Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Shigella flexneri: A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Cathepsin A: A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC 3.4.12.1 and EC 3.4.21.13.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Paramecium: A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.TritiumVirulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Distal Myopathies: A heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by progressive MUSCULAR ATROPHY and MUSCLE WEAKNESS beginning in the hands, the legs, or the feet. Most are adult-onset autosomal dominant forms. Others are autosomal recessive.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Aminopeptidases: A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.SNARE Proteins: A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Nuclear Localization Signals: Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Karyopherins: A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Amoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.Pinocytosis: The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Qa-SNARE Proteins: A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins: Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Cytoplasmic Vesicles: Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Inorganic Pyrophosphatase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of diphosphate (DIPHOSPHATES) into inorganic phosphate. The hydrolysis of pyrophosphate is coupled to the transport of HYDROGEN IONS across a membrane.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Coxiella burnetii: A species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Proton Pumps: Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Each cell contains a dense cytoplasm and a prominent nucleus. Dense protoplasm of meristematic cells contains very few vacuoles ... The end walls, however, are full of small pores where cytoplasm extends from cell to cell. These porous connections are called ... Cells in these tissues are roughly spherical or polyhedral, to rectangular in shape, and have thin cell walls. New cells ... Meristemetic tissue cells have a large nucleus with small or no vacuoles, they have no inter cellular spaces. The meristematic ...
He also looked at the components of cytoplasm, including mitochondria and vacuoles. Among his over fifty scientific works ... His investigations into reproduction focused on studying the shape and structure of sperm cells. ... and a third on the Golgi apparatus in nerve cells (Paris, 1929). Between 1892 and 1939, he was a professor at the University of ...
Most often, the cytoplasm is gray, pale blue, or deep blue in colour. The distinctive cell associated with EBV or CMV is known ... The cytoplasm is often abundant and can be basophilic. Vacuoles and/or azurophilic granules are also sometimes present. ... Educational Commentary: Blood Cell Identification - American Society for Clinical Pathology article.. ... as a "Downey cell", after Hal Downey, who contributed to the characterization of it in 1923. Reactive lymphocytes are usually ...
The cytoplasm typically contains numerous food vacuoles that contain ingested debris, including bacteria. Waste materials are ... eliminated from the cell through digestive vacuoles by exocytosis. D. fragilis possesses some flagellate characteristics. In ... D. fragilis is not considered to be invasive nor cause cell or tissue damage. D. fragilis replicates by binary fission, moves ... Cell. 167 (2). Mack, David. "Dientamoeba Fragilis Infection". Emedicine Medscape. Retrieved December 9, 2016. Johnson EH, ...
It contains a large vacuole; its cytoplasm and nucleus is superseded to the apical region of the outgrowth. Although it does ... Root hair is the outgrowth of a single rhizodermal cell. They occur in high frequency in the adsorptive zone of the root. Root ... Specialized rhisodermal cells, trichoblasts, form long tubular structures (from 5 to 17 micrometers in diameter and from 80 ... Berger, Fred; Hung, Chen-Yi; Dolan, Liam; Schiefelbein, John (1998). "Control of cell division in the root epidermis of ...
Once delivered to the target cells, the DNA is released into the cytoplasm. The magnetic particles are accumulated in endosomes ... and/or vacuoles. Over time, the nanoparticles are degraded and the iron enters the normal iron metabolism. Influence of ... adherent mammalian cell lines and primary cell cultures show very high transfection rates. Suspension cells and cells from ... The magnetic field causes the iron particles to be rapidly drawn towards the surface of the cell membrane. Cellular uptake ...
Some host cells are oval-shaped and may be slightly enlarged. Schizonts: Immature forms have dense blue-staining cytoplasm and ... The vacuole may be diminished or lost. Aggregates of dark eosinophilic masses sometimes larger than the nuclei may be present. ... The deep blue cytoplasm has delicate, dark pigmentgranules scattered within it. The host cell, which may be slightly enlarged, ... Mature microgametocytes occupy the entire the host cell and have dark pink cytoplasm. The off center nucleus stains red and has ...
The macrogametocytes have lavender to purple cytoplasm. The pigment is made up of small dark brown granules within vacuoles. ... Pigment is in granules and there is no stippling of the host cell. The schizonts display irregularly shaped nuclei. The pigment ... The microgametocytes have red-staining nuclei and slate-gray cytoplasm. Their pigment is similar to that of the ...
In these cells the cytoplasm forms only a peripheral layer with a large central vacuole. The cell walls are composed of ... each daughter-cell develops the other semi-cell afresh) and sexually by conjugation, or the fusion of the entire cell-contents ... They reproduce asexually by the development of a septum between the two cell-halves or semi-cells (in unicellular forms, ... The large internodal cells are sometimes multinucleate, and their nuclei often possess large nucleoli and scanty chromatin. ...
During cell division, these nodules divide individually. At the front end of the cell is a mobile proboscis. The cytostome is ... Multiple contractile vacuoles lie in a row along the dorsal surface. Most Dileptus are colourless, but two nominal species ... carry symbiotic green algae in their cytoplasm. A species of Dileptus was described by C. G. Ehrenberg in 1833, under the name ... at the base of this organ and is well fortified with stiff microtubular rods (nematodesmata). The surface of the cell is ...
Numerous small vacuoles of relatively uniform size are created, giving the cytoplasm a foamy appearance. There are four types ... In 2011, fibroblast cells derived from patients with Niemann-Pick type C1 disease were shown to be resistant to Ebola virus ... Affected cells become enlarged, sometimes up to 90 μm in diameter, secondary to the distention of lysosomes with sphingomyelin ... This disease involves dysfunctional metabolism of sphingolipids, which are fats found in cell membranes, so it is a kind of ...
The digestive products were absorbed into the cytoplasm and diffused into other cells. This form of digestion is used nowadays ... The particles became enclosed in vacuoles into which enzymes were secreted and digestion took place intracellularly. ... In the first multicellular animals there was probably no mouth or gut and food particles were engulfed by the cells on the ... Apart from sponges and placozoans, almost all animals have an internal gut cavity which is lined with gastrodermal cells. In ...
Once in this stage, they can then leave the vacuole, and enter the cytoplasm. During the time that the amoeba is infected, it ... It is a mesophilic bacteria that can be grown on Vero cells. Similar to other Chlamydiales, it is commonly found in two ... This can be attributed to the increase in vacuoles in the cytoplasm that contain Parachlamydia acanthamoebae. Replication of ... and even then it was only found within vacuoles and not in the cytoplasm of the infected amoeba. The only stage that this ...
Unlike plant cells, animal cells have neither a cell wall nor chloroplasts. Vacuoles, when present, are more in number and much ... Each typically has a cell membrane formed of phospholipids, cytoplasm and a nucleus. All of the different cells of an animal ... The outer epithelial layer may include cells of several types including sensory cells, gland cells and stinging cells. There ... The cells of single-cell protozoans have the same basic structure as those of multicellular animals but some parts are ...
Kim J, Klionsky DJ (2000). "Autophagy, cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway, and pexophagy in yeast and mammalian cells". ... ATG8 is also required for a different autophagy-related process called the Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway. This ... International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology. International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology. 266: 207-247. doi: ... "Dissection of Autophagosome Formation Using Apg5-Deficient Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells". J Cell Biol. 152 (4): 657-68. doi: ...
Young schizonts almost fill the host cell except for small areas where Schüffner's dots may be found. Oval shaped forms may ... The generally oval nucleus is deep staining and may have an adjacent vacuole. The mature microgametocytes are found within an ... Pigment is scattered throughout the cytoplasm. The mature oocytes in the mosquito average 53 micrometres (µm) in size (range: ... The mature macrogametocytes which stain a grayish-blue fill the enlarged host cell. Also present is a coarse, granular pigment ...
Cells around the blisters resemble meristematic cells with denser cytoplasms and smaller vacuoles. Mycelial development is ... Epidermal cells of diseased tissue have highly irregular cell walls. The most dramatic changes were within the cell. The large ... Healthy epidermal cells contain a large central vacuole surrounded by a thin cytoplasmic layer with endoplasmic reticulum, ... Cells in the mesophyll layer remain mostly unchanged; there is a slight reduction [chloroplast] number in palisade cells. ...
Continuous actin polymerization is sufficient for motility in the cytoplasm and even for infection of adjacent cells. New data ... they get internalized into intestinal epithelium cells and rapidly try to escape their internalization vacuole. In the cytosol ... ActA localizes to the old pole of the bacterium and spans both the bacterial cell membrane and the cell wall, lateral diffusion ... All mutants except the actA mutants were similar to wild-type concerning association with F-actin and cell-cell spreading. ...
... as their cytoplasm forms along the periphery of the cell, while the nitrate-storing vacuoles occupy the center of the cell. As ... This implies that the cytoplasm has to be close to the cell wall, greatly limiting their size. But Thiomargarita are an ... Thus, the presence of a central vacuole in its cells enables a prolonged survival in sulfidic sediments. The non-motility of ... A bacterium of large size would imply a lower ratio of cell membrane surface area to cell volume. This would limit the rate of ...
"Isolation and characterization of yeast mutants in the cytoplasm to vacuole protein targeting pathway". The Journal of Cell ... "Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting and autophagy employ the same machinery to deliver proteins to the yeast vacuole". Proceedings ... Mol Biol Cell, 17 (2006), 5094-104 Reggiori F, Klionsky DJ (February 2002). "Autophagy in the eukaryotic cell". Eukaryotic Cell ... "Cannabisin B induces autophagic cell death by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR pathway and S phase cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells". ...
"Identification of a cytoplasm to vacuole targeting determinant in aminopeptidase I". J. Cell Biol. 132: 999-1010. doi:10.1083/ ...
The cytoplasm of the prey is then drawn into a large posterior food vacuole. Following feeding cells lose their flagella, ... The food vacuole appears as a large central vacuole in the cyst; as division progresses the remnant vacuole material is reduced ... Most species apparently penetrate through the cell membrane and consume the prey's cytoplasm - this mode of feeding is known as ... The daughter cells grow flagella, the cyst wall ruptures, and the cells swim away, leaving the residual body behind. A possible ...
The cell usually has a single granular nucleus, containing most of the organism's DNA . A contractile vacuole is used to ... This process regulates the amount of water present in the cytoplasm of the amoeba. Immediately after the contractile vacuole ( ... Since these vesicles fuse with the central contractile vacuole, which expels the water, ions end up being removed from the cell ... Cell. 100 (3): 179-88. doi:10.1042/BC20070091. PMID 18004980. Patterson, D.J. (1981). "Contractile vacuole complex behaviour as ...
The cytoplasm of actinophryids is often granular, similar to that of Amoeba. Play media Contractile vacuoles are common in ... These axopods adhere to passing prey and assist with cell movement, as well as playing a part in cell division and cell fusion ... Reproduction in actinophryids generally takes place via fission, where one parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells ... Most have a cell body 40-50 micrometer in diameter with axopods around 100 μm in length, though this varies significantly. ...
The cytoplasm is arranged approximately in layers conforming to the shape of the cell's walls. A large central vacuole is ... Each daughter receives one of the parent cell's thecae, which becomes that cell's epitheca. The cell then synthesizes a new ... The cytoplasm also contains chrysolaminarin and some volutin. Pinnularia like most diatoms, can reproduce by simple cell ... Their cell walls are composed chiefly of pectic substances on a rigid silica framework. Their walls are composed of two halves ...
The whole of replication occurs within the host cell cytoplasm and infection can even happen in cells that do not contain a ... before the viral proteins start to be synthesized and a vacuole appears in the cytoplasm close to the nucleus that gradually ... These acids form a pore in the cell membrane through which RNA is injected [2]. Once inside the cell, the RNA un-coats and the ... MP and VPg interact to provide specificity for the transport of viral RNA from cell to cell. To fulfill energy requirements, MP ...
"The molecular machinery of autophagy: unanswered questions". Journal of Cell Science. ... The abbreviation Cvt comes from the emphasis Cytoplasm vacuole targeting, not from Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting. Lynch-Day MA ... Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) is an autophagy-related pathway in yeast. Under vegetative conditions it delivers ... hydrolases, such as aminopeptidase 1 (Ape1), to the vacuole. This makes the cvt pathway the only known biosynthetic pathway to ...
Isolation and characterization of yeast mutants in the cytoplasm to vacuole protein targeting pathway.. J Cell Biol 1 November ... Isolation and characterization of yeast mutants in the cytoplasm to vacuole protein targeting pathway. T M Harding T M Harding ... Transport of a Large Oligomeric Protein by the Cytoplasm to Vacuole Protein Targeting Pathway ... Two Distinct Pathways for Targeting Proteins from the Cytoplasm to the Vacuole/Lysosome ...
... by stringing amino acids together in the order specified by messenger RNA strands that were transcribed from DNA in the cell ... How do lysosomes and vacuoles work together?. * Q: What does cytoplasm do?. ... How does the nucleus control a cells activities?. A: A cells nucleus is able to control the other activities in a cell by ... A: The cell nucleus is the command center and thus controls the activities of the eukaryotic cell. A double-walled cell nuclear ...
The Journal of Cell Biology Nov 1995, 131 (3) 591-602; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.131.3.591 ... Isolation and characterization of yeast mutants in the cytoplasm to vacuole protein targeting pathway.. T M Harding, K A Morano ... Isolation and characterization of yeast mutants in the cytoplasm to vacuole protein targeting pathway. ... Upon delivery to the vacuole, the amino-terminal propeptide is removed by proteinase B (PrB) to yield the mature 50-kD ...
Site of Constituent Formation in Cell. Cytoplasm Site of Virion Assembly. Intracytoplasmic vacuoles Site of Virion Accumulation ...
Site of Constituent Formation in Cell. Cytoplasm Site of Virion Assembly. Cytoplasmic vacuoles Site of Virion Accumulation. ...
Each cell contains a dense cytoplasm and a prominent nucleus. Dense protoplasm of meristematic cells contains very few vacuoles ... The end walls, however, are full of small pores where cytoplasm extends from cell to cell. These porous connections are called ... Cells in these tissues are roughly spherical or polyhedral, to rectangular in shape, and have thin cell walls. New cells ... Meristemetic tissue cells have a large nucleus with small or no vacuoles, they have no inter cellular spaces. The meristematic ...
... a rare spindle cell tumor with good prognosis. ... Cell Shape. Nuclear Shape. Nuclear Grooves. Perinuclear Vacuole ... Cytoplasm. Atypia. Mitosis per 10 hpf. Necrosis. LVI. IHC Profile. 1. Subcapsular, well-circumscribed 1.2-cm golden yellow ... Myoid gonadal stromal tumor of the testis is an uncommon spindle cell tumor hypothesized to arise from peritubular myoid cells ... Nucleoli were inconspicuous, and the cytoplasm was scant, ill-defined, and pale/lightly eosinophilic. No sex cord component was ...
Cells and Organelles - By- Maddison Rhodes by Maddison Rhodes , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for ... The vacuole. The vacuole is like a container inside the cell, and stores water and nutrients. The vacuole helps with the plants ... The cytoplasm also helps make sure that the cell does not shrink, and retains its normal cell shape. Cytoplasm also holds many ... The cell wall The cell wall is only located in a plant cell, and protects the cell from injury. The cell wall also maintains ...
Vacuole. The vacuole is like our locker rooms. It stores the sports equipment. Cytoplasm. The cytoplasm is like the gymnasium ... The cell membrane is like the out of bounds line. Its the perimeter of the court.. The cell wall is like the building walls ... The cell is like a basketball team. A group of organized structures that perform specific functions. The nucleus is like the ... Cell Wall Mitochondria. The mitochondria is like the team dinner before a game because it provides you energy. ...
Cell wall. Cell membrane. Nucleus. Vacuoles. Cytoplasm. Mitochondria. 6 What is the fungal cell wall made up of? ... Cell wall (glucan) synthesis. Cell membrane (ergosterol) synthesis. DNA/RNA synthesis (pyrimidine analogues) ... Interact with ergosterol and form holes in cell membrane, affecting the integrity of its structure. ...
Different Parts of a Plant Cell.docx - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read ... central vacuole), which contributes to. about 30-80 percent of the cells volume.. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm is filled up by cytosol ... membrane surrounding a vacuole is called tonoplast. A mature plant cell has a. single vacuole at the near center of the cell ( ... While vacuole is. large and single in a plant cell, the animal cell houses smaller vacuoles in larger. numbers. Likewise, for ...
The NH2-terminal domain of mature ROP2 is exposed to the host cell cytoplasm. In the infected cell, members of the ROP2 family ... The parasitophorous vacuole membrane surrounding Plasmodium and Toxoplasma: an unusual compartment in infected cells. J. Cell ... gondii parasitophorous vacuole 20 h after infection of CHO cells, containing four parasites (P) within the vacuole. The major ... and is exposed to the host cell cytoplasm. J. Cell Biol. 127:947-961. ...
Small vacuoles of fat accumulate and become dispersed within cytoplasm. Mild fatty change may have no effect on cell function; ... Stromal cells are the cells that support the parenchymal cells in any organ. Fibroblasts, immune cells, pericytes, and ... Cell damage (also known as cell injury) is a variety of changes of stress that a cell suffers due to external as well internal ... When a cell is damaged the body will try to repair or replace the cell to continue normal functions. If a cell dies the body ...
The contractile vacuole inEuplotes: an example of the sol-gel reversibility of cytoplasm. Journ. Exp. Zool.37, 259-290.Google ... Kite, G. L., 1913 a. The relative permeability of the surface and interior portions of the cytoplasm of animal and plant cells ... Studies on the permeability of the internal cytoplasm of animal and plant cells. Amer. Journ. Physiol.37, 282-299.Google ... The structure of cells in tissues as revealed by microdissection. I. The physical relationships of the cells in epithelia. Amer ...
Moreover, Atg19p is ubiquitinated in vivo, and Atg19p-ubiquitin conjugates accumulate in cells lacking either Ubp3p or its ... The cytoplasm to vacuole (Cvt) trafficking pathway in S. cerevisiae is a constitutive biosynthetic pathway required for the ... Atg19p ubiquitination and the cytoplasm to vacuole trafficking pathway in yeast.. [Bonnie K Baxter, Hagai Abeliovich, Xin Zhang ... Deletion of UBP3 also leads to decreased targeting of Ape1p to the vacuole. Atg19p is ubiquitinated on two lysine residues, Lys ...
1. Nucleus 2. Nucleolus 3. Mitochondria 4. Cell membrane 5. ER 6. Ribosomes 7. Cytoplasm 8. Vacuoles 9. Goli Apparatus 10. ... chloroplasts and cell wall. What is the definition of Cell Theory?. 1. All living things are made of cells. 2. Cells are the ... What is the function of cytoplasm?. is a gel-like matrix where all the other cell organelles are suspended inside the cell. ... What are the two types of cells?. plant and animal. What does a plant cell have that an animal cell does not have?. ...
When the vacuole loses water the cytoplasm shrinks. When the vacuole gains water the ... The central vacuole in a plant cell is responsible for turgor pressure. ... The central vacuole in a plant cell is responsible for turgor pressure. When the vacuole loses water the cytoplasm "shrinks". ... The central vacuole in a plant cell is responsible for turgor pressure. When the vacuole loses water the cytoplasm "shrinks". ...
Analysis of mRNA Nuclear Export Kinetics in Mammalian Cells by Microinjection, Prediction of HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage (Tropism ... Video articles in JoVE about cytoplasm include Single-Molecule Imaging of Nuclear Transport, Determination of Plasma ... The part of a cell that contains the Cytosol and small structures excluding the Cell nucleus; Mitochondria; and large Vacuoles ... Analysis of mRNA Nuclear Export Kinetics in Mammalian Cells by Microinjection. Serge Gueroussov1, Stefan P. Tarnawsky1, ...
... cells). Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests. ... the nucleus, cytoplasm and the cell membrane. what are in plant cells?. vacuoles, the nucleus. cytoplasm, chloroplast, cell ... the control center of the cell. it contains DNA (genes). what is the cell wall?. strengthens the cell. this makes plant cells ... plant cells have large vacuoles full of water and plant cells have the cell wall which srtengthens it. ...
... is located both in the vacuole and the cytoplasm (Guy and Kende, 1984 a; Bouzayen et al., 1986). ACC can also be found as a ... Involvement of Vacuoles in Ethylene Metabolism in Plant Cells. In: Marin B. (eds) Plant Vacuoles. NATO ASI Series (Series A: ... Guy, M., and Kende, H., 1984 a, Conversion of 1-amino-cyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid to ethylene by isolated vacuoles of Pisum ... Satoh, S., and Esashi, Y., 1984, Identification and content of MACC in germinating cocklebur seeds, Plant Cell Physiol., 25: ...
Plant cells have these parts: Nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall, vacuole, chloroplast, cytoplasm, and mitochondria.. The ... 7.Vacuoles are conspicuous in plant cells than animal cells i.e. large central vacuole in plant cells. 8. Animal cells can be ... 7.Vacuoles are conspicuous in plant cells than animal cells i.e. large central vacuole in plant cells. 8. Animal cells can be ... 3.Plant cells have a cell wall unlike animal cells.. 4.Animal cells have a lot of lysosomes unlike plant cells.. 5.Animal cells ...
Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Golgi apparatus. Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network. Vacuole. Cytoplasm, ... Cell Line Products. * Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for RAB29 ... with both S.Typhi-containing vacuoles and dynamic tubules as well as those emerging from the vacuole toward the cell periphery ... Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for RAB29 Gene. ...
First Worldwide Survey of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation * How Long Do I Have? Tackling Oncologys Most Difficult ... The marrow is replaced primarily with small, immature lymphoblasts that show open chromatin, scant cytoplasm, and a high ... The effect of first-line imatinib interim therapy on the outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in adults with newly ... Novel cellular therapies for leukemia: CAR-modified T cells targeted to the CD19 antigen. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ ...
Most of these beads were found within vacuoles in the cytoplasm. However, preincubation of rML-LBP21-coated beads, but not BSA- ... Preparation of the cell-wall fraction of M. leprae has been described (13). M. leprae and cell wall fraction were provided by P ... Cell suspensions were centrifuged by using a single pulse of 500 × g to obtain the pellet containing cell-bound beads. Under ... Primary Schwann Cell Cultures.. Schwann cells were isolated from neonatal rat sciatic nerve and purified as described (19, 20 ...
  • Tobacco leaf prepared as above showing details of the cell wall (CW) and chloroplast (Ch) and cell membranes. (emsdiasum.com)
  • A general definition of a plant is any organism that contains chlorophyll (a green pigment contained in a specialized cell called a chloroplast) and can manufacture its own food. (encyclopedia.com)
  • All were unilateral, well circumscribed, adjacent to the rete testis, and composed exclusively of spindled cells with elongated nuclei and occasional nuclear grooves arranged in fascicles with admixed variably ectatic blood vessels. (medscape.com)
  • A few cells showed smudged nuclei. (ispub.com)
  • The level of cell apoptosis was determined with a Roche in situ cell-apoptosis-assay kit with nuclei stained in brown particles (Shanghai Runwell Technology Co., China). (hindawi.com)
  • Meristematic cells are small isodiametric cells, the nuclei occupy most of the cell. (wikibooks.org)
  • Here, we show that GX15-070 is more effective in reducing the cell density of antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells versus sensitive cells and that this increased sensitivity of resistant cells to GX15-070 correlates with an accumulation of autophagic vacuoles. (aacrjournals.org)
  • B ) A late-stage apoptotic neuron displaying electron-dense chromatin balls (CB), each surrounded by a small amount of highly condensed cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • The nucleus also stores all DNA and genes in a cell. (smore.com)
  • La taxonom a del complejo de especies de cirripedios (Chthamalus) se ha confundido en la literatura desde hace casi 30 a os, por lo tanto analizamos datos de su filogeograf a para identificar modelos temporales relevantes que describan los or genes de la zona de transici n entre las provincias Mexicana y Paname a. (bireme.br)
  • Estos contrastes de poblaciones a ambos lados de la zona de transici n incluyen a dos pares de especies estrechamente relacionadas, as como datos de flujo de genes dentro de una especie que actualmente es encontrada en ambos lados del l mite entre provincias. (bireme.br)
  • Algunos taxa pueden mantener el flujo de genes a trav s de esta regi n, pero muy pocos estudios gen ticos han sido realizados en tales taxa. (bireme.br)
  • The group of quiescent cells does not express these genes and the lower boundary of the non-expressing cells in at a prominent cell wall corresponding to the O line. (iastate.edu)
  • When it affects many cells in an organ, it causes some pallor, increased turgor , and increase in weight of the organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydrostatic pressure that develops within each cell, known as turgor pressure , is required for cell expansion and growth. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Turgor pressure dictates the rigidity of the cell and is associated with the difference between the osmotic pressure inside and outside of the cell. (fsu.edu)
  • In the absence of enough water, however, central vacuoles shrink and turgor pressure is reduced, compromising the plant's rigidity so that wilting takes place. (fsu.edu)
  • Nucleoli were inconspicuous, and the cytoplasm was scant, ill-defined, and pale/lightly eosinophilic. (medscape.com)
  • Sections of the cell-block preparation revealed a loose myxomatous background and numerous atypical cells with marked pleomorphism, multinucleation and many intra- and extra- cytoplsmic eosinophilic HG that were periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive and diastase-resistant. (ispub.com)
  • As early as last century, it was observed that many pigments (e.g., anthocyanins) are localized in the vacuoles of epidermal cells from flowers, leaves, and stems. (plantcell.org)
  • You can also see some epidermal cells at the top of the slide. (purchon.com)
  • what are in animal cells? (studystack.com)
  • Animal cells appear to be circular. (prezi.com)
  • In regard to the latter function, vacuoles are acidic and contain hydrolytic enzymes analogous to the lysosomal enzymes of animal cells. (plantcell.org)
  • Vacuoles in animal cells, however, tend to be much smaller, and are more commonly used to temporarily store materials or to transport substances. (fsu.edu)
  • 12: Centrioles are only found in animal cells, and they are packed together to make a tube. (mixbook.com)
  • Because laminin-2 is expressed on the outermost surface of and surrounds completely the Schwann cell-axon unit ( 4 , 11 ), laminin-2 serve as an initial target molecule that M. leprae might encounter before Schwann cell invasion. (pnas.org)
  • For example, the origin of the cells comprising a particular tissue type may differ developmentally for different classifications of animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells comprising the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system are classified as nervous (or neural) tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The organization is starting with a cell, then a Tissue, next the organ, then the organ system, and finally the organism. (smore.com)
  • In Schwann cell basal lamina, the tissue-restricted laminin variant is laminin-2, which comprises α2, β1, and γ1 chains ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • With this unique kit researchers are now able to achieve excellent freeze substitution results in as little as 90 minutes for cells of small volume such as bacteria and tissue culture cells. (emsdiasum.com)
  • meristem is a special tissue that contains actively growing and dividing cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In ovo administration of various tissue extracts (muscle, brain, and spinal cord) from the chick embryo or of the motoneuron conditioned medium fails to prevent Schwann cell apoptosis in NMDA-treated embryos. (jneurosci.org)
  • 3. Actively dividing non-organized masses of undifferentiated and differentiated cells often developing from injury (wounding) or in tissue culture in the presence of growth regulators. (fao.org)
  • A layer, usually regarded as one or two cells thick, of persistently meristematic tissue between the xylem and phloem tissues, and which gives rise to secondary tissues, thus resulting in an increase in diameter. (fao.org)
  • cancer Uncontrolled growth of the cells of a tissue or an organ in a multicellular organism. (fao.org)
  • All cells then divide periclinally to form the first histologically distinct tissue, the protoderm. (iastate.edu)