Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.Cyclin D: A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Cyclin D2: A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cyclin E: A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Cyclin D3: A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.cis-trans-Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the rearrangement of geometry about double bonds. EC 5.2.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.G2 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: CELL CYCLE regulatory signaling systems that are triggered by DNA DAMAGE or lack of nutrients during G2 PHASE. When triggered they restrain cells transitioning from G2 phase to M PHASE.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.G0 Phase: A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression of the CELL CYCLE through the G1 PHASE and allow transition to S PHASE when the cells are ready to undergo DNA REPLICATION. DNA DAMAGE, or the deficiencies in specific cellular components or nutrients may cause the cells to halt before progressing through G1 phase.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Cell regulatory signaling system that controls progression through S PHASE and stabilizes the replication forks during conditions that could affect the fidelity of DNA REPLICATION, such as DNA DAMAGE or depletion of nucleotide pools.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins: A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Hydroxyurea: An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Caulobacter crescentus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6: Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Mimosine: 3-Hydroxy-4-oxo-1(4H)-pyridinealanine. An antineoplastic alanine-substituted pyridine derivative isolated from Leucena glauca.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1: A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Cyclin A2: A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae: A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins: A group of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES which activate critical signaling cascades in double strand breaks, APOPTOSIS, and GENOTOXIC STRESS such as ionizing ultraviolet A light, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. These proteins play a role in a wide range of signaling mechanisms in cell cycle control.Checkpoint Kinase 2: Enzyme activated in response to DNA DAMAGE involved in cell cycle arrest. The gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 22 at position 12.1. In humans it is encoded by the CHEK2 gene.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Caulobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod- or vibroid-shaped or fusiform bacteria that commonly produce a stalk. They are found in fresh water and soil and divide by binary transverse fission.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins: A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.ThymidineNeoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Aphidicolin: An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57: A potent inhibitor of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES in G1 PHASE and S PHASE. In humans, aberrant expression of p57 is associated with various NEOPLASMS as well as with BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p107: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Cyclin G: A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Kinetin: A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2: An E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE that interacts with and inhibits TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53. Its ability to ubiquitinate p53 is regulated by TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.E2F2 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Mitotic Index: An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Geminin: Geminin inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex. It is absent during G1 phase of the CELL CYCLE and accumulates through S, G2,and M phases. It is degraded at the metaphase-anaphase transition by the ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX-CYCLOSOME.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.PhosphoproteinsEpithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cyclin A1: A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (1/19654)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (2/19654)

The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system [1] [2]. In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb [3] [4] [5], Prospero [5] [6] [7] and Miranda [8] [9] into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface [1]. Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized [10]. We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo.  (+info)

Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530. (3/19654)

Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases.  (+info)

B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through SP1-binding sites. (4/19654)

B-MYB is an ubiquitous protein required for mammalian cell growth. In this report we show that B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through a 120 bp segment proximal to the transcription start site. The B-MYB-responsive element does not contain myb-binding sites and gel-shift analysis shows that SP1, but not B-MYB, protein contained in SAOS2 cell extracts binds to the 120 bp B-myb promoter fragment. B-MYB-dependent transactivation is cooperatively increased in the presence of SP1, but not SP3 overexpression. When the SP1 elements of the B-myb promoter are transferred in front of a heterologous promoter, an increased response to B-MYB results. In contrast, c-MYB, the prototype member of the Myb family, is not able to activate the luciferase construct containing the SP1 elements. With the use of an SP1-GAL4 fusion protein, we have determined that the cooperative activation occurs through the domain A of SP1. These observations suggest that B-MYB functions as a coactivator of SP1, and that diverse combinations of myb and SP1 sites may dictate the responsiveness of myb-target genes to the various members of the myb family.  (+info)

Comparative molecular genetic profiles of anaplastic astrocytomas/glioblastomas multiforme and their subsequent recurrences. (5/19654)

Malignant glial tumors (anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas multiforme) arise mostly either from the progression of low grade precursor lesions or rapidly in a de novo fashion and contain distinct genetic alterations. There is, however, a third subset of malignant gliomas in which genetic lesions remain to be identified. Following surgical resection, all gliomas appear to have an inherent tendency to recur. Comparative molecular analysis of ten primary malignant gliomas (three anaplastic astrocytomas and seven glioblastomas multiforme) with their recurrences identified two distinct subgroups of recurrent tumors. In one group, primary tumors harbored genetic aberrations frequently associated with linear progression or de novo formation pathways of glial tumorigenesis and maintained their genetic profiles upon recurrence. In the other subset with no detectable known genetic mutations at first presentation, the recurrent tumors sustained specific abnormalities associated with pathways of linear progression or de novo formation. These included loss of genes on chromosomes 17 and 10, mutations in the p53 gene, homozygous deletion of the DMBTA1 and p16 and/ or p15 genes and amplification and/or overexpression of CDK4 and alpha form of the PDGF receptor. Recurrent tumors from both groups also displayed an abnormal expression profile of the metalloproteinase, gel A, and its inhibitor, TIMP-2, consistent with their highly invasive behavior. Delineation of the molecular differences between malignant glioblastomas and their subsequent recurrences may have important implications for the development of rational clinical approaches for this neoplasm that remains refractory to existing therapeutic modalities.  (+info)

Evidence for F-actin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved in assembly and stability of the medial actomyosin ring in fission yeast. (6/19654)

Cell division in a number of eukaryotes, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is achieved through a medially placed actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although several components of the actomyosin ring have been identified, the mechanisms regulating ring assembly are still not understood. Here, we show by biochemical and mutational studies that the S.pombe actomyosin ring component Cdc4p is a light chain associated with Myo2p, a myosin II heavy chain. Localization of Myo2p to the medial ring depended on Cdc4p function, whereas localization of Cdc4p at the division site was independent of Myo2p. Interestingly, the actin-binding and motor domains of Myo2p are not required for its accumulation at the division site although the motor activity of Myo2p is essential for assembly of a normal actomyosin ring. The initial assembly of Myo2p and Cdc4p at the division site requires a functional F-actin cytoskeleton. Once established, however, F-actin is not required for the maintenance of Cdc4p and Myo2p medial rings, suggesting that the attachment of Cdc4p and Myo2p to the division site involves proteins other than actin itself.  (+info)

The role of RBF in the introduction of G1 regulation during Drosophila embryogenesis. (7/19654)

The first appearance of G1 during Drosophila embryogenesis, at cell cycle 17, is accompanied by the down-regulation of E2F-dependent transcription. Mutant alleles of rbf were generated and analyzed to determine the role of RBF in this process. Embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic RBF products show constitutive expression of PCNA and RNR2, two E2F-regulated genes, indicating that RBF is required for their transcriptional repression. Despite the ubiquitous expression of E2F target genes, most epidermal cells enter G1 normally. Rather than pausing in G1 until the appropriate time for cell cycle progression, many of these cells enter an ectopic S-phase. These results indicate that the repression of E2F target genes by RBF is necessary for the maintenance but not the initiation of a G1 phase. The phenotype of RBF-deficient embryos suggests that rbf has a function that is complementary to the roles of dacapo and fizzy-related in the introduction of G1 during Drosophila embryogenesis.  (+info)

The amino-terminal C/H1 domain of CREB binding protein mediates zta transcriptional activation of latent Epstein-Barr virus. (8/19654)

Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is maintained as a nucleosome-covered episome that can be transcriptionally activated by overexpression of the viral immediate-early protein, Zta. We show here that reactivation of latent EBV by Zta can be significantly enhanced by coexpression of the cellular coactivators CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. A stable complex containing both Zta and CBP could be isolated from lytically stimulated, but not latently infected RAJI nuclear extracts. Zta-mediated viral reactivation and transcriptional activation were both significantly inhibited by coexpression of the E1A 12S protein but not by an N-terminal deletion mutation of E1A (E1ADelta2-36), which fails to bind CBP. Zta bound directly to two related cysteine- and histidine-rich domains of CBP, referred to as C/H1 and C/H3. These domains both interacted specifically with the transcriptional activation domain of Zta in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Interestingly, we found that the C/H3 domain was a potent dominant negative inhibitor of Zta transcriptional activation function. In contrast, an amino-terminal fragment containing the C/H1 domain was sufficient for coactivation of Zta transcription and viral reactivation function. Thus, CBP can stimulate the transcription of latent EBV in a histone acetyltransferase-independent manner mediated by the CBP amino-terminal C/H1-containing domain. We propose that CBP may regulate aspects of EBV latency and reactivation by integrating cellular signals mediated by competitive interactions between C/H1, C/H3, and the Zta activation domain.  (+info)

The p53 transcription factor regulates multiple biological functions, including growth arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis. This gene is continuously degraded in the cell under normal conditions. When external or cellular stress causes DNA damage, the genes ATM and ATR are activated and phosphorylate the cell cycle checkpoint proteins CHEK1 and CHEK2. During this process, p53 degradation is inhibited, and p53 protein accumulates in the nucleus. p53 is activated by posttranslational modifications such as acetylation or phosphorylation. Additional cofactors enhance or inhibit the activity of this important transcription factor. Genes targeted by p53 initiate multiple processes such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. A wide variety of cancers carry p53 mutations or other defects that dysregulate p53 and its cofactors, making this gene an important and highly-studied tumor suppressor. Analyzing the expression, regulation, and sequence of p53 signaling genes can help determine their relative ...
According to a new study, scientists have safely shut down breast cancer and a form of leukemia in mice by targeting abnormal proteins to which the cancers are addicted.
Human Crif1 is a protein with multiple functions, playing important roles in embryonic development, cellular stress, cell cycle regulation and mitochondrial membrane integrity. CRIF1 is coined to play a regulatory role in the Bone Marrow microenvironment-induced leukemia cell cycle arrest possibly through interacting with CDK2 and acting as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ...
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Component of the 9-1-1 cell-cycle checkpoint response complex that plays a major role in DNA repair. The 9-1-1 complex is recruited to DNA lesion upon damage by the RAD17-replication factor C (RFC) clamp loader complex. Acts then as a sliding clamp platform on DNA for several proteins involved in long-patch base excision repair (LP-BER). The 9-1-1 complex stimulates DNA polymerase beta (POLB) activity by increasing its affinity for the 3-OH end of the primer-template and stabilizes POLB to those sites where LP-BER proceeds; endonuclease FEN1 cleavage activity on substrates with double, nick, or gap flaps of distinct sequences and lengths; and DNA ligase I (LIG1) on long-patch base excision repair substrates. The 9-1-1 complex is necessary for the recruitment of RHNO1 to sites of double-stranded breaks (DSB) occurring during the S phase. Isoform 1 possesses 3-,5 double stranded DNA exonuclease activity ...
The cell cycle proteins are key regulators of cell cycle progression whose de-regulation is one of the causes of breast cancer. RNA interference (RNAi) is an endogenous mechanism to regulate gene expression and it could serve as the basis of regulating aberrant proteins including cell cycle proteins. Since the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a main barrier for implementation of RNAi therapy, we explored the potential of a non-viral delivery system, 2.0 kDa polyethylenimines substituted with linoleic acid and caprylic acid, for this purpose. Using a library of siRNAs against cell cycle proteins, we identified cell division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), a recombinase RAD51, and serine-threonine protein kinase CHEK1 as effective targets for breast cancer therapy, and demonstrated their therapeutic potential in breast cancer MDA-MB-435, MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells with respect to another well-studied cell cycle protein, kinesin spindle protein. We also explored the efficacy of dicer-substrate siRNA
The cell cycle includes 4 main phases: Gap 1 (G1), DNA replication (S), Gap 2 (G2), and mitosis (M). Tight regulation of the transition between these phases halts cell cycle progression if a phase is not properly completed. For example, the G2-M DNA damage checkpoint ensures the fidelity of DNA replication, and arrests the cell cycle to allow time for replication error correction and DNA damage repair. Cell cycle progression is regulated by the cyclic rise and fall of kinase expression, and their interaction with, and action on, their cyclin targets. Cell cycle dysregulation commonly occurs during oncogenesis, and tumor cells often do not arrest the cell cycle when normally required. Key genes that regulate cell cycle progression and checkpoints encode cullins, cyclins, and cyclin-dependent kinases and their inhibitors. Other cell cycle regulatory genes include apoptosis regulators and DNA damage sensors ...
In this study, we generated a mutant of SpCdc25 that is severely impaired in its ability to bind to the fission yeast 14-3-3 proteins (Rad 24 and Rad 25). When expressed in fission yeast, this mutant Cdc25 protein localized almost exclusively to the nucleus, in contrast to wild-type Cdc25, which localized to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Inhibition of Crm1-mediated nuclear export resulted in the nuclear accumulation of wild-type Cdc25, indicating that wild-type Cdc25 normally shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Overproduction of Rad 24 caused wild-type Cdc25 to localize exclusively to the cytoplasm, whereas nuclear localization of the 14-3-3 binding mutant was not altered upon Rad 24 overproduction. Finally, cells expressing the 14-3-3 binding mutant exhibited defective G2/M checkpoint responses. Taken together, these results suggest that 14-3-3 binding regulates the intracellular compartmentalization of Cdc25 and establish that 14-3-3 binding to Cdc25 is required for fission ...
After DNA damage, cell cycle checkpoints are activated. Checkpoint activation pauses the cell cycle and gives the cell time to repair the damage before continuing to divide. DNA damage checkpoints occur at the G1/S and G2/M boundaries. An intra-S checkpoint also exists. Checkpoint activation is controlled by two master kinases, ATM and ATR. ATM responds to DNA double-strand breaks and disruptions in chromatin structure, whereas ATR primarily responds to stalled replication forks. These kinases phosphorylate downstream targets in a signal transduction cascade, eventually leading to cell cycle arrest. A class of checkpoint mediator proteins including BRCA1, MDC1, and 53BP1 has also been identified. These proteins seem to be required for transmitting the checkpoint activation signal to downstream proteins. p53 is an important downstream target of ATM and ATR, as it is required for inducing apoptosis following DNA damage.[33] At the G1/S checkpoint, p53 functions by deactivating the CDK2/cyclin E ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs the PI3/PI4-kinase family, and is most closely related to ATM, a protein kinase encoded by the gene mutated in ataxia telangiectasia. This protein and ATM share similarity with Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad3, a cell cycle checkpoint gene required for cell cycle arrest and DNA damage repair in response to DNA damage. This kinase has been shown to phosphorylate checkpoint kinase CHK1, checkpoint proteins RAD17, and RAD9, as well as tumor suppressor protein BRCA1. Mutations of this gene are associated with Seckel syndrome. An alternatively spliced transcript variant of this gene has been reported, however, its full length nature is not known. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyA sites exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
HEADER TRANSFERASE 31-JAN-08 3C5L TITLE POLO-LIKE KINASE 1 POLO BOX DOMAIN IN COMPLEX WITH PPHSPT TITLE 2 PEPTIDE COMPND MOL_ID: 1; COMPND 2 MOLECULE: SERINE/THREONINE-PROTEIN KINASE PLK1; COMPND 3 CHAIN: A; COMPND 4 FRAGMENT: POLO BOX 1, POLO BOX 2, UNP RESIDUES 373-593; COMPND 5 SYNONYM: POLO-LIKE KINASE 1, PLK-1, SERINE/THREONINE- COMPND 6 PROTEIN KINASE 13, STPK13; COMPND 7 EC: 2.7.11.21; COMPND 8 ENGINEERED: YES; COMPND 9 MOL_ID: 2; COMPND 10 MOLECULE: PEPTIDE; COMPND 11 CHAIN: B; COMPND 12 ENGINEERED: YES SOURCE MOL_ID: 1; SOURCE 2 ORGANISM_SCIENTIFIC: HOMO SAPIENS; SOURCE 3 ORGANISM_COMMON: HUMAN; SOURCE 4 ORGANISM_TAXID: 9606; SOURCE 5 GENE: PLK1, PLK; SOURCE 6 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM: ESCHERICHIA COLI; SOURCE 7 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_TAXID: 562; SOURCE 8 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_STRAIN: ROSETTA 2; SOURCE 9 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_VECTOR_TYPE: PLASMID; SOURCE 10 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_PLASMID: PET28A; SOURCE 11 MOL_ID: 2; SOURCE 12 SYNTHETIC: YES KEYWDS PLK1, POLO-LIKE KINASE 1, POLO BOX DOMAIN, PHOSPHOPEPTIDE, ...
Cell proliferation is essential for many key processes that occur during development including organogenesis, tissue renewal and germline formation. (Bartkova et al., 1997; Clurman and Roberts, 1995; Pines, 1995; Sandhu and Slingerland, 2000). Therefore, the timing of cell division and differentiation must be precisely coordinated with signals that specify morphogenesis, patterning and growth in a temporal, positional and cell type-specific manner (reviewed by Vidwans and Su, 2001). This coordination is executed through regulating both positive and negative regulatory components of the basal cell cycle machinery.. The cell cycle machinery is well conserved among eukaryotes and complex mechanisms ensure that cell cycle progression occurs in a timely and precise sequence. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) drive progression through the different cell cycle phases (reviewed by Nigg, 2001). In yeasts, these catalytic subunits are regulated through their association with stage-specific cyclin regulatory ...
Mitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulatory enzymes, each consisting of a catalytic CDK subunit and an activating cyclin subunit. CDKs regulate the cells progression through the phases of the cell cycle by modulating the activity of key substrates. Downstream targets of CDKs include transcription factor E2F and its regulator Rb. Precise activation and inactivation of CDKs at specific points in the cell cycle are required for orderly cell division. Cyclin-CDK inhibitors (CKIs), such as p16Ink4a, p15Ink4b, p27Kip1, and p21Cip1, are involved in the negative regulation of CDK activities, thus providing a pathway through which the cell cycle is negatively regulated. Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA damage by activating signaling pathways that promote cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. In response to DNA ...
Many anticancer agents induce DNA strand breaks or cause the accumulation of DNA replication intermediates. The protein encoded by ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad 3-related (ATR) generates signals in response to these altered DNA structures and activates cellular survival responses. Accordingly, ATR has drawn increased attention as a potential target for novel therapeutic strategies designed to potentiate the effects of existing drugs. In this study, we use a unique panel of genetically modified human cancer cells to unambiguously test the roles of upstream and downstream components of the ATR pathway in the responses to common therapeutic agents. Upstream, the S-phase-specific cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2 was required for robust activation of ATR in response to diverse chemotherapeutic agents. While Cdk2-mediated ATR activation promoted cell survival after treatment with many drugs, signaling from ATR directly to the checkpoint kinase Chk1 was required for survival responses to only a ...
Early studies in lower Eukaryotes have defined a role for the members of the NimA related kinase (Nek) family of protein kinases in cell cycle control. Expansion of the Nek family throughout evolution has been accompanied by their broader involvement in checkpoint regulation and cilia biology. Moreover, mutations of Nek family members have been identified as drivers behind the development of ciliopathies and cancer. Recent advances in studying the physiological roles of Nek family members utilizing mouse genetics and RNAi-mediated knockdown are revealing intricate associations of Nek family members with fundamental biological processes. Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive account of our understanding of Nek kinase biology and their involvement in cell cycle, checkpoint control and cancer.
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica (FHC) is an international,English-language journal devoted to the developing fields of histochemistry,cytochemistry,cell biology,cell and tissue biology.It is source of the recent research in fields of and cell biology
BC: Thats what the cell cycle does!. FC: Cell Cycle. 1: What is the cell cycle? , The cell cycle is a process in which a cell grows and divides to create a copy of itself. Some orangisms reproduce through the cell cycle and in complex multicellular organisms, the cell cycle is used to allow the organism to grow and to reproduce worn out cells.. 2: Interphase , During interphase, a cell increase in mass, replicates its DNA, and prepares prophase.. 4: Prophase , It is when the loose DNA starts to gather to form chromatid, the DNA copies itself, the spindle fibers start to form, and the cell prepares itself for cell division.. 6: Metaphase , The duplicated chromosomes become aligned in the center of the cell, spindle fibers attach themselves to the centromere of the chromosomes.. 8: Anaphase , The stage of mitosis in which the duplicated sets of chromosomes separate and two indentical groups move to opposite poles of the cell.. 10: Telophase , A nuclear membrane re-forms around each new group of ...
BC: Thats what the cell cycle does!. FC: Cell Cycle. 1: What is the cell cycle? , The cell cycle is a process in which a cell grows and divides to create a copy of itself. Some orangisms reproduce through the cell cycle and in complex multicellular organisms, the cell cycle is used to allow the organism to grow and to reproduce worn out cells.. 2: Interphase , During interphase, a cell increase in mass, replicates its DNA, and prepares prophase.. 4: Prophase , It is when the loose DNA starts to gather to form chromatid, the DNA copies itself, the spindle fibers start to form, and the cell prepares itself for cell division.. 6: Metaphase , The duplicated chromosomes become aligned in the center of the cell, spindle fibers attach themselves to the centromere of the chromosomes.. 8: Anaphase , The stage of mitosis in which the duplicated sets of chromosomes separate and two indentical groups move to opposite poles of the cell.. 10: Telophase , A nuclear membrane re-forms around each new group of ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
The mitotic checkpoint protein Bub3 is involved with the essential spindle checkpoint pathway which operates during early embryogenesis. Bub3 is…
In response to genotoxic stress, the DNA damage response, which is governed primarily by the ATM-CHK2, ATR-CHK1, and p38-MK2 (also known as MAPKAPK2) checkpoint effector pathways, becomes activated in order to slow cell-cycle progression and allow time for DNA repair. The CHK1 and MK2 pathways converge on inhibition of cell division cycle 25 (CDC25)-mediated activation of cyclin-dependent kinases, prompting Dietlein and colleagues to hypothesize that simultaneous small-molecule inhibition of CHK1 and MK2 may synergistically silence the DNA damage checkpoint. To systematically characterize combinatorial drug-inhibitor relationships, 96 cancer cell lines were screened with various concentrations of the CHK1 inhibitor PF477736 and the MK2 inhibitor PF3644022, and PreCISE (predictor of chemical inhibitor synergistic effects) software was used to calculate synergism scores based on GI50 drug curves. Synergistic effects between PF477736 and PF3644022 were observed in 33 of 96 cell lines and were ...
海词词典,最权威的学习词典,专业出版cell cycle proteims是什么意思,cell cycle proteims的用法,cell cycle proteims翻译和读音等详细讲解。海词词典:学习变容易,记忆很深刻。
Equity mission statement The Australian Cell Cycle Meeting aims to promote the highest standard of research in the areas of cell cycle, DNA damage response and telomeres. To this end, the Australian Cell Cycle Meeting endeavours to foster a culture of inclusion and equity in all of its activities, including conference organisation, conference participation, and…
E2-2 alteration influences cell cycle exit of progenitors in vivo. (A)E2-2 overexpression increased cell cycle exit (EdU+Ki67-/EdU+) among the progenitor cell
CELL CYCLE CHECKPOINTS The cell cycle has regulatory points called checkpoint. A check point is one of several points in the eukaryotic cell cycle at which the progression of a cell to the next stage in the cell cycle can be halted until conditions are favourable (e.g. the DNA is repaired). These checkpoints occur near […]. ...
Cell cycle in somatic cells vs. ESCs. (a) Cell cycle regulation in somatic cells: mitogen signaling through MAPK path
numerous post-translational modifications lead to stabil- In contrast to the key role of p53 in maintenance of the isation of the p53 protein and activation of its DNA-induced G1 arrest, no specific roles for p53 or p21 sequence-specific DNA binding [9,30]. Only then can p53 have been implicated in the control of the intra-S-phase efficiently stimulate transcription of cell-cycle inhibitors checkpoint. This is perhaps not so surprising as the such as p21 (Figure 2). Furthermore, the p21 protein has to S-phase checkpoint, manifested by a decreased rate of accumulate to levels sufficiently high to inhibit the CDK- DNA synthesis after generation of DSBs, is by definition a containing complexes, before cell-cycle progression transient phenomenon [5]. The absence of the mainte- becomes efficiently blocked. Although p53 has recently nance component during S phase, contrary to the G1 and been described binding to 5′ untranslated region of CDK4 G2 checkpoints, might be beneficial for the cells by ...
Cell cycle analysis is commonly used in biomedical research studies and clinical diagnosis. It helps in distinguishing cells that are in different phases of cell cycle and used to determine the cellular response to biological stimulations and various drug
A ready-to-use reverse transfection format RNAi screening library targeting human cell cycle regulation genes. Just resuspend pre-dispensed siRNA, and add cells. Optimization plates are available.
The cell cycle constitutes a series of stages that allow a cell to double its cellular components and divide into two daughter cells. Cell cycle and division are crucial for development of a multicellular organism, as well as...
Cell cycle: Cell cycle, the ordered sequence of events that occur in a cell in preparation for cell division. The cell cycle is a four-stage process in which the cell increases in size (gap 1, or G1, stage), copies its DNA (synthesis, or S, stage), prepares to divide (gap 2, or G2, stage), and divides
Introduction to Cell Cycle: The cell cycle is the process by which a cell replicates its genetic material and synthesized the other elements of the cell
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The cell membrane The DNA Hello, today we will be learning about the cell cycle. The cell cycle is a process that cells go through in order to divide.
Drag the Labels Onto the Diagram to Identify the Stages Of the Cell Cycle. - Drag the Labels Onto the Diagram to Identify the Stages Of the Cell Cycle. , Ponents Of Blood Article
View mouse Spdye4b Chr5:143181017-143205075 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
A seemingly obscure gene in the female fruit fly that is only active in cells that will become eggs has led researchers at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research to the discovery of a atypical protein that lures, traps, and inactivates the powerful Polo kinase, widely considered the master regulator of cell division. Its human homolog, Polo-like kinase-1, is misregulated in many types of cancer.
The longest phase of the cell cycle is the Gap 1 phase, or G1 phase. During this phase, the cell gears up for cell division by amassing more organelles and getting larger....
At least four distinct polo-like kises exist in mammalian cells: PLK1, PLK2, PLK3, and PLK4/SAK . PLK1 apparently plays many roles during mitosis,…
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Cell Cycle DB103 DB009 DB010 DB011 DB012 DB104 DB105 DB013 DB106 DB014 DB015 DB114 DB018 DB016 DB017 DB051 DB095
Hi ladies Im in need of some advice!! Ive had 28 day cycles since I got my period when I was 15 (Im now 24) but my last 4 cycles have been 26 day cycles and now Im a week late, not pregnant 1) hubby was away this month and 2) dr did
In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, unnatural stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 during meiosis can trigger extra rounds of DNA replication. When programmed DNA double-strand breaks are generated but not repaired due to absence of DMC1, a pathway involving the checkpoint gene RAD17 prevents this DNA rereplication. Further genetic analysis has now revealed that prevention of DNA rereplication also requires MEC1, which encodes a protein kinase that serves as a central checkpoint regulator in several pathways including the meiotic recombination checkpoint response. Downstream of MEC1, MEK1 is required through its function to inhibit repair between sister chromatids. By contrast, meiotic recombination checkpoint effectors that regulate gene expression and cyclin-dependent kinase activity are not necessary. Phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is catalyzed by Mec1 and the related Tel1 protein kinase in response to DNA double-strand breaks and can help coordinate ...
Summary The ring-shaped cohesin complex brings together distant DNA domains to maintain, express, and segregate the genome. Establishing specific chromosomal linkages depends on cohesin recruitment to defined loci. One such locus is the budding yeast centromere, which is a paradigm for targeted cohesin loading. The kinetochore, a multiprotein complex that connects centromeres to microtubules, drives the recruitment of high levels of cohesin to link sister chromatids together. We have exploited this system to determine the mechanism of specific cohesin recruitment. We show that phosphorylation of the Ctf19 kinetochore protein by a conserved kinase, DDK, provides a binding site for the Scc2/4 cohesin loading complex, thereby directing cohesin loading to centromeres. A similar mechanism targets cohesin to chromosomes in vertebrates. These findings represent a complete molecular description of targeted cohesin loading, a phenomenon with wide-ranging importance in chromosome segregation and, in ...
The cellular response to DNA damage is critical for maintenance of genomic integrity and inhibition of tumorigenesis. Mutations or aberrant expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase EDD have been observed in a number of carcinomas and we recently reported that EDD modulates activity of the DNA damage checkpoint kinase, CHK2. Here, we demonstrate that EDD is necessary for G(1)/S and intra S phase DNA damage checkpoint activation and for the maintenance of G(2)/M arrest after double strand DNA breaks. Defective checkpoint activation in EDD-depleted cells led to radio-resistant DNA synthesis, premature entry into mitosis, accumulation of polyploid cells, and cell death via mitotic catastrophe. In addition to decreased CHK2 activation in EDD-depleted cells, the expression of several key cell cycle mediators including Cdc25A/C and E2F1 was altered, suggesting that these checkpoint defects may be both CHK2-dependent and -independent. These data support a role for EDD in the maintenance of genomic stability,
Looking for online definition of Cell cycle regulatory protein in the Medical Dictionary? Cell cycle regulatory protein explanation free. What is Cell cycle regulatory protein? Meaning of Cell cycle regulatory protein medical term. What does Cell cycle regulatory protein mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Undamaged DNA transmits and enhances DNA damage checkpoint signals in early embryos. AU - Peng, Aimin. AU - Lewellyn, Andrea L.. AU - Maller, James L.. PY - 2007/10/1. Y1 - 2007/10/1. N2 - In Xenopus laevis embryos, the midblastula transition (MBT) at the 12th cell division marks initiation of critical developmental events, including zygotic transcription and the abrupt inclusion of gap phases into the cell cycle. Interestingly, although an ionizing radiation-induced checkpoint response is absent in pre-MBT embryos, introduction of a threshold amount of undamaged plasmid or sperm DNA allows a DNA damage checkpoint response to be activated. We show here that undamaged threshold DNA directly participates in checkpoint signaling, as judged by several dynamic changes, including H2AX phosphorylation, ATM phosphorylation and loading onto chromatin, and Chk1, Chk2 phosphorylation and release from nuclear DNA. These responses on physically separate threshold DNA require γ-H2AX and are ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Myocardial regeneration via cell cycle activation. AU - LaFontant, Pascal J.. AU - Field, Loren J.. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - Introduction During development, increases in heart size results as a consequence of the differentiation and proliferation of cardiomyocytes, neurons, interstitial cells, and components of the vasculature. At birth, cardiomyocytes undergo a gradual transition from hyperplastic to hypertrophic growth, such that subsequent increases in myocardial mass result largely from increased myocyte size rather than increased number. In contrast, the other cell types present in the heart retain the ability to proliferate. Consequently, in adults, although cardiomyocytes constitute approximately 90% of the mass of the heart, they constitute less than 20% of the total number of cells present.. AB - Introduction During development, increases in heart size results as a consequence of the differentiation and proliferation of cardiomyocytes, neurons, interstitial ...
One function of cell cycle checkpoints is to integrate cell cycle progression with DNA replication and repair. Therefore, the integrity of these checkpoints is considered essential in maintaining genetic stability. Mutations in checkpoint components may lead to aberrant cell cycle progression and, in the presence of DNA damage, may lead to subsequent genetic instability. DNA damage triggers a variety of cellular responses, including activation of DNA damage response pathways. In fission yeast, genetic evidence pointed to a model in which five checkpoint Rad proteins, Rad1, Rad9, Rad17, Rad26, and Hus1, sense DNA alterations and then cooperate to send a signal through Rad3 (1) . Rad3 can also function in the absence of several of these Rad genes, suggesting that Rad3 may interact with other proteins involved in the DNA damage response (4) .. In S. pombe the cell cycle checkpoint gene Rad1 is required to ensure that mitosis does not occur in the presence of DNA damage (8 , 9) . X-Spy1 was ...
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Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family. This protein is an important cell cycle checkpoint kinase that phosphorylates; thus, it functions as a regulator of a wide variety of downstream proteins, including tumor suppressor proteins p53 and BRCA1, checkpoint kinase CHK2, checkpoint proteins RAD17 and RAD9, and DNA repair protein NBS1. This protein and the closely related kinase ATR are thought to be master controllers of cell cycle checkpoint signaling pathways that are required for cell response to DNA damage and for genome stability. Mutations in this gene are associated with ataxia telangiectasia, an autosomal recessive disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010 ...
Time-course microarray experiments have been widely used to identify cell cycle regulated genes. However, the method is not effective for lowly expressed genes and is sensitive to experimental conditions. To complement microarray experiments, we propose a computational method to predict cell cycle regulated genes based on their genomic features - transcription factor binding and motif profiles. Through integrating gene-expression data with ChIP-chip binding and putative binding sites of transcription factors, our method shows high accuracy in discriminating yeast cell cycle regulated genes from non-cell cycle regulated ones. We predict 211 novel cell cycle regulated genes. Our model rediscovers the main cell cycle transcription factors and provides new insights into the regulatory mechanisms. The model also reveals a regulatory circuit mediated by a number of key cell cycle regulators. Our model suggests that the periodical pattern of cell cycle genes is largely coded in their promoter regions, which
One function of cell cycle checkpoints is to integrate cell cycle progression with DNA replication and repair. Therefore, the integrity of these checkpoints is considered essential in maintaining genetic stability. Mutations in checkpoint components may lead to aberrant cell cycle progression and, in the presence of DNA damage, may lead to subsequent genetic instability. DNA damage triggers a variety of cellular responses, including activation of DNA damage response pathways. In fission yeast, genetic evidence pointed to a model in which five checkpoint Rad proteins, Rad1, Rad9, Rad17, Rad26, and Hus1, sense DNA alterations and then cooperate to send a signal through Rad3 (1) . Rad3 can also function in the absence of several of these Rad genes, suggesting that Rad3 may interact with other proteins involved in the DNA damage response (4) .. In S. pombe the cell cycle checkpoint gene Rad1 is required to ensure that mitosis does not occur in the presence of DNA damage (8 , 9) . X-Spy1 was ...
MCC is a potential tumor suppressor gene, which is silenced by promoter hypermethylation in a subset of colorectal cancers. However, its functions have remained poorly understood. In the present study, we describe a novel function of MCC in the DNA damage response. Several novel phosphorylation sites were identified by mass spectrometry, including 2 highly conserved ATM/ATR consensus sites at serine 118 and serine 120. In addition, exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV), but not phleomycin, caused PI3K-dependent phosphorylation of MCC and its nuclear localization. Re-expression of MCC in HCT15 colorectal cancer cells led to a G2/M arrest, and MCC knockdown impaired the induction of a G2/M arrest following UV radiation. Finally, mutation of S118/120 to alanine did not affect MCC nuclear shuttling following UV but did impair MCC G2/M checkpoint activity. Thus, these results suggest that MCC is a novel target of the DNA damage checkpoint and that MCC is required for the complete cell cycle arrest in the G2
Meiotic cells possess surveillance mechanisms or checkpoints that monitor critical meiotic events, such as recombination and chromosome synapsis. Defects in these processes, such as those resulting from the absence of the S. cerevisiae Zip1 protein, activate a meiosis-specific checkpoint network resulting in a delay or arrest of meiotic progression. We are studying this meiotic checkpoint at different levels. Pch2 is an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ ATPase initially discovered as a checkpoint protein required for the zip1-induced meiotic arrest in budding yeast. Pch2 impacts multiple aspects of meiotic chromosome metabolism, including negative regulation of Hop1 chromosomal abundance. It has been suggested that Pch2 promotes the turnover of the Hop1 protein; thus, the pch2 single mutant exhibits more continuous Hop1 localization along synapsed chromosomes. Interestingly, in the zip1 mutant, when the checkpoint is induced, Pch2 is only detectable at the rDNA region (nucleolus). A special ...
transducin/WD-40 repeat-containing protein; Has a dual function in spindle-assembly checkpoint signaling and in promoting the establishment of correct kinetochore-microtubule (K-MT) attachments. Promotes the formation of stable end-on bipolar attachments. Necessary for kinetochore localization of BUB1. The BUB1/BUB3 complex plays a role in the inhibition of anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) when spindle-assembly checkpoint is activated and inhibits the ubiquitin ligase activity of APC/C by phosphorylating its activator CDC20 (By similarity) (314 aa ...
DNA replication is a period of extreme vulnerability for the genome of eukaryotic cells. During this complex process replication forks frequently encounter obstacles that impede their progression. Stalled forks are unstable structures that have to be stabilized and restarted in order to achieve faithful duplication of the genome. To cope with stalled replication forks and other forms of DNA damage, cells have evolved surveillance mechanisms, termed DNA damage and replication checkpoints, that scrutinize DNA damage and replication stress and orchestrate the appropriate cellular responses (Harper and Elledge, 2007; Paulsen and Cimprich, 2007). These signaling cascades are initiated by loading and activation of the PI3 kinase-related kinase ataxia telengectasia and Rad3 related (ATR) at sites of damage (Cimprich and Cortez, 2008). Once recruited to the stalled replication fork, ATR phosphorylates and thereby activates Chk1, which in turn blocks cell cycle progression, prevents origin firing, ...
Objective To study the effect of the knock-down of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) on the cell cycle of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) Bel7402/5-Fu hepatocellular carcinoma cells and its MDR mechanism. Methods After cationic liposome-mediated siDNA-PKcs oligonucleotide transfection, the drug sensitivity of Bel7402/5-Fu cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) and adriamycin (ADM) was determined by MTT assay; the cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry; meanwhile, the protein expressions of cell cycle-related proteins P21, cell cycle protein B1 (cyclin B1), cell cycle division protein 2 (CDC2) were tested by Western blotting; the expressions of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and p53 at both mRNA and protein levels were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis ...
Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) plays several roles in mitosis, and it has been suggested to have a role in tumorigenesis. We have previously reported that Plk1 depletion results in cell death in cancer cells, whereas normal cells survive similar depletion. However, Plk1 depletion together with p53 depletion induces cell death in normal cells as well. This communication presents evidence on the sequence of events that leads to cell death in cancer cells. DNA damage is detected at the first S phase following Plk1 depletion and is more severe in Plk1-depleted p53-null cancer cells. As a consequence of Plk1 depletion using lentivirus-based small interfering RNA techniques, prereplicative complex (pre-RC) formation is disrupted at the \(G_1/S\) transition, and DNA synthesis is reduced during S phase of the first cycle after depletion. The levels of geminin, an inhibitor of DNA pre-RC, and Emi1, an inhibitor of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, are elevated in Plk1-depleted cells. The rate of cell ...
What is Cell Cycle Gene? Definition of Cell Cycle Gene. Cell Cycle Gene FAQ. Learn more about Cell Cycle Gene. Cell Cycle Gene facts.
Cellular systems biology aims to uncover design principles that describe the properties of biological networks through interaction of their components in space and time. The cell cycle is a complex system regulated by molecules that are integrated into functional modules to ensure genome integrity and faithful cell division. In budding yeast, cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk1/Clb) drive cell cycle progression, being activated and inactivated in a precise temporal sequence. In this module, which we refer to as the Clb module, different Cdk1/Clb complexes are regulated to generate waves of Clb activity, a functional property of cell cycle control. The inhibitor Sic1 plays a critical role in the Clb module by binding to and blocking Cdk1/Clb activity, ultimately setting the timing of DNA replication and mitosis. Fifteen years of research subsequent to the identification of Sic1 have lead to the development of an integrative approach that addresses its role in regulating the Clb module. Sic1 is an ...
The cell cycle is under strict regulation. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) at the G1-S and G2-M checkpoints are positively regulated by cyclins and negatively regulated b..
Translational control enables faster transitions and fine-tuning of archetypal and specialized cell cycles [20]. Accumulation of translationally controlled cell cycle regulators is rapid, because time-consuming transcription and mRNA processing have already occurred. For many key cell cycle regulators, translational control represents an additional mechanism to precisely adjust their abundance, working in concert with transcriptional regulation, control of mRNA stability and ubiquitin-mediated degradation [6-8]. It remains to be discovered how all these different steps of gene-expression control are integrated to produce optimal levels of cell cycle players.. Although some progress has been made in understanding 5′ UTR-mediated translational control during archetypal cell cycle progression, the contribution of the 3′ UTR and 3′ UTR-binding proteins is largely unexplored. RNA-affinity chromatography could lead to identification of additional RNA-binding proteins interacting with 5′ UTRs ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
To cope with DNA damage, proliferating cells have evolved sophisticated mechanisms including cell cycle arrest and activation of DNA repair. Paradoxically, various DNA damage response pathways are promoted by cyclin‐dependent kinase (CDK) activity, while cell cycle remains arrested. New work in The EMBO Journal shows that plant cells have evolved intricate ways to resolve this dilemma, by utilizing distinct and specialized CDKs for cell cycle progression and homologous recombination.. See also: AK Weimer et al (October 2016) ...
Cell division cycle 5-like protein contains a PF00249 domain.. Cell division cycle 5-like protein contains a PF00249 domain.. Cell division cycle 5-like protein is proteolytically cut by caspase () cleavage. HESD-FSGV.. Cell division cycle 5-like protein is proteolytically cut by granzyme B, human-type (S01.010) cleavage. IDMD-EDEL.. ...
Chromosomes undergo dramatic morphological changes as cells advance through the cell cycle. Using powerful molecular and computational methods, several recent studies revealed an outstanding complexity of continuous structural changes accompanying cell cycle progression. In agreement with cell division being a fundamental cellular process, characteristic features of cell cycle stage‐specific genome structure are conserved from yeast to mouse. These studies further shine light on the critical roles that SMC complexes, already well known as fundamental regulators of chromosome topology, have in orchestrating structural dynamics throughout the cell cycle.. See also: L Lazar-Stefanita et al (September 2017) Y Kakui et al (2017),. SA Schalbetter et al (September 2017),. T Nagano et al (July 2017) ...
Mammalian cells are capable of de novo centriole formation after the removal of existing centrioles. This suggests that de novo centriole assembly is repressed in normally duplicating cells to maintain a constant number of centrioles in the cells. However, neither the mechanism of de novo centriole assembly nor that of its hypothesized repression is understood due to the lack of an experimental system. We found that the heat shock (HS; 42°C, 2 h) of mouse embryonic fibroblasts caused the separation of centriole pairs, a transient increase in polo-like kinase (Plk) 4 expression, and the formation of a complex containing γ-tubulin, pericentrin, HS protein (Hsp) 90, and Plk4, in approximately half of the cells ...
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The nucleus of normal human cells contains our genetic blueprint which is organized into 23 pairs of chromosomes, or a total of 46 chromosomes that each contain between one and two thousand genes. Every time a cell divides, each chromosome is carefully replicated and then distributed such that each of the new cells gets a complete and accurate set of chromosomes. Chromosome instability, or a defect in the movement or distribution of chromosomes during cell division, is a major cause of congenital birth defects and major factor in the development of cancer.. Research in my laboratory focuses on the basic mechanisms of how chromosomes assemble and move during cell division, in both normal cells and cancer cells. We are specifically interested in a system in cells that makes sure that the copies of the 46 chromosomes are distributed equally to each of the dividing cells. This checkpoint system works at a specific phase in cell division when the duplicated chromosomes have moved to the middle of the ...
Precise regulation of cell cycle events by the Cdk-control network is essential for cell proliferation and the perpetuation of life. The unidirectionality of cell cycle progression is governed by several critical irreversible transitions: the G1-to-S transition, the G2-to-M transition, and the M-to-G1 transition. Recent experimental and theoretical evidence has pulled into question the consensus view that irreversible protein degradation causes the irreversibility of those transitions. A new view has started to emerge, which explains the irreversibility of cell cycle transitions as a consequence of systems-level feedback rather than of proteolysis. This thesis applies mathematical modelling approaches to test this proposal for the Mto- G1 transition, which consists of two consecutive irreversible substeps: the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, and mitotic exit. The main objectives of the present work were: (i) to develop deterministic models to identify the essential molecular feedback loops and ...
Circadian oscillation and cell cycle progression are the two most essential rhythmic events present in almost all organisms. Circadian rhythms keep track of time and provide temporal regulation with a period of about 24 h. The cell cycle is optimiz
Great news, we have finally launched a website devoted to the Australian Cell Cycle community ! This site will serve as a hub for all the amazing cell cycle research that is performed in Australia. In addition, we will also be rebooting the Australian Cell Cycle Workshop (ACCW), with a tentative date of early April…
epigenetic regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle in, frontiers the dna damage response in mammalian oocytes, cell cycle checkpoint, biobook leaf what happens at each of the cell cycle, 301 moved permanently
DNA holds the essence of life, and interpreting it can give us clues about cell dynamics. Using retrospective analysis of cell processes, such as protein production and degradation, we try to answer some basic questions, taking advantage of cells being the fundamental units of life. Disruption of these complex processes results in abnormality, dysfunction, and eventually cell death. Cul3 is an essential enzyme that regulates the levels of proteins that in turn regulate transitions between different cell cycle stages. Cell cycle is a description of progressive order of events that lead to cell division. When the Cul3 gene is knocked out in cells of living organisms, some cells undergo apoptosis, or programmed cell death. This research focuses on the role of Cul3 in regulation of cell cycle transitions with a particular interest in how cells that lose Cul3 enter into the apoptotic pathway. The experimental system utilizes a special allele of Cul3 that was constructed in the lab and contains flanking DNA
View Notes - bild lecture week 5.2 from BIOLOGY bild 1 at UCSD. Review: Monday. Skip chapter 11. Review: PSII PSI NADPH Mitosis and Cell Cycle 1.) Cell Cycle a. Alternates between interphase and
Now, what factors affect checkpoint_age? When we execute queries that change pages (i.e., INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE), we perform writes to the log, we change pages, and checkpoint_age is growing. When we perform flushing of changed pages, checkpoint_age is going down.. So that means the main way we have to keep checkpoint_age within point T is to change the number of pages being flushed per second. That way, we can keep checkpoint_age down.. If this doesnt help-and checkpoint_age keeps growing beyone T toward "async"-we have a second control mechanism: We can add a delay into INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE operations. This way we prevent checkpoint_age from growing and reaching "async".. To summarize, the idea of our algorithm is : We keep checkpoint_age within point T by increasing or decreasing the number of pages flushed per second. If checkpoint_age continues to grow, we add "throttling" to prevent it. The throttling depends on the position of checkpoint_age - the closer to "async", the bigger the ...
Required for DNA replication, normal cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. Forms a cytoplasmic complex with HSP90 and H1 linker histones and stimulates HSP90 ATPase activity. NASP and H1 histone are subsequently released from the complex and translocate to the nucleus where the histone is released for binding to DNA, By similarity. {ECO:0000250 ...
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Abstract Leukemia cells rely on two nucleotide biosynthetic pathways, de novo and salvage, to produce dNTPs for DNA replication. Here, using metabolomic, proteomic, and phosphoproteomic approaches, we show that inhibition of the replication stress sensing kinase ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) reduces the output of both de novo and salvage pathways by regulating the […]. ...
Get all questions and answers of Cell Cycle And Cell Division of NEET1 Structures And Functions on TopperLearning. TopperLearnings Experts and Students has answered all of Cell Cycle And Cell Division of NEET1 Structures And Functions questions in detail.
2 of 4 of my cell cycle unit. Image Credits: Biology (Campbell) 9th edition, copyright Pearson 2011, & The Internet. Provided under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. By David Knuffke.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
View Notes - Week 3 Checkpoint Fiber Research from SCI/241 AAGH0JAD35 at University of Phoenix. Week 3 Checkpoint: Fiber Research What is the function of fiber in the body? Fiber assists the body in
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Study cell division with a complete set of reagents for detecting checkpoint regulators, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation.
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Get an answer for During which phase of the cell cycle does the organelle replication take place? and find homework help for other Biology questions at eNotes
BioAssay record AID 489607 submitted by ChEMBL: Cell cycle arrest in human CEM cells assessed as accumulation at sub G1 phase after 72 hrs by FACS.
The cell cycle is a five-stage process that begins with the prophase stage and ends with the cytokinesis stage. In between the beginning and end stages, the dividing cell passes through the stages of...
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Hello.. It appears Im stuck on another question. Ive figured out 3/4 of it, but I cant seem to find ANYWHERE in my textbook, anything about the stages of the cell cycle and cancer. If you can help me, that would be great ...
Free practice questions for GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology - Help with the Cell Cycle. Includes full solutions and score reporting.
Find right answers right now! Which of the following is a correct statement about the events of the cell cycle? More questions about Science & Mathematics, which
Why do we need to learn about mitosis? To fully understand cancer, we must first learn about mitosis. Mitosis is when cells replicate their DNA and divide. Cancer occurs when this process goes terribly wrong. To introduce mitosis, we watched this video and connected mitosis to the "real world ...
The cell is the structural and functional unit of all organisms. The growth and development of an organism depend on the growth and development of the cell. The as an entity shows its own life cycle on par with the life cycle of the organism to which it belongs ...
Looking for online definition of Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog in the Medical Dictionary? Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog explanation free. What is Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog? Meaning of Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog medical term. What does Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog mean?
Chromosome segregation, transcriptional regulation, and repair of DNA double-strand breaks require the cohesin protein complex. Cohesin holds the replicated chromosomes (sister chromatids) together to mediate sister chromatid cohesion. The mechanism of how cohesion is established is unknown. We found that in budding yeast, the head domain of the Smc3p subunit of cohesin is acetylated by the Eco1p acetyltransferase at two evolutionarily conserved residues, promoting the chromatin-bound cohesin to tether sister chromatids. Smc3p acetylation is induced in S phase after the chromatin loading of cohesin and is suppressed in G1 and G2/M. Smc3 head acetylation and its cell cycle regulation provide important insights into the biology and mechanism of cohesion establishment. ...
In eukaryotic cells, accurate chromosome segregation requires the spindle assembly checkpoint, a surveillance system monitoring kinetochore attachment to microtubules of the mitotic spindle (Lara-Gonzalez et al., 2012; Musacchio, 2015). The spindle checkpoint kinase MPS1 binds to unattached kinetochores and phosphorylates kinetochore proteins, thus directing the accumulation of spindle checkpoint proteins of the MAD and BUB families (Musacchio, 2015; Ciliberto and Hauf, 2017). A subset of the MAD and BUB proteins then assemble into the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC; Musacchio, 2015). The mitotic checkpoint complex then diffuses away from the kinetochore to inhibit the ubiquitin E3 ligase anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), thus preventing mitotic exit (Sivakumar and Gorbsky, 2015). The two crucial targets ubiquitylated by the APC/C to promote mitotic exit are securin, the inhibitor of separase, and most important for this work, cyclin B, the activating subunit of a cyclin-dependent ...
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Mutations of the human valosin-containing protein gene cause autosomal-dominant inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia. We identified strumpellin as a novel valosin-containing protein binding partner. Strumpellin mutations have been shown to cause hereditary spastic paraplegia. We demonstrate that strumpellin is a ubiquitously expressed protein present in cytosolic and endoplasmic reticulum cell fractions. Overexpression or ablation of wild-type strumpellin caused significantly reduced wound closure velocities in wound healing assays, whereas overexpression of the disease-causing strumpellin N471D mutant showed no functional effect. Strumpellin knockdown experiments in human neuroblastoma cells resulted in a dramatic reduction of axonal outgrowth. Knockdown studies in zebrafish revealed severe cardiac contractile dysfunction, tail curvature and impaired motility. The latter phenotype is due to a loss of central and peripheral motoneuron ...
ORDERED temporal degradation of proteins is an important regulatory mechanism that controls progression through the eukaryotic cell cycle (Reed 2006). The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is the E3 subunit of an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme composed of at least thirteen subunits that targets proteins for proteolysis during the cell cycle (Peters 2006). APC/C function is critical for progression through mitosis where it degrades Pds1 (securin in higher eukaryotic cells) and other substrates to promote anaphase and the exit from mitosis (Pines 2006). APC/C cofactors Cdc20 and Cdh1 are important for conferring substrate specificity during different stages in the cell cycle (Peters 2006). It is unclear, however, how the APC/C chooses substrates for ubiquitylation and the specific role of each subunit in this process (Acquaviva and Pines 2006). The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures the formation of a bipolar spindle and proper attachment of kinetochores (Lew and Burke 2003). The ...
The centrosome acts as the major microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) for cytoskeleton maintenance in interphase and mitotic spindle assembly in vertebrate cells. It duplicates only once per cell cycle in a highly spatiotemporally regulated manner. When the cell undergoes mitosis, the duplicated centrosomes separate to define spindle poles and monitor the assembly of the bipolar mitotic spindle for accurate chromosome separation and the maintenance of genomic stability. However, centrosome abnormalities occur frequently and often lead to monopolar or multipolar spindle formation, which results in chromosome instability and possibly tumorigenesis. A number of studies have begun to dissect the role of mitotic kinases, including NIMA-related kinases (Neks), cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), Polo-like kinases (Plks) and Aurora kinases, in regulating centrosome duplication, separation and maturation and subsequent mitotic spindle assembly during cell cycle progression. In this Commentary, we review ...

*Histone

SLBP levels are controlled by cell-cycle proteins, causing SLBP to accumulate as cells enter S phase and degrade as cells leave ... Link between cell-cycle control machinery and histone synthesis[edit]. Nuclear protein Ataxia-Telangiectasia (NPAT), also known ... These proteins are synthesized during S phase of the cell cycle. There are different mechanisms which contribute to the ... In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into ...

*E2F

The balance between repressor and activator E2F regulate cell cycle progression. When activator E2F family proteins are knocked ... E2F family members play a major role during the G1/S transition in mammalian and plant cell cycle (see KEGG cell cycle pathway ... Activators such as E2F1, E2F2, E2F3a promote and help carryout the cell cycle, while repressors inhibit the cell cycle. Yet, ... The repressor genes E2F7/E2F8, located on chromosome 7, are transcription factors responsible for protein coding cell cycle ...

*BARD1

positive regulation of protein catabolic process. • negative regulation of protein export from nucleus. • cell cycle arrest. • ... Yu X, Baer R (Jun 2000). "Nuclear localization and cell cycle-specific expression of CtIP, a protein that associates with the ... protein homodimerization activity. • kinase binding. • RNA binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • ubiquitin-protein ... "Cell cycle-dependent colocalization of BARD1 and BRCA1 proteins in discrete nuclear domains". Proceedings of the National ...

*ID1

Ruzinova MB, Benezra R (2003). "Id proteins in development, cell cycle and cancer". Trends in Cell Biology. 13 (8): 410-8. doi: ... DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ID1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... "The protein Id: a negative regulator of helix-loop-helix DNA binding proteins". Cell. 61 (1): 49-59. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(90) ... "The MyoD-inducible p204 protein overcomes the inhibition of myoblast differentiation by Id proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (9): ...

*Cyclin-dependent kinase 1

ISBN 0-19-920610-4. Nasmyth K (April 1993). "Control of the yeast cell cycle by the Cdc28 protein kinase". Curr. Opin. Cell ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that ... Kaldis P, Aleem E (2007). "Cell cycle sibling rivalry: Cdc2 vs. Cdk2". Cell Cycle. 4 (11): 1491-1494. doi:10.4161/cc.4.11.2124 ... phosphorylation of these proteins leads to cell cycle progression. Cdk1 is a small protein (approximately 34 kilodaltons), and ...

*Predictprotein

Proteins, 53, 917-930 Wrzeszczynski K.O. and Rost,B. (2004) Cataloguing proteins in cell cycle control. Methods Mol. Biol., 241 ... and annotations homology to proteins involved in cell-cycle control. The PredictProtein web service is available at www. ... "Twilight zone of protein sequence alignments". Protein engineering. 12 (2): 85-94. doi:10.1093/protein/12.2.85. PMID 10195279. ... Proteins, 46, 195-205. Jones D.T. (1999) Protein secondary structure prediction based on position-specific scoring matrices. J ...

*MCM3

... and minichromosome maintenance proteins during the cell cycle: assembly of prereplication complexes in late mitosis". Mol. Cell ... Fujita M, Yamada C, Goto H, Yokoyama N, Kuzushima K, Inagaki M, Tsurumi T (1999). "Cell cycle regulation of human CDC6 protein ... The acetylation of this protein inhibits the initiation of DNA replication and cell cycle progression. MCM3 has been shown to ... "Cell cycle regulation of human CDC6 protein. Intracellular localization, interaction with the human mcm complex, and CDC2 ...

*CDC2L1

"Entrez Gene: CDC2L1 cell division cycle 2-like 1 (PITSLRE proteins)". Zhang, Songwen; Cai Mingmei; Zhang Si; Xu Songli; Chen ... 1990). "Increased expression of a 58-kDa protein kinase leads to changes in the CHO cell cycle". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... 2000). "Identification and characterization of a novel cell cycle-regulated internal ribosome entry site". Mol. Cell. 5 (4): ... The protein kinase encoded by this gene could be cleaved by caspases and was demonstrated to play roles in cell apoptosis. ...

*Histone

SLBP levels are controlled by cell-cycle proteins, causing SLBP to accumulate as cells enter S phase and degrade as cells leave ... These proteins are synthesized during S phase of the cell cycle. There are different mechanisms which contribute to the ... "Phosphorylation of stem-loop binding protein (SLBP) on two threonines triggers degradation of SLBP, the sole cell cycle- ... who believed that transcription was activated by protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions on largely naked DNA templates, ...

*Wound healing

Bartkova J, Grøn B, Dabelsteen E, Bartek J (February 2003). "Cell-cycle regulatory proteins in human wound healing". Archives ... Stem cells give rise to progenitor cells, which are cells that are not self-renewing, but can generate several types of cells. ... Macrophages are a type of repairing cell that devour dead cells and pathogens, and trigger other immune cells to respond to ... where ρ represents mass density, R represents a mass flux (from cell migration), and R0 represents a mass source (from cell ...

*Mezerein

... and other phorbol esters interact with protein kinase C (PKC). Protein kinase C controls the cell cycle, so chemicals ... Black A, Black J (2013). "Protein kinase C signaling and cell cycle regulation. Review". Front Immunol. 3 (423). doi:10.3389/ ... affecting the activity of several intracellular pathways that regulate cell cycle and apoptosis among others. PKC binding to ... but can create circumstances in which initiated cells are more susceptible to additional mutations or in which initiated cells ...

*KMT2E

Overexpression of the protein inhibits cell cycle progression. Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been ... Lysine methyltransferase 2E is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KMT2E gene. This gene is a member of the myeloid/ ... lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) family and encodes a protein with an N-terminal PHD zinc finger and a central SET ...

*RNA Helicase A

Loor G, Zhang SJ, Zhang P, Toomey NL, Lee MY (Dec 1997). "Identification of DNA replication and cell cycle proteins that ... Westberg C, Yang JP, Tang H, Reddy TR, Wong-Staal F (Jul 2000). "A novel shuttle protein binds to RNA helicase A and activates ... Westberg C, Yang JP, Tang H, Reddy TR, Wong-Staal F (Jul 2000). "A novel shuttle protein binds to RNA helicase A and activates ... This gene encodes a DEAD box protein with RNA helicase activity. It may participate in melting of DNA:RNA hybrids, such as ...

*CKS1B

2001). "The cell-cycle regulatory protein Cks1 is required for SCF(Skp2)-mediated ubiquitinylation of p27". Nat. Cell Biol. 3 ( ... Protein destruction: Adapting roles for Cks proteins. Cur Biol. 11: R431-R435 Xu, K., Belunis, C., et al. 2003. Protein-protein ... "The cell-cycle regulatory protein Cks1 is required for SCF(Skp2)-mediated ubiquitinylation of p27". Nat. Cell Biol. 3 (3): 321- ... "Crystal structure and mutational analysis of the human CDK2 kinase complex with cell cycle-regulatory protein CksHs1". Cell. 84 ...

*ID2

"Id2 specifically alters regulation of the cell cycle by tumor suppressor proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 (6): 2570-8. PMC 231247 ... DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ID2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... "The helix-loop-helix protein Id-2 enhances cell proliferation and binds to the retinoblastoma protein". Genes Dev. 8 (11): 1270 ... This protein may play a role in negatively regulating cell differentiation. A pseudogene has been identified for this gene. A ...

*RFC5

Loor G, Zhang SJ, Zhang P, Toomey NL, Lee MY (Dec 1997). "Identification of DNA replication and cell cycle proteins that ... binding proteins in human cell lysates. Identification of the human CHL12/RFCs2-5 complex as a novel PCNA-binding protein". The ... binding proteins in human cell lysates. Identification of the human CHL12/RFCs2-5 complex as a novel PCNA-binding protein". The ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...

*RFC4

... p140 of replication factor C is upregulated in cycling cells and associates with G1 phase cell cycle regulatory proteins". ... Loor G, Zhang SJ, Zhang P, Toomey NL, Lee MY (Dec 1997). "Identification of DNA replication and cell cycle proteins that ... binding proteins in human cell lysates. Identification of the human CHL12/RFCs2-5 complex as a novel PCNA-binding protein". The ... binding proteins in human cell lysates. Identification of the human CHL12/RFCs2-5 complex as a novel PCNA-binding protein". The ...

*CDC42

Cell division control protein 42 homolog, also known as Cdc42, is a protein involved in regulation of the cell cycle. It was ... "Protein Data Bank in Europe. EMBL-EBI. Retrieved 2016-04-22.. *^ "CDC42 (cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25kDa))" ... positive regulation of intracellular protein transport. • single organismal cell-cell adhesion. • cell differentiation. • ... "The cell-polarity protein Par6 links Par3 and atypical protein kinase C to Cdc42". Nature Cell Biology. 2 (8): 531-9. doi: ...

*Kostniakomięsak, wolna encyklopedia

Altered expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins in benign and malignant bone and soft tissue neoplasms. „In Vivo". 21 (5 ... Cell cycle regulator gene CDC5L, a potential target for 6p12-p21 amplicon in osteosarcoma. „Mol Cancer Res". 6 (6), s. 937-46, ... TGF-β1 promotes osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion through the miR-143-versican pathway. „Cell Physiol Biochem". 34 (6), ... GSK-3 inhibitor inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells. „Oncol Rep". 35 (4), s. 2348-54 ...

*G2-M DNA damage checkpoint

The cell cycle is driven by proteins called cyclin dependent kinases that associate with cyclin regulatory proteins at ... "A sliding clamp model for the Rad1 family of cell cycle checkpoint proteins". Cell. 96 (6): 769-770. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00) ... The G2-M DNA damage checkpoint is an important cell cycle checkpoint in eukaryotic organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. ... Cuddihy, A. R.; O'Connell, M. J. (2003). "Cell-cycle responses to DNA damage in G2". International review of cytology. 222: 99- ...

*KMT2A

"Proteolysis of MLL family proteins is essential for taspase1-orchestrated cell cycle progression". Genes & Development. 20 (17 ... "MLL1 Inhibition Reprograms Epiblast Stem Cells to Naive Pluripotency". Cell Stem Cell. 18 (4): 481-94. doi:10.1016/j.stem. ... MLL1 has been found to be an important regulator of epiblast-derived stem cells, post-implantation epiblast derived stem cells ... "Protein interactions of the MLL PHD fingers modulate MLL target gene regulation in human cells". Molecular and Cellular Biology ...

*CBX5 (gene)

"Localization and phosphorylation of HP1 proteins during the cell cycle in mammalian cells". Chromosoma. 108 (4): 220-34. doi: ... "Heterochromatin formation in mammalian cells: interaction between histones and HP1 proteins". Molecular Cell. 7 (4): 729-39. ... "Heterochromatin formation in mammalian cells: interaction between histones and HP1 proteins". Molecular Cell. 7 (4): 729-39. ... Chromobox protein homolog 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CBX5 gene. It is a highly conserved, non-histone ...

*BRCT domain

... is found predominantly in proteins involved in cell cycle checkpoint functions responsive to DNA damage, for example as found ... "A superfamily of conserved domains in DNA damage-responsive cell cycle checkpoint proteins". FASEB J. 11 (1): 68-76. PMID ... November 1998). "Structure of an XRCC1 BRCT domain: a new protein-protein interaction module". EMBO J. 17 (21): 6404-11. doi: ... Human proteins containing this domain include: BARD1; BRCA1 CTDP1; TDT or DNTT ECT2 LIG4 MCPH1; MDC1 NBN PARP1; PARP4; PAXIP1; ...

*Chromatin target of prmt1

The encoded protein may be involved in cell cycle progression. This protein interacts with protein arginine methyltransferases ... Chromatin target of PRMT1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHTOP gene. This gene encodes a small nuclear protein ... A newly identified nucleolar protein that can regulate cell proliferation". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (18): 12504-11 ... Zullo, A. J.; Michaud, M; Zhang, W; Grusby, M. J. (2009). "Identification of the small protein rich in arginine and glycine ( ...

*SIX1

"Cell cycle-regulated phosphorylation of the human SIX1 homeodomain protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (29): ... doi:10.1038/onc.2015.408 Ford HL, Kabingu EN, Bump EA, Mutter GL, Pardee AB (October 1998). "Abrogation of the G2 cell cycle ... Homeobox protein SIX1 (Sineoculis homeobox homolog 1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIX1 gene. The vertebrate ... and Dach proteins mediated through CREB binding protein". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 (19): 6759-66. doi:10.1128/MCB. ...

*Citron kinase

cell division. • protein phosphorylation. • cell cycle. • G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle. • regulation of actin ... Liu H, Di Cunto F, Imarisio S, Reid LM (Jan 2003). "Citron kinase is a cell cycle-dependent, nuclear protein required for G2/M ... neuronal cell body. • plasma membrane. • Golgi cisterna. • cleavage furrow. • midbody. • cell nucleus. • cytoskeleton. • actin ... mitotic cell cycle. • liver development. • peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation. • cortical actin cytoskeleton organization. • ...

*LMNA - 维基百科,自由的百科全书

M phase of mitotic cell cycle. · mitotic prophase. · mitotic anaphase. · mitotic cell cycle. · apoptotic process. · cellular ... endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. · protein localization to nucleus. · sterol regulatory element binding protein ... Lamin A/C binding protein LAP2alpha is required for nuclear anchorage of retinoblastoma protein. Mol. Biol. Cell. December 2002 ... It stays associated with the membrane through protein-protein interactions of itself and other membrane associated proteins, ...

*Herboxidiene

... are important proteins that regulate cell cycle of mammalian cells. Accumulation of p27 and p27* result in the inhibition of ... suppresses the growth of tumor cells by interfering the splicing of pre-mRNA coding for cell cycle regulation proteins in our ... cells from entering G1 and S phase of the cell cycle and therefore can contain the growth of tumor cells. "HERBOXIDIENE (CAS No ... By binding SF3b, herboxidiene can trigger accumulation of both protein p27 and its C-terminus truncated version p27*. p27 and p ...

14-3-3 proteins in cell cycle regulation.  - PubMed - NCBI14-3-3 proteins in cell cycle regulation. - PubMed - NCBI

Effects of 14-3-3 proteins on cell cycle progression and the regulation of 14-3-3 activity during the cell cycle are reviewed ... the association with 14-3-3 proteins requires a specific phosphorylation of the protein ligand and mediates cell cycle arrest. ... Cell cycle deregulation caused by changes in 14-3-3 expression has been implicated in cancer formation. 14-3-3 proteins ... 14-3-3 proteins in cell cycle regulation.. Hermeking H1, Benzinger A. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16697662?dopt=Abstract

Cell Cycle and Related ProteinCell Cycle and Related Protein

... John Farley,1 Laurent Ozbun,2 Goli Samimi,3 and Michael J. Birrer2 ... 2Cell and Cancer Biology Department, Medicine Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 ... 3Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program and Cell and Cancer Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2007/464712/abs/

Cell cycle checkpoint protein, Rad1 (IPR003011) | InterPro | EMBL-EBICell cycle checkpoint protein, Rad1 (IPR003011) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Cell cycle checkpoint protein, Rad1 (IPR003011). Short name: Cell_cycle_checkpoint_Rad1 ... In Caenorhabditis elegans, the cell cycle checkpoint protein RAD1 homologue mrt-2 has a role in genome stability by promoting ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR003011

DVU2505 cell cycle protein FtsW [Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough] - Gene - NCBIDVU2505 cell cycle protein FtsW [Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough] - Gene - NCBI

General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Names. cell cycle protein FtsW. YP_011717.1. *identified by match to ... cell cycle protein FtsW. Locus tag. DVU2505. Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. REVIEWED. Organism. Desulfovibrio ... YP_011717.1 cell cycle protein FtsW [Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough]. See identical proteins and their annotated ... DVU2505 cell cycle protein FtsW [ Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough ] Gene ID: 2795633, updated on 14-Apr-2016 ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/2795633

Addiction to Cell-cycle Proteins Shuts Down Tumors in Mice:...'Addiction' to Cell-cycle Proteins Shuts Down Tumors in Mice:...

... scientists have safely shut down breast cancer and a form of leukemia in mice by targeting abnormal proteins to which the ... that control cells growth cycle. Many types of cancer have abnormal amounts of the proteins, spurring the cells to grow too ... Addiction to Cell-cycle Proteins Shuts Down Tumors in Mice: Study. by Rukmani Krishna on October 22, 2012 at 11:31 PM Cancer ... Cyclin proteins act as "checkpoint" guards to control cells cycle of rest, growth and division. The D-cyclins determine when a ...
more infohttp://www.medindia.net/news/addiction-to-cell-cycle-proteins-shuts-down-tumors-in-mice-study-108903-1.htm

Cell cycle proteins help immune cells trap microbes with nets made of DNA | EurekAlert! Science NewsCell cycle proteins help immune cells trap microbes with nets made of DNA | EurekAlert! Science News

... released and how they stop a fungus from establishing an infection in mice and human cells in the journal Developmental Cell. ... there are immune cells called neutrophils that, when faced with a pathogenic threat, will expel their DNA like a net to contain ... Cell cycle proteins help immune cells trap microbes with nets made of DNA. Cell Press ... cell.. com/. developmental-cell/. fulltext/. S1534-5807(17)30826-2 Developmental Cell (@Dev_Cell), published by Cell Press, is ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-11/cp-ccp112017.php

Bcl-2 Family Proteins and Antibodies - Apoptosis and Cell Cycle | Sigma-AldrichBcl-2 Family Proteins and Antibodies - Apoptosis and Cell Cycle | Sigma-Aldrich

The ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax in the cell can determine whether or not the cell initiates apoptosis or survives. Some cancer cells ... Cell, 74, 609-619 (1993).
Ogawa, N., et al., Arthritis Rheum., 39, 1875-1885 (1996). ... Bcl-2 is a member of a large gene family encoding proteins that can either inhibit (e.g. Bcl-2, Bcl-xL) or promote ( ... USA Home > Product Directory > Cell Biology > Cell Signaling and Neuroscience > Apoptosis and Cell Cycle > Bcl-2 Family ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/cell-biology/cell-biology-products.html?TablePage=110982384

The FHA domain protein SNIP1 is a regulator of the cell cycle and cyclin D1 expression | OncogeneThe FHA domain protein SNIP1 is a regulator of the cell cycle and cyclin D1 expression | Oncogene

SNIP1 levels resulted in significantly reduced cell proliferation and accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. ... These results define both a new function for SNIP1 and identify a previously unrecognized regulator of the cell cycle and ... Here, we have used short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to knockdown SNIP1 expression in human cell lines. Surprisingly, we found ... Consistent with this result, we observed that cyclin D1 protein and mRNA levels were reduced. Moreover, SNIP1 depletion results ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/1208025?error=cookies_not_supported&code=42c88d83-3e49-4ea1-9055-b69344561355

Cell Cycle Proteins | SCBT - Santa Cruz BiotechnologyCell Cycle Proteins | SCBT - Santa Cruz Biotechnology

Santa Cruz Biotechnology offers a broad range of monoclonal antibodies directed against cell cycle proteins. ... Cell Cycle Proteins. Santa Cruz Biotechnology offers conjugated and unconjugated monoclonal primary antibodies directed against ... most cell cycle proteins. The process of eukaryotic cell proliferation is broken down into steps of the cell cycle, culminating ... Progression through each phase of the cell cycle is tightly regulated by a large number of signaling molecules, though ...
more infohttps://www.scbt.com/browse/Cell-Cycle-Proteins/_/N-749z7f?filterBy=S

Caprin1 MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:1858234 - cell cycle associated protein 1Caprin1 MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:1858234 - cell cycle associated protein 1

protein coding gene. Chr2:103762941-103797649 (-). 129S1/SvImJ MGP_129S1SvImJ_G0026207. protein coding gene. Chr2:105752128- ... protein coding gene. Chr2:113020134-113054346 (-). DBA/2J MGP_DBA2J_G0026043. protein coding gene. Chr2:100956080-100991126 (-) ... protein coding gene. Chr2:104145313-104180580 (-). BALB/cJ MGP_BALBcJ_G0026177. protein coding gene. Chr2:101687474-101723027 ... protein coding gene. Chr2:104485794-104523191 (-). C57BL/6NJ MGP_C57BL6NJ_G0026628. protein coding gene. Chr2:109293375- ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/marker/MGI:1858234

CDCA5 - Cell division cycle associated 5 - Mandrillus leucophaeus (Drill) - CDCA5 gene & proteinCDCA5 - Cell division cycle associated 5 - Mandrillus leucophaeus (Drill) - CDCA5 gene & protein

Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Cell division cycle associated 5Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ... p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.,p>,a href=/help/ ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0A2K5YG39

Cell Cycle Proteins | Cell Cycle Research | ProSci Inc.Cell Cycle Proteins | Cell Cycle Research | ProSci Inc.

We stock a wide selection of proteins of all kinds. Visit us online today. ... Shop for the cell cycle recombinant proteins you need here at ProSci Inc.! ...
more infohttps://www.prosci-inc.com/recombinant-proteins/research-area/cell-cycle.html

CDC16 - Cell division cycle protein 16 homolog - Homo sapiens (Human) - CDC16 gene & proteinCDC16 - Cell division cycle protein 16 homolog - Homo sapiens (Human) - CDC16 gene & protein

The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the ... a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls progression through mitosis and the G1 phase of the cell cycle. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. Q13042. CDC16 cell division cycle 16 homolog (S. cerevisiae), ... This protein is involved in the pathway protein ubiquitination, which is part of Protein modification.. View all proteins of ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q13042

Saylor.orgs Cell Biology/Trimeric G (Guanosine) Protein Cycle - Wikibooks, open books for an open worldSaylor.org's Cell Biology/Trimeric G (Guanosine) Protein Cycle - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Saylor.orgs Cell Biology/Trimeric G (Guanosine) Protein Cycle. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Saylor.org%27s_Cell_Biology/Trimeric_G_(Guanosine)_Protein_Cycle& ... Saylor.orgs Cell Biology. This page may need to be reviewed for quality. ...
more infohttps://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Saylor.org%27s_Cell_Biology/Trimeric_G_

Figure 3: pRB-APCcdh1 association, ubiquitination of Skp2 and p27Kip1 protein accumulation are coordinated during pRB-mediated...Figure 3: pRB-APCcdh1 association, ubiquitination of Skp2 and p27Kip1 protein accumulation are coordinated during pRB-mediated...

... ubiquitination of Skp2 and p27Kip1 protein accumulation are coordinated during pRB-mediated cell-cycle arrest. , Nature Cell ... From: Retinoblastoma protein and anaphase-promoting complex physically interact and functionally cooperate during cell-cycle ... ubiquitination of Skp2 and p27Kip1 protein accumulation are coordinated during pRB-mediated cell-cycle arrest.. ... d, e) As controls for the specificity of APCcdh1- and pRB-mediated Skp2 protein turnover, SAOS-tetRB cells were transfected ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/ncb1532/figures/3?error=cookies_not_supported&code=7a6058b4-96c7-44c9-9ba2-ffd15be48fdf

Cell Cycle-dependent Regulation of the Skp2 Promoter by GA-binding Protein | Cancer ResearchCell Cycle-dependent Regulation of the Skp2 Promoter by GA-binding Protein | Cancer Research

Cell Cycle-dependent Induction of GABP Binding to the Skp2 Promoter.. We next examined the effect of cell cycle progression on ... Cell cycle dependence of the abundance of Skp2 mRNA in NIH 3T3 cells. A, total RNA was isolated either from cells in ... For cell cycle analysis, single-cell suspensions of NIH 3T3 or T98G cells were fixed in 70% ethanol overnight at −20°C and then ... Cell Culture and Cell Cycle Analysis.. Mouse NIH 3T3 cells were maintained in DMEM supplemented with 10% calf serum (Life ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/63/15/4607

The S100A6 calcium-binding protein regulates endothelial cell-cycle progression and senescence. | Sigma-AldrichThe S100A6 calcium-binding protein regulates endothelial cell-cycle progression and senescence. | Sigma-Aldrich

The S100A6 calcium-binding protein regulates endothelial cell-cycle progression and senescence.. [Leyuan Bao, Adam F Odell, Sam ... Comparison of primary and transformed human cells revealed significant differences in S100A6 protein levels in these cells. In ... we depleted protein levels using RNA interference and this caused increased cell-cycle arrest in the G2/M phase under different ... The S100 family of calcium-binding proteins regulates many aspects of cell function but their roles in vascular physiology are ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/23095053

PAR, a protein involved in the cell cycle, is functionally related to chromosomal passenger proteins.PAR, a protein involved in the cell cycle, is functionally related to chromosomal passenger proteins.

Manipulation of PAR mRNA in DU145 and NIH3T3 cells indicated that its expression level is an impo ... protein is a 148 amino acid polypeptide ubiquitously expressed in normal cells and overexpressed in many malignancies. ... 0/Cell Cycle Proteins; 0/Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0/INCENP protein, human; 0/JTB protein, human; 0/Membrane Proteins ... Cell Cycle Proteins / chemistry, genetics, metabolism, physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/PAR-protein-involved-in-cell/21225229.html

Distinct structural forms of type I collagen modulate cell cycle regulatory proteins in mesangial cells.Distinct structural forms of type I collagen modulate cell cycle regulatory proteins in mesangial cells.

Extracellular matrix molecules profoundly regulate cell behavior, including proliferation. In glomerulonephritis, type I ... Blood Proteins / pharmacology. Cell Adhesion / physiology. Cell Cycle Proteins*. Cell Nucleus / enzymology. Cells, Cultured. ... 0/Blood Proteins; 0/Cdkn1b protein, rat; 0/Cell Cycle Proteins; 0/Cyclin E; 0/Integrin alpha1beta1; 0/Integrins; 0/Microtubule- ... Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Distinct-structural-forms-type-collagen/10972675.html

Cell cycle regulation of histone H1 kinase activity associated with the adenoviral protein E1A | ScienceCell cycle regulation of histone H1 kinase activity associated with the adenoviral protein E1A | Science

Cell cycle regulation of histone H1 kinase activity associated with the adenoviral protein E1A ... Cell cycle regulation of histone H1 kinase activity associated with the adenoviral protein E1A ... Cell cycle regulation of histone H1 kinase activity associated with the adenoviral protein E1A ... Cell cycle regulation of histone H1 kinase activity associated with the adenoviral protein E1A ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/253/5025/1271

An insulin-stimulated protein kinase similar to yeast kinases involved in cell cycle control | ScienceAn insulin-stimulated protein kinase similar to yeast kinases involved in cell cycle control | Science

An insulin-stimulated protein kinase similar to yeast kinases involved in cell cycle control ... An insulin-stimulated protein kinase similar to yeast kinases involved in cell cycle control ... An insulin-stimulated protein kinase similar to yeast kinases involved in cell cycle control ... An insulin-stimulated protein kinase similar to yeast kinases involved in cell cycle control ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/249/4964/64?ijkey=6ad692710212a2f04788945315ac8c309e97bad0&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

CDC25A Protein Human | Cell Division Cycle 25A  | ProSpecCDC25A Protein Human | Cell Division Cycle 25A | ProSpec

CDC25A is essential for progression from G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle. CDC25A activates the cyclin-dependent kinase CDC2 ... For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA).. Avoid multiple freeze-thaw cycles. ... which inhibits cells with chromosomal abnormalities from progressing in the course of cell division. CDC25A is an oncogene, ...
more infohttps://www.prospecbio.com/cdc25a_human

Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase - WikipediaCell division cycle 7-related protein kinase - Wikipedia

The protein is expressed at constant levels throughout the cell cycle. The gene coding for the Dbf4 or ASK protein is regulated ... Although expression levels of the protein appear to be constant throughout the cell cycle, the protein kinase activity appears ... Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDC7 gene. The Cdc7 kinase is ... The product encoded by this gene is predominantly localized in the nucleus and is a cell division cycle protein with kinase ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_division_cycle_7-related_protein_kinase

Cell cycle regulation by the NEK family of protein kinases | Journal of Cell ScienceCell cycle regulation by the NEK family of protein kinases | Journal of Cell Science

The role of NEKs in cell cycle checkpoints. Cell cycle progression is monitored by a series of checkpoints that arrest the cell ... a novel centrosomal coiled-coil protein and candidate substrate of the cell cycle-regulated protein kinase Nek2. J. Cell Biol. ... 2008). Nek6 is involved in G2/M phase cell cycle arrest through DNA damage-induced phosphorylation. Cell Cycle 7, 2705-2709. ... 2000). NIMA-related kinase 2 (Nek2), a cell-cycle-regulated protein kinase localized to centrosomes, is complexed to protein ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/125/19/4423?ijkey=cd3c03e162888a7a7326087099eefda2c8e53e49&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

CDC42 (cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25kDa))CDC42 (cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25kDa))

GTP binding protein, 25kDa)), Authors: Fátima Valdés-Mora, Teresa Gómez del Pulgar, Juan Carlos Lacal. Published in: Atlas ... Role in cell cycle regulation and survival:. CDC42 is important in cell cycle through its involvement in G1/S-phase transition ... identification of this GTP-binding protein as the human homolog of the yeast cell-division-cycle protein CDC42.. ... CDC42 (cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25kDa)). Written. 2008-12. Fátima Valdés-Mora, Teresa Gómez del Pulgar, ...
more infohttp://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/CDC42ID40012ch1p36.html
  • Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDC7 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the BRCT domain is likely to perform critical, yet uncharacterized, functions in the cell cycle control of organisms from bacteria to humans. (epfl.ch)
  • Pendulin is a new member of a superfamily of proteins which contains Armadillo (Arm) repeats and displays extensive sequence similarities with the Srp1 protein from yeast, with RAG-1 interacting proteins from humans, and with the importin protein from Xenopus. (rupress.org)
  • Caprin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPRIN1 gene. (creative-biogene.com)
  • PCNA is a highly conserved protein, with minimal differences in yeasts, mammals, humans or plants [2 and a conserved molecular mass of around 29 kDa. (scielo.org.mx)
  • To explore the molecular basis for the cell cycle-dependent oscillation of Skp2 mRNA, we have now characterized the promoter region of Skp2 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings could inform more effective cancer treatments and help answer larger questions about molecular mechanisms, according to Dileep Varma, PhD , assistant professor of Cell and Molecular Biology and senior author of the study. (northwestern.edu)
  • Dileep Varma, PhD, assistant professor of Cell and Molecular Biology, was the senior author of a study published in the Journal of Cell Biology. (northwestern.edu)
  • 000114857 001__ 114857 000114857 005__ 20181203021031.0 000114857 037__ $$aARTICLE 000114857 245__ $$aA superfamily of conserved domains in DNA damage-responsive cell cycle checkpoint proteins 000114857 269__ $$a1997 000114857 260__ $$c1997 000114857 336__ $$aJournal Articles 000114857 500__ $$aEuropean Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany. (epfl.ch)
  • 4 We hypothesized that in addition to the generalized increases in protein synthesis necessary for cell growth, there is a highly regulated increase in the translation of certain mRNA species, including those that encode cell cycle proteins, and we also hypothesized that the molecular machinery regulating this translation represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention. (ahajournals.org)
  • A second distinct binding protein termed CSBP II has been purified from CSBPA null mutant cells, lacking both CSBPA and CSBPB proteins, and contains three major polypeptides with predicted molecular masses of 63, 44.5, and 33 kDa. (asm.org)
  • Rescue of this molecular phenotype is possible by re-expressing human FXR1P in Fxr1 -depleted C2C12 cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • In addition to their importance in public health, the cell and molecular biology of these divergent eukaryotes is of great interest, and their study has revealed many original features. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A conserved checkpoint pathway mediates DNA damage--induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in C. elegans. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the formation of 'Lys-11'-linked polyubiquitin chains and, to a lower extent, the formation of 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains. (uniprot.org)
  • We show that during hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) exposure, the polyamine transporter Tpo1 controls spermidine and spermine concentrations and mediates induction of antioxidant proteins, including Hsp70, Hsp90, Hsp104 and Sod1. (embopress.org)
  • Additionally, we selected one of these newly identified membrane proteins to further characterize in both T. gondii and P. falciparum. (usf.edu)
  • Transport vesicles contain membrane proteins (v-SNAREs), which specifically bind to cognate membrane proteins (t-SNAREs) in the appropriate target membrane. (rupress.org)
  • SM proteins are peripheral membrane proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology offers conjugated and unconjugated monoclonal primary antibodies directed against most cell cycle proteins. (scbt.com)
  • Immunofluorescence studies with protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) isoforms-specific antibodies detected PP1δ, but not α or γ1, at focal adhesions. (biochemj.org)
  • A ) Comparison of immunofluorescence stainings using several antibodies against ORF1p and HeLa M2 cells expressing a recoded L1. (elifesciences.org)
  • B ) Quantification of nuclear and cytoplasmic ORF1p and ORF2p in HeLa cells expressing a recoded L1 (ORFeus) or a native L1 (L1rp) and stained with JH74 or JH73g antibodies in combination with mouse anti-FLAG M2 antibody. (elifesciences.org)
  • C ) Western blot of HeLa M2 cells expressing ORFeus, L1rp or no L1 (HeLa) blotted with the indicated antibodies in combination with 4H1 always in green. (elifesciences.org)
  • Cells expressing ORFeus are fixed with formalin and stained with 4H1 mouse anti-ORF1p (red) and rabbit anti-FLAG antibodies (green). (elifesciences.org)
  • A ) HeLa-M2 cells transfected with empty pCEP-puro vector (LD207), L1rp (MT302) and ORFeus (LD401) were stained with secondary antibodies without incubation with primary antibodies. (elifesciences.org)
  • The Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) was initially found as a nuclear protein that was recognized by auto antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and whose synthesis was related with a proliferative state of the cells since it was synthesized during the S phase of the cell cycle. (scielo.org.mx)
  • Once a neutrophil is induced to release its NETs, it anchors itself in the tissue and breaks down its nuclear envelope: the barrier between the nuclear DNA and the rest of the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers were intrigued by this, because normally cells only break down their nuclear envelope before they divide. (eurekalert.org)
  • In eukaryotes, proteins containing an FHA domain are found to be almost exclusively nuclear and seem to be prevalent among proteins which function in the cell cycle and DNA damage response ( Zhou, 2000 ). (nature.com)
  • Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated the presence in nuclear extracts of proteins that bind to this sequence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cells become spherical, the nucleolus and nuclear envelope have completely disappeared. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Chromatid gradually helixes, chromatin and nucleoli are reappeared, endoplasmic reticulum vesicle combined to form nuclear envelope, the cell equatorial zone is narrowing, and finally completely split into two daughter cells. (creativebiomart.net)
  • A positive correlation between p27 and pRb2/p130 levels expressed, in normal and cancer counterparts in the same sample, as the difference between cytoplasmic and nuclear protein concentrations ( P = 0.045) was found. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The sequence similarity with importin indicates that Pendulin may play a role in the nuclear import of karyophilic proteins and some of these may be required for the normal transmission and function of proliferative signals in the cells. (rupress.org)
  • C ) Proximity analysis of cells with (purple) or without (yellow) nuclear ORF1p is reported. (elifesciences.org)
  • White arrowheads indicate cells with nuclear ORF1p. (elifesciences.org)
  • The lower row of pictures shows a magnification of clustered cells expressing nuclear ORF1p and stained with 4H1 and JH73g antibody. (elifesciences.org)
  • Quantification of nuclear and cytoplasmic ORF1p and ORF2p in HeLa M2 cells expressing the indicated recoded or non-recoded L1s with or without the 5'UTR. (elifesciences.org)
  • Nuclear small G protein system involved in cell cycle. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Spa-1 encodes a nuclear protein possessing a human Rap1 GTPase activating protein-related domain (GRD) at N-terminus followed by unique sequence containing a number of PEST sequences and leucine zipper-like motif at its C-terminus. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the core binding motif, CACTTCCG, which is similar to that of GA-binding protein (GABP), is essential for Skp2 transcription. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The carboxyterminal BRCT domain of BRCA1 corresponds precisely to the recently identified minimal transcription activation domain of this protein, indicating one such function. (epfl.ch)
  • Here, we report that the E2Fa transcription factor of Arabidopsis thaliana is an essential component that regulates the asymmetric cell division marking lateral root initiation. (ugent.be)
  • In contrast, inactivation of Ras in quiescent cells prevented growth-factor induction of both immediate-early gene transcription and exit from GO in an Rb-independent manner. (uu.nl)
  • The experiment confirmed the earlier finding that unbinding the first regulator and halting gene transcription followed an increase in the concentration of the unmetalized regulator protein. (cornell.edu)
  • Each monomer contains a region called InterDomain Connector Loop (IDCL) which is bound by different proteins possessing a domain known as of Interaction to PCNA or PIP. (scielo.org.mx)
  • In a study published in Cell , Mikhail Savitski - together with the Bork and Beck labs at EMBL Heidelberg - systematically studied the amount of different proteins during six phases of the cell cycle. (embl.de)
  • A great deal is known about mechanisms that regulate chromosome segregation during cell division, but we know much less about the mechanisms by which cellular organelles are partitioned, and how these processes are coordinated. (frontiersin.org)
  • Protein synthesis is one of the most fundamental biological processes to maintain cellular proteostasis. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Tudor-SN protein is a multifunctional protein implicated in a variety of cellular processes. (biotechniques.com)
  • Investigation of the effects of distance from sources on apoptosis, oxidative stress and cytosolic calcium accumulation via TRPV1 channels induced by mobile phones and Wi-Fi in breast cancer cells. (emf-portal.org)
  • This accumulation may be the cause of cell death and retinal degeneration in these patients. (arvojournals.org)
  • Inactivation of Ras in cycling cells caused a decline in cyclin D1 protein levels, accumulation of the hypophosphorylated, growth-suppressive form of Rb, and Gl arrest. (uu.nl)
  • Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells due to PL treatment interferes with the intracellular redox mechanisms [ 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Especially, piperlongumine (PL), a natural alkaloid extracted from long pepper (Piper longum L.) [ 6 ], is known to exert selective anticancer effects in breast, stomach, and lung cancers through the induction of apoptotic cell death [ 7 , 8 , 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Certain 17β-estradiol enzymes transfer ubiquitin directly to the protein substrate, whereas others require the participation of a third component, termed a ubiquitin ligase (E3), to achieve this effect. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They focused on the role of proteins called cryptochromes, which are believed to have evolved from light-activated DNA repair enzymes in bacteria. (technologynetworks.com)
  • To investigate the potential role of these enzymes as anticancer drug targets, we have synthesized novel benzylidene-thiazolidine-2,4-diones that function as potent Pim protein kinase inhibitors. (elsevier.com)
  • f ) The rate of Skp2 ubiquitination in vivo was measured in the presence or absence of pRB by transfecting HA-tagged ubiquitin and Flag-tagged Skp2 into SAOS-tetRB cells. (nature.com)
  • These include a family of RNA binding proteins recently identified from Trypanosoma cruzi that shows highly restrictive binding interactions in vivo with specific mRNAs ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • In vivo, Vpr might, by preventing p34cdc2 activation, delay or prevent apoptosis of infected cells. (asm.org)
  • Here, we report that these in vivo findings are consistent with observations made in cancer cells in culture. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An analysis of the c-myc protein in vivo shows that de novo synthesis occurs in G1 and G2 and the protein turns over with a half-life of approximately 20-30 min in both phases. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In the present study, we examined the CamKII profile of mouse eggs with a view to using a targeted antisense knockdown approach to determine which CamKII isoform is responsible for cell cycle resumption, and also to determine whether any CamKII-independent pathway could be switched on by a Ca 2+ signal in eggs to similarly induce cell cycle resumption. (biologists.org)
  • The FHA domain is one of the relatively rare protein modules to be found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes ( Hofmann and Bucher, 1995 ). (nature.com)
  • Similar to eukaryotes, bacterial scaffolding-like proteins emerged as platforms for kinase activation and signaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • Class III Arfs are also widespread among eukaryotes, but are less conserved than Class I Arfs, and function at the cell periphery ( Donaldson and Jackson, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, the presence of a nonfunctional Dbf2 protein, rather than the lack of function per se, is inhibitory. (genetics.org)
  • Fan, LM , Vinoj, G , Brooks, G and Li, JM (2008) Nox2 modulation of cell cycle inhibitory protein p21cip1 in endothelial cells In: Annual Scientific Conference of the British-Cardiovascular-Society/British-Society-for-Cardiovascular-Research, 2008-06-02 - 2008-06-04, Manchester, ENGLAND. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Prostate androgen regulated (PAR) protein is a 148 amino acid polypeptide ubiquitously expressed in normal cells and overexpressed in many malignancies. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The BRCT domain consists of approximately 95 amino acid residues and occurs as a tandem repeat at the carboxyl terminus of numerous proteins, but has been observed also as a tandem repeat at the amino terminus or as a single copy. (epfl.ch)
  • Azidohomoalaine (AHA) is a non-radioactive and "clickable" amino acid analog of methionine which can be incorporated into newly synthesized proteins. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The kinase most closely related to STK-1 is Xenopus laevis XLP46 protein kinase which shows 71% amino-acid identity to STK-1 between their kinase domains. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of the proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). (arvojournals.org)
  • Transforming growth factor-β [TGF-β] is such an example, being a growth stimulator in fibroblastic cells with TGF-β receptors, but a negative regulator in epithelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)