cycle regulator and highly expressed in meiotic germ cells". The EMBO Journal. 11 (10): 3521-31. ... NIMA (never in mitosis gene a)-related kinase 1, also known as NEK1, is a human gene highly expressed in germ cells and thought ... "Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 83 (4): 456 ...
Cell Death & Differentiation. 28 (1): 35-51. doi:10.1038/s41418-020-0565-5. ISSN 1476-5403. PMC 7852529. PMID 32494027. Vazquez ... One of these changes are to the uterine natural killer cells (uNK). NK cells, part of the innate immune system, are cytotoxic ... In the first trimester of pregnancy, uNK cells are among the most abundant leukocytes present, but the number of uNK cells ... An increase in prevalence of proinflammatory cells and natural killer cells can be found in women experiencing a miscarriage. ...
Cell Death & Differentiation. 7 (4): 408-410. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4400670. ISSN 1476-5403. PMID 10836847. S2CID 36076848. Gurney ... GITR signaling lowers the threshold for CD28 signaling on CD8+ T cells or induces expression of CD137 on CD8+ memory T cells. ... GITR is constitutively expressed on CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells and its expression is upregulated on all T cell subsets after ... They have complete block in anti-CD3-induced T cell activation and decrease in regulatory T cells progenitors. After infection ...
Kalkavan, Halime; Green, Douglas R. (2018). "MOMP, cell suicide as a BCL-2 family business". Cell Death & Differentiation. 25 ( ... Cell Death & Differentiation. 13 (8): 1396-1402. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4401963. PMID 16710362. S2CID 24464082. ... the cell's mitochondria. In minority MOMP, only a few mitochondria of the cell experience MOMP-the result of sublethal stress. ... During MOMP, it takes about five minutes for all mitochondrial membranes within a cell to permeabilize. MOMP has been referred ...
... stimulate cell migration, promote growth factor-induced cell proliferation and differentiation in some cell types, promote ... including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and senescence through interaction with cell ... prostate cancer cells, ovarian carcinoma cells, and squamous carcinoma cells. Clinically, CYR61 expression correlates with the ... cells, endometrial adenocarcinoma cells, and in melanoma cells. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000142871 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) cell signaling plays a key role in diverse aspects of cardiac differentiation and ... Contraction of heart muscle cells requires depolarization and repolarization of their cell membranes. Movement of ions across ... cell membranes causes these events. The cardiac conduction system (and AV node part of it) coordinates myocyte mechanical ...
Studies in mice suggest that this gene is specifically required for the differentiation of islet cells for the production of ... restricting the expression of the beta-cell differentiation and specification genes. Mutations in this gene are associated with ... but not for the differentiation of pancreatic polypeptide-producing cells. It regulates the transcription factors involved in ... "Rfx6 is an Ngn3-dependent winged helix transcription factor required for pancreatic islet cell development". Development. 137 ( ...
Development proceeds and the oogonia become fully surrounded by a layer of connective tissue cells (pre-granulosa cells). In ... Even after differentiation can be seen between the sexes, some stages are common, e.g. the disappearing of the membrane. On the ... At about the fifth or sixth month the lumen of the vagina is produced by the breaking down of the central cells of the ... For a time the vagina is represented by a solid rod of epithelial cells. A ring-like outgrowth of this epithelium occurs at the ...
Bilinski, Szczepan (1983). "Differentiation of the oocyte and nurse cells in an apterygote insect (Campodea)". Tissue and Cell ... Chorion formation and the ultrastructure of follicle cells". Cell and Tissue Research. Springer. 228: 165-170. doi:10.1007/ ... Journal of Cell Science. The Company of Biologists Ltd. 3: 1-21. Hilton, W.A. (1936). "Campodea from the United States". J. ... Cell and Tissue Research. Springer. 149: 555-566. doi:10.1007/BF00223032. Bilinski, Szczepan (1983). "Oogenesis in Campodea sp ...
In embryonic cells, Nfix has been shown to regulate intermediate progenitor cell (IPC) generation by promoting the ... In adult development, the timing of neural differentiation is regulated by Nfix to promote ongoing growth of the hippocampus ... Intermediate progenitor cells can divide to produce neuroblasts. Neurons produced by Nfix null IPC's do not mature, usually die ... Cell. Biol. 20 (22): 8499-8512. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.22.8499-8512.2000. PMC 102156. PMID 11046146. Imagawa M, Sakaue R, Tanabe A ...
... and HOXD8 homeobox gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells following chemical induction of differentiation". Tumour Biol. ... Cell Genet. 90 (1-2): 151-3. doi:10.1159/000015651. PMID 11060466. S2CID 35579702. Kosaki K, Kosaki R, Suzuki T, et al. (2002 ... Scott MP (Dec 1992). "Vertebrate homeobox gene nomenclature". Cell. 71 (4): 551-3. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92)90588-4. PMID ...
... a cell in water only has a refractive index difference of around 0.05. This small phase difference is important for the correct ... "optical differentiation" of the optical path length, generating the image seen. The image has the appearance of a three- ...
2005). "Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation". ... and c-Src are activated in human aortic smooth muscle cells by pressure stress". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 262 (1-2): 71-8. doi: ... 2006). "JSAP1/JIP3 cooperates with focal adhesion kinase to regulate c-Jun N-terminal kinase and cell migration". J. Biol. Chem ... 2001). "Kinesin-dependent axonal transport is mediated by the sunday driver (SYD) protein". Cell. 103 (4): 583-94. doi:10.1016/ ...
Middle PPNB cell, Late PPNB large room, final PPNB An analysis of blood found at the site suggested that human sacrifice ... Stable isotope evidence of differentiation in diet according to burial practice and sex in the early Neolithic". J Anthropol ...
... migration or differentiation. Mutations in the gene result in slower cell division and some embryonic developmental processes ... Most cilia are primary cilia, which are involved in cell signalling, sending and receiving signals to trigger cell migration, ... They also aid in cell migratory ability. They are made by the centrosome, which contains a pair of cylindrical centrioles at ... Mutations in this gene lead to impaired cell division during early development. Mitosis has been found to take longer when ...
The cell diversity is originated by cell differentiation, which has been attributed to the activation of specific transcription ... such as skeletal muscle cell. Targeting of p21 promoter is responsible for inducing cell differentiation, which is promoted by ... It breaks up the DNA during apoptosis and promotes cell differentiation. It is usually an inactive monomer inhibited by ICAD. ... Caspase 3 is responsible for cellular differentiation, although it is unclear how this kind of protein can promote the cell ...
All cells must finish DNA replication before they can proceed for cell division. Media conditions that support fast growth in ... Ozaki, Shogo; Noguchi, Yasunori; Hayashi, Yasuhisa; Miyazaki, Erika; Katayama, Tsutomu (26 October 2012). "Differentiation of ... it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. For the ... They bind to DnaA-ADP and DnaA-ATP with equal affinities and are bound by DnaA throughout most of the cell cycle and forms a ...
... and cell death. Daxx interacts with the TGF-β type II receptor by binding of C-terminal domain of the protein. When the cell is ... TGF-β regulates a variety of different cellular developmental processes including growth, differentiation, proliferation, ... Another important cell death-property of Daxx is the association with PML-NB. It was shown that Daxx associates with Pml only ... This partnership is found mainly in the S-phase of the cell cycle. No expression of Daxx leads to malfunction of S phase and ...
... the presence of areas of neuroendocrine differentiation, i.e. sites of accumulated neoplastic cells with features combining ... These cells, which are not myoepithelial cells, have been termed globoid cells. They have eosinophilic cytoplasm (i.e. pink or ... Epithelial cells lining the fronds' inner surfaces commonly form solid, cribriform (i.e. large nests of cells perforated by ... Mucin may also occur outside of cells in these lesions. The presence of signet ring-shaped cells bearing mucin-containing ...
Mesenchymal stem cell therapy may delay the progression of neurological deficits in patients with MSA-cerebellar type. Ronald ... "Role of Neuroimaging on Differentiation of Parkinson's Disease and Its Related Diseases". Yonago Acta Medica (Review). 61 (3): ... Multiple system atrophy can be explained as cell loss and gliosis or a proliferation of astrocytes in damaged areas of the ... Hass EW, Sorrentino ZA, Xia Y, Lloyd GM, Trojanowski JQ, Prokop S, Giasson BI (August 2021). "Disease-, region- and cell type ...
Bilinski, Szczepan (1983). "Differentiation of the oocyte and nurse cells in an apterygote insect (Campodea)". Tissue and Cell ... Chorion formation and the ultrastructure of follicle cells". Cell and Tissue Research. Springer. 228: 165-170. doi:10.1007/ ... Journal of Cell Science. The Company of Biologists Ltd. 3: 1-21. Hilton, W.A. (1936). "Campodea from the United States". J. ...
... and dendritic cells involved in antigen processing". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 185 (10): 1743-51. doi:10.1084/jem. ... with a preference for free heavy chains of HLA-C alleles Cluster of differentiation "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center ... an inhibitory receptor expressed on effector and memory CD8 T cells) with their HLA ligands, thus modulating immune reactions ... Clusters of differentiation, Immunoglobulin superfamily, All stub articles, Immunology stubs, Membrane protein stubs, Human ...
Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation. Vol. 25. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 41-71. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-69111-2_3. ... Cell. 176 (5): 952-965. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.043. PMID 30794780. Wood AJ, Oakey RJ (November 2006). "Genomic imprinting ... of the parents and are maintained through mitotic cell divisions in the somatic cells of an organism. Appropriate imprinting of ... In germline cells the imprint is erased and then re-established according to the sex of the individual, i.e. in the developing ...
More precisely, 15 kDa GNLY is capable of initiating differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells. The 15 kDa form is also ... Its expression is restricted to cytotoxic immune cells such as cytotoxic T cells, NK cells, NKT cells and γδ T cells. Orthologs ... such as NK cells, cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, and in higher concentrations, immature dendritic cells. The 9 kDa form ... Granulysin is expressed in killer cells, such as cytotoxic T cells and Natural Killer (NK) cells, which hold the cytotoxic ...
... cell growth and differentiation, gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome ... UPS proteolysis plays a major role in responses of cancer cells to stimulatory signals that are critical for the development of ... Goff SP (Aug 2003). "Death by deamination: a novel host restriction system for HIV-1". Cell. 114 (3): 281-3. doi:10.1016/S0092- ... Kleiger G, Mayor T (Jun 2014). "Perilous journey: a tour of the ubiquitin-proteasome system". Trends in Cell Biology. 24 (6): ...
... has contributed significantly to the development of anticancer drugs and understanding the differentiation process of cells. ... From a putative intermediate of glucose breakdown to its role in understanding that excessive ATP formation in cells may lead ... its possible role in the high glycolysis of malignant cells (1999) in European Journal of Biochemistry "Manju Ray". Indian ... Inhibition of respiration of tumor cells by methyl glyoxal and protection of inhibition by lactaldehyde (1991) in International ...
It forms homodimers and plays an important role in cell-cell signaling, immune responses and regulation of cell proliferation. ... but not a defect in Th1 differentiation as both IL-4 and IL-5 are Th2-associated cytokines. In agreement with reduced Th2 ... It is thought to be important for Th2 cells in particular. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CD28 and CTLA-4 cell ... Compared to wild-type naïve T cells, ICOS-/- T cells activated with plate-bound anti-CD3 have reduced proliferation and IL-2 ...
Cell. 21 (1): 123-33. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2005.11.010. PMID 16387659. Carey KA, Segal D, Klein R, et al. (2006). " ... "Identification of novel genes expressed during rhabdomyosarcoma differentiation using cDNA microarrays". Pathol. Int. 56 (5): ...
... and differentiation into high-affinity plasma cells and memory B cells. Adhesion between FDCs and B cells is mediated by ICAM-1 ... Unlike dendritic cells (DC), FDCs are not derived from the bone-marrow hematopoietic stem cell, but are of mesenchymal origin. ... Activated B-cells with low affinity to antigen captured on FDCs surface as well as autoreactive B-cells undergo apoptosis, ... Follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are cells of the immune system found in primary and secondary lymph follicles (lymph nodes) of ...
... is shown to regulate neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells, and neuronal ... "miR-124 and miR-137 inhibit proliferation of glioblastoma multiforme cells and induce differentiation of brain tumor stem cells ... September 2010). "miRNA 34a, 100, and 137 modulate differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells". FASEB J. 24 (9): 3255-63. ... induces cell cycle G1 arrest and inhibits invasion in colorectal cancer cells". Int J Cancer. 128 (6): 1269-79. doi:10.1002/ijc ...
Cell Death and Differentiation. 7 (1): 25-36. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4400616. PMID 10713718. Liu Ax, Du W, Liu JP, Jessell TM, ... Wennerberg K, Der CJ (March 2004). "Rho-family GTPases: it's not only Rac and Rho (and I like it)". Journal of Cell Science. ... Liu JP, Jessell TM (December 1998). "A role for rhoB in the delamination of neural crest cells from the dorsal neural tube". ... Madaule P, Axel R (May 1985). "A novel ras-related gene family". Cell. 41 (1): 31-40. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(85)90058-3. PMID ...
Bilinski, Szczepan (1983). "Differentiation of the oocyte and nurse cells in an apterygote insect (Campodea)". Tissue and Cell ... Chorion formation and the ultrastructure of follicle cells". Cell and Tissue Research. Springer. 228: 165-170. doi:10.1007/ ... Journal of Cell Science. The Company of Biologists Ltd. 3: 1-21. Hilton, W.A. (1936). "Campodea from the United States". J. ...
It is located in the cytoplasm of the cell. Nkx2-2as is involved in Neural development. Overexpression of Nkx2-2as results in ... "Nkx2.2 antisense RNA overexpression enhanced oligodendrocytic differentiation". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... increased levels of expression of the homeobox gene Nkx2-2 and enhances induction of the differentiation of oligodendrocytes. ...
Era T (2002). "Bcr-Abl is a "molecular switch" for the decision for growth and differentiation in hematopoietic stem cells". ... encodes a cytoplasmic and nuclear protein tyrosine kinase that has been implicated in processes of cell differentiation, cell ... a site for phosphorylation in leukaemia cells". Genes to Cells. 9 (9): 781-90. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2004.00772.x. PMID ... Cell. 6 (6): 1413-23. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)00138-6. PMID 11163214. Yoshida K, Komatsu K, Wang HG, Kufe D (May 2002). "c- ...
"The dynamic organization of the perinucleolar compartment in the cell nucleus". The Journal of Cell Biology. 137 (5): 965-974. ... During neuronal differentiation, miR-124 reduces PTBP1 levels, leading to the accumulation of correctly spliced PTBP2 mRNA and ... Makeyev EV, Zhang J, Carrasco MA, Maniatis T (August 2007). "The MicroRNA miR-124 promotes neuronal differentiation by ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 155 (5): 775-786. doi:10.1083/jcb.200105044. PMC 2150882. PMID 11724819. Kamath RV, Leary DJ, ...
Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical regulators of immune responses. Under noninflammatory conditions, several human DC subsets ... cell differentiation from naive CD4(+) T cells through the selective secretion of Th17 cell-polarizing cytokines. We conclude ... Human inflammatory dendritic cells induce Th17 cell differentiation Immunity. 2013 Feb 21;38(2):336-48. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni. ... Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical regulators of immune responses. Under noninflammatory conditions, several human DC subsets ...
... Our research interests are focused on the biological functions of the ... Additional work has explores changes in higher-order gene organization that result from differentiation and signal transduction ... and we established that these SWI/SNF enzymes are essential for many tissue-differentiation events. Our major efforts over the ...
... and cell adhesion. In contrast, cells treated with Casodex display loss of cell adhesion, but sustained mitochondrial ... Overexpression of Bcl-2 in LNCaP cells attenuates the induction of cell death by TNF-α but not Casodex, suggesting that ... of the cells by 48 h in a dose-dependent manner. In cells treated with TNF-α, this is accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial ... non-metastatic LNCaP human prostate cancer cells with 0-100 μ M Casodex or 0-10 ng/ml TNF-α induces cell death in 20-60% ...
Scientists study pluripotent stems cells to understand early development and how to use them in regenerative medicine, disease ... Clinton Cave Investigates How Brain Cells Communicate. The Middlebury College neuroscientist explores enzymes that affect brain ... Clinton Cave Investigates How Brain Cells Communicate. The Middlebury College neuroscientist explores enzymes that affect brain ... By removing a single gene, researchers change the developmental fate of tumor cells in mice. ...
By analyzing the differentiation capacity of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that lack multiple H1 subtypes, we find, for the first ... Triple-H1 null murine ESCs are impaired in both spontaneous differentiation and embryoid body differentiation. Furthermore, ... it provides a mechanistic link by which H1 and chromatin compaction may participate in pluripotent stem cell differentiation ... changes of histone marks and DNA methylation necessary for silencing pluripotency gene Oct4 during stem cell differentiation ...
... rate or extent of T cell differentiation. [GOC:go_curators] ... regulation of T-cell differentiation, regulation of T cell ... Distinct Roles of α7 nAChRs in Antigen-Presenting Cells and CD4+ T Cells in the Regulation of T Cell Differentiation ... regulation of T cell differentiation. Known as: regulation of T lymphocyte differentiation, ... Regulation of t cell differentiation for the treatment of helper t cell disease ...
Controlled and efficient differentiation of the stem cells into cardiomyocytes and an effective way to characterize/verify ... Our strategy is to use electrical and chemical cues to induce the high-yield differentiation of stem cells into cardiomyocytes ... Californias Stem Cell Agency California Institute for Regenerative Medicine. * For Researchers * Funding Opportunities * ... Improvements in differentiating stem cells into homogenous populations of specific cell types are much needed for ...
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... but is cell autonomously required for their proliferation and differentiation.. Germ cell specific Mtor knockout mice exhibit a ... Cell-autonomous requirement for mammalian target of rapamycin (Mtor) in spermatogonial proliferation and differentiation in the ... conditional germ cell knockout mice to investigate the germ cell-autonomous role of MTOR in spermatogonial differentiation. ... MTOR germ cell KO mice were viable and healthy, but testes from neonatal (postnatal day (P)8), juvenile (P18), and adult (P , ...
In summary, Notch is involved in cell differentiation of ductal cells in PA. Nuclear expression was shown in tumor cells in ... In summary, Notch is involved in cell differentiation of ductal cells in PA. Nuclear expression was shown in tumor cells in ... Notch plays an important role in cell-cell signaling and is involved in stem cell maintenance, differentiation and neuronal ... It was inferred that β-catenin pathway was involved in cell differentiation indicated by Wnt expressions in cells undergoing ...
Unsatisfactory clinical results have been reported in tendon repair using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) therapy, creating a ... need for a better strategy to induce MSCs to tenogenic differentiation. This study was designed to invest... ... For adipogenic differentiation, the cells were seeded at a density of 2×104 cells/cm2 and cultured in DME/F12 complete medium ... Stepwise Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Augments Tendon-Like Tissue Formation and Defect Repair In Vivo. Stem Cells ...
... differentiations in most evolved cyanobacterium. Symbiotic theory has explained the origin of eukaryotic cell as that in which ... when the proto-cells were generated successfully as the resut of chemical evolution and then evolved. Therefore, they first had ... Cellular differentiation in the process of generation of the eukaryotic cell *Nakamura, Hakobu ... differentiations in most evolved cyanobacterium. Symbiotic theory has explained the origin of eukaryotic cell as that in which ...
View and buy high purity products for Osteogenic Stem Cells from Tocris Bioscience. ... Our Stem Cells review gives an overview of the use of small molecules in the control of stem cell growth & differentiation and ... Stem Cell Research Product Guide. Our guide highlights the use of small molecules in stem cell research and cell therapy and ... Stem Cell Workflow Poster. Stem cells have potential as a source of cells and tissues for research and treatment of disease. ...
Improved approach for chondrogenic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells View in MDC Repository ... and mesodermal cell lineages. We report a new, straightforward and highly efficient approach for chondrogenic differentiation ... We differentiated hiPSCs directly into mesenchymal stem /stromal cells (MSC) and chondrocytes. hiPSC-MSC-derived chondrocytes ... Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have demonstrated great potential for hyaline cartilage regeneration. However, ...
Cell Cycle, Cell Differentiation, Cell Proliferation, Epigenesis, Genetic, Phosphorylation, Cell Lineage, Embryonic Development ... cell cycle withdrawal and differentiation into a massively diverse range of cells at the correct time and place. Stem cells ... Therefore, regulated proliferation and subsequent differentiation of stem and progenitor cells remains pivotal throughout life ... Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation and regulation of cellular differentiation.. Biochem Soc Trans, 46 (5), 1083-1091. https ...
title = "Regulatory T cells enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation",. author = "Marie Dittmer and Thomas OHagan and Georgios ... Regulatory T cells enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation. Poster session presented at Frontiers in Neurology, Dublin, Ireland ... Regulatory T cells enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation. 2017. Poster session presented at Frontiers in Neurology, Dublin, ... Regulatory T cells enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation. Marie Dittmer, Thomas OHagan, Georgios Eleftheriadis, Samara ...
Furthermore, upregulation of neuron-specific enolase by agonist treatment was abolished in OR51E2-KO cells. The results of our ... Furthermore, upregulation of neuron-specific enolase by agonist treatment was abolished in OR51E2-KO cells. The results of our ... We characterized the effects of receptor activation on metabolism using a prostate cancer cell line and demonstrated decreased ... intracellular anabolic signals and cell viability, induction of cell cycle arrest, and increased expression of neuronal markers ...
The regulation of gonadal somatic cell differentiation in humans.. Chen M, Gao F. The regulation of gonadal somatic cell ... Aided by Stem Cells, a Lizard Regenerates a Perfect Tail for the First Time in 250 Million Years ...
During differentiation, neuroendocrine cells acquire highly amplified capacities to synthesize neuropeptides to overcome ... Regulation of Secretory Protein Expression in Mature Cells by DIMM, a Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Neuroendocrine Differentiation ... Regulation of Secretory Protein Expression in Mature Cells by DIMM, a Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Neuroendocrine Differentiation ... Regulation of Secretory Protein Expression in Mature Cells by DIMM, a Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Neuroendocrine Differentiation ...
... and embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Optimal control during the differentiation process was attained in chemically-defined and ... Here, we present a scalable, universal process for the generation of DE from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) ... This process provides a useful advance for versatile applications of DE lineages, in particular for cell therapies and drug ... DE aggregates were capable of differentiating into hepatic-like, pancreatic, intestinal, and lung progenitor cells. Scale-up of ...
regulation of compound eye photoreceptor cell differentiation. 0. positive regulation of compound eye photoreceptor cell ... positive regulation of photoreceptor cell differentiation. 2. positive regulation of compound eye photoreceptor cell ... positive regulation of compound eye photoreceptor cell differentiation. go back to main search page ... Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of compound eye photoreceptor cell differentiation. ...
Flow Cytometric Analysis, single and Multi-analyte Assay of Cell Supernatants. ... Protocol for the Differentiation and Characterization of Human Th1 Cells. ... In vitro differentiation of Th1 cells from the larger CD4+ T cell population provides increased numbers of Th1 cells to ... Products for the Differentiation of Th1 Cells. CellXVivo Human Th1 Cell Differentiation Kit. Recombinant IFN-gamma. Recombinant ...
... or goblet cells. MEG3 induced basal cell genes and suppressed genes associated with terminal differentiation of airway cells, ... including basal cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing of pulmonary epithelial cells isolated from IPF lung tissue demonstrated ... exons in IPF cells expressing MEG3. RNA , 100 TPM and in 2 random control cells. All MEG3. RNA splicing exon variants were ... MEG3 is increased in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and regulates epithelial cell differentiation. ...
jouvence, a new human H/ACA snoRNA involves in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Flaria El-Khoury, Jérôme ... jouvence, a new human H/ACA snoRNA involves in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation ... jouvence, a new human H/ACA snoRNA involves in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation ... jouvence, a new human H/ACA snoRNA involves in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation ...
Discover Miltenyi Biotecs solutions for feeder-free culture of pluripotent stem cells that allow for an efficient ... Pure lineage-specific cells with MACS MicroBeads. Differentiation of PSCs into pure cell populations of interest can be greatly ... Differentiation of PSCs into hepatocyte-like cells by selection of CXCR4 (CD184)+ definitive endoderm (DE) cells ... Efficient and reproducible cell culture results are key for the successful differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells ( ...
Seminars and Events at the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) and Vienna Biocenter (VBC).
... have revealed in a study published in Cell Reports that the circadian clock plays a guiding role in plant cell differentiation. ... how plant circadian clocks regulate cell differentiation has remained unclear. The researchers isolated individual cells in ... Research Reveals Circadian Clocks Guiding Role in Plant Cell Differentiation. *Australian Scientists Identify Natural Plant ... Research Reveals Circadian Clocks Guiding Role in Plant Cell Differentiation. August 17, 2022 ...
... repressive histone modification signature unique to myelo/erythroid lineage involved in hematopoietic differentiation. ... Hematopoietic differentiation-the creation of multiple blood cell types from one stem cell line-is complex and still poorly ... Unique repressive chromatin state to myelo-erythroid lineage is linked to regulation of blood cell differentiation ... It is generally understood that epigenetics plays a role in hematopoietic differentiation, resulting in mature blood cells- ...
In this study, we aimed to further study the function of Rbp9 in germ cell differentiation. Firstly, we confirmed rbp9 mutant ... The function of rbp9 in germ cell differentiation is required for both adult stage and before adult stage. Though Rbp9 is ... In all, this study will help better understand function of rbp9 in germ cell differentiation in Drosophila ovary, and may also ... The function of RNA Binding Protein 9 in germ cell differentiation in Drosophila ovary. ...
  • Written by Kirsty E. Clarke, Victoria B. Christie, Andy Whiting and Stefan A. Przyborski, this review provides an overview of the use of small molecules in the control of stem cell growth and differentiation. (
  • The multifunctional polymer coating adhered strongly to our soft substrates and enabled cell adhesion, growth and differentiation. (
  • The signaling pathways controlling cell growth and differentiation are almost invariably altered in cancer. (
  • Many factors that promote growth and differentiation are also anti-apoptotic (Figure 6). (
  • In the present study, we considered that Notch might also be involved in cell proliferation and differentiation in the same manner that Okuda et al. (
  • We discuss examples from the three embryonic germ layers to illustrate this regulatory mechanism that co-ordinates the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation. (
  • This leads skin cells to renew their cell cycle of proliferation and differentiation. (
  • Therefore, regulated proliferation and subsequent differentiation of stem and progenitor cells remains pivotal throughout life. (
  • MEG3 induced basal cell genes and suppressed genes associated with terminal differentiation of airway cells, supporting a role for MEG3 in regulation of basal progenitor cell functions, which may contribute to tissue remodeling in IPF. (
  • Our study presents the first reference epigenome profiles of primary CD34+ compartment of normal human cord blood, including the Human Stem Cell-containing CD38- subset and phenotypically distinguished subsets of the CD38+ cells," says Dr. Alireza Lorzadeh, first author of the study and former PhD student in the Hirst lab, referring to progenitor or parent cells isolated from cord blood. (
  • Four of the progenitor cells shared a nearly identical epigenetic modification to histone H3 referred to as an H3K27me3 signature. (
  • In this study, the H3K27me3 signature seen in large areas of repressed chromatin in the progenitor populations was present in B and T cells but absent from monocytes and erythroblasts. (
  • The team proposes a model based on these findings in which a genome-wide contraction of H3K27me3 signature is a critical step in the process by which human hematopoietic progenitor cells lose the ability to become lymphoid cells. (
  • One of the main findings of this study is the striking contraction of H3K27me3 density, resembling that of embryonic stem cells, which has a predicted functional role in myelo-erythroid vs lymphoid lineage decision making in hematopoietic progenitor cells. (
  • The E14 mouse embryonic stem cells were used to form embryoid bodies through the hanging drop method, and then induced to differentiate into neural progenitor cells by retinoic acid, and finally differentiated into neurons. (
  • Flow cytometry experiments on an E14 line expressing a Sox1 promoter-driven GFP reporter showed that about 60% of cells at day 8 are GFP positive, indicating the successful differentiation of neural progenitor cells at this stage. (
  • The 9 members of this family that exist in mammalian cells evolved from a common yeast progenitor known as RSP5. (
  • Cardiovascular progenitor cells hold tremendous therapeutic potential due to their unique ability to expand and differentiate into various heart cell types. (
  • Our laboratory seeks to understand the fundamental biology and regenerative potential of multi-potent cardiac progenitor cells - building blocks used to form the heart during fetal development - by deciphering the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control their induction, maintenance, and differentiation. (
  • We are also interested in elucidating the maturation event of heart muscle cells, an essential process to generate adult cardiomyocytes, which occurs after terminal differentiation of the progenitor cells. (
  • Unsatisfactory clinical results have been reported in tendon repair using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) therapy, creating a need for a better strategy to induce MSCs to tenogenic differentiation. (
  • Osteogenic stem cells are derived from mesenchymal stem cells, and can differentiate into osteoblasts and chondroblasts. (
  • We differentiated hiPSCs directly into mesenchymal stem /stromal cells (MSC) and chondrocytes. (
  • This study characterized the morphology, migration and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on smooth (Ti6Al4V and PEEK), specifically engineered macro-micro rough (MM) and macro-micro-nano rough (MMN) topographies. (
  • Rapid colonization of a surface by mesenchymal stem cells coupled with stimulation of bone differentiation both minimizes the opportunity for biofilm formation while increasing the rate of device integration with the surrounding bone tissue. (
  • Rousta N, Naeimi S, Zare S, Dara M, Razeghian-Jahromi I. The Effect of Human Cardiac Myocyte-Derived Conditioned Medium on Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. (
  • Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) possess specific properties that make them good candidates for cell therapy, especially in organs like the heart with limited regeneration capacity. (
  • They were characterized based on morphology, adipogenic and cardiogenic differentiation potential, and expression of mesenchymal markers. (
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and most cancers stem cells (CSCs) play a vital function in metastasis of papillary thyroid most cancers (PTC). (
  • Additional mesenchymal marker vimentin is linked with metastasis and most cancers stem cell technology. (
  • Osteogenic differentiation of human dental papilla mesenchymal cells. (
  • Key signaling pathways are highlighted, and the regulation of ES cell self-renewal and somatic cell reprogramming is discussed. (
  • Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation and regulation of cellular differentiation. (
  • Embryogenesis requires an exquisite regulation of cell proliferation, cell cycle withdrawal and differentiation into a massively diverse range of cells at the correct time and place. (
  • The regulation of gonadal somatic cell differentiation in humans. (
  • BMP signaling and Bam regulation is not affected in rbp9 mutant, but early differentiation cysts expressing Nanos, Sxl and Bam are accumulated in rbp9 mutant. (
  • The regulation of stem cell differentiation plays a vital role in maintaining the normal process of blood formation," explained Timm Schroeder, Professor at the ETH Zurich Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering. (
  • Interestingly, numerous genes implicated in metabolic diseases and epigenetic regulation showed differential methylation and expression during differentiation only in obese subjects. (
  • Interestingly, professional inflammatory cells contribute to sebocyte differentiation and homeostasis, whereas the regulation of sebaceous gland function by immune cells is antigen-independent. (
  • The Protein kinase C (PKC) -associated sign pathway performs essential roles in regulation of cell development, differentiation and apoptosis. (
  • The current research focuses on typical PKC (cPKC) expression and its regulation in major cultures of bone marrow cells induced to endure macrophage/granulocyte differentiation by macrophage colony-stimulating issue (M-CSF) or granular colony-stimulating issue (G-CSF). (
  • Predicted to act upstream of or within positive regulation of neurogenesis and positive regulation of neuron differentiation. (
  • 3) Regulation of stromal (stem) cell differentiation into bone cells and fat cells. (
  • MicroRNAs not only participate in determining DCs phenotype and then naive T lymphocyte differentiation, but also participate in the regulation of airway inflammation and airway remodeling in asthma. (
  • Moreover, human inflammatory DCs, but not inflammatory macrophages, stimulated autologous memory CD4(+) T cells to produce interleukin-17 and induce T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation from naive CD4(+) T cells through the selective secretion of Th17 cell-polarizing cytokines. (
  • Our strategy is to use electrical and chemical cues to induce the high-yield differentiation of stem cells into cardiomyocytes and to monitor this process over time both electrically and optically. (
  • Conclusions: These findings suggested that hypoxia may be a practical and reliable strategy to induce tenogenic differentiation of BMSCs for tendon repair and could enhance the effectiveness of MSCs therapy in treating tendon injury. (
  • These GPCRs, which are normally expressed in fully differentiated, post-mitotic neuronal cells, are able to induce cellular oncogenic transformation when introduced to an ectopic environment of proliferating cells and activated by agonist ( 5 ). (
  • However, long-term cultivation and repeated passaging may induce a loss of DNA integrity or cell functionality. (
  • Objective: In this study, we investigated the potential of a human cardiomyocytesconditioned medium to induce cardiogenic differentiation (indicated by GATA4 expression) of rat bone marrow MSCs. (
  • Retinoic acids are known to inhibit EBV replication in vitro and induce epithelial cell differentiation. (
  • Peripheral pulmonary epithelial cells lose normal alveolar epithelial gene expression patterns and variably express genes associated with diverse conducting airway epithelial cells, including basal cells. (
  • MEG3 reduced expression of TP73, SOX2, and Notch-associated RNAs HES1 and HEY1, in primary human bronchial epithelial cells, demonstrating a role for MEG3 in the inhibition of genes influencing basal cell differentiation into club, ciliated, or goblet cells. (
  • The researchers isolated individual cells in tiny glass tubes and analyzed the expression of various genes related to circadian rhythms and cell differentiation in each cell. (
  • According to Motomu Endo, senior author of the study, this powerful approach helped them demonstrate that the expression profile of clock genes is changed before cell differentiation. (
  • This happens specifically in early differentiating cells, as the induction of the clock gene LUX ARRYTHMO directly targets genes involved in cell-cycle progression to regulate cell differentiation. (
  • These methods are useful for analyzing the involvement of specific genes and pathways in regulating the cell identity transition during neuronal differentiation. (
  • The single cell RNA-seq analysis using the in vitro culture system demonstrated the step-wise activation of B-lineage associated genes, whereas the genes involved in the multipotency were gradually repressed. (
  • Two subsets of GBM cells in distinct differentiation states were characterized, and 498 GBM cell differentiation-related genes (GDRGs) were identified. (
  • Thus, instead of "selector genes," "selector cassettes" are the functional units controlling cell fate. (
  • Based on phenotypic characterization, expression analysis and ChIP-seq of Hox genes during in vitro MN differentiation, we plan to identify the enhancer structure at Hox binding sites and to establish the minimal set of cofactors and molecular logic required for Hox gene activity in MNs. (
  • Genes involucrados en la amelogénesis imperfecta. (
  • involucrados en la AI no sindrómica, las proteínas codificas por estos genes y sus funciones, de acuerdo amelogénesis a la evidencia científica actual. (
  • Las futuras investigaciones abordadas desde la visión translacional ayudarán estética dental, a identificar nuevas mutaciones o nuevos genes, lo cual contribuirá a la evolución en la manera de clasificar, genes. (
  • In early blood cells, called hematopoietic stem cells, the methylation patterns established by DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha promote maturation (differentiation) into different blood cell types. (
  • Solutions should overcome significant technological barriers of human retina organoid development (e.g. speed up organoid differentiation/maturation, improve yield, or increase reproducibility). (
  • In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms of chronic stress-triggered mental disease, the effect of corticosterone (CORT) on the biology of AChRs was studied in the neuronal cell line CNh. (
  • We use systems biology approaches to define changes in ubiquitylation as activation states change, and to identify ubiquitin ligases that regulate immune cell fate. (
  • We combine this information with genetic, cellular and biochemical approaches to define how ubiquitin enzymes regulate immune cell biology. (
  • Our recent work has employed systems biology approaches in which we intrgrated transcriptome, proteome and ubiquitome information to identify Cullin E3 ubiquitin ligases that are particularly active as T cells transition from resting to activated states. (
  • My research interests include T cell biology and immunology. (
  • A 3-D human retina organoid system that mimics the physiological and morphological features of the in vivo biology, consists of the major retina cell types (rod and cone photoreceptors, horizontal, bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells and Muller glia) with appropriate lamination and synaptic organization, and represents their biological functions and interplay. (
  • 14 Departments of Dermatology and Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States. (
  • The work of The Institute ranges from basic laboratory research in molecular cell biology and radiation physics through to clinical trials involving cancer patients, to healthcare research and to epid. (
  • Address correspondence and reprint requests to Departments of Cell Biology and Medicine, Diabetes Research and Training Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave., Bronx, NY 10461. (
  • MSc in Cell Biology, Physiology and Pathology. (
  • CD4 + T cell subsets exert diverse functions due to their expression of characteristic cytokines. (
  • Following cell differentiation, flow cytometry can be used to verify the expression of established cell surface or intracellular markers of CD4 + T cell subsets. (
  • MEG3 RNA was highly expressed in subsets of the atypical IPF epithelial cells and correlated with conducting airway epithelial gene expression patterns. (
  • Significant progress has been made during the past years in our understanding of the mechanisms that control the differentiation of naïve CD4(+) T cells into effector T-cell subsets with distinct functional properties. (
  • Lower frequencies of naïve CD8 + T cells and terminally differentiated CD57+ CD8 + T cell subsets at baseline (pre-OIT) were highly associated with SU. (
  • Ordering such comprehensive tumor-constituting cells into trajectories helps us understand tumor cell subsets based on differentiation states and unveils the genetic cascades and related tumorigenic pathways accompanying cell fate specification [ 13 ]. (
  • Circulating Helper T-Cell Subsets and Regulatory T Cells in Patients With Common Variable Immunodeficiency Without Known Monogenic Disease. (
  • Active cell death, or apoptosis, plays a central role in maintaining tissue homeostasis and proper disposal of damaged or excess cells, including the epithelial cells of the prostate after castration or administration of antiandrogens. (
  • 1 Casodex, an antiandrogen used in prostate cancer therapy, is designed to reduce tumor size by interfering with normal androgen receptor (AR)-mediated processes that ensure prostate cell survival and by triggering tumor cells to undergo apoptosis. (
  • More than 15 years ago, cholesterol decrement was first shown to inhibit tumor cell growth, metastasis of tumor cells, and induction of apoptosis (7). (
  • These include the capacities to proliferate independently of exogenous growth-promoting or growth-inhibitory signals, to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites, to elicit an angiogenic response, and to evade mechanisms that limit cell proliferation, such as apoptosis and replicative senescence. (
  • Details] Repetitive exposure to a 60-Hz time-varying magnetic field induces DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis in human cells [med. (
  • Methods: Adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AMSCs) and bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) were isolated and characterized by the expression of MSC-specific markers and tri-lineage differentiation. (
  • Further, bone marrow-derived DC from NF-κB1 -/- mice failed to promote OVA-specific Th2 cell differentiation in in vitro cocultare studies. (
  • Researchers at ETH Zurich used a cutting edge microscopy technique to investigate how stem cells in the bone marrow produce blood cells. (
  • Stem cells in bone marrow have to make millions of new blood cells every second, because blood cell types have very short lifespans. (
  • With manipulation of cellular distancing and upon activation of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), stem cells differentiate into two regions: non-neural brachyury (BRA) and neural sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) positive cells. (
  • Differentiation-Associated Expression of Conventional Protein Kinase C Isoforms in Primary Cultures of Bone Marrow Cells Induced by M-CSF and G-CSF. (
  • Little is currently known about the program of differentiation initiated by RA, and the pathways and proteins involved are poorly defined. (
  • A number of receptors and signaling pathways can influence the ability of dendritic cells (DC) to promote CD4 + Th type 1 (Th1) responses. (
  • In contrast, the regulatory pathways and signaling events that govern the ability of DC to instruct Th2 cell differentiation remain poorly defined. (
  • To further investigate the underlying mechanism, we studied some cell signal pathways. (
  • We found that, compared to wild-type cells, Bmal12/2 mESCs express higher levels of Nanog protein and altered expression of pluripotencyassociated signalling pathways. (
  • Chronic nicotine treatment affected the differentiation of CNh cells and exerted a synergistic effect with CORT, suggesting that AChR could participate in signaling pathways that control the cell cycle. (
  • These properties reflect alterations in the cellular signaling pathways that in normal cells control cell proliferation, motility, and survival. (
  • Among the key pathways are those controlling cell proliferation , which coordinate a response to the cellular environment, with the mTOR kinase as a critical node. (
  • Cell behaviour is controlled by a concentration gradient of BMP4 for controlling cellular response. (
  • There is increasing evidence that, in addition to their presence, the propensity of circulating tumour cells to form multi-cellular clusters bears significant information about both cellular resistance to chemotherapy and overall prognosis. (
  • However, the subtype identity is rarely controlled during ESC directed differentiation or cellular programming. (
  • Cellular pharmacokinetics of antibiotics : study of the mechanisms of penetration, accumulation, distribution, and efflux of antibiotics in eucaryotic cells, including the study of their transport by eucaryotic efflux pumps. (
  • Specifically, they found that ABCA1 exports cellular phospholipids and cholesterol outside the cell for generating high-density lipoproteins, popularly called good cholesterol. (
  • The need for the development of improved methods for molecular and cellular imaging and for cell tracking was identified at several NIH-sponsored workshops and meetings. (
  • One protein in particular, called ABCA1, was likely crucial for vertebrate evolution by helping regulate when signals involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration enter a cell. (
  • Controlled and efficient differentiation of the stem cells into cardiomyocytes and an effective way to characterize/verify these cells is critical. (
  • We describe the step-by-step procedure for culturing and differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells into neuronal lineages, followed by a series of assays to characterize the differentiated cells. (
  • Single-cell transcriptomics analysis has recently emerged as a powerful method to provide opportunities to characterize cell states and their transitions by simultaneously investigating the comprehensive nature of the genomes of an entire tumor sample at microscopic resolution [ 12 ]. (
  • Using the dual-enhanced Raman scattering from both EM from the homogeneous plasmonic Au nanoarray and CM from the graphene surface, this advanced graphene-Au hybrid SERS nanoarray was successfully utilized to detect as well as quantify a specific biomarker (TuJ1) gene expression levels to characterize neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs). (
  • Further experiments have been carried out to characterize the behavior of cells grown on our innovative culture substrates. (
  • Our Stem Cells review gives an overview of the use of small molecules in the control of stem cell growth & differentiation and somatic cell reprogramming. (
  • However, the characterization of the germ cells produced in a dish was an urgent issue. (
  • Current protocols based on human stem cells are inefficient and/or take several weeks and are thus inappropriate for large-scale phenotypic characterization and drug screens. (
  • Characterization of retinal cell types, retina organoid structure, and retina organoid function are expected. (
  • T helper type 1 (Th1) cells constitute one subset of CD4 + effector T cells that promote cell-mediated immune responses against intracellular viral and bacterial pathogens. (
  • More recently, the emphasis of research in this field has been to elucidate how the multiplicity of signals is integrated to shape a T helper subset-specific gene-expression program controlling differentiation and effector functions. (
  • Additionally, we have determined that these adaptors regulate T cell activation, CD4 differentiation and effector function, and Treg cell metabolism and lineage stability. (
  • They then developed a new algorithm called PeakMatch to reconstruct actual-time gene expression patterns from the single-cell datasets. (
  • In this study, we focused on the gene expression profiles at the single cell level during B cell differentiation using this system. (
  • To understand cell differentiation and to gain control of cell fate during direct programming, it is necessary to rationalize how selector factors recognize their genomic targets and control gene expression. (
  • Details] Phosphorylation and gene expression of p53 are not affected in human cells exposed to 2.1425 GHz band CW or W-CDMA modulated radiation allocated to mobile radio base stations [med. (
  • Our goal is to therefore develop a self-contained system to grow and controllably differentiate the human embryonic stem cells into cardiomyocytes in high-yields. (
  • Differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells into cardiomyocytes. (
  • We characterized the effects of receptor activation on metabolism using a prostate cancer cell line and demonstrated decreased intracellular anabolic signals and cell viability, induction of cell cycle arrest, and increased expression of neuronal markers. (
  • My current research interest is T cell metabolism. (
  • This study was designed to investigate the role of hypoxia in the tenogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro and in vivo and to compare the tenogenic differentiation capacities of different MSCs under hypoxia condition in vitro. (
  • Many findings have shown that transforming growth factor-β1 (Tgf-β1) can promote tenogenic differentiation of MSCs and thus improve tendon repair. (
  • Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that possible cardiac myocyte-derived factors instigate the proliferation and cardiogenic differentiation of MSCs. (
  • Additional work has explores changes in higher-order gene organization that result from differentiation and signal transduction mechanisms that modify the activities of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes via post-translational modifications of the individual enzyme subunits. (
  • These findings provide insights into the mechanisms controlling the maintenance of differentiated cell states, and they suggest an effective means for dynamically adjusting the strength of hormonal signals in diverse homeostatic systems. (
  • Although many transcription factors were shown to control the B cell fate determination, the exact mechanisms remain largely unknown. (
  • Scientists have shed further light into the mechanisms through which the potato blight pathogen interacts with plant cells to promote disease. (
  • Our focus is on defining new mechanisms that regulate immune cell activation and protective immune responses. (
  • Innovative experimental techniques using stem cell and sebocyte models have clarified the roles of distinct stem cells in sebaceous gland physiology and sebocyte function control mechanisms. (
  • We have developed several novel approaches to deconstruct the mechanisms, including the use of animal models and pluripotent stem cell systems. (
  • Current experiments are aimed at defining additional Frizzled-regulated processes and elucidating the molecular mechanisms and cell biologic results of Frizzled signaling within these various contexts. (
  • Polycomb proteins-responsible for methylation of H3K27-are thought to play an important role in hematopoietic differentiation based on studies showing overexpression and inactivation of polycomb proteins in blood cancers. (
  • We used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Kit (Illumina) and HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip (Illumina) to analyze genome-wide DNA methylation and transcription before versus after differentiation of primary human myoblasts from 14 non-obese and 14 obese individuals. (
  • We observed genome-wide changes in DNA methylation and expression patterns during differentiation of primary human muscle stem cells (myoblasts). (
  • Remarkably, approximately 3.7 times more methylation changes (147,161 versus 39,572) were observed during differentiation of myoblasts from obese versus non-obese subjects. (
  • During the differentiation of germ cells, which are the origins of sperm and eggs, DNA methylation, which is an important mark for modulating gene function, changes dynamically. (
  • In this study, the group of Distinguished Professor Hiroyuki Sasaki (also Vice President of Kyushu University) and a graduate student Kenjiro Shirane revealed that the produced cells recapitulate the DNA methylation change that occurs at the outset of germ cell differentiation. (
  • Uncovering the mechanism of the DNA methylation change in germ cells and the identification of its regulator are the important outcomes of the study. (
  • We investigated for the first time the changes in the genome-wide DNA methylation profile and the differentiation behavior of GSCs induced by short-term and long-term VPA treatments. (
  • The VPA effects were variable among these cell lines in terms of pro-differentiating ability and DNA methylation switch. (
  • As in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (described above), the mutations disrupt the normal pattern of methylation in cells, which blocks differentiation. (
  • CD3, also known as T3, is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that plays a role in antigen recognition, signal transduction, and T cell activation. (
  • Our study identifies IL-32 as a novel myogenic regulator, provides a comprehensive map of the dynamic epigenome during differentiation of human muscle stem cells and reveals abnormal epigenetic changes in obesity. (
  • Therefore, we hypothesized that obesity-dependent epigenetic modifications are established in human satellite cells and potentially affect myogenesis in obese individuals. (
  • In this review we will highlight advances that have been made in unravelling the genetic and epigenetic networks controlling differentiation of naïve CD4(+) T cells into interferon-gamma(IFN-gamma)-secreting T helper type 1 (Th1) cells. (
  • Differentiation-inducing and epigenetic therapies are the most promising approaches to affect the multiple properties of GSCs and, finally, defeat GBM. (
  • However, current approaches for chondrogenic differentiation of hiPSCs are complicated and inefficient primarily due to intermediate embryoid body formation, which is required to generate endodermal, ectodermal, and mesodermal cell lineages. (
  • We report a new, straightforward and highly efficient approach for chondrogenic differentiation of hiPSCs, which avoids embryoid body formation. (
  • Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are capable of osteogenic, dentinogenic, chondrogenic, and neurogenic differentiation. (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical regulators of immune responses. (
  • Differential expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) by conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DC (pDCs) has been suggested to influence the type of immune response induced by microbial pathogens. (
  • Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a key position within the initiation and amplification of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-associated vascular damage. (
  • Human embryonic stem cells differentiate and organize themselves on a chip. (
  • Embryonic stem cells can overcome this challenge as they proliferate continuously in vitro and can be furthermore stimulated to differentiate. (
  • Spermatogonial stem cells must balance self-renewal with production of transit-amplifying progenitors that differentiate in response to retinoic acid (RA) before entering meiosis. (
  • When differentiating your pluripotent stem cells, you want to be sure that your cells are highly pluripotent and can readily differentiate into any downstream lineage. (
  • Moreover, sixteen-cell cysts are failed to further differentiate in rb9 mutant. (
  • How exactly stem cells are able to differentiate is not well understood, and is a complex process with many players. (
  • [ 16 ] These differentiate into Th17 cells that enable the production of IL-17. (
  • The exact objective of this study was to design a system wherein cells differentiate into BRA positive cells within a certain distance from the BMP4 edge that activates the protein and cells greater than the decay length differentiate into SOX2 positive cells. (
  • Neural precursor cells differentiate into several cell types that display distinct functions. (
  • Therefore, our long term goal is to understand how extracellular signals and transcription factors control cell fate and apply that knowledge to differentiate ESC into disease relevant neuronal cell types. (
  • These proteins are thought to have a critical role in the mechanism of blood cell differentiation. (
  • An evaluation of the migration revealed hMSC velocity was highest on MMN surfaces coupled with low directionality indicating rapid random migration, Figure 2.A.&B. Finally, differentiation outcomes correlated well with morphology results showing significantly higher expression of early osteoblast marker, ALP, at 3 days and maturing osteoblast marker, OSX, at 10 days on MMN surfaces as compared to all other surfaces, Figure 2.C.&D. (
  • These outcomes demonstrate the combined macro-micro-nano topography of the MMN surface results in rapid random migration necessary to colonize a surface, the evolution of a stellate morphology typical of mature osteoblasts/osteocytes, and a rapid progression through the early and mid-osteogenic differentiation markers, ALP and OSX respectively. (
  • Here, by precisely measuring membrane tension and bending modulus, we map their variations and correlate them with changes in neural precursor cell morphology along their distinct differentiation fates. (
  • Tissue-on-a-chip systems that use cells grown in 2-D co-culture and do not fully represent the structure, morphology, and function of the human retina are also not of interest. (
  • Solutions will be evaluated for establishment of a human PSC-derived in vitro retina model system that resembles the morphology of a healthy-native retina and is viable through formation of photoreceptor outer segments and/or long-term survival of retinal ganglion cells with extension of axonal processes. (
  • Effect of 10.5 GHz CW radiofrequency radiation exposure on normal and prostate cancer cell morphology [med. (
  • Written by Rebecca Quelch and Stefan Przyborski from Durham University (UK), this poster describes the isolation of pluripotent stem cells, their maintenance in culture, differentiation, and the generation and potential uses of organoids. (
  • Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have demonstrated great potential for hyaline cartilage regeneration. (
  • Efficient and reproducible cell culture results are vital for successful differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) providing the need for reliable and robust solutions to not only support your cell lines but increase overall viability. (
  • Efficient and reproducible cell culture results are key for the successful differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in disease modelling, drug screening, or cell therapy research. (
  • In 2011, the group of Professor Mitinori Saitou and Associate Professor Katsuhiko Hayashi (now a Professor in Kyushu University) in Kyoto University developed a method to derive germ cells from mouse pluripotent stem cells in a culture dish. (
  • To investigate and engineer an intracellular differentiation circuit for pluripotent stem cells based on its spatial and temporal location. (
  • Here, we focus on a direct mechanistic link involving phosphorylation of differentiation-associated transcription factors by cell cycle-associated Cyclin-dependent kinases. (
  • Intracellular markers include transcription factors that control CD4 + T cell differentiation as well as signature cytokines as they traffic through secretory organelles. (
  • To fulfill those expectations, ESCs have to be directed at high efficiency to disease relevant cell types, either by the application of extracellular signals or direct programming by forced expression of transcription factors. (
  • Recent advances in cell programming demonstrated that terminal cell fate can be established by a handful of selector transcription factors. (
  • Preliminary data suggests that programming transcription factors synergize to activate cell-specific transcriptional programs. (
  • During in vivo and in vitro differentiation, members of the Hox family of transcription factors impose subtype identity and control motor neuron (MN) connectivity. (
  • Tocris offers the following scientific literature for Osteogenic Stem Cells to showcase our products. (
  • How the cell shape regulates their cell behavior is still unknown. (
  • Functional studies demonstrated IL-32 as a novel target that regulates human myogenesis, insulin sensitivity and ATP levels in muscle cells. (
  • Overall, we reveal that Bmal1 regulates pluripotent cell differentiation and propose that the molecular clock is an hitherto unrecognized regulator of mammalian development. (
  • De novo synthesis and salvage pathway coordinately regulates polyamine homeostasis and determines T cell proliferation and function. (
  • Mature T helper (Th) cells express the surface protein CD4 and are referred to as CD4 + T cells, while RAR-related orphan receptor C (RORC) is a nuclear receptor. (
  • We recently found that RA stimulation of the Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase signaling pathway is required for differentiation, and that short-term inhibition of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) by rapamycin blocked spermatogonial differentiation in vivo and prevented RA-induced translational activation. (
  • In an in vivo adoptive transfer model in which NF-κB-sufficient OVA-specific DO11.10 TCR transgenic T cells were injected into OVA-immunized WT or NF-κB1 -/- hosts, NF-κB1 -/- APCs efficiently promoted CD4 + T cell proliferation and IFN-γ responses, but failed to promote Ag-specific IL-4 production. (
  • IgE-induced mast cell degranulation in vivo is often followed by a late-phase reaction (LPR), a second wave of hypersensitivity responses occurring many hours after the acute reaction and dependent upon eosinophils. (
  • With support from the Gebert Rüf Stiftung, we could identify and design innovative and potent multifunctional polymers that are cost-effective and can be used as stable coating agent for our in vivo-like cell culture substrates. (
  • The second goal is to develop new methods for cell tracking to monitor the movement and location of specific cell populations in vivo for application in cell-based therapeutics. (
  • Since the time of his PhD work, his research has focused on how mRNAs are translated into proteins and how this process is regulated during cell division and differentiation. (
  • Immune cells must continually respond to external stimuli, and adjust their levels of key regulatory proteins, to transition between poised and active states. (
  • To accomplish this, immune cells can increase protein production, modify existing proteins, or change their rate of protein degradation. (
  • When coated with proteins, cells adhere to and grow on our soft surfaces. (
  • Almost four decades of research have led scientists at Japan's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) to propose that a family of transporter proteins has played an important role in species evolution. (
  • There are different types of ABC proteins with different transportation roles, importing nutrients into cells, exporting toxic compounds outside them, and regulating lipid concentrations within cell membranes. (
  • The ABC proteins also played important roles in generating an outer membrane that protected cells from external stresses and in removing harmful substances from inside. (
  • We conclude that inflammatory DCs represent a distinct human DC subset and propose that they are derived from monocytes and are involved in the induction and maintenance of Th17 cell responses. (
  • Treatment of androgen sensitive, non-metastatic LNCaP human prostate cancer cells with 0-100 μ M Casodex or 0-10 ng/ml TNF- α induces cell death in 20-60% of the cells by 48 h in a dose-dependent manner. (
  • This self-renewal vs. differentiation fate decision is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis, as imbalances cause defects that can lead to human testicular cancer or infertility. (
  • Th1 polarized cells are present in low abundance in normal human peripheral blood. (
  • The CellXVivo™ Human Th1 Cell Differentiation Kit (Catalog # CDK001 ) contains R&D Systems high quality cytokines needed for the differentiation of Th1 cells. (
  • Add 50 µL of Human Th1 Reagent 1 and 50 µL of Human Th1 Reagent 2 to 9.9 mL of cell culture media (RPMI, 2 mM L-glutamine, 50 units/mL penicillin, 50 µg/mL streptomycin, 5% FBS, and 50 µM 2-mercaptoethanol). (
  • Isolate human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human blood using Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation. (
  • Isolate human naïve CD4 + T cells from human PBMCs using the MagCellect Human Naïve CD4 + T Cell Isolation Kit (Catalog # MAGH115 ) or a Human CD4 + T Cell Enrichment Column (Catalog # HCD43 or Catalog # HCD4C-1000 ). (
  • Suspend human naïve CD4 + T cells at 1-2 x 10 5 cells/mL in Human Th1 Differentation Media. (
  • Add the cells to an anti-human CD3 antibody-coated plate. (
  • Expression of MEG3 in human pulmonary epithelial cell lines increased basal cell-associated RNAs, including TP63, KRT14, STAT3, and YAP1, and enhanced cell migration, consistent with a role for MEG3 in regulating basal cell identity. (
  • A study from the Hirst Lab generated reference epigenomes for eight different cell types isolated from human cord blood. (
  • The authors thank the production and technical staff at Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre for generating human cord blood T cell reference epigenomes and their technical expertise in sequence generation and analysis. (
  • For culture models of primary cells of the human nasal mucosa, monocultures with epithelial cells (ECs) are used as well as cocultures with ECs and fibroblasts (FBs). (
  • There are trillions of cells in the human body, with highly varied functions and characteristics. (
  • Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. (
  • However, it is possible that novel myogenic factors that regulate differentiation of human myoblasts into myotubes, and consequently muscle cell function, can be discovered. (
  • The data obtained in this study would be a useful resource for future studies of human germ cell differentiation and would contribute to the elucidation of the cause of infertility and the development of a new therapeutic strategy for the disease. (
  • We hope that this system will facilitate the study of germ cell differentiation and infertility in human. (
  • In vitro differentiation of human ESC has the potential to serve as a "humanized" platform to study complex neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • These cells would become an in vitro human model to investigate intrinsic resistance to ALS. (
  • Correlation between CYP1A1 RNA transcript, protein level, enzyme activity, and DNA adducts in primary normal human mammary epithelial cells exposed to benzo[a]pyrene. (
  • Primary normal human mammary epithelial cell (NHMEC) strains from 16 healthy women and MCF-7 breast cancer cells were used for comparison. (
  • 5. In 2001, France and Germany requested the United Nations General Assembly to develop international conventions on human reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and research on stem cells. (
  • Selective expansion of myeloid and NK cells in humanized mice yields human-like vaccine responses. (
  • Origin and differentiation of human memory CD8 T cells after vaccination. (
  • Retina organoids that are generated entirely from human cells (e.g. derived from iPSCs, hESCs, multipotent cells, or adult cells subjected to a combination of transdifferentiation and/or reprogramming methods). (
  • 2011) Purinergic P2Y2 receptors mediate rapid Ca2+ mobilization, membrane hyperpolarization and nitric oxide production in human vascular endothelial cells. (
  • In studies on human malignant cell lines, 1,25(OH)2D has been shown to decrease cell proliferation and increase cell differentiation (1). (
  • The neuroendocrine cells from which neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) derive are located in numerous places in the human body ( 8 ). (
  • Details] Study of p53 expression and post-transcriptional modifications after GSM-900 radiofrequency exposure of human amniotic cells [med. (
  • Details] Effects of exposure to a 1950 MHz radio frequency field on expression of Hsp70 and Hsp27 in human glioma cells [med. (
  • Furthermore, upregulation of neuron-specific enolase by agonist treatment was abolished in OR51E2-KO cells. (
  • Tumor-derived NE-like cells are localized in tumor foci and are non-proliferating, terminally differentiated cells rich in serotonin and positive for NE markers, including neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and chromogranin A (CGA) ( 24 ). (
  • Recent advances have characterised the cell cycle dynamics, epigenetics, transcriptome and proteome accompanying the transition from proliferation to differentiation, revealing multiple bidirectional interactions between the cell cycle machinery and factors driving differentiation. (
  • Overexpression of α7-AChR-GFP abolished the CORT effects on the cell cycle and the specific α7-AChR inhibitor, methyllycaconitine, mimicked the proliferative action exerted by CORT. (
  • Xuyong's research focus on T cells metabolic reprogramming, cell cycle and DNA damage. (
  • John's research interests include integration of metabolic and cell cycle signaling. (
  • Since this phenotype resulted from global inhibition of mTORC1, we created conditional germ cell knockout mice to investigate the germ cell-autonomous role of MTOR in spermatogonial differentiation. (
  • Germ cell development is an essential process to ensure continuity of species. (
  • Drosophila oogenesis has long been served as a model system to study germ cell development. (
  • Previously, the Elav-Hu family protein RNA-binding protein 9 (rbp9) has been reported important for germ cell differentiation in Drosophila ovary, but its mechanism of function is largely unknown. (
  • In this study, we aimed to further study the function of Rbp9 in germ cell differentiation. (
  • The function of rbp9 in germ cell differentiation is required for both adult stage and before adult stage. (
  • Though Rbp9 is critical for cyst differentiation, over-expression of Rbp9 does not affect germ cell development in germarium region. (
  • Rbp9 functions as downstream of Bam in germline differentiation, as Rbp9 over-expression can partially drive germ cell differentiation in bam mutant, but lack of Rbp9 blocks Bam driving germ cell differentiation. (
  • In all, this study will help better understand function of rbp9 in germ cell differentiation in Drosophila ovary, and may also provide insights in general germ cell development. (
  • However, it has been difficult to know the underlying mechanism due to the limited number of germ cells. (
  • The produced germ cells can be further differentiated into functional sperm or eggs through transplantation into live mice. (
  • Germ cells are derived from somatic cells called epiblast. (
  • In this study, we used a cell culture system that recapitulates the germ cell differentiation in mice to understand the underlying mechanism. (
  • Germ cells produced in a culture dish will enable us to address many fundamental questions. (
  • Male germ cells support long-term propagation of Zika virus. (
  • In vitro differentiation of Th1 cells from the larger CD4 + T cell population provides increased numbers of Th1 cells to facilitate research into their functions. (
  • Therefore, successful in vitro differentiation protocols to be applied either for cell based therapies or disease modeling should produce neurons with defined generic and subtype identity. (
  • Comparing the results of our study with previous literatures, from the partial CK7 expression and substantial Notch expression in ductal epithelial cells as well as the Notch expression in solid tumor nests, it can be inferred that Notch is involved in cell differentiation. (
  • Single-cell RNA sequencing of pulmonary epithelial cells isolated from IPF lung tissue demonstrated altered expression of LncRNAs, including increased MEG3. (
  • Altered LncRNA expression in IPF epithelial cells. (
  • A ) Differentially expressed LncRNAs ( n = 21) were identified in single-cell RNA sequences from normal donor and IPF epithelial cells by a custom LncRNA screen (GEO GSE86618). (
  • B ) MEG3 RNA was most increased in indeterminate and basal-like IPF epithelial cells. (
  • All MEG3 RNA splicing exon variants were identified in IPF epithelial cells. (
  • The goal of this study is to identify the key players that contribute to BP-DNA adduct formation in mammary epithelial cells. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: T-cell differentiation antigens and antigenic lymphocyte reactivity in pleural effusions. (
  • Simon MR, Desai SG, Jennings J, Engel D. T-cell differentiation antigens and antigenic lymphocyte reactivity in pleural effusions. (
  • Blood and pleural effusion mononuclear cells from thirteen patients were examined for the expression of T lymphocyte differentiation antigens as well as in vitro thymidine incorporation. (
  • Extremely low frequency magnetic fields regulate differentiation of regulatory T cells: potential role for ROS-mediated inhibition on AKT [med. (
  • Hematopoietic differentiation-the creation of multiple blood cell types from one stem cell line-is complex and still poorly understood. (
  • It is generally understood that epigenetics plays a role in hematopoietic differentiation, resulting in mature blood cells-including short-lived red blood cells-that are produced throughout a person's lifetime. (
  • H3K27me3 signatures at different stages of hematopoietic differentiation. (
  • B cells are generated from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) through a successive series of lineage restriction processes. (
  • Researchers speculate that the altered gene activity prevents hematopoietic stem cells from differentiating normally, which leads to the overproduction of abnormal, immature white blood cells characteristic of acute myeloid leukemia. (
  • Dnmt3a is essential for hematopoietic stem cell differentiation. (
  • The importance of tracking cells throughout the circulatory system, including those of hematopoietic origin, derives from the impact of mobile cells on tissue injury and repair, and the remote targeting of pathological processes such as inflammatory involvement of the heart, lung and blood vessels. (
  • PSCs can be differentiated into various cell types that display the desired phenotype, including for example cardiomyocytes and neural cells. (
  • By removing a single gene, researchers change the developmental fate of tumor cells in mice. (
  • Antiandrogens such as Casodex (Bicalutamide) are designed to treat advance stage prostate cancer by interfering with androgen receptor-mediated cell survival and by initiating cell death. (
  • 7 The death receptor-mediated pathway is activated upon ligand binding of cell surface death receptors such as tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ), initiating ligand-induced receptor trimerization and the formation of death-inducing signaling complex (DISC). (
  • 1) How does antigen modify distal T cell receptor signalling to dictate the nature of T cell immunity? (
  • The BMP4 ligand (L) was chosen since it can be bound to the BMPR2 receptor (R) on the cell membrane of the cells being cultured to form the receptor-ligand complex (C). The BMP4 ligand diffuses throughout the colony of cells by forming a long range concentration profile. (
  • CD3ε is a 20 kD chain of the CD3/T-cell receptor (TCR) complex which is composed of two CD3ε, one CD3γ, one CD3δ, one CD3ζ (CD247), and a T-cell receptor (α/β or γ/δ) heterodimer. (
  • Targeted reconstruction of T cell receptor sequence from single cell RNA-seq links CDR3 length to T cell differentiation state. (
  • 2011) Distinct activation of epidermal growth factor receptor by UTP contributes to epithelial cell wound repair. (
  • Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that Casodex induces cell death by a pathway that is independent of changes in ΔΨ m and Bcl-2 actions and results in an extended lag phase of cell survival that may promote the induction of an invasive phenotype after treatment. (
  • It enables robust expansion over multiple passages, while cells maintain a pluripotent phenotype. (
  • CORT also delayed the acquisition of the mature cell phenotype in CNh cells. (
  • Taken together, these observations indicate that AChRs, and the α7-AChR in particular, could act as modulators of the differentiation of CNh cells and that CORT could impair the acquisition of a mature phenotype by affecting the function of this AChR subtype. (
  • Expressing inflammatory mediators, sebocytes also contribute to the polarization of cutaneous T cells towards the Th17 phenotype. (
  • Ndfip1 restricts mTORC1 signaling and glycolysis in regulatory T cells to prevent autoinflammatory disease. (
  • StemMACS iPS-Brew XF is a cell culture medium for PSCs that gives you full flexibility with your downstream differentiation protocols, e.g., cardiomyocyte or neural differentiation. (
  • Altogether, our results display an entire spectrum of how membrane elastic properties are varying, thus contributing to a better understanding of neural differentiation from a mechanobiological perspective. (
  • Here we show that the Drosophila basic helix-loop-helix protein DIMM, a critical regulator of neuroendocrine cell differentiation, controls secretory capacity in mature neurons. (
  • Journal Article] Kelch-like protein 14 promotes B-1a but suppresses B-1b cell development. (
  • In regards to the performance of an accurate simulation in one dimension, BMP4 is administered to the system by pipetting a very small amount of a medium in which BMP4 has much lower solubility in comparison to the original solution and dispensing it on the walls of the microtube, thus allowing for a very thin layer of protein on top of the cell culture solution. (
  • During astrocyte differentiation, membrane tension initially decreases and then increases after 72 h, accompanied by consolidation of glial fibrillary acidic protein expression and striking actin reorganization, while bending modulus increases following observed alterations. (
  • We sought to find out the protein content material in serum exosomes (SEs), to characterise SEs, and to find novel scientific biomarkers of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). (
  • The ABCA1 protein flips the cholesterol from the inner to the outer layer of the cell membrane. (
  • 2017). Sirtuin 1-dependent resveratrol cytotoxicity and pro-differentiation activity on breast cancer cells . (
  • Although Th1 cells are critical for the clearance of intracellular pathogens, exaggerated Th1 responses are associated with autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 1 diabetes. (
  • The next step in designing this intracellular differentiation circuit is to solve eq. (1), eq. (2), and eq. (3). (
  • Th2 cells are critical in maintaining both the state of chronic and relapsing eosinophil-predominant inflammation and the acute hypersensitivity responses characteristic of the atopic diseases. (
  • Inflammation is involved in the very earliest differentiation changes of the pilosebaceous unit in acne. (
  • Nuclear expression was shown in tumor cells in solid nests and surrounding structures. (
  • 3) How do T cell targeting immunotherapies regulate the T cell response and can we use this to monitor responses to immune checkpoint blockade? (
  • red blood cells transport oxygen while white blood cells play a major role in the immune system. (
  • Our findings provide compelling evidence that an immune signature consisting of certain CD8 + T cell subset frequencies is predictive of SU following OIT. (
  • We classified the GBM patients into two groups based on the expression of GDRGs in tumors and found that the cell differentiation-based classification successfully predicted patient overall survival (OS), immune checkpoint expression and likelihood of immunotherapy response in GBMs. (
  • As the millennium draws to a close, it is clear that IgE production represents only one feature of a larger specific immune response orchestrated by the Th2 subset of CD4 + Th cells. (
  • Depletion of Langerhans cells in the tongue from patients with advanced-stage acquired immune deficiency syndrome: relation to opportunistic infections. (
  • During pathogenic infection, immune cells collaborate to remove invading organisms while minimizing collateral damage. (
  • We are now poised to define how cullin ligases form distinct ubiquitin complexes in T cells or other immune cells, and the unique set of substrates targeted by these complexes. (
  • My research is focused on understanding the interplay between metabolic reprogramming and T cell differentiation to enhance anti-tumor immune response. (
  • In pemphigus, the immune system mistakenly attacks cells in the top layer of the skin. (
  • In people with autoimmune diseases, the immune cells attack the body's own healthy tissues by mistake, instead of viruses or bacteria. (
  • DCs are potent APCs that initiate T cell-dependent immune responses ( 1 ). (
  • The results of our study suggest that OR51E2 activation results in neuroendocrine trans-differentiation. (
  • As localized cancer progresses to a metastatic state, the number of neuroendocrine (NE)-like cells increases, contributing to the development of a highly aggressive form of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) known as neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) ( 23 ). (
  • Many clinical studies have demonstrated a correlation between neuroendocrine trans-differentiation (NEtD) and PC progression with poor prognosis ( 24 ). (
  • During differentiation, neuroendocrine cells acquire highly amplified capacities to synthesize neuropeptides to overcome dilution of these signals in the general circulation. (
  • Once mature, the normal functioning of integrated physiological systems requires that neuroendocrine cells remain plastic to dramatically alter neuropeptide expression for long periods in response to hormonal and electrical cues. (
  • NETs are a group of tumors with heterogenous malignancy that evolve from neuroendocrine cells, with the lung being the second target organ after the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • The main purpose of this review, was the analysis of the available literature in all aspects while mainly focusing on molecular diagnosis data and secondly, by using this molecular landscape to establish a differentiation of lung neuroendocrine tumors (LNETs). (
  • Lung neuroendocrine tumors (LNETs) are a group of rare tumors with heterogenous malignancy originating in amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) neuroendocrine cells from Kulchitsky cells (argentaffin cells) ( 1 ). (
  • Gould introduced the concepts regarding multidirectional differentiation of neuroendocrine cells that can evolve in mucus-producing cells, squamous cells and pulmonary carcinomas. (
  • Therefore, it can be reasonably presumed that the eukaryotic chloroplast and mitochondrion have once been formed as the result of metabolic (and genetic) differentiations in most evolved cyanobacterium. (
  • 2. Nuclear transfer is a technique used to duplicate genetic material by creating an embryo through the transfer and fusion of a diploid cell in an enucleated female oocyte.2 Cloning has a broader meaning than nuclear transfer as it also involves gene replication and natural or induced embryo splitting (see Annex 1). (
  • Th)1 cells.5 Meanwhile, the function and immunity of with genetic predisposition, involving multiple cells, DCs are closely regulated by miRNAs. (
  • Stem cells have potential as a source of cells and tissues for research and treatment of disease. (
  • Stem cells also remain to varying extents in different adult tissues, acting in tissue homeostasis and repair. (
  • David's research focuses on how cell polarity is generated in normal tissues, and how this is lost in prostate, ovarian and colorectal tumours. (
  • We have designed novel biomimetic cell culture surfaces that imitate the softness of various tissues and organs, allowing the cells to «feel like home» even outside the body. (
  • We use gene manipulation in the mouse, cell culture models, and biochemical reconstitution to investigate the relevant molecular events underlying these processes, and to genetically mark and manipulate cells and tissues. (
  • This poster summarizes some key protocols demonstrating the use of small molecules across the stem cell workflow, from reprogramming, through self-renewal, storage and differentiation to verification. (
  • Our guide highlights the use of small molecules in stem cell research and cell therapy and lists relevant products. (
  • Developed in-house, this poster summarizes how small molecules have been used in protocols across the stem cell workflow. (
  • Our range of xeno-free media, high-quality growth factors, and small molecules provides you with reliable solutions for robust and reproducible stem cell culture. (
  • The team believes their unique graphene-plasmonic hybrid nanoarray can be extended to a wide range of applications in the development of simple, rapid, and accurate sensing platforms for screening various bio/chemical molecules and facilitating stem cell therapy in the clinical treatment of neurological disorders. (
  • A large-scale homogenous substrate coupled with dual-enhanced Raman scattering has been developed for sensitive gene detection and monitoring stem cell differentiation. (
  • Here, we attempted to identify a suitable therapy for the eradication of the stem cell subpopulation, which is mandatory to achieve an effective treatment for this tumor. (
  • Embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation has the potential to be instrumental in cell based therapies and in vitro disease modeling and chemical screens. (
  • Stem cell-derived cranial and spinal motor neurons reveal proteostatic differences between ALS resistant and sensitive motor neurons. (
  • organoid growth across donor samples, including those that are otherwise difficult to grow, is enabled by an enriched stem cell population. (
  • We believe this knowledge will contribute to our understanding of congenital and adult heart disease and be instrumental for stem cell-based heart regeneration. (
  • We expect this knowledge will help us better understand heart disease and will be instrumental for stem-cell-based disease modeling and interventions for of heart repair. (
  • Cite this: Overcoming the Barriers to Stem Cell Therapy - Medscape - Nov 10, 2009. (
  • In cells treated with TNF- α , this is accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ) and cell adhesion. (
  • Notch was expressed in the cytoplasm of cartilage cells and in the cell membrane of mucous cells but not in the nucleus indicating that differentiation has been concluded. (
  • A pertinent observation that is critical to study is the linearly proportional relationship between BMPR2 (R) on the cell membrane and the concentration of BMP4 (L) outside the cell. (
  • Membrane Elastic Properties During Neural Precursor Cell Differentiation. (
  • Both cells maintained in culture as neural precursors as well as those plated in neurobasal medium reveal a decrease in membrane tension over the first hours of culture followed by stabilization, with no change in bending modulus. (
  • Oligodendrocytes at later differentiation stages show membrane vesicles with similar membrane tension but higher bending modulus as compared to the cell surface. (
  • Cholesterol's role was thought to focus mainly on physically strengthening the cell membrane and reducing its permeability to ions. (
  • The introduction of reproducible, feeder-free cultures up to MACS® GMP-grade , rapid enrichment of lineage-specific cells or multicolor phenotypic flow analysis not only provides the constant workflow support your cell cultures need to be successful but supports the flexibility and reproducibility needed for downstream applications. (
  • Importantly, Bmal12/2 mESCs display deficient multi-lineage cell differentiation capacity during the formation of teratomas and gastrula-like organoids. (