Drug Delivery Systems
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Cell Membrane Structures
Platelet Membrane Glycoprotein IIb
Calorimetry, Differential Scanning
Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex
Swiss 3T3 Cells
Microfluidic Analytical Techniques
Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
Blood Coagulation Factors
Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid
Serum Albumin, Bovine
Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate
Flow Injection Analysis
Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
Mice, Inbred BALB C
Tissue factor activity is increased in a combined platelet and microparticle sample from cancer patients. (1/383)(+info)
Microparticles are vectors of paradoxical information in vascular cells including the endothelium: role in health and diseases. (2/383)Both inflammation and thrombosis can be orchestrated by the interactions between circulating cells, such as leukocytes and platelets, with vascular, endothelial and smooth muscle cells, which, during activation or apoptosis, can release circulating microparticles (MPs). Indeed, MPs are membrane vesicles with procoagulant and proinflammatory properties. MPs are present in blood from healthy individuals and in patients under several pathological states, for instance sepsis, preeclampsia, Crohn's disease and diabetes, strengthening the notion that MPs may play a role in these diseases. Circulating MPs or those generated in vitro from apoptotic T cells display deleterious effects on endothelial and/or vasomotor function. In contrast, MPs might be protective to endothelial cells. We have shown that MPs harboring the morphogen sonic hedgehog may represent a new therapeutic approach against endothelial dysfunction during acute severe endothelial injury. Indeed, these types of MPs induce NO release, decrease production of reactive oxygen species and induce angiogenesis from endothelial cells. This protective role for the endothelium was confirmed also by their in vivo injection in mice in which they were also able to reverse endothelial dysfunction in a model of heart ischemia/reperfusion. On the contrary, MPs from preeclamptic women compared to those from normal pregnant women showed pro-inflammatory properties in the vascular wall inducing vascular hyporeactivity in vessels from humans and mice. These effects were associated with complex interactions between NO and cyclooxygenase systems via endothelial cell activation. Altogether, these findings suggest that MPs can be considered as vectors of biological messages for vascular homeostasis, during immunity and inflammation. (+info)
The role of cell death in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease: HMGB1 and microparticles as intercellular mediators of inflammation. (3/383)(+info)
The relationship between plasma microparticles and disease manifestations in patients with systemic sclerosis. (4/383)(+info)
Measurement of platelet-derived microparticle levels in the chronic phase of cerebral infarction using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (5/383)Assessment of platelet function is a critical component of the treatment and secondary prevention of cerebral infarction, and measurement of platelet-derived microparticle (PDMP) levels using flow cytometry may be a good indicator of platelet function. However, the flow cytometric analysis is not feasible in a variety of clinical situations. The goal of the present study was to measure PDMP levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in chronic cerebral infarction patients and to determine the utility of PDMP level measurement for the monitoring of the effect of cilostazol and aspirin. A crossover study was performed using 4-weeks of aspirin (100 mg/day) and 4-weeks of cilostazol (200 mg/day) in 18 patients. PDMP levels were also measured in 20 volunteers as controls. Experiments demonstrated that PDMP levels were significantly higher in chronic cerebral infarction patients (median 8.8 U/ml, interquartile range 5.1-14.9 U/ml, n=18) than in controls (median 5.5 U/ml, interquartile range 5.0-8.2 U/ml, n=20) (P=0.047). PDMP levels did not decrease after therapy with either aspirin (median 10.9 U/ml, interquartile range 6.2-17.9 U/ml, n=12) or cilostazol (median 9.2 U/ml, interquartile range 6.1-14.3 U/ml, n=12) compared with baseline PDMP levels in the 12 patients who completed this trial (median 11.4 U/ml, interquartile range 5.2-23.7 U/ml, n=12). There were no significant differences in PDMP levels between aspirin and cilostazol (P=0.61). In conclusion, PDMP levels as measured by ELISA were increased in patients with chronic cerebral infarction regardless of the anti-platelet therapy. This methodology may be a useful strategy of assessing platelet function in chronic cerebral infarction patients. (+info)
Megakaryocyte-derived microparticles: direct visualization and distinction from platelet-derived microparticles. (6/383)(+info)
Dynamics of circulating microparticles in liver transplant patients. (7/383)BACKGROUND & AIMS: Microparticles are small membrane vesicles released from the cell plasma membrane, particularly in cell stress, apoptosis and altered cellular viability. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a hypervascular neoplasm with high levels of apoptosis and necrosis. We investigated the levels of circulating microparticles of both tumor and endothelial origins in liver transplant patients with hepatitis C (HepC) cirrhosis with and without HCC and compared them with healthy people and patients with partial hepatectomy. METHODS: Using immunolabeling of microparticles of different origin and flow cytometry-based enumeration of microparticles, the levels of circulating microparticles were studied in 8 patients with HepC and 8 patients with both HepC and HCC before and within two weeks after the transplant. RESULTS: The initial levels of circulating microparticles were increased in patients with HepC and HCC as compared to patients with HepC alone. They were also increased in liver transplant patients as compared to patients with partial hepatectomy or healthy people. Levels of circulating microparticles were dynamically changing after the transplant, showing an initial increase with a subsequent decrease by the end of the second week after surgery. In some patients with a complicated clinical outcome, the levels of microparticles were continuously increasing after the surgery. CONCLUSION: The levels of circulating microparticles of endothelial and hepatic origin in liver transplant patients dynamically change after surgery and correlate with the clinical outcome. Perspectively, the levels of circulating microparticles may be used in clinical practice as a marker of the functional status of the transplanted liver. (+info)
Diagnostic role of endothelial microparticles in vasculitis. (8/383)(+info)
Cell-derived microparticles (CDMPs) are small vesicles that are shed from the surface of cells in the body. They are typically between 0.1 and 1 micrometer in size and contain various proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids that are derived from the parent cell. CDMPs can be produced by a variety of cell types, including immune cells, endothelial cells, and cancer cells, and they play important roles in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. In the medical field, CDMPs are being studied as potential biomarkers for a variety of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune disorders. They are also being investigated as potential therapeutic targets and drug delivery vehicles.
Polyglycolic acid (PGA) is a synthetic polymer that is commonly used in medical applications as a biodegradable scaffold for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. It is a linear copolymer of glycolic acid, which is a naturally occurring monomer that is derived from renewable resources such as corn starch. PGA is typically produced through a chemical reaction that involves the polymerization of glycolic acid monomers in the presence of a catalyst. The resulting polymer has a high molecular weight and is hydrophilic, meaning that it is able to absorb and retain water. In the medical field, PGA is used in a variety of applications, including as a scaffold for tissue engineering, as a wound dressing, and as a carrier for drugs and other therapeutic agents. It is also used in medical devices such as sutures, staples, and absorbable pins. One of the key advantages of PGA is its ability to degrade over time, which allows it to be absorbed by the body and replaced by new tissue. This makes it an attractive material for use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, where the goal is to create new tissue that can replace damaged or diseased tissue.
Polyglactin 910, also known as Vicryl, is a synthetic absorbable surgical suture made from copolymerized glycolide and lactide. It is commonly used in various surgical procedures due to its strength, flexibility, and ability to be absorbed by the body over time. The "910" in the name refers to the molecular weight of the polymer, which is approximately 910 daltons. Polyglactin 910 is available in various sizes and shapes, including monofilament, multifilament, and braided sutures. It is also available in both plain and chromic forms, with chromic sutures containing chromium to enhance their tensile strength and knot security.
Blood platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small, disc-shaped cells that play a crucial role in the blood clotting process. They are produced in the bone marrow and are essential for maintaining hemostasis, which is the body's ability to stop bleeding. Platelets are too small to be seen under a light microscope, but they are abundant in the blood, with an average of 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets are among the first cells to arrive at the site of injury. They adhere to the damaged vessel wall and release chemicals that attract more platelets and initiate the formation of a blood clot. Platelets also play a role in the immune response by releasing chemicals that attract immune cells to the site of infection or injury. They are involved in the formation of blood clots that prevent the spread of infection and help to repair damaged tissue. Abnormalities in platelet function or number can lead to bleeding disorders, such as thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) or thrombocytosis (high platelet count). Platelet disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications.
Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin, which is a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine found in the exoskeletons of crustaceans such as shrimp and crab. Chitosan has been used in various medical applications due to its unique properties, including its ability to absorb and retain water, its biocompatibility, and its ability to modulate immune responses. In the medical field, chitosan is used in a variety of ways, including as a wound dressing, a drug delivery system, and a biofilm inhibitor. As a wound dressing, chitosan can help to promote healing by providing a moist environment that promotes cell growth and reduces inflammation. As a drug delivery system, chitosan can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, improving their effectiveness and reducing side effects. As a biofilm inhibitor, chitosan can help to prevent the formation of bacterial biofilms, which can be difficult to treat and can lead to chronic infections. Chitosan has also been studied for its potential use in cancer therapy, as it has been shown to have anti-tumor properties and can help to enhance the effectiveness of chemotherapy drugs. Additionally, chitosan has been used in the development of medical devices, such as catheters and implants, due to its ability to reduce inflammation and promote tissue integration.
Delayed-action preparations, also known as time-release preparations, are medications that release their active ingredients over a period of time, rather than all at once. This allows for a more sustained and even release of the medication into the bloodstream, which can help to reduce side effects and improve the effectiveness of the treatment. There are several types of delayed-action preparations, including: 1. Extended-release tablets: These tablets release their active ingredients slowly over several hours or even days. 2. Sustained-release capsules: These capsules release their active ingredients over a longer period of time than regular capsules. 3. Transdermal patches: These patches deliver medication through the skin, allowing for a slow and steady release of the medication into the bloodstream. 4. Implants: These are small devices that are implanted under the skin and release medication over a period of several months or years. Delayed-action preparations are commonly used for medications that need to be taken regularly, such as blood pressure medication or pain medication. They can also be used for medications that have a narrow therapeutic window, meaning that the dosage needs to be carefully controlled to avoid side effects or toxicity.
Lactic acid is a naturally occurring organic acid that is produced by the metabolism of glucose in the body. It is a byproduct of the process of glycolysis, which occurs in the cytoplasm of cells when there is not enough oxygen available for complete oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide and water. In the medical field, lactic acid is often measured in the blood as an indicator of tissue oxygenation and energy metabolism. High levels of lactic acid in the blood can be a sign of tissue hypoxia, which is a lack of oxygen supply to the body's tissues. This can occur in a variety of medical conditions, including sepsis, shock, and certain types of cancer. Lactic acidosis is a condition characterized by high levels of lactic acid in the blood and can be caused by a variety of factors, including liver disease, kidney failure, and certain medications. It can be a serious medical condition and requires prompt treatment. In addition to its role in metabolism and energy production, lactic acid has also been used in various medical treatments, including as a topical antiseptic and as a component of certain medications.
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical refers to the application of chemistry principles and techniques to the development, production, and testing of pharmaceutical drugs. This field involves the synthesis, analysis, and characterization of drugs, as well as the study of their interactions with biological systems. Pharmaceutical chemists work in a variety of settings, including research and development laboratories, manufacturing facilities, and regulatory agencies. They may be involved in the discovery and development of new drugs, the optimization of existing drugs, or the testing and evaluation of drug candidates. In addition to their technical expertise, pharmaceutical chemists must also have a strong understanding of pharmacology, toxicology, and regulatory requirements. They must be able to communicate effectively with other scientists, as well as with healthcare professionals and regulatory agencies. Overall, the field of chemistry, pharmaceutical plays a critical role in the development of new drugs and therapies that can improve the health and well-being of patients around the world.
In the medical field, polymers are large molecules made up of repeating units or monomers. Polymers are used in a variety of medical applications, including drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and medical devices. One common use of polymers in medicine is in drug delivery systems. Polymers can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, allowing for more controlled and sustained release of the drug. This can help to improve the effectiveness of the drug and reduce side effects. Polymers are also used in tissue engineering, where they are used to create scaffolds for growing new tissue. These scaffolds can be designed to mimic the structure and properties of natural tissue, allowing cells to grow and differentiate into the desired tissue type. In addition, polymers are used in a variety of medical devices, including implants, prosthetics, and surgical sutures. For example, polymers can be used to create biodegradable implants that are absorbed by the body over time, reducing the need for additional surgeries to remove the implant. Overall, polymers play an important role in the medical field, providing a range of useful materials for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical device applications.
In the medical field, "Cell Membrane Structures" refers to the various components that make up the cell membrane, which is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds and protects cells. The cell membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer, which consists of two layers of phospholipid molecules arranged tail-to-tail. The hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids face inward, while the hydrophilic heads face outward, forming a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment. In addition to the phospholipid bilayer, the cell membrane also contains various proteins, carbohydrates, and cholesterol molecules. These components play important roles in regulating the movement of substances in and out of the cell, as well as in cell signaling and communication. Some of the key cell membrane structures include: * Integral membrane proteins: These are proteins that are embedded within the phospholipid bilayer and span the entire width of the membrane. They play important roles in cell signaling, transport, and cell adhesion. * Peripheral membrane proteins: These are proteins that are attached to the surface of the phospholipid bilayer, either on the inner or outer leaflet. They play important roles in cell signaling, transport, and cell adhesion. * Glycoproteins: These are proteins that have carbohydrates attached to them. They play important roles in cell signaling, cell adhesion, and recognition. * Lipids: In addition to phospholipids, the cell membrane also contains other lipids, such as cholesterol, which help to regulate the fluidity and permeability of the membrane. Overall, the cell membrane is a complex and dynamic structure that plays a critical role in maintaining the integrity and function of cells.
In the medical field, capsules are small, hollow, and usually spherical containers that are used to deliver medication or other substances to the body. Capsules are typically made of gelatin, but can also be made of other materials such as vegetable cellulose or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). There are two main types of capsules: hard capsules and soft capsules. Hard capsules are made of gelatin and are typically used to deliver solid or semi-solid medications. Soft capsules, on the other hand, are made of a softer material such as HPMC and are used to deliver liquid or semi-liquid medications. Capsules are often preferred over tablets because they are easier to swallow and may be more effective at delivering medication to the body. They are also less likely to cause stomach upset or other side effects. However, capsules may not be suitable for people with certain medical conditions or allergies to gelatin.
Annexin A5 is a protein that is expressed in many different types of cells, including blood cells, epithelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. It is a member of the annexin family of proteins, which are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell adhesion, membrane trafficking, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). In the medical field, Annexin A5 is primarily known for its role in blood coagulation. It binds to phosphatidylserine (PS), a negatively charged phospholipid that is normally only present on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane of cells, but becomes exposed on the outer leaflet during apoptosis and other forms of cell death. Annexin A5 binds to PS and inhibits the activity of factor Xa, an enzyme that is involved in the coagulation cascade. This helps to prevent the formation of blood clots and may be beneficial in the treatment of certain types of bleeding disorders. Annexin A5 has also been studied for its potential role in other medical conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, Annexin A5 has been shown to inhibit the growth and migration of cancer cells, and may be useful as a diagnostic marker for certain types of cancer. It has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects, and may be useful in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Additionally, Annexin A5 has been shown to protect against neurodegeneration in animal models of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.
Thromboplastin is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process, also known as coagulation. It is produced by the liver and stored in the blood as an inactive form called prothrombin. When the body experiences an injury or damage to a blood vessel, thromboplastin is activated, which triggers a series of chemical reactions that ultimately lead to the formation of a blood clot. This clot helps to stop bleeding and prevent further damage to the blood vessel. Thromboplastin is also used in medical tests to assess the function of the blood clotting system. Abnormal levels of thromboplastin can indicate a variety of medical conditions, including liver disease, vitamin K deficiency, and certain blood disorders.
Blood coagulation is the process by which blood clots or solidifies to prevent excessive bleeding. It is a complex process that involves a series of chemical reactions that occur when blood vessels are damaged or injured. The process of blood coagulation is essential for the body to stop bleeding and promote healing. The process of blood coagulation involves three main stages: initiation, propagation, and termination. During the initiation stage, platelets are activated and release chemicals that attract more platelets to the site of injury. This forms a platelet plug that helps to stop bleeding. During the propagation stage, a series of enzymes are activated that convert fibrinogen, a soluble protein in the blood, into insoluble fibrin strands. These fibrin strands form a mesh-like structure that traps red and white blood cells and platelets, creating a blood clot. Finally, during the termination stage, the blood clot is dissolved by a group of enzymes called fibrinolytic enzymes. This process helps to prevent the formation of excessive blood clots that could block blood vessels and cause serious health problems. Overall, blood coagulation is a critical process that helps to prevent excessive bleeding and promote healing in the body.
Platelet Membrane Glycoprotein IIb (also known as GPIIb or CD41) is a protein found on the surface of platelets, which are small blood cells that play a crucial role in blood clotting. GPIIb is a member of a family of proteins called integrins, which are involved in cell adhesion and signaling. GPIIb is a heterodimeric protein, meaning it is composed of two different subunits, GPIIbα and GPIIbβ. The α subunit is responsible for binding to von Willebrand factor (vWF), a protein found in the blood that helps platelets adhere to damaged blood vessels. The β subunit is responsible for binding to fibrinogen, another protein involved in blood clotting. Mutations in the GPIIb gene can lead to bleeding disorders, such as Glanzmann thrombasthenia, which is a rare inherited bleeding disorder characterized by an inability of platelets to form clots. In this disorder, the GPIIbα subunit is either absent or abnormal, preventing platelets from binding to vWF and forming clots.
Polystyrenes are a class of synthetic polymers that are commonly used in the medical field due to their unique properties, such as their lightweight, durability, and ability to be molded into a variety of shapes and sizes. In the medical field, polystyrenes are used in a variety of applications, including as components of medical devices, such as syringes, catheters, and test tubes, as well as in packaging materials for medical equipment and supplies. Polystyrene is also used in the production of medical implants, such as hip and knee replacements, and as a component of dental prosthetics. Polystyrenes are also used in the production of medical laboratory equipment, such as centrifuges and microtiter plates, and in the manufacturing of medical instruments, such as scalpels and forceps. Additionally, polystyrene is used in the production of medical packaging materials, such as trays and bags, to protect medical equipment and supplies during transportation and storage.
In the medical field, silicon is a chemical element that is commonly used in the production of medical devices and implants. Silicon is a hard, brittle, and non-metallic element that is found in the Earth's crust and is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust after oxygen. Silicon is used in the production of a variety of medical devices, including orthopedic implants, dental implants, and prosthetic devices. It is also used in the production of medical-grade silicone, which is used in the manufacture of medical devices such as catheters, tubing, and other medical equipment. Silicon is also used in the production of certain types of medical implants, such as silicone breast implants and silicone gel-filled prosthetic devices. These implants are made from a silicone gel that is encased in a silicone shell. In addition to its use in medical devices and implants, silicon is also used in the production of certain types of medical equipment, such as syringes, catheters, and other medical devices. It is also used in the production of certain types of medical-grade silicone, which is used in the manufacture of medical devices such as catheters, tubing, and other medical equipment.
Hexuronic acids are a type of carbohydrate that are found in the cell walls of plants and some bacteria. They are also known as hexoses or hexoses acids. Hexuronic acids are composed of six carbon atoms and are classified as aldohexoses. They are important components of the plant cell wall and play a role in the structure and function of the cell wall. Hexuronic acids are also used in the production of certain types of food and beverages, such as jams, jellies, and fruit juices. In the medical field, hexuronic acids are not commonly used for treatment or diagnosis of diseases.
In the medical field, coagulants are substances that promote the clotting of blood. They are used to stop bleeding in cases of injury or surgery, and are also used in laboratory tests to assess the clotting ability of blood. There are several types of coagulants, including fibrinogen, thrombin, and prothrombin. These substances work by activating platelets and forming a clot that helps to stop bleeding. Coagulants are also used in the treatment of certain blood disorders, such as hemophilia, where the body has difficulty forming clots.
In the medical field, polyanhydrides are a class of polymers that are composed of repeating units of carboxylic acids or their derivatives, which are linked together by anhydride bonds. These polymers are of interest in medical applications due to their unique properties, such as their ability to degrade over time and release active agents, such as drugs or growth factors, in a controlled manner. Polyanhydrides are used in a variety of medical applications, including drug delivery systems, tissue engineering scaffolds, and wound dressings. For example, polyanhydrides can be used to create implants that release drugs slowly over time, which can help to treat chronic diseases such as diabetes or osteoporosis. They can also be used to create scaffolds for tissue engineering, which can help to promote the growth of new tissue in the body. Polyanhydrides are typically synthesized using a variety of chemical reactions, such as condensation polymerization or ring-opening polymerization. The properties of the resulting polymers can be tailored by adjusting the composition and molecular weight of the starting materials, as well as by modifying the polymerization conditions. Overall, polyanhydrides are a versatile class of polymers with a wide range of potential applications in the medical field.
Glucuronic acid is a naturally occurring organic acid that is produced by the liver as a byproduct of the metabolism of carbohydrates. It is a key component of the glycoprotein molecule hyaluronic acid, which is found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue throughout the body. In the medical field, glucuronic acid is often used as a precursor in the synthesis of other important molecules, such as bile acids and some hormones. It is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as hyperuricemia (high levels of uric acid in the blood), where it is used to convert excess uric acid into a more water-soluble form that can be excreted from the body. In addition, glucuronic acid is used in the production of certain drugs and dietary supplements, and it has been shown to have potential anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects in laboratory studies. However, more research is needed to fully understand the therapeutic potential of glucuronic acid in the treatment of human diseases.
In the medical field, "polyesters" typically refers to a class of synthetic polymers that are derived from petrochemicals or renewable resources such as vegetable oils. They are commonly used in medical applications due to their biocompatibility, durability, and versatility. One example of a polyester used in medicine is polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which is commonly used to make medical devices such as catheters, surgical sutures, and packaging for medical equipment. PET is a strong, lightweight, and flexible material that can be easily processed into various shapes and sizes. Another example of a polyester used in medicine is polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), which is used to make medical implants such as orthopedic screws and plates. PBT is a high-strength, heat-resistant material that can withstand the rigors of the human body. Overall, polyesters are a versatile class of materials that have a wide range of applications in the medical field, from packaging and sterilization to implantable devices and surgical instruments.
Polymethacrylic acids are a type of polymer that are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of applications. They are typically synthesized from methacrylic acid, which is a monomer that can be polymerized to form a long chain of repeating units. Polymethacrylic acids are known for their ability to form gels and hydrogels, which are materials that can absorb and retain large amounts of water. In the medical field, polymethacrylic acids are often used as drug delivery systems. They can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, which can help to improve the effectiveness and duration of treatment. They can also be used as wound dressings, as they can absorb and retain fluids and help to protect the wound from infection. Additionally, polymethacrylic acids have been used in tissue engineering applications, as they can be used to create scaffolds that can support the growth and development of new tissue.
In the medical field, acrylates refer to a group of chemicals that are commonly used in the production of medical devices, such as catheters, implants, and surgical instruments. Acrylates are typically used as a coating or adhesive on these devices to improve their biocompatibility, durability, and functionality. Acrylates are made up of acrylic acid monomers, which are polymerized to form long chains of molecules. These chains can be crosslinked to create a more rigid and durable material. Acrylates are known for their excellent adhesion properties, making them ideal for use in medical devices that need to adhere to tissues or other surfaces. However, acrylates can also be allergenic and may cause skin irritation or other adverse reactions in some individuals. As a result, medical device manufacturers must carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of using acrylates in their products and take steps to minimize any potential adverse effects.
Calorimetry, Differential Scanning is a technique used in the medical field to measure the heat capacity of a material or substance as a function of temperature. This technique is commonly used to study the thermal properties of biological samples, such as proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, as well as to investigate the thermal stability of drugs and other therapeutic agents. In differential scanning calorimetry, a sample is placed in a sealed container and heated or cooled at a constant rate while the heat flow into or out of the sample is measured. The resulting curve of heat flow versus temperature provides information about the thermal transitions that occur within the sample, such as melting points, glass transitions, and phase transitions. This information can be used to study the structure and function of biological molecules, as well as to optimize the formulation and stability of drugs and other therapeutic agents.
Alginates are a type of polysaccharide that are extracted from brown seaweed. They are commonly used in the medical field as a dressing for wounds, as well as in the production of various medical devices and implants. Alginates have properties that make them useful for wound healing, including their ability to absorb and retain moisture, promote cell growth, and prevent bacterial infection. They are also biocompatible, meaning they are well-tolerated by the body and do not cause an immune response. In addition to their use in wound care, alginate-based materials are also used in the production of dental impressions, drug delivery systems, and other medical applications.
The Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex is a protein complex found on the surface of platelets, which are small blood cells that play a crucial role in blood clotting. The complex is composed of two subunits, GPIb and GPIX, which together form a receptor for von Willebrand factor (VWF), a protein that helps to anchor platelets to the site of a blood vessel injury. The GPIb-IX Complex is essential for platelet function and is involved in the initiation of the platelet plug formation, which is the first step in the process of blood clotting. When a blood vessel is damaged, VWF is released from the vessel wall and binds to the GPIb-IX Complex on the platelet surface, triggering a series of events that lead to platelet activation and aggregation. Disruptions in the function of the GPIb-IX Complex can lead to bleeding disorders, such as von Willebrand disease, which is caused by a deficiency or abnormality in VWF or the GPIb-IX Complex.
Hydrogels are a type of polymer network that can absorb and retain a large amount of water or biological fluids. In the medical field, hydrogels are used in a variety of applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and wound healing. One of the main advantages of hydrogels in medicine is their ability to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) of tissues, which provides a supportive environment for cells to grow and differentiate. Hydrogels can be designed to have specific mechanical properties, degradation rates, and drug release profiles, making them versatile materials for a range of medical applications. For example, hydrogels can be used as drug delivery systems to release drugs slowly over time, reducing the need for frequent dosing and minimizing side effects. They can also be used as scaffolds for tissue engineering, providing a supportive environment for cells to grow and differentiate into functional tissues. In wound healing, hydrogels can be used as dressings to provide a moist environment that promotes healing and reduces the risk of infection. They can also be loaded with growth factors or other bioactive molecules to enhance the healing process. Overall, hydrogels have a wide range of potential applications in the medical field, and ongoing research is exploring new ways to use these materials to improve patient outcomes.
Thrombosis is a medical condition in which a blood clot forms within a blood vessel. This can occur when the blood flow is slow or when the blood vessel is damaged, allowing the blood to clot. Thrombosis can occur in any blood vessel in the body, but it is most commonly seen in the veins of the legs, which can lead to a condition called deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Thrombosis can also occur in the arteries, which can lead to a condition called（arterial thrombosis）. Arterial thrombosis can cause serious complications, such as heart attack or stroke, if the clot breaks off and travels to the lungs or brain. Thrombosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury to the blood vessel, prolonged immobility, certain medical conditions such as cancer or diabetes, and the use of certain medications such as birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy. Treatment for thrombosis depends on the severity of the condition and the location of the clot, but may include anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing or breaking off, and in some cases, surgical removal of the clot.
Lecithins are a group of phospholipids that are found in many foods and are also produced by the body. They are composed of a fatty acid, a glycerol molecule, and a phosphate group, and they play important roles in many bodily functions. In the medical field, lecithins are often used as a dietary supplement or as an ingredient in various medications. They have been shown to have a number of potential health benefits, including improving cholesterol levels, reducing the risk of heart disease, and improving cognitive function. Lecithins are also used in a variety of medical treatments, including the treatment of liver disease, gallstones, and certain types of cancer. They are sometimes used as a component of emulsifiers, which are substances that help to mix two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water. Overall, lecithins are an important component of many bodily functions and have a number of potential health benefits. They are widely used in the medical field and are considered to be a safe and effective supplement.
Biocompatible materials are materials that are designed to interact with living tissues in a way that is safe and non-toxic. These materials are used in a variety of medical applications, including implants, prosthetics, and drug delivery systems. Biocompatible materials must be able to withstand the harsh conditions of the human body, including exposure to bodily fluids, enzymes, and bacteria. They must also be able to integrate with the surrounding tissue and promote healing, rather than causing inflammation or rejection. Some examples of biocompatible materials include metals such as titanium and stainless steel, polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene, and ceramics such as hydroxyapatite. These materials are often used in the manufacturing of medical devices and implants, such as hip replacements, dental implants, and pacemakers. It is important to note that while a material may be biocompatible, it may not be suitable for all medical applications. The choice of material depends on a variety of factors, including the intended use of the device, the patient's individual needs and health status, and the specific requirements of the medical procedure.
In the medical field, an emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water, that are dispersed in the form of small droplets. These droplets are typically stabilized by an emulsifying agent, which prevents the two liquids from separating and allows them to remain in a stable mixture. Emulsions are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of purposes, including drug delivery, imaging, and therapy. For example, oil-in-water emulsions are often used to deliver drugs or other therapeutic agents to specific areas of the body, such as the lungs or the eye. They can also be used in imaging studies to help visualize certain structures or tissues within the body. Emulsions can be prepared in a variety of ways, including mechanical agitation, high-pressure homogenization, and ultrasonication. The choice of preparation method depends on the specific properties of the emulsifying agent and the liquids being mixed, as well as the desired properties of the final emulsion.
In the medical field, aerosols refer to tiny particles or droplets of liquid or solid matter that are suspended in the air and can be inhaled into the respiratory system. Aerosols can be generated by various sources, including human activities such as talking, coughing, and sneezing, as well as natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions and dust storms. Aerosols can contain a variety of substances, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, pollutants, and other particles. When inhaled, these particles can enter the lungs and potentially cause respiratory infections, allergies, and other health problems. In the context of infectious diseases, aerosols are of particular concern because they can transmit pathogens over long distances and remain suspended in the air for extended periods of time. To prevent the spread of infectious diseases, it is important to take measures to reduce the generation and dispersion of aerosols in indoor environments, such as wearing masks, practicing good respiratory hygiene, and improving ventilation systems.
Antibodies, immobilized are proteins that have been chemically or physically attached to a solid surface, such as a plastic or glass slide, to create a surface that can be used for various diagnostic or research purposes. These immobilized antibodies can be used to capture and detect specific antigens, such as viruses, bacteria, or other pathogens, in a sample. The process of immobilizing antibodies involves linking them to a solid support using various chemical or physical methods, such as covalent bonding, physical adsorption, or electrostatic interactions. Once immobilized, the antibodies can be used in a variety of applications, such as ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), immunohistochemistry, or immunofluorescence. These techniques are commonly used in medical research, diagnostics, and drug development.
In the medical field, a hydrogel is a type of polymer network that is capable of absorbing and retaining a large amount of water or biological fluids. Hydrogels are often used in medical applications due to their ability to mimic the properties of natural tissues, such as their ability to swell and contract in response to changes in their environment. Hydrogels can be made from a variety of materials, including natural polymers such as gelatin, alginate, and chitosan, as well as synthetic polymers such as polyacrylamide, polyvinyl alcohol, and polyethylene glycol. They can be crosslinked to create a three-dimensional network that is stable and resistant to deformation. In medical applications, hydrogels are used for a variety of purposes, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, wound healing, and as a scaffold for cell growth. They can be designed to release drugs or other therapeutic agents over time, or to provide a supportive environment for cells to grow and differentiate. Hydrogels are also used in contact lenses, artificial skin, and other biomedical devices.
In the medical field, "Administration, Inhalation" refers to the process of delivering medication or other substances to the lungs through inhalation. This method of administration is commonly used to treat respiratory conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia, as well as to provide relief from respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. Inhalation administration can be achieved through a variety of devices, including inhalers, nebulizers, and vaporizers. Inhalers are portable devices that contain medication in the form of a powder or liquid that is aerosolized and inhaled through the mouth. Nebulizers, on the other hand, use compressed air to turn medication into a fine mist that is inhaled through a mouthpiece or mask. Vaporizers are devices that heat up liquid medication to produce a vapor that is inhaled. Inhalation administration has several advantages over other methods of medication delivery, including faster onset of action, more targeted delivery of medication to the lungs, and reduced systemic side effects. However, it can also have potential drawbacks, such as the risk of respiratory irritation or infection, and the need for proper technique and device maintenance to ensure effective delivery of medication.
Thrombin is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. It is produced by the activation of the protein thromboplastin, which is present in the blood. Thrombin is responsible for converting fibrinogen, a soluble plasma protein, into insoluble fibrin fibers, which form the meshwork of a blood clot. Thrombin also activates platelets, which are small cell fragments that play a key role in blood clotting. It does this by cleaving a protein called von Willebrand factor, which binds platelets to the site of injury and helps them to aggregate and form a plug. In addition to its role in blood clotting, thrombin has other functions in the body, including the activation of certain types of cells and the regulation of inflammation. It is also used in medicine as a medication to stop bleeding, as well as in the treatment of certain blood disorders and cardiovascular diseases.
Phosphatidylserines (PS) are a type of phospholipid that are important components of cell membranes. They are composed of a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphate group, with a serine residue attached to the phosphate group. In the medical field, PS is often studied for its potential health benefits, particularly in relation to cognitive function and aging. Some research suggests that PS supplements may improve memory and cognitive function in older adults, and may also have anti-inflammatory and anti-aging effects. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of PS supplementation.
P-selectin is a type of adhesion molecule that plays a crucial role in the process of inflammation and thrombosis. It is expressed on the surface of activated platelets and endothelial cells, and it binds to a specific receptor on the surface of leukocytes, allowing them to adhere to the blood vessel wall and migrate into the site of inflammation or injury. P-selectin is also involved in the recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes to the site of inflammation, and it has been implicated in the development of various inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition to its role in inflammation, P-selectin is also involved in the formation of blood clots. It plays a key role in the initial stages of platelet aggregation and the formation of the platelet plug, which is the first step in the process of hemostasis. Overall, P-selectin is an important molecule in the regulation of inflammation and thrombosis, and its dysfunction has been linked to a number of diseases and conditions.
Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are a group of water-soluble polymers that are commonly used in the medical field as solvents, dispersants, and stabilizers. They are made by polymerizing ethylene oxide and have a hydroxyl (-OH) group at each end of the molecule. PEGs are used in a variety of medical applications, including as a carrier for drugs and other therapeutic agents, as a lubricant for medical devices, and as an ingredient in various medical products such as ointments, creams, and lotions. They are also used in diagnostic imaging agents, such as contrast agents for X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PEGs are generally considered to be safe for use in humans, although high doses or prolonged exposure may cause irritation or allergic reactions. They are also used in food and personal care products, and are generally recognized as safe for these applications as well.
CD31 is a protein that is expressed on the surface of certain cells in the immune system, including platelets and certain types of white blood cells. It is also known as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) or cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31). In the medical field, CD31 is often used as a marker to identify and study certain types of cells, particularly those involved in the immune response. It is also used as a diagnostic tool to help diagnose and monitor certain medical conditions, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. CD31 is also used in research to study the function of immune cells and to develop new treatments for various diseases. For example, it has been shown to play a role in the formation of new blood vessels, which is important for wound healing and tissue repair. It is also involved in the regulation of the immune response and the development of certain types of cancer.
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC sodium) is a water-soluble polymer that is commonly used in the medical field as a thickening agent, emulsifier, and stabilizer. It is derived from cellulose, which is a natural polymer found in plant cell walls. CMC sodium is often used in pharmaceuticals to improve the texture and consistency of various products, such as tablets, capsules, and ointments. It can also be used as a binder to help hold ingredients together in a cohesive mixture. In addition to its use in pharmaceuticals, CMC sodium is also used in medical devices, such as wound dressings and catheters, to improve their handling and performance. It is also used in food and beverage products as a thickener and stabilizer. CMC sodium is generally considered safe for use in humans and is listed as a food additive by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, it may cause allergic reactions in some people, and its use in certain medical products may be contraindicated in individuals with certain medical conditions.
Vaccines are biological preparations that are used to stimulate the immune system to produce a protective response against specific infectious diseases. They contain weakened or inactivated forms of the pathogen or its components, such as proteins or sugars, that trigger an immune response without causing the disease. When a vaccine is administered, the immune system recognizes the foreign substance and produces antibodies to fight it off. This process primes the immune system to recognize and respond more quickly and effectively if the person is later exposed to the actual pathogen. This can prevent or reduce the severity of the disease and help to control its spread in the population. Vaccines are an important tool in public health and have been responsible for the eradication or control of many infectious diseases, such as smallpox, polio, and measles. They are typically given through injection or oral administration and are recommended for individuals of all ages, depending on the disease and the individual's risk factors.
Methylene chloride, also known as dichloromethane, is a colorless, volatile liquid that has been used in various medical applications. It is a powerful solvent that can dissolve many organic compounds, including fats, oils, and waxes. In the medical field, methylene chloride has been used as a general anesthetic, a local anesthetic, and a surgical scrub. It has also been used as a solvent for the extraction of certain drugs and as a cleaning agent for medical equipment. However, methylene chloride is also a known carcinogen and can cause respiratory problems, liver damage, and other health issues when inhaled or ingested. As a result, its use in medical applications has been limited, and alternative solvents and anesthetics have been developed.
Gelatin is a protein derived from collagen, which is found in the connective tissues of animals such as cows, pigs, and fish. In the medical field, gelatin is commonly used as a thickening agent in various medical products, such as medications, vaccines, and medical devices. Gelatin is often used in the production of capsules, as it can be dissolved in water to create a gel-like substance that can be used to coat the capsule shell. It is also used in the production of injectable medications, as it can help to stabilize the medication and prevent it from breaking down in the body too quickly. In addition to its use in medical products, gelatin is also used in the production of various food products, such as gels, jellies, and desserts. However, in the medical field, it is typically used in a sterile, purified form to ensure that it is free from any contaminants that could potentially harm the patient.
Dermatitis, phototoxic is a type of skin inflammation that occurs in response to exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or artificial sources. It is also known as photocontact dermatitis or phototoxic contact dermatitis. The condition is caused by a chemical or substance that reacts with the skin upon exposure to UV radiation, leading to inflammation and irritation. Common triggers for phototoxic dermatitis include certain medications, such as antibiotics, antihistamines, and acne medications, as well as certain plant extracts, metals, and dyes. Symptoms of phototoxic dermatitis may include redness, swelling, itching, burning, and blistering of the skin. The affected area may also be sensitive to touch and may take several days to weeks to heal. Treatment for phototoxic dermatitis typically involves avoiding exposure to UV radiation and using topical creams or ointments to soothe and moisturize the skin. In severe cases, oral medications may be prescribed to reduce inflammation and itching. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have phototoxic dermatitis, as it can be a sign of an underlying health condition or an allergic reaction to a medication.
Nucleic acids are complex organic molecules that are essential for the storage and expression of genetic information in living organisms. There are two main types of nucleic acids: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid). DNA is the genetic material that carries the instructions for the development, function, and reproduction of all living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogenous bases (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine) that are arranged in a specific sequence to form a double-stranded helix. RNA, on the other hand, is involved in the process of gene expression. It is composed of the same four nitrogenous bases as DNA, but it is single-stranded and plays a variety of roles in the cell, including messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Nucleic acids are important for the proper functioning of cells and are the basis of genetic inheritance. Mutations in nucleic acids can lead to genetic disorders and diseases, such as cancer, genetic disorders, and viral infections.
Blood preservation refers to the process of maintaining the quality and viability of blood or blood components for extended periods of time. This is typically done to ensure that blood products are available for transfusion when needed, and to prevent wastage of blood that has been collected. There are several methods used for blood preservation, including refrigeration, freezing, and chemical preservation. Refrigeration is the most common method used for short-term storage of blood, typically for up to 21 days. Freezing is used for longer-term storage of blood, typically for up to 10 years. Chemical preservation involves the use of preservatives to prevent the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms in the blood. Blood preservation is an important aspect of blood banking and transfusion medicine, as it allows for the efficient and safe distribution of blood products to patients in need. However, it is important to note that blood preservation can affect the quality and functionality of the blood, and careful handling and storage are necessary to ensure that blood products remain safe and effective for transfusion.
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Methylcellulose is a water-soluble polymer that is commonly used in the medical field as a thickening agent, emulsifier, and stabilizer. It is derived from cellulose, which is a natural polymer found in plant cell walls. Methylcellulose is often used in medical applications such as drug delivery systems, ophthalmic solutions, and wound dressings. It can help to improve the stability and bioavailability of certain drugs, and can also be used to create gels and other formulations that are easy to apply and absorb. In addition to its use in medical applications, methylcellulose is also used in a variety of other industries, including food and cosmetics. It is generally considered to be safe for use in humans, although high doses may cause digestive upset in some people.
In the medical field, colloids are suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a liquid medium. They are often used as a means of delivering medication or nutrients to the body, particularly in cases where the patient is unable to absorb nutrients through their digestive system. Colloids can be classified into two main categories: hydrophilic colloids and hydrophobic colloids. Hydrophilic colloids are those that are soluble in water and are often used as plasma expanders to increase blood volume. Examples of hydrophilic colloids include gelatin, dextran, and albumin. Hydrophobic colloids, on the other hand, are insoluble in water and are often used to deliver medications or nutrients directly to the bloodstream. Examples of hydrophobic colloids include liposomes and micelles. Colloids are commonly used in medical treatments such as chemotherapy, blood transfusions, and fluid replacement therapy. They are also used in diagnostic procedures such as radiography and computed tomography (CT) scans. However, it is important to note that colloids can also have potential side effects and risks, and their use should be carefully monitored by medical professionals.
In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.
Biological markers, also known as biomarkers, are measurable indicators of biological processes, pathogenic processes, or responses to therapeutic interventions. In the medical field, biological markers are used to diagnose, monitor, and predict the progression of diseases, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments. Biological markers can be found in various biological samples, such as blood, urine, tissue, or body fluids. They can be proteins, genes, enzymes, hormones, metabolites, or other molecules that are associated with a specific disease or condition. For example, in cancer, biological markers such as tumor markers can be used to detect the presence of cancer cells or to monitor the response to treatment. In cardiovascular disease, biological markers such as cholesterol levels or blood pressure can be used to assess the risk of heart attack or stroke. Overall, biological markers play a crucial role in medical research and clinical practice, as they provide valuable information about the underlying biology of diseases and help to guide diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring.
In the medical field, adhesiveness refers to the ability of tissues or organs to stick together or to other surfaces. This can be an important factor in various medical conditions and treatments. For example, adhesiveness can play a role in the development of adhesions, which are bands of scar tissue that form between organs or tissues after surgery or injury. Adhesions can cause pain, bowel obstruction, and other complications. Adhesiveness can also be important in wound healing, where the ability of cells to stick together and form a cohesive tissue is crucial for proper healing. In some cases, medications or other treatments may be used to reduce adhesiveness in order to prevent the formation of adhesions or to help break down existing adhesions.
Blood coagulation factors are proteins that play a crucial role in the process of blood clotting, also known as coagulation. There are 13 different coagulation factors that work together in a complex cascade to form a blood clot and stop bleeding. The coagulation process begins when the blood vessel is damaged, and the platelets in the blood start to clump together to form a plug. The coagulation factors then activate a series of chemical reactions that ultimately lead to the formation of a fibrin clot, which stabilizes the plug and prevents further bleeding. Each coagulation factor has a specific role in the coagulation cascade, and deficiencies or abnormalities in any of these factors can lead to bleeding disorders. For example, hemophilia is a genetic disorder that affects the production of certain coagulation factors, leading to excessive bleeding. In the medical field, blood coagulation factors are often used as diagnostic tools to identify bleeding disorders or to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions. They may also be used in laboratory tests to assess the risk of blood clots forming in the body, which can be a serious health concern for people with certain medical conditions.
Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid (SFC) is a separation technique used in the medical field to separate and analyze complex mixtures of compounds. It is a type of chromatography that uses supercritical fluids as the mobile phase instead of traditional solvents. Supercritical fluids are liquids at temperatures and pressures above their critical point, which results in unique properties that make them useful in chromatography. They have a high density, low viscosity, and high solubility, which allows for efficient separation of compounds with a wide range of polarities. In SFC, the sample is dissolved in a supercritical fluid, which is then introduced into a column packed with a stationary phase. As the fluid flows through the column, the compounds in the sample interact with the stationary phase and are separated based on their chemical properties. The separated compounds are then detected and quantified using various analytical techniques. SFC is commonly used in the medical field for the analysis of complex mixtures of compounds, such as those found in biological samples, pharmaceuticals, and food products. It has several advantages over traditional chromatography techniques, including faster analysis times, higher resolution, and the ability to separate a wider range of compounds.
Biolistics is not a commonly used term in the medical field. It is possible that you may be referring to "biotechnology" or "biological engineering," which are fields that involve the use of living organisms and biological systems to develop new products, technologies, and treatments. These fields encompass a wide range of applications, including drug discovery, gene therapy, tissue engineering, and agricultural biotechnology.
In the medical field, "administration, oral" refers to the process of delivering medication or other substances to a patient through the mouth. This can include tablets, capsules, liquids, powders, or other forms of medication that are designed to be taken orally. Oral administration is one of the most common methods of medication delivery, as it is convenient and generally well-tolerated by patients. However, it is important to note that not all medications are suitable for oral administration, and some may require alternative routes of delivery, such as injection or inhalation. Additionally, the effectiveness of oral medication can be affected by factors such as the patient's age, health status, and the specific medication being used.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is a naturally occurring compound that is commonly used in the medical field. It is a hard, white, crystalline solid that is composed of silicon and oxygen atoms. In the medical field, silicon dioxide is used in a variety of applications, including as a pharmaceutical excipient, a food additive, and a wound dressing material. It is often used as a carrier for other active ingredients in medications, as it can help to improve the stability and bioavailability of the drug. Silicon dioxide is also used in the production of various medical devices, such as implants and prosthetics, as well as in the manufacturing of dental materials and orthopedic implants. In addition to its use in medical applications, silicon dioxide is also used in a variety of other industries, including electronics, construction, and cosmetics.
Thrombophilia is a medical condition characterized by an increased tendency to form blood clots. This can lead to a variety of health problems, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and stroke. Thrombophilia can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, and certain medical conditions. It is typically diagnosed through blood tests that measure the levels of clotting factors in the blood. Treatment for thrombophilia may include medications to prevent blood clots, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
In the medical field, ferric compounds refer to compounds that contain the ferric ion (Fe3+), which is a form of iron. Ferric compounds are commonly used in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia, a condition in which the body does not have enough iron to produce healthy red blood cells. There are several types of ferric compounds that are used in medical treatment, including ferrous sulfate (also known as iron sulfate), ferrous fumarate, ferrous gluconate, and ferric carboxymaltose. These compounds are typically administered orally or intravenously, and they work by providing the body with the iron it needs to produce red blood cells. Ferric compounds can also be used to treat other conditions, such as iron overload disorders, where the body has too much iron. In these cases, ferric compounds may be used to remove excess iron from the body through a process called chelation therapy. It is important to note that ferric compounds can have side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, and dark stools. It is also important to follow the recommended dosage and to speak with a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about taking ferric compounds.
Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) is a fluorescent dye that is commonly used in the medical field for various diagnostic and research purposes. It is a water-soluble, yellow-green fluorescent dye that is highly sensitive to light and can be easily excited by ultraviolet light. In medical applications, FITC is often used as a fluorescent marker to label cells, proteins, and other molecules. It can be conjugated to antibodies, nucleic acids, and other molecules to enable visualization and analysis of these molecules in cells and tissues. FITC is also used in diagnostic tests, such as flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, to detect and quantify specific cells or molecules in biological samples. It is also used in research to study cell biology, immunology, and other areas of biomedical science. Overall, FITC is a valuable tool in the medical field due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use.
Biological availability refers to the proportion of a drug or other substance that is able to enter the bloodstream and become available for therapeutic action after it has been administered to a patient. It is a measure of how much of a drug is able to reach the target site in the body and exert its intended effect. There are several factors that can affect the biological availability of a drug, including the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, intramuscular), the formulation of the drug (e.g., tablet, capsule, liquid), the presence of food in the stomach, and the patient's individual characteristics (e.g., age, weight, liver function). In general, drugs that are administered orally have lower biological availability than those that are administered intravenously, because some of the drug is absorbed by the stomach and liver before it reaches the bloodstream. Formulations that are designed to enhance the absorption of a drug, such as those that use sustained-release technology, can also affect the biological availability of the drug. Understanding the biological availability of a drug is important for optimizing its therapeutic effect and minimizing potential side effects. It is also important for ensuring that drugs are dosed appropriately and that patients receive the correct amount of the drug to achieve the desired therapeutic effect.
Serum Albumin, Bovine is a type of albumin, which is a type of protein found in the blood plasma of mammals. It is derived from the blood of cows and is used as a source of albumin for medical purposes. Albumin is an important protein in the body that helps to maintain the osmotic pressure of blood and transport various substances, such as hormones, drugs, and fatty acids, throughout the body. It is often used as a plasma expander in patients who have lost a significant amount of blood or as a replacement for albumin in patients with liver disease or other conditions that affect albumin production.
Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate (STS) is a medication that is used to treat deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). It works by thinning the blood and preventing blood clots from forming. STS is usually given as an injection into a vein, and the dosage and frequency of the injections will depend on the severity of the condition being treated. It is important to note that STS can have side effects, including allergic reactions, bleeding, and damage to the veins. It should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Dendrimers are a type of nanomaterial that are composed of a central core surrounded by branched arms, or dendrons. They are typically synthesized using a bottom-up approach, where monomers are added to the core one by one to build up the dendritic structure. Dendrimers have a well-defined size and shape, and their branched structure allows them to encapsulate a large number of molecules or drugs within their interior cavities. In the medical field, dendrimers have been explored for a variety of applications, including drug delivery, imaging, and gene therapy. Because of their small size and ability to encapsulate drugs, dendrimers have the potential to improve the efficacy and reduce the side effects of many drugs. They can also be used as imaging agents to help visualize specific cells or tissues within the body. Additionally, dendrimers have been used to deliver genes to cells, which could potentially be used to treat genetic diseases.
The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds and encloses the cell. It is composed of a phospholipid bilayer, which consists of two layers of phospholipid molecules arranged tail-to-tail. The hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids face inward, while the hydrophilic heads face outward, forming a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment. The cell membrane also contains various proteins, including channels, receptors, and transporters, which allow the cell to communicate with its environment and regulate the movement of substances in and out of the cell. In addition, the cell membrane is studded with cholesterol molecules, which help to maintain the fluidity and stability of the membrane. The cell membrane plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and function of the cell, and it is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell signaling, cell adhesion, and cell division.
Fullerenes are a type of carbon molecule that are composed of a hollow, spherical structure made up of 60 or more carbon atoms. They have been studied for their potential medical applications due to their unique properties, including their high stability, low toxicity, and ability to act as antioxidants. In the medical field, fullerenes have been investigated for their potential use in a variety of applications, including cancer treatment, wound healing, and neuroprotection. For example, some studies have suggested that fullerenes may be effective in killing cancer cells or preventing their growth, while others have explored their potential to promote tissue repair and regeneration. However, it is important to note that the use of fullerenes in medicine is still in the early stages of research, and more studies are needed to fully understand their potential benefits and risks. As such, fullerenes are not currently approved for use in any medical treatments.
Mannitol is a naturally occurring sugar alcohol that is used in the medical field as a diuretic and osmotic agent. It is used to increase urine output and reduce intracranial pressure in patients with conditions such as brain injury, stroke, and elevated intracranial pressure. Mannitol is also used to treat dehydration, as well as to prevent and treat kidney stones. It is available in oral and intravenous forms and is generally considered safe when used as directed.
Inflammation is a complex biological response of the body to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is a protective mechanism that helps to eliminate the cause of injury, remove damaged tissue, and initiate the healing process. Inflammation involves the activation of immune cells, such as white blood cells, and the release of chemical mediators, such as cytokines and prostaglandins. This leads to the characteristic signs and symptoms of inflammation, including redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function. Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response that lasts for a few days to a few weeks and is usually beneficial. Chronic inflammation, on the other hand, is a prolonged response that lasts for months or years and can be harmful if it persists. Chronic inflammation is associated with many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune disorders.
Case-control studies are a type of observational study used in the medical field to investigate the relationship between an exposure and an outcome. In a case-control study, researchers identify individuals who have experienced a particular outcome (cases) and compare their exposure history to a group of individuals who have not experienced the outcome (controls). The main goal of a case-control study is to determine whether the exposure was a risk factor for the outcome. To do this, researchers collect information about the exposure history of both the cases and the controls and compare the two groups to see if there is a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of the exposure between the two groups. Case-control studies are often used when the outcome of interest is rare, and it is difficult or unethical to conduct a prospective cohort study. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to recall bias, where participants may not accurately remember their exposure history. Additionally, because case-control studies only provide information about the association between an exposure and an outcome, they cannot establish causality.
Apoptosis is a programmed cell death process that occurs naturally in the body. It is a vital mechanism for maintaining tissue homeostasis and eliminating damaged or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, cells undergo a series of changes that ultimately lead to their death and removal from the body. These changes include chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, and the formation of apoptotic bodies, which are engulfed by neighboring cells or removed by immune cells. Apoptosis plays a critical role in many physiological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair, and immune function. However, when apoptosis is disrupted or dysregulated, it can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.
Fluorescein is a water-soluble yellow-green dye that is commonly used in the medical field for diagnostic purposes. It is often injected into the bloodstream or applied topically to the skin or mucous membranes to visualize blood vessels, detect inflammation, and assess the integrity of the retina in the eye. Fluorescein is absorbed by the blood vessels and emits a bright green fluorescence when exposed to ultraviolet light. This allows healthcare providers to visualize the blood vessels and detect any abnormalities, such as leaks or blockages, that may be present. Fluorescein is also used in ophthalmology to detect and diagnose a variety of eye conditions, including macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and retinal detachment. In these cases, a small amount of fluorescein dye is injected into the bloodstream and allowed to circulate before being absorbed by the retina. The dye then emits a bright green fluorescence, allowing healthcare providers to visualize the retina and detect any abnormalities or damage. Overall, fluorescein is a valuable tool in the medical field for visualizing blood vessels and detecting a variety of conditions and abnormalities.
Cytophagocytosis is a process in which a cell engulfs and digests another cell or cellular debris. It is a type of phagocytosis, which is the process by which cells engulf and digest foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and dead cells. In cytophagocytosis, the cell that is being engulfed is typically a smaller cell, such as a red blood cell or a white blood cell. The engulfing cell, which is usually a macrophage or a neutrophil, extends its plasma membrane around the target cell and forms a phagosome, which is a vesicle that contains the engulfed cell. Once the phagosome has formed, it fuses with a lysosome, which is a organelle that contains digestive enzymes. The enzymes break down the engulfed cell, and the resulting nutrients are absorbed by the engulfing cell. Cytophagocytosis plays an important role in the immune system, as it helps to remove damaged or infected cells from the body. It is also involved in the process of tissue repair and regeneration.
In the medical field, a suspension is a type of medication that is administered as a liquid or powder that is suspended in a liquid. Suspensions are typically used when a medication needs to be given in a form that is not available as a tablet, capsule, or other solid form. Suspensions can be made from a variety of ingredients, including active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), excipients, and stabilizers. APIs are the active ingredients that provide the therapeutic effect of the medication, while excipients are substances that help to improve the stability, texture, or taste of the suspension. Stabilizers are added to prevent the API from settling out of the suspension and to ensure that the suspension remains homogeneous. Suspensions are commonly used to deliver medications to children, as well as to patients who have difficulty swallowing solid forms of medication. They can also be used to deliver medications that are not available in solid form, such as certain vaccines or antiviral medications. It is important to note that suspensions can be more prone to contamination and degradation than solid forms of medication, so they must be stored and handled properly to maintain their effectiveness and safety.
In the medical field, glycolates refer to compounds that contain the functional group -COOH, which is known as a carboxyl group. Glycolates are often used as intermediates in the production of other compounds, such as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. One common example of a glycolate in medicine is glycolic acid, which is used in skin care products and as an ingredient in certain acne treatments. Glycolic acid is a type of alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) that is derived from sugar cane and has been shown to exfoliate the skin, improve skin texture, and reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Glycolates can also be used as a preservative in certain medical products, such as eye drops and injectable medications. They work by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms that can cause infections in these products. Overall, glycolates play an important role in the production of a wide range of medical products and have a variety of applications in the field of medicine.
In the medical field, a spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction or tightening of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms can occur in any part of the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, nerve damage, muscle fatigue, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and certain medications. Spasms can range in severity from mild twitches to severe, painful contractions that can interfere with normal movement and function. Some common examples of spasm include muscle cramps, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and spasmodic dysphonia. Treatment for spasm depends on the underlying cause and can include medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to address the underlying issue and prevent further spasms.
In the medical field, a cell line refers to a group of cells that have been derived from a single parent cell and have the ability to divide and grow indefinitely in culture. These cells are typically grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the effects of drugs or investigating the underlying mechanisms of diseases. Cell lines are often derived from cancerous cells, as these cells tend to divide and grow more rapidly than normal cells. However, they can also be derived from normal cells, such as fibroblasts or epithelial cells. Cell lines are characterized by their unique genetic makeup, which can be used to identify them and compare them to other cell lines. Because cell lines can be grown in large quantities and are relatively easy to maintain, they are a valuable tool in medical research. They allow researchers to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on specific cell types, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of diseases at the cellular level.
Mefenamic acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to relieve pain and reduce inflammation. It is available over-the-counter in some countries and is also used as a prescription medication for more severe conditions. Mefenamic acid works by blocking the production of prostaglandins, which are chemicals that cause pain, inflammation, and fever. It is used to treat a variety of conditions, including menstrual cramps, headaches, and osteoarthritis. Mefenamic acid can cause side effects, including stomach pain, nausea, and dizziness. It should not be taken by people who are allergic to aspirin or other NSAIDs, or by people who have a bleeding disorder or stomach ulcers.
Biodegradation, Environmental in the medical field refers to the process by which microorganisms break down and consume organic matter in the environment. This process is important in the management of medical waste, as it helps to reduce the amount of waste that is sent to landfills and reduces the risk of environmental contamination. Biodegradation can occur naturally, through the action of microorganisms in the environment, or it can be accelerated through the use of biodegradable materials or biodegradation agents. In the medical field, biodegradation is often used to dispose of medical waste, such as bandages, gauze, and other materials that are contaminated with bodily fluids or other potentially infectious materials.
Cell-free fetal DNA
Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry
Single particle analysis
Dissolved organic carbon
Passive daytime radiative cooling
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2
Decompression Sickness: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
Anandarup GOSWAMI | Associate Professor | Doctor of Philosophy | Research profile
Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Mediterranean Diet and Endothelial Function: A Review of its Effects at Different Vascular Bed...
Exosomal STAT1 derived from high phosphorus‑stimulated vascular endothelial cells induces vascular smooth muscle cell...
IMCES publications in the 2010s
Preeclampsia, Hypoxia, Thrombosis, and Inflammation
Staff member - Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia
OPUS at UTS: Search - Open Publications of UTS Scholars
Purpose of review Microvesicles in general and exosomes together with their | bioskinrevive.com
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
STAT1 Polyclonal Antibody (10144-2-AP)
Extracellular Vesicles: EV Production, Characterization, And Quantification Methods | Corning
New know-how permits molecules to enter cells safely | BestTech247.com
Junlang Li - Citation Index - NCSU Libraries
Antigen-presenting cell-derived extracellular vesicles in accelerating atherosclerosis | Biomedical Research and Therapy...
People - The University of Nottingham
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
Role of extracellular RNA-carrying vesicles in cell differentiation and reprogramming. - Unicyte
Biodistribution, migration and homing of systemically applied mesenchymal stem/stromal cells - Stem Cells Lab
Pathophysiology of trauma-induced coagulopathy: disseminated intravascular coagulation with the fibrinolytic phenotype |...
Human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells-derived secretome could inhibit breast cancer growth in vitro and in vivo
Macrophage M2 polarization induced by exosomes from adipose-derived stem cells contributes to the exosomal proangiogenic effect...
Circulation on the Run: Circulation January 17, 2017 Issue
Protocol for the Characterization of Human Th9 Cells: R&D Systems
NHANES 2011-2012: Vitamin B12 Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies
Department of Medicine | Lab Land
Vascular Regeneration by Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Health and Diseases | IntechOpen
- The mechanism of how the calcification signal from endothelial cells is transmitted to vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) remains unknown. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Reductions in uteroplacental flow initiate a cascade of molecular effects leading to hypoxia, thrombosis, inflammation, and endothelial cell dysfunction resulting in untoward pregnancy outcomes. (hindawi.com)
- Similarly, sEng is a truncated form of receptor for two subtypes of transforming growth factor beta (TGF β ) specifically, TGF β 1 and TGF β 2 which are highly expressed by vascular endothelial cells and syncytiotrophoblasts. (hindawi.com)
- Mast cell-derived exosomes activate endothelial cells to secrete plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1. (bioskinrevive.com)
- Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2005 25 [PubMed] 48 Dignat-George F Boulanger CM. The countless encounters of endothelial microparticles. (bioskinrevive.com)
- Great glucose condition boosts NADPH oxidase activity in endothelial microparticles that promote vascular irritation. (bioskinrevive.com)
- Elevated ratio of Compact disc31+/Compact disc42- microparticles to endothelial progenitors being a book marker of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemia. (bioskinrevive.com)
- The partnership between circulating endothelial microparticles and arterial atherosclerosis and stiffness in children with chronic kidney disease. (bioskinrevive.com)
- Notch activation induces endothelial cell senescence and pro-inflammatory response: implication of Notch signaling in atherosclerosis. (bioskinrevive.com)
- Atherosclerosis 2012 225 [PMC free of charge content] [PubMed] 56 Quillard T Devalliere J Coupel S Charreau B. Irritation dysregulates Notch signaling in endothelial cells: implication of Notch2 and Notch4 to endothelial dysfunction. (bioskinrevive.com)
- Endothelial cell-derived microparticles induce plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation: potential implications in inflammatory illnesses. (bioskinrevive.com)
- Atheroprotective conversation between endothelial cells and even muscles cells through miRNAs. (bioskinrevive.com)
- The review focuses on the role of APC-derived EVs in regulating the transformation of macrophage phenotype, shaping foam cells, driving autophagy and/or inhibiting apoptosis of Th4 + cells, T regulatory cells, endothelial and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), as well as in facilitating oxidative stress in vasculature. (bmrat.org)
- They are secreted by a wide array of cells, including cardiac myocytes, mature and progenitor endothelial cells, mesenchymal stem cells, immune cells like antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and malignant cells 5 , 6 . (bmrat.org)
- The aim of this study was to determine if resuscitation with lactated Ringer's (LR), whole blood (WB), packed red blood cells (RBCs), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), platelet poor plasma, balanced RBC:PRP (1:1), or day 14 (d14) RBC would best minimize endothelial damage following shock. (bvsalud.org)
- However, TM is a receptor of thrombin and protein C on the endothelial cell surface and regulates the coagulation and complement system [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Soluble TM is formed via the limited proteolysis of TM by neutrophil elastase on the endothelial cell surface [ 16 , 17 ], but it has not been confirmed that soluble TM is actively secreted by endothelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Furthermore, soluble TM has only 20% of activity of normal TM on the endothelial cell surface [ 18 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Conditioned medium from these M2-like macrophages presented lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines and higher levels of proangiogenic factors and promoted endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation. (biomedcentral.com)
- The first paper provides mechanistic evidence that endothelial-derived microparticles may play a key role in the development of endothelial dysfunction following acute coronary syndrome. (libsyn.com)
- In this paper from first author, Dr. Abbas, co-corresponding authors, Dr. Toti and Morel from the University of Strasbourg in France, authors expose core sign coronary artery endothelial cells to microparticles shed from senescent cells, or circulating microparticles from patients with acute coronary syndrome. (libsyn.com)
- Depletion of endothelial-derived microparticles from acute coronary syndrome patients reduced the induction of senescence. (libsyn.com)
- On the other hand, pro-senescent microparticles promoted endothelial cell thrombogenicity. (libsyn.com)
- These microparticles exhibited angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and upregulated AT1 receptors and ACE in endothelial cells. (libsyn.com)
- Losartan and AT1 receptor antagonist and inhibitors of either MAT kinases or PI3-kinase prevented the microparticle-induced endothelial senescence. (libsyn.com)
- In summary, these findings indicate that endothelial-derived microparticles from acute coronary syndrome patients induce premature endothelial senescence and thrombogenicity suggesting that targeting endothil-derived microparticles and their bioactivity may be a promising therapeutic strategy to limit the development of endothelial dysfunction post-acute coronary syndrome. (libsyn.com)
- Human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs) are adult stem cells, located in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. (intechopen.com)
- These cells can be differentiated into mature endothelial cells, which are involved in processes of angiogenesis and vessel regeneration. (intechopen.com)
- Different phenotypes and subtypes of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), such as early and late EPCs, have been described according to their functionality. (intechopen.com)
- Thus, it has been shown that early EPCs release cytokines that promote tissue regeneration and neovasculogenesis, whereas late EPC and endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) contribute to the formation of blood vessels and stimulate tube formation. (intechopen.com)
- Exosomes derived from HP‑HUVECs promoted the calcification of VSMCs, as assessed by Alizarin Red S staining, alkaline phosphatase activity assays, Ca content measurements and the increased expression of runt‑related transcription factor 2 and osteopontin. (spandidos-publications.com)
- In conclusion, the present results indicated that exosomal STAT1 derived from HP‑treated HUVECs could promote VSMC calcification, and activation of the Wnt/β‑catenin pathway may be a potential mechanism of the VSMC calcification promoted by exosomes. (spandidos-publications.com)
- ICAM-1 on exosomes from older dendritic cells is crucial for effective naive T-cell priming. (bioskinrevive.com)
- Classification of vesicles into exosomes, originating from the membrane of the endosomal compartment, and microvesicles, derived from plasma membrane budding, is based on their biogenesis . (unicyte.ch)
- 9. Fatima F, Nawaz M. Stem cell-derived exosomes: roles in stromal remodeling, tumor progression, and cancer immunotherapy. (ac.ir)
- Mesenchymal stem cells-derived exosomes are more immunosuppressive than microparticles in inflammatory arthritis. (ac.ir)
- 13. Wang X, Omar O, Vazirisani F, Thomsen P, Ekström K. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes have altered microRNA profiles and induce osteogenic differentiation depending on the stage of differentiation. (ac.ir)
- 14. Yang Y, Bucan V, Baehre H, Von Der Ohe J, Otte A, Hass R. Acquisition of new tumor cell properties by MSC-derived exosomes. (ac.ir)
- M2 macrophages and exosomes from adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are both reported to promote angiogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Unlike living cells, exosomes are submicron vesicles that target recipient cells to deliver their cargo for cell-cell communication. (biomedcentral.com)
- Controversial results have been reported regarding the anti-tumor properties of extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). (ac.ir)
- The present study was conducted to evaluate whether secretome derived from Human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSCs) may stimulate or inhibit breast cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. (ac.ir)
- 1. Usha L, Rao G, Christopherson II K, Xu X. Mesenchymal stem cells develop tumor tropism but do not accelerate breast cancer tumorigenesis in a somatic mouse breast cancer model. (ac.ir)
- Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human adipose tissues favor tumor cell growth in vivo. (ac.ir)
- 4. Yang J, Lv K, Sun J, Guan J. Anti-tumor effects of engineered mesenchymal stem cells in colon cancer model. (ac.ir)
- 5. Ahn J-O, Coh Y-R, Lee H-W, Shin I-S, Kang S-K, Youn H-Y. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibit melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. (ac.ir)
- Human mesenchymal stem cells exert potent antitumorigenic effects in a model of Kaposi's sarcoma. (ac.ir)
- Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells display anti-cancer activity in SCID mice bearing disseminated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma xenografts. (ac.ir)
- Membrane vesicles, actively released by cells, represent a mechanism of intercellular communication that is conserved evolutionarily and involves the transfer of molecules able to induce epigenetic changes in recipient cells. (unicyte.ch)
- These include macrophage and smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic switching and various inflammatory signaling, such as IL-33/suppression of tumorigenesis 2 (ST2), Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathways, and JAK-STAT signaling pathways 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 . (bmrat.org)
- Traditionally, M2 polarization is driven by anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted by T helper 2 cells in the late stages of infection [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Extracellular vesicles act as a cell's transfer signals - these nanoparticles, which contain protein, sugars, and other biological materials, communicate with adjacent cells and tissues to transmit messages, such as whether a cell is healthy or in distress. (corning.com)
- Role of extracellular RNA-carrying vesicles in cell differentiation and reprogramming. (unicyte.ch)
- Growing evidence suggests that transcriptional regulators and secreted RNA molecules encapsulated within membrane vesicles modify the phenotype of target cells. (unicyte.ch)
- These vesicles can transfer signals capable of altering cell function and/or reprogramming targeted cells. (unicyte.ch)
- Cell-secreted vesicles have emerged as an integral com- ponent of intercellular exchange of information (Fig. 1). (unicyte.ch)
- This concept is based on the observation that vesicles may transfer different types of signals between cells [7, 8]. (unicyte.ch)
- 10. Rani S, Ryan AE, Griffin MD, Ritter T. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles: toward cell-free therapeutic applications. (ac.ir)
- In the present review we focus on the extracellular vesicle-induced epigenetic changes in recipient cells that may lead to phenotypic and functional modifications. (unicyte.ch)
- In particular, stem cells are highly sensitive to extracellular signals that play a critical role in mainten- ance of stem cell characteristics, differentiation, and interplay with somatic cells. (unicyte.ch)
- Similarly, reprogramming of somatic cells involves a complex interaction among intracellular and extracellular signals leading to epigenetic remodeling . (unicyte.ch)
- Homeostasis of extracellular ATP in uninfected RBCs from a Plasmodium falciparum culture and derived microparticles. (ulaval.ca)
- Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) produce and release a broad spectrum of EVs involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. (bmrat.org)
- Numerous animal studies as well as observational and clinical trials have shown that atherosclerosis arises from immune activation, with several cell-type specific pathways involved. (bmrat.org)
- hEPCs have been used for cell-based therapies due to their capacity to contribute in the re-endothelialization of injured blood vessels and neovascularization in ischemic tissues. (intechopen.com)
- Further transfusion should be delayed until the cause of the reaction is known, unless the need is urgent, in which case type O Rh-negative red blood cells (RBCs) should be used. (msdmanuals.com)
- They showed that exposure to these microparticles induced increase senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, oxidative stress, and early phosphorylation of MAP kinases and AKT, and upregulation of p53, p21 and p16. (libsyn.com)
- More refinement of these approaches are necessary before clinical use, Â but it illustrates how engineered mixtures of progenitor cells and supportive materials are becoming increasingly sophisticated and complicated . (emoryhealthsciblog.com)
- Yet the existing science surrounding EVs implies a dynamic modality possessing a comparable or even superior therapeutic capacity than their parent cells. (corning.com)
- Additionally, for many other engineered or synthetic advanced therapies, the amount of therapeutic agent required to elicit an efficacious response is high, necessitating their conveyance in a larger nanoparticle or a microparticle much larger than an EV. (corning.com)
- The potential EVs possess for the field of acellular therapies - treatments derived from acellular products that achieve the same therapeutic response without delivering entire cells - is an exciting one. (corning.com)
- Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are increasingly used as an intravenously applied cellular therapeutic. (stemcellslab.net)
- Later, Arnold Caplan's group described mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) as multipotent mesenchymal cell populations which can differentiate into several tissue types, and demonstrated roles for MSCs in the regeneration of bone, cartilage or ligaments in animal and clinical studies [2-4]. (stemcellslab.net)
- Pivotal studies by the group of Horwitz in children with osteogenesis imperfecta, an inherited enzyme deficiency of collagen synthesis by mesenchymal cells in bone, opened the field for intravenous use of MSCs. (stemcellslab.net)
- The tissue source of the MSCs was in most cases not decisive, and cells from various tissue sources were explored. (stemcellslab.net)
- and signals from the injected cells were found early after administration of the MSCs at the highest frequencies in the lungs, followed by liver and spleen. (stemcellslab.net)
- Targeting the H3K4 Demethylase KDM5B Reprograms the Metabolome and Phenotype of Melanoma Cells. (uni-due.de)
- Specifically, the employment of BC-Ppy compositesdrives partial H9c2 differentiation toward a cardiomyocyte-like phenotype.The scaffolds increase the expression of functional cardiac markersin H9c2 cells, indicative of a higher differentiation efficiency,which is not observed with plain BC. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
- Growth factors may act either in an autocrine or a paracrine fashion and their temporal and spatial concentration modulates the cell phenotype and function. (unicyte.ch)
- The cell phenotype is therefore determined by signals that target the cells received within a defined microenvironment. (unicyte.ch)
- Several other environmental factors including oxy- gen concentration and mechanical, metabolic, and bio- chemical conditions have been shown relevant in cell differentiation and have been reviewed extensively (Fig. 1) . (unicyte.ch)
- In vitro differentiation of Th9 cells from the larger CD4 + T cell population provides increased numbers of Th9 cells to facilitate research into their functions. (rndsystems.com)
- Following cell differentiation, flow cytometry can be used to verify the expression of established cell surface or intracellular markers of CD4 + T cell subsets. (rndsystems.com)
- Intracellular markers include transcription factors that control CD4 + T cell differentiation as well as signature cytokines as they traffic through secretory organelles. (rndsystems.com)
- The culture medium from CD4 + T cell differentiation procedures should be analyzed to confirm that the cells are secreting cytokines relevant to the desired cell subset. (rndsystems.com)
Improved cell viability1
- BC-Ppy scaffolds improved cell viability andattachment, promoting a desirable cardiomyoblast morphology. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
- Vascular even muscles cell calcification is normally mediated Heparin sodium by governed exosome secretion. (bioskinrevive.com)
- APC-derived EVs act as triggers of angiogenesis, neovascularization and inflammation through their participation in microvascular inflammation, angiogenesis, development of atherosclerotic plaques, and modulation of their instability. (bmrat.org)
- This chapter provides an overview of the key role of hEPC in promoting angiogenesis and their potential use for cell therapy. (intechopen.com)
- that may contrast with the procoagulatory part of platelet-derived larger microvesicles is definitely envisaged. (bioskinrevive.com)
- Th9 cells protect against helminth infection, promote CTL and NK cell mediated anti-tumor immunity, and contribute to chronic inflammation in allergic asthma, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, autoimmunity, and tuberculosis. (rndsystems.com)
- These findings demonstrate a systemic proinflammatory and procoagulant response to inhalation of environmentally derived fine and ultrafine PM and suggests a role for platelet activation in the cardiovascular and respiratory effects of particulate air pollution. (cdc.gov)
- Many clinical trials have used bone marrow-derived cells , and the benefits here appear to come mostly from the â€œparacrine" nurse function.Â A more ambitious approach is to use progenitor-type cells, which may have to come from iPS cells or cardiac stem cells isolated via biopsy-like procedures . (emoryhealthsciblog.com)
- This concept started from the observation that bone marrow transplantation can provide stromal cells able to synthesize intact collagen type I, replacing deficient patient cell function and ameliorating disease symptoms . (stemcellslab.net)
- Caneparo C, Chabaud S, Fradette J , Bolduc S. Evaluation of a Serum-Free Medium for Human Epithelial and Stromal Cell Culture. (ulaval.ca)
- Character cell biology 2012 14 [PubMed] 62 Peterson MF Otoc N Sethi JK et al. (bioskinrevive.com)
- Biology of Metastasis - Adhesion Molecules and Cell-Cell/Matrix Interactions 1 (Migration) ( MSc Oncology , A34C02/L/05 Tumour Physiology) (2015-present). (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Biology of Metastasis - Adhesion Molecules and Cell-Cell/Matrix Interactions 2 (Invasion) ( MSc Oncology , A34C02/L/05 Tumour Physiology) (2015-present). (nottingham.ac.uk)
- The molecular biology and genetics of brain tumour cells grown as 3D cultures better resembles the biology of the patients' tumour, when compared to traditional 2D cultures. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- The relevance of these phenomena in stem cell biology and tissue repair is discussed. (unicyte.ch)
- Cells can communicate via physical interactions, in- cluding membrane bridge formation, such as tunneling nanotubes and cytonemes, and/or through the release of soluble factors [1-3]. (unicyte.ch)
- For protocols to stain membrane-associated molecules or intracellular molecules (using either detergents or alcohol to permeabilize the cell membrane), please visit Flow Cytometry Protocols on our website. (rndsystems.com)
- Unlike whole cell therapies, EVs are acellular products, the equivalent of text messages sent back and forth in order to elicit reactions. (corning.com)
- Their small size confers other benefits, as well - too small to convey pathogens such as bacteria or viruses, EVs are also incapable of the unwanted replication or tumor formation that whole cell therapies can occasionally provoke. (corning.com)
- In the 1970s, Friedenstein and colleagues  first reported that locally applied culture-expanded populations of bone marrow stroma-derived fibroblastic cells remained at their injection sites under the kidney capsule, where an ectopic hematopoiesis was initiated. (stemcellslab.net)
- The current paper builds a bridge between the nurse and building block approaches, because the researchers mix two complementary types of cells: an angiogenic one derived from bone marrow cells that expands existing blood vessels, and a vasculogenic one derived from embryonic stem cells that drives formation of new blood vessels.Â Note: embryonic stem cells were of mouse origin, not human. (emoryhealthsciblog.com)
- 16. Wang J, Zheng Y, Zhao M. Exosome-Based Cancer Therapy: Implication for Targeting Cancer Stem Cells. (ac.ir)
- T helper type 9 (Th9) cells constitute one subset of CD4 + effector T cells and are characterized by the secretion of IL-9, IL-10, and IL-21. (rndsystems.com)
- Her research interests include the preparation and design of materials and scaffolds for in vitro and in vivo fundamental studies, and a further focus is the provision of useful tools to assess mechanisms that govern cell behavior in regenerative medicine. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
- In vitro experiments withcardiac fibroblasts and H9c2 cells confirmed the exceptional biocompatibilityof BC-Ppy composites. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
- Naive human umbilical cord matrix derived stem cells significantly attenuate growth of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. (ac.ir)
- Because EVs are much smaller than whole cells, they are able to cross biologic barriers with ease, in contrast to the relative mass of whole cells or the immunogenic responses triggered by certain synthetic products. (corning.com)
- Platelets were the only peripheral blood cells that were significantly elevated in number in CAPs-exposed mice. (cdc.gov)
- Th9 polarized cells are present in low abundance in normal human peripheral blood. (rndsystems.com)
- Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stained with APC-conjugated Mouse Anti-Human CD19 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB4867A ) and either (A) PE-conjugated Mouse Anti-Human CCR6 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB195P ) or (B) PE-conjugated Mouse IgG2B Isotype Control (Catalog # IC0041P ). (rndsystems.com)
- CD4 + T cell subsets exert diverse functions due to their expression of characteristic cytokines. (rndsystems.com)
- Determine the percentage of differentiated cells by flow cytometry using the suggested reagents shown in the table below. (rndsystems.com)
- To prepare cells for flow cytometry, wash the cells once with RPMI and resuspend them in 1 mL of RPMI, 2 mM L-glutamine, 10 units/mL penicillin, 10 µg/mL streptomycin, 10% FBS, 50 ng/mL PMA, and 1 µg/mL calcium ionomycin. (rndsystems.com)
- The results were publishedÂ October 8 inÂ Cell Metabolism . (emoryhealthsciblog.com)
- Stem cell biologist Young-sup Yoon and colleagues recently published a paper in Biomaterials in which the authors use chitosan , a gel-like carbohydrate material obtainedÂ by processing crustacean shells, to aid in cell retention and survival. (emoryhealthsciblog.com)
- In addition, the number and the migratory activity of these cells are inversely correlated with risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. (intechopen.com)
- The authors evaluated blood cell parameters and markers of platelet activation in mice exposed to concentrated ambient particulate matter (CAPs) from the San Joaquin Valley of California, a region with severe particulate matter (PM) pollution episodes. (cdc.gov)
- New research on how excess parathyroid hormone affects immune cells suggests that doctors could repurpose existing drugs to treat hyperparathyroidism without surgery. (emoryhealthsciblog.com)
- Tension between these two roles arises partly from the source of the cells. (emoryhealthsciblog.com)
- This process involves the ability of cells to change pheno- type depending upon specific signals. (unicyte.ch)