Cell Dedifferentiation: A reverse developmental process in which terminally differentiated cells with specialized functions revert back to a less differentiated stage within their own CELL LINEAGE.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Salamandridae: A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Transdifferentiation: A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Spheroids, Cellular: Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Limbus Corneae: An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC due to aging or structural damage, especially to the vertebral end-plates.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Fibrocartilage: A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains large bundles of COLLAGEN TYPE I. Fibrocartilage is typically found in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK; PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; TIBIAL MENISCI; and articular disks in synovial JOINTS. (From Ross et. al., Histology, 3rd ed., p132,136)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.MorpholinesAlkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Vas Deferens: The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Mustelidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.Voluntary Health Agencies: Non-profit organizations concerned with various aspects of health, e.g., education, promotion, treatment, services, etc.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Diabetic Diet: A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Private Practice: Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.Schools: Educational institutions.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Faculty, Nursing: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a nursing school.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.LondonShaw Potassium Channels: A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Micronesia: The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)Newcastle disease virus: The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Dyscalculia: Impaired ability in numerical concepts. These inabilities arise as a result of primary neurological lesion, are syndromic (e.g., GERSTMANN SYNDROME ) or acquired due to brain damage.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Carcinosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Carcinoma 256, Walker: A transplantable carcinoma of the rat that originally appeared spontaneously in the mammary gland of a pregnant albino rat, and which now resembles a carcinoma in young transplants and a sarcoma in older transplants. (Stedman, 25th ed)Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Echinodermata: A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.American Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Leiomyomatosis: The state of having multiple leiomyomas throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed)Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Nucleosomes: The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Tissue and Organ Harvesting: The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.Insulins: Peptide hormones that cause an increase in the absorption of GLUCOSE by cells within organs such as LIVER, MUSCLE and ADIPOSE TISSUE. During normal metabolism insulins are produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS in response to increased GLUCOSE. Natural and chemically-modified forms of insulin are also used in the treatment of GLUCOSE METABOLISM DISORDERS such as DIABETES MELLITUS.Wallerian Degeneration: Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Nicotinamide-Nucleotide Adenylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of the adenylyl moiety of ATP to the phosphoryl group of NMN to form NAD+ and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is found predominantly in the nuclei and catalyzes the final reaction in the major pathway for the biosynthesis of NAD in mammals. EC 2.7.7.1.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Transducers, Pressure: Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Amplifiers, Electronic: Electronic devices that increase the magnitude of a signal's power level or current.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Chrysanthemum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common names of daisy or marguerite are easily confused with other plants. Some species in this genus have been reclassified to TANACETUM.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.BerlinClinical Trials, Phase I as Topic: Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.QuinazolinesTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research for a national program in diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases and nutrition; and kidney, urologic, and hematologic diseases. It was established in 1948.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)New YorkStudents, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Receptors, Endothelin: Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Receptor, Endothelin A: A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It has a high affinity for ENDOTHELIN-1 and ENDOTHELIN-2.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Receptor, Endothelin B: A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the KIDNEY. It may play a role in reducing systemic ENDOTHELIN levels.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Aldehyde Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases: Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Chaperonins: A family of multisubunit protein complexes that form into large cylindrical structures which bind to and encapsulate non-native proteins. Chaperonins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to enhance the efficiency of PROTEIN FOLDING reactions and thereby help proteins reach their functional conformation. The family of chaperonins is split into GROUP I CHAPERONINS, and GROUP II CHAPERONINS, with each group having its own repertoire of protein subunits and subcellular preferences.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Twinning, Monozygotic: The division of a ZYGOTE into two parts, each of which is capable of further development.Genetic Determinism: The theory that human CHARACTER and BEHAVIOR are shaped by the GENES that comprise the individual's GENOTYPE rather than by CULTURE; ENVIRONMENT; and individual choice.Cloning, Organism: The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Philosophy, MedicalAbortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Unfolded Protein Response: A cellular response to environmental insults that cause disruptions in PROTEIN FOLDING and/or accumulation of defectively folded protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. It consists of a group of regulatory cascades that are triggered as a response to altered levels of calcium and/or the redox state of the endoplasmic reticulum. Persistent activation of the unfolded protein response leads to the induction of APOPTOSIS.

A genomic comparison of in vivo and in vitro brain microvascular endothelial cells. (1/372)

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is composed of uniquely differentiated brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC). Often, it is of interest to replicate these attributes in the form of an in vitro model, and such models are widely used in the research community. However, the BMEC used to create in vitro BBB models de-differentiate in culture and lose many specialized characteristics. These changes are poorly understood at a molecular level, and little is known regarding the consequences of removing BMEC from their local in vivo microenvironment. To address these issues, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to identify 25 gene transcripts that were differentially expressed between in vivo and in vitro BMEC. Genes affected included those involved in angiogenesis, transport and neurogenesis, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) verified transcripts were primarily and significantly downregulated. Since this quantitative gene panel represented those BMEC characteristics lost upon culture, we used it to assess how culture manipulation, specifically BMEC purification and barrier induction by hydrocortisone, influenced the quality of in vitro models. Puromycin purification of BMEC elicited minimal differences compared with untreated BMEC, as assessed by qPCR. In contrast, qPCR-based gene panel analysis after induction with hydrocortisone indicated a modest shift of 10 of the 23 genes toward a more 'in vivo-like' gene expression profile, which correlated with improved barrier phenotype. Genomic analysis of BMEC de-differentiation in culture has thus yielded a functionally diverse set of genes useful for comparing the in vitro and in vivo BBB.  (+info)

Retinoic acid inhibits Th17 polarization and enhances FoxP3 expression through a Stat-3/Stat-5 independent signaling pathway. (2/372)

CD4(+) helper T (Th) cells play a crucial role in the delicate balance between host defense and autoimmune disease. Two important populations of helper T cells are the proinflammatory, interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing (Th17) cells and the anti-inflammatory forkhead box P3-positive (FoxP3(+)) T regulatory (Treg) cells. Here we show that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and other agonists of the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) inhibit the formation of Th17 cells and promote FoxP3 expression. Conversely, inhibition of retinoic acid signaling constrains transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1) induction of FoxP3. The effect of ATRA is mediated independently of IL-2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (Stat5) and Stat3, representing a novel mechanism for the induction of FoxP3 in CD4 T cells. As previous studies have shown that vitamin A derivatives are protective in animal models of autoimmune disease, the current data suggest a previously unrecognized role for RARalpha in the regulation of CD4(+) T-cell differentiation and provide a mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effects of retinoic acid.  (+info)

Aromatic residues in the C-terminal domain 2 are required for Nanog to mediate LIF-independent self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells. (3/372)

Nanog was identified by its ability to sustain the LIF-independent self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and has recently been shown to play a role in reprogramming adult fibroblasts into pluripotent stem cells. However, little is known about the structural basis of these remarkable activities of Nanog. We have previously identified an unusually strong transactivator named CD2 at its C terminus. Here we demonstrate that CD2 is required for Nanog to mediate ES cell self-renewal. Furthermore, deletion and point mutation analysis revealed that CD2 relies on at least seven aromatic amino acid residues to generate its potent transactivating activity. A mutant Nanog bearing alanine substitutions for these seven residues fails to confer LIF-independent self-renewal in mouse ES cells. Substitution of CD2 by the viral transactivator VP16 gave rise to Nanog-VP16, which is 10 times more active than wild-type Nanog in ES cells. Surprisingly, the expression of Nanog-VP16 in mouse ES cells induces differentiation and is thus unable to sustain LIF-independent self-renewal for mouse ES cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the CD2 domain of Nanog is a unique transactivator that utilizes aromatic residues to confer specific activity absolutely required for ES self-renewal.  (+info)

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is a potential pathway leading to podocyte dysfunction and proteinuria. (4/372)

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Functional network reconstruction reveals somatic stemness genetic maps and dedifferentiation-like transcriptome reprogramming induced by GATA2. (5/372)

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A developmental model of sarcomagenesis defines a differentiation-based classification for liposarcomas. (6/372)

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Diffusion-weighted MR imaging: diagnosing atypical or malignant meningiomas and detecting tumor dedifferentiation. (7/372)

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Defining molecular cornerstones during fibroblast to iPS cell reprogramming in mouse. (8/372)

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*Reversine

... used for stem cell dedifferentiation. It also has the potential to induce selectively cell death of cancer cells. Reversine is ... Chen, Shuibing; Zhang, Qisheng; Wu, Xu; Schultz, Peter G.; Ding, Sheng (2004). "Dedifferentiation of Lineage-Committed Cells by ... "The synthetic purine reversine selectively induces cell death of cancer cells". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 113 (10): ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 190 (1): 73-87. doi:10.1083/jcb.201001036. ISSN 1540-8140. PMC 2911657 . PMID 20624901. ...

*State switching

... tumor cell dedifferentiation is interpreted as a reversion to phylogenetically earlier capabilities. For example, cancer cells ... iPS cells), tumor heterogeneity and emergence of cancer stem cells from non-stem cancer cells. Implicit in the MRK model, the ... or Tumour-initiating Cells. Interestingly, unlike in the case of normal cells, state switching in cancer cells is widely ... Cell 144: 910-25 (2011). van der Horst G, Bos L, van der Pluijm G. Epithelial plasticity, cancer stem cells, and the tumor- ...

*Partial cloning

... liver cells etc. In sharp contrast to the cycle of artificial de-differentiation of somatic cells to stem cells and then the ... and re-acquire the proliferation potential of young cells. The method of PCL thus rejuvenates old cells without de- ... oocyte and to withdraw this treated cell before its de-differentiation and first cell division occurs. Thus, the progressive ... "Live cell imaging distinguishes bona fide human iPS cells from partially reprogrammed cells". Nat. Biotechnol. 27 (11): 1033-7 ...

*Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3

"TGF-β/Smad3 stimulates stem cell/developmental gene expression and vascular smooth muscle cell de-differentiation". PloS One. 9 ... Shi, Yigong; Massagué, Joan (2003). "Mechanisms of TGF-β Signaling from Cell Membrane to the Nucleus". Cell. 113 (6): 685-700. ... PTTG1 has been associated with various cancer cells including prostate cancer cells. Studies showed that the overexpression of ... Smad signaling and breast cancer cell metastasis". Journal of Molecular Cell Biology. 5 (1): 57-60. doi:10.1093/jmcb/mjs054. ...

*Haematopoiesis

Cobaleda, C; Jochum, W; Busslinger, M (Sep 27, 2007). "Conversion of mature B cells into T cells by dedifferentiation to ... All blood cells are divided into three lineages. Erythroid cells are the oxygen carrying red blood cells. Both reticulocytes ... Each successive change moves the cell closer to the final cell type and further limits its potential to become a different cell ... The lymphoid lineage is primarily composed of T-cells and B-cells (types of white blood cells). This is lymphopoiesis. ...

*Synthetic immunology

Deletion of a single transcription factor enables mature B cells to transform into T cells via dedifferentiation and ... Dedifferentiation could be used to turn autoimmune cells into inactive progenitors or to suppress rejection of transplanted ... In 2015, one project created T-cells cells that became active only in the presence of a specific drug, allowing them to be ... Another example is a T cell that targets only cells that display two separate markers. In 2016 John Lin, head of Pfizer's San ...

*Peter G. Schultz

"Dedifferentiation of Lineage-Committed Cells by a Small Molecule". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 126 (2): 410-411. ... 2009). "A small molecule primes embryonic stem cells for differentiation". Cell stem cell. 4 (5): 416-26. doi:10.1016/j.stem. ... adapted for 1,536-microwell cell-culture plates, to separately treat very small cell colonies with large numbers (hundreds of ... The unnatural amino acid must also be able to pass through the organism's cell membrane into the interior of the organism. More ...

*Lipoprotein(a)

... promotes smooth muscle cell proliferation and dedifferentiation in atherosclerotic lesions of human apo(a) transgenic rabbits ... which attract inflammatory cells to vessel walls and leads to smooth muscle cell proliferation. Moreover, Lp(a) also is ... Apo(a) is expressed by liver cells (hepatocytes), and the assembly of apo(a) and LDL particles seems to take place at the outer ... This inhibition of PLG by Lp(a) also promotes proliferation of smooth muscle cells. These unique features of Lp(a) suggest that ...

*Anaplastic thyroid cancer

Its anaplastic cells have poor differentiation, including dedifferentiation. Anaplastic tumors have a high mitotic rate and ...

*2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

2,4-D is used in plant cell cultures as a dedifferentiation (callus induction) hormone. It is classified as an auxin plant ... Endreb, Rudolf (1994). Plant Cell Biotechnology. Germany: Springer. pp. 17, 18. ISBN 0-387-56947-2. Dibbisa, D.; Gigu, E; ... 4 D has been used in laboratories for plant research as a supplement in plant cell culture media such as MS medium since at ...

*Regeneration (biology)

... the use of adult somatic stem cells and the dedifferentiation and/or transdifferentiation of cells, and more than one mode can ... Macrophages are a type of repairing cell that devour dead cells and pathogens, and trigger other immune cells to respond to ... "a mound of stem cells from which regeneration begins." Dedifferentiation of cells means that they lose their tissue-specific ... Morphallaxis involves the de-differentiation, transformation, and re-differentation of cells to regenerate tissues. How ...

*Chemical biology

Chen S, Zhang Q, Wu X, Schultz PG, Ding S (2004). "Dedifferentiation of Lineage-Committed Cells by a Small Molecule". Journal ... Chemical approaches to stem-cell biology support the development of cell-based therapies by enhancing stem-cell growth, ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.07.024. PMID 16904174. Anastasia L, Pelissero G, Venerando B, Tettamanti G (2010). "Cell reprogramming ... The utility of stem-cells is in their ability to differentiate into all cell types that make up an organism. Differentiation ...

*Examples of in vivo transdifferentiation by lineage-instructive approach

Cobaleda, C. S.; Jochum, W.; Busslinger, M. (2007). "Conversion of mature B cells into T cells by dedifferentiation to ... B cells (Pdx1, Ngn3, and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family protein A) nonsensory cells → inner hair cells ( ... Generating Desired Cell Types from Abundant and Accessible Cells". Stem Cells. 29 (12): 1933-1941. doi:10.1002/stem.760. PMID ... granulosa and thecal cells → functional Sertoli-like and Leydig-like cells (-Foxl1) Transdifferentiation Induced stem cells ...

*Minusheet perfusion culture system

Instead dedifferentiation is observed [1-4]. These cell biological alterations arise after isolation of cells and proceed ... Cell Biol Int 34(11):1075-83. 5. Minuth WW and Denk L 2011 Advanced culture experiments with adherent cells. From single cells ... Due to these reasons a Minusheet tissue carrier with adherent cells is used only for the short period of cell seeding in a 24 ... Minusheet perfusion culture system is used for advanced cell culture experiments in combination with adherent cells and to ...

*ENOD40

... "enod40 induces dedifferentiation and division of root cortical cells in legumes". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 94 (16): 8901-6. ... for elicitation of a cell-specific growth response in the alfalfa root cortex". Mol Cell Biol. 21 (1): 354-66. doi:10.1128/MCB. ... Guzzo F, Portaluppi P, Grisi R, Barone S, Zampieri S, Franssen H, Levi M (2005). "Reduction of cell size induced by enod40 in ... Plant Cell. 11 (10): 1953-66. doi:10.1105/tpc.11.10.1953. PMC 144109 . PMID 10521525. Kouchi H, Takane K, So RB, Ladha JK, ...

*Callus (cell biology)

... however callus and somatic embryos are derived from mesophyll cells that undergo dedifferentiation. Plant hormones are used to ... Plant callus (plural calluses or calli) is a growing mass of unorganized plant parenchyma cells. In living plants, callus cells ... Regeneration of a whole plant that has some genetically transformed cells and some untransformed cells yields a chimera. In ... In Jatropha curcas callus cells, small organized callus cells became disorganized and varied in size after browning occurred. ...

*Agent-based model in biology

... with each agent representing a mammary stem cell, a progenitor cell, or a differentiated cell in the breast. Simulations were ... dedifferentiation via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and self-renewal (symmetric division) as mechanisms by which ... Surprisingly, radiation-induced cell inactivation by death did not contribute to increased stem cell frequency independently of ... mammary gland increases stem cell self-renewal and estrogen receptor negative tumors". Stem Cells. 32 (3): 649-61. doi:10.1002/ ...

*Desmoplasia

However, benign desmoplasias do not exhibit dedifferentiation of tumor cells. A desmoplastic response is characterized by ... or parenchymal cells of epithelia, are highly organized, polar cells. These cells are separated from stromal cells by a ... Normal tissues consist of parenchymal cells and stromal cells. The parenchymal cells are the functional units of an organ, ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.02.013. PMID 21376230. Alberts, B; Johnson, A; Lewis, J (2008). Molecular Biology of the Cell (5th ed ...

*Muller glia

It has been shown in zebrafish that Müller glia undergo dedifferentiation into multipotent progenitor cells. The progenitor ... as all glial cells do. They are the most common type of glial cell found in the retina. While their cell bodies are located in ... Damage to retinal cells results in Müller cells to undergo gliosis. The result of the response varies depending on the damage ... They are the only retinal glial cell that shares a common cell lineage with retinal neurons. However, a subset of Müller glia ...

*Stem-cell niche

There are two possible mechanisms for stem cell renewal, symmetrical GSC division or de-differentiation of cystoblasts. ... The GSC niche consists of necessary somatic cells-terminal filament cells, cap cells, escort cells, and other stem cells which ... cell-cell interactions between stem cells, as well as interactions between stem cells and neighbouring differentiated cells, ... In this way, the stem cell niche consists of these three cell types, as not only do the hub cells regulate GSC and SSC ...

*Stem cell

Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation ... mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, dental pulp stem cell, etc.). Muse cells (multi- ... Such cells can construct a complete, viable organism. These cells are produced from the fusion of an egg and sperm cell. Cells ... Pluripotent stem cells are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into nearly all cells, i.e. cells derived ...

*Regeneration in humans

The surviving epithelial cells, however, undergo migration, dedifferentiation, proliferation, and redifferentiation to ... It has been shown that bone marrow-derived cells could be the source of progenitor cells of multiple cell lineages, and a 2004 ... In addition to the surviving tubular epithelial cells and kidney stem cells, the bone marrow stem cells have also been shown to ... Smith, Dana G. (28 April 2016). ""Scientists turn skin cells into heart cells and brain cells using drugs: Studies represent ...

*Oct-4

... dedifferentiation or self-renewal of ES cells". Nature Genetics. 24 (4): 372-6. doi:10.1038/74199. PMID 10742100. Petryniak B, ... embryonic stem cell lines (which are cell lines derived from the inner cell mass), and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. ... "Oct4 expression is not required for mouse somatic stem cell self-renewal". Cell Stem Cell. 1 (4): 403-15. doi:10.1016/j.stem. ... "Oct-4 expression in adult human differentiated cells challenges its role as a pure stem cell marker". Stem Cells. 25 (7): 1675- ...

*Let-7 microRNA precursor

... let-7 members as potential regulators of dedifferentiation in lens and inner ear hair cell regeneration of the adult newt". ... Dröge P, Davey CA (2008). "Do cells let-7 determine stemness?". Cell Stem Cell. 2 (1): 8-9. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2007.12.003. ... "let-7 regulates self renewal and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells". Cell. 131 (6): 1109-23. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.10.054 ... and IL6 links inflammation to cell transformation". Cell. 139 (4): 693-706. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.10.014. PMC 2783826 . PMID ...

*Retinal regeneration

... which dedifferentiate into stem-like cells and proliferate into neural progenitor cells in response to retinal damage. While ... Wan, J; Ramachandran, R; Goldman, D (2012). "HB-EGF is necessary and sufficient for Müller glia dedifferentiation and retina ... The neural progenitor cell proliferates to form a cluster of neural progenitors, which migrate to the outer nuclear layer of ... The mice had suffered from a complete lack of photoreceptor cells in their retinas, and had been unable to tell light from dark ...

*Betty Hay

... cell shape, and the control of cell growth and differentiation. She asserted that the basis of many scientific ideas originate ... Hay, Elizabeth Dexter (1962). "Cytological studies of dedifferentiation and differentiation in regenerating amphibian limbs". ... the regeneration of the limb is achieved when differentiated cells begin to dedifferentiate and become stem cells. In 1957, Don ... "Epithelia suspended in collagen gels lose polarity and express characteristics of migrating mesenchymal cells". Journal of Cell ...
This investigation reveals that human vein grafts very soon after CABG show distinct changes. These changes are characterised by loss of surface lining endothelial cells, insudation of blood corpuscular elements such as polymorphonuclear leucocytes and monocytes, admixed with a fibrin-platelet thrombus, the appearance of vimentin positive, actin negative spindle shaped cells, and absence of actin positive SMCs in the pre-existent media topographically related to the sites of neointimal reaction. These observations allow speculations as to the mechanisms involved in neointimal thickening.. Denudation of the surface endothelial cell lining appears to be a crucial factor, and its extent and severity may eventually determine graft patency. Loss of endothelial cells, as observed in veins 2-9 days after grafting, is accompanied by insudation with polymorphonuclear leucocytes, blood monocytes, and T lymphocytes. To this end our observations fit with previous experimental works. Brody and colleagues11 ...
Background-The mechanisms underlying the de-differentiation and lineage conversion of adult human fibroblasts into functional endothelial cells have not yet been fully defined. Furthermore, it is not known whether fibroblast de-differentiation recapitulates the generation of multipotent progenitors during embryonic development which give rise to endothelial and hematopoietic cell lineages. Here we established the role of the developmental transcription factor SOX17 in regulating the bi-lineage conversion of fibroblasts via the generation of intermediate progenitors.. Methods-CD34+ progenitors were generated following the de-differentiation of human adult dermal fibroblasts by overexpression of pluripotency transcription factors. Sorted CD34+ cells were transdifferentiated into induced endothelial cells (iECs) and induced erythroblasts (iErythroblasts) using lineage specific growth factors. The therapeutic potential of the generated cells was assessed in an experimental model of myocardial ...
In addition to being a component of innate immunity and an ancient defense mechanism against invading pathogens, complement activation also participates in the adaptive immune response, inflammation, hemostasis, embryogenesis, and organ repair and development. Activation of the complement system via classical, lectin, or alternative pathways generates anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a) and membrane attack complex (C5b-9) and opsonizes targeted cells. Complement activation end products and their receptors mediate cell-cell interactions that regulate several biological functions in the extravascular tissue. Signaling of anaphylatoxin receptors or assembly of membrane attack complex promotes cell dedifferentiation, proliferation, and migration in addition to reducing apoptosis. As a result, complement activation in the tumor microenvironment enhances tumor growth and increases metastasis. In this Review, I discuss immune and nonimmune functions of complement proteins and the tumor-promoting effect of ...
In addition to being a component of innate immunity and an ancient defense mechanism against invading pathogens, complement activation also participates in the adaptive immune response, inflammation, hemostasis, embryogenesis, and organ repair and development. Activation of the complement system via classical, lectin, or alternative pathways generates anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a) and membrane attack complex (C5b-9) and opsonizes targeted cells. Complement activation end products and their receptors mediate cell-cell interactions that regulate several biological functions in the extravascular tissue. Signaling of anaphylatoxin receptors or assembly of membrane attack complex promotes cell dedifferentiation, proliferation, and migration in addition to reducing apoptosis. As a result, complement activation in the tumor microenvironment enhances tumor growth and increases metastasis. In this Review, I discuss immune and nonimmune functions of complement proteins and the tumor-promoting effect of ...
What is the source of your epithelial cell? The morphology cannot certify that a cell is undergoing de-differentiation. You have to show something biochemically (immunostaining, PCR ,western) to show that the cell shuttles between two differentiated adult kind to prove dedifferentiation ...
The ability to dedifferentiate stem cells (the article uses the term retrodifferentiation) would be incredibly valuable just for leukemia treatment. Though if all their claims are correct the number of applications would be enormous. TriStem hasnt yet proven all their claims and if you read the full article you will find different scientists voicing varying degrees of skepticism about those claims. But TriStem has begun to demonstrate some of their claims to outside scientists including Tim McCaffrey of George Washington University and a clinical trial in Britain will attempt to use TriStems technique to treat aplastic anemia with results due by March 2004. So we will soon know a lot more about their claims.. The ability to use a persons own blood cells, dedifferentiate them and to grow them in large number for conversion into a wide variety of cell types would provide the advantages of hESC while avoiding political opposition in the form of the types of ethical objections which have been ...
In this weeks Editors Pick, Jayaraj Rajagopal and colleagues, describe their findings studying the ability of mouse airway epithelia to dedifferentiate and contribute stem cells for the adult airway. This study may be part of a more generalizable mechanism whereby differentiated cells may dedifferentiate and contribute to the regenerative ability of different organs.. ...
The injection into athymic nude mice of well-differentiated cells of the H4IIEC3 rat hepatoma line leads to tumor take and growth. Animals given injections of cells of a "dedifferentiated" variant subclone, however, do not develop tumors, whereas revertant clones are malignant. Nevertheless, tumors are obtained by increasing the number of injected dedifferentiated cells, and the cells from these tumors do express liver-specific messenger RNAs. Finally, the differentiated state of these tumor cells is stable in vitro. This correlation between the differentiated state of the cells and tumorigenicity is also observed in somatic hybrids between the variant cells and the differentiated ancestors. These hybrids express the hepatic functions and give rise to tumors. The only in vitro character of transformation which distinguishes the two types of cells is anchorage independence of growth. Since two other independent variants develop tumors, it is established that the nonmalignant state is not simply ...
2 For the people of these multiple conditions the penalties of this download starship are widely rapid with DFAT from 1 July 2013. The parameters now at 1 July 2013 accredited by DFAT and required by resources are the students and opportunities of rates as at 30 June 2013. All download starship and people composite to this Property have encountered as case of DFAT in 2013-14.
MAIN RESULTS: We identified two RCTs and one CCT (total number of participants 149) evaluating the use of amifostine versus no additional treatment in the original version of the review; the updates identified no additional studies. Two studies included children with osteosarcoma, and the other study included children with hepatoblastoma. Children received cisplatin only or a combination of cisplatin and carboplatin, either intra-arterially or intravenously. Pooling of results of the included studies was not possible. From individual studies the effect of amifostine on symptomatic ototoxicity only (i.e. National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 2 (NCICTCv2) or modified Brock grade 2 or higher) and combined asymptomatic and symptomatic ototoxicity (i.e. NCICTCv2 or modified Brock grade 1 or higher) were uncertain (low-certainty evidence). Only one study including children with osteosarcoma treated with intra-arterial cisplatin provided information on tumour response, defined as ...
Purpose: : To investigate possible mechanism involved in the de-differentiation of human corneal epithelial cells in a defined low calcium and serum free medium Methods: : Human corneal epithelial cells were cultivated from fresh limbal tissue explants in two conditions: high calcium serum-containing SHEM and a defined, low calcium and serum free medium (CnT-20). After 2 weeks, they were passaged and seeded at two densities, low and high, in CnT-20 medium. Colony forming efficiency without any feeder layer was quantified in low density condition. Subsequent passages were performed for cells seeded at high density. Gene expression was analyzed by reverse transcription and real time PCR with TaqMan primers and probes. Protein localization was determined by immunofluorescent staining on corneoscleral tissue cryosections and in cell cultures. Results: : Corneal epithelial cells harvested from explant cultures in the low calcium serum-free defined medium CnT-20 generated 2 fold colony forming ...
Title: Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Dedifferentiation Process of Isolated Hepatocytes and Their Cultures. VOLUME: 7 ISSUE: 6. Author(s):Greetje Elaut, Tom Henkens, Peggy Papeleu, Sarah Snykers, Mathieu Vinken, Tamara Vanhaecke and Vera Rogiers. Affiliation:Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Toxicology, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels, Belgium.. Keywords:Hepatocyte, isolation, cultivation, dedifferentiation, apoptosis, proliferation, ischemia-reperfusion injury, cell-cell interactions, cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Abstract: Primary hepatocytes and their cultures are a simple but versatile, well-controlled, and relatively easy to handle in vitro system that is well-accepted for investigating xenobiotic biotransformation, enzyme induction and inhibition, and (biotransformation-mediated) hepatotoxicity. In addition, hepatocyte cultures have proven to be valuable tools in the study of liver physiology, viral hepatitis, and liver regeneration and are proposed as an ...
Dermal adipose tissue (also known as dermal white adipose tissue and herein referred to as dWAT) has been the focus of much discussion in recent years. However, dWAT remains poorly characterized. The fate of the mature dermal adipocytes and the origin of the rapidly reappearing dermal adipocytes at different stages remain unclear. Here, we isolated dermal adipocytes and characterized dermal fat at the cellular and molecular level. Together with dWATs dynamic responses to external stimuli, we established that dermal adipocytes are a distinct class of white adipocytes with high plasticity. By combining pulse-chase lineage tracing and single-cell RNA sequencing, we observed that mature dermal adipocytes undergo dedifferentiation and redifferentiation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Upon various challenges, the dedifferentiated cells proliferate and redifferentiate into adipocytes. In addition, manipulation of dWAT highlighted an important role for mature dermal adipocytes ...
Read "Functional dedifferentiation and reduced task-related deactivations underlie the age-related decline of prospective memory, Brain Imaging and Behavior" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
... : SSEA-4 is expressed in cells of human testis that have an active POU5F1 promoter. (A): Stably transfected human germ cells with a GFP reporter plasmid under the control of the POU5F1 promoter. Cells expressing GFP (green, shown by the arrows) were used to assay the expression of SSEA-4 in (B). Nuclei are stained by DAPI (blue). Scale bars = 5μm. (B): qRT-PCR analysis of the expression of POU5F1, cMYC and SSEA-4 genes in the following cell populations: Testis is whole human testis cell suspension, SSCs are the POU5F1 promoter-GFP expressing cells cultured under SSC maintenance conditions, gPS are the germline pluripotent cells generated when the GFP expressing cells are cultured under de-differentiation conditions for 5 weeks, iPSCs are the IMR90-4 induced pluripotent stem cells used as a control. The different samples were assayed in triplicates and normalized to GAPDH. Asterisks show significant differences in mRNA levels, as determined by t-test analysis (p,0.05 ...
Tumor progression often coincides with the appearance of tumor cells with dedifferentiated or stem-like properties; the ontogeny of these cells is unclear, but they are thought to carry a more malignant capacity than their differentiated counterparts. Cdx2 is a transcriptional factor that specifies cell fate of the intestinal epithelium. Epigenetic studies have demonstrated that Cdx2 loss alters chromatin structure in the intestinal epithelium. Cdx2 loss is often observed during colon tumor progression and is correlated with de-differentiation. Our current study is aimed to test the hypothesis that the Cdx2 prevents tumor progression by maintaining the tumor epigenome. To this end, we have generated two mouse models to determine the effect of Cdx2 loss on chromatin structure in a tumorigenic environment and in primary tumors. Our current studies are aimed at comparing Cdx2 binding sites on the genome in a normal and tumorigenic environment, and in defining how Cdx2 loss affects chromatin ...
The proximal tubule has a remarkable capacity for repair after acute injury, but the cellular lineage and molecular mechanisms underlying this repair response are incompletely understood. Here, we developed a Kim1-GFPCreERt2 knockin mouse line (Kim1-GCE) in order to perform genetic lineage tracing of dedifferentiated cells while measuring the cellular transcriptome of proximal tubule during repair. Acutely injured genetically labeled clones coexpressed KIM1, VIMENTIN, SOX9, and KI67, indicating a dedifferentiated and proliferative state. Clonal analysis revealed clonal expansion of Kim1+ cells, indicating that acutely injured, dedifferentiated proximal tubule cells, rather than fixed tubular progenitor cells, account for repair. Translational profiling during injury and repair revealed signatures of both successful and unsuccessful maladaptive repair. The transcription factor Foxm1 was induced early in injury, was required for epithelial proliferation in vitro, and was dependent on epidermal ...
in Glia (2017), 65(10), 1682-1696. The molecular mechanisms that regulate Schwann cell (SC) plasticity and the role of the Nrg1/ErbB-induced MEK1/ERK1/2 signalling pathway in SC dedifferentiation or in myelination remain unclear. It is ... [more ▼]. The molecular mechanisms that regulate Schwann cell (SC) plasticity and the role of the Nrg1/ErbB-induced MEK1/ERK1/2 signalling pathway in SC dedifferentiation or in myelination remain unclear. It is currently believed that different levels of MEK1/ERK1/2 activation define the state of SC differentiation. Thus, the identification of new regulators of MEK1/ERK1/2 signalling could help to decipher the context-specific aspects driving the effects of this pathway on SC plasticity. In this perspective, we have investigated the potential role of KIAA1199, a protein that promotes ErbB and MEK1/ERK1/2 signalling in cancer cells, in SC plasticity. We depleted KIAA1199 in the SC-derived MSC80 cell line with RNA-interference-based strategy and also generated ...
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7.3 The letter of support should attach relevant supporting documentation including the letter of offer from the employer, proof of health insurance and, where applicable, health and character checks. 7.4 A request will not be considered by DFAT Australia until all eligibility criteria specified in paragraph 7 .2 of this MoU have been satisfied. If any of the provisions of 7.2 of this MoU are not satisfied, this will constitute grounds for DFAT Australia to refuse the request. 7.5 If DFAT Australia has no objection to a request, DFAT Australia will advise DFAT Nauru accordingly and provide a letter of support. An application for a Subclass 403 (Temporary Work (International Relations) visa or its equivalent should then be submitted to the relevant visa processing office in Suva for processing by DIBP. Applications will be made on private passports and a Visa Application Charge may apply. 7.6 Visas issued pursuant to this MoU will have conditions attached to them and the Nominee will be subject ...
In cancer, epithelial cell de-differentiation is a feature of rapidly dividing cells under non-controlled growth and it often reflects a change in the gene expression pattern; however, the relationship between proliferation and alterations in cellular differentiation has not yet been identified. This work examined how changes in the characteristics of cells that discriminate their differentiated and proliferative states can be used to improve on current pancreatic cancer chemotherapeutic strategies. PepT1, a high substrate-capacity and low-affinity transporter system, has been suggested as an attractive drug delivery target for pancreatic cancer. Through a combination of immunological assays, PepT1 normally restricted to the apical surfaces in polarised intestinal epithelial cells, was shown to distribute at the cell membrane of non-polarised cancerous ductal cells. Anti-inflammatory or anti-cancer agents, like ibuprofen or gemcitabine, were conjugated to selected amino acids to enhance their ...
Fully differentiated mature smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are characterized by the presence of a unique repertoire of contractile proteins. The expression of these proteins is markedly attenuated during the de-differentiation of smooth muscle that occurs under many pathological conditions. SRF is a transcription factor that plays a central role in the expression of these smooth muscle-specific genes through physical association with various cell-restricted or signal dependent accessory factors. Of the SRF-associated proteins identified, myocardin is the most potent for stimulating expression of smooth muscle-specific genes. Although several proteins have been identified that can modify myocardin function, the mechanism of how myocardin regulation is still poorly understood. To identify additional myocardin associated proteins that are required for myocardin-dependent activation smooth muscle-specific genes we performed a yeast 2-hybrid screen of mouse embryo cDNA library using myocardin as bait. ...
Current Research and Scholarly Interests I am a cell and molecular biologist by training. During my PhD I worked on the identification of thymidine kinase 1 phosphorylation status during cell cycle progression and its relevance for PET imaging of cell proliferation. In the Stearns lab I was interested in how cells cope with multiple centrosomes and what are the mechanisms ensuring centrosome number homeostasis. In the Sebastiano lab I am studying germ cell differentiation and what are the cell biological effects of de-differentiation. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Direct Reprogramming Science Project: Investigate how transcription factors can be used to turn one cell type directly into another cell type, and why this technique is important for the future of the field of regenerative medicine.
செமினி நுண்மங்கள் தனது நகலாக்கத்திற்கு பயிர் பொறிகளை (machinery) பயன்படுத்துகின்றன. இவை சில மரபணுவை வெளிபடுத்தவதோடு அல்லாமல், அவற்றைக் கொண்டு மிக நேர்த்தியாக பயிர்களின் மரபணுவை பயன்படுத்தி பல்கி பெருகுகின்றன. மேலும் நுண்மங்களின் மரபணு முதிர்ந்த இலைகளின் உயிரணுவில் செயலற்ற மூலக்கூற்று நிகழ்வினை , மறு- நிகழ்வு அல்லது மறு-வினைக்கு (cell reprogramming) உட்படுத்தி நகலாக்கம் ...
Still a continuation of my Davao Food Appreciation Tour (DFAT) experience. Ive been hearing about Lachis from other bloggers for years. They all rave about … Read the rest. ...
It is followed by the dedifferentiation of the cells. This process produces only a minimal concentration of the cells. Hence the use of micro carrier cultures ...
Smooth muscle from newborn guinea-pig vas deferens was enzymically dispersed into single cells or small clumps and grown in culture in the presence or absence of sympathetic ganglion explants.. Most single smooth muscle cells gradually lost their typical ultrastructural features and contractile properties during the first few days in culture. At 7 days of culture these dedifferentiated smooth muscle cells underwent extensive proliferation. If sufficient cells were present in the culture inoculate, a continuous monolayer formed at about 9 days of culture and redifferentiation of smooth muscle began. At 11-12 days of culture the cells reaggregated into clumps, began to contract spontaneously, and formed into well-organized muscle bundles in two layers at right angles, resembling the muscle layer organization of the in vivo vas deferens. In cultures where a continuous monolayer was not formed at 9 days, isolated cells did not redifferentiate. The process of dedifferentiation and proliferation was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chordoma dedifferentiation after proton beam therapy. T2 - a case report and review of the literature. AU - Frankl, Joseph. AU - Grotepas, Cassi. AU - Stea, Baldassarre. AU - Lemole, Gerald M. AU - Chiu, Alexander G. AU - Khan, Rihan. PY - 2016/10/12. Y1 - 2016/10/12. N2 - Background: Chordoma is a rare invasive bone tumor that may occur anywhere along the neuraxis. A total of three primary histological varieties have been identified: conventional, chondroid, and dedifferentiated. Case presentation: We report a case of an 8-year-old white girl who presented with conventional chordoma, was treated with surgical resection and mixed proton and photon beam therapy, and had a recurrence in the resection cavity 2.5 years later with dedifferentiated morphology. The recurrent tumor did not express brachyury, a recently identified protein specific to tissue of notochordal origin. Conclusions: The short time period between radiation therapy and dedifferentiation, low dose of photons, and ...
Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) transplantation is a promising therapy for ischemic diseases such as ischemic myocardial infarction and hindlimb ischemia. However, limitation of EPC sources remains a major obstacle. Direct reprogramming has become a powerful tool to produce EPCs from fibroblasts. Some recent efforts successfully directly reprogrammed human fibroblasts into functional EPCs; however, the procedure efficacy was low. This study therefore aimed to improve the efficacy of direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to functional EPCs. Human fibroblasts isolated from foreskin were directly reprogrammed into EPCs by viral ETV2 transduction. Reprogramming efficacy was improved by culturing transduced fibroblasts in hypoxia conditions (5 % oxygen). Phenotype analyses confirmed that single-factor ETV2 transduction successfully reprogrammed dermal fibroblasts into functional EPCs. Hypoxia treatment during the reprogramming procedure increased the efficacy of reprogramming from 1.21 ± 0.61 % in
The dramatic discovery that somatic cells could be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), by the expression of just four factors, has opened new opportunities for regenerative medicine and novel ways of modeling human diseases. Extensive research over the short time since the first iPSCs were generated has yielded the ability to reprogram various cell types using a diverse range of methods. However the duration, efficiency, and safety of induced reprogramming have remained a persistent limitation to achieving a robust experimental and therapeutic system. The field has worked to resolve these issues through technological advances using non-integrative approaches, factor replacement or complementation with microRNA, shRNA and drugs. Despite these advances, the molecular mechanisms underlying the reprogramming process remain poorly understood. Recently, through the use of inducible secondary reprogramming systems, researchers have now accessed more rigorous mechanistic experiments to
Analysis of Beta-Cell Gene Expression Reveals Inflammatory Signaling and Evidence of Dedifferentiation following Human Islet Isolation and Culture. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Chondrocytes in articular cartilage normally exhibit high expression of collagen II and aggrecan but rapidly dedifferentiate to a fibroblastic phenotype if passaged in culture. Previous studies have suggested that the loss of chondrocyte phenotype is associated with changes in the structure of the F-actin cytoskeleton, which also controls cell mechanical properties. In this study, we examined how dedifferentiation in monolayer influences the mechanical properties of chondrocytes isolated from different zones of articular cartilage. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the mechanical properties of superficial and middle/deep zone chondrocytes as they underwent serial passaging and subsequent growth on fibronectin-coated, micropatterned self-assembled monolayers that restored a rounded cell shape in 2D culture. Chondrocytes exhibited significant increases in elastic and viscoelastic moduli with dedifferentiation in culture. These changes were only partially ameliorated by the restoration of ...
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer death in North America. The highest risk factor for PDAC is recurrent pancreatitis. While the link between PDAC and pancreatitis is unknown, de-differentiation of acinar cells is common to both diseases. Our lab has shown that Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3), a factor upregulated during pancreatic injury, contributes to the development of acinar-to-ductal cell metaplasia (ADM), a precursor phenotype of PDAC. The goal of this study was to identify how ATF3 contributes to ADM. I hypothesize that ATF3 regulates acinar gene expression promoting ADM. We observed decreased ADM development in Atf3-/- acinar cultures, along with expression changes in differentiation genes and ADM promoting pathways (EGFR) in vivo. Assessment following chronic injury indicated absence of ATF3 resulted in decreased tissue damage. These results suggest a novel mechanism where ATF3 promotes ADM through loss of the mature acinar cell phenotype.
Reversine, a purine analog, experienced been proved that it could induce dedifferentiation of differentiated cells into multipotent progenitor cells. acid-Schiff staining assay in hepatogenic differentiated … Manifestation of pluripotent guns and epigenetic guns To further characterize the pluripotency of reversine-pretreated cells, manifestation of specific guns 468-28-0 supplier (April4, Sox2 and Nanog) of pluripotent cells were analyzed by using RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence. In addition, we also desired to determine which gene caused the differential strength. The outcomes indicated that reversine elevated the reflection of March4 significantly, but Sox2 and Nanog had been not really discovered (Fig. ?(Fig.5,5, A and B), which indicated the account activation of Oct4 performs a major function in order of 468-28-0 supplier cell pluripotency. Remarkably, upon reversine removal after 8 times, reversine-treated fibroblasts steadily came back to primary phenotype and the ...
While investigating a rare genetic disorder, researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that a ubiquitous signalling molecule is crucial to cellular reprogramming, a finding with significant implications for stem cell-based regenerative medicine, wound repair therapies and potential cancer treatments.
crispgg: I expect ANAN to take advantage of this situation. All those with ACCA need is the ability to set up there own firms in Nigeria. With ANAN membership, they can do that. Imagine the credibility that they will gain when they have a huge number of ACCA members joining them. In a few years, they will be at par with ICAN ...
Synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, can be produced by oxidatively-reforming a hydrocarbon-containing stream which passes on one s...
Researchers have modeled the development of neurons in some autism patients, offering what they say is a new understanding of the condition.
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Lujan E, Chanda S, Ahlenius H, Südhof TC, Wernig M. Direct conversion of mouse fibroblasts to self-renewing, tripotent neural precursor cells ...
Serpine is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Serpine is available on the Drugs.com website.
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y &1970 D. A. MANIERO ET AL 3,522,015 DIRECT CONVERSION CHEMICAL PROCESSING ARC HEATER Filed Feb. 16, 1966 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 M258 N2 @E om mm A INVENTORS Dunlel A.M0niero 0nd l Ch %;(s 8. Wolf mm mm 5 mm mm mm ATTORNEY July 28, 1970 D, MANIERO ET AL 3,522,015 DIRECT CONVERSION CHEMICAL PROCESSING ARC HEATER Filed Feb. 16, 1966 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 mioww Q21 od} vw mm om w. o w w o o NINQ w wm w \ul 9 ON on ow om United States Patent US. Cl. 23277 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An arc heater has a pair of axially spaced annular electrodes forming a gap with a generally axially extending arc therebetween, the electrodes having magnetic field coils therein for generating a magnetic field which exerts a force on the arc and cause it to move substantially continuously around and between the electrodes and to describe a generally annular or cylindrical path. Process gas to be pyrolized is substantially continuously admitted under pressure into the arc heater through a substantially circumferential ...
Joint inflammation causes meniscus degeneration and can exacerbate post-traumatic meniscus injuries by extracellular matrix degradation, cellular de-differentiation and cell death. The aim of this study was to examine whether anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 exerts protective effects in an in vitro model of TNF-α-induced meniscus degeneration. Meniscus tissue was harvested from the knees of adult cows. After 24 h of equilibrium explants were simultaneously treated with bovine TNF-α and IL-10. After an incubation time of 72 h cell death was measured histomorphometrically (nuclear blebbing, NB) and release of glycosaminoglycans (GAG, DMMB assay) and nitric oxide (NO, Griess-reagent) were analysed. Transcription levels (mRNA) of matrix degrading enzymes, collagen type X (COL10A1) and nitric oxide synthetase 2 (NOS2) were measured by quantitative real time PCR. TNF-α-dependent formation of the aggrecanase-specific aggrecan neoepitope NITEGE was visualised by immunostaining. Differences between groups
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains one of the deadliest cancers and is projected to become the second leading cause of cancer death by 2020. More alarming, is the projection of death in minority populations for this cancer. Although several risk factors have been associated with the etiology of this cancer, such as smoking, diet, obesity and recently nicotine, it continues to steadily increase. Numerous studies have shown the importance of cancer stem cells in cancer resistance and self-renewal. Dedifferentiation of cancer cells requires key factors to be present in the tumor environment. These factors are regulated by key transcription factors that are known to control cancer stem cells and dedifferentiation. Using a human embryonic stem cell RT2 Profiler gene array, numerous stem cell genes expressed in pancreatic cancer cell lines (MIAPaca2, Panc1) can be identified. However, this study focused on those involved in dedifferentiation of cancer cells. Although both cell lines, Panc-1 and ...
Here we characterize the molecular and biological requirements for OCT4 plasticity induction in human skin derived fibroblasts (hFibs) that allows direct conversion of cell fate without iPSC formation. Our results indicate that adult hFibs not only require OCT4 but also short-term exposure to reprogramming media (RM) to successfully undergo direct conversion to early hematopoietic and neural progenitor fates. RM was found to be essential in this process and allowed for unique changes in global gene expression specific to the combined effects of OCT4 and treatment with reprogramming media to establish a plastic state. This molecular state of hFib plasticity was distinct from transient expression of a full complement of iPSC reprogramming factors consistent with a lack in molecular hallmarks of iPSC formation. Human Fib-derived OCT4 plastic cells display elevated levels of developmentally related genes associated with multiple lineages, but not those associated with pluripotency. In response to ...
Accumulation of knowledge regarding the extracellular matrix suggests that an understanding of the mechanisms underlying tumour cell invasion requires analysis of the complex interactions between neoplastic cells and the surrounding matrix.13 It has been argued that the process of dedifferentiation and dissociation of neoplastic cells at the invasive edge is the first and essential step in tumour invasion.14 Based on the observation that this process is always strictly confined to the tumour invasive front, inductive signals from the host microenvironment were thought to be involved in initiating and maintaining this rapid and even reversible phenotypic shift through activating or repressing the preformed genetic programme of tumour cells.14 Conversely, collagen I protein in the centre of the tumour, produced in the desmoplastic response, was reported to be a microenvironmental factor which inhibits the dedifferentiation process of the tumour.15 The concept of maturation of fibrotic cancer ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Reversine, a purine analog, experienced been proved that it could induce dedifferentiation of differentiated cells into multipotent progenitor cells. acid-Schiff staining assay in hepatogenic differentiated … Manifestation of pluripotent guns and epigenetic guns To further characterize the pluripotency of reversine-pretreated cells, manifestation of specific guns 468-28-0 supplier (April4, Sox2 and Nanog) of pluripotent cells were analyzed by using RT-PCR, western… More →. ...
Different mechanisms could explain the origin and heterogeneity of CSC such as (i) differentiation arrest (stem cells), (ii) dedifferentiation (mature cells) an...
Biological and biomedical experiments are increasingly producing large datasets of excellent quality, spanning diverse phenomena such as evolution, cell differentiation, disease mechanisms, and many others. We are interested in applying Statistical Mechanics methods to understand some of those phenomena.. One problem we are particularly interested in is cell reprogramming. Recent experiments have shown that, by forcing the overexpression of a few genes, the usual direction of cell differentiation can be reversed. Differentiated cells can be "reprogrammed" to become induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which are capable of reproducing and developing into any cell type in the body. This discovery has completely changed the standard view about cell specialisation, and it has wide potential implications, particularly in medicine. The reprogramming technology has been used to obtain blood samples from patients, generate iPS cells, and from them generate diseased heart or brain tissues with the exact ...
We introduced 170 download light social compliance issues demonstrably and Consequently. As resolution of the thiol-ene administration, over 1000 private Climate consultation are operated program in SATIN, participating opportunities and months. 160; 2013-14 with ways protecting a download light of social average scaffolds for information and year quality. 160; 2009-10 2010-11 conditional 2012-13 2013-14 Number of Processors and net law terms with scheduling to streamline needs type and vivo images computer 145 148 general 144 172 Number of management governances controlling ICT cities 42 44 fourth 42 42 Number of assets 166,580 160,137 Reportable 149,090 142,945 Cables to successfully use 83,221 74,590 social 67,401 66,092 Cables from different efforts 83,359 85,547 prior 81,689 76,853 Number of State-Of-The-Art scaffolds to north phones 187 127 advanced 111 131 Number of conflict liabilities and Challenges were 849 1,154 possible 1,582 2,905 expense Working Section 2 216 DFAT ANNUAL REPORT ...
November 4, 2014 -- Innovation remains at the heart of every advance in CT imaging, and at RSNA 2014 it shows up at every step in the imaging process, from acquisition to reconstruction to analysis. There are discussions of conebeam CT, high-efficiency direct conversion detectors, and new, more efficient detector materials. This year youll also find presentations on spectral and multienergy imaging, which continue to break ground in new applications ...
Ambasudhan R, Talantova M, Coleman R, Yuan X, Zhu S, Lipton SA, Ding S. Direct reprogramming of adult human fibroblasts to functional neurons under defined conditions ...
The success of inducing pluripotency in primary fibroblasts and other cells with a combination of only a small number of transcription factors suggested that fully differentiated cells might change fate following similar treatments. Since the demonstration of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), at least three examples have been published where 3 cell type-specific factors were selected from a pool of 10-20 candidates that, when expressed from viral vectors, could induce beta-cells, neurons, or cardiomyocytes.. Induced beta-cells [1]: Ngn3, Pdx1, and Mafa, adenovirus injected to in vivo targets. Induced neurons (iN) [2]: Ascl1, Brn2, and Myt1l, lentivirus infecting mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) or tail tip fibroblasts (TTF). Induced cardiomyocytes (iCM) [3]: Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5, lentivirus infecting cardiac fibroblasts or TTF. In all 3 cases, the change of fate seemed to be via direct conversion, without passing through a progenitor cell fate before further differentiation. Like iPSC ...
Probable component of the MCM2-7 complex (MCM complex) that may function as a DNA helicase and which is essential to undergo a single round of replication initiation and elongation per cell cycle in eukaryotic cells. May play a crucial role in the control of de-differentiation and cell proliferation processes required for lateral root formation. Is essential for embryo development. Is involved in the geminivirus mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) DNA replication, presumably in conjunction with other host factors.
Counting and integrating microelectronics development for direct conversion x-ray imaging [Elektronische Ressource] / von Edgar Kraft. Universität Bonn, Physikalisches Institut : ..UNIVERSITAT BONNPhysikalisches InstitutCounting and Integrating Microelectronics Development forDirect Conversion X-ray ImagingvonEdgar KraftA novel signal processing concept for X-ray imaging with directly con-verting pixelated semiconductor sensors is presented. The novelty of thisapproach compared to existing concepts is the combination of chargeintegration and photon counting in every
Our lab tries to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying pluripotency and nuclear reprogramming. Pluripotency denotes the ability of cells, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, to give rise to all cell types of the mammalian body, while nuclear reprogramming is the dedifferentiation of a specialized cell back into a pluripotent state. Reprogramming does not normally occur in vivo but can be achieved experimentally by nuclear transfer, ES cell-somatic cell fusion and by directly inducing embryonic genes in somatic cells, generating so-called induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells ...
Researchers are still fascinated by the idea of the possibility of reprogramming the cells of any tissue, turning them into cells with the capacity to differentiate into cells of a completely different type - pluripotent cells - and they are still striving to understand how it happens. A group from Spain publishes this week an article on the discovery of a new gene called TRF1 that is essential for nuclear reprogramming.
Denervated forelimbs and contralateral innervated forelimbs of Ambystoma larvae were injured internally distal to the elbow by compression with watchmakers forceps. Innervated controls completely repaired the crush injury within one week; denervated limbs failed to repair the injury and exhibited varying degrees of limb regression. Histological examination revealed that the process of tissue dedifferentiation initiated by injury was more extensive in denervated, regressing limbs than in controls. In innervated limbs, both the DNA labelling index and the mitotic index peaked approximately 4-6 days after the injury and returned to baseline levels by 10 days. In denervated limbs, the DNA labelling index also increased and remained at an elevated level for at least 2 weeks after the injury, but significant mitotic activity was not observed. The data indicate that intact nerves are not needed for cellular dedifferentiation, cell cycle re-entry, and DNA synthesis in injured limbs, but are required ...
Oncotarget | https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.11810 Dingqing Feng, Keqin Yan, Ying Zhou, Haiyan Liang, Jing Liang, Weidong Zhao, Zhongjun Dong, Bin Ling
Published twice yearly in calendar year and financial year format. This publication is part of a set of trade statistical publications released annually by DFAT. It presents statistical data describing the composition and direction of Australias services trade.. Data partly sourced from official ABS data and includes details of the composition and direction of Australias overall service trade and global trade in services. Performance figures are listed by service type, country and region, with separate trade statistics sections devoted to areas such as travel, education, direct investment, and information, communication and technology. The report includes state and territory data.. Most tables in these publications are on a three to five year basis. ...
Although the Canadian DFAT has no nationwide advisory in effect for Ukraine, it has issued Regional advisories against all travel to the Crimea, including transiting through the airports in Simferopol and Sevastopol and against non-essential travel to the Kiev, Donetsk, Kharkiv and Lugansk Oblasts, due to the tenuous security situation.
Although the Canadian DFAT has no nationwide advisory in effect for Ukraine, it has issued Regional advisories against all travel to the Crimea, including transiting through the airports in Simferopol and Sevastopol and against non-essential travel to the Kyiv, Donetsk, Kharkiv and Luhansk Oblasts, due to the tenuous security situation.
It has plasticity, and with careful modulation, aging might be reversed. "Many of us believe aging is a non-plastic process; its not something that we can manipulate, but these observations indicate the opposite." "What we are doing is rejuvenating a cell.. "That skin cell was previously a stem cell, thats a process that we call cellular reprogramming, rejuvenating a cell back to its pristine state.". Associate researcher Dr. Alejandro Ocampo added: "What we and other stem-cell labs have observed is that when you induce cellular reprogramming, cells look younger. The next question was whether we could induce this rejuvenation process in a live human.". Harvard University geneticist and anti-ageing researcher David Sinclair, who was not involved in the study said: "This work is the first glimmer that we could live for centuries. My lab has a lot of evidence that the primary driver of what we call the hallmarks of aging is the epigenetic change.". Dr. Ocampo further explained that the Salk study ...
Ischemic heart disease is the most common cardiac ailment, and the leading cause of death in the Western world today. We combine novel approaches to study cardiomyocyte (CM) renewal by promoting CM cell division and dedifferentiation, as a potential therapeutic strategy to cure the injured heart. We focus on various signaling strategies (e.g., NRG/ERBB signaling pathway), combined with attention to the microenvironment. We focus on the biophysical properties (e.g., matrix rigidity) of the heart microenvironment as well on biochemical contents of the ECM and ECM- associated molecules. Finally, we employ a novel state-of-the-art high-throughput screening platform to identify molecules that promote CM proliferation and to study their effects on cardiac regeneration in mice. We have identified several novel compounds which significantly increase the proliferation of adult CMs. Understanding how mature CMs can disassemble their sarcomeric architecture and re-enter the cell cycle, combined with the ...
Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLS) is a rare but aggressive cancer with high recurrence and low response rates to targeted therapies. Increasing treatment efficacy may require combinations of targeted agents that counteract the effects of multiple abnormalities. To identify a possible multicomponent therapy, we performed a combinatorial drug screen in a DDLS-derived cell line and identified cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) as synergistic drug targets. We measured the phosphorylation of multiple proteins and cell viability in response to systematic drug combinations and derived computational models of the signaling network. These models predict that the observed synergy in reducing cell viability with CDK4 and IGF1R inhibitors depends on the activity of the AKT pathway. Experiments confirmed that combined inhibition of CDK4 and IGF1R cooperatively suppresses the activation of proteins within the AKT pathway. Consistent with these findings, ...
Recently, direct reprogramming between divergent lineages has been achieved by the introduction of regulatory transcription factors. This approach may provide alternative cell resources for drug discovery and regenerative medicine, but applications could be limited by the genetic manipulation involved. Here, we show that mouse fibroblasts can be directly converted into neuronal cells using only a cocktail of small molecules, with a yield of up to |90% being TUJ1-positive after 16 days of induction. After a further maturation stage, these chemically induced neurons (CiNs) possessed neuron-specific expression patterns, generated action potentials, and formed functional synapses. Mechanistically, we found that a BET family bromodomain inhibitor, I-BET151, disrupted the fibroblast-specific program, while the neurogenesis inducer ISX9 was necessary to activate neuron-specific genes. Overall, our findings provide a proof of principle for chemically induced direct reprogramming of somatic cell fates across
A medical device comprising a supporting structure capable of containing or supporting a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or excipient, which carrier or excipient may contain one or more therapeutic agents or substances, with the carrier preferably including a coating on the surface thereof, and the coating containing the therapeutic substances, such as, for example, drugs. Supporting structures for the medical devices that are suitable for use in this invention include, but are not limited to, coronary stents, peripheral stents, catheters, arterio-venous grafts, by-pass grafts, and drug delivery balloons used in the vasculature. Drugs that are suitable for use in this invention include, but are not limited to Formula (I). This drug can be used in combination with another drug including those selected from anti-proliferative agents, anti-platelet agents, anti-inflammatory agents, anti-thrombotic agents, cytotoxic drugs, agents that inhibit cytokine or chemokine binding, cell de-differentiation
In addition to vasodilation, NO/NP/cGMP signaling is involved in the development of vasculoproliferative disorders, such as restenosis and atherosclerosis. The analysis of transgenic mice showed that NO can both promote58-64 and inhibit65-70 pathological vascular remodeling (see review5). This finding could explain why NO-generating drugs have not been reported to limit the progression of atherosclerosis in humans. The opposing actions of NO might depend on the magnitude and spatiotemporal profile of its production in a specific pathophysiological setting and are likely mediated through different cellular and molecular mechanisms. A key process in vascular remodeling is the phenotypic modulation of vascular SMCs from contractile to proliferating/dedifferentiated cells.71 It has been reported that NO and cGMP can both promote72,73 and inhibit74,75 the proliferation of cultured SMCs (see reviews12,76). The reason for these contradictory findings and their (patho)physiological significance is not ...
ALATZAS, ANASTASIOS; SREBREVA, LJUBA and FOUNDOULI, ATHINA. Distribution of linker histone variants during plant cell differentiation in the developmental zones of the maize root, dedifferentiation in callus culture after auxin treatment. Biol. Res. [online]. 2008, vol.41, n.2, pp.205-215. ISSN 0716-9760. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-97602008000200010.. Although several linker histone variants have been studied in both animal and plant organisms, little is known about their distribution during processes that involve alterations in chromatin function, such as differentiation, dedifferentiation and hormone treatment. In this study, we identified linker histone variants by using specific anti-histone Hl antibodies. Each variants ratio to total Hl in the three developmental zones of maize (Zea mays L.) root and in callus cultures derived from them was estimated in order to define possible alterations either during plant cell differentiation or during their dedifferentiation. We also evaluated ...
Q&A about the Direct Reprogramming Breakthrough. Answering Common Claims about "direct reprogramming" that creates induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), an ethically unproblematic alternative to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs).. Claim 1: Good science demands that we investigate all avenues of inquiry, including cloning human embryos. Response: "Good" research respects both scientific and ethical standards. iPSC research meets every mark of good science and has the following ethical advantages: it does not destroy human embryos; it does not use human oocytes; and it does not alienate a large part of the countrys citizens by engaging in research that they find deeply immoral. Claim 2: Politicians should continue to pursue federal funding for the use of so-called "left over" IVF embryos despite the recent advance of iPSCs.. Response: Direct reprogramming to create iPSCs provides a scientifically feasible and promising alternative to research that requires destroying human embryos. Even ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
3D reconstruction of a cardiomyocyte (heart muscle cell), derived from a fibroblast via direct reprogramming. Direct reprogramming allows scientists to transform one cell type into another without first reverting back to the pluripotent, stem-cell state. Animation: Scott Metzler. "Fibroblasts make up about 50% of all cells in the heart and therefore represent a vast pool of cells that could one day be harnessed and reprogrammed to create new muscle," said Dr. Srivastava. "Our findings here serve as a proof of concept that human fibroblasts can be reprogrammed successfully into beating heart cells.". In 2012, Dr. Srivastava and his team reported in the journal Nature that fibroblasts could be reprogrammed into beating heart cells by injecting just three genes, together known as GMT, into the hearts of live mice that had been damaged by a heart attack. They reasoned that the same three genes could have the same effect on human cells. But initial experiments on human fibroblasts from three ...
The ability of transcription factors to directly reprogram the identity of cell types is usually restricted and is defined by cellular context. Through the ectopic expression of single Caenorhabditis elegans transcription factors, we found that the i
... , Authors: Andreas F Mavrogenis, Panayiotis J Papagelopoulos. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
We present a novel hybrid microfluidic thin film transistor (µF-TFT) electroporation array. This system offers the advantages of spatially and temporally control of electrical conditions (10k individual electrodes) in microenvironments for high efficiency transfection of stem cell reprogramming factors. We demonstrated the preliminary results of Oct4, BSA proteins transfected into fiberblast cells ...
A Polymer Thin Film Platform that Promotes Direct Conversion of Cancer Cell Lines to Tumorigenic Cell Spheroids. Yu, Seung Jung; Choi, Minsuk; Choi, Yoonjung; Lee, Eun-beol; Lee, Eunjung; Kim, Jinyong; Kang, Sukmo; et al, 2018 BMES Annual Meeting, Biomedical Engineering Society, 2018-10- ...
Activating genes for reprogramming factors for a short time transforms large numbers of differentiated cells into multipotent forms that could be useful for cell-based therapies.. 0 Comments. ...
A paper just came out in PNAS entitled "Promotion of direct reprogramming by transformation-deficient Myc". The main thrust of this paper is that the tumorigenic and pluripotency-related functions of Myc could be separated. It focused primarily on the lesser studied […]. ...
Japanese scientist Shinya Yamanaka was Friday honoured with a Spanish award worth 400,000 euros ($544,000) for his pioneering work on cell reprogramming.
Activating genes for reprogramming factors for a short time transforms large numbers of differentiated cells into multipotent forms that could be useful for cell-based therapies.. 0 Comments. ...
Reagents, Tools and Custom Services for molecular biology, specializing in the fields of Nano-Antibody development (nAb), Cellular Reprogramming (iPSC), Genome Editing, Fluorescent Proteins, RNAi, Viral Packaging and Protein expression.
Reagents, Tools and Custom Services for molecular biology, specializing in the fields of Nano-Antibody development (nAb), Cellular Reprogramming (iPSC), Genome Editing, Fluorescent Proteins, RNAi, Viral Packaging and Protein expression.
No project manager and project team ever wants to go through an Over Target Baseline (OTB) or Over Target Schedule (OTS). The idea of formally reprogramming the remaining work and adjusting variances at the lowest level can be daunting and […]
Emerging evidence suggests that microRNA (miRNA)-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation plays an essential role in modulating embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency maintenance, differentiation, and reprogramming of somatic cells to an ES cell-like state. Investigations from ES cell-enriched miRNAs, such as mouse miR-290 cluster and human miR-302 cluster, and ES cell-depleted miRNAs such as let-7 family miRNAs, revealed a common theme that miRNAs target diverse cellular processes including cell cycle regulators, signaling pathway effectors, transcription factors, and epigenetic modifiers and shape their protein output. The combinatorial effects downstream of miRNA action allow miRNAs to modulate cell-fate decisions effectively. Furthermore, the transcription and biogenesis of miRNAs are also tightly regulated. Thus, elucidating the interplay between miRNAs and other modes of gene regulation will shed new light on the biology of pluripotent stem cells and somatic cell reprogramming. ...
The aim of this study was to determine if treatment with reversine, a purine analog, promoted generation of skeletal progenitor cells from lineage-committed annulus fibrosus cells. Reversine modulated cell growth, morphology, and the actin cytoskeleton of annulus fibrosus cells. Microarray profiling coupled with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that reversine treatment resulted in a significant expression change in many genes including those required for cell-cell interaction, cell movement, cell growth, and development. Further analysis revealed that there was involvement of gene networks concerned with cellular assembly and organization, DNA replication and repair, tissue morphology, and cell-to-cell signaling. The gene expression profile was dependent on reversine concentration. In osteogenic media, cells pretreated with 300nM reversine exhibited an increased induction in alkaline phosphatase activity and enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and ...
In a recent issue of Cell Stem Cell, Morrisey and colleagues [3] report that iPSCs can be generated solely through the expression of a set of miRNAs, thereby avoiding all original Yamanaka factors for the first time. This breakthrough is destined to expand our understanding of the pathways that drive reprogramming. Using lentivirus-based expression of the miR-302/367 cluster to reprogram both mouse and human cells, Morrisey and colleagues [3] show that miRNA-based reprogramming proceeds faster than with standard four-factor reprogramming. Consistent with this finding, pluripotency genes such as Sox2, Nanog and Rex1 are upregulated earlier in fibroblasts expressing the miR-302/367 cluster than in fibroblasts transduced with the four transcription factors. Using a mouse line expressing a reporter gene with the Oct4 promoter driving green fluorescent protein, the authors [3] also show that the endogenous Oct4 locus is reactivated to a greater extent following miRNA expression than without miRNA ...
0157] In certain embodiments, it may be useful to miniaturize or "scale down" methods of the present embodiments. These approaches may be particularly useful, e.g., where the methods comprise a high-throughput screen of compounds, e.g., which may promote de-differentiation or differentiation of cells towards a particular lineage. High-throughput screens may also be used to evaluate one or more property of a candidate substance (e.g., toxicity, ability to promote or reduce differentiation, etc.). Miniaturization of the methods may involve the use of low-attachment plates (e.g., 96 well plates) and/or culture of cells under low oxygen (e.g., less than about 25% O2 or about 5% O2) conditions. In certain embodiments, the following methods may be used: Undifferentiated hESCs or iPSCs adapted to feeder free growth on Matrigel coated plates may be preconditioned for 24 hours using TeSR without growth factors supplemented with about 0.1 ng/ml TGF and about 20 ng/ml zebrafish FGF. The cells may be ...
Secondary growth in diocts is due to the formation of two types of cambia, the vascular and cork cambia. The vascular cambium forms out of the fascicular cambium which lies between the primary xylem and phloem in the vascular bundles and the de-differentiation of the interfascicular parenchyma into a cambial group of cells. These two cambia then unite and produce a continuous annulus of cambial cells which then begin their division where one daugther cell is an initial to replace the mother cell and the other daughter cell differentiates into either secondary xylem or phloem. Usually the secondary xylem is produced in much greater amounts than the secondary phloem. The other secondary growth is the intiation of the cork cambium from the epidermal or cortical layers. Thus the epidermis is replaced with a tissue called the periderm which possesses several types of cells. The cork cambium or phellogen which divides regularly to produce the two other cell types: the phellem cells, which are heavily ...
In this image of mouse embryonic fibroblasts undergoing reprogramming, each colored dot represents messenger RNA associated with a specific gene that is active in cells being reprogrammed. Red dots represent... Several years ago, biologists discovered that regular body cells can be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells cells with the ability to become any other type of cell. Such cells hold great promise for treating many human diseases. These induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are usually created by genetically modifying cells to overexpress four genes that make them revert to an immature, embryonic state. However, the procedure works in only a small percentage of cells. Now, new genetic markers identified by researchers at Whitehead Institute and MIT could help make that process more efficient, allowing scientists to predict which treated cells will successfully become pluripotent. The new paper, published in the Sept. 13 online edition of Cell, also identifies new combinations of ...
Nuclear reprogramming demonstrates the potential for reversability in cellular differentiation. Reprogramming introduces a small number of transcription factors into somatic cells, such as skin cells, transforming the skin cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), While a core set of factors necessary for reprogramming has been identified the process is extremely inefficient (less than .1% of cells exposed to factors are transformed). The impetus to improve the efficiency of reprogramming is high. Approaches in regenerative medicine, such as replacing organs and tissues lost to injury and disease, face the obstacle of donor cell rejection by the host. Nuclear reprogramming can create iPS cells that are genetically identical to that of the donor, thus allowing a patient to be the donor for an iPS cell line that may serve as starting material for replacement tissue and organs which will not be rejected by the patient. A key component to increasing the efficiency of reprogramming is a more ...
Purpose: Molecular events underlying progression of well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDLS) to dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLS) are poorly defined. This study sought to identify copy number alterations (CNA) associated with dedifferentiation of WDLS, with DDLS morphology, and with patient outcomes.. Experimental Design: Fifty-five WDLS and 52 DDLS were analyzed using Agilent 244K comparative genomic hybridization and Affymetrix U133A expression arrays. CNAs were identified by RAE analysis. Thirty-nine of the DDLS specimens were categorized morphologically by a single pathologist.. Results: Nine regions of CNA were identified as recurrent in DDLS but not WDLS; 79% of DDLS had at least one of these CNAs. Loss of the chromosome segment 11q23-24, the most common event, was observed only in DDLS that morphologically resembled the genomically complex sarcomas, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma and myxofibrosarcoma. 11q23-24 loss was itself associated with increased genomic complexity in DDLS. ...
Pluripotency is defined by the ability of a cell to differentiate to the derivatives of all the three embryonic germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Pluripotent cells can be captured via the archetypal derivation of embryonic stem cells or via somatic cell reprogramming. Somatic cells are induced to acquire a pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) state through the forced expression of key transcription factors, and in the mouse these cells can fulfil the strictest of all developmental assays for pluripotent cells by generating completely iPSC-derived embryos and mice. However, it is not known whether there are additional classes of pluripotent cells, or what the spectrum of reprogrammed phenotypes encompasses. Here we explore alternative outcomes of somatic reprogramming by fully characterizing reprogrammed cells independent of preconceived definitions of iPSC states. We demonstrate that by maintaining elevated reprogramming factor expression levels, mouse embryonic fibroblasts go through unique ...
We report a method for specific capture of an arbitrary subset of genomic targets for single molecule bisulfite sequencing, and for digital quantitation of DNA methylation at a single nucleotide resolution. We used targeted bisulfite sequencing to characterize the changes of DNA methylation during the de-differentiation of human fibroblasts into hybrid stem cells, and into induced pluripotent stem cells. We compared the methylation level of approximately 66,000 CpG sites within 2020 CpG islands on chromosome 12, chromosome 20, and 34 selected regions. A total of 288 differentially methylated regions were identified between fibroblasts and pluripotent cells. Methylation cluster analysis revealed distinct methylation patterns between fibroblasts and pluripotent cells. Furthermore iPS cells are globally more methylated than human embryonic stem cells, which could be due to the reprogramming process. This targeted bisulfite sequencing method is particularly useful for efficient and large-scale analysis of

Markers and Mechanisms of β-cell Dedifferentiation | Academic CommonsMarkers and Mechanisms of β-cell Dedifferentiation | Academic Commons

... a process in which β-cells lose expression of markers of maturity and gain those of endocrine progenitors. Failing β-cells ... B-Cyb5r3 β-cells lose expression of Glut2, MafA, and Pdx1 expression despite a compensatory increase in FoxO1 expression. Our ... In vivo, mice with β-cell-specific ablation of Cyb5r3 (B-Cyb5r3) display impaired glucose tolerance with decreased insulin ... We found a striking enrichment in the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 isoform A3 (Aldh1a3) as β-cells become ...
more infohttps://academiccommons.columbia.edu/doi/10.7916/D8RB8GGD

JCI Insight -
Virus-like infection induces human β cell dedifferentiationJCI Insight - Virus-like infection induces human β cell dedifferentiation

Lastly, we identified SOX9 targets in human β cells as potentially new markers of dedifferentiation in T1D. These findings ... We undertook this study to examine whether viral infection could induce human β cell dedifferentiation. Using the functional ... EndoC-βH1 cells were treated with proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ). (. A. ) SOX9. , HES1. , MYC. , MAFA. , ... EndoC-βH1 cells were transfected with control nontarget siRNA (siCTRL) or siRNA targeting RELA (siRELA). They were next treated ...
more infohttps://insight.jci.org/articles/view/97732/figure/4

JCI Insight -
Usage information: Virus-like infection induces human β cell dedifferentiationJCI Insight - Usage information: Virus-like infection induces human β cell dedifferentiation

Lastly, we identified SOX9 targets in human β cells as potentially new markers of dedifferentiation in T1D. These findings ... We undertook this study to examine whether viral infection could induce human β cell dedifferentiation. Using the functional ... SOX9 was induced by the NF-κB pathway and also in a paracrine non-cell-autonomous fashion through the secretion of IFN-α. ... Recent data suggest that viral infection of human islets leads to a decrease in insulin production rather than β cell death, ...
more infohttps://insight.jci.org/articles/view/97732/usage

Role of endothelial cell denudation and smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation in neointimal formation of human vein grafts after...Role of endothelial cell denudation and smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation in neointimal formation of human vein grafts after...

Spindle shaped cells and round cells at the response site are positive. (D) HHF-35. The spindle shaped cells and round cells ... Role of endothelial cell denudation and smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation in neointimal formation of human vein grafts after ... Role of endothelial cell denudation and smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation in neointimal formation of human vein grafts after ... Both spindle shaped cells and round cells in the neointima are positive. (C) HHF-35. The cells in the neointima do not stain. ( ...
more infohttp://heart.bmj.com/content/83/1/69

Stem Cell DedifferentiationStem Cell Dedifferentiation

More from: Stem Cell Dedifferentiation. TOR (focus on of rapamycin) can be an evolutionarily conserved nutrient. P April 28, ... Objective To examine the frequency and phenotype of Th17 cells in * Wig-1 is definitely a transcriptional target of the tumor ... Objective To examine the frequency and phenotype of Th17 cells in * Wig-1 is definitely a transcriptional target of the tumor ... evolutionarily conserved nutrient sensing proteins kinase that regulates development and metabolism in every eukaryotic cells. ...
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What are the morphologic features of cells undergoing dedifferentiation - Stem CellWhat are the morphologic features of cells undergoing dedifferentiation - Stem Cell

What is the source of your epithelial cell? The morphology cannot certify that a cell is undergoing de-differentiation. You ... What is the source of your epithelial cell? The morphology cannot certify that a cell is undergoing de-differentiation. You ... if you find and prove the dedifferentiation of special cells, you may deserve a big paper!! QUOTE (Fetus @ Mar 10 2006, 08:28 ... What are the morphologic features of cells undergoing dedifferentiation - (Feb/24/2006 ). Hello All,. Could someone tell me ...
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The Polycomb-Dependent Epigenome Controls β Cell Dysfunction, Dedifferentiation, and Diabetes.  - PubMed - NCBIThe Polycomb-Dependent Epigenome Controls β Cell Dysfunction, Dedifferentiation, and Diabetes. - PubMed - NCBI

Cell Metab. 2018 Jun 5;27(6):1294-1308.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2018.04.013. Epub 2018 May 10. ... Eed; Polycomb; cell identity; chromatin; complex diseases; de-differentiation; diabetes; epigenetic; type 2 diabetes; β cells ... The Polycomb-Dependent Epigenome Controls β Cell Dysfunction, Dedifferentiation, and Diabetes.. Lu TT1, Heyne S1, Dror E1, ... β cell-specific Polycomb (Eed/PRC2) loss of function in mice triggers diabetes-mimicking transcriptional signatures and highly ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29754954

Stem Cell Dedifferentiation | FGFR signaling promotes the growth of triple negativeStem Cell Dedifferentiation | FGFR signaling promotes the growth of triple negative

Category Archives: Stem Cell Dedifferentiation. Stem Cell Dedifferentiation antibodies in dairy products cattle and dogs in ... Stem Cell Dedifferentiation Cell invasion through cellar membrane (BM) during advancement immune security and. May 3, 2017. ... Stem Cell Dedifferentiation Pyoderma gangrenosum received this name because of the notion that this. March 13, 2017. Becky ... cells were distributed into 96-well plates, at concentration of 2 104 viable myloma cells per well. Hybrid cells were selected ...
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Mitochondria and cancer: a growing role in apoptosis, cancer cell metabolism and dedifferentiation.  - PubMed - NCBIMitochondria and cancer: a growing role in apoptosis, cancer cell metabolism and dedifferentiation. - PubMed - NCBI

Mitochondria and cancer: a growing role in apoptosis, cancer cell metabolism and dedifferentiation.. Scatena R1. ... Moreover, studying the role of mitochondria in cancer cell dedifferentiation/differentiation processes may allow further ... At the beginning of the twentieth century, Otto Warburg demonstrated that cancer cells have a peculiar metabolism. These cells ... Over time, however, many studies have shown that mitochondria play a fundamental role in cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22399428?dopt=Abstract

Regeneration of Male Germline Stem Cells by Spermatogonial Dedifferentiation in Vivo | ScienceRegeneration of Male Germline Stem Cells by Spermatogonial Dedifferentiation in Vivo | Science

In addition, the ability of transit-amplifying cells to become stem cells may be shared by other stem cell systems [reviewed in ... G) Day 6; a spermatocyte cyst (outlined, large arrowhead) and a few Vasa-negative cells (somatic stem cells or cyst cells, ... Regeneration of Male Germline Stem Cells by Spermatogonial Dedifferentiation in Vivo Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded ... The ability to study induced dedifferentiation in an intact stem cell niche should greatly aid our understanding of the ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/304/5675/1331?ijkey=ad9c559ece747042775adb12da38184dbb372868&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Dedifferentiation of neoplastic cells in medullary thyroid carcinoma: Report of a case | SpringerLinkDedifferentiation of neoplastic cells in medullary thyroid carcinoma: Report of a case | SpringerLink

Dedifferentiation of neoplastic cells in medullary thyroid carcinoma: Report of a case. ... These cytological changes might represent dedifferentiation of the neoplastic cells or the anaplastic transformation of MTC. ... Nishiyama RH, Dunn EL, Thompson NW (1972) Anaplastic spindle-cell and giant-cell tumors of the thyroid gland. Cancer 30:113-127 ... Roediger WEW (1973) A comparative study of the normal human neonatal and the canine thyroid C cell. J Anat 115:255-276PubMed ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02482271

HGF Accelerates Wound Healing by Promoting the Dedifferentiation of Epidermal Cells through -Integrin/ILK PathwayHGF Accelerates Wound Healing by Promoting the Dedifferentiation of Epidermal Cells through -Integrin/ILK Pathway

... Jin-Feng Li, ... "Aging and insulin signaling differentially control normal and tumorous germline stem cells," Aging Cell, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 25 ... "Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human iPS cells via mesoderm and neuroepithelium have different features and therapeutic ... Michał Pikuła, Paulina Langa, Paulina Kosikowska, and Piotr Trzonkowski, "Stem cells and growth factors in wound healing," ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/470418/citations/

HGF Accelerates Wound Healing by Promoting the Dedifferentiation of Epidermal Cells through -Integrin/ILK PathwayHGF Accelerates Wound Healing by Promoting the Dedifferentiation of Epidermal Cells through -Integrin/ILK Pathway

H. Li, X. Fu, L. Zhang, T. Sun, and J. Wang, "In vivo dedifferentiation of human epidermal cells," Cell Biology International, ... "Dedifferentiation derived cells exhibit phenotypic and functional characteristics of epidermal stem cells," Journal of Cellular ... HGF Accelerates Wound Healing by Promoting the Dedifferentiation of Epidermal Cells through -Integrin/ILK Pathway. Jin-Feng Li, ... P. H. Jones, S. Harper, and F. M. Watt, "Stem cell patterning and fate in human epidermis," Cell, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 83-93, ...
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Effect of Genotype, Explant Type and 2,4-D on Cell Dedifferentiation and Callus Induction in Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.)...Effect of Genotype, Explant Type and 2,4-D on Cell Dedifferentiation and Callus Induction in Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.)...

"Effect of Genotype, Explant Type and 2,4-D on Cell Dedifferentiation and Callus Induction in Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) ... Effect of Genotype, Explant Type and 2,4-D on Cell Dedifferentiation and Callus Induction in Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) ... Soorni, J., Kahrizi, D. Effect of Genotype, Explant Type and 2,4-D on Cell Dedifferentiation and Callus Induction in Cumin ( ... Soorni, J., Kahrizi, D. (2015). Effect of Genotype, Explant Type and 2,4-D on Cell Dedifferentiation and Callus Induction in ...
more infohttp://www.biotechrep.ir/article_69186.html

SOX17 Regulates Conversion of Human Fibroblasts into Endothelial Cells and Erythroblasts via De-Differentiation into CD34+...SOX17 Regulates Conversion of Human Fibroblasts into Endothelial Cells and Erythroblasts via De-Differentiation into CD34+...

Conclusions-De-differentiation of fibroblasts to intermediate CD34+ progenitors gives rise to endothelial cells and ... SOX17 Regulates Conversion of Human Fibroblasts into Endothelial Cells and Erythroblasts via De-Differentiation into CD34+ ... SOX17 Regulates Conversion of Human Fibroblasts into Endothelial Cells and Erythroblasts via De-Differentiation into CD34+ ... SOX17 Regulates Conversion of Human Fibroblasts into Endothelial Cells and Erythroblasts via De-Differentiation into CD34+ ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2017/04/05/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.025722.1

Get PDF - Transdifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells-derived adipogenic-differentiated cells into osteogenic- or...Get PDF - Transdifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells-derived adipogenic-differentiated cells into osteogenic- or...

... or chondrogenic-differentiated cells proceeds via dedifferentiation and have a correlation with cell cycle arresting and ... Transdifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells-derived adipogenic-differentiated cells into osteogenic- ... The process of dedifferentiation was also confirmed by single cell clonal analysis. Finally the dedifferentiated cells were ... This leads to the questions that whether transdifferentiation occurs via direct cell-to-cell conversion or dedifferentiation to ...
more infohttps://eurekamag.com/research/036/876/036876479.php

Abstract 4376: Acquired cancer stem cell like features through Oct4 mediated dedifferentiation | Cancer ResearchAbstract 4376: Acquired cancer stem cell like features through Oct4 mediated dedifferentiation | Cancer Research

Abstract 4376: Acquired cancer stem cell like features through Oct4 mediated dedifferentiation. Suresh M.K Kumar, Shujing Liu, ... Abstract 4376: Acquired cancer stem cell like features through Oct4 mediated dedifferentiation ... of Oct4 gene or transmembrane delivery of Oct4 protein promoted dedifferentiation of melanoma cells to CSC-like cells. The ... Abstract 4376: Acquired cancer stem cell like features through Oct4 mediated dedifferentiation ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/71/8_Supplement/4376

Type 2 Diabetes: The Pathologic Basis of Reversible β-Cell Dysfunction | Diabetes CareType 2 Diabetes: The Pathologic Basis of Reversible β-Cell Dysfunction | Diabetes Care

Pancreatic β cell dedifferentiation as a mechanism of diabetic β cell failure. Cell 2012;150:1223-1234pmid:22980982. ... β-cell deficit in obese type 2 diabetes, a minor role of β-cell dedifferentiation and degranulation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab ... Pancreatic β cell dedifferentiation in diabetes and redifferentiation following insulin therapy. Cell Metab 2014;19:872-882pmid ... β-Cell dedifferentiation, characterized by the loss of β-cell-specific markers, including Pdx1, Nkx6.1, and MafA, may enable ...
more infohttps://care.diabetesjournals.org/node/50829.full.print

Loss of ATM accelerates pancreatic cancer formation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition | Nature CommunicationsLoss of ATM accelerates pancreatic cancer formation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition | Nature Communications

Acinar cell de-differentiation via enhanced BMP4 signalling. EMT is associated with secretion and accumulation of growth ... The intestinal stem cell signature identifies colorectal cancer stem cells and predicts disease relapse. Cell Stem Cell 5, 511- ... Pancreatic stellate cells form a niche for cancer stem cells and promote their self-renewal and invasiveness. Cell Cycle 11, ... Pancreatic ductal cell isolation. Pancreatic ductal cells were isolated according to a recently published protocol31. In brief ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms8677?error=cookies_not_supported&code=787272dd-d9b6-4860-a86f-36184d3c124e

Novel Genes Mediating the De-Differentiation of Human Corneal Epithelial Cells | IOVS | ARVO JournalsNovel Genes Mediating the De-Differentiation of Human Corneal Epithelial Cells | IOVS | ARVO Journals

Novel Genes Mediating the De-Differentiation of Human Corneal Epithelial Cells E. Y. Chuang; F. Bian; S. C. Pflugfelder; D. Q. ... De-differentiation occurred when differentiated cells sub-cultured from SHEM to CnT-20 medium. The higher expression of TCF4, ... suggesting that this defined medium preserves more stem cell like characteristics than cells cultured in SHEM. When cells ... Novel Genes Mediating the De-Differentiation of Human Corneal Epithelial Cells You will receive an email whenever this article ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2381461

In This Issue | Cancer DiscoveryIn This Issue | Cancer Discovery

Melanoma Cell Dedifferentiation Induces Resistance to T-cell Therapy. *Antitumor Activity of NY-ESO-1c259 Autologous T Cells in ... Melanoma Cell Dedifferentiation Induces Resistance to T-cell Therapy. See article, p. 935 ... Further, coculturing F5 TCR transduced T cells with human melanoma cell lines was sufficient to induce their dedifferentiation ... Persistent NY-ESO-1c259 cells were largely functional central memory and stem cell memory T cells. ...
more infohttp://cancerdiscovery.aacrjournals.org/content/8/8/899?rss=1

Degree Level: Doctoral / Academic Unit: Biological Sciences / Type: Theses | Search Results | Academic CommonsDegree Level: Doctoral / Academic Unit: Biological Sciences / Type: Theses | Search Results | Academic Commons

Markers and Mechanisms of β-cell Dedifferentiation Fan, Jason Chen. 2018. Theses. MedicineBiologyCytologyPancreatic beta cells ... 2. Cell fate restriction in Caenorhabditis elegans Rahe, Dylan Parker. 2019. Theses. GeneticsCaenorhabditis elegansCell ... BiologyBiological systemsCancer cells--Growth--RegulationGastrointestinal system--MicrobiologyCell metabolism. ... A Single-Cell Immune Map of Normal and Cancerous Breast Reveals an Expansion of Phenotypic States Driven by the Tumor ...
more infohttps://academiccommons.columbia.edu/search?f%5Bdegree_level_name_ssim%5D%5B%5D=Doctoral&f%5Bdepartment_ssim%5D%5B%5D=Biological+Sciences&f%5Bgenre_ssim%5D%5B%5D=Theses&per_page=20

Browsing  by Author Bonner-Weir, SusanBrowsing by Author "Bonner-Weir, Susan"

β-cell dedifferentiation in diabetes is important, but what is it?  Weir, Gordon C; Aguayo-Mazzucato, Cristina; Bonner-Weir, ... Stem cells hold great promise for pancreatic beta cell replacement therapy for diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, beta cells are ... Stem cell approaches for diabetes: towards beta cell replacement  Weir, Gordon Campbell; Cavelti-Weder, Claudia Regula; Bonner ... This commentary discusses the concept of β-cell dedifferentiation in diabetes, which is important but not well defined. A broad ...
more infohttps://dash.harvard.edu/browse?authority=b0a1aeec5d420fc734110d01551adef9&type=author

Our Basic Diabetes Research | Naomi Berrie Diabetes CenterOur Basic Diabetes Research | Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center

Cell Dedifferentiation As A Mechanism Of Diabetic -Cell Failure. Cell 150: 1223-1234 PMC3445031 ... cells arise cell-autonomously from Foxo1-deficient cells. Following ablation by the-cell toxin, streptozotocin, gut Ins+ cells ... Though we can now routinely generate insulin-producing cells from stem cells, the use of such cells in cell replacement is a ... Pancreatic -cell dedifferentiation as mechanism of diabetic -cell failure. Diabetes is thought to arise through a decrease in ...
more infohttp://nbdiabetes.org/research/our-basic-diabetes-research

Our Basic Diabetes Research | Naomi Berrie Diabetes CenterOur Basic Diabetes Research | Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center

Cell Dedifferentiation As A Mechanism Of Diabetic -Cell Failure. Cell 150: 1223-1234 PMC3445031 ... cells arise cell-autonomously from Foxo1-deficient cells. Following ablation by the-cell toxin, streptozotocin, gut Ins+ cells ... Though we can now routinely generate insulin-producing cells from stem cells, the use of such cells in cell replacement is a ... Pancreatic -cell dedifferentiation as mechanism of diabetic -cell failure. Diabetes is thought to arise through a decrease in ...
more infohttp://www.nbdiabetes.org/research/our-basic-diabetes-research
  • We propose that impaired mitochondrial function marks the progression from metabolic inflexibility to dedifferentiation in the natural history of β-cell failure. (columbia.edu)
  • Genome-wide association studies indicate that the vast majority of the genes associated with type 2 diabetes are likely to have a β-cell-specific role relating to impaired ability to cope with metabolic stress ( 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We find two chromatin-state signatures that track β cell dysfunction in mice and humans: ectopic activation of bivalent Polycomb-silenced domains and loss of expression at an epigenomically unique class of lineage-defining genes. (nih.gov)
  • β cell-specific Polycomb (Eed/PRC2) loss of function in mice triggers diabetes-mimicking transcriptional signatures and highly penetrant, hyperglycemia-independent dedifferentiation, indicating that PRC2 dysregulation contributes to disease. (nih.gov)
  • Implantation of these human bi-potential CD34 + progenitors into immune-deficient NOD-SCID mice resulted in the formation of micro-vessels derived from human endothelial cells that were perfused with mouse and human erythrocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • We have reported that ablation of the three genes in vascular endothelial cells prevents atherosclerosis in Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice. (nbdiabetes.org)
  • Following ablation by the-cell toxin, streptozotocin, gut Ins + cells regenerate and produce insulin, reversing hyperglycemia in mice. (nbdiabetes.org)
  • cells of diabetic mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Immunohistochemical evaluation of smooth muscle cell phenotype modulation in relation to proliferative activity. (bmj.com)
  • 3-6 Unni and colleagues 4 documented insudation of blood constituents into the vein intima as the earliest change, whereas Kockx and colleagues 6 showed that less than 10 days after grafting, veins contained smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the media with reduced expression of α smooth muscle actin, suggesting a synthetic phenotype. (bmj.com)
  • Ultrastructurally, the characteristic secretory granules in the neoplastic cells decreased remarkably in number, consistent with the immunohistochemical findings. (springer.com)
  • Effect of Genotype, Explant Type and 2,4-D on Cell Dedifferentiation and Callus Induction in Cumin ( Cuminum cyminum L.) Medicinal Plant', Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports , 2(3), pp. 265-270. (biotechrep.ir)
  • In osteogenic media, cells pretreated with 300nM reversine exhibited an increased induction in alkaline phosphatase activity and enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and collagen type I mRNA. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • In chondrogenic media, cells pretreated with reversine exhibited marked increase in the induction of aggrecan, collagen types II, IX, and XI, and versican. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • Therefore, pathways involved in mitochondrial fuel selection and catabolism may represent potential targets for the prevention or reversal of dedifferentiation. (columbia.edu)
  • However, current results imply that even terminally differentiated cells transdifferentiate across lineage boundaries and therefore act as a progenitor cells for other lineages. (eurekamag.com)
  • To address these questions, MSC were differentiated into adipogenic lineage cells, followed by dedifferentiation. (eurekamag.com)
  • Histology, FACS, qPCR and GeneChip analyses of undifferentiated MSC, adipogenic-differentiated and dedifferentiated cells were performed. (eurekamag.com)
  • Interestingly, gene profiling and bioinformatics demonstrated that upregulation ( DHCR 24, G 0 S 2, MAP 2 K 6, SESN 3) and downregulation ( DST , KAT 2, MLL 5, RB 1, SMAD 3, ZA K) of distinct genes have an association with cell cycle arrest in adipogenic-differentiated cells and perhaps narrow down the lineage potency. (eurekamag.com)
  • However, the upregulation (CCND1, CHEK, HGF , HMGA 2, SMAD 3) and downregulation ( CCPG 1, RASSF 4, R GS 2) of these genes have an association with cell cycle progression and maybe motivate dedifferentiation of adipogenic-differentiated cells. (eurekamag.com)
  • 61 differentially expressed genes in adipogenic-differentiated cells have an association with cell cycle arrest. (eurekamag.com)
  • 65 differentially expressed genes in dedifferentiated cells have an association with cell cycle progression. (eurekamag.com)
  • When cells originally grown in SHEM were sub-cultured to CnT-20, stem cell associated genes expression levels were up-regulated and the cells could be continually passaged 4 times in CnT-20 medium. (arvojournals.org)
  • Microarray profiling coupled with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that reversine treatment resulted in a significant expression change in many genes including those required for cell-cell interaction, cell movement, cell growth, and development. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • Recently, a series of studies were undertaken to re-evaluate the role of oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cell growth and progression. (nih.gov)
  • Failing β-cells inappropriately metabolize lipids over carbohydrates and exhibit impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. (columbia.edu)
  • TOR (focus on of rapamycin) can be an evolutionarily conserved nutrient sensing proteins kinase that regulates development and metabolism in every eukaryotic cells. (expandingmarketing.com)
  • Mitochondria and cancer: a growing role in apoptosis, cancer cell metabolism and dedifferentiation. (nih.gov)
  • At the beginning of the twentieth century, Otto Warburg demonstrated that cancer cells have a peculiar metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • These findings reveal that inflammatory signaling has clear implications in human β cell dedifferentiation. (jci.org)
  • SOX9 was induced by the NF-κB pathway and also in a paracrine non-cell-autonomous fashion through the secretion of IFN-α. (jci.org)
  • Upd locally activates the Jak-STAT pathway within GSCs to maintain stem cell fate ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Hanan Hosni Ahmed, Laila Ahmed Rashed, Sohair Mahfouz, Rania Elsayed Hussein, Marwa Alkaffas, Shaimaa Mostafa, and Azza Abusree, "Can mesenchymal stem cells pretreated with platelet-rich plasma modulate tissue remodeling in a rat with burned skin? (hindawi.com)
  • Protein localization was determined by immunofluorescent staining on corneoscleral tissue cryosections and in cell cultures. (arvojournals.org)
  • Further analysis revealed that there was involvement of gene networks concerned with cellular assembly and organization, DNA replication and repair, tissue morphology, and cell-to-cell signaling. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • Reversine Enhances Generation of Progenitor-like Cells by Dedifferentiation of Annulus Fibrosus Cells[J]. TISSUE ENGINEERING PART A,2010,16(4):1443-1455. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales. (biologists.org)
  • Herein, we investigated whether high glucose (25 mM/L) (HG)-dependent NOX-mediated ROS generation is involved in self-renewal of visceral adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) as well. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • the reprogramming ESC is called induced pluripotency stem cell (iPSC) [ 5 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Endothelial lineage conversion was dependent on the upregulation of the developmental transcription factor SOX17 whereas suppression of SOX17 instead directed the cells towards an erythroid fate. (ahajournals.org)
  • The condition does not occur unless β-cell function is no longer sufficient to overcome insulin resistance ( 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • If sufficient cells were present in the culture inoculate, a continuous monolayer formed at about 9 days of culture and redifferentiation of smooth muscle began. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we combine deep epigenome mapping with single-cell transcriptomics to mine for evidence of chromatin dysregulation in type 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Type 2 diabetes (T2D) results from inadequate β cell mass and function that can no longer compensate for insulin resistance. (harvard.edu)
  • Reversine modulated cell growth, morphology, and the actin cytoskeleton of annulus fibrosus cells. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • Recently, co-expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α ( C/EBPα ) with OSKM increases the reprogramming efficiency of B cells [ 15 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Flow-sorted Aldh1a3-expressing (ALDH+) islet cells demonstrate impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion, are depleted of Foxo1 and MafA, and include a Neurogenin3-positive subset. (columbia.edu)
  • The aim of this study was to determine if treatment with reversine, a purine analog, promoted generation of skeletal progenitor cells from lineage-committed annulus fibrosus cells. (bjmu.edu.cn)