The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.
The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.
A potent mast cell degranulator. It is involved in histamine release.
Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Bacterial vaccines prepared from non-pathogenic, autologous bacteria of human origin. In Eastern Europe they are used in humans to treat chronic inflammatory disorders that are resistant to standard treatments. Worldwide they have veterinary use in all types of infectious disease.
A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.
An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
A common interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, usually occurring between 50-70 years of age. Clinically, it is characterized by an insidious onset of breathlessness with exertion and a nonproductive cough, leading to progressive DYSPNEA. Pathological features show scant interstitial inflammation, patchy collagen fibrosis, prominent fibroblast proliferation foci, and microscopic honeycomb change.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Upon activation the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT of the complex dissociates leaving a dimer of a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNIT bound to a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNIT.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A ubiquitously expressed family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that signal through interactions with a variety of second messengers as GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS; GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS; and HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS. The G12-G13 part of the name is also spelled G12/G13.
Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.

Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes induce mast cell activation and cytokine release. (1/1340)

The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is introduced into human hosts via tick bites. Among the cell types present in the skin which may initially contact spirochetes are mast cells. Since spirochetes are known to activate a variety of cell types in vitro, we tested whether B. burgdorferi spirochetes could activate mast cells. We report here that freshly isolated rat peritoneal mast cells or mouse MC/9 mast cells cultured in vitro with live or freeze-thawed B. burgdorferi spirochetes undergo low but detectable degranulation, as measured by [5-3H] hydroxytryptamine release, and they synthesize and secrete the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In contrast to findings in previous studies, where B. burgdorferi-associated activity was shown to be dependent upon protein lipidation, mast cell TNF-alpha release was not induced by either lipidated or unlipidated recombinant OspA. This activity was additionally shown to be protease sensitive and surface expressed. Finally, comparisons of TNF-alpha-inducing activity in known low-, intermediate-, and high-passage B. burgdorferi B31 isolates demonstrated passage-dependent loss of activity, indicating that the activity is probably plasmid encoded. These findings document the presence in low-passage B. burgdorferi spirochetes of a novel lipidation-independent activity capable of inducing cytokine release from host cells.  (+info)

Potent mast cell degranulation and vascular permeability triggered by urocortin through activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors. (2/1340)

Urocortin (Ucn) is related to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and both are released in the brain under stress where they stimulate CRH 1 and 2 receptors (CRHR). Outside the brain, they may have proinflammatory actions through activation of mast cells, which are located perivascularly close to nerve endings and degranulate in response to acute psychological stress. Here, we report that a concentration of intradermal Ucn as low as 10 nM induced dose-dependent rat skin mast cell degranulation and increased vascular permeability. This effect appeared to be equipotent to that of calcitonin gene-related peptide and neurotensin. Ucn-induced skin vasodilation was inhibited by pretreatment with the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate (cromolyn) and was absent in the mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice. The selective nonpeptide CRH receptor 1 antagonist, antalarmin and the nonselective peptide antagonist astressin both reduced vascular permeability triggered by Ucn but not that by Substance P or histamine. In contrast, the peptide antagonist alpha-helical CRH-(9-41) reduced the effect of all three. The vasodilatory effect of Ucn was largely inhibited by pretreatment with H1 receptor antagonists, suggesting that histamine is the major mediator involved in vitro. Neuropeptide depletion of sensory neurons, treatment with the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium, or in situ skin infiltration with the local anesthetic lidocaine did not affect Ucn-induced vascular permeability, indicating that its in situ effect was not mediated through the peripheral nervous system. These results indicate that Ucn is one of the most potent triggers of rat mast cell degranulation and skin vascular permeability. This effect of Ucn may explain stress-induced disorders, such as atopic dermatitis or psoriasis, and may lead to new forms of treatment.  (+info)

A functional granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor is required for normal chemoattractant-induced neutrophil activation. (3/1340)

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor that is widely used to treat neutropenia. In addition to stimulating polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) production, G-CSF may have significant effects on PMN function. Because G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR)-deficient mice do not have the expected neutrophilia after administration of human interleukin-8 (IL-8), we examined the effect of the loss of G-CSFR on IL-8-stimulated PMN function. Compared with wild-type PMNs, PMNs isolated from G-CSFR-deficient mice demonstrated markedly decreased chemotaxis to IL-8. PMN emigration into the skin of G-CSFR-deficient mice in response to IL-8 was also impaired. Significant chemotaxis defects were also seen in response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, zymosan-activated serum, or macrophage inflammatory protein-2. The defective chemotactic response to IL-8 does not appear to be due to impaired chemoattractant receptor function, as the number of IL-8 receptors and chemoattractant-induced calcium influx, actin polymerization, and release of gelatinase B were comparable to those of wild-type PMNs. Chemoattractant-induced adhesion of G-CSFR-deficient PMNs was significantly impaired, suggesting a defect in beta2-integrin activation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that selective defects in PMN activation are present in G-CSFR-deficient mice and indicate that G-CSF plays an important role in regulating PMN chemokine responsiveness.  (+info)

Neurotensin is a proinflammatory neuropeptide in colonic inflammation. (4/1340)

The neuropeptide neurotensin mediates several intestinal functions, including chloride secretion, motility, and cellular growth. However, whether this peptide participates in intestinal inflammation is not known. Toxin A, an enterotoxin from Clostridium difficile, mediates pseudomembranous colitis in humans. In animal models, toxin A causes an acute inflammatory response characterized by activation of sensory neurons and intestinal nerves and immune cells of the lamina propria. Here we show that neurotensin and its receptor are elevated in the rat colonic mucosa following toxin A administration. Pretreatment of rats with the neurotensin receptor antagonist SR-48, 692 inhibits toxin A-induced changes in colonic secretion, mucosal permeability, and histologic damage. Exposure of colonic explants to toxin A or neurotensin causes mast cell degranulation, which is inhibited by SR-48,692. Because substance P was previously shown to mediate mast cell activation, we examined whether substance P is involved in neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation. Our results show that neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation in colonic explants is inhibited by the substance P (neurokinin-1) receptor antagonist CP-96,345, indicating that colonic mast activation in response to neurotensin involves release of substance P. We conclude that neurotensin plays a key role in the pathogenesis of C. difficile-induced colonic inflammation and mast cell activation.  (+info)

Mucosal mast cell secretion processes imaged using three-photon microscopy of 5-hydroxytryptamine autofluorescence. (5/1340)

The secretion process of the mucosal mast cell line RBL-2H3 was imaged using infrared three photon excitation (3PE) of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) autofluorescence, a measurement previously difficult because of the technical intractability of deep UV optics. Images of prestimulation 5-HT distributions were analyzed in loaded cell populations (those incubated in a 5-HT-rich medium overnight) and in unloaded populations and were found to be strictly quantifiable by comparison with bulk population high-performance liquid chromatography measurements. Antigenically stimulated cells were observed to characteristically ruffle and spread as granular 5-HT disappeared with no detectable granule movement. Individual cells exhibited highly heterogeneous release kinetics, often with quasi-periodic bursts. Neighboring granule disappearances were correlated, indicative of either spatially localized signaling or granule-granule interactions. In one-half of the granule release events, weak residual fluorescence was visible suggestive of leftover 5-HT still bound to the granule matrix. The terminal stages of secretion (>300 s) consisted primarily of unresolved granules and remainder 5-HT leakage from already released granules.  (+info)

Tracking single secretory granules in live chromaffin cells by evanescent-field fluorescence microscopy. (6/1340)

We have observed secretory granules beneath the plasma membrane of chromaffin cells. Using evanescent-field excitation by epiillumination, we have illuminated a thin layer of cytosol where cells adhere to glass coverslips. Up to 600 frames could be recorded at diffraction-limited resolution without appreciable photodynamic damage. We localized single granules with an uncertainty of approximately 30 nm and tracked their motion in three dimensions. Granules in resting cells wander randomly as if imprisoned in a cage that leaves approximately 70 nm space around a granule. The "cage" itself moves only slowly (D = 2 x 10(-12) cm2/s). Rarely do granules arrive at or depart from the plasma membrane of resting cells. Stimulation increases lateral motion only slightly. After the plasma membrane has been depleted of granules by exocytosis, fresh granules can be seen to approach it at an angle. The method will be useful for exploring the molecular steps preceding exocytosis at the level of single granules.  (+info)

LXA4, aspirin-triggered 15-epi-LXA4, and their analogs selectively downregulate PMN azurophilic degranulation. (7/1340)

The eicosanoid lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is biosynthesized in vivo by cells present at inflammatory sites and appears to be an endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator. Further, in the presence of aspirin, the 15-epimer of LXA4 (15-epi-LXA4) is biosynthesized and may mediate some of aspirin's desirable bioactions. LXA4, 15-epi-LXA4, and their stable analogs inhibit inflammation in established animal models, indicating that these compounds may be useful for treating inflammatory disease states. To investigate the cellular mechanisms by which these lipid mediators downregulate inflammation, we investigated whether these eicosanoids could influence receptor-mediated degranulation of human neutrophils, an event thought to play a major causative role in several inflammatory disease states. LXA4, 15-epi-LXA4, and their stable analogs potently (IC50 < 1 nM) and selectively downregulated neutrophil release of azurophilic granule contents but did not affect other neutrophil secretory functions. Thus the cellular basis of action of these natural off-switches to inflammation appears to involve downregulation of neutrophil azurophilic granule release.  (+info)

Nerve growth factor modifies the expression of inflammatory cytokines by mast cells via a prostanoid-dependent mechanism. (8/1340)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is well recognized to have a number of potent effects on mast cells, including increasing mast cell numbers in vivo and inducing mast cell degranulation in vitro. More recently, NGF has been demonstrated to induce PGD2 production by mast cells through the induction of mast cell cyclooxygenase expression. We have observed that NGF at doses as low as 10 ng/ml will induce IL-6 production and inhibit TNF-alpha release from rat peritoneal mast cells in the presence of lysophosphatidylserine as a cofactor. NGF synergizes with LPS treatment of peritoneal mast cells (PMC) for the induction of IL-6. Examination of the mechanism of this phenomenon has revealed that NGF can induce both rat PMC and mouse bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells to produce substantial levels of PGE2. This response is maximal at later time points 18-24 h after NGF activation. The ability of NGF to induce PGE2 is not dependent on mast cell degranulation. Other stimuli capable of inducing IL-6, such as LPS, do not induce production of this prostanoid. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity by PMC using either flurbiprofen or indomethacin inhibited both the NGF-induced PGE2 synthesis and the NGF-induced alterations in TNF-alpha and IL-6 production. These results suggest a role for mast cell-derived prostanoids in the regulation of local inflammatory responses and neuronal degeneration after tissue injury involving induction of NGF production.  (+info)

Mast cells are responsible for the majority of allergic conditions. It was originally thought that almost all allergic events were mediated directly only via the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptors. However, recent evidence showed that many other receptors, such as G protein-coupled receptors and ligand-gated ion channels, are also directly involved in mast cell degranulation, the release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine, serine proteases, leukotrienes, heparin, and serotonin. These mediators are responsible for the symptoms in allergic conditions such as allergic asthma. In recent years, it has been realized that purinergic signaling, induced via the activation of G protein-coupled adenosine receptors and P2Y nucleotide receptors, as well as by ATP-gated P2X receptors, plays a significant role in mast cell degranulation. Both adenosine and ATP can induce degranulation and bronchoconstriction on their own and synergistically with allergens. All three classes of receptors, adenosine, P2X
To provide a cellular basis for the increased cutaneous anaphylaxis in Coro1a−/−Coro1b−/− mice, we examined FcεRI-mediated MC degranulation in coronin-deficient BMMCs by measuring the release of β-hexosaminidase from prestored MC granules. Interestingly, antigen-mediated cross-linking of FcεRI resulted in significantly enhanced release of β-hexosaminidase activity from Coro1a−/− BMMCs as compared with WT cells (Fig. 2 b). Although Coro1b−/− BMMCs showed normal degranulation, the additional loss of Coro1b further increased hyperdegranulation in Coro1a−/− BMMCs. For maximal activation, cells were also stimulated with PMA/ionomycin, which overrides the observed hyperdegranulation phenotype of Coro1a−/−Coro1b−/− BMMCs.. Increased FcεRI-mediated degranulation of Coro1a−/− and Coro1a−/−Coro1b−/− BMMCs was further confirmed by assessing the up-regulation of CD107a cell surface expression, which is a marker for granule exocytosis (Fig. 2 c). Again, ...
Our results clearly demonstrate that acute psychological stress induces cardiac mast cell degranulation in 30 min through the local release of CRH, since anti-CRH serum or affinity purified antibody to CRH could neutralize this effect. The same antiserum to CRH used here had previously been shown to block carrageenin-induced skin inflammation (Karalis et al., 1991) and stress-induced dura mast cell degranulation (Theoharides et al., 1995). Pretreatment with the CRHR-1 selective antagonist Antalarmin partially reduced stress-induced mast cell degranulation, implying that CRH receptors are involved. This finding is supported by the fact that CRH receptor mRNA was shown to be expressed in mouse heart (Stenzelet al., 1995). Direct CRHR-mediated mast cell degranulation has recently been demonstrated in rat skin although human leukemic mast cells were shown to express mRNA for CRHR1 (Theoharideset al., 1998). The fact that antalarmin was only a weak inhibitor may be due to its poor solubility or the ...
Mast cell degranulation, the release of allergic mediators, is important in allergy, asthma, and parasite defense. Here we demonstrate...
This study demonstrates an important role for the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2 in the integrin-mediated activation of PMNs that contributes to normal degranulation responses required for efficient host defense to S. aureus infection. Pyk2-deficient PMNs exhibited reduced degranulation responses following integrin ligation both in vitro and during bacterial infection in vivo; however, they responded normally to soluble agonists, suggesting that the integrin signaling pathway was the major response affected in the pyk2 mutant cells. It is clear that unlike Src-family or Syk tyrosine kinases, Pyk2 is acting in a more distal step in the integrin signaling pathway, because many integrin-mediated functions were normal in pyk2−/− PMNs, including attachment, adhesion, and integrin-mediated activation of superoxide production. These limited impairments correlate with the only partially reduced integrin-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation responses, although reduction in phosphorylation of specific ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Shenlu Qin, Xumeng Wang, Huanwen Wu, Peng Xiao, Hongqiang Cheng, Xue Zhang, Yuehai Ke].
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Phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) plays a major role in chronic inflammation and allergy. It is a heterodimer of a catalytic p110γ subunit and an adaptor protein, either p101 or the p101 homolog p84 (p87PIKAP). It is unclear whether both PI3Kγ complexes specifically modulate responses such as chemotaxis and degranulation. In mast cells, the p84:p110γ complex synergizes with immunoglobulin E (IgE)- and antigen-clustered FcɛRI receptor signaling and is required to achieve maximal degranulation. During this process, PI3Kγ is activated by ligands of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in particular adenosine receptors, through autocrine and paracrine pathways. Here, we show that p110γ needs p84 to relay signals from GPCRs to formation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3], phosphorylation of Akt, migration of cells, and synergistic adenosine-enforced degranulation. Furthermore, the absence of adaptor subunits ...
Organic killer (NK) cells mediate GVL effects after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) by the production of inflammatory cytokines and by direct target lysis. suppression showed diminished NK cell degranulation. In contrast degranulation was normal or increased after T-cell replete transplants given with immune suppression. Strikingly target cell-induced IFNγ production was markedly reduced in every transplant settings specifically with T cell-depleted or naive T cell-containing umbilical cable blood grafts recommending a job for T cells in NK education. Although degranulation was equivalent in the KIR and KIR+? populations that coexpressed NKG2A focus on cell-induced IFNγ creation was limited by the subset of NK cells expressing KIR inhibited by self-ligands. Hence cytokine production and cytotoxic function usually do not coexist in NK cells reconstituting following allo-HCT consistently. Contact with IL-15 rapidly elevated target-inducible IFNγ creation indicative of ...
Recently several studies have been demonstrated inconsistent results about the effect of MCs and their degranulation activity during I/R in some tissues(7,8,9,10).Yang et al reported that MC degranulation promotes I/R injury in liver of rats(7). ...
blood microparticle, extracellular exosome, extracellular matrix, extracellular region, extracellular space, ficolin-1-rich granule lumen, platelet alpha granule lumen, secretory granule lumen, neutrophil degranulation, platelet degranulation
Visit our website to browse Human IgE for mast cell degranulation assays, secondary and control antibodies for ELISA, western blot, IHC or flow cytometry. Save 10% on Human IgE, Secondary and Control Antibody products when you mention the Promo Code received with our monthly emailer at time of order. Offer valid until August 31, 2016. Not valid for distributors and resellers.. Until July 15, 2016 - Buy a Lipodin Kit and Save 20% on Antibodies and Proteins. Abbiotec offers Lipodin-Pro and Lipodin-Ab, protein delivery reagents that transport biologically active proteins and antibodies into living cells. Buy a Lipodin kit and save 20% on catalog proteins and antibodies when you mention the Promo Code received with our monthly emailer at time of order. Offer valid until July 15, 2016. Not valid for distributors and resellers.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell Surface-Anchored Fluorescent Probe Capable of Real-Time Imaging of Single Mast Cell Degranulation Based on Histamine-Induced Coordination Displacement. AU - Oshikawa, Yuji. AU - Furuta, Kazuyuki. AU - Tanaka, Satoshi. AU - Ojida, Akio. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2016 American Chemical Society. Copyright: Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2016/2/2. Y1 - 2016/2/2. N2 - Mast cells secrete histamine upon degranulation triggered by various stimuli. Herein, we report the new detection method of mast cell degranulation using the fluorescent probe capable of detection of the released histamine. The probe was designed as the Co(II) complex of a cyanine dye, which shows a turn-on fluorescence signal based on a histamine-induced coordination displacement mechanism. Fluorescence imaging using the cell surface-anchored fluorescent probe enabled the real-time detection of mast cell degranulation induced by various secretagogues.. AB - Mast cells secrete histamine ...
Author(s): Hata, D; Kawakami, Y; Inagaki, N; Lantz, CS; Kitamura, T; Khan, WN; Maeda-Yamamoto, M; Miura, T; Han, W; Hartman, SE; Yao, L; Nagai, H; Goldfeld, AE; Alt, FW; Galli, SJ; Witte, ON; Kawakami, T | Abstract: We investigated the role of Brutons tyrosine kinase (Btk) in FcepsilonRI-dependent activation of mouse mast cells, using xid and btk null mutant mice. Unlike B cell development, mast cell development is apparently normal in these btk mutant mice. However, mast cells derived from these mice exhibited significant abnormalities in FcepsilonRI-dependent function. xid mice primed with anti-dinitrophenyl monoclonal IgE antibody exhibited mildly diminished early-phase and severely blunted late-phase anaphylactic reactions in response to antigen challenge in vivo. Consistent with this finding, cultured mast cells derived from the bone marrow cells of xid or btk null mice exhibited mild impairments in degranulation, and more profound defects in the production of several cytokines, upon FcepsilonRI
Resveratrol, a polyphenol abundant in peanuts, red wine and the skin of grapes, has been shown to have anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and may also have beneficial effects on allergic inflammation. We investigated the effects of resveratrol on human mast cell activation in comparison to the anti-allergy drug tranilast. In LAD2 mast cells, both resveratrol and tranilast inhibited degranulation induced by the mast cell activators substance P, IgE/anti-IgE, and compound 48/80. Resveratrol inhibition was immediate, preventing degranulation when added simultaneously to physiological stimuli, and the effect was sustained for up to 24 hrs. The inhibitory effect was not cAMP dependent, but may be attributable to calcium modulation, as resveratrol, and to a lesser extent tranilast, prevented substance P-induced increases in intracellular calcium. Resveratrol attenuated substance P-induced TNF and MCP-1 production and inhibited IgE-mediated release of cysteinyl leukotrienes, whereas
Mediators pre-stored in neutrophil azurophilic granules are central to the acute inflammatory response and tissue degradation and damage through their proteolytic activity. Different granule populations mobilize and release their content via distinct and hierarchical molecular mechanisms. The molecular mechanisms by which mediators pre-stored in azurophilic granules are mobilized and released to the extracellular space remain largely unknown. We used a number of complementary techniques including; confocal laser scanning microscopy, subcellular fractionation, flow cytometric analyses, Western blot analyses and electron microscopy to examine the ultrastructural and molecular nature of mediator release in neutrophil azurophilic granules. We found that following IL-8 activation, neutrophil azurophilic granules undergo piecemeal degranulation (selective mediator release) leading to altered granule content. Piecemeal degranulation of azurophilic granules is characterized by budding of small secretory ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of antigen-induced acute bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and mast cell degranulation by a nonanticoagulant heparin. T2 - Comparison with a low molecular weight heparin. AU - Ahmed, Tahir. AU - Campo, Carlos. AU - Abraham, Michael K.. AU - Molinari, Jussara F.. AU - Abraham, William M.. AU - Ashkin, David. AU - Syriste, Thomas. AU - Andersson, Lars O.. AU - Svahn, Carl M.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - Inhaled heparin prevents antigen-induced bronchoconstriction and inhibits anti-IgE-mediated mastcell degranulation. We hypothesized that the antiallergic action of heparin may be dependent on molecular weight and related to its nonanticoagulant properties. Therefore, in the present investigation we studied the effects of a nonanticoagulant fraction of heparin (LA-heparin) on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and mast-cell degranulation, and compared its antiallergic activity with that of a low molecular weight ...
Hydroxyl radical (.OH) formation by neutrophils in vitro requires exogenous iron. Two recent studies [Britigan, Rosen, Thompson, Chai & Cohen (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 17026-17032; Winterbourn (1987) J. Clin. Invest. 78, 545-550] both reported that neutrophil degranulation could potentially inhibit the formation of .OH, but differed in their conclusions as to the responsible factor, myeloperoxidase (MPO) or lactoferrin (LF). By using a previously developed spin-trapping system which allows specific on-line detection of superoxide anion (O2-) and .OH production, the impact of MPO and LF release on neutrophil .OH production was compared. When iron-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid-supplemented neutrophils were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or opsonized zymosan, .OH formation occurred, but terminated prematurely in spite of continued O2- generation. Inhibition of MPO by azide increased the magnitude, but not the duration, of .OH formation. No azide effect was noted when MPO-deficient ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in degranulation induced by IgE-dependent and -independent mechanisms in rat basophilic RBL-2H3 (ml) cells. AU - Hirasawa, Noriyasu. AU - Sato, Yukako. AU - Yomogida, Shin Ichi. AU - Mue, Suetsugu. AU - Ohuchi, Kazuo. PY - 1997/5/1. Y1 - 1997/5/1. N2 - We have examined the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) in the degranulation induced by the antigen, an IgE-dependent stimulant, and by carbachol and thapsigargin, IgE-independent stimulants, in the muscarine ml receptor-transfected mast cell line RBL-2H3 (ml) cells. These stimulants commonly increased PI3-kinase activity in the anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitate. The PI3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 inhibited the degranulation induced by these stimulants. The membrane ruffling induced by the antigen or carbachol was also inhibited by wortmannin. In contrast, thapsigargin induced by membrane ruffling but induced microspikes, which was not affected by wortmannin. ...
Background: The inflamed bronchial mucosal surface is a profoundly hypoxic environment. Neutrophilic airway inflammation and neutrophil-derived proteases have been linked to disease progression in conditions such as COPD and cystic fibrosis, but the effects of hypoxia on potentially harmful neutrophil functional responses such as degranulation are unknown. Methods and results: Following exposure to hypoxia (0.8% oxygen, 3 kPa for 4 h), neutrophils stimulated with inflammatory agonists (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor or platelet-activating factor and formylated peptide) displayed a markedly augmented (twofold to sixfold) release of azurophilic (neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase), specific (lactoferrin) and gelatinase (matrix metalloproteinase-9) granule contents. Neutrophil supernatants derived under hypoxic but not normoxic conditions induced extensive airway epithelial cell detachment and death, which was prevented by coincubation with the antiprotease α-1 antitrypsin; ...
Mast cells are best known for their function in hypersensitive reactions, where aggregation of FcRI leads to the release of mast cell mediators leading to hypersensitive symptoms. although activation-induced success is certainly suffered, suggesting a minimal function for Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bcl-w. Reducing but not really amounts by siRNA inhibited activation-induced mast cell success. We also demonstrate that mast cell phrase of Bfl-1 is certainly raised in birch-pollen-provocated epidermis and in lesions of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis sufferers. Used jointly, our outcomes high light Bfl-1 as a main effector in activation-induced individual mast cell success. Launch Mast cells are known to end up being central regulators and effectors in allergic illnesses. When a multivalent antigen binds to IgE occupying the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcRI), receptor aggregation and following mast cell account activation takes place. This total result in mast cell degranulation, adjustments in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of p38 MAP kinase and Smad3 in TGF-β-mediated mast cell functions. AU - Funaba, Masayuki. AU - Ikeda, Teruo. AU - Murakami, Masaru. AU - Ogawa, Kenji. AU - Nishino, Yoshii. AU - Tsuchida, Kunihiro. AU - Sugino, Hiromu. AU - Abe, Matanobu. PY - 2006/12/1. Y1 - 2006/12/1. N2 - Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) modulates functions of bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMMCs); cell maturation (up-regulation of mouse mast cell proteases (mmcps)), growth arrest and migration. We investigated the roles of p38 MAP kinase and Smad3 in TGF-β-mediated cell responses in BMMCs. Treating BMMCs with TGF-β induced the phosphorylation of p38 within 2 h and persisted for 24 h. The involvement of p38 in TGF-β-induced cell responses depended upon mast cell functions; it was necessary for up-regulation of mmcp-1 and migration, but not for up-regulation of mmcp-7 and inhibition of metabolic activity. New protein synthesis was required for the up-regulation of mmcp-1 but not ...
The regulated exocytosis of secretory granules containing preformed mediators such as perforin and granzymes by a natural killer cell. [ISBN:0781735149]
Other immune cells also play an important role in allergy and the allergic reaction. Activated B cells (or plasma cells) produce the IgE antibodies selectively in allergic individuals. B cells are also able to make other antibodies (including IgG) against allergens that do not lead to mast cell degranulation but are protective against allergic inflammation. Allergen-specific IgG antibody, but not IgE, has been found in nonallergic individuals, demonstrating that their immune systems can also recognize and respond to the allergen, but without inducing an inflammatory response.. When a previously sensitized person comes in contact with the same allergen for the second time, the allergen crosslinks two or more molecules of IgE on the same mast cell or basophil, leading to degranulation. The release of granules causes the effects of inflammation, either systemically or locally at the site of exposure (lungs, skin, etc.). These can include redness, swelling, itchiness, increased vascular ...
Dr. Dean Metcalfe, Head of the Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda MD, USA Coffee is served 15:00. Welcome! About Dean Metcalfe Dr. Metcalfe is a world leading scientist, particularly in the field of mast cell biology and mast cell functions related to human disease. He has published more than 500 scientific papers, including several seminal publications.
Cardiac mast cells store and release a variety of biologically active mediators, several of which have been implicated in the activation of matrix metalloproteinases in the volume-overloaded heart, while others are involved in the fibrotic process in
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acrolein induction of oxidative stress and degranulation in mast cells. AU - Hochman, Daniel J.. AU - Collaco, Christopher R.. AU - Brooks, Edward G. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Increases in asthma worldwide have been associated epidemiologically with expanding urban air pollution. The mechanistic relationship between airway hyper-responsiveness, inflammation, and ambient airborne triggers remains ambiguous. Acrolein, a ubiquitous aldehyde pollutant, is a product of incomplete combustion reactions. Acrolein is abundant in cigarette smoke, effluent from industrial smokestacks, diesel exhaust, and even hot oil cooking vapors. Acrolein is a potent airway irritant and can induce airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation in the lungs of animal models. In the present study, we utilized the mast cell analog, RBL-2H3, to interrogate the responses of cells relevant to airway inflammation and allergic responses as a model for the induction of asthma-like conditions upon exposure to ...
IgE binds to the surface of a class of white blood cells called mast cells. The presence of antigen that binds to the IgE leads to the release of granules by the mast cells that contain a number of mediators of inflammation, including histamine. These factors are important in immune response that protect us from parasites, including helminths (worms). Some humans are more likely to make an IgE response to non-pathogenic antigens, including pollens. These individuals suffer from allergies caused by IgE-stimulated mast cell degranulation ...
Degranulation assay of derived MCs.A. A representative result of flow cytometry on original CD34+ hematopoietic precursors using anti-FcεRI and anti-CD117 anti
Mast cells are tissue-resident hematopoietic cells. Because infectious agents enter the host through environmentally exposed barriers, such as the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract, mast cells are poised to be one of the first cell types to respond to invading pathogens. Furthermore, mast cells express a wide array of pattern recognition receptors that endow them with the ability to respond to a broad range of stimuli, such as infections and pathogenic conditions (51). It is well established that mast cells play crucial immune surveillance roles during bacterial and parasitic infections (8, 12). In contrast, the role of mast cells in the immune surveillance of viral infections has received less attention. In the current study, we examined the role of mast cells in sensing IAV infection and initiating the subsequent inflammatory response.. A primary rationale for our work stems from the recent work by Teijaro et al. (6), who demonstrated that blunting the cytokine storm ...
Mast cells are localized in tissues. Intense research on these cells over the years has demonstrated their role as effector cells in the maintenance of tissue integrity following injury produced by infectious agents, toxins, metabolic states etc. After stimulation they release a sophisticated array of inflammatory mediators, cytokines and growth factors to orchestrate an inflammatory response. These mediators can directly initiate tissue responses on resident cells, but they have also been shown to regulate other infiltrating immune cell functions. Research in recent years has revealed that the outcome of mast cell actions is not always detrimental for the host but can also limit disease development. In addition, mast cell functions highly depend on the physiological context in the organism. Depending on the genetic background, strength of the injurious event, the particular microenvironment, mast cells direct responses ranging from pro- to anti-inflammatory. It appears that they have evolved as
Click on a genes description to view its network relationships with genes known to be involved in regulation of leukocyte degranulation ...
Our data clearly demonstrates that mast cells express IL-33 both in vivo and in vitro and that IL-33 is upregulated upon activation, indicating that mast cells may be an important source of IL-33 during inflammation, likely via its roles as a cytokine ...
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (AATD) is characterised by excessive neutrophil degranulation and a protease: anti-protease imbalance leading to premature emphysema. Current specialised treatment for AATD consists of once weekly infusion of plasma purified AAT. Neutrophil degranulation is under the control of small GTP-binding proteins, including Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (Rac2). The molecular basis for aberrant neutrophil degranulation in AATD has not been elucidated to date. The aim of this study was to fully characterise neutrophil degranulation in AATD and to determine the effects of AAT augmentation therapy on the AATD neutrophil. In this study, we examined degranulation by AATD neutrophils by Western blotting. This revealed a 3-fold increase in levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), human cathelicidin antimicrobial protein (hCAP-18) and matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9), markers of primary, secondary and tertiary granules, respectively (p=0.023, p=0.036 and p=0.042, respectively).
Intravital multiphoton microscopy has provided insightful information of the dynamic process of immune cells in vivo. However, the use of exogenous labeling agents limits its applications. There is no method to perform functional imaging of mast cells, a population of innate tissue-resident immune cells. Mast cells are widely recognized as the effector cells in allergy. Recently their roles as immunoregulatory cells in certain innate and adaptive immune responses are being actively investigated. Here we report in vivo mouse skin mast cells imaging with two-photon microscopy using endogenous tryptophan as the fluorophore. We studied the following processes. 1) Mast cells degranulation, the first step in the mast cell activation process in which the granules are released into peripheral tissue to trigger downstream reactions. 2) Mast cell reconstitution, a procedure commonly used to study mast cells functioning by comparing the data from wild type mice, mast cell-deficient mice, and mast-cell deficient
Looking for basophil degranulation test? Find out information about basophil degranulation test. A white blood cell with granules that stain with basic dyes and are water-soluble Explanation of basophil degranulation test
Effective management of fibromyalgia symptoms is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach evaluating pain, function and the psychosocial milieu of the fibromyalgia patient. Response and tolerance to treatment varies among patients. Nonpharmacological interventions are a necessity and complement drug therapy. A strategic polypharmacy approach using drugs with different mechanisms of action can be helpful. An organized approach that manages the worst symptom first can facilitate easier management of the other symptoms. Effective symptom control is expanding as the underlying pathophysiology of fibromyalgia becomes clearer. The emergence of novel agents that are more effective in shutting down central sensitization may be more effective in treating this disabling condition. The provider can help by believing in the patient, and evaluating and treating the patient systematically. ...
The therapeutic effect of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant 10-(6´-plastoquinonyl)decyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (SkQ1) in experimental models of acute inflammation and wound repair has been shown earlier. It was suggested that the antiinflammatory activity of SkQ1 is related to its ability to suppress inflammatory activation of the vascular endothelium and neutrophil migration into tissues. Here, we demonstrated that SkQ1 inhibits activation of mast cell (MCs) followed by their degranulation and histamine release in vivo and in vitro. Intraperitoneal injections of SkQ1 in the mouse air-pouch model reduced the number of leukocytes in the air-pouch cavity and significantly decreased the histamine content in it, as well as suppressing MC degranulation in the air-pouch tissue. The direct effect of SkQ1 on MCs was studied in vitro in the rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cell line. SkQ1 inhibited induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells. These results suggest that mitochondrial reactive oxygen ...
Degranulation is a cellular process that releases antimicrobial cytotoxic or other molecules from secretory vesicles called granules found inside some cells. It is used by several different cells involved in the immune system, including granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils) and mast cells. It is also used by certain lymphocytes such as natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T cells, whose main purpose is to destroy invading microorganisms. Antigens interact with IgE molecules already bound to high affinity Fc receptors on the surface of mast cells to induce degranulation, via the activation of tyrosine kinases within the cell. The mast cell releases a mixture of compounds, including histamine, proteoglycans, serotonin, and serine proteases from its cytoplasmic granules. In a similar mechanism, activated eosinophils release preformed mediators such as major basic protein, and enzymes such as peroxidase, following interaction between their Fc receptors and IgE molecules that are ...
Ive been debating doing a month summary for all my doctor visits. Nothing detailed. Types of doctors seen and status of visit. Follow-up, new patient, etc. Im leaning towards doing this even though its a lot of work and being this sick is a job enough already. Ive also decided to try keeping a log of my mast cell explosion episodes since starting Xolair and understanding mast cell activation disease (or syndrome) better. Its so damned aggravating that the most information about MCAS on the internet comes from patients. For the Mast cell degranulation attacks (because I think thats probably the best description) Ill note what I assume are triggers, times, meds, and ALL symptoms. If youre reading this, what would you like to hear about?. ...
Control of Fyn kinase activity and mast cell degranulation is restored by retroviral transduction of Lyn kinase in Lyn-deficient mast cells. (a) Lyn−/− mast
It took years of immune and DNA testing to finally sort out all the issues. We still have one last mystery to solve having to do with the last stage of NK cell function. Cincinatti Childrens Hospital has some new tests that are fascinating and helping doctors understand better why some people cant finish off a virus or knock out cancer. When you cant respond properly with the high-powered immune attack, its like fighting a war without air strikes. So your only option is to send in loads of ground troops and thats basically what mast cell responses are doing. Theyre trying to protect your weak spots but in doing so, they also cause some collateral damage. If I try to suppress my TH2 responses too much with antihistamines or other mast cell degranulation suppressors, then I get relapses of viruses like EBV ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Prashanta Silwal, Keuna Shin, Seulgi Choi, Seong Wook Kang, Jin Bong Park, Hyang-Joo Lee, Suk-Jin Koo, Kun-Hoe Chung, Uk Namgung, Kyu Lim, Jun-Young Heo, Jong Il Park, Seung-Kiel Park].
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multifunctional cytokine expression by human mast cells. T2 - Regulation by T cell membrane contact and glucocorticoids. AU - Krishnaswamy, G.. AU - Lakshman, T.. AU - Miller, A. R.. AU - Srikanth, S.. AU - Hall, K.. AU - Huang, S. K.. AU - Suttles, J.. AU - Smith, J. K.. AU - Stout, R.. PY - 1997/3. Y1 - 1997/3. N2 - Human mast cells readily release a variety of mediators, including cytokines, in response to IgE receptor crosslinking, but the mechanisms governing the expression of cytokines are still unclear. Using a human mast cell line, HMC-I, we show expression of cytokine transcripts as early as 2 h after activation with ionomycin and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Resting HMC-I cells expressed transcripts for interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL- IRA), IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, GM-CSF, and weakly for IL-8, and stimulation with ionomycin and PMA induced additional transcripts for IL-6 and IL-13 and upregulated expression of IL-8 transcripts. HMC1 cells secreted IL-4, IL-8, and ...
In very severe cases of degranulation, the chemical soup generated by degranulating mast cells may lead to flushing of the body and the face, swelling of the eyes, nose and throat (angioedema), choking responses in the throat and loss of consciousness (anaphylaxis).. Moreover, because erupting (degranulating) mast cells dump high levels of histamines, prostaglandins, heparin, neutral proteases, acid hydrolases, chemokines, cytokines, etc. into the interstitial areas between cells, the body also experiences a form of toxic shock (Hermine et al., 2008). In some cases, the toxic shock is fatal. As if the ones listed arent bad enough, in that etc. after cytokines there can be dozens of other mediators flooding our bodies all at once!! This is another reason why its soooo important to avoid triggers (and subsequent degranulation) as much as possible. Its not just because it can ruin our day or our week or even because it can cause long term damage to our organs and systems - it can be ...
Mast cells (MC) have been mainly studied as key effectors in allergic diseases and inflammatory conditions such hypersensitivity reactions, asthma, atopic dermatitis and multiple sclerosis. Following the crosslinkage of membraneous FcεRI, by antigens, a large number of chemical mediators are secreted. This event leads to the recruitment and activation of basophils and eosinophils that sustain the inflammatory response. The role of mast cells, however, is not limited to the initiation of allergic response but they are also fundamental players in the innate immune response; for example they can be activated directly by pathogens through a family of pattern recognition receptors called Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In particular, TLR2 and 4 seem to be crucial to the mast cell response to pathogens. In rodents, mast cells respond to lipopolysaccharide through their TLR4s by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines without concurrent degranulation or they can degranulate following peptidoglycan ...
They are produced by the marrow, circulate for five to eight days, and then enter the tissues where they are mysteriously transformed into histiocytes. There are several red blood cell inclusions that are stained by the new methyleneblue stain in addition to the RNA of the reticulocytes. The MCHC cannot exceed the normal value since the erythrocyte cannot be supersaturated with hemoglobin. Meta Cells Cbc Your RBCs are normally all the same color, size, and shape. You can access it through the book outline at this link. Again, these terms will have importance in anemia classification. Further reading on red cell disease Anemia: Pathophysiologic Consequences, Classification, and Clinical Investigation is an introduction to anemia Nutritional Anemias The eos may serve a critical function in mitigating allergic responses, since they can 1) inactivate slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A), 2) neutralize histamine, and 3) inhibit mast cell degranulation. ...
Told ya I wasnt making it up! When I was high histamine it was literally impossible to sleep. I would be up for days at a time. Very handy when I was a journalist working in war zones, but not so great when I have a 9am meeting to go through someones digital strategy. Generally when people tell me theyre very low histamine I ask how their sleep is. Its a great indicator of how youre doing diet-wise. Im not discounting stress, but we know that also causes mast cell degranulation too! Now while the studies I read on valerian took great pains to stress that its not a hypnotic which knocks you into sleep, its an anxiolytic that reduces stress, helping you drop off. Ever wondered why antihistamines make you sleepy? There are a number of reasons - among them is that histamine controls your cicadian rythm/wakefulness hormones, so taking an anti-histamine would naturally make you fall asleep. Given that we know antihistamines make us fat and can cause toxicity syndrome, exploring natural ...
Since the start of psychosomatic thinking, atopic disease was considered exemplary. discovered shoulder-to-shoulder with improved expression of recently emerging neuroendocrine tension mediators such as for example product P (SP) and nerve development factor that type up to third tension axis (neurotrophin neuropeptide axis: NNA). Jointly they are able to alter the inflammatory aswell as the neuroendocrine stress-response on many levels. In epidermis, the instant inflammatory response to tension consists of neuropeptide discharge and mast cell degranulation, in short neurogenic swelling. Systemically, antigen-presentation and TH2 cytokine bias are advertised under the influence of cortisol and neuropeptides. Imbalanced stress-responsiveness may consequently become at the core of exacerbated allergic disease and deserves re-evaluation of restorative options such as neutralization of SP-signaling by antagonists against its receptor NK1, cortisol treatment as supplementation and relaxation ...
Background Pain is the most debilitating symptom of migraine. The cause of migraine pain likely requires activation of meningeal nociceptors. Mast cell degranulation, with subsequent meningeal nociceptor activation, has ...
Background Pain is the most debilitating symptom of migraine. The cause of migraine pain likely requires activation of meningeal nociceptors. Mast cell degranulation, with subsequent meningeal nociceptor activation, has ...
Dawa zozote zinaweza kusababisha mmenyuko kali ya mzio. Madawa ya kawaida ni β-lactam viuasumu (kama penisilini) ikifuatiwa na aspirini na NSAID.[3][16] Kama mtu ana mzio kwa NSAID moja kwa kawaida anaweza kutumia moja tofauti bila kuchochea mmenyuko kali ya mzio.[16] Vyanzo vingine vya mmenyuko kali ya mzio vya kawaida ni pamoja na tibakemikali, chanjo, protamini (inapatikana katika manii), na matibabu ya dawa inayotengenezwa kutoka kwa mboga.[5][16] Baadhi ya matibabu ya dawa, ikiwa ni pamoja na vancomycin, morphine, na madawa inayotumika kuboresha picha za eksirei (mawakala ya kutofautisha miali), husababisha mmenyuko kali ya mzio kwa kuharibu chembe fulani katika tishu, kuzisababisha kwa kutolewa histamini (mast cell degranulation).[10] Marudio ya mmenyuko kwa tiba ya dawa kwa kiwango fulani inategemea jinsi vile inavyopewa watu na kiwango fulani jinsi matibabu ya dawa inafanya kazi katika mwili.[17] Mmenyuko kali ya mzio kwa penisilini au cephalosporins hutokea tu baada ya kujifunga kwa ...
The linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is an adaptor protein critical for FcεRI-mediated mast cell activation. LAT is a substrate of the tyrosine kinases ac
Anaphylaxis is a clinical syndrome often presenting as a medical emergency requiring immediate recognition of symptoms, proper treatment and, if possible, the identification and elimination of risk factors. The symptoms of anaphylaxis are mainly determined by chemicals mediators released upon activation of the immune cells. Mast cells which are abundant in cardiovascular tissues, are the main cells activated during anaphylaxis. Human cardiac mast cells have been identified at the site of sarcolemma, within perivascular tissues, in the adventitia of large coronary arteries, and within coronary plaques. Cardiac mast cells display unique immunological and functional features that make them distinct from mast cells in other tissues. Mast cells play a complex role in the development of several pathological processes in the heart. High affinity receptors for IgE (FcṘI) and for C5a anaphylatoxin are involved in development of systemic and cardiac anaphylactic reactions. Furthermore, in myocardial ...
Mast cells are powerful immune modulators of the tissue microenvironment. Within seconds of activation, these cells release a variety of preformed biologically active products, followed by a wave of mediator synthesis and secretion. Increasing evidence suggests that an intricate network of inhibitory and activating receptors, specific signaling pathways, and adaptor proteins governs mast cell responsiveness to stimuli. Here, we discuss the biological and clinical relevance of negative and positive signaling modalities that control mast cell activation, with an emphasis on novel Fc epsilon RI regulators, immunoglobulin E (IgE)-independent pathways [e.g., Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor X2 (MRGPRX2)], tetraspanins, and the CD300 family of inhibitory and activating receptors.. ...
We are also evaluating whether the augmented vascular permeability, which has been identified in several types of inflammation, including settings that are characterized by piecemeal degranulation of mast cells or basophils, reflects enhanced formation and/or function of endothelial cell vesiculo-vacuolar organelles (VVOs), rather than transport through classical interendothelial cell gaps such as those that develop in postcapillary venules immediately after the administration of large amounts of histamine
Mast cell activation disorders involve an unusual accumulation of mast cells that release histamine and other mediators for inappropriate or unknown reasons and cause inflammation, reports the...
Quercetin Ascorbate powder is a powerful flavonoid and antioxidant blend. Quercetin is one of several flavonoids that have effects on mast cells and basophils. Vitamin C helps regulate histamine levels and supports a healthy inflammatory response ...
Quercetin-Ascorbate powder is a powerful flavonoid and antioxidant blend. Quercetin is one of several flavonoids that have effects on mast cells and basophils. Vitamin C helps regulate histamine levels and helps control inflammatory responses.. Recommended Use: As a dietary supplement take 1 gram (approx. one quarter teaspoon) per day with a meal, or as directed by your health care practitioner.. ...
Concern about the use of nanomaterials has increased significantly in recent years due to potentially hazardous impacts on human health. Mast cells are critical for innate and adaptive immune responses, often modulating allergic and pathogenic conditions. Mast cells are well known to act in response to danger signals through a variety of receptors and pathways including IL-33 and the IL-1-like receptor ST2. Here, the involvement of mast cells and the IL-33/ST2 axis in pulmonary and cardiovascular responses to multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) exposure are examined. Toxicological effects of MWCNTs are observed only in mice with a sufficient population of mast cells and are not observed when mast cells are absent or incapable of responding to IL-33. Our findings establish for the first time that mast cells and the IL-33/ST2 axis orchestrates adverse pulmonary and cardiovascular responses to an engineered nanomaterial, giving insight into a previously unknown mechanism of toxicity. This novel mechanism
Principal Investigator:Taketomi Yoshitaka, Project Period (FY):2016-04-01 - 2018-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research, Research Field:Biological pharmacy
Mast cells are ubiquitous mediators of inflammation and have been studied for a number of years for their role in asthma, allergies, and anaphylaxis. However, i...
Mast cells are one of the most ancient of immune cells. Theyre foundational to the innate immune system, which is the first line of defense to any invading pathogen. However, they also help to orchestrate some of the behaviors of the newer adaptive immune system. Whats more, they are the sentinels of the body, stationed…
Presented by: Neil J. Nathan, MD Environmental toxins and infectious agents are often difficult to diagnose and usually complex to treat. This lecture will address the evaluation and treatment of patients with mold illness and/or chemical sensitivities as well as provide examples of effective treatments and outcomes.
Good info here... my question, as always, is Why? What is the cause? When will the CDC acknowledge the epidemics our country is stricken by? Perhaps because identifying and eliminating the cause would hit the bottom line of too many industries.
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This intraluminal leukocyte is degranulating in a vessel wall injured by dense deposits of presumed immune complexes, EM, 6,000X.. ...
According to a recent review, data suggest mast cells have an important role in tissue homeostasis and wound healing, with mass cell dysregulation potentially leading to fibrotic disease.
We have worked hard over the 2 years together with our mast manufacturer to develop masts that would have a combination of superior strength and maximum performance. It was agreed to achieve this we would have to slightly change our bends to a slightly stiffer bottom and more flexible top section.
Zasićena mast je mast koja se sastoji od triglicerida koji sadrže samo zasićene masne kiseline. Zasićene masne kiseline nemaju dvostruku vezu između atoma ugljenika u lancima masnih kiselina.[1] Drugim rečima njihovi lanci atoma ugljenika su potpuno zasićeni atomima vodonika. Postoje mnoge vrste prirodnih zasićenih masnih kiselina, koje uglavnom razlikuju po proju atoma ugljenika, od 3 ugljenika (propionska kiselina) do 36 (heksatriakontanoinska kiselina). Razne masti sadrže različite proporcije zasićenih i nezasićenih masti. Primeri hrane koja sadrži visoke proporcije zasićene masti su kajmak, sir, puter, i topljeno maslo; loj, slanina, i masna mesa; kao i pojedini biljni proizvodi kao što su kokosovo ulje, pamukovo ulje, ulje palminih koštica, čokolada, itd.[2] ...
... degranulation of mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils; and other processes). In a new development in the field of antibody- ... The fragment crystallizable region (Fc region) is the tail region of an antibody that interacts with cell surface receptors ... The Fc region is, therefore, sometimes incorrectly termed the "fragment constant region". Fc binds to various cell receptors ... In this way, it mediates different physiological effects of antibodies (detection of opsonized particles; cell lysis; ...
... as occurs in necrotic cell death. Extracellular ATP triggers mast cell degranulation by signaling through P2X7 receptors. ... are molecules within cells that are a component of the innate immune response released from damaged or dying cells due to ... and it can lead to increased expression of cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) on endothelial cells. DNA and RNA: The ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.03.011. PMC 4056765. PMID 24679531. Bernard JJ, Cowing-Zitron C, Nakatsuji T, Muehleisen B, Muto J, ...
It inhibits the degranulation of mast cells. It has a quinidine-like anti-arrhythmic effect. It is isolated from the plant ... Tetrandrine has also been shown to inhibit entry of Ebola virus into host cells in vitro and showed therapeutic efficacy ... "The study of anti-tumor effect of Tetrandrine combined with Nedaplatin on human liver cancer cell line 7402". Zhong Yao Cai = ... "Two-pore channels control Ebola virus host cell entry and are drug targets for disease treatment". Science. 347 (6225): 995-998 ...
Wareham KJ, Seward EP (June 2016). "P2X7 receptors induce degranulation in human mast cells". Purinergic Signalling. 12 (2): ... On T cells activation of P2X7 receptors can activate the T cells or cause T cell differentiation, can affect T cell migration ... Boison D, Chen JF, Fredholm BB (July 2010). "Adenosine signaling and function in glial cells". Cell Death and Differentiation. ... mast cell degranulation, and inflammation. The P2X7 subunits can form homomeric receptors only with a typical P2X receptor ...
... and activates the sensitized cell. Activated mast cells and basophils undergo a process called degranulation, during which they ... causes a response in a type of immune cell called a TH2 lymphocyte, which belongs to a subset of T cells that produce a ... on the surface of other kinds of immune cells called mast cells and basophils, which are both involved in the acute ... These TH2 cells interact with other lymphocytes called B cells, whose role is the production of antibodies. Coupled with ...
... mast cell stabilizers, which inhibit the degranulation of mast cells that is normally triggered by IgE-binding at FcεRI. Long- ... FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. Binding of ... Regulation of IgE levels through control of B cell differentiation to antibody-secreting plasma cells is thought to involve the ... leading to degranulation (the release of mediators from the cells) and the secretion of several types of type 2 cytokines like ...
The histamine releasing function of MCD peptide, at low concentrations, causes the degranulation of mast cell , and shows anti- ... For its immunotoxic properties, a low concentration of MCD peptide can cause mast cell degranulation by releasing histamine; at ... The MCD peptide has an immunotoxic effect on mast cells by releasing histamine from these cells. MCD peptide has also been ... Buku, A; Priceb, JA; Mendlowitzc, M; Masurd, S (2001). "Mast cell degranulating peptide binds to RBL-2H3 mast cell receptors ...
The reaction of IgE with Aspergillus antigens results in mast cell degranulation with bronchoconstriction and increased ... These cytokines up-regulate mast cell degranulation, exacerbating respiratory decline. Aspergillus also utilises a number of ... "Lack of IL-4 receptor expression on T helper cells reduces T helper 2 cell polyfunctionality and confers resistance in allergic ... Type 2 T helper cells appear to play an important role in ABPA due to an increased sensitivity to interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-5. ...
Puri N, Kruhlak MJ, Whiteheart SW, Roche PA (Nov 2003). "Mast cell degranulation requires N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor- ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 157 (1): 45-62. doi:10.1083/jcb.200112127. PMC 2173270. PMID 11927603. Xu Y, Martin S, James DE, ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 157 (1): 45-62. doi:10.1083/jcb.200112127. PMC 2173270. PMID 11927603. Xu Y, Martin S, James DE, ... Molecular Biology of the Cell. 15 (9): 4011-22. doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-12-0876. PMC 515336. PMID 15215310. Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, ...
CD23 and CD25 are targets of Der p 1, which cleaves these receptors from the surfaces of active B cells and T cells, ... Der f 1 also triggers an immune response through eosinophil degranulation. Eur m 1 is secreted by the Mayne's house dust mite ... Eur m 1 provokes allergic responses from T cells. Der p 1 and Der f 1 show only low levels of cross-reactivity with Eur m 1. ... It has been suggested that the mite's gastrointestinal cells produce Der p 1. In the mite, Der p 1 is responsible for the ...
The activated neutrophils can then adhere to endothelial cells where degranulation occurs. This releases free oxygen radicals ... Based on the above observations and that ANCA reactive B-cells can be found in circulation in patients with AAV, an alternative ... Hurtado, Plinio; Nitschke, J.; Hurtado-Perez, E.; Peh, C.A. (April 2013). "ANCA reactive B cells and neutrophils cross-talk in ... The same study found that clinical relapse in some patients were in association with the return of circulating B-cells. ...
CERK has also been found to participate in the calcium-dependent degranulation of mast cells. Sugiura M, Kono K, Liu H, ... However, CERK expression varies per cell line. In contrast to SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, HL60 leukemia cells demonstrated no ... CERK activity has primarily been observed within human neutrophils, cerebrum granule cells, and epithelium-derived lung cells. ... "Ceramide kinase is a mediator of calcium-dependent degranulation in mast cells". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (17): 17570-7. doi:10.1074/ ...
Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. ... "Ethanol-induced inhibition of cytokine release and protein degranulation in human neutrophils". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. ... At the cell surface, pro-TNF-α is biologically active, and is able to induce immune responses via juxtacrine intercellular ... ADAM17 is understood to be involved in the processing of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) at the surface of the cell, and ...
Degranulation of mast cells contributing to lung damage has also been observed. The term "third-hand smoke" was recently coined ... Eren, U.; Kum, S.; Sandikci, M.; Kara, E. (2006). "Effects of long-term passive smoking on the mast cells in rat lungs". Revue ... "p53 expression and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in feline oral squamous cell carcinoma". Vet Pathol. 41 (3): 209-14. ...
Neurotensin is involved in many processes including mast cell degranulation and regulation of central nervous system ... "Neurotensin mediates rat bladder mast cell degranulation triggered by acute psychological stress". Urology. 53 (5): 1035-40. ... "A neurotensin receptor antagonist inhibits acute immobilization stress-induced cardiac mast cell degranulation, a corticotropin ... It is a 78-kDa enzyme, widely distributed in mammalian tissues and found in various subcellular locations that vary with cell ...
... depending on the cell type, various other responses such as degranulation (i.e. release of granule-bound enzymes), oxidative ... Like other cell signaling agents, 5-oxo-ETE is made by a cell and then feeds back to stimulate its parent cell (see Autocrine ... HETE producing cells and human PC-3 prostate cancer cells, platelets, and monocyte-derived dendritic cells as the oxidizing ... airway epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells, vascular endothelial cells, and skin keratinocytes have been found and/or ...
Wang C., Xia Y.F., Gao Z.Z., Lu D., Dai Y. (2009). "Inhibition of mast cell degranulation by saponins from Gleditsia sinensis ... "Gleditsia sinensis thorn extract inhibits human colon cancer cells: The role of ERK1/2, G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest and p53 ... The fruit extract of Gleditsia sinensis also has inhibitory effects on isolated cancer cell cultures. "Gleditsia sinensis". ... "The inhibitory effect of Gleditsia sinensis on cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma." ...
... causes mast cell and eosinophil degranulation, leading to pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Infection may ...
Activation of MRGPRX2 leads to mast cell degranulation with subsequent pseudo-allergic reactions. MAS1 oncogene GRCh38: Ensembl ... Cell. 106 (5): 619-632. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00483-4. PMID 11551509. "Entrez Gene: MRGPRX2 MAS-related GPR, member X2". ...
The inner cell surface of the granules becomes the outer cell surface of the basophil /mast cell during degranulation process. ... The cells are activated and start degranulation when the IgE antibody, bound to an allergen which can bind to the specific ... There are receptors (FcεR) for the constant region of IgE, the Fc region, on several types of cells, including Mast cells and ... This is why basophils are considered with mast cells to be the key cells in allergic diseases. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a ...
"Protein kinase C-delta is a negative regulator of antigen-induced mast cell degranulation". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 ... SHIP1 is expressed predominantly by hematopoietic cells but also, for example, by osteoblasts and endothelial cells. This ... for example T cell receptor (TCR) and CD79a/b. SHIP1 does not bind only to intracellular chains of cell surface receptor. Its ... van Dijk TB, van Den Akker E, Amelsvoort MP, Mano H, Löwenberg B, von Lindern M (November 2000). "Stem cell factor induces ...
Decreasing pH is associated with an increase in mast cell degranulation, a key component to the immune response, and one study ... Welle M (March 1997). "Development, significance, and heterogeneity of mast cells with particular regard to the mast cell- ... a serious form of physical allergy associated with mast cell degranulation". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 75 ... Mast cells are structurally different in the gut than those found in the skin or skeletal muscles, and thus could be induced by ...
"Protein kinase C-delta is a negative regulator of antigen-induced mast cell degranulation". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (12): 3970-80. ... "Identification of phospholipase C gamma1 as a protein tyrosine phosphatase mu substrate that regulates cell migration". J. Cell ... Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play distinct roles in cells. The protein ... Studies both in human and mice demonstrate that this kinase is involved in B cell signaling and in the regulation of growth, ...
Langerhans cells Phagocytosis. Degranulation (eosinophils) FcγRIIB1 (CD32) IgG Low (Kd , 10−7 M) B Cells. Mast cells No ... Langerhans cells. Monocytes Degranulation. Phagocytosis FcεRII (CD23) IgE Low (Kd , 10−7 M) B cells. Eosinophils. Langerhans ... On mast cellsEdit. Activation of mast cell degranulation by IgE interaction with FcεRI. 1 = antigen; 2 = IgE; 3 = FcεRI; 4 = ... Mast cells. Follicular dendritic cells Induction of microbe killing FcεRI IgE High (Kd ~ 10−10 M) Mast cells. Eosinophils. ...
... nutrition and other cell-cell communications. It has been found that many pathogens have converged on similar virulence factors ... They bind to receptors on monocytes causing the release of inflammatory mediators which induce degranulation. As part of this ... and hemolysins which break down a variety of host cells, including red blood cells. Virulence Factors basically Include the ... As glycolipids (as opposed to peptides), endotoxins are not bound by B or T-cell receptors and do not elicit an adaptive immune ...
... mast cell degranulation, and macrophage activation. It has been shown to have both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory ... C3aR signaling along antigen-presenting cells' CD28 and CD40L pathways also plays a role in T cell proliferation and ... and mast cell and basophil degranulation of histamine, induction of respiratory burst and subsequent degradation of pathogens ... while an absence of active C3aR on dendritic cells upregulates regulatory T cell production. The absence of C3 has also been ...
Non-immunologic mechanisms involve substances that directly cause the degranulation of mast cells and basophils. These include ... is a type of anaphylaxis that does not involve an allergic reaction but is due to direct mast cell degranulation. Non-immune ... cause anaphylaxis by directly triggering mast cell degranulation. The frequency of a reaction to an agent partly depends on the ... It is due to the release of inflammatory mediators and cytokines from mast cells and basophils, typically due to an immunologic ...
... may refer to a unique type of cells, identified only in reptiles. These cells are similar in size to so-called heterophils with ... Azure A Azure (color) Granule Lysosome Specific granules Neutrophil degranulation "Phagocytes-Neutrophils". Archived from the ... In white blood cells and hyperchromatin, staining imparts a burgundy or merlot coloration. Neutrophils in particular are known ...
C1P also has known roles in vesicular trafficking, cell survival, phagocytosis ("cell eating") and macrophage degranulation. ... Ceramide mediates many cell-stress responses, including the regulation of programmed cell death (apoptosis) and cell aging ( ... whereby the cells differentiated into white blood cells called macrophages. Treatment of the same cells by exogenous Sph caused ... Treatment of HL60 cells (a type of leukemia cell line) by a plant-derived organic compound called phorbol ester increased Sph ...
It enhances B cell immunoglobulin production and proliferation. OPN also induces mast cell degranulation. IgE-mediated ... These integrin receptors are present on a number of immune cells such as mast cells, neutrophils, and T cells. It is also ... OPN blocks the activation-induced cell death of macrophages and T cells as well as fibroblasts and endothelial cells exposed to ... "Osteopontin is produced by mast cells and affects IgE-mediated degranulation and migration of mast cells". Eur. J. Immunol. 38 ...
cell nucleus. • kinetochore. • centrosome. • rough endoplasmic reticulum. • dendritic shaft. • aggresome. • cell surface. • ... neutrophil degranulation. • regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway. • amyloid-beta metabolic process. • positive ... cell cortex. • integral component of membrane. • azurophil granule membrane. • Z disc. • neuronal cell body. • perinuclear ... cell-cell adhesion. • cellular response to amyloid-beta. • negative regulation of core promoter binding. • negative regulation ...
顆粒白血球是一類細胞質中包含顆粒體(英語:Granule_(cell biology))的白血球,又因其細胞核形態多樣而稱多形核白血球,(PMN或PML)。術語多形核白血球通常特指最常見的嗜中性顆粒白血球[1]。顆粒白血球由補體調節蛋白調控從骨髓中產生 ... 嗜曙紅顆粒白血球細胞核同樣分為多葉(2到4葉)。因在血液
muscle cell cellular homeostasis. • neuromuscular process controlling posture. • locomotory behavior. • neuromuscular process ... and transient gene expression in deficient cells". American Journal of Human Genetics. 47 (3): 440-5. PMC 1683879. PMID 2203258 ... DNA and Cell Biology. 10 (9): 681-7. doi:10.1089/dna.1991.10.681. PMID 1684505.. ... DNA and Cell Biology. 9 (2): 85-94. doi:10.1089/dna.1990.9.85. PMID 2111708.. ...
... and induce their degranulation that can damage endothelial cells. In theory, this phenomenon could cause extensive damage to ... Mendenhall WM, Olivier KR, Lynch JW, Mendenhall NP (April 2006). "Lethal midline granuloma-nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma ... a type of white blood cell) are associated with GPA.[11] Involvement of the ears, nose, and throat is more common in ... and many giant cells.[16] Bacterial colonization with Staphylococcus aureus has been hypothesized as an initiating factor of ...
myeloid cell differentiation. • negative regulation of myeloid cell apoptotic process. • GO:0022415 viral process. • signal ... 1 is a cell surface receptor involved in the activation of myeloid cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... cell surface. • specific granule membrane. • tertiary granule membrane. • cytosol. • plasma membrane. Biological process. • ... viral entry into host cell. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • osteoblast development. • innate immune response. • ...
Mast Cell Activation Syndrome»։ Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology 54 (3): 353-365։ June 2018։ PMID 25944644։ doi:10.1007 ... Degranulation process in allergy. Second exposure to allergen. 1 - antigen; 2 - IgE antibody; 3 - FcεRI receptor; 4 - preformed ... Grimbaldeston MA, Metz M, Yu M, Tsai M, Galli SJ (December 2006). "Effector and potential immunoregulatory roles of mast cells ... mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin); 5 - granules; 6 - mast cell; 7 - newly formed mediators (prostaglandins ...
... s were originally found in neutrophils, but have since been found in many other cells including epithelial cells ... neutrophil degranulation. • antimicrobial humoral immune response mediated by antimicrobial peptide. • cytolysis by host of ... killing by host of symbiont cells. • chronic inflammatory response. • defense response to bacterium. • antimicrobial humoral ... and T cells". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 192 (7): 1069-74. doi:10.1084/jem.192.7.1069. PMC 2193321 . PMID 11015447. ...
positive regulation of cell division. • positive regulation of MAPK cascade. • positive regulation of activated T cell ... platelet degranulation. • multicellular organism development. • glucose metabolic process. • positive regulation of mitotic ... striated muscle cell differentiation. • regulation of muscle cell differentiation. • embryonic placenta morphogenesis. • ... It is sometimes produced in excess in islet cell tumors and non-islet hypoglycemic cell tumors, causing hypoglycemia. Doege- ...
platelet degranulation. • regulation of integrin activation. • cell adhesion. • defense response to Gram-negative bacterium. • ... leukocyte cell-cell adhesion. • heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • positive ... calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • leukocyte tethering or rolling. ... Ryan US, Worthington RE (February 1992). "Cell-cell contact mechanisms". Curr. Opin. Immunol. 4 (1): 33-7. doi:10.1016/0952- ...
basal part of cell. • endocytic vesicle. • extracellular region. • cell surface. • basal plasma membrane. • extrinsic component ... platelet degranulation. • ion transport. • retina homeostasis. • iron ion transport. • cellular iron ion homeostasis. • ... Transferrin and its receptor have been shown to diminish tumour cells when the receptor is used to attract antibodies.[9] ... Transferrin plays a key role in areas where erythropoiesis and active cell division occur.[9] The receptor helps maintain iron ...
It is secreted by mesenchymal cells and targets and acts primarily upon epithelial cells and endothelial cells, but also acts ... platelet degranulation. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • regulation of branching involved in salivary gland ... endothelial cells and haemopoietic progenitor cells, HGF also regulates the chemotaxis of T cells into heart tissue. Binding of ... cell morphogenesis. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • hyaluronan metabolic process. • positive regulation of DNA ...
Eosinophils are specialized white blood cells of the granulocytic cell line, which contain granules in their cytoplasm. These ... Once activated, eosinophils can begin the process of degranulation, releasing their toxic proteins in the fight against the ... Once at the site of inflammation, type 2 cytokines are released from helper T cells, which communicate with the eosinophils, ... white blood cell) count.[36] The chemical analysis of the CSF typically resembles the findings in "aseptic meningitis" with ...
... they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g., CD4+ T cell, dendritic cell, B cell, mast cell, neutrophil, and basophil ... Examples of toxic materials produced or released by degranulation by granulocytes on the ingestion of microorganisms are:. * ... Mast cells[edit]. See article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of granulocyte that are present in tissues;[3] they mediate ... Basophils are one of the least abundant cells in bone marrow and blood (occurring at less than two percent of all cells). Like ...
The osteoblast cell is derived from the Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) which can also differentiate into a chondrocyte.[23] The ... inhibition of neutrophil degranulation. *2-(1-Hexynyl)-N-methyladenosine. *CF-101 (IB-MECA) ... It allows for the inhibition of growth in human melanoma cells. Specific antagonists include MRS1191, MRS1523 and MRE3008F20, ... cell signalling involved in the stimulation of the A2B receptor directs the route of differentiation to osteoblast, rather than ...
In skin, Langerhans cells strongly express ALOX5. Fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells express low levels of ... neutrophil degranulation. • cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-18-mediated signaling pathway. • long-chain ... mast cells, dendritic cells, and B-lymphocytes express ALOX5. Platelets, T cells, and erythrocytes are ALOX5-negative. ... ALOX5 exists primarily in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of cells. Upon cell stimulation, ALOX5: a) may be phosphorylated on ...
... degranulation, release of superoxide anions and changes in the avidity of cell adhesion molecules called integrins within the ... Furthermore, CXCR3 expression by T-cells is induced following T-cell activation and activated T-cells are attracted to sites of ... Types by cell attractedEdit. *Monocytes / macrophages: the key chemokines that attract these cells to the site of inflammation ... CC chemokines induce the migration of monocytes and other cell types such as NK cells and dendritic cells. ...
Grimbaldeston MA, Metz M, Yu M, Tsai M, Galli SJ (2006). "Effector and potential immunoregulatory roles of mast cells in IgE- ... Degranulation process in allergy.1 - antigen; 2 - IgE antibody; 3 - FcεRI receptor; 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, ... proteases, chemokines, heparine); 5 - granules; 6 - mast cell; 7 - newly formed mediators (prostaglandins, leukotrienes, ...
cell surface receptor signaling pathway. • receptor internalization. • dendritic cell chemotaxis. • signal transduction. • ... Cell Genet. 63 (4): 238-40. doi:10.1159/000133541. PMID 8500355.. *. Damaj BB, McColl SR, Mahana W, Crouch MF, Naccache PH ( ... Blocking CXCR1 (e.g., with repertaxin[7]) inhibits some human breast cancer stem cells (in vitro and in mice).[8] ... It is thought to have a role in the cell growth and angiogenesis required for tumour survival. In this way it has been ...
On the other hand, smooth muscle cells from the tunica media layer of the artery moved into the tunica intima, where the ... Following apoptosis, it is thought there is a massive degranulation of vasoconstrictors, including endothelins and free ... These cells initially invade the subarachnoid space from the circulation in order to phagocytose the hemorrhaged red blood ... The vasospasm is thought to be secondary to the apoptosis of inflammatory cells such as macrophages and neutrophils that become ...
... degranulation, release of superoxide anions, and changes in the avidity of cell adhesion molecules called integrins.[6] ... This causes cell responses, including the onset of a process known as chemotaxis that traffics the cell to a desired location ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cell biology.. *. "Chemokine Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. ... Chemokine receptors are cytokine receptors found on the surface of certain cells that interact with a type of cytokine called a ...
Sulfasalazine, a 5-ASA derivative, is thought to alter adenosine release and inhibit IgE mediated mast cell degranulation, ... inhibit cell responsiveness to mast cell products and inhibit T cell activity. They are preferred by some experts to treat ... Hives are caused by the release of histamine and other mediators of inflammation (cytokines) from cells in the skin. This ... Histamine and other proinflammatory substances are released from mast cells in the skin and tissues in response to the binding ...
positive regulation of cell migration. • platelet degranulation. • positive regulation of calcineurin-NFAT signaling cascade. • ... myotube cell development. • positive regulation of DNA replication. • myoblast proliferation. • skeletal muscle satellite cell ... positive regulation of cell growth involved in cardiac muscle cell development. • activation of MAPK activity. • positive ... cell proliferation. • positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division. • positive regulation of trophectodermal cell ...
Chen C. H., Floyd H., Olson N. E., et al. Dendritic-cell-associated C-type lectin 2 (DCAL-2) alters dendritic-cell maturation ... Han Y., Zhang M., Li N., et al. KLRL1, a novel killer cell lectinlike receptor, inhibits natural killer cell cytotoxicity. ( ... Bakker A. B., van den Oudenrijn S., Bakker A. Q., et al. C-type lectin-like molecule-1: a novel myeloid cell surface marker ... van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
regulation of T cell anergy. • viral process. • regulation of interleukin-6 production. • neutrophil degranulation. • positive ... On the cell surface, these proteins are bound to protein fragments (peptides) that have been exported from within the cell. MHC ... cell surface. • endoplasmic reticulum. • MHC class I protein complex. • ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane. • integral ... "Stem Cell Reviews. 11 (1): 1-10. doi:10.1007/s12015-014-9574-4. PMC 4333229. PMID 25516409.. ...
... lysis of cells (binding to complement), and degranulation of mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils (binding to FcεR).[14][28] ... Activated B cells differentiate into either antibody-producing cells called plasma cells that secrete soluble antibody or ... The antibody isotype of a B cell changes during cell development and activation. Immature B cells, which have never been ... Antibodies are secreted by B cells of the adaptive immune system, mostly by differentiated B cells called plasma cells. ...
CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress mast cell degranulation and allergic responses through OX40-OX40L interaction. „Immunity ... Human regulatory T cells rapidly suppress T cell receptor-induced Ca(2+), NF-κB, and NFAT signaling in conventional T cells. „ ... Cell contact-dependent immunosuppression by CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells is mediated by cell surface-bound transforming ... IL-2-dependent tuning of NK cell sensitivity for target cells is controlled by regulatory T cells. „J Exp Med". 210 (6), s. ...
regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • ERK1 and ERK2 cascade. • platelet degranulation. • regulation of calcium ... Stimulate growth of mesenchymal cells, promotes wound healing 3 Transforming growth factor (Alpha) Epithelial cell Similar to ... cell membrane. Biological process. • negative regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. • positive ... regulation of cell motility. • activation of MAPKK activity. • positive regulation of receptor internalization. • positive ...
Complement activation causes a cascade of events leading to: destruction of endothelial cells, platelet degranulation, ... T cells. Antigens of phagocytosed graft cells can also be presented by the host's class I MHC molecules to CD8+ T cells.[1][29] ... T cells) and NK cells (stimulated by the release of Il-2). Thus, the role of MHC molecules and T cell responses in activation ... where they coexist with the recipient's stem cells. The bone marrow stem cells give rise to cells of all hematopoietic lineages ...
... and switched the degranulation pattern into one that resembled degranulation induced by substance P. IgE-dependent and ... Mast cells (MCs) influence intercellular communication during inflammation by secreting cytoplasmic granules that contain ... substance P-dependent activation in vivo also induced different patterns of mouse MC degranulation that were associated with ...
Gaudenzio N, Espagnolle N, Mars LT, Liblau R, Valitutti S, Espinosa E. Cell-cell cooperation at the T helper cell/mast cell ... IκB kinase 2 is essential for IgE-induced mast cell de novo cytokine production but not for degranulation. Cell Rep. 2014;8(5): ... Phosphorylation of SNAP-23 by IκB kinase 2 regulates mast cell degranulation. Cell. 2008;134(3):485-495.. View this article via ... Peritoneal cell-derived mast cells: an in vitro model of mature serosal-type mouse mast cells. J Immunol. 2007;178(10):6465- ...
... cell degranulation include Preparation and Use of HIV-1 Infected Primary CD4+ T-Cells as Target Cells in Natural Killer Cell ... A Microplate Assay to Assess Chemical Effects on RBL-2H3 Mast Cell Degranulation: Effects of Triclosan without Use of an ... Isolation of Peritoneum-derived Mast Cells and Their Functional Characterization with Ca2+-imaging and Degranulation Assays, ... Isolation of Functional Cardiac Immune Cells, Measuring Changes in Tactile Sensitivity in the Hind Paw of Mice Using an ...
... biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules. ... Degranulation of rat omental mast cells by A1 receptor agonists in vitro. A. M. Northover and B. J. Northover ... In the rat isolated omental mast cell we conclude that degranulation is an indirect result of A1 receptor stimulation. Platelet ... To investigate the nature of the receptors involved in adenosine-induced mast cell degranulation in the rat isolated omentum we ...
... plays a significant role in mast cell degranulation. Both adenosine and ATP can induce degranulation and bronchoconstriction on ... plays a significant role in mast cell degranulation. Both adenosine and ATP can induce degranulation and bronchoconstriction on ... This review will summarize the currently available knowledge on the role of purinergic signaling in mast cell degranulation and ... This review will summarize the currently available knowledge on the role of purinergic signaling in mast cell degranulation and ...
Here we investigated the role of mast cells (MC) in an acute male to female skin allograft rejection model using red MC and ... Here we investigated the role of mast cells (MC) in an acute male to female skin allograft rejection model using red MC and ... They induced an early inflammatory response through degranulation and boosted local synthesis of KC, MIP-2 and TNF. This ... They induced an early inflammatory response through degranulation and boosted local synthesis of KC, MIP-2 and TNF. This ...
... cells and deficiency of CD107a/LAMP-1 in mice resulted in increased NK cell apoptosis upon target cell-induced degranulation. ... Surface CD107a/LAMP-1 protects natural killer cells from degranulation-associated damage.. Cohnen A1, Chiang SC, Stojanovic A, ... Thus, our data support a novel role of CD107a/LAMP-1 in the protection of NK cells from degranulation-associated suicide, which ... They are able to kill target cells through the release of cytotoxic granules (CGs) without being harmed in the process. Because ...
Hypotension induced by vasopressin antagonists in rats: role of mast cell degranulation.. [R A Macia, A C Silver, R A Gabel, G ... A positive correlation was found between the potency to produce edema in vivo and the potency to release mast cell histamine in ... SK&F 101926 degranulated rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro as measured by the liberation of histamine. Analogs of SK&F 101926 ... is mediated via the release of autocoids from mast cells. Serotonin appears to play a major role in mediating the ...
In LAD2 mast cells, both resveratrol and tranilast inhibited degranulation induced by the mast cell activators substance P, IgE ... The effects of resveratrol on mast cell activation were more marked in human primary CD34+-derived mast cells (HuMC), and the ... We investigated the effects of resveratrol on human mast cell activation in comparison to the anti-allergy drug tranilast. ... Furthermore, both resveratrol and tranilast reduced expression of the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, on LAD2 cells. ...
Moreover, LE decreased the degranulation of LAD2 and HumRBL-2H3 cells. LE treatment also significantly prevented alterations in ... LE exhibited a cytotoxic effect on Calu-3 cells and HumRBL-2H3 cells only at high concentrations and in a dose-dependent manner ... Finally, ALI-cultured Calu-3 cells treated with LE showed lower permeability to Ole e 1 compared to untreated cells. A ... Its pharmacological potential was analyzed in human bronchial epithelial Calu-3 cells, human mast cells LAD2, and humanized rat ...
PubMed journal article Molecular hydrogen suppresses FcepsilonRI-mediated signal transduction and prevents degranulation of ... mast cell were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad. ... AnimalsCell DegranulationCell Line, TumorHydrogenMast CellsMiceMice, Inbred ICRNADPH OxidasesPhosphorylationRatsReceptors, IgE ... Regulation of M2-type pyruvate kinase mediated by the high-affinity IgE receptors is required for mast cell degranulation. ...
Cell-based phenotypic screening of mast cell degranulation unveils kinetic perturbations of agents targeting phosphorylation.. ... Stat3 phosphorylation has been widely reported as a key step in mast cell degranulation. Interestingly, our TCRP results showed ... Mast cells play an essential role in initiating allergic diseases. The activation of mast cells are controlled by a complicated ... In this work, we used a method named Time-dependent cell responding profile (TCRP) to track the process of mast cell ...
Mechanical stress-induced mast cell degranulation activates TGF-β1 signalling pathway in pulmonary fibrosis ... Mechanical stress-induced mast cell degranulation activates TGF-β1 signalling pathway in pulmonary fibrosis ...
Chlorine inhalation produces nasal congestion in allergic rhinitics without mast cell degranulation. D. Shusterman, J. Balmes, ... Apparently, one or more product(s) of mast cell degranulation can acutely alter the sensitivity of afferent airway nerves to ... Given the findings reported here, downgrading the potential role of mast cell degranulation, along with findings by the author ... However, the same subjects did not show evidence of mast cell degranulation (histamine, kinins, tosyl-l-arginine methyl ...
HeLa cells.. Experiments were performed in HeLa cells stably transfected with mouse Cx43 (HeLa-Cx43 cells) and Panx1 (HeLa- ... 3 cells/mm2; n = 3), 6 (10.6 ± 1.8 × 10−3 cells/mm2; n = 3), and 12 (9.4 ± 1.3 × 10−3 cells/mm2; n = 3) months of age. ... Cells were first seeded on poly-l-lysine (0.05% w/v)-coated glass coverslips for 15 min to allow their adhesion. Then, cells ... mast cells. Introduction. In the brain, mast cells (MCs) are found mainly in the meningeal layers and within the cerebral ...
HeLa cells.. Experiments were performed in HeLa cells stably transfected with mouse Cx43 (HeLa-Cx43 cells) and Panx1 (HeLa- ... 3 cells/mm2; n = 3), 6 (10.6 ± 1.8 × 10−3 cells/mm2; n = 3), and 12 (9.4 ± 1.3 × 10−3 cells/mm2; n = 3) months of age. ... Cells were first seeded on poly-l-lysine (0.05% w/v)-coated glass coverslips for 15 min to allow their adhesion. Then, cells ... Hemichannels Are Required for Amyloid β-Peptide-Induced Degranulation and Are Activated in Brain Mast Cells of APPswe/PS1dE9 ...
RESULTS: Degranulation of the mast cells occurred within 3 hours of applying compound 48/80. Release of the mast cell ... Degranulation of mast cells provokes a massive inflammatory reaction in the tympanic membrane.. Eriksson, Per Olof Umeå ... This reaction is similar to that found after MC degranulation. In AOM, macrophages were the predominant cell in PF, while in ... OBJECTIVE: The pars flaccida is extremely rich in mast cells. On stimulation the mast cells release preformed and de novo ...
... on cAMP homeostasis and renin degranulation in As4.1 and rat renin-rich kidney cells. It was found in the present study that ... Cell Degranulation / drug effects, physiology*. Cyclic AMP / metabolism*, physiology. Homeostasis / drug effects, physiology*. ... Cell physiology Volume: 302 ISSN: 1522-1563 ISO Abbreviation: Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. Publication Date: 2012 Jan ... on cAMP homeostasis and renin degranulation in As4.1 and rat renin-rich kidney cells. It was found in the present study that ...
Neutrophil degranulation and cell lysis is associated with clinical severity in virus-induced asthma. P.A.B. Wark, S.L. ... Neutrophil degranulation and cell lysis is associated with clinical severity in virus-induced asthma ... Neutrophil degranulation and cell lysis is associated with clinical severity in virus-induced asthma ... Neutrophil degranulation and cell lysis is associated with clinical severity in virus-induced asthma ...
Naturally Occurring Missense MRGPRX2 Variants Display Loss of Function Phenotype for Mast Cell Degranulation in Response to ... We investigated the ability of MRGPRX2 ligands to induce degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells individually ... Naturally Occurring Missense MRGPRX2 Variants Display Loss of Function Phenotype for Mast Cell Degranulation in Response to ... Naturally Occurring Missense MRGPRX2 Variants Display Loss of Function Phenotype for Mast Cell Degranulation in Response to ...
... resulting in cell degranulation and release of proinflammatory mediators. The extent of effector cell activation is linked to ... Our results indicate that polcalcin multimers are required to stimulate high levels of effector cell degranulation when using ... Interplay between Affinity and Valency in Effector Cell Degranulation: A Model System with Polcalcin Allergens and Human ... Interplay between Affinity and Valency in Effector Cell Degranulation: A Model System with Polcalcin Allergens and Human ...
MC degranulation was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of CD107a cell surface expression on GFP+ (transfected) cells. ... Dead cells were excluded by propidium iodide staining. FcεRI-induced degranulation in control-transfected cells (empty vector ... MC degranulation was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of CD107a cell surface expression. Transfected cells were identified ... The role of actin microfilaments in the down-regulation of the degranulation response in RBL-2H3 mast cells. J. Immunol. 162: ...
Polyclonal Antibody Flow Cytometry Mast Cell Degranulation Polyclonal Antibody Flow Cytometry Mast Cell Degranulation: ... Polyclonal Antibody Glial Cell Migration Polyclonal Antibody Glial Cell Migration: Polyclonal Antibody - β-Catenin Antibody, ... 2019 Cell Signaling Technology, Inc. All Rights Reserved.. Email: [email protected] ... Antibody Immunofluorescence Immunocytochemistry Actin Dynamics to Polyclonal Antibody Flow Cytometry Mast Cell Degranulation ...
Research ArticleCell Biology. PI3Kγ Adaptor Subunits Define Coupling to Degranulation and Cell Motility by Distinct PtdIns(3,4, ... PI3Kγ Adaptor Subunits Define Coupling to Degranulation and Cell Motility by Distinct PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 Pools in Mast Cells ... PI3Kγ Adaptor Subunits Define Coupling to Degranulation and Cell Motility by Distinct PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 Pools in Mast Cells ... PI3Kγ Adaptor Subunits Define Coupling to Degranulation and Cell Motility by Distinct PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 Pools in Mast Cells ...
Degranulation of polymorho neutrophils as measured by myeloperoxidase (MPO) release in a whole functional cell assay. ...
Inhibition of human LAD2 mast cell activation assessed as compound 48/80-induced degranulation incubated for 30 mins prior to ...
Although HIV-1 Vpr induces expression of ligands for NK cell activation receptor, NKG2D, on infected cells, this is n … ... virus-infected cells is triggered by interactions between invariant NK cell surface receptors and their ligands on target cells ... B cell antigen (NTB-A) alongside NKG2D promotes NK cell degranulation. Normally, NK cell surface NTB-A binds to NTB-A on CD4+ T ... cell degranulation in response to virus-infected cells is triggered by interactions between invariant NK cell surface receptors ...
... mast cell mast cell degranulation from 50 ± 9% to 28 ± 3% (n = 5 rats, 6405 mast cells counted), indicating that cardiac ... NRS had no effect (P = .03 compared to control) on mast cell degranulation which was 54 ± 6% (n = 3 rats, 2704 mast cells ... 3A and B), only few of which showed signs of degranulation. In many mast cells from stressed animals, however, degranulation ... 1998) Stem cell factor in mast cells and increased mast cell density in idiopathic and ischemic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 97: ...
Furthermore, using a peptide pulldown approach in combination with stable isotope labeling in cell culture (SILAC) we ... is known to be rapidly phosphorylated after T cell stimulation and relays the TCR signal to adhesion molecules of the integrin ... The adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (ADAP) ... T cells Is the Subject Area "T cells" applicable to this ... T cell receptors Is the Subject Area "T cell receptors" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
1. Mechanisms triggering the recruitment of mast cell progenitors to the lung and regulation of mast cell degranulation. Open ... VAAT regulates IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation in vitro and mast cell-mediated reactions in vivo. Pettersson, Hanna ... Mechanisms triggering the recruitment of mast cell progenitors to the lung and regulation of mast cell degranulation. Zarnegar ... some influenza-induced mast cell progenitors developed into an intermediate mast cell stage before they matured into mast cells ...
  • Mast cells (MCs) influence intercellular communication during inflammation by secreting cytoplasmic granules that contain diverse mediators. (jci.org)
  • However, recent evidence showed that many other receptors, such as G protein-coupled receptors and ligand-gated ion channels, are also directly involved in mast cell degranulation, the release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine, serine proteases, leukotrienes, heparin, and serotonin. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2004) Resveratrol inhibits the release of mediators from bone marrow-derived mouse mast cells in vitro. (scirp.org)
  • Mast cells (MCs) store an array of proinflammatory mediators in secretory granules that are rapidly released upon activation by diverse conditions including amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides. (jneurosci.org)
  • PF is rich in mast cells (MCs), which by releasing various mediators, may trigger TM inflammation. (diva-portal.org)
  • An allergic reaction is rapidly generated when allergens bind and cross-link IgE bound to its receptor FcεRI on effector cells, resulting in cell degranulation and release of proinflammatory mediators. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mast cell (MC) activation via aggregation of the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) causes degranulation and release of proinflammatory mediators in a process that involves the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. (rupress.org)
  • Activation of MCs via FcεRI triggering causes the immediate degranulation and release of preformed mediators from secretory granules, as well as de novo synthesis of cytokines, which are secreted after vesicular trafficking via the ER and Golgi complex. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate acute stress could result in local CRH and nonpeptide neurotensin release which could contribute to myocardial pathophysiology through direct or indirect release of cardiac mast cell mediators. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These rare immune cells have numerous granules that contain large amounts of pro-inflammatory mediators. (diva-portal.org)
  • Mast cells accumulate at certain sites in the asthmatic lung, and once activated they release mediators that are thought to induce symptoms. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this study, murine VAAT was localized to mast cell granules and regulated the IgE/antigen-mediated release of granule-associated mediators and ATP. (diva-portal.org)
  • 6 , 11 Although epidermal keratinocytes have received the most attention in investigations involving neurocutaneous signaling, they are not the only cells in skin expressing NK-1 receptors, or the only cells capable of producing nociceptive mediators. (asahq.org)
  • In inflammatory condition, mast cells release a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators that can interact with the ENS cells. (nih.gov)
  • Retroviral transfer of Emt (= Itk/Tsk), Btk's closest relative, also partially improved the ability of btk mutant mast cells to secrete mediators. (escholarship.org)
  • The regulated exocytosis of secretory granules containing preformed mediators such as perforin and granzymes by a natural killer cell. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mast cells are key participants in allergic diseases via activation of high-affinity IgE receptors (FcepsilonRI) resulting in release of proinflammatory mediators. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This involves the release of mast cell mediators, such as histamine and tryptase, as well as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. (news-medical.net)
  • Basophils, which share a common haemopoietic progenitor with mast cells, upon the cross-linking of their surface bound IgE by antigens, also release type 2 cytokines like interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) and other inflammatory mediators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objective Natural killer (NK) cells are important mediators of liver inflammation in chronic liver disease. (bmj.com)
  • Cross-linking of mast cell (MC) IgE receptors (FcRI) causes degranulation of secretory granules (SGs) and the launch of many allergic and inflammatory mediators. (paft-phil.com)
  • Methods: We screened a number of environmental estrogens for their ability to modulate the release of allergic mediators from mast cells. (uthscsa.edu)
  • The study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of tamarixetin on the production of inflammatory mediators in immunoglobulin E /antigen-induced mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). (all-imm.com)
  • Host response against inflammation results in the release of various inflammatory mediators produced by innate immune cells. (all-imm.com)
  • Involvement of Bruton's tyrosine kinase in FcepsilonRI-dependent mast cell degranulation and cytokine production. (escholarship.org)
  • The association of DHF with virus control and a peak in inflammatory cytokine production has led some to suggest that the disease is a form of immunopathology ( 14 , 15 ), which shares some features with experimental models of T cell-mediated immunopathology in mice ( 16 - 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mechanistic studies indicated that the addition of lenalidomide during CS1 CAR T-cell expansion in vitro enhanced the immune functions of CS1 CAR T cells, including cytotoxicity, memory maintenance, Th1 cytokine production, and immune synapse formation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Despite strong degranulation and cytokine production by the T cells, we again found significant inhibition of lysis of HCMV-infected cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • After LT, recipient NK cells exhibit a tolerant phenotype, with downregulation of activating receptors, reduced cytotoxicity and cytokine production. (bmj.com)
  • Both the effects of RANKL on osteoclastogenesis and cytokine production by malignant cells could be blocked by disruption of RANK-RANKL interaction with denosumab. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Impaired degranulation but enhanced cytokine production after Fc epsilonRI stimulation of diacylglycerol kinase zeta-deficient mast cells. (duke.edu)
  • Our data demonstrate dissociation between cytokine production and degranulation in mast cells and reveal the importance of DGK activity during IgE sensitization for proper attenuation of Fc epsilonRI signals. (duke.edu)
  • Complementary in vitro and in vivo approaches reveal that ADAP controls optimal T cell proliferation, cytokine production, and expression of the prosurvival protein Bcl-xL in response to limiting Ag doses. (umn.edu)
  • SK&F 101926 degranulated rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro as measured by the liberation of histamine. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Analogs of SK&F 101926 were identified having reduced activity to release histamine from mast cells in vitro. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A positive correlation was found between the potency to produce edema in vivo and the potency to release mast cell histamine in vitro (r = 0.94, p less than 0.05). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition, compounds that released mast cell histamine and induced rat paw edema also produced hypotension and death when administered intravenously, while analogs which produced minimal histamine release in vitro produced minimal or no cardiovascular changes or lethality in vivo at the same dosages (5 mg/kg). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Viral vectors have been used to genetically modify in vitro expanded NK cells to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), which confer cytotoxicity against tumors. (plos.org)
  • We have previously genetically modified in vitro expanded NK cells to express DAP10 and the chimeric NKG2D receptor containing the CD3ζ signal domain, which altered the balance between the activating and inhibitory signals of NK cells and enhanced the cytotoxicity against NKG2D ligand-bearing tumors [3] . (plos.org)
  • In vitro, preincubation with both LA-heparin and fragmin inhibited the anti-IgE-induced degranulation of rat peritoneal mast-cells in a close-dependent fashion. (elsevier.com)
  • CS1 CAR T cells were transduced and expanded in the presence of lenalidomide in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • There is strong evidence in vitro and in animal models for an important role of NKG2D in NK cell-mediated antitumor activity ( 1 , 4 , 6-13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The latter displayed similar capacity compared with denosumab to neutralize the effects of RANKL on osteoclastogenesis in vitro , but also potently stimulated NK cell reactivity against primary RANKL-expressing malignant B cells, which was dependent on their engineered affinity to CD16. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This functional dichotomy of NK cells could be recapitulated in vitro by exposure to the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, which was induced in patients with active CHB. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Propofol offers also been demonstrated to prevent mast cell exocytosis in a dose-dependent mannerin vitro[20]. (healthyfutureforkids.com)
  • We used this method to identify the release of histamine from granule stores in anti-immunoglobulin-E (IgE)-stimulated HLMCs and the replacement of histamine in secretory granules of HLMCs during recovery from anaphylactic degranulation in vitro. (northwestern.edu)
  • ATP acts via P2X receptors (P2XRs), which are ligand-gated cation channels, to induce mast cell degranulation ( Bulanova and Bulfone-Paus, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • fourth day, 2.4 mg/kg) to induce mast cell degranulation before the CPT-11 treatment. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the nature of the receptors involved in adenosine-induced mast cell degranulation in the rat isolated omentum we have used adenosine analogues with varying specificities as activators of the A 1 , A 2 and A 3 receptors, and antagonists with differing specificities for A 1 and A 2 receptors. (hindawi.com)
  • In recent years, it has been realized that purinergic signaling, induced via the activation of G protein-coupled adenosine receptors and P2Y nucleotide receptors, as well as by ATP-gated P2X receptors, plays a significant role in mast cell degranulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Natural killer (NK) cell degranulation in response to virus-infected cells is triggered by interactions between invariant NK cell surface receptors and their ligands on target cells. (nih.gov)
  • Is the Subject Area "T cell receptors" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Although human mast cells express G protein coupled receptors for the anaphylatoxin C3a, previous studies indicated that C3a causes mast cell degranulation, at least in part, via a C3a receptor-independent mechanism similar to that proposed for polycationic molecules such as compound 48/80. (nih.gov)
  • The interaction between MHC class I molecules on target cells and NK inhibitory receptors plays a major role in regulating NK cell activation. (nature.com)
  • NK cell activity is regulated by the cumulative effects of multiple activating and inhibitory signals that are transmitted through the receptors on the NK cell surface. (plos.org)
  • Further, expression of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) containing 41BB and CD3ζ signal domains on NK cells enhanced the activating signals originating from CD19 antigen engagement, leading to cytotoxicity specifically against B-cell leukemia [4] . (plos.org)
  • In MHC class I-deficient hosts, natural killer (NK) cells are hyporesponsive to cross-linking of activation receptors. (rupress.org)
  • Transferred NK cells produce WT levels of interferon-γ after engagement of multiple activation receptors, and degranulate at levels equivalent to WT NK cells upon coincubation with target cells. (rupress.org)
  • NK cells integrate signals received through target cell ligand-mediated engagement of activation receptors with those from inhibitory receptor engagement by MHC class I ligands expressed on targets. (rupress.org)
  • Hence, NK cells use inhibitory receptors to assess the surface of self-tissues for MHC class I expression, providing a line of defense against pathogens and abnormal cell growth. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, engagement of self-MHC-specific receptor "licenses" NK cells to be functionally competent to be triggered through their activation receptors. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, self-MHC class I engagement by NK cell inhibitory receptors appears to be a fundamental element in acquisition of NK cell effector function. (rupress.org)
  • The purpose of the study was to develop novel chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) for the treatment of multiple myeloma and explore combinatorial therapy using CAR T cells and immunomodulatory drugs such as lenalidomide for increasing treatment efficacy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells rely on surface receptors to distinguish healthy cells from cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, the cytotoxic potential of NK cells against a wide spectrum of tumor subtypes could be markedly enhanced by expression of NKG2D-DAP10-CD3ζ receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The capacity of NK cells to kill tumor cells depends on the combined effect of suppressive and stimulatory signals delivered through surface receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Inhibitory signals result from the interaction between NK inhibitory receptors and HLA molecules on potential target cells, whereas engagement of activating receptors by ligands expressed predominantly by virally infected and tumor cells provoke signals that ultimately cause target cell killing ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • IgE primes the IgE-mediated allergic response by binding to Fc receptors found on the surface of mast cells and basophils . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is known that mast cell degranulation depends upon membrane anchored SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleidimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) and accessory proteins that form the trans-SNARE complex, a 4 helical bundle central to exocytic fusion. (usm.edu)
  • In the present study we investigated the effects of chronic interference with b-adrenergic receptors (via either sympathectomy or b-blockade) on cardiac mast cell morphology/activation and on interstitial collagen deposition. (elsevier.com)
  • The fragment crystallizable region (Fc region) is the tail region of an antibody that interacts with cell surface receptors called Fc receptors and some proteins of the complement system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fc binds to various cell receptors and complement proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacological inhibition of IKK-β during IgE-dependent stimulation strongly reduced the time partition between signaling and secretion, inhibited SNAP23/STX4 complex formation, and switched the degranulation pattern into one that resembled degranulation induced by substance P. IgE-dependent and substance P-dependent activation in vivo also induced different patterns of mouse MC degranulation that were associated with distinct local and systemic pathophysiological responses. (jci.org)
  • Coro1a −/− bone marrow-derived MCs exhibit increased FcεRI-mediated degranulation of secretory lysosomes but significantly reduced secretion of cytokines. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, coronin proteins, and in turn the actin cytoskeleton, exhibit a functional dichotomy as differential regulators of degranulation versus cytokine secretion in MC biology. (rupress.org)
  • Our data demonstrate that jacareubin is a potent natural compound able to inhibit anaphylactic degranualtion in mast cells by blunting FcεRI-induced calcium flux needed for secretion of granule content, and suggest that xanthones could be efficient anti-oxidant, antiallergic, and antiinflammatory molecules. (ovid.com)
  • Mast cells form antibody-dependent degranulatory synapse for dedicated secretion and defence. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 4 , 15 , 16 Addition of active recombinant isoforms of Rac2 and Cdc42 delayed the loss of sensitivity to GTPγS and Ca 2+ during rundown of exocytotic responses in permeabilized rat mast cells, 4 while dominant-negative forms of Cdc42 and Rac1 introduced by vaccinia virus vectors into rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells inhibited antigen-induced secretion. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Regulated secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules (e.g, histamines, proteases) from mast cells plays critical roles in immunity, allergic reactions, cardiovascular disease and cancer. (usm.edu)
  • In mechanistic terms, the accumulation of heterozygous mutations in the two degranulation genes Rab27a and syntaxin-11, impaired the dynamics and secretion of cytotoxic granules at the immune synapse of T lymphocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Furthermore, A20 cells shocked at 43 degrees C did not provoke degranulation and secretion of granzymes by antigen-specific CTLs, although formation of CTL-target conjugates and levels of MHC class I molecules remained unchanged. (abo.fi)
  • 12 showed that tamarixetin reduced the secretion inflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells. (all-imm.com)
  • A spontaneous mutation in the insulin 2 gene leads to incorrect folding of the insulin protein producing toxicity in pancreatic ß cells, reduced ß cell mass and reduced insulin secretion. (jax.org)
  • Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP, compound 3 in Figure 1 ) is abundant in mast cells, stored in granules and secreted upon activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • They are able to kill target cells through the release of cytotoxic granules (CGs) without being harmed in the process. (nih.gov)
  • With bystander cells present, the velocity and persistence of NK cells were increased, whereas the degranulation of lytic granules remained unchanged. (nature.com)
  • their granules (a process called degranulation) into the surrounding tissues. (britannica.com)
  • We used a morphometric and autoradiographic approach to analyze changes in specific cytoplasmic granules and cytoplasmic lipid bodies associated with human lung mast cell degranulation. (northwestern.edu)
  • This result stands in striking contrast to the behavior of specific cytoplasmic granules, the great majority of which (77% according to aggregate volume) exhibited ultrastructural alterations during the first 20 min of mast cell activation. (northwestern.edu)
  • These observations establish that mast cell cytoplasmic granules and cytoplasmic lipid bodies are distinct organelles that differ in ultrastructure, biochemistry, and behavior during mast cell activation. (northwestern.edu)
  • T cells engineered with this anti-gB CAR recognized HCMV-infected cells and released cytokines and cytotoxic granules. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These molecules are stored in secretory granules inside the cell and are rapidly released into the extracellular environment when mast cells are activated. (usm.edu)
  • However, the biochemical properties of mast cell exocytosis are unclear because under physiological conditions the granules quickly proceed to fuse to the membrane. (usm.edu)
  • A20 lymphoma cells were subjected to heat shock for 2 h at 42 and 43 +/- 0.1 degrees C and then evaluated at 37 degrees C for sensitivity to lysis by intact allo-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), perforin-containing granules isolated from CTLs, and Fas-mediated apoptosis. (abo.fi)
  • Heat shock at 42 degrees C caused little change in sensitivity of the lymphoma cell line to lysis by intact CTLs or their isolated cytotoxic granules, but caused increased sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis. (abo.fi)
  • However, A20 cells shocked at 43 degrees C declined significantly in sensitivity to lysis by intact CTLs, while remaining very sensitive to perforin granules and to Fas-mediated apoptosis. (abo.fi)
  • 2) The degranulating mast cells of the group injected with HRP showed a progressive decrease in electron density of the granules, formation of perigranular cavities, and extrusion of the granules after partial loss of the plasma membrane. (bvsalud.org)
  • 5) In degranulating mast cells of the group injected with distilled water, partial rupture of the plasma and cytoplasm with wide dispersion of the granules. (bvsalud.org)
  • We have previously demonstrated in B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) the presence of an heterogeneous population of MC characterized by granules with a morphological semilunar appearance, or piecemeal partial degranulation (PMD), and containing scrolls. (elsevier.com)
  • We reasoned that if bFGF is released through degranulation, it should be localized to MC secretory granules. (elsevier.com)
  • These results provide morphological evidence suggesting that, despite the lack of a classic secretory peptide in its structure, bFGF is localized to the secretory granules in MCs and may be released through degranulation. (elsevier.com)
  • Mast cells are necessary for the development of allergic reactions and release numerous vasoactive molecules and cytokines ( Galli, 1993 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Mast cells resident within skeletal muscle represent an immediate source of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (deepdyve.com)
  • Consistent with this finding, cultured mast cells derived from the bone marrow cells of xid or btk null mice exhibited mild impairments in degranulation, and more profound defects in the production of several cytokines, upon FcepsilonRI cross-linking. (escholarship.org)
  • The specificity of these effects of btk mutations was confirmed by the improvement in the ability of btk mutant mast cells to degranulate and to secrete cytokines after the retroviral transfer of wild-type btk cDNA, but not of vector or kinase-dead btk cDNA. (escholarship.org)
  • In the acute phase of inflammation, T-helper cell type 1 and type 2 (Th 1 and Th 2) cytokines are greatly increased, including interferon-gamma (IFN-y). (news-medical.net)
  • This is further maintained by the activation and recruitment of fibroblasts and epithelial cells, which further release cytokines, chemokines and adhesion factors. (news-medical.net)
  • Neuropeptides CRH, SP, HK-1, and Inflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and TNF Are Increased in Serum of Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome, Implicating Mast Cells. (mastcelldisease.com)
  • Signaling via RANKL into multiple myeloma and CLL cells induced release of cytokines involved in disease pathophysiology. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These features result from organ infiltration by over-activated CD8 T cells and macrophages, which produce high levels of cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-18. (bloodjournal.org)
  • HMGB1 can also induce dendritic cell maturation via upregulation of CD80, CD83, CD86 and CD11c, and the production of other pro-inflammatory cytokines in myeloid cells (IL-1, TNF-a, IL-6, IL-8), and it can lead to increased expression of cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) on endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells are responsible for the majority of allergic conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also found that inhibition of NADPH oxidase attenuates phosphorylation of Lyn in mast cells, indicating the presence of a feed-forward loop that potentiates the allergic responses. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Mast cells play an essential role in initiating allergic diseases. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In mouse models of allergic airway inflammation, the increase in lung mast cells in asthma can be mimicked and is mainly caused by the recruitment of mast cell progenitors to the lung. (diva-portal.org)
  • Epithelial mast cells are generally present in the airways of patients with allergic asthma that are inadequately controlled. (eur.nl)
  • Airway mast cells (MCs) are critically involved in allergic airway inflammation and contribute directly to the main symptoms of allergic patients. (eur.nl)
  • In conclusion PDE3 plays a critical role in basophil and mast cell degranulation and therefore its inhibition may be a treatment option in allergic disease. (eur.nl)
  • Graphical abstract Mast cells (MCs) are important effectors in allergic reactions since they produce a number of pre-formed and de novo synthesized pro-inflammatory compounds in response to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) crosslinking. (ovid.com)
  • Despite the relevance of allergic diseases worldwide, efficient pharmacological control of mast cell degranulation has been elusive. (ovid.com)
  • Microtubule disruption suppresses allergic response through the inhibition of calcium influx in the mast cell degranulation pathway. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the present study, we utilized the mast cell analog, RBL-2H3, to interrogate the responses of cells relevant to airway inflammation and allergic responses as a model for the induction of asthma-like conditions upon exposure to acrolein. (uthscsa.edu)
  • This experimental data indicates acrolein can induce an allergic inflammation in mast cell lines, and the initiation of degranulation was moderated by the application of antioxidants. (uthscsa.edu)
  • UV light, especially UVB, is known as a trigger of allergic reaction, leading to mast cell degranulation and histamine release. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, phlorotannin Fucofuroeckol-A (F-A) derived from brown algal Ecklonia stolonifera Okamura was evaluated for its protective capability against UVB-induced allergic reaction in RBL-2H3 mast cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Conclusions: Our findings suggest that estrogenic environmental pollutants might promote allergic diseases by inducing and enhancing mast cell degranulation by physiologic estrogens and exposure to allergens. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Among immune cells, mast cells play a vital role in allergic diseases. (all-imm.com)
  • glomeratawere observed irrespec-tively of the pool group.Conclusions:These results show that RBL-h21 cells sensitizedwith human sera exhibit specific and dose-dependent degranulationupon stimulation with pollen extract containing allergens suggestingthis bioassay may constitute an useful tool both for research and/ordiagnostics to evaluate potential elicitation of allergic reactions. (uevora.pt)
  • abstract = "Purpose: Adenosine (ADO) can enhance and inhibit mast cell degranulation. (umn.edu)
  • abstract = "{\textcopyright} 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Background: Degranulation of peritoneal mast cells (MCs) induced by intestinal manipulation has been proposed as a pathophysiological factor in postoperative ileus (POI). (uab.cat)
  • abstract = "Mast cells secrete histamine upon degranulation triggered by various stimuli. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Lack of evidence for a role of mast cell degranulation in acute hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury in the isolated rat heart.van Haaster CM, Engels W, Duijvestijn AM, Lemmens PJ, Hornstra G, Van der Vusse GJ.Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, University of Limburg, Netherlands.In the present study, we evaluated the potential role of mast cell degranulation in acute hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury to cardiomyocytes in the isolated rat heart. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • In mast cells, the p84:p110γ complex synergizes with immunoglobulin E (IgE)- and antigen-clustered FcɛRI receptor signaling and is required to achieve maximal degranulation. (sciencemag.org)
  • We show that triggering the NK cell coactivation receptor NK-T- and -B cell antigen (NTB-A) alongside NKG2D promotes NK cell degranulation. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether microtubule acetylation is triggered by antigen stimulation and how it affects mast cell degranulation. (springer.com)
  • Microtubule acetylation proceeds globally in mast cell cytoplasm after antigen stimulation in addition to accelerated formation of microtubule-organizing centers. (springer.com)
  • IgE/Antigen-dependent degranulation and cytokine synthesis in MCs have been recognized as relevant pharmacological targets for the control of deleterious inflammatory reactions. (ovid.com)
  • CD19 is an ideal target antigen for immunotherapy because it is expressed on nearly all leukemia cells in most patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (CLL) [13] , [14] . (plos.org)
  • Mast cells were dissociated from lung tissue by enzymatic digestion and were then enriched to purities of up to 99% by countercurrent centrifugation elutriation and recovery from columns containing specific antigen bound to Sepharose 6 MB. (northwestern.edu)
  • Heparin prevents antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness: Interference with IP 3 -mediated mast cell degranulation? (elsevier.com)
  • Inhaled heparin prevents antigen-induced bronchoconstriction and inhibits anti-IgE-mediated mastcell degranulation. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, in the present investigation we studied the effects of a nonanticoagulant fraction of heparin (LA-heparin) on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and mast-cell degranulation, and compared its antiallergic activity with that of a low molecular weight heparin (LMW- heparin, fragmin). (elsevier.com)
  • These data suggest that: (1) fractionated heparins attenuate antigen-induced acute bronchoconstriction, (2) nonanticoagulant fractions mediate the antiallergic activity of inhaled heparin, and (3) antiallergic activity of nonanticoagulant heparin and LMW- heparin may be related to prevention of mast-cell degranulation. (elsevier.com)
  • In order to explore the potential of HLA-independent T cell therapy for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, we developed a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) directed against the HCMV encoded glycoprotein B (gB), which is expressed at high levels on the surface of infected cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our data extend the current knowledge on Betaherpesviral evasion from T cell immunity and show for the first time that, beyond impaired antigen presentation, infected cells are efficiently protected by direct blockade of cytotoxic effector functions through viral proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Up-regulation of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 in gastrointestinal cancer and its clinical relevance. (nih.gov)
  • FcεRI is expressed on mast cells , basophils , and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate why liver transplants (LTs) are not rejected by NK cells in the absence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching, and to identify a tolerogenic NK cell phenotype. (bmj.com)
  • These observations demonstrate that hyperthermia or febrile conditions may reduce susceptibility of target cells to CTL attack due to failure of antigen presentation and the inability of CTLs to recognize heat stressed targets, thus enabling targets to escape CTL attack. (abo.fi)
  • After 30 min of CAO, the hearts were removed and mast cell degranulation determined by histological analysis. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Pre-treatment with disodium cromoglycate or with BN52021 also reduced degranulation of mast cells in response to N 6 -cyclopentyladenosine. (hindawi.com)
  • Resveratrol inhibition was immediate, preventing degranulation when added simultaneously to physiological stimuli, and the effect was sustained for up to 24 hrs. (scirp.org)
  • Inoh Y, Haneda A, Tadokoro S, Yokawa S, Furuno T. Cationic liposomes suppress intracellular calcium ion concentration increase via inhibition of PI3 kinase pathway in mast cells. (springer.com)
  • Potentiation of degranulation occurs at relatively low concentrations of ADO (10 -6 -10 -5 M) through triggering of A3AR, whereas, inhibition occurs at higher concentrations of ADO reportedly through triggering of A2aAR. (umn.edu)
  • Methods: We compare the effectiveness of A2aAR specific antagonist ZM241385 and equilibrative nucleoside transporter inhibitors Dipyridamole and NBMPR in preventing ADO-mediated inhibition of FcεRI-induced degranulation of human skin mast cells (hSMCs). (umn.edu)
  • Moreover, MAO inhibition prevented both mast cell degranulation and altered collagen deposition, thereby normalizing diastolic function. (elsevier.com)
  • 12 , 13 Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase with SB203580 has been demonstrated to partially block f-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP)-induced primary and secondary granule release in neutrophils, suggesting an important role for p38 MAP kinase in activating receptor-mediated degranulation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We investigated the effects of resveratrol on human mast cell activation in comparison to the anti-allergy drug tranilast. (scirp.org)
  • The effects of resveratrol on mast cell activation were more marked in human primary CD34+-derived mast cells (HuMC), and the polyphenol was significantly more efficacious than tranilast in these cells. (scirp.org)
  • In conclusion, resveratrol inhibited key aspects of human mast cell activation to physiological stimuli, and was comparable, if not more efficacious than the anti-allergy drug tranilast. (scirp.org)
  • The activation of mast cells are controlled by a complicated signal network of reversible phosphorylation, and finding the key regulators involved in this network has been the focus of the pharmaceutical industry. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The authors consequently exposed 16 subjects, evenly divided by sex and allergy status, to dilute chlorine gas, documented irritant-related congestion, then repeated the experiment on the same subjects, analysing for tryptase in nasal lavage fluid as a marker of mast cell activation. (ersjournals.com)
  • Respiratory viruses infect bronchial epithelial cells, resulting in epithelial activation and increased neutrophil recruitment and activation 3 . (ersjournals.com)
  • The extent of effector cell activation is linked to allergen affinity, oligomeric state, valency, and spacing of IgE-binding epitopes on the allergen. (jimmunol.org)
  • We have used native polcalcin dimers and engineered multimeric allergens to test the effects of affinity and oligomeric state on IgE binding and effector cell activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Complementation of p110γ null mast cells with p101 and p110γ restored the activation of Akt and cell migration, but failed to support degranulation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although HIV-1 Vpr induces expression of ligands for NK cell activation receptor, NKG2D, on infected cells, this is not sufficient to promote lytic granule release. (nih.gov)
  • TAK1 activation of alpha-TAT1 and microtubule hyperacetylation control AKT signaling and cell growth. (springer.com)
  • Following both IgE-mediated and substance P-mediated activation, PDE3i-pretreated basophils, LAD2 cells, and HuMCs, showed less degranulation than diluent controls, as measured by surface CD63 expression. (eur.nl)
  • Also, its effects on the main activation parameters of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were evaluated. (ovid.com)
  • Our data suggests the participation of mast cells on the CPT-11-induced intestinal mucositis, macrophages activation, enteric reactive gliosis, and neuron loss. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated the role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) in FcepsilonRI-dependent activation of mouse mast cells, using xid and btk null mutant mice. (escholarship.org)
  • Ultrastructural examination of mast cells revealed surface activation, indicated by extension of surface filopodia, and degranulation by fusion and exocytosis. (rupress.org)
  • One of the problems I have been tentatively diagnosed with in the last few years is mastocytosis , or a mast cell activation disorder (MCAD). (blogspot.com)
  • The late phase of ocular inflammation begins with the activation of vascular endothelial cells, releasing chemo-attractants like the RANTES and MCP molecules, as well as eotaxins and various molecules, which promote intercellular adhesion. (news-medical.net)
  • Intense eosinophilic infiltration occurs and the activation of these cells leads to epithelial toxicity, such as punctate keratitis. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition, lipid bodies occurred in intimate association with degranulation channels during mast cell activation, but the total volume of lipid bodies did not change during the 20 min after stimulation with anti-IgE. (northwestern.edu)
  • Absence of MHC class I on target cells often leads to NK cell activation. (rupress.org)
  • Overexuberant activation of neutrophils can lead to extensive degranulation, which may be fatal in septic shock, acute lung injury, and other serious inflammatory disorders. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Rho GTPases, an 18-member subfamily of ras -related GTPases, have been shown to be important in regulating a diverse array of cell activation events downstream of receptor activation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • A key receptor for NK cell activation is NK Group 2 member D (NKG2D), a type II transmembrane-anchored C-type lectin-like protein expressed in all NK cells and in some T-cell subsets ( 2-4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Conclusions LT is associated with transcriptional and functional changes in NK cells, resulting in reduced activation. (bmj.com)
  • There is no effect of HLA matching on NK cell activation. (bmj.com)
  • In rats subjected to chemical sympathectomized with the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) we observed a significant increase of mast cell density, and in particular of degranulating mast cells, suggesting a close relationship between the cardiac catecholaminergic system and mast cell activation. (elsevier.com)
  • The influence of the β-adrenergic receptor component was investigated in rats subjected to chronic propranolol administration, that caused a further significant increase in mast cell activation associated with a lower extent of collagen deposition when compared to chemical sympathectomy. (elsevier.com)
  • These data are the first demonstration of a close relationship between rat cardiac mast cell activation and the catecholaminergic system, with a complex interplay with cardiac collagen deposition. (elsevier.com)
  • Specifically, abrogation of the cardiac sympathetic efferent drive by chemical sympathectomy causes mast cell activation and interstitial fibrosis, possibly due to the local effects of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine. (elsevier.com)
  • In conclusion, cardiac mast cell activation is influenced by β-adrenergic influences. (elsevier.com)
  • The hemopoietic specific adapter protein ADAP (adhesion and degranulation-promoting adapter protein) positively regulates TCR-dependent, integrin-mediated adhesion and participates in signaling pathways downstream of the TCR that result in T cell activation. (umn.edu)
  • The specific role of ADAP in regulating Ag-dependent T cell interactions with APCs and T cell activation following Ag stimulation is not known. (umn.edu)
  • These results suggest that ADAP regulates T cell activation by promoting Ag-dependent T cell-APC interactions, resulting in enhanced T cell sensitivity to Ag, and by participating in prosurvival signaling pathways initiated by Ag stimulation. (umn.edu)
  • Activated mast cells initiate the activation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) followed by phosphorylation of phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1), which triggers calcium (Ca 2 +) release from internal stores. (all-imm.com)
  • Here we investigated the role of mast cells (MC) in an acute male to female skin allograft rejection model using red MC and basophil (RMB) mice enabling conditional MC depletion. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hypotension induced by vasopressin antagonists in rats: role of mast cell degranulation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It has not been explored whether CPT-11 is able to alter the enteric glial and neuronal cell, and the role of mast cells in this effect. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of CPT-11 on the enteric glial and neuronal cells, as well as to study the role of mast cells in the CPT-11-induced intestinal mucositis. (nih.gov)
  • The role of mast cells in the development of allergy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lack of evidence for a role of mast cell degranulation in acute hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury in the isolated rat heart. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • In the present study, we evaluated the potential role of mast cell degranulation in acute hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury to cardiomyocytes in the isolated rat heart. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanism by which ADO inhibits human mast cell degranulation. (umn.edu)
  • NK cell degranulation as a marker for measuring antibody-dependent cytotoxicity in neutralizing and non-neutralizing human sera from dengue patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Acquisition of anti-CD19 CARs via trogocytosis enhanced NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against the B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) cell lines and primary B-ALL cells derived from patients. (plos.org)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report that describes the increased cytotoxicity of NK cells following the acquisition of CARs via trogocytosis. (plos.org)
  • In contrast, there was no increase in cytotoxicity against nontransformed blood and mesenchymal cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • NKG2D blockade abrogated gains in cytotoxicity to cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We thus postulate that viral anti-apoptotic factors, known to inhibit suicide of infected host cells, have evolved additional functions to directly abrogate T cell cytotoxicity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In line with this hypothesis, CAR-T cell cytotoxicity was strongly inhibited in non-infected fibroblasts by expression of the HCMV-protein UL37x1, and even more so by additional expression of UL36. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As we aimed to combine neutralization of RANKL with induction of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells against RANKL-expressing malignant cells and as denosumab does not stimulate NK reactivity, we generated RANK-Fc fusion proteins with modified Fc moieties. (aacrjournals.org)
  • IL-10 selectively suppressed NK cell IFN-γ production without altering cytotoxicity or death ligand expression. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The haemodynamic effects of adenosine are thought to result in part from a release of mast cell amines via A3 receptor stimulation. (hindawi.com)
  • N 6 -cyclopentyladenosine) or as mixed A 1 /A 2 receptor agonists (e.g. adenosine, inosine, 5'-(Nethylcarboxamido) adenosine) caused mast cell degranulation, whereas a predominantly A3 receptor agonist (IB-MECA) was inactive. (hindawi.com)
  • Pre-treatment of the omentum with the A 1 /A 2 receptor antagonist 8-phenyltheophylline or with the more specific A 1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine significantly reduced agonist-induced degranulation. (hindawi.com)
  • In the rat isolated omental mast cell we conclude that degranulation is an indirect result of A 1 receptor stimulation. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, both resveratrol and tranilast reduced expression of the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, on LAD2 cells. (scirp.org)
  • Human mast cells (MCs) express a novel G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) known as Mas-related GPCR X2 (MRGPRX2). (jimmunol.org)
  • The goal of the current study was to determine if naturally occurring missense variants within MRGPRX2's ECL/TM domains contribute to gain or loss of function phenotype for MC degranulation in response to neuropeptides (substance P and hemokinin-1), a host defense peptide (human β-defensin-3) and a Food and Drug Administration-approved cationic drug (bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, icatibant). (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, diverse MRGPRX2 ligands use common sites on the receptor to induce MC degranulation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mast cell degranulation was also blocked by preincubation with antiserum against CRH and was partially inhibited by a CRH type-1 receptor selective antagonist. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Sensory neuropeptides did not appear to influence this effect, but a nonpeptide neurotensin receptor antagonist blocked stress-induced cardiac mast cell degranulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The purpose of the present study was to delineate the receptor specificity of C3a-induced degranulation in human mast cells. (nih.gov)
  • We found that C3a, a C3a receptor "superagonist" (E7) and compound 48/80 induced Ca(2+) mobilization and degranulation in a differentiated human mast cell line, LAD2. (nih.gov)
  • To delineate the receptor specificity for C3a and compound 48/80 further, we generated stable transfectants expressing MrgX1 and MrgX2 in a rodent mast cell line, RBL-2H3 cells. (nih.gov)
  • The chemokine receptor CCR7 has been shown to be transferred from donor cells onto the surface of NK cells via trogocytosis, and this transfer stimulated NK cell migration, leading to enhanced lymph node homing [10] , [11] . (plos.org)
  • Only NK cells expressing an inhibitory Ly49 receptor specific for a cognate host MHC class I molecule show this gain-of-function. (rupress.org)
  • We designed a receptor termed NKG2D-DAP10-CD3ζ that is composed of the NK cell activating molecule NKG2D plus 2 key signaling molecules, DAP10 and CD3ζ, and evaluated its capacity to promote cancer cell killing. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The development of an electroporation method that permits rapid expression of the receptor in a large number of human NK cells facilitates clinical translation of this NK-based strategy for a generalized cellular therapy that may be useful to treat a wide range of cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In order to elucidate whether this phenomenon was restricted to the use of CARs, we extended our experiments to T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated recognition of infected cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We incubated a human mast cell line and primary mast cell cultures derived from bone marrow of wild type and estrogen receptor α (ER-α)-deficient mice with environmental estrogens with and without estradiol or IgE and allergens. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Once a DAMP is released from the cell, it promotes a noninfectious inflammatory response by binding to a pattern-recognition receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using bone marrow and peritoneal exudate neutrophils from rac2 -/- mice in comparison with similar cells from wild-type C57Bl/6 mice, we found that primary granule myeloperoxidase and elastase release was absent in Rac2 -/- neutrophils in response to chemoattractant stimulation, cytochalasin B/f-Met-Leu-Phe (CB/fMLP), and CB/leukotriene B 4 . (bloodjournal.org)
  • Methods Carbon-fiber microelectrode amperometry was used to study the effects of ASM-secreted chemokines on mouse peritoneal MC degranulation. (elsevier.com)
  • We aimed to explore the relationship between peritoneal and colonic MC degranulation and gastrointestinal (GI) recovery following colectomy. (uab.cat)
  • Therefore, degranulation of peritoneal MCs as a factor contributing to human POI after colectomy might be considered in future studies as a target to avoid POI. (uab.cat)
  • Cells ended up received by peritoneal lavage of male CD1 mice with HBSS (ten ml). (calpaininhibitor.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to determine whether viral infection in acute asthma was associated with increased sputum neutrophil degranulation and increased cellular lysis and whether these changes are related to clinical severity. (ersjournals.com)
  • the neutrophil are depleted (degranulation). (britannica.com)
  • Neutrophil degranulation is important in many inflammatory disorders, although the intracellular mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Neutrophil degranulation. (uniprot.org)
  • Thus, our data support a novel role of CD107a/LAMP-1 in the protection of NK cells from degranulation-associated suicide, which may represent a general mechanism to transiently limit self-destruction by cytotoxic lymphocytes upon target cell killing. (nih.gov)
  • However, unlike nasal allergen challenge, the mechanism of response to chlorine does not appear to involve mast cell degranulation. (ersjournals.com)
  • In the present work, we found a rapid degranulation of cultured MCs through a pannexin1 hemichannel (Panx1 HC)-dependent mechanism induced by Aβ 25-35 peptide. (jneurosci.org)
  • Mast cell degranulation - a mechanism for the anti-arrhythmic effect of endothelin-1? (strath.ac.uk)
  • These findings demonstrate that in contrast to previous reports, C3a and compound 48/80 do not use a shared mechanism for mast cell degranulation. (nih.gov)
  • Together, our findings unravel a novel regulation mechanism between the microenvironment and NK cells. (nature.com)
  • However, the discrepancy in the concentration of ADO that inhibits degranulation and that required to trigger ADORs suggests a different mechanism. (umn.edu)
  • Thus, ADO specifically inhibits FcεRI-induced degranulation of hSMCs primarily by an intracellular mechanism that requires its influx via equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1). (umn.edu)
  • The kinetics of MC degranulation are signaling pathway-dependent, suggesting a biophysical mechanism of regulated degranulation that incorporates control over granule trafficking, transport, and docking machinery. (elsevier.com)
  • Because MCs release a wide spectrum of bioactive products via degranulation, we hypothesized that MC degranulation may be a mechanism of bFGF release and used ultrastructural immunohistochemistry to test the hypothesis. (elsevier.com)
  • The pretreatment with compound 48/80, an inductor of mast cells degranulation, significantly prevented these CPT-11-induced effects. (nih.gov)
  • Two subgroups of the CEA family, the CEA cell adhesion molecules and the pregnancy-specific glycoproteins, are located within a 1.2 Mb cluster on the long arm of chromosome 19. (nih.gov)
  • Eleven pseudogenes of the CEA cell adhesion molecule subgroup are also found in the cluster. (nih.gov)
  • Subsequently, it was found to be a cell-cell adhesion molecule detected on leukocytes, epithelia, and endothelia. (nih.gov)
  • The encoded protein mediates cell adhesion via homophilic as well as heterophilic binding to other proteins of the subgroup. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we find that unlicensed mature MHC class I-deficient splenic NK cells show gain-of-function and acquire a licensed phenotype after adoptive transfer into wild-type (WT) hosts. (rupress.org)
  • The phenotype and effector function of CS1 CAR T cells treated with and without lenalidomide were compared. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Converted cells are indistinguishable from native α-cells based on ultrastructural morphology and maintain their α-cell phenotype after transplantation in vivo. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Forced expression of key transcription factors in murine liver ( 8 , 9 ) or pancreatic cells ( 10 - 12 ) induces conversion into cells with a β-cell phenotype. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Because the lysosomal-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) appear on the cell surface after CG exocytosis, we hypothesized that some of these proteins might be involved in transiently protecting cytotoxic lymphocytes from self-destruction. (nih.gov)
  • LE exhibited a cytotoxic effect on Calu-3 cells and HumRBL-2H3 cells only at high concentrations and in a dose-dependent manner. (mdpi.com)
  • Retroviral transduction of NKG2D-DAP10-CD3ζ markedly increased NKG2D surface expression in NK cells, which became consistently more cytotoxic than mock-transduced cells against leukemia and solid tumor cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To this end we infected fibroblasts with HCMV-strains deficient in viral inhibitors of antigenic peptide presentation and targeted these HLA-class I expressing peptide-loaded infected cells with peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although it is not yet well understood, IgE may play an important role in the immune system's recognition of cancer , [18] in which the stimulation of a strong cytotoxic response against cells displaying only small amounts of early cancer markers would be beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haploid genetic screens identify novel regulators of cell interaction and degranulation during cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated cell death. (colorado.edu)
  • Recent evidences indicate an important role of tissue inflammatory responses by innate immune cells in allograft acceptance and survival. (frontiersin.org)
  • They induced an early inflammatory response through degranulation and boosted local synthesis of KC, MIP-2, and TNF. (frontiersin.org)
  • While T cell- and Antibody (Ab)-mediated rejection mechanisms have been known for long as the prime actors ( 3 ), new evidences show that tissue inflammatory responses as well as the immunological environment including NK cells, dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, and eosinophils can importantly impact allograft acceptance and/or destabilize an established tolerant state ( 4 - 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Degranulation of mast cells provokes a massive inflammatory reaction in the tympanic membrane. (diva-portal.org)
  • On stimulation the mast cells release preformed and de novo synthesized inflammatory substances. (diva-portal.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine how these mast cell substances provoke inflammatory changes in the tympanic membrane. (diva-portal.org)
  • Release of the mast cell substances coincided with an inflammatory event characterized by a two-stage reaction: an edema stage, peaking 6 hours after application, followed by a massive invasion of inflammatory cells, peaking at 24 and 48 hours. (diva-portal.org)
  • The biphasic reaction pattern resembles that observed in experimental otitis media, suggesting involvement of the mast cells in this inflammatory condition of the middle ear. (diva-portal.org)
  • Necrosis of epithelial cells and granulocytes leads to the release of intracellular contents that may themselves be pro-inflammatory 5 . (ersjournals.com)
  • d-f CPT-11 induces shortening of the villus (green arrows), loss of crypt architecture (brown arrows), intense inflammatory cell infiltrate (blue arrows), and cell vacuolization (black arrows) in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. (nih.gov)
  • Compound 48/80 also prevented the destruction of the crypts, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the mucosa of the three small intestine segments (Fig. 2g-i), resulting in significant differences in the histological scores (Table 2) between CPT-11 + c48/80 and CPT-11 groups observed in jejunal segments. (nih.gov)
  • These lead to the recruitment of inflammatory cells that characterize and prolong inflammation in the conjunctival mucosa. (news-medical.net)
  • The inflamed tissue shows epithelial transformation and an increase in the amount of connective tissue, as well as edema and the inflammatory recruitment of mast cells, lymphocytes and fibroblasts. (news-medical.net)
  • Recent nutraceutical formulations containing the natural anti-inflammatory and mast cell inhibitory flavonoid quercetin hold promise since they can be used together with other treatment modalities. (mastcelldisease.com)
  • Mast cell (MC) infiltration into airway smooth muscle (ASM) is a defining feature of asthma, and ASM regulates the inflammatory response by secreting chemokines, including CXCL10 and CCL5. (elsevier.com)
  • Single cell analysis offers a unique approach to study specific cellular signaling interactions within large and complex signaling networks such as the inflammatory microenvironment in asthma. (elsevier.com)
  • Hence, in this study we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of tamarixetin and observed that it suppressed the degranulation through the attenuation of PLCγ1 phosphorylation in IgE/Ag-induced mast cells. (all-imm.com)
  • As an example, the cytokine IL-1α is a DAMP that originates within the nucleus of the cell, which once released to the extracellular space, binds to the PRR IL-1R, which in turn initiates an inflammatory response to the trauma or pathogen that initiated the release of IL-1α. (wikipedia.org)
  • HMGB1 is a major mediator of endotoxin shock and is recognized as a DAMP by certain immune cells, triggering an inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • In AOM, macrophages were the predominant cell in PF, while in pars tensa (PT), polymorphonuclear cells (mainly neutrophils) predominated. (diva-portal.org)
  • Neutrophils constitute 40% to 80% of circulating white blood cells and are a critical component in the maintenance of innate immunity. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Concomitantly, CPT-11 enhanced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression, associated with an increase in the total number macrophages (positive cells for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule, Iba-1) and degranulated mast cells in the small intestine segments and caused significant weight loss. (nih.gov)
  • This paper investigates the pathophysiological role and disease-modifying effects of PDE3 in mouse bone marrow-derived MCs (bmMCs), human LAD2- and HMC1 mast cell lines, human blood basophils, and peripheral blood-derived primary human MCs (HuMCs). (eur.nl)
  • Mouse bone marrow-derived MCs (bmMCs) and the human HMC1 and LAD2 cell lines predominantly expressed PDE3B and PDE4A. (eur.nl)
  • BmMCs from Pde3−/− mice showed reduced loss of the degranulation marker CD107b compared with wild-type BmMCs, when stimulated in an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent manner. (eur.nl)
  • Concordantly, DGKzeta-/- bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) demonstrate impaired degranulation after Fc epsilonRI cross-linking, associated with diminished phospholipase Cgamma activity, calcium flux, and protein kinase C-betaII membrane recruitment. (duke.edu)
  • Tamarixetin effectively decreased degranulation and the eicosanoid generation such as leukotriene C 4 and prostaglandin D 2 in BMMCs. (all-imm.com)
  • Daily cromolyn injections were performed on young and exercised adult mdx mice and histological analysis confirmed that mast cell degranulation contributes to myofibre necrosis. (deepdyve.com)
  • Using rat RBL-2H3 mast cells, we demonstrated that hydrogen attenuates phosphorylation of the FcepsilonRI-associated Lyn and its downstream signal transduction, which subsequently inhibits the NADPH oxidase activity and reduces the generation of hydrogen peroxide. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Cell-based phenotypic screening of mast cell degranulation unveils kinetic perturbations of agents targeting phosphorylation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this work, we used a method named Time-dependent cell responding profile (TCRP) to track the process of mast cell degranulation under various perturbations caused by agents targeting phosphorylation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Stat3 phosphorylation has been widely reported as a key step in mast cell degranulation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Functional reconstitution assays revealed that the inhibitory effect of Coro1a on MC degranulation strictly correlates with cortical localization of Coro1a, requires its filamentous actin-binding activity, and is regulated by phosphorylation of Ser2 of Coro1a. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we show that p110γ needs p84 to relay signals from GPCRs to formation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 ], phosphorylation of Akt, migration of cells, and synergistic adenosine-enforced degranulation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hypofunctionality of NK cells was associated with impaired STAT4 phosphorylation and downregulation of the STAT4 target microRNA-155. (bmj.com)
  • NK cell tolerance occurs upstream of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I mediated education, and is associated with deficient STAT4 phosphorylation. (bmj.com)
  • Virus infection and acute asthma is associated with neutrophilic inflammation, cell lysis and more severe clinical disease. (ersjournals.com)
  • Thus, Vpu downmodulation of NTB-A protects the infected cell from lysis by NK cells. (nih.gov)
  • Impairment of cell lysis became detectable 1 day after HCMV infection and gradually increased during the following 3 days. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • RBCs were taken off by osmotic lysis in distilled h2o, the cells returned to iso-osmolarity in HBSS (106), and centrifuged (4006g, five min at 4uC). (calpaininhibitor.com)
  • Our results indicate that polcalcin multimers are required to stimulate high levels of effector cell degranulation when using the humanized RBL-SX38 cell model and that multivalency can overcome the need for high-affinity interactions. (jimmunol.org)
  • NK cells are innate immune lymphocytes with potent effector functions against infected and tumor cells. (rupress.org)
  • Egress from the BM is generally accepted as a marker of mature conventional NK cells, as cells isolated from peripheral lymphoid tissues demonstrate effector function upon stimulation. (rupress.org)
  • We characterised NK cell subsets and effector function in 64 patients with CHB compared to 31 healthy controls. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We investigated the ability of MRGPRX2 ligands to induce degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells individually expressing these naturally occurring MRGPRX2 missense variants. (jimmunol.org)
  • Similarly, T cells captured NKG2D and NKp46 ligands on tumor cells through trogocytosis and promoted NK cell activity [12] . (plos.org)
  • Therefore, these findings, which may be relevant to clinical bone marrow transplantation, suggest that neither exposure to MHC class I ligands during NK development in the BM nor endogenous MHC class I expression by NK cells themselves is absolutely required for licensing. (rupress.org)
  • Previous studies have provided conflicting data on the effect of HLA matching for NK cell ligands in LT. (bmj.com)
  • In summary, tamarixetin inhibits degranulation and eicosanoid generation through the phospholipase Cγ1 as well as Akt pathways. (all-imm.com)
  • Here we demonstrate techniques 1 for assessing effects of drugs and toxicants on degranulation, methodology recently utilized to exhibit the powerful inhibitory effect of antibacterial agent triclosan 2 . (jove.com)
  • There has been accumulating a wealth of evidence in the past decade on the physiological role of IgE: this isotype has co-evolved with basophils and mast cells in the defence against parasites like helminths (like Schistosoma) but may be also effective in bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was found in the present study that NaHS at 0.1-10 μM significantly decreased cAMP production in As4.1 cells treated with isoproterenol (a β-adrenoceptor agonist), forskolin (an adenylyl cyclase activator), or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Introduction of antioxidants to the system significantly reduced both ROS generation and degranulation. (uthscsa.edu)
  • It was revealed that F-A significantly suppress mast cell degranulation via decreasing histamine release as well as intracellular Ca 2+ elevation at the concentration of 50 μM. (mdpi.com)
  • In particular, all mast cells were disrupted or degranulated significantly 18 hours after injection of distilled water. (bvsalud.org)
  • Engineered surface expression of CD107a/LAMP-1, but not of CD107b/LAMP-2, reduced the granule-mediated killing of transfected target cells. (nih.gov)
  • Interaction between protein kinase C-dependent and G protein-dependent pathways in the regulation of natural killer cell granule exocytosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Single eosinophils were dialyzed in the whole cell configuration and granule release was observed by measurement of the membrane capacitance. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Relative to IgE-mediated degranulation, CXCL10- and CCL5-stimulated MCs released a decreased amount of serotonin per granule with fewer release events per cell. (elsevier.com)
  • General Significance The biophysical mechanisms, including variations in number of exocytotic release events, serotonin released per granule, and the membrane kinetics of exocytosis that underlie MC degranulation in response to CXCL10 and CCL5 were characterized at the single cell level. (elsevier.com)
  • We believe that the images presented here, in the absence of MC mitosis, support the possibility that in B-NHL, MC after PMD, refill empty granule containers in situ, as seen in MC during the angiogenic phase of wound-healing, and that both events, PMD and recovery of MC after their degranulation, occur during biological processes in which MC and angiogenesis are strictly interconnected. (elsevier.com)
  • New developments in mast cell biology. (springer.com)
  • Mast cell-deficient W-sash c-kit mutant Kit W-sh/W-sh mice as a model for investigating mast cell biology in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Journal of Cell Biology , 99 (5), 1678-1687. (northwestern.edu)
  • It was previously shown that acute psychological stress by immobilization results in dura mast cell degranulation, an effect blocked by pretreatment with antiserum against corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). (aspetjournals.org)
  • We report that acute psychological stress causes cardiac mast cell degranulation through local release of CRH and NT. (aspetjournals.org)
  • When the conjunctiva is exposed to an environmental allergen, specific IgE binds to the conjunctival mast cells producing an acute response, which lasts for up to 30 minutes. (news-medical.net)
  • NK cells constitute a major cellular arm of the innate immune system and, as such, have been viewed as most relevant in the setting of the initial response to an acute infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mast cells (MC) are critical for a number of pathological conditions, including acute and chronic inflammation and tumor angiogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, our data provide no firm evidence that in this experimental model, mast cell degranulation contributes to a significant extent to acute hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury to cardiomyocytes. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Importantly, knockdown of CD107a/LAMP-1 in primary human natural killer (NK) cells and deficiency of CD107a/LAMP-1 in mice resulted in increased NK cell apoptosis upon target cell-induced degranulation. (nih.gov)
  • Unlike B cell development, mast cell development is apparently normal in these btk mutant mice. (escholarship.org)
  • However, mast cells derived from these mice exhibited significant abnormalities in FcepsilonRI-dependent function. (escholarship.org)
  • We have previously suggested that the release of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) (5-HT) by local tissue mast cells is required for the elicitation of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in mice. (rupress.org)
  • We redirected central memory T cells to express second-generation CAR-specific for CS1 and adoptively transferred them into multiple myeloma tumor-bearing mice to test their anti-multiple myeloma activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Finally, CS1 CAR T cells and lenalidomide were administered to treat multiple myeloma-bearing mice as combinatorial therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CS1 CAR T cells exhibited efficient antitumor activity when adoptively transferred into mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, in mice, near-total loss of β-cell mass causes a small proportion of remaining α-cells to regenerate β-cell mass ( 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Comparison of bone marrow mast cells from ER-α-sufficient and ER-α-deficient mice indicated that much of the effect of environmental estrogens was mediated by ER-α. (uthscsa.edu)
  • We reported previously that DGKzeta-/- mice have enhanced in vivo T cell function. (duke.edu)
  • Here, we demonstrate that these mice have diminished in vivo mast cell function, as revealed by impaired local anaphylactic responses. (duke.edu)
  • Islets from Ins2 Akita mice are depleted of beta cells and those remaining release very little mature insulin. (jax.org)
  • The effect of psychological stress was investigated on rat cardiac mast cells, because their release of coronary constrictive and proinflammatory molecules contributes to myocardial ischemia and possibly arrhythmias. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Immobilization of rats for 30 min induced maximal cardiac mast cell degranulation as evidenced by light and electron microscopy. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether the previously reported anti-arrhythmic effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is mediated by degranulation of cardiac mast cells prior to myocardial ischaemia. (strath.ac.uk)
  • These results demonstrate for the first time that when given prior to ischaemia ET-1 mediates its anti-arrhythmic effects, at least in part, via cardiac mast cell degranulation. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Mast cells stem from the bone marrow and migrate via the blood as mast cell progenitors. (diva-portal.org)
  • Sulimenko V, Hájková Z, Černohorská M, Sulimenko T, Sládková V, Dráberová L, Vinopal S, Dráberová E, Dráber P. Microtubule nucleation in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells is regulated by the concerted action of GIT1/βPIX proteins and calcium. (springer.com)
  • Gradients of chemokines are favorable as directional cues to guide immune cells 11 towards or away from anatomically stable structures such as lymphatic vessels 12 or bone marrow 13 . (nature.com)
  • Natural killer (NK) cell alloreactivity is well described in bone marrow transplantation. (bmj.com)
  • It was found that isoproterenol elevated intracellular cAMP level and extracellular renin activity but decreased renin protein level in the renin-rich kidney cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2007). It offers been demonstrated that the GTP-bound FOXO4 forms of Rab27a and Rab27b sponsor effectors of the synaptotagmin-like protein family (Slp1/JFC1, Slp2a, Slp3, Slp4/granuphilin, and Slp5), which are involved in the trafficking and docking of secretory vesicles in numerous cell types (Fukuda et al. (paft-phil.com)
  • Expression of the inducible heat shock protein was observed in A20 cells incubated at 43 degrees C, but not in those incubated at 42 degrees C, suggesting a role for heat shock proteins. (abo.fi)
  • High-mobility group box 1: HMGB1, a member of the HMG protein family, is a prototypical chromatin-associated LSP (leaderless secreted protein), secreted by hematopoietic cells through a lysosome-mediated pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • At various intervals after stimulation, parallel aliquots of cells were recovered for determination of histamine release or were fixed for transmission electron microscopy. (northwestern.edu)
  • CXCL10 and CCL5 induce less robust MC degranulation compared to IgE- and A23187-stimulation. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings clarify the function of ASM-derived chemokines as instigators of MC degranulation relative to classical mechanisms of MC stimulation. (elsevier.com)
  • hybridapollen extracts, respectively.Stimulation of sPool cell batches showed dose-response curvesshifted towards lower concentrations (LOEC 6 and 12lg/mL) when compared to crPool (LOEC=24lg/mL) forP. (uevora.pt)
  • Both adenosine and ATP can induce degranulation and bronchoconstriction on their own and synergistically with allergens. (frontiersin.org)
  • MCs are activated for degranulation and mediator release by allergens that cross-link IgE molecules or by microbial products. (bvsalud.org)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Molecular hydrogen suppresses FcepsilonRI-mediated signal transduction and prevents degranulation of mast cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Taken together, these results demonstrate an important role for Btk in the full expression of FcepsilonRI signal transduction in mast cells. (escholarship.org)
  • A new enzyme-affinity-gold ultrastructural method makes use of the affinity of the enzyme, diamine oxidase coupled to gold, for its substrate, histamine, for localization of histamine in isolated human lung mast cells (HLMCs). (northwestern.edu)
  • Our ultrastructural observations of human temporal arteries from cluster headache patients and their comparison to those from a control group strongly suggest that mast cells may be this link. (chsg.org)
  • Interestingly, cathecolaminergic nerve fibres and mast cells are often described in close morphological and functional interactions in various organs. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, in the cluster headache group exclusively, adventitial mast cells show profound morphological modifications suggesting progressive degranulation. (chsg.org)
  • and at 1, 2, 3 and 6 weeks after an intraperitoneal injection of 250 microgram or 500 microgram of HRP or 10 ml of distilled water were used for observation of degranulation rates and morphological changes in cell organelles during specified time intervals. (bvsalud.org)
  • 4) After 6 weeks, the morphological characteristics of most mast cells in the group injected with HRP were nearly the same as those of the control group. (bvsalud.org)
  • In separate experiments rats were given compound 48/80 (50 µg·kg−1) to compare the effects of ET-1 with those of a known mast cell degranulator. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Because the recruitment of mast cell progenitors started early after influenza infection, the role of innate immune signals in inducing the recruitment of mast cell progenitors was addressed. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cutaneous mast cells are a type of innate immune cell that resides in the dermis. (asahq.org)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells play important role in innate immunity against tumors and viral infections. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells play a central role during innate immune responses by eliminating pathogen-infected or tumorigenic cells. (nature.com)
  • Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are molecules within cells that are a component of the innate immune response released from damaged or dying cells due to trauma or an infection by a pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • DAMPs vary greatly depending on the type of cell (epithelial or mesenchymal) and injured tissue, but they all share the common feature of stimulating an innate immune response within an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identical perfusion in the presence of the mast cell stabilizer lodoxamide tromethamine resulted in a reduced histamine release (2.8% +/- 0.1%) of total tissue content upon reoxygenation, but the release of LDH, CK or PO was not influenced. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Histamine release (%degranulation) was assessed using aß-hexosaminidase assay.All sera exhibited immunoreactivity againstD. (uevora.pt)