Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Shigella flexneri: A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Cathepsin A: A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC 220.127.116.11 and EC 18.104.22.168.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Paramecium: A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.TritiumVirulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Distal Myopathies: A heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by progressive MUSCULAR ATROPHY and MUSCLE WEAKNESS beginning in the hands, the legs, or the feet. Most are adult-onset autosomal dominant forms. Others are autosomal recessive.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 22.214.171.124.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Aminopeptidases: A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.SNARE Proteins: A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Nuclear Localization Signals: Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Karyopherins: A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Amoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.Pinocytosis: The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Qa-SNARE Proteins: A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins: Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Cytoplasmic Vesicles: Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Inorganic Pyrophosphatase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of diphosphate (DIPHOSPHATES) into inorganic phosphate. The hydrolysis of pyrophosphate is coupled to the transport of HYDROGEN IONS across a membrane.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Coxiella burnetii: A species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Proton Pumps: Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Each cell contains a dense cytoplasm and a prominent nucleus. Dense protoplasm of meristematic cells contains very few vacuoles ... The end walls, however, are full of small pores where cytoplasm extends from cell to cell. These porous connections are called ... Cells in these tissues are roughly spherical or polyhedral, to rectangular in shape, and have thin cell walls. New cells ... Meristemetic tissue cells have a large nucleus with small or no vacuoles, they have no inter cellular spaces. The meristematic ...
He also looked at the components of cytoplasm, including mitochondria and vacuoles. Among his over fifty scientific works ... His investigations into reproduction focused on studying the shape and structure of sperm cells. ... and a third on the Golgi apparatus in nerve cells (Paris, 1929). Between 1892 and 1939, he was a professor at the University of ...
Most often, the cytoplasm is gray, pale blue, or deep blue in colour. The distinctive cell associated with EBV or CMV is known ... The cytoplasm is often abundant and can be basophilic. Vacuoles and/or azurophilic granules are also sometimes present. ... Educational Commentary: Blood Cell Identification - American Society for Clinical Pathology article.. ... as a "Downey cell", after Hal Downey, who contributed to the characterization of it in 1923. Reactive lymphocytes are usually ...
The cytoplasm typically contains numerous food vacuoles that contain ingested debris, including bacteria. Waste materials are ... eliminated from the cell through digestive vacuoles by exocytosis. D. fragilis possesses some flagellate characteristics. In ... D. fragilis is not considered to be invasive nor cause cell or tissue damage. D. fragilis replicates by binary fission, moves ... Cell. 167 (2). Mack, David. "Dientamoeba Fragilis Infection". Emedicine Medscape. Retrieved December 9, 2016. Johnson EH, ...
It contains a large vacuole; its cytoplasm and nucleus is superseded to the apical region of the outgrowth. Although it does ... Root hair is the outgrowth of a single rhizodermal cell. They occur in high frequency in the adsorptive zone of the root. Root ... Specialized rhisodermal cells, trichoblasts, form long tubular structures (from 5 to 17 micrometers in diameter and from 80 ... Berger, Fred; Hung, Chen-Yi; Dolan, Liam; Schiefelbein, John (1998). "Control of cell division in the root epidermis of ...
Once delivered to the target cells, the DNA is released into the cytoplasm. The magnetic particles are accumulated in endosomes ... and/or vacuoles. Over time, the nanoparticles are degraded and the iron enters the normal iron metabolism. Influence of ... adherent mammalian cell lines and primary cell cultures show very high transfection rates. Suspension cells and cells from ... The magnetic field causes the iron particles to be rapidly drawn towards the surface of the cell membrane. Cellular uptake ...
Some host cells are oval-shaped and may be slightly enlarged. Schizonts: Immature forms have dense blue-staining cytoplasm and ... The vacuole may be diminished or lost. Aggregates of dark eosinophilic masses sometimes larger than the nuclei may be present. ... The deep blue cytoplasm has delicate, dark pigmentgranules scattered within it. The host cell, which may be slightly enlarged, ... Mature microgametocytes occupy the entire the host cell and have dark pink cytoplasm. The off center nucleus stains red and has ...
The macrogametocytes have lavender to purple cytoplasm. The pigment is made up of small dark brown granules within vacuoles. ... Pigment is in granules and there is no stippling of the host cell. The schizonts display irregularly shaped nuclei. The pigment ... The microgametocytes have red-staining nuclei and slate-gray cytoplasm. Their pigment is similar to that of the ...
In these cells the cytoplasm forms only a peripheral layer with a large central vacuole. The cell walls are composed of ... each daughter-cell develops the other semi-cell afresh) and sexually by conjugation, or the fusion of the entire cell-contents ... They reproduce asexually by the development of a septum between the two cell-halves or semi-cells (in unicellular forms, ... The large internodal cells are sometimes multinucleate, and their nuclei often possess large nucleoli and scanty chromatin. ...
During cell division, these nodules divide individually. At the front end of the cell is a mobile proboscis. The cytostome is ... Multiple contractile vacuoles lie in a row along the dorsal surface. Most Dileptus are colourless, but two nominal species ... carry symbiotic green algae in their cytoplasm. A species of Dileptus was described by C. G. Ehrenberg in 1833, under the name ... at the base of this organ and is well fortified with stiff microtubular rods (nematodesmata). The surface of the cell is ...
Numerous small vacuoles of relatively uniform size are created, giving the cytoplasm a foamy appearance. There are four types ... In 2011, fibroblast cells derived from patients with Niemann-Pick type C1 disease were shown to be resistant to Ebola virus ... Affected cells become enlarged, sometimes up to 90 μm in diameter, secondary to the distention of lysosomes with sphingomyelin ... This disease involves dysfunctional metabolism of sphingolipids, which are fats found in cell membranes, so it is a kind of ...
The digestive products were absorbed into the cytoplasm and diffused into other cells. This form of digestion is used nowadays ... The particles became enclosed in vacuoles into which enzymes were secreted and digestion took place intracellularly. ... In the first multicellular animals there was probably no mouth or gut and food particles were engulfed by the cells on the ... Apart from sponges and placozoans, almost all animals have an internal gut cavity which is lined with gastrodermal cells. In ...
Once in this stage, they can then leave the vacuole, and enter the cytoplasm. During the time that the amoeba is infected, it ... It is a mesophilic bacteria that can be grown on Vero cells. Similar to other Chlamydiales, it is commonly found in two ... This can be attributed to the increase in vacuoles in the cytoplasm that contain Parachlamydia acanthamoebae. Replication of ... and even then it was only found within vacuoles and not in the cytoplasm of the infected amoeba. The only stage that this ...
Unlike plant cells, animal cells have neither a cell wall nor chloroplasts. Vacuoles, when present, are more in number and much ... Each typically has a cell membrane formed of phospholipids, cytoplasm and a nucleus. All of the different cells of an animal ... The outer epithelial layer may include cells of several types including sensory cells, gland cells and stinging cells. There ... The cells of single-cell protozoans have the same basic structure as those of multicellular animals but some parts are ...
Kim J, Klionsky DJ (2000). "Autophagy, cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway, and pexophagy in yeast and mammalian cells". ... ATG8 is also required for a different autophagy-related process called the Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway. This ... International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology. International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology. 266: 207-247. doi: ... "Dissection of Autophagosome Formation Using Apg5-Deficient Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells". J Cell Biol. 152 (4): 657-68. doi: ...
Young schizonts almost fill the host cell except for small areas where Schüffner's dots may be found. Oval shaped forms may ... The generally oval nucleus is deep staining and may have an adjacent vacuole. The mature microgametocytes are found within an ... Pigment is scattered throughout the cytoplasm. The mature oocytes in the mosquito average 53 micrometres (µm) in size (range: ... The mature macrogametocytes which stain a grayish-blue fill the enlarged host cell. Also present is a coarse, granular pigment ...
Cells around the blisters resemble meristematic cells with denser cytoplasms and smaller vacuoles. Mycelial development is ... Epidermal cells of diseased tissue have highly irregular cell walls. The most dramatic changes were within the cell. The large ... Healthy epidermal cells contain a large central vacuole surrounded by a thin cytoplasmic layer with endoplasmic reticulum, ... Cells in the mesophyll layer remain mostly unchanged; there is a slight reduction [chloroplast] number in palisade cells. ...
Continuous actin polymerization is sufficient for motility in the cytoplasm and even for infection of adjacent cells. New data ... they get internalized into intestinal epithelium cells and rapidly try to escape their internalization vacuole. In the cytosol ... ActA localizes to the old pole of the bacterium and spans both the bacterial cell membrane and the cell wall, lateral diffusion ... All mutants except the actA mutants were similar to wild-type concerning association with F-actin and cell-cell spreading. ...
... as their cytoplasm forms along the periphery of the cell, while the nitrate-storing vacuoles occupy the center of the cell. As ... This implies that the cytoplasm has to be close to the cell wall, greatly limiting their size. But Thiomargarita are an ... Thus, the presence of a central vacuole in its cells enables a prolonged survival in sulfidic sediments. The non-motility of ... A bacterium of large size would imply a lower ratio of cell membrane surface area to cell volume. This would limit the rate of ...
"Isolation and characterization of yeast mutants in the cytoplasm to vacuole protein targeting pathway". The Journal of Cell ... "Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting and autophagy employ the same machinery to deliver proteins to the yeast vacuole". Proceedings ... Mol Biol Cell, 17 (2006), 5094-104 Reggiori F, Klionsky DJ (February 2002). "Autophagy in the eukaryotic cell". Eukaryotic Cell ... "Cannabisin B induces autophagic cell death by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR pathway and S phase cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells". ...
"Identification of a cytoplasm to vacuole targeting determinant in aminopeptidase I". J. Cell Biol. 132: 999-1010. doi:10.1083/ ...
The cytoplasm of the prey is then drawn into a large posterior food vacuole. Following feeding cells lose their flagella, ... The food vacuole appears as a large central vacuole in the cyst; as division progresses the remnant vacuole material is reduced ... Most species apparently penetrate through the cell membrane and consume the prey's cytoplasm - this mode of feeding is known as ... The daughter cells grow flagella, the cyst wall ruptures, and the cells swim away, leaving the residual body behind. A possible ...
The cell usually has a single granular nucleus, containing most of the organism's DNA . A contractile vacuole is used to ... This process regulates the amount of water present in the cytoplasm of the amoeba. Immediately after the contractile vacuole ( ... Since these vesicles fuse with the central contractile vacuole, which expels the water, ions end up being removed from the cell ... Cell. 100 (3): 179-88. doi:10.1042/BC20070091. PMID 18004980. Patterson, D.J. (1981). "Contractile vacuole complex behaviour as ...
The cytoplasm of actinophryids is often granular, similar to that of Amoeba. Play media Contractile vacuoles are common in ... These axopods adhere to passing prey and assist with cell movement, as well as playing a part in cell division and cell fusion ... Reproduction in actinophryids generally takes place via fission, where one parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells ... Most have a cell body 40-50 micrometer in diameter with axopods around 100 μm in length, though this varies significantly. ...
The cytoplasm is arranged approximately in layers conforming to the shape of the cell's walls. A large central vacuole is ... Each daughter receives one of the parent cell's thecae, which becomes that cell's epitheca. The cell then synthesizes a new ... The cytoplasm also contains chrysolaminarin and some volutin. Pinnularia like most diatoms, can reproduce by simple cell ... Their cell walls are composed chiefly of pectic substances on a rigid silica framework. Their walls are composed of two halves ...
The whole of replication occurs within the host cell cytoplasm and infection can even happen in cells that do not contain a ... before the viral proteins start to be synthesized and a vacuole appears in the cytoplasm close to the nucleus that gradually ... These acids form a pore in the cell membrane through which RNA is injected . Once inside the cell, the RNA un-coats and the ... MP and VPg interact to provide specificity for the transport of viral RNA from cell to cell. To fulfill energy requirements, MP ...
"The molecular machinery of autophagy: unanswered questions". Journal of Cell Science. ... The abbreviation Cvt comes from the emphasis Cytoplasm vacuole targeting, not from Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting. Lynch-Day MA ... Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) is an autophagy-related pathway in yeast. Under vegetative conditions it delivers ... hydrolases, such as aminopeptidase 1 (Ape1), to the vacuole. This makes the cvt pathway the only known biosynthetic pathway to ...
Isolation and characterization of yeast mutants in the cytoplasm to vacuole protein targeting pathway.. J Cell Biol 1 November ... Isolation and characterization of yeast mutants in the cytoplasm to vacuole protein targeting pathway. T M Harding T M Harding ... Transport of a Large Oligomeric Protein by the Cytoplasm to Vacuole Protein Targeting Pathway ... Two Distinct Pathways for Targeting Proteins from the Cytoplasm to the Vacuole/Lysosome ...
... by stringing amino acids together in the order specified by messenger RNA strands that were transcribed from DNA in the cell ... How do lysosomes and vacuoles work together?. * Q: What does cytoplasm do?. ... How does the nucleus control a cells activities?. A: A cells nucleus is able to control the other activities in a cell by ... A: The cell nucleus is the command center and thus controls the activities of the eukaryotic cell. A double-walled cell nuclear ...
The Journal of Cell Biology Nov 1995, 131 (3) 591-602; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.131.3.591 ... Isolation and characterization of yeast mutants in the cytoplasm to vacuole protein targeting pathway.. T M Harding, K A Morano ... Isolation and characterization of yeast mutants in the cytoplasm to vacuole protein targeting pathway. ... Upon delivery to the vacuole, the amino-terminal propeptide is removed by proteinase B (PrB) to yield the mature 50-kD ...
Site of Constituent Formation in Cell. Cytoplasm Site of Virion Assembly. Intracytoplasmic vacuoles Site of Virion Accumulation ...
Site of Constituent Formation in Cell. Cytoplasm Site of Virion Assembly. Cytoplasmic vacuoles Site of Virion Accumulation. ...
Each cell contains a dense cytoplasm and a prominent nucleus. Dense protoplasm of meristematic cells contains very few vacuoles ... The end walls, however, are full of small pores where cytoplasm extends from cell to cell. These porous connections are called ... Cells in these tissues are roughly spherical or polyhedral, to rectangular in shape, and have thin cell walls. New cells ... Meristemetic tissue cells have a large nucleus with small or no vacuoles, they have no inter cellular spaces. The meristematic ...
... a rare spindle cell tumor with good prognosis. ... Cell Shape. Nuclear Shape. Nuclear Grooves. Perinuclear Vacuole ... Cytoplasm. Atypia. Mitosis per 10 hpf. Necrosis. LVI. IHC Profile. 1. Subcapsular, well-circumscribed 1.2-cm golden yellow ... Myoid gonadal stromal tumor of the testis is an uncommon spindle cell tumor hypothesized to arise from peritubular myoid cells ... Nucleoli were inconspicuous, and the cytoplasm was scant, ill-defined, and pale/lightly eosinophilic. No sex cord component was ...
Cells and Organelles - By- Maddison Rhodes by Maddison Rhodes , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for ... The vacuole. The vacuole is like a container inside the cell, and stores water and nutrients. The vacuole helps with the plants ... The cytoplasm also helps make sure that the cell does not shrink, and retains its normal cell shape. Cytoplasm also holds many ... The cell wall The cell wall is only located in a plant cell, and protects the cell from injury. The cell wall also maintains ...
Vacuole. The vacuole is like our locker rooms. It stores the sports equipment. Cytoplasm. The cytoplasm is like the gymnasium ... The cell membrane is like the out of bounds line. Its the perimeter of the court.. The cell wall is like the building walls ... The cell is like a basketball team. A group of organized structures that perform specific functions. The nucleus is like the ... Cell Wall Mitochondria. The mitochondria is like the team dinner before a game because it provides you energy. ...
Cell wall. Cell membrane. Nucleus. Vacuoles. Cytoplasm. Mitochondria. 6 What is the fungal cell wall made up of? ... Cell wall (glucan) synthesis. Cell membrane (ergosterol) synthesis. DNA/RNA synthesis (pyrimidine analogues) ... Interact with ergosterol and form holes in cell membrane, affecting the integrity of its structure. ...
Different Parts of a Plant Cell.docx - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read ... central vacuole), which contributes to. about 30-80 percent of the cells volume.. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm is filled up by cytosol ... membrane surrounding a vacuole is called tonoplast. A mature plant cell has a. single vacuole at the near center of the cell ( ... While vacuole is. large and single in a plant cell, the animal cell houses smaller vacuoles in larger. numbers. Likewise, for ...
The NH2-terminal domain of mature ROP2 is exposed to the host cell cytoplasm. In the infected cell, members of the ROP2 family ... The parasitophorous vacuole membrane surrounding Plasmodium and Toxoplasma: an unusual compartment in infected cells. J. Cell ... gondii parasitophorous vacuole 20 h after infection of CHO cells, containing four parasites (P) within the vacuole. The major ... and is exposed to the host cell cytoplasm. J. Cell Biol. 127:947-961. ...
Small vacuoles of fat accumulate and become dispersed within cytoplasm. Mild fatty change may have no effect on cell function; ... Stromal cells are the cells that support the parenchymal cells in any organ. Fibroblasts, immune cells, pericytes, and ... Cell damage (also known as cell injury) is a variety of changes of stress that a cell suffers due to external as well internal ... When a cell is damaged the body will try to repair or replace the cell to continue normal functions. If a cell dies the body ...
The contractile vacuole inEuplotes: an example of the sol-gel reversibility of cytoplasm. Journ. Exp. Zool.37, 259-290.Google ... Kite, G. L., 1913 a. The relative permeability of the surface and interior portions of the cytoplasm of animal and plant cells ... Studies on the permeability of the internal cytoplasm of animal and plant cells. Amer. Journ. Physiol.37, 282-299.Google ... The structure of cells in tissues as revealed by microdissection. I. The physical relationships of the cells in epithelia. Amer ...
Moreover, Atg19p is ubiquitinated in vivo, and Atg19p-ubiquitin conjugates accumulate in cells lacking either Ubp3p or its ... The cytoplasm to vacuole (Cvt) trafficking pathway in S. cerevisiae is a constitutive biosynthetic pathway required for the ... Atg19p ubiquitination and the cytoplasm to vacuole trafficking pathway in yeast.. [Bonnie K Baxter, Hagai Abeliovich, Xin Zhang ... Deletion of UBP3 also leads to decreased targeting of Ape1p to the vacuole. Atg19p is ubiquitinated on two lysine residues, Lys ...
1. Nucleus 2. Nucleolus 3. Mitochondria 4. Cell membrane 5. ER 6. Ribosomes 7. Cytoplasm 8. Vacuoles 9. Goli Apparatus 10. ... chloroplasts and cell wall. What is the definition of Cell Theory?. 1. All living things are made of cells. 2. Cells are the ... What is the function of cytoplasm?. is a gel-like matrix where all the other cell organelles are suspended inside the cell. ... What are the two types of cells?. plant and animal. What does a plant cell have that an animal cell does not have?. ...
When the vacuole loses water the cytoplasm shrinks. When the vacuole gains water the ... The central vacuole in a plant cell is responsible for turgor pressure. ... The central vacuole in a plant cell is responsible for turgor pressure. When the vacuole loses water the cytoplasm "shrinks". ... The central vacuole in a plant cell is responsible for turgor pressure. When the vacuole loses water the cytoplasm "shrinks". ...
Analysis of mRNA Nuclear Export Kinetics in Mammalian Cells by Microinjection, Prediction of HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage (Tropism ... Video articles in JoVE about cytoplasm include Single-Molecule Imaging of Nuclear Transport, Determination of Plasma ... The part of a cell that contains the Cytosol and small structures excluding the Cell nucleus; Mitochondria; and large Vacuoles ... Analysis of mRNA Nuclear Export Kinetics in Mammalian Cells by Microinjection. Serge Gueroussov1, Stefan P. Tarnawsky1, ...
... cells). Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests. ... the nucleus, cytoplasm and the cell membrane. what are in plant cells?. vacuoles, the nucleus. cytoplasm, chloroplast, cell ... the control center of the cell. it contains DNA (genes). what is the cell wall?. strengthens the cell. this makes plant cells ... plant cells have large vacuoles full of water and plant cells have the cell wall which srtengthens it. ...
... is located both in the vacuole and the cytoplasm (Guy and Kende, 1984 a; Bouzayen et al., 1986). ACC can also be found as a ... Involvement of Vacuoles in Ethylene Metabolism in Plant Cells. In: Marin B. (eds) Plant Vacuoles. NATO ASI Series (Series A: ... Guy, M., and Kende, H., 1984 a, Conversion of 1-amino-cyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid to ethylene by isolated vacuoles of Pisum ... Satoh, S., and Esashi, Y., 1984, Identification and content of MACC in germinating cocklebur seeds, Plant Cell Physiol., 25: ...
Plant cells have these parts: Nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall, vacuole, chloroplast, cytoplasm, and mitochondria.. The ... 7.Vacuoles are conspicuous in plant cells than animal cells i.e. large central vacuole in plant cells. 8. Animal cells can be ... 7.Vacuoles are conspicuous in plant cells than animal cells i.e. large central vacuole in plant cells. 8. Animal cells can be ... 3.Plant cells have a cell wall unlike animal cells.. 4.Animal cells have a lot of lysosomes unlike plant cells.. 5.Animal cells ...
Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Golgi apparatus. Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network. Vacuole. Cytoplasm, ... Cell Line Products. * Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for RAB29 ... with both S.Typhi-containing vacuoles and dynamic tubules as well as those emerging from the vacuole toward the cell periphery ... Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for RAB29 Gene. ...
First Worldwide Survey of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation * How Long Do I Have? Tackling Oncologys Most Difficult ... The marrow is replaced primarily with small, immature lymphoblasts that show open chromatin, scant cytoplasm, and a high ... The effect of first-line imatinib interim therapy on the outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in adults with newly ... Novel cellular therapies for leukemia: CAR-modified T cells targeted to the CD19 antigen. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ ...
Most of these beads were found within vacuoles in the cytoplasm. However, preincubation of rML-LBP21-coated beads, but not BSA- ... Preparation of the cell-wall fraction of M. leprae has been described (13). M. leprae and cell wall fraction were provided by P ... Cell suspensions were centrifuged by using a single pulse of 500 × g to obtain the pellet containing cell-bound beads. Under ... Primary Schwann Cell Cultures.. Schwann cells were isolated from neonatal rat sciatic nerve and purified as described (19, 20 ...
ChloroplastsGolgiEndoplasmicChloroplastTonoplastContain vacuolesPresent in the cytoplasmOrganelleNucleiSmaller vacuolesLipidRibosomes in the cytoplasmAccumulation of autophagicCell'sCompartmentsBiolOrganismsChromatinProtein synthesisGenesPlantNucleus and cytoplasmWallWallsTurgorLarge vacuolesEosinophilicEpidermal cellsContractileExtracellularNutrientsAccumulateMitosisMetabolicNucleoplasmShrinkAnimal cellsAminopeptidasePigmentsSubstanceSurroundsTissue
- Aside from the nucleus, vacuole and mitochondria exists the chloroplasts. (ehow.com)
- The chloroplasts are the power houses of the plant cell, providing food for the plant. (ehow.com)
- The vacuole also serves as waste disposal and recycling center for worn-out organelles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, and in this function they are similar to lysosomes in animal cells. (encyclopedia.com)
- Chloroplasts trap energy of sunlight Chloroplasts are never found in animal cells. (wikieducator.org)
- All green parts of plants contain cells with chloroplasts that contain the green pigment chlorophyll. (wikieducator.org)
- Chloroplasts are only found in plant cells, and they only have 2 membranes, the inner and outer membrane. (mixbook.com)
- These cables are bound to the cortically fixed chloroplasts at the cell periphery ( 24 ) in a "barber pole" twist, generating flow speeds of 50-100 μm/s ( 25 ⇓ - 27 ). (pnas.org)
- The cells contain chloroplasts needed for photosynthesis. (purchon.com)
- They are a different shape from the palisade cells and do not contain chloroplasts. (purchon.com)
- Repeat to add on five to six green ovals, which represent the chloroplasts of the plant cell. (ehow.com)
- Not only does the Endoplasmic Reticulum produce the proteins, but they also package the proteins to go to the Golgi Apparatus, or go to other cells. (smore.com)
- The golgi apparatus then ships the vesicles off to different parts of the cell, or some even out of the cell. (smore.com)
- This large vacuole slowly develops as the cell matures by fusion of smaller vacuoles derived from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. (fsu.edu)
- At the end of a Golgi cavity, the secretory product is pinched off so that the vesicle containing the substance can move through the cytosol to the cell surface membrane. (s-cool.co.uk)
- 10: The golgi apparatus is a flat sac that packages and distributes proteins throughout the cell. (mixbook.com)
- Inside the golgi apparatus, the enzymes modify the proteins, then puts them in a sac and moves them around the cell. (mixbook.com)
- reproduced, with permission, from John Wiley & Sons) ( D ) Type 3 ("cytoplasmic, nonlysosomal") cell death: a motoneuron displaying markedly dilated rough ER, Golgi, and nuclear envelope, late vacuolization, and increased chromatin granularity. (nih.gov)
- This represents the golgi body of the plant cell. (ehow.com)
- The ribosomes can be found on the E.R. (Endoplasmic Reticulum) or floating around in the Cytoplasm. (smore.com)
- In general, the functions of the vacuole include: The general structure of the endoplasmic reticulum is a membranous network of cisternae (sac-like structures) held together by the cytoskeleton. (prezi.com)
- The functions of the endoplasmic reticulum vary greatly depending on its cell type, cell function, and cell needs. (prezi.com)
- 11: Ribosomes are found in the cytoplasm and rough endoplasmic reticulum. (mixbook.com)
- Tobacco leaf prepared as above showing details of the cell wall (CW) and chloroplast (Ch) and cell membranes. (emsdiasum.com)
- A general definition of a plant is any organism that contains chlorophyll (a green pigment contained in a specialized cell called a chloroplast) and can manufacture its own food. (encyclopedia.com)
- membrane surrounding a vacuole is called tonoplast. (scribd.com)
- The single large vacuole of the cell is surrounded by a membrane, called the tonoplast, and filled with a solution of water, dissolved ions , sugars, amino acids , and other materials. (encyclopedia.com)
- In most cases, the plant cytoplasm is confined to a thin layer positioned between the plasma membrane and the tonoplast, yielding a large ratio of membrane surface to cytoplasm. (fsu.edu)
- The vacuole membrane in plant cells is called the tonoplast. (wikieducator.org)
- Some vacuoles were collapsed, but the tonoplast appeared integral. (mdpi.com)
- Which is the most complex system (organelle, cell, organ system or tissue)? (studystack.com)
- It is commonly the most prominent organelle in the cell. (prezi.com)
- A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.Vacuoles are essentially enclosed compartments which are filled with water containing inorganic and organic molecules including enzymes in solution, though in certain cases they may contain solids which have been engulfed. (prezi.com)
- A vacuole is a characteristic type of organelle found in plant and fungi cells and many single-cell organisms. (encyclopedia.com)
- The prominent, round organelle in each cell is the nucleus, which contains a smaller, dark-staining nucleolus. (sciencephoto.com)
- Each cell organelle performs a specific function within the cell. (issuu.com)
- Contractile vacuole , regulatory organelle , usually spherical, found in freshwater protozoa and lower metazoans, such as sponges and hydras, that collects excess fluid from the protoplasm and periodically empties it into the surrounding medium. (britannica.com)
- A cell organelle that separates the cells from the outside environment around it. (mixbook.com)
- Compares and contrasts prokaryote cells and eukaryote cells before exploring organelle structures and functions! (youtube.com)
- All were unilateral, well circumscribed, adjacent to the rete testis, and composed exclusively of spindled cells with elongated nuclei and occasional nuclear grooves arranged in fascicles with admixed variably ectatic blood vessels. (medscape.com)
- A few cells showed smudged nuclei. (ispub.com)
- The level of cell apoptosis was determined with a Roche in situ cell-apoptosis-assay kit with nuclei stained in brown particles (Shanghai Runwell Technology Co., China). (hindawi.com)
- Meristematic cells are small isodiametric cells, the nuclei occupy most of the cell. (wikibooks.org)
- To identify mutants defective in lipid transport to the cuticle, we examined a collection of Arabidopsis thaliana eceriferum (or cer ) lines for changes in wax-secreting epidermal cells by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (sciencemag.org)
- It is where lipids and steroids are made so you would expect there to be a lot of SER in liver cells where lipid is metabolised. (s-cool.co.uk)
- Multiple cell compartments in gem1 adopted vegetative cell fate with regard to lipid body distribution. (plantphysiol.org)
- Immediately following, PMI lipid bodies are absent from the VC cytoplasm. (plantphysiol.org)
- However, before GC detachment, lipid bodies appear in the VC cytoplasm adjacent to the GC and subsequently accumulate to surround the free GC. (plantphysiol.org)
- Microscopically, hexagonally shaped cells with granular, eosinophilic cytoplasm containing lipid vacuoles are seen. (health.am)
- In the globular stage embryo, there is expression of a lipid transfer protein gene specifically in the protodermal cells. (iastate.edu)
- The cell wall also maintains the cell's shape. (smore.com)
- When the vacuole collects water, and presses up against the cell wall, The pressure helps the cell wall determine the cell's shape. (smore.com)
- Cell death occurs when the severity of the injury exceeds the cell's ability to repair itself. (wikipedia.org)
- Located in the cytoplasm, they are the sites of cellular respiration which ultimately generates fuel for the cell's activities. (prezi.com)
- Vacuoles are large membrane-bound compartments, which store water and compounds. (scribd.com)
- They are lytic compartments, function as reservoirs for ions and metabolites, including pigments, and are crucial to processes of detoxification and general cell homeostasis. (plantcell.org)
- Some prokaryotic cells contain important internal membrane-bound compartments, but eukaryotic cells have a specialized set of internal membrane compartments . (wikidoc.org)
- How was the development of specialized compartments in the eukaryotic cell advantageous and what problems needed to be overcome as a result? (brightkite.com)
- As a result of the complexity of these cells, transport of molecules is an intricate process requiring many compartments to complete the tasks (Cooper 2000). (brightkite.com)
- C ) Type 2 ("autophagic") cell death: a deafferented isthmo-optic neuron in developing chick brain after uptake of horseradish peroxidase to highlight (electron dense) endocytic and autophagic compartments. (nih.gov)
- A eukaryotic cell is composed of many different compartments (eg. (concordia.ca)
- These were replaced by ectopic internal walls, which divided the cytoplasm into twin or multiple cell compartments. (plantphysiol.org)
- Plants, animals, and fungi are eukaryotes (organisms made up of eukaryotic cells), and all their cells, in all their enormous complexity and variation, are fundamentally alike. (dummies.com)
- The organisms called bacteria (singular, bacterium) are made up of prokaryotic cells. (dummies.com)
- Unlike simple bacteria and other unicellular organisms, living organisms contain from many millions to billions of cells. (issuu.com)
- He extended Schleiden's theory by stating all living organisms are composed of cells. (mixbook.com)
- The cell is the structural and functional unit of all known living organisms . (wikidoc.org)
- Some organisms, such as most bacteria , are unicellular (consist of a single cell). (wikidoc.org)
- The cell theory , first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann , states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells. (wikidoc.org)
- Prokaryotic cells are usually independent, while eukaryotic cells are often found in multicellular organisms. (wikidoc.org)
- The focus of each function has allowed eukaryotic organisms to act with great efficiency and yield many products in a single cell. (brightkite.com)
- Both the alga and fungus produce oil, and when grown together the two organisms produced more oil than when the fungus or algal cells were grown alone. (elifesciences.org)
- Compare and contrast structure and function in living things to include cells and whole organisms. (explorelearning.com)
- The nucleus also stores all DNA and genes in a cell. (smore.com)
- La taxonom a del complejo de especies de cirripedios (Chthamalus) se ha confundido en la literatura desde hace casi 30 a os, por lo tanto analizamos datos de su filogeograf a para identificar modelos temporales relevantes que describan los or genes de la zona de transici n entre las provincias Mexicana y Paname a. (bireme.br)
- Estos contrastes de poblaciones a ambos lados de la zona de transici n incluyen a dos pares de especies estrechamente relacionadas, as como datos de flujo de genes dentro de una especie que actualmente es encontrada en ambos lados del l mite entre provincias. (bireme.br)
- Algunos taxa pueden mantener el flujo de genes a trav s de esta regi n, pero muy pocos estudios gen ticos han sido realizados en tales taxa. (bireme.br)
- The group of quiescent cells does not express these genes and the lower boundary of the non-expressing cells in at a prominent cell wall corresponding to the O line. (iastate.edu)
- What are plant cells mitochondria? (reference.com)
- It is the outer lining of the animal cell and the inner lining, next to the cell wall, in a plant cell. (smore.com)
- The cell wall is only located in a plant cell, and protects the cell from injury. (smore.com)
- If the vacuole is low on water, the plant droops. (smore.com)
- If the vacuole is full of water, the plant maintains it's normal shape. (smore.com)
- Plant cells are classified into three types, based on the structure and function, viz. (scribd.com)
- The parenchyma cells are living, thinwalled and undergo repeated cell division for growth of the plant. (scribd.com)
- Mature collenchyma cells are living, and provide stretchable support to the plant. (scribd.com)
- Now, let us see the different parts of a plant cell with their significant roles. (scribd.com)
- Plasmodesma (plural plasmodesmata) is a small opening, which connects plant cells with each other. (scribd.com)
- This part of the plant cell is the site for cell division, glycolysis and many other cellular activities. (scribd.com)
- Likewise, chromoplast and other plastids are present in a plant cell. (scribd.com)
- The relative permeability of the surface and interior portions of the cytoplasm of animal and plant cells. (springer.com)
- I. The physical properties of the protoplasm of certain animal and plant cells. (springer.com)
- 1915. Studies on the permeability of the internal cytoplasm of animal and plant cells. (springer.com)
- What does a plant cell have that an animal cell does not have? (studystack.com)
- What provides structure to the plant cell? (studystack.com)
- One structure helps the plant cell keep its shape no matter how much water is in the vacuole. (sa.com)
- what are the differences in plant cells and animal cells? (studystack.com)
- More recently, new technologies of vacuole isolation led to the demonstration that 1-amino-cyclopropanel-carboxylic acid (ACC), the immediate precursor of the plant hormone (Adams et al. (springer.com)
- Kind of like a filter cell Walls are only found in plant cells. (prezi.com)
- What makes up a plant cell? (brainscape.com)
- In the vegetative organs of the plant, they act in combination with the cell wall to generate turgor, the driving force for hydraulic stiffness and growth. (plantcell.org)
- In this way, vacuoles serve physical and metabolic functions that are essential to plant life. (plantcell.org)
- Technical progress has variously altered the operating definition of the plant vacuole over time. (plantcell.org)
- Plant cell vacuoles are widely diverse in form, size, content, and functional dynamics, and a single cell may contain more than one kind of vacuole. (plantcell.org)
- Plant cells are what plants are made up of and are the things that help plants grow and stay healthy. (ehow.co.uk)
- The plant cell is a complex structure containing many different parts. (ehow.co.uk)
- Teaching children about plant cells can be difficult due to the complexity of the topic. (ehow.co.uk)
- Using a model to illustrate the different parts of a plant cell, however, can help significantly because youngsters often learn better when they can see what they are being taught. (ehow.co.uk)
- This dough will represent the cell wall within the plant cell. (ehow.co.uk)
- This will represent the cytoplasm in the plant cell. (ehow.co.uk)
- Once each part of the plant cell is explained, remove the toothpicks and quiz the kids on what each part is. (ehow.co.uk)
- http://www.ehow.co.uk/how_8337328_make-plant-cell-model-kids.html. (ehow.co.uk)
- Plant cells are made up of similar components as animal cells, though undergo processes that are quite different than animals. (ehow.com)
- A plant cell is encased in a cell wall as well as a waxy cell membrane. (ehow.com)
- Within the cytoplasm of a plant cell, there exists several important pieces of cellular material. (ehow.com)
- What Makes Plant Cells Green? (ehow.com)
- In plants, nicotine and other toxins are stored in vacuoles, since these are as toxic to the plant as they are to the herbivores they are meant to repel. (encyclopedia.com)
- A single large vacuole occupies more than 80 percent of the volume of most plant cells, mature fugal hyphae, and some algal cells. (encyclopedia.com)
- Its synthesis requires extensive export of lipids from epidermal cells to the plant surface. (sciencemag.org)
- False-colour transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of cells in the root tip of a maize plant, Zea mays. (sciencephoto.com)
- In mature plant cells, vacuoles tend to be very large and are extremely important in providing structural support, as well as serving functions such as storage, waste disposal, protection, and growth. (fsu.edu)
- This helps maintain the structural integrity of the plant, along with the support from the cell wall, and enables the plant cell to grow much larger without having to synthesize new cytoplasm. (fsu.edu)
- The structural importance of the plant vacuole is related to its ability to control turgor pressure . (fsu.edu)
- The response of plant cells to water is a prime example of the significance of turgor pressure. (fsu.edu)
- When a plant receives adequate amounts of water, the central vacuoles of its cells swell as the liquid collects within them, creating a high level of turgor pressure, which helps maintain the structural integrity of the plant, along with the support from the cell wall. (fsu.edu)
- Plant vacuoles are also important for their role in molecular degradation and storage. (fsu.edu)
- Several of the materials commonly stored in plant vacuoles have been found to be useful for humans, such as opium, rubber, and garlic flavoring, and are frequently harvested. (fsu.edu)
- Vacuoles also often store the pigments that give certain flowers their colors, which aid them in the attraction of bees and other pollinators, but also can release molecules that are poisonous, odoriferous, or unpalatable to various insects and animals, thus discouraging them from consuming the plant. (fsu.edu)
- Plant cells are immobile, encased in a rigid cell wall. (wikibooks.org)
- Unlike animal cells, migration and programmed cell death play little role in the patterning of plant cell fates, nor can they move when their environment changes. (wikibooks.org)
- Despite their sessile lifestyle, plant development is highly plastic, due to the important role of information exchange between neighbouring plant cells. (wikibooks.org)
- Almost every plant cell containing nucleus has been shown to be able to re-enter the cell cycle and divide. (wikibooks.org)
- Meristem is a type of embryonic tissue in plants consisting of unspecialised, youthful cells called meristematic cells and found in areas of the plant where growth is or will take place - the roots and shoots. (wikibooks.org)
- Small structures in plant cells that contain chlorophyll and in which the process of photosynthesis takes place. (encyclopedia.com)
- Special plant tissues that contain actively growing and dividing cells. (encyclopedia.com)
- Plant tissue consisting of elongated cells that transport carbohydrates and other nutrients. (encyclopedia.com)
- All plant cells are surrounded by cell wall made of cellulose. (wikieducator.org)
- Most plant cells have a big vacuole filled with a fluid called the cell sap. (wikieducator.org)
- Small vacuoles in young plant cell untie to form a large vacuole, filling up to 80% of cell volume. (wikieducator.org)
- Whatever type of animal or plant they come from, all cells have a cell surface membrane surrounding the cell. (wikieducator.org)
- In plant cellist is difficult to see the membrane because it is right against the cell wall. (wikieducator.org)
- These are only found in plant cells. (s-cool.co.uk)
- Robert Hook was the first scientist to observe plant and animal cells using a simple light microscope over 300 years ago. (issuu.com)
- Answer each question below related to parts of plant and animal cells & their functions based on the clues given. (syvum.com)
- 4: Matthias Schleiden In 1838, he discovered plant parts were made up of cells using a microscope to view it. (mixbook.com)
- Examples would be animal and plant cells. (mixbook.com)
- The cell wall are found only in plant cells and other prokaryotic cells. (mixbook.com)
- They surround the cell membrane,and they give extra support and structure for the plant cell. (mixbook.com)
- The vacuoles are found in plant and animal cells, and what they do is they store water and other substances including ions, nutrients, and wastes. (mixbook.com)
- In 1837 before the final cell theory was developed, a Czech Jan Evangelista Purkyně observed small "granules" while looking at the plant tissue through a microscope. (wikidoc.org)
- The "powerhouse" or the "energy generators" of both plant and animal cells are the mitochondria. (brightkite.com)
- 1786 words - 8 pages plant cells. (brightkite.com)
- They have important jobs inside the cell they produce energy for the plant cell and they also produce enzymes and hormone. (brightkite.com)
- A cell wall gives a plant structure or its roots, stems, and leaves. (brightkite.com)
- This phenomenon is particularly prevalent in plant cells, often presenting strikingly regimented flow patterns. (pnas.org)
- Video includes the modern cell theory and plant vs. animal cell comparisons. (youtube.com)
- Teach kids about plant cells by making one. (ehow.com)
- When you are teaching small children about basic botany and plant anatomy, you can make the lesson more interesting and entertaining by using Play-Doh to construct a plant cell model. (ehow.com)
- Everything you need to make a Play-Doh plant cell can be found at any toy shop or craft store. (ehow.com)
- This represents the cell wall of the plant cell. (ehow.com)
- Spread out one container of yellow Play-Doh to fill the the center of the plant cell. (ehow.com)
- This is the cytoplasm of the plant cell. (ehow.com)
- Form half of a container of blue Play-Doh into a trapezoidal shape, and press it onto half of the plant cell. (ehow.com)
- Place the flattened ball onto the center of the plant cell. (ehow.com)
- Place the orange oval onto the cytoplasm, which represents the mitochondria of the plant cell. (ehow.com)
- Provide the children with enough materials for each child to construct a plant cell. (ehow.com)
- A protective tissue, consisting of parenchyma cells, that develops over a cut or damaged plant surface. (fao.org)
- During tissue culture, why are plant cells washed in antiseptic before placing them into the culture medium? (educationquizzes.com)
- Plant cells are amazing. (educationquizzes.com)
- The cell wall is like the building walls because it protects the playing area. (prezi.com)
- What is the fungal cell wall made up of? (brainscape.com)
- Cell wall is the outermost tough and rigid layer, which comprises cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and at other times, lignin. (scribd.com)
- The prime functions of cell wall are protection, giving structural support and helping in the filter mechanism. (scribd.com)
- This is the A) cell wall . (sa.com)
- The cell wall also gives protection to the cell membrane and the cell in general. (prezi.com)
- it protects the cell from being shapeless also the cell wall protects the cell from getting viruses. (prezi.com)
- By using human α2 laminins as a probe, a major 28-kDa protein in the M. leprae cell wall fraction that binds α2 laminins was identified. (pnas.org)
- Preparation of the cell-wall fraction of M. leprae has been described ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
- The wall defines the shape of the cell & expands as it grows. (sciencephoto.com)
- Under optimal conditions, the vacuoles are filled with water to the point that they exert a significant pressure against the cell wall. (fsu.edu)
- Cellulose form fibres, those make the cell wall very strong. (wikieducator.org)
- Fibres have big spaces that make it easy for large molecules to go through the cellulose cell wall. (wikieducator.org)
- Therefore the cell wall is fully permeable. (wikieducator.org)
- The cell wall is rigid and made of cellulose fibres running through a mixture of other polysaccharides (more complex sugars) such as pectins and hemicelluloses. (s-cool.co.uk)
- In young cells, the cellulose fibrils of the primary cell wall run parallel to each other. (s-cool.co.uk)
- In older cells, a secondary cell wall may be laid down where the fibres are all parallel to each other, but at a different angle to those of the primary cell wall. (s-cool.co.uk)
- The cell wall is fully permeable unless a substance called lignin is deposited in the cellulose layers. (s-cool.co.uk)
- Lignin makes the cell wall very strong and resistant to strain but it also makes it impermeable. (s-cool.co.uk)
- If all the gaps between the fibres are filled in, the wall becomes completely impermeable and the cell will die. (s-cool.co.uk)
- Extracellular fungi possessed a floccular material adherent to the outer surface of the cell wall. (asm.org)
- The cytoplasm will stop pushing outwards on the cell wall and the cell will become flaccid. (brightkite.com)
- A cell wall is made up of lignin and cellulose they are very tough and rough compounds. (brightkite.com)
- Cell wall - The cell wall is an added boundary to the cell. (brightkite.com)
- As expected, it remains connected with the cell walls of other cells. (scribd.com)
- For those cells of greater volume or that have significant diffusion barriers such as cuticles or thick cell walls, one can extend the time to 3 hours simply by putting a lid on the box. (emsdiasum.com)
- Another characteristic of plants is that their rigid cell walls are composed mainly of cellulose, a complex carbohydrate that is insoluble (cannot be dissolved) in water. (encyclopedia.com)
- Animal cells never have cell walls. (wikieducator.org)
- Amorphous material was also deposited in the cell walls, the middle lamella and the vacuoles. (mdpi.com)
- The cells of plants, fungi, almost all bacteria, and some protists have cell walls. (brightkite.com)
- You should be able to see thick lines around the outside of the cells, these are the cell walls. (purchon.com)
- Complete or partial internal walls were callosic with highly complex profiles, indicating failed guidance or deregulated cell plate growth. (plantphysiol.org)
- A) It is located in the walls between endodermal cells and cortex cells. (coursehero.com)
- The transverse walls of these 4 cells divides the embryo in half along what is known as the O line. (iastate.edu)
- When it affects many cells in an organ, it causes some pallor, increased turgor , and increase in weight of the organ. (wikipedia.org)
- The hydrostatic pressure that develops within each cell, known as turgor pressure , is required for cell expansion and growth. (encyclopedia.com)
- Turgor pressure dictates the rigidity of the cell and is associated with the difference between the osmotic pressure inside and outside of the cell. (fsu.edu)
- In the absence of enough water, however, central vacuoles shrink and turgor pressure is reduced, compromising the plant's rigidity so that wilting takes place. (fsu.edu)
- Nucleoli were inconspicuous, and the cytoplasm was scant, ill-defined, and pale/lightly eosinophilic. (medscape.com)
- Sections of the cell-block preparation revealed a loose myxomatous background and numerous atypical cells with marked pleomorphism, multinucleation and many intra- and extra- cytoplsmic eosinophilic HG that were periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive and diastase-resistant. (ispub.com)
- Muscle cells form the active contractile tissue of the body known as muscle tissue or muscular tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- Studies on the contractile vacuole of Amoeba verrucosa and Paramoecium caudatum . (springer.com)
- The contractile vacuole. (springer.com)
- vacuolis contractilibus numerosis per totam cellulae peripheriam sparsis, with contractile vacuoles numerous over the whole circumference of the cell dispersed (Stearn 1983). (mobot.org)
- vacuolae apicales contractiles duae, apical contractile vacuoles two. (mobot.org)
- In protozoans the maintenance of the osmotic gradient between the cell cytoplasm and the environment is achieved by the contractile vacuole. (britannica.com)
- A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. (wikipedia.org)
- They are made up of cells separated by non-living material, which is called an extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
- B) Extracellular virions (arrow) associated with ciliated cells of the upper airway. (cdc.gov)
- The vacuole is like a container inside the cell, and stores water and nutrients. (smore.com)
- By degrading some nonessential components cells get nutrients for vital biosynthetic reactions. (biologists.org)
- There are two special types of cells in this vascular system (the vessels that carry water and nutrients): xylem and phloem. (encyclopedia.com)
- Each cell is at least somewhat self-contained and self-maintaining: it can take in nutrients , convert these nutrients into energy, carry out specialized functions, and reproduce as necessary. (wikidoc.org)
- Under conditions of starvation, cells use this process to reallocate nutrients from less important to more essential processes required for survival. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In the initial phase, the cell senses signals released in response to lack of nutrients, hypoxia, or other forms of stress. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Small vacuoles of fat accumulate and become dispersed within cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
- Moreover, Atg19p is ubiquitinated in vivo, and Atg19p-ubiquitin conjugates accumulate in cells lacking either Ubp3p or its cofactor, Bre5p. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- While GX15-070 treatment promotes autophagic vacuole and autolysosome formation, p62/SQSTM1, a marker for autophagic degradation, levels accumulate. (aacrjournals.org)
- In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as ultraviolet light and other radiations can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as one million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
- The quantity of RER and SER in a cell can slowly interchange from one type to the other, depending on changing metabolic needs. (prezi.com)
- Cancer cells produce greater levels of ROS than normal cells do because of increased metabolic stresses. (biomedsearch.com)
- Many metabolic reactions take place in the cytoplasm. (wikieducator.org)
- Vacuoles are membranous sacs that store many different substances, depending on the organism and its metabolic state. (britannica.com)
- what are in animal cells? (studystack.com)
- Animal cells appear to be circular. (prezi.com)
- In regard to the latter function, vacuoles are acidic and contain hydrolytic enzymes analogous to the lysosomal enzymes of animal cells. (plantcell.org)
- Vacuoles in animal cells, however, tend to be much smaller, and are more commonly used to temporarily store materials or to transport substances. (fsu.edu)
- 12: Centrioles are only found in animal cells, and they are packed together to make a tube. (mixbook.com)
- For example, the origin of the cells comprising a particular tissue type may differ developmentally for different classifications of animals. (wikipedia.org)
- Cells comprising the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system are classified as nervous (or neural) tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- The organization is starting with a cell, then a Tissue, next the organ, then the organ system, and finally the organism. (smore.com)
- In Schwann cell basal lamina, the tissue-restricted laminin variant is laminin-2, which comprises α2, β1, and γ1 chains ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
- With this unique kit researchers are now able to achieve excellent freeze substitution results in as little as 90 minutes for cells of small volume such as bacteria and tissue culture cells. (emsdiasum.com)
- meristem is a special tissue that contains actively growing and dividing cells. (encyclopedia.com)
- In ovo administration of various tissue extracts (muscle, brain, and spinal cord) from the chick embryo or of the motoneuron conditioned medium fails to prevent Schwann cell apoptosis in NMDA-treated embryos. (jneurosci.org)
- 3. Actively dividing non-organized masses of undifferentiated and differentiated cells often developing from injury (wounding) or in tissue culture in the presence of growth regulators. (fao.org)
- A layer, usually regarded as one or two cells thick, of persistently meristematic tissue between the xylem and phloem tissues, and which gives rise to secondary tissues, thus resulting in an increase in diameter. (fao.org)
- cancer Uncontrolled growth of the cells of a tissue or an organ in a multicellular organism. (fao.org)
- All cells then divide periclinally to form the first histologically distinct tissue, the protoderm. (iastate.edu)