Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Enzymes that catalyze the rearrangement of geometry about double bonds. EC 5.2.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
CELL CYCLE regulatory signaling systems that are triggered by DNA DAMAGE or lack of nutrients during G2 PHASE. When triggered they restrain cells transitioning from G2 phase to M PHASE.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression of the CELL CYCLE through the G1 PHASE and allow transition to S PHASE when the cells are ready to undergo DNA REPLICATION. DNA DAMAGE, or the deficiencies in specific cellular components or nutrients may cause the cells to halt before progressing through G1 phase.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Cell regulatory signaling system that controls progression through S PHASE and stabilizes the replication forks during conditions that could affect the fidelity of DNA REPLICATION, such as DNA DAMAGE or depletion of nucleotide pools.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
3-Hydroxy-4-oxo-1(4H)-pyridinealanine. An antineoplastic alanine-substituted pyridine derivative isolated from Leucena glauca.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A group of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES which activate critical signaling cascades in double strand breaks, APOPTOSIS, and GENOTOXIC STRESS such as ionizing ultraviolet A light, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. These proteins play a role in a wide range of signaling mechanisms in cell cycle control.
Enzyme activated in response to DNA DAMAGE involved in cell cycle arrest. The gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 22 at position 12.1. In humans it is encoded by the CHEK2 gene.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod- or vibroid-shaped or fusiform bacteria that commonly produce a stalk. They are found in fresh water and soil and divide by binary transverse fission.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A potent inhibitor of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES in G1 PHASE and S PHASE. In humans, aberrant expression of p57 is associated with various NEOPLASMS as well as with BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
An E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE that interacts with and inhibits TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53. Its ability to ubiquitinate p53 is regulated by TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
Geminin inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex. It is absent during G1 phase of the CELL CYCLE and accumulates through S, G2,and M phases. It is degraded at the metaphase-anaphase transition by the ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX-CYCLOSOME.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (1/19654)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (2/19654)

The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system [1] [2]. In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb [3] [4] [5], Prospero [5] [6] [7] and Miranda [8] [9] into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface [1]. Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized [10]. We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo.  (+info)

Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530. (3/19654)

Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases.  (+info)

B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through SP1-binding sites. (4/19654)

B-MYB is an ubiquitous protein required for mammalian cell growth. In this report we show that B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through a 120 bp segment proximal to the transcription start site. The B-MYB-responsive element does not contain myb-binding sites and gel-shift analysis shows that SP1, but not B-MYB, protein contained in SAOS2 cell extracts binds to the 120 bp B-myb promoter fragment. B-MYB-dependent transactivation is cooperatively increased in the presence of SP1, but not SP3 overexpression. When the SP1 elements of the B-myb promoter are transferred in front of a heterologous promoter, an increased response to B-MYB results. In contrast, c-MYB, the prototype member of the Myb family, is not able to activate the luciferase construct containing the SP1 elements. With the use of an SP1-GAL4 fusion protein, we have determined that the cooperative activation occurs through the domain A of SP1. These observations suggest that B-MYB functions as a coactivator of SP1, and that diverse combinations of myb and SP1 sites may dictate the responsiveness of myb-target genes to the various members of the myb family.  (+info)

Comparative molecular genetic profiles of anaplastic astrocytomas/glioblastomas multiforme and their subsequent recurrences. (5/19654)

Malignant glial tumors (anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas multiforme) arise mostly either from the progression of low grade precursor lesions or rapidly in a de novo fashion and contain distinct genetic alterations. There is, however, a third subset of malignant gliomas in which genetic lesions remain to be identified. Following surgical resection, all gliomas appear to have an inherent tendency to recur. Comparative molecular analysis of ten primary malignant gliomas (three anaplastic astrocytomas and seven glioblastomas multiforme) with their recurrences identified two distinct subgroups of recurrent tumors. In one group, primary tumors harbored genetic aberrations frequently associated with linear progression or de novo formation pathways of glial tumorigenesis and maintained their genetic profiles upon recurrence. In the other subset with no detectable known genetic mutations at first presentation, the recurrent tumors sustained specific abnormalities associated with pathways of linear progression or de novo formation. These included loss of genes on chromosomes 17 and 10, mutations in the p53 gene, homozygous deletion of the DMBTA1 and p16 and/ or p15 genes and amplification and/or overexpression of CDK4 and alpha form of the PDGF receptor. Recurrent tumors from both groups also displayed an abnormal expression profile of the metalloproteinase, gel A, and its inhibitor, TIMP-2, consistent with their highly invasive behavior. Delineation of the molecular differences between malignant glioblastomas and their subsequent recurrences may have important implications for the development of rational clinical approaches for this neoplasm that remains refractory to existing therapeutic modalities.  (+info)

Evidence for F-actin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved in assembly and stability of the medial actomyosin ring in fission yeast. (6/19654)

Cell division in a number of eukaryotes, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is achieved through a medially placed actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although several components of the actomyosin ring have been identified, the mechanisms regulating ring assembly are still not understood. Here, we show by biochemical and mutational studies that the S.pombe actomyosin ring component Cdc4p is a light chain associated with Myo2p, a myosin II heavy chain. Localization of Myo2p to the medial ring depended on Cdc4p function, whereas localization of Cdc4p at the division site was independent of Myo2p. Interestingly, the actin-binding and motor domains of Myo2p are not required for its accumulation at the division site although the motor activity of Myo2p is essential for assembly of a normal actomyosin ring. The initial assembly of Myo2p and Cdc4p at the division site requires a functional F-actin cytoskeleton. Once established, however, F-actin is not required for the maintenance of Cdc4p and Myo2p medial rings, suggesting that the attachment of Cdc4p and Myo2p to the division site involves proteins other than actin itself.  (+info)

The role of RBF in the introduction of G1 regulation during Drosophila embryogenesis. (7/19654)

The first appearance of G1 during Drosophila embryogenesis, at cell cycle 17, is accompanied by the down-regulation of E2F-dependent transcription. Mutant alleles of rbf were generated and analyzed to determine the role of RBF in this process. Embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic RBF products show constitutive expression of PCNA and RNR2, two E2F-regulated genes, indicating that RBF is required for their transcriptional repression. Despite the ubiquitous expression of E2F target genes, most epidermal cells enter G1 normally. Rather than pausing in G1 until the appropriate time for cell cycle progression, many of these cells enter an ectopic S-phase. These results indicate that the repression of E2F target genes by RBF is necessary for the maintenance but not the initiation of a G1 phase. The phenotype of RBF-deficient embryos suggests that rbf has a function that is complementary to the roles of dacapo and fizzy-related in the introduction of G1 during Drosophila embryogenesis.  (+info)

The amino-terminal C/H1 domain of CREB binding protein mediates zta transcriptional activation of latent Epstein-Barr virus. (8/19654)

Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is maintained as a nucleosome-covered episome that can be transcriptionally activated by overexpression of the viral immediate-early protein, Zta. We show here that reactivation of latent EBV by Zta can be significantly enhanced by coexpression of the cellular coactivators CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. A stable complex containing both Zta and CBP could be isolated from lytically stimulated, but not latently infected RAJI nuclear extracts. Zta-mediated viral reactivation and transcriptional activation were both significantly inhibited by coexpression of the E1A 12S protein but not by an N-terminal deletion mutation of E1A (E1ADelta2-36), which fails to bind CBP. Zta bound directly to two related cysteine- and histidine-rich domains of CBP, referred to as C/H1 and C/H3. These domains both interacted specifically with the transcriptional activation domain of Zta in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Interestingly, we found that the C/H3 domain was a potent dominant negative inhibitor of Zta transcriptional activation function. In contrast, an amino-terminal fragment containing the C/H1 domain was sufficient for coactivation of Zta transcription and viral reactivation function. Thus, CBP can stimulate the transcription of latent EBV in a histone acetyltransferase-independent manner mediated by the CBP amino-terminal C/H1-containing domain. We propose that CBP may regulate aspects of EBV latency and reactivation by integrating cellular signals mediated by competitive interactions between C/H1, C/H3, and the Zta activation domain.  (+info)

The p53 transcription factor regulates multiple biological functions, including growth arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis. This gene is continuously degraded in the cell under normal conditions. When external or cellular stress causes DNA damage, the genes ATM and ATR are activated and phosphorylate the cell cycle checkpoint proteins CHEK1 and CHEK2. During this process, p53 degradation is inhibited, and p53 protein accumulates in the nucleus. p53 is activated by posttranslational modifications such as acetylation or phosphorylation. Additional cofactors enhance or inhibit the activity of this important transcription factor. Genes targeted by p53 initiate multiple processes such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. A wide variety of cancers carry p53 mutations or other defects that dysregulate p53 and its cofactors, making this gene an important and highly-studied tumor suppressor. Analyzing the expression, regulation, and sequence of p53 signaling genes can help determine their relative ...
A novel approach to the study of the control of the mammalian cell cycle was opened by the cloning of a human gene by complementation of a fission-yeast cdc2 cell-cycle mutant. We have investigated the behaviour of the RNA and protein products of this human gene, CDC2Hs, and its murine equivalent, CDC2Mm during serum starvation and re-feeding of cultured fibroblasts. In contrast to the pattern of wild-type cdc2+ expression in fission yeast previously described, the mammalian homologue displays variation in both RNA and protein levels during exit from and re-entry into the mitotic cycle. Like its yeast counterpart, however, the mammalian CDC2 protein (p34CDC2) becomes dephosphorylated upon shifting from exponential growth to quiescence, and rephosphorylated late in the G1 phase when cells are stimulated to re-enter the cycle. We propose that phosphorylation of p34CDC2 serves as a regulatory mechanism generally in eukaryotic cells, while transcriptional control of the CDC2 gene in higher eukaryotes may be
According to a new study, scientists have safely shut down breast cancer and a form of leukemia in mice by targeting abnormal proteins to which the cancers are addicted.
Human Crif1 is a protein with multiple functions, playing important roles in embryonic development, cellular stress, cell cycle regulation and mitochondrial membrane integrity. CRIF1 is coined to play a regulatory role in the Bone Marrow microenvironment-induced leukemia cell cycle arrest possibly through interacting with CDK2 and acting as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ...
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Component of the 9-1-1 cell-cycle checkpoint response complex that plays a major role in DNA repair. The 9-1-1 complex is recruited to DNA lesion upon damage by the RAD17-replication factor C (RFC) clamp loader complex. Acts then as a sliding clamp platform on DNA for several proteins involved in long-patch base excision repair (LP-BER). The 9-1-1 complex stimulates DNA polymerase beta (POLB) activity by increasing its affinity for the 3-OH end of the primer-template and stabilizes POLB to those sites where LP-BER proceeds; endonuclease FEN1 cleavage activity on substrates with double, nick, or gap flaps of distinct sequences and lengths; and DNA ligase I (LIG1) on long-patch base excision repair substrates. The 9-1-1 complex is necessary for the recruitment of RHNO1 to sites of double-stranded breaks (DSB) occurring during the S phase. Isoform 1 possesses 3-,5 double stranded DNA exonuclease activity ...
The cell cycle proteins are key regulators of cell cycle progression whose de-regulation is one of the causes of breast cancer. RNA interference (RNAi) is an endogenous mechanism to regulate gene expression and it could serve as the basis of regulating aberrant proteins including cell cycle proteins. Since the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a main barrier for implementation of RNAi therapy, we explored the potential of a non-viral delivery system, 2.0 kDa polyethylenimines substituted with linoleic acid and caprylic acid, for this purpose. Using a library of siRNAs against cell cycle proteins, we identified cell division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), a recombinase RAD51, and serine-threonine protein kinase CHEK1 as effective targets for breast cancer therapy, and demonstrated their therapeutic potential in breast cancer MDA-MB-435, MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells with respect to another well-studied cell cycle protein, kinesin spindle protein. We also explored the efficacy of dicer-substrate siRNA
The cell cycle includes 4 main phases: Gap 1 (G1), DNA replication (S), Gap 2 (G2), and mitosis (M). Tight regulation of the transition between these phases halts cell cycle progression if a phase is not properly completed. For example, the G2-M DNA damage checkpoint ensures the fidelity of DNA replication, and arrests the cell cycle to allow time for replication error correction and DNA damage repair. Cell cycle progression is regulated by the cyclic rise and fall of kinase expression, and their interaction with, and action on, their cyclin targets. Cell cycle dysregulation commonly occurs during oncogenesis, and tumor cells often do not arrest the cell cycle when normally required. Key genes that regulate cell cycle progression and checkpoints encode cullins, cyclins, and cyclin-dependent kinases and their inhibitors. Other cell cycle regulatory genes include apoptosis regulators and DNA damage sensors ...
In this study, we generated a mutant of SpCdc25 that is severely impaired in its ability to bind to the fission yeast 14-3-3 proteins (Rad 24 and Rad 25). When expressed in fission yeast, this mutant Cdc25 protein localized almost exclusively to the nucleus, in contrast to wild-type Cdc25, which localized to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Inhibition of Crm1-mediated nuclear export resulted in the nuclear accumulation of wild-type Cdc25, indicating that wild-type Cdc25 normally shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Overproduction of Rad 24 caused wild-type Cdc25 to localize exclusively to the cytoplasm, whereas nuclear localization of the 14-3-3 binding mutant was not altered upon Rad 24 overproduction. Finally, cells expressing the 14-3-3 binding mutant exhibited defective G2/M checkpoint responses. Taken together, these results suggest that 14-3-3 binding regulates the intracellular compartmentalization of Cdc25 and establish that 14-3-3 binding to Cdc25 is required for fission ...
A recent in-depth view of cell cycle regulation and cancer has provided novel samples of research at the Frontiers of Science. However, the number of foremost revealing information about both the topics has been derived from the intersection of these two fields.1-5 This review intends to introduce the basics of the cell cycle and its regulation at different checkpoints in relation to cancer. Cancer is broadly a result of unchecked cell multiplication due to abnormal activity of varied cell cycle proteins; therefore, cell cycle regulators are considered attractive targets in cancer therapy. Many cancers are uniquely linked with these proteins and are therefore selectively sensitive to their inhibition.6 After a long run of research on the physiological functions of cell cycle proteins and their relevance for cancer, these data recently got converted into the first approved cancer therapeutics, targeting the regulator of cell cycle.7 Here, we are reviewing the role of cell cycle proteins in ...
Every living cell is packed full of tiny molecular machines. Many of these machines are made from proteins: assembled chains of amino acid building blocks, which twist, wrap and fold up into complex three-dimensional shapes. The way that these machines interact with each other, and other molecules in the cell, ultimately determines how a cell behaves, divides (or not) and dies.. Viruses hijack this cellular machinery and reprogram it to their own ends using their own set of proteins. Many viruses are tiny, with genomes that encode only a handful of proteins, and yet they need to take control of a multitude of host processes. The way that they achieve this is by mimicking small host interaction motifs called SLiMs (short linear motifs), which are the focus of study in my lab.. For example, some viruses use the host DNA replication machinery for their own replication and mimic a SLiM that interacts with an important cell cycle checkpoint protein called retinoblastoma. By mimicking the ...
After DNA damage, cell cycle checkpoints are activated. Checkpoint activation pauses the cell cycle and gives the cell time to repair the damage before continuing to divide. DNA damage checkpoints occur at the G1/S and G2/M boundaries. An intra-S checkpoint also exists. Checkpoint activation is controlled by two master kinases, ATM and ATR. ATM responds to DNA double-strand breaks and disruptions in chromatin structure, whereas ATR primarily responds to stalled replication forks. These kinases phosphorylate downstream targets in a signal transduction cascade, eventually leading to cell cycle arrest. A class of checkpoint mediator proteins including BRCA1, MDC1, and 53BP1 has also been identified. These proteins seem to be required for transmitting the checkpoint activation signal to downstream proteins. p53 is an important downstream target of ATM and ATR, as it is required for inducing apoptosis following DNA damage.[33] At the G1/S checkpoint, p53 functions by deactivating the CDK2/cyclin E ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Maintenance of the DNA-damage checkpoint requires DNA-damage-induced mediator protein oligomerization. AU - Usui, Takehiko AU - Foster, Steven. AU - Petrini, John H. J.. N1 - Open Archive. PY - 2009/1/30. Y1 - 2009/1/30. N2 - Oligomeric assembly of Brca1 C-terminal (BRCT) domain-containing mediator proteins occurs at sites of DNA damage. However, the functional significance and regulation of such assemblies are not well understood. In this study, we defined the molecular mechanism of DNA-damage-induced oligomerization of the S. cerevisiae BRCT protein Rad9. Our data suggest that Rad9s tandem BRCT domain mediates Rad9 oligomerization via its interaction with its own Mec1/Tel1-phosphorylated SQ/TQ cluster domain (SCD). Rad53 activation is unaffected by mutations that impair Rad9 oligomerization, but checkpoint maintenance is lost, indicating that oligomerization is required to sustain checkpoint signaling. Once activated, Rad53 phosphorylates the Rad9 BRCT domain, which attenuates ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs the PI3/PI4-kinase family, and is most closely related to ATM, a protein kinase encoded by the gene mutated in ataxia telangiectasia. This protein and ATM share similarity with Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad3, a cell cycle checkpoint gene required for cell cycle arrest and DNA damage repair in response to DNA damage. This kinase has been shown to phosphorylate checkpoint kinase CHK1, checkpoint proteins RAD17, and RAD9, as well as tumor suppressor protein BRCA1. Mutations of this gene are associated with Seckel syndrome. An alternatively spliced transcript variant of this gene has been reported, however, its full length nature is not known. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyA sites exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
DNA-damage checkpoints maintain genomic integrity by mediating a cell-cycle delay in response to genotoxic stress or stalled replication forks. In response to damage, the checkpoint kinase ATR phosphorylates and activates its effector kinase Chk1 in a process that critically depends on Claspin [1]. However, it is not known how exactly this kinase cascade is silenced. Here we demonstrate that the abundance of Claspin is regulated through proteasomal degradation. In response to DNA damage, Claspin is transiently stabilized, and its expression depends on Chk1 kinase activity. In addition, we show that Claspin is degraded upon mitotic entry, a process that depends on the β-TrCP-SCF ubiquitin ligase and Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1). We demonstrate that Claspin interacts with both β-TrCP and Plk1 and that inactivation of these components or the β-TrCP recognition motif in Claspin prevents its mitotic degradation. Interestingly, expression of a nondegradable Claspin mutant inhibits recovery from a ...
Cell proliferation is essential for many key processes that occur during development including organogenesis, tissue renewal and germline formation. (Bartkova et al., 1997; Clurman and Roberts, 1995; Pines, 1995; Sandhu and Slingerland, 2000). Therefore, the timing of cell division and differentiation must be precisely coordinated with signals that specify morphogenesis, patterning and growth in a temporal, positional and cell type-specific manner (reviewed by Vidwans and Su, 2001). This coordination is executed through regulating both positive and negative regulatory components of the basal cell cycle machinery.. The cell cycle machinery is well conserved among eukaryotes and complex mechanisms ensure that cell cycle progression occurs in a timely and precise sequence. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) drive progression through the different cell cycle phases (reviewed by Nigg, 2001). In yeasts, these catalytic subunits are regulated through their association with stage-specific cyclin regulatory ...
The Polo Kinase is a central regulator of cell division required for several events of mitosis and cytokinesis. In addition to a kinase domain (KD), Polo-like kinases (Plks) comprise a Polo-Box domain (PBD), which mediates protein interactions with targets and regulators of Plks. In all organisms that contain Plks, one Plk family member fulfills several essential functions in the regulation of cell division, and here we refer to this conserved protein as Polo Kinase (Plk1 in humans). The PBD and the KD are capable of both cooperation and mutual inhibition in their functions. Crystal structures of the PBD, the KD and, recently, a PBD-KD complex have helped understanding the inner workings of the Polo Kinase. In parallel, an impressive array of molecular mechanisms has been found to mediate the regulation of the protein. Moreover, the targeting of Polo Kinase in the development of anti-cancer drugs has yielded several molecules with which to chemically modulate Polo Kinase to study its biological ...
Mitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulatory enzymes, each consisting of a catalytic CDK subunit and an activating cyclin subunit. CDKs regulate the cells progression through the phases of the cell cycle by modulating the activity of key substrates. Downstream targets of CDKs include transcription factor E2F and its regulator Rb. Precise activation and inactivation of CDKs at specific points in the cell cycle are required for orderly cell division. Cyclin-CDK inhibitors (CKIs), such as p16Ink4a, p15Ink4b, p27Kip1, and p21Cip1, are involved in the negative regulation of CDK activities, thus providing a pathway through which the cell cycle is negatively regulated. Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA damage by activating signaling pathways that promote cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. In response to DNA ...
Many anticancer agents induce DNA strand breaks or cause the accumulation of DNA replication intermediates. The protein encoded by ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad 3-related (ATR) generates signals in response to these altered DNA structures and activates cellular survival responses. Accordingly, ATR has drawn increased attention as a potential target for novel therapeutic strategies designed to potentiate the effects of existing drugs. In this study, we use a unique panel of genetically modified human cancer cells to unambiguously test the roles of upstream and downstream components of the ATR pathway in the responses to common therapeutic agents. Upstream, the S-phase-specific cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2 was required for robust activation of ATR in response to diverse chemotherapeutic agents. While Cdk2-mediated ATR activation promoted cell survival after treatment with many drugs, signaling from ATR directly to the checkpoint kinase Chk1 was required for survival responses to only a ...
Early studies in lower Eukaryotes have defined a role for the members of the NimA related kinase (Nek) family of protein kinases in cell cycle control. Expansion of the Nek family throughout evolution has been accompanied by their broader involvement in checkpoint regulation and cilia biology. Moreover, mutations of Nek family members have been identified as drivers behind the development of ciliopathies and cancer. Recent advances in studying the physiological roles of Nek family members utilizing mouse genetics and RNAi-mediated knockdown are revealing intricate associations of Nek family members with fundamental biological processes. Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive account of our understanding of Nek kinase biology and their involvement in cell cycle, checkpoint control and cancer.
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica (FHC) is an international,English-language journal devoted to the developing fields of histochemistry,cytochemistry,cell biology,cell and tissue biology.It is source of the recent research in fields of and cell biology
BC: Thats what the cell cycle does!. FC: Cell Cycle. 1: What is the cell cycle? , The cell cycle is a process in which a cell grows and divides to create a copy of itself. Some orangisms reproduce through the cell cycle and in complex multicellular organisms, the cell cycle is used to allow the organism to grow and to reproduce worn out cells.. 2: Interphase , During interphase, a cell increase in mass, replicates its DNA, and prepares prophase.. 4: Prophase , It is when the loose DNA starts to gather to form chromatid, the DNA copies itself, the spindle fibers start to form, and the cell prepares itself for cell division.. 6: Metaphase , The duplicated chromosomes become aligned in the center of the cell, spindle fibers attach themselves to the centromere of the chromosomes.. 8: Anaphase , The stage of mitosis in which the duplicated sets of chromosomes separate and two indentical groups move to opposite poles of the cell.. 10: Telophase , A nuclear membrane re-forms around each new group of ...
BC: Thats what the cell cycle does!. FC: Cell Cycle. 1: What is the cell cycle? , The cell cycle is a process in which a cell grows and divides to create a copy of itself. Some orangisms reproduce through the cell cycle and in complex multicellular organisms, the cell cycle is used to allow the organism to grow and to reproduce worn out cells.. 2: Interphase , During interphase, a cell increase in mass, replicates its DNA, and prepares prophase.. 4: Prophase , It is when the loose DNA starts to gather to form chromatid, the DNA copies itself, the spindle fibers start to form, and the cell prepares itself for cell division.. 6: Metaphase , The duplicated chromosomes become aligned in the center of the cell, spindle fibers attach themselves to the centromere of the chromosomes.. 8: Anaphase , The stage of mitosis in which the duplicated sets of chromosomes separate and two indentical groups move to opposite poles of the cell.. 10: Telophase , A nuclear membrane re-forms around each new group of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorylation of human Rad9 is required for genotoxin-activated checkpoint signaling. AU - Roos-Mattjus, Pia. AU - Hopkins, KM. AU - Oestreich, AJ. AU - Vroman, BT. AU - Johnson, KL. AU - Naylor, S. AU - Lieberman, HB. AU - Karnitz, LM. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Rad9, a key component of genotoxin-activated checkpoint signaling pathways, associates with Hus1 and Rad1 in a heterotrimeric complex (the 9-1-1 complex). Rad9 is inducibly and constitutively phosphorylated. However, the role of Rad9 phosphorylation is unknown. Here we identified nine phosphorylation sites, all of which lie in the carboxyl-terminal 119-amino acid Rad9 tail and examined the role of phosphorylation in geno-toxin-triggered checkpoint activation. Rad9 mutants lacking a Ser-272 phosphorylation site, which is phosphorylated in response to genotoxins, had no effect on survival or checkpoint activation in Mrad9(-/-) mouse ES cells treated with hydroxyurea (HU), ionizing radiation (IR), or ultraviolet radiation ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
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Although, by definition, cancer cells have a deregulated cell cycle, tumors often retain an intact G1 cell cycle checkpoint response via p53-dependent transacti...
The mitotic checkpoint protein Bub3 is involved with the essential spindle checkpoint pathway which operates during early embryogenesis. Bub3 is…
The most recent publications in Cell Cycle Checkpoints and accross biochemistry, molecular biology, neuroscience, development, biotechnology and medicine.
Cdc7 and CK1g1 independently and additively phosphorylate the Chk1-binding domain of claspin to activate replication checkpoint with differential contribution of each kinase in different cell types.
In many cells the timing of entry into mitosis is controlled by the balance between the activity of inhibitory Wee1-related kinases (Swe1p in budding yeast) and the opposing effect of Cdc25-related phosphatases (Mih1p in budding yeast) that act on the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc2 (Cdc28p in budding …
SPDYE6 (speedy/RINGO cell cycle regulator family member E6), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
In response to genotoxic stress, the DNA damage response, which is governed primarily by the ATM-CHK2, ATR-CHK1, and p38-MK2 (also known as MAPKAPK2) checkpoint effector pathways, becomes activated in order to slow cell-cycle progression and allow time for DNA repair. The CHK1 and MK2 pathways converge on inhibition of cell division cycle 25 (CDC25)-mediated activation of cyclin-dependent kinases, prompting Dietlein and colleagues to hypothesize that simultaneous small-molecule inhibition of CHK1 and MK2 may synergistically silence the DNA damage checkpoint. To systematically characterize combinatorial drug-inhibitor relationships, 96 cancer cell lines were screened with various concentrations of the CHK1 inhibitor PF477736 and the MK2 inhibitor PF3644022, and PreCISE (predictor of chemical inhibitor synergistic effects) software was used to calculate synergism scores based on GI50 drug curves. Synergistic effects between PF477736 and PF3644022 were observed in 33 of 96 cell lines and were ...
海词词典,最权威的学习词典,专业出版cell cycle proteims是什么意思,cell cycle proteims的用法,cell cycle proteims翻译和读音等详细讲解。海词词典:学习变容易,记忆很深刻。
Equity mission statement The Australian Cell Cycle Meeting aims to promote the highest standard of research in the areas of cell cycle, DNA damage response and telomeres. To this end, the Australian Cell Cycle Meeting endeavours to foster a culture of inclusion and equity in all of its activities, including conference organisation, conference participation, and…
E2-2 alteration influences cell cycle exit of progenitors in vivo. (A)E2-2 overexpression increased cell cycle exit (EdU+Ki67-/EdU+) among the progenitor cell
MOTIVATION: KEN-box-mediated target selection is one of the mechanisms used in the proteasomal destruction of mitotic cell cycle proteins via the APC/C
CELL CYCLE CHECKPOINTS The cell cycle has regulatory points called checkpoint. A check point is one of several points in the eukaryotic cell cycle at which the progression of a cell to the next stage in the cell cycle can be halted until conditions are favourable (e.g. the DNA is repaired). These checkpoints occur near […]. ...
Cell cycle in somatic cells vs. ESCs. (a) Cell cycle regulation in somatic cells: mitogen signaling through MAPK path
Time‐lapse imaging of cell‐cycle phase transitions reveals that phase durations are uncoupled and can be modeled as an Erlang process. Phase coupling can be forced by perturbing a strong cell‐cycle regulator acting on multiple phases.. See full publication here.. ...
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numerous post-translational modifications lead to stabil- In contrast to the key role of p53 in maintenance of the isation of the p53 protein and activation of its DNA-induced G1 arrest, no specific roles for p53 or p21 sequence-specific DNA binding [9,30]. Only then can p53 have been implicated in the control of the intra-S-phase efficiently stimulate transcription of cell-cycle inhibitors checkpoint. This is perhaps not so surprising as the such as p21 (Figure 2). Furthermore, the p21 protein has to S-phase checkpoint, manifested by a decreased rate of accumulate to levels sufficiently high to inhibit the CDK- DNA synthesis after generation of DSBs, is by definition a containing complexes, before cell-cycle progression transient phenomenon [5]. The absence of the mainte- becomes efficiently blocked. Although p53 has recently nance component during S phase, contrary to the G1 and been described binding to 5′ untranslated region of CDK4 G2 checkpoints, might be beneficial for the cells by ...
Cell cycle analysis is commonly used in biomedical research studies and clinical diagnosis. It helps in distinguishing cells that are in different phases of cell cycle and used to determine the cellular response to biological stimulations and various drug
A ready-to-use reverse transfection format RNAi screening library targeting human cell cycle regulation genes. Just resuspend pre-dispensed siRNA, and add cells. Optimization plates are available.
The cell cycle constitutes a series of stages that allow a cell to double its cellular components and divide into two daughter cells. Cell cycle and division are crucial for development of a multicellular organism, as well as...
Research groupsCell biology and Biotechnology Role of Hsp90 in cell cycle control and ageing Dr Andrés Garzón Villar. ..
Cell cycle, the ordered sequence of events that occur in a cell in preparation for cell division. The cell cycle is a four-stage process in which the cell increases in size, copies its DNA, prepares to divide, and divides. Learn more about the cell cycle and the proteins that regulate its progression.
Introduction to Cell Cycle: The cell cycle is the process by which a cell replicates its genetic material and synthesized the other elements of the cell
Finden Sie alle Bücher von Herausgegeben von Schönthal, Axel H. - Checkpoint Controls and Cancer. Bei der Büchersuchmaschine können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 1617374261
The cell membrane The DNA Hello, today we will be learning about the cell cycle. The cell cycle is a process that cells go through in order to divide.
Drag the Labels Onto the Diagram to Identify the Stages Of the Cell Cycle. - Drag the Labels Onto the Diagram to Identify the Stages Of the Cell Cycle. , Ponents Of Blood Article
Cell cycle, Proteins, EC 2.7.11, Cell cycle regulators). ... "Cell cycle sibling rivalry: Cdc2 vs. Cdk2". Cell Cycle. 4 (11 ... This suggests that Cdk2 is non-essential for the cell cycle of healthy cells, but essential for meiosis and reproduction. Cells ... whose activity is restricted to the G1-S phase of the cell cycle, where cells make proteins necessary for mitosis and replicate ... Cobrinik D (April 2005). "Pocket proteins and cell cycle control". Oncogene. 24 (17): 2796-809. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1208619. ...
In cycling cells, there is a resassortment of Cip/Kip proteins between CDK4/5 and CDK2 as cells progress through G1. Their ... INK4 proteins are cell-cycle inhibitors. When they bind to CDK4 and CDK6, they induce an allosteric change that leads to the ... is to block progression of the cell cycle beyond the G1 restriction point. In addition, INK4 proteins play roles in cellular ... but not CDK4 activity in activated T cells that suggest p18INK4c may set an inhibitory threshold in resting T cells. Cells ...
Cell cycle, Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes, Proteins). ... and thereby the degradation of cell cycle regulators. Mad1 is ... Cell Biol. 8 (5): 379-93. doi:10.1038/nrm2163. PMID 17426725. S2CID 205494124. Yu H (Apr 2006). "Structural activation of Mad2 ... Eukaryotic cells show a mitotic arrest in the presence of microtubule polymerization inhibitors. A spindle assembly checkpoint ... Against this idea, it was shown that cancer cells undergo apoptosis when components of the SAC are not present. In this model, ...
The balance between repressor and activator E2F regulate cell cycle progression. When activator E2F family proteins are knocked ... E2F family members play a major role during the G1/S transition in mammalian and plant cell cycle (see KEGG cell cycle pathway ... Activators such as E2F1, E2F2, E2F3a promote and help carryout the cell cycle, while repressors inhibit the cell cycle. Yet, ... The repressor genes E2F7/E2F8, located on chromosome 7, are transcription factors responsible for protein coding cell cycle ...
Bartkova J, Grøn B, Dabelsteen E, Bartek J (February 2003). "Cell-cycle regulatory proteins in human wound healing". Archives ... Stem cells give rise to progenitor cells, which are cells that are not self-renewing, but can generate several types of cells. ... Macrophages are a type of repairing cell that devour dead cells and pathogens, and trigger other immune cells to respond to ... Transmembrane receptor proteins called integrins, which are made of glycoproteins and normally anchor the cell to the basement ...
Cell cycle, Proteins, EC 2.7.11, Cell cycle regulators). ... "Cell cycle sibling rivalry: Cdc2 vs. Cdk2". Cell Cycle. 4 (11 ... ISBN 978-0-19-920610-0. Nasmyth K (April 1993). "Control of the yeast cell cycle by the Cdc28 protein kinase". Curr. Opin. Cell ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that ... phosphorylation of these proteins leads to cell cycle progression. Cdk1 is a small protein (approximately 34 kilodaltons), and ...
... evidence for cyclin mRNA and protein regulation in the cell cycle and for interaction with p34cdc2". Cell. 58 (5): 833-46. doi: ... Reduction of cyclin B1 can stop cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle and triggers cell death by preventing the chromosomes ... Evidence for cyclin mRNA and protein regulation in the cell cycle and for interaction with p34cdc2". Cell. 58 (5): 833-846. doi ... One of the hallmarks of cancer is the lack of regulation in the cell cycle. The role of cyclin B1 is to transition the cell ...
... more than a reset switch to activate pRB proteins during the cell cycle and in response to signaling cues". Cell Cycle. 14 (1 ... Docking can also be achieved via E2F proteins binding to sequences known as cell cycle-dependent element sites (CDEs). Some ... Entry into the cell cycle dissociates p130 from the complex and leads to subsequent recruitment of activating E2F proteins. ... complex is a protein complex responsible for the regulation of cell cycle-dependent gene expression. The complex is ...
Proteins, 53, 917-930 Wrzeszczynski K.O. and Rost,B. (2004) Cataloguing proteins in cell cycle control. Methods Mol. Biol., 241 ... and annotations homology to proteins involved in cell-cycle control. The PredictProtein web service is available at www. ... "Twilight zone of protein sequence alignments". Protein Engineering. 12 (2): 85-94. doi:10.1093/protein/12.2.85. PMID 10195279. ... Proteins, 46, 195-205. Jones D.T. (1999) Protein secondary structure prediction based on position-specific scoring matrices. J ...
This protein functions as a regulator at the early steps of DNA replication. It localizes in the cell nucleus during cell cycle ... Cell division control protein 6 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDC6 gene. The protein encoded by this ... and Minichromosome Maintenance Proteins during the Cell Cycle: Assembly of Prereplication Complexes in Late Mitosis". Mol. Cell ... and Minichromosome Maintenance Proteins during the Cell Cycle: Assembly of Prereplication Complexes in Late Mitosis". Mol. Cell ...
... and minichromosome maintenance proteins during the cell cycle: assembly of prereplication complexes in late mitosis". Mol. Cell ... Fujita M, Yamada C, Goto H, Yokoyama N, Kuzushima K, Inagaki M, Tsurumi T (1999). "Cell cycle regulation of human CDC6 protein ... The acetylation of this protein inhibits the initiation of DNA replication and cell cycle progression. MCM3 has been shown to ... "Cell cycle regulation of human CDC6 protein. Intracellular localization, interaction with the human mcm complex, and CDC2 ...
"Entrez Gene: CDC2L1 cell division cycle 2-like 1 (PITSLRE proteins)". Zhang, Songwen; Cai Mingmei; Zhang Si; Xu Songli; Chen ... 1990). "Increased expression of a 58-kDa protein kinase leads to changes in the CHO cell cycle". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... 2000). "Identification and characterization of a novel cell cycle-regulated internal ribosome entry site". Mol. Cell. 5 (4): ... The protein kinase encoded by this gene could be cleaved by caspases and was demonstrated to play roles in cell apoptosis. ...
SLBP levels are controlled by cell-cycle proteins, causing SLBP to accumulate as cells enter S phase and degrade as cells leave ... These proteins are synthesized during S phase of the cell cycle. There are different mechanisms which contribute to the ... "Phosphorylation of stem-loop binding protein (SLBP) on two threonines triggers degradation of SLBP, the sole cell cycle- ... who believed that transcription was activated by protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions on largely naked DNA templates, ...
... and other phorbol esters interact with protein kinase C (PKC). Protein kinase C controls the cell cycle, so chemicals ... Black A, Black J (2013). "Protein kinase C signaling and cell cycle regulation. Review". Front Immunol. 3 (423): 423. doi: ... affecting the activity of several intracellular pathways that regulate cell cycle and apoptosis among others. PKC binding to ... but can create circumstances in which initiated cells are more susceptible to additional mutations or in which initiated cells ...
Overexpression of the protein inhibits cell cycle progression. Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been ... Lysine methyltransferase 2E is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KMT2E gene. This gene is a member of the myeloid/ ... lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) family and encodes a protein with an N-terminal PHD zinc finger and a central SET ...
Loor G, Zhang SJ, Zhang P, Toomey NL, Lee MY (Dec 1997). "Identification of DNA replication and cell cycle proteins that ... Westberg C, Yang JP, Tang H, Reddy TR, Wong-Staal F (Jul 2000). "A novel shuttle protein binds to RNA helicase A and activates ... Westberg C, Yang JP, Tang H, Reddy TR, Wong-Staal F (Jul 2000). "A novel shuttle protein binds to RNA helicase A and activates ... This gene encodes a DEAD box protein with RNA helicase activity. It may participate in melting of DNA:RNA hybrids, such as ...
2001). "The cell-cycle regulatory protein Cks1 is required for SCF(Skp2)-mediated ubiquitinylation of p27". Nat. Cell Biol. 3 ( ... Protein destruction: Adapting roles for Cks proteins. Cur Biol. 11: R431-R435 Xu, K., Belunis, C., et al. 2003. Protein-protein ... "The cell-cycle regulatory protein Cks1 is required for SCF(Skp2)-mediated ubiquitinylation of p27". Nat. Cell Biol. 3 (3): 321- ... "Crystal structure and mutational analysis of the human CDK2 kinase complex with cell cycle-regulatory protein CksHs1". Cell. 84 ...
"Id2 specifically alters regulation of the cell cycle by tumor suppressor proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 (6): 2570-8. doi: ... DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ID2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... "The helix-loop-helix protein Id-2 enhances cell proliferation and binds to the retinoblastoma protein". Genes Dev. 8 (11): 1270 ... This protein may play a role in negatively regulating cell differentiation. A pseudogene has been identified for this gene. A ...
Loor G, Zhang SJ, Zhang P, Toomey NL, Lee MY (Dec 1997). "Identification of DNA replication and cell cycle proteins that ... binding proteins in human cell lysates. Identification of the human CHL12/RFCs2-5 complex as a novel PCNA-binding protein". The ... binding proteins in human cell lysates. Identification of the human CHL12/RFCs2-5 complex as a novel PCNA-binding protein". The ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ...
... these proteins include cell cycle proteins, signaling proteins, and protein-processing enzymes. S. cerevisiae is currently the ... since bud formation occupies the whole cell cycle. Both mother and daughter cells can initiate bud formation before cell ... In yeast cultures growing more slowly, cells lacking buds can be seen, and bud formation only occupies a part of the cell cycle ... This bud grows during the cell cycle and detaches; fission yeast divide by forming a cell wall Cytokinesis begins at G1 for ...
... p140 of replication factor C is upregulated in cycling cells and associates with G1 phase cell cycle regulatory proteins". ... Loor G, Zhang SJ, Zhang P, Toomey NL, Lee MY (Dec 1997). "Identification of DNA replication and cell cycle proteins that ... binding proteins in human cell lysates. Identification of the human CHL12/RFCs2-5 complex as a novel PCNA-binding protein". The ... binding proteins in human cell lysates. Identification of the human CHL12/RFCs2-5 complex as a novel PCNA-binding protein". The ...
The cell cycle is driven by proteins called cyclin dependent kinases that associate with cyclin regulatory proteins at ... "A sliding clamp model for the Rad1 family of cell cycle checkpoint proteins". Cell. 96 (6): 769-770. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00) ... The G2-M DNA damage checkpoint is an important cell cycle checkpoint in eukaryotic organisms that ensures that cells don't ... different checkpoints of the cell cycle. Different phases of the cell cycle experience activation and/or deactivation of ...
... are important proteins that regulate cell cycle of mammalian cells. Accumulation of p27 and p27* result in the inhibition of ... suppresses the growth of tumor cells by interfering the splicing of pre-mRNA coding for cell cycle regulation proteins in our ... cells from entering G1 and S phase of the cell cycle and therefore can contain the growth of tumor cells. "HERBOXIDIENE (CAS No ... By binding SF3b, herboxidiene can trigger accumulation of both protein p27 and its C-terminus truncated version p27*. p27 and ...
"Proteolysis of MLL family proteins is essential for taspase1-orchestrated cell cycle progression". Genes & Development. 20 (17 ... "MLL1 Inhibition Reprograms Epiblast Stem Cells to Naive Pluripotency". Cell Stem Cell. 18 (4): 481-94. doi:10.1016/j.stem. ... MLL1 has been found to be an important regulator of epiblast-derived stem cells, post-implantation epiblast derived stem cells ... "Protein interactions of the MLL PHD fingers modulate MLL target gene regulation in human cells". Molecular and Cellular Biology ...
"Localization and phosphorylation of HP1 proteins during the cell cycle in mammalian cells". Chromosoma. 108 (4): 220-34. doi: ... "Heterochromatin formation in mammalian cells: interaction between histones and HP1 proteins". Molecular Cell. 7 (4): 729-39. ... "Heterochromatin formation in mammalian cells: interaction between histones and HP1 proteins". Molecular Cell. 7 (4): 729-39. ... Chromobox protein homolog 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CBX5 gene. It is a highly conserved, non-histone ...
Cell division cycle 26 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDC26 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is highly ... APC is composed of a group of highly conserved proteins and functions as a cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin-protein ligase. APC ... "Entrez Gene: Cell division cycle 26". Retrieved 2018-10-16. v t e This article incorporates text from the United States ... thus is responsible for the cell cycle regulated proteolysis of various proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. PDBe-KB ...
doi:10.2478/s11535-009-0032-2. (Protein pages needing a picture, Cell biology, Cell cycle, Proteins, Cellular processes, ... As part of the immune response, human cells produce a cell-signalling protein called TNF-α which trigger thick bundles of ... Assembled as such, septins function in cells by localizing other proteins, either by providing a scaffold to which proteins can ... Septins are a group of GTP-binding proteins expressed in all eukaryotic cells except plants. Different septins form protein ...
The BRCT domain is found predominantly in proteins involved in cell cycle checkpoint functions responsive to DNA damage, for ... "A superfamily of conserved domains in DNA damage-responsive cell cycle checkpoint proteins". FASEB J. 11 (1): 68-76. doi: ... November 1998). "Structure of an XRCC1 BRCT domain: a new protein-protein interaction module". EMBO J. 17 (21): 6404-11. doi: ... Human proteins containing this domain include: BARD1; BRCA1 CTDP1; TDT or DNTT ECT2 LIG4 MCPH1; MDC1 NBN PARP1; PARP4; PAXIP1; ...
Yu X, Baer R (Jun 2000). "Nuclear localization and cell cycle-specific expression of CtIP, a protein that associates with the ... BRCA1-associated RING domain protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BARD1 gene. The human BARD1 protein is 777 ... "Cell cycle-dependent colocalization of BARD1 and BRCA1 proteins in discrete nuclear domains". Proceedings of the National ... "Cell cycle-dependent colocalization of BARD1 and BRCA1 proteins in discrete nuclear domains". Proceedings of the National ...
The encoded protein may be involved in cell cycle progression. This protein interacts with protein arginine methyltransferases ... Chromatin target of PRMT1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHTOP gene. This gene encodes a small nuclear protein ... a newly identified nucleolar protein that can regulate cell proliferation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (18): ... Teng IF, Wilson SA (2013). "Mapping interactions between mRNA export factors in living cells". PLOS ONE. 8 (6): e67676. Bibcode ...
Leydig cell tumors of the testis and pancreatic acinar cell tumors and dietary PFOA consumption.[40] The C8 Science Panel ... They have been shown to bind to blood proteins and accumulate in the livers of marine animals.[69] Another pathway for ... "PFAS 'forever chemicals' constantly cycle through ground, air and water, study finds". The Guardian ... In particular, IgA, IgE (in females only) and C-reactive protein have been shown to decrease whereas antinuclear antibodies ...
... preventing a futile cycle.[43] Conversely, the isoform of pyruvate kinasein found in muscle is not affected by protein kinase A ... "Cell. 126 (1): 107-120. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.05.036. PMID 16839880. S2CID 15006256.. ... Allosteric inhibition and activation by Protein-protein interactions (PPI).[28] Indeed, some proteins interact with and ... All cells contain the enzyme hexokinase, which catalyzes the conversion of glucose that has entered the cell into glucose-6- ...
These are found in all cell membranes and the membranes of most cell organelles.[2] Phosphatidylcholines are structurally ... In humans, choline is absorbed from the intestines via the SLC44A1 (CTL1) membrane protein via facilitated diffusion governed ... "Dietary Choline Intake: Current State of Knowledge Across the Life Cycle". Nutrients. 10 (10): 1513. doi:10.3390/nu10101513 ... Choline is stored in the cell membranes and organelles as phospholipids, and inside cells as phosphatidylcholines and ...
positive regulation of B cell activation. *post-translational protein modification. *regulation of signaling receptor activity ... leading to a cycle of inhibition and disinhibition.[78] These neural oscillations are impaired in schizophrenia, and these ... Many neuronal cells are unresponsive to stimulation by IL-6 alone, but differentiation and survival of neuronal cells can be ... It supports the growth of B cells and is antagonistic to regulatory T cells. ...
The genetic code may have evolved during the transition from the RNA world to a protein world.[85] The Alanine World Hypothesis ... "Life-like cells are made of metal". New Scientist. September 14, 2011. Retrieved 2014-05-25.. ... Many Earth plants and animals undergo major biochemical changes during their life cycles as a response to changing ... A hypothetical cell membrane termed an azotosome, capable of functioning in liquid methane in Titan conditions was computer- ...
... cell type, cell cycle stage, external factors, presence of other binding proteins, etc. - as it happens with most of the ... If protein A is dependent on protein B for activation then the inhibition of either protein A or B will result in a cell losing ... To test protein-protein interaction, the targeted protein cDNA and query protein cDNA were immobilized in a same coated slide. ... in cell signaling proteins like protein tyrosine kinases and the growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2).[24]. * ...
Cell》 89: 263-73. PMID 9108481. 2009년 3월 31일에 확인함.. CS1 관리 - 여러 이름 (링크) ... Watch an animated tutorial on the life cycle of HIV Archived 2006년 6월 16일 - 웨이백 머신 ... "Endocytosis of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules is induced by the HIV-1 Nef protein". 》Nat. Med.》 2 (3): 338- ... Clapham PR, McKnight A. (2001). "HIV-1 receptors and cell tropism". 》Br Med Bull.》 58 (4): 43-59. doi:10.1093/bmb/58.1.43. PMID ...
Cell Cycle 8 (24): 4155-67։ December 2009։ PMC 2896895։ PMID 19946220։ doi:10.4161/cc.8.24.10316 CS1 maint: display-authors ( ... Expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein in human prostate cancer specimens with and without neo-adjuvant hormonal ... 74,0 74,1 «Small-cell carcinoma of the prostate»։ Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 90 (6): 340-1։ June 1997։ PMC ... 75,0 75,1 «[Clinicopathological characterization of prostatic small cell carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature ...
Electroporation allows the cell membrane to open up after applying an electric field. By applying short, high voltage pulses to ... Similarly, the gas bubble will dramatically decay in size when encountering the other positive half of the pressure cycle.[1] ... Since LFS is not restricted by its ability to deliver molecules of varying sizes, drugs such as proteins, nanoparticles, and ... Since there exists a need to enhance gene transfer into cells, sonophoresis has the ability to achieve higher transfection rate ...
... proteins, or nucleic acids or complex combinations of these substances, or may be living entities such as cells and tissues. ... A systematic review of drug life cycles, therapeutic drug markets and regulatory frameworks". PLOS ONE. 12 (8): e0182613. ... and recombinant therapeutic proteins. Biologics can be composed of sugars, proteins, or nucleic acids or complex combinations ... "Biological products include a wide range of products such as vaccines, blood and blood components, allergenics, somatic cells, ...
... by means of beta-oxidation followed by further combustion in the citric acid cycle to CO2 and water. Cells in the central ... The triglycerides are coated with cholesterol and protein (protein coat) into a compound called a chylomicron. ... They can be taken up from the blood by all cells that have mitochondria (with the exception of the cells of the central nervous ... Studies on the cell membranes of mammals and reptiles discovered that mammalian cell membranes are composed of a higher ...
"Id2 specifically alters regulation of the cell cycle by tumor suppressor proteins"، Mol. Cell. Biol.، 16 (6): 2570-8، 1996، PMC ... "The helix-loop-helix protein Id-2 enhances cell proliferation and binds to the retinoblastoma protein"، Genes Dev.، 8 (11): ... negative regulation of neural precursor cell proliferation. • neuron differentiation. • regulation of cell cycle. ... "Dimerization of the docking/adaptor protein HEF1 via a carboxy-terminal helix-loop-helix domain"، Exp. Cell Res.، 252 (1): 224- ...
Eukaryotic cells respond to damaged DNA by stimulating or impairing G1, S, or G2 phases of the cell cycle to initiate DNA ... It affects the production of multiple proteins, including lipoproteins, binding proteins, and proteins responsible for blood ... the cycle progresses compared to an average cycle. - The ranges denoted Inter-cycle variability are more appropriate to use in ... Estradiol is produced by action of aromatase mainly in the Leydig cells of the mammalian testis, but also by some germ cells ...
Cohen BA, Colas P, Brent R (Nov 1998). „An artificial cell-cycle inhibitor isolated from a combinatorial library". Proc Natl ... Binkowski BF, Miller RA, Belshaw PJ (Jul 2005). „Ligand-regulated peptides: a general approach for modulating protein-peptide ...
... help regulate the cell cycle and as such determine how large a cell will get and when it can divide into two daughter cells.[30 ... In eukaryotes, transcription factors (like most proteins) are transcribed in the nucleus but are then translated in the cell's ... Groups of TFs function in a coordinated fashion to direct cell division, cell growth, and cell death throughout life; cell ... crosses the cell membrane of the recipient cell, and is bound by the estrogen receptor in the cell's cytoplasm. The estrogen ...
This particular protein can be modulated by using heat as a stressor. Its unique location in the cell nucleus and cytosol ... Calmodulin plays an important role in excitation contraction (EC) coupling and the initiation of the cross-bridge cycling in ... CMLs (CaM-related proteins)Edit. Plants contain CaM-related proteins (CMLs) apart from the typical CaM proteins. The CMLs have ... The AtBAG6 protein is a CaM-binding protein that binds to CaM only in the absence of Ca2+ and not in the presence of it. AtBAG6 ...
Considering that the total cardiac cycle has a duration of 1 second (for a base cardiac frequency of 60 beats per minute), the ... a marker for muscle cell damage.[11] Obviously, this figure does not include the dissipation of energy through the chest wall, ... but probably related to the activation of mechanosensitive proteins, ion channels. These trigger extra electrical excitation ... Impact occurring within a specific 10- to 30-millisecond portion of the cardiac cycle. This period occurs in the ascending ...
"Cell. 167 (3): 633-642.e11. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.09.028. PMC 5484524. PMID 27768887.. ... Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins, and are stored in venom glands at the back of the head.[70] In all venomous ... It's also been observed in snakes that molting can be synced to mating cycles. Shedding skin can release pheromones and ... "Cell. 167 (3): 633-642.e11. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.09.028. PMC 5484524. PMID 27768887.. ...
"The role of STIM and ORAI proteins in phagocytic immune cells". American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. 310 (7): C496- ... Ca2+ is released from the ER the egg starts the process of forming a fused pronucleus and the restart of the mitotic cell cycle ... Certain proteins of the cytoplasm and organelles act as buffers by binding Ca2+. Signaling occurs when the cell is stimulated ... Many cell surface receptors, including G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases, activate the PLC enzyme. ...
... while the corresponding cells of phoronids', brachiopods' and pterobranchs' lophophores have one cilium per cell; and bryozoan ... Reproduction and life cycles[edit]. Encrusting cyclostome bryozoans (B), the one on the right showing swollen gonozooids; T = ... The exoskeleton may be organic (chitin, polysaccharide or protein) or made of the mineral calcium carbonate. The body wall ... Multiciliated cells in epithelium Yes[20]. no[20]. Yes[20]. not applicable ...
cell (e.g. platelets). *Ligand binding assay when a ligand (usually a small molecule) binds a receptor (usually a large protein ... time taken to finish a whole cycle from the preanalytic steps till the end of the last post analytic step (report dispatch/ ... A cell-counting assay may determine the number of living cells, the number of dead cells, or the ratio of one cell type to ... Other cell assaysEdit. Many cell assays have been developed to assess specific parameters or response of cells (biomarkers, ...
Harbour J.W., Dean D.C. Rb function in cell-cycle regulation and apoptosis" Nature Cell Biology. 2000;94:E65-E67. ... U drugim slučajevima je uzrokovana urođenom mutacijom u hromosomu 13, genu na lokusu13q14 (retinoblastomski protein).[2] ... "Use of RNA interference to elucidate the effect of MYCN on cell cycle in neuroblastoma". Pediatric Blood & Cancer. 50 (2): 208- ...
Long-lived cells (such as nerves and different types of brain cell), long-lasting proteins (such as crystallins of the lens and ... Munch, G; Deuther-Conrad W; Gasic-Milenkovic J. (2002). "Glycoxidative stress creates a vicious cycle of neurodegeneration in ... It is a common form of post-translational modification of proteins and is required for the functioning of the mature protein. ... Glycation (sometimes called non-enzymatic glycosylation) is the covalent attachment of a sugar to a protein or lipid.[1] ...
Cell. 2006-06-16, 125 (6): 1179-1191 [2018-08-27]. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 16777606. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.04.026. (原始内容存档于2018- ... Roles of Proteolysis and Lipid Rafts in the Processing of the Amyloid Precursor Protein and Prion Protein. Biochemical Society ... The sleep-wake cycle regulates brain interstitial fluid tau in mice and CSF tau in humans. Science. 2019-01-24: eaav2546 [2019- ... Cell. 2012, 148 (6): 1204-22. PMC 3319071 . PMID 22424230. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.02.040.. ...
During this time, the queen feeds it a protein-rich diet of insects. Then, the larva spins a silk cap over the cell's opening, ... Other temperate species (e.g., the yellow hornet, V. simillima, or the Oriental hornet, V. orientalis) have similar cycles. In ... The cells are arranged in horizontal layers named combs, each cell being vertical and closed at the top. An egg is then laid in ... To be able to build cells in total darkness, they apparently use gravity to aid them.[clarification needed][citation needed] At ...
... chitinase to function dependent on the cell's stage in the cell cycle and at specific locations among the daughter cells.[35] ... Specifically, Cts1 expression has to be activated in daughter cells during late mitosis and the protein has to localize at the ... Muthukrishnan S, Liang GH, Trick HN, Gill BS (2001). "Pathogenesis-related proteins and their genes in cereals". Plant Cell, ... stimulates proliferation of human connective-tissue cells and activates both extracellular signal-regulated kinase- and protein ...
At this point the end of the pollen tube bursts and releases the two sperm cells, one of which makes its way to an egg, while ... The transition to flowering is one of the major phase changes that a plant makes during its life cycle. The transition must ... the allergens in pollen are proteins which are thought to be necessary in the process of pollination.[76][77] ... In double fertilization the second sperm cell subsequently also enters the synergid and fuses with the two polar nuclei of the ...
The TAS2R38 gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor that functions as a taste receptor, mediated by ligands such as PROP and ... Bitter taste receptors in the TS2R family are also found in gut mucosal and pancreatic cells in humans and rodents. These ... "Rapid-Cycling Populations of Brassica" (PDF). Science. New Series. 232 (4756): 1385-1389. Bibcode:1986Sci...232.1385W. doi ... Nature Cell Biology. 7 (3): 235-45. doi:10.1038/ncb1222. PMID 15723056. S2CID 6501199.. ...
Just as in animals, plant cells differentiate and develop into multiple cell types. Totipotent meristematic cells can ... Land plants are key components of the water cycle and several other biogeochemical cycles. Some plants have coevolved with ... "LEA proteins prevent protein aggregation due to water stress". Biochemical Journal. 388 (Part 1): 151-157. doi:10.1042/ ... Cell division is also characterized by the development of a phragmoplast for the construction of a cell plate in the late ...
... subjected to single cell profiling of their T-cell receptors, revealed accumulations of cytotoxic CD4 T-cells through clonal ... In C. elegans, the loss of any of the three Trithorax proteins that catalyze the trimethylation of H3K4 such as, WDR-5 and the ... Van Neste D, Tobin DJ (2004). "Hair cycle and hair pigmentation: dynamic interactions and changes associated with aging". ... "Cell. 166 (4): 822-839. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.07.050. PMC 5821249. PMID 27518561.. ...
The protein is expressed at constant levels throughout the cell cycle. The gene coding for the Dbf4 or ASK protein is regulated ... Although expression levels of the protein appear to be constant throughout the cell cycle, the protein kinase activity appears ... Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDC7 gene. The Cdc7 kinase is ... The product encoded by this gene is predominantly localized in the nucleus and is a cell division cycle protein with kinase ...
Cell cycle arrest protein BUB3. Timeline for Family b.69.4.2: Cell cycle arrest protein BUB3: *Family b.69.4.2: Cell cycle ... Family b.69.4.2: Cell cycle arrest protein BUB3 appears in SCOPe 2.01. *Family b.69.4.2: Cell cycle arrest protein BUB3 appears ... Proteins:. *. Cell cycle arrest protein BUB3 [110290] (1 species). *. Species Bakers yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) [TaxId: ... Family b.69.4.2: Cell cycle arrest protein BUB3 [110289] (2 proteins). possibly related to the WD-repeat family; both sequence ...
... ... The aim of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value in GIST of some oncoproteins involved in regulation of cell ... Tumor size, mitosis, necrosis, and p53, c-myc, and bcl-2 protein expression of 32 GIST were studied. Proliferative index was ...
The role of Siah proteins in regulating proteolysis and cell cycle inhibition. *Janes, Peter (Primary Chief Investigator (PCI)) ...
Here we examined expression of cell cycle-related proteins up to 4 months following SCI, as well as the effects of the ... CR8 administrated systemically 3 h post-injury and continued for 7 days limited the sustained elevation of cell cycle proteins ... These data demonstrate that cell cycle-related proteins are chronically upregulated after SCI and may contribute to astroglial ... Immunoblot analysis demonstrated a marked continued upregulation of cell cycle-related proteins − including cyclin D1 and E, ...
The cell cycle of eukaryotes is regulated by expression and activation of molecules known as cell division cycle (cdc) proteins ... The cell cycle of eukaryotes is regulated by expression and activation of molecules known as cell division cycle (cdc) proteins ... The cell cycle of eukaryotes is regulated by expression and activation of molecules known as cell division cycle (cdc) proteins ... The cell cycle of eukaryotes is regulated by expression and activation of molecules known as cell division cycle (cdc) proteins ...
We describe the dynamic intracellular localization of Drosophila Pendulin and its role in the control of cell proliferation. ... a Drosophila protein with cell cycle-dependent nuclear localization, is required for normal cell proliferation.. J Cell Biol 15 ... Pendulin, a Drosophila protein with cell cycle-dependent nuclear localization, is required for normal cell proliferation. P ... The subcellular distribution of Pendulin is dependent on the phase of cell cycle. During interphase, Pendulin protein is ...
Role of the UBL-UBA protein KPC2 in degradation of p27 at G1 phase of the cell cycle.. Author Hara al.. ... Role of the UBL-UBA protein KPC2 in degradation of p27 at G1 phase of the cell cycle. ...
Phospho-Tau Protein Expression in the Cell Cycle of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells: A Morphological Study. Journal of Alzheimers ... Phospho-Tau Protein Expression in the Cell Cycle of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells : A Morphological Study. In: Journal of ... Phospho-Tau Protein Expression in the Cell Cycle of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells : A Morphological Study. / Flores-Rodríguez, ... title = "Phospho-Tau Protein Expression in the Cell Cycle of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells: A Morphological Study", ...
... the term Merkel cell carcinoma is still most commonly used in view of the many similarities of the constituent tumor cell to ... Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive, primary skin cancer exhibiting neuroendocrine differentiation. Several synonyms ... Cobrinik D. Pocket proteins and cell cycle control. Oncogene. 2005 Apr 18. 24 (17):2796-809. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Prognostic value of antibodies to Merkel cell polyomavirus T antigens and VP1 protein in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. ...
The NBN gene provides instructions for making a protein called nibrin. Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... The role of NBS1 in DNA double strand break repair, telomere stability, and cell cycle checkpoint control. Cell Res. 2006 Jan; ... Nibrin regulates the activity of this complex by carrying the MRE11A and RAD50 proteins into the cells nucleus and guiding ... Cells with a mutation in one copy of the NBN gene do not repair DNA as effectively as cells without these mutations. It is ...
... the term Merkel cell carcinoma is still most commonly used in view of the many similarities of the constituent tumor cell to ... Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive, primary skin cancer exhibiting neuroendocrine differentiation. Several synonyms ... Cobrinik D. Pocket proteins and cell cycle control. Oncogene. 2005 Apr 18. 24 (17):2796-809. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Prognostic value of antibodies to Merkel cell polyomavirus T antigens and VP1 protein in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. ...
Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics * Cell Cycle Proteins / physiology* * Chromosome Mapping * Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 ... VCP is associated with a variety of cellular activities, including cell cycle control, membrane fusion and the ubiquitin- ... We found six missense mutations in the gene encoding valosin-containing protein (VCP, a member of the AAA-ATPase superfamily) ... body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia is caused by mutant valosin-containing protein ...
Exogenous expression of heat shock protein 90kDa retards the cell cycle and impairs the heat shock response. Experimental Cell ... Exogenous expression of heat shock protein 90kDa retards the cell cycle and impairs the heat shock response. Experimental Cell ... Exogenous expression of heat shock protein 90kDa retards the cell cycle and impairs the heat shock response, Experimental Cell ... expression vectors into NIH-3T3 cells in order to study certain functions of HSP90 in the cell cycle and cell growth under ...
organs, tissues, organelles, cell types and functions , cell types and functions , cell functions , cell cycle. organism ... Animals CDC2 Protein Kinase Cell Cycle Enzyme Activation Fungal Proteins/metabolism Genes, Regulator Humans Mitosis Nuclear ... Draetta, G., Beach, D. (February 1989) The mammalian cdc2 protein kinase: mechanisms of regulation during the cell cycle. J ... The mammalian cdc2 protein kinase: mechanisms of regulation during the cell cycle ...
Lung-cells; Dose-response; Alveolar-cells; Antioxidants; Enzymes; Author Keywords: MAPKs; Cell cycle regulatory proteins; ... Protein-biochemistry; Proteins; Cell-biology; Cell-growth; Cellular-function; Cellular-reactions; Vanadium-compounds; Cancer; ... and p38 protein kinase in vanadate-induced cell growth arrest. Exposure of cells to vanadate led to cell growth arrest at the ... Specific ROS affect different MAPK family members and cell growth regulatory proteins with different potencies. ...
The protein, CDT1, helps facilitate DNA replication during the initial part of the cell cycle, called interphase, during which ... Cell Cycle Protein Has Surprising Secondary Function. By Will Doss. Sep 20, 2018. ... before being separated into two daughter cells in the latter part of the cell cycle, called mitosis. ... Control dividing cells separate their duplicated chromosomes normally to the two daughter cells (left, blue arrows) as compared ...
Studies of the involvement of PKCs in cell proliferation showed that their role is dependent on cell models, cell cycle phases ... Protein kinase C involvement in cell cycle modulation Alessandro Poli; Alessandro Poli 1 ... Protein kinases C (PKCs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases which act as key regulators in cell cycle progression and ... In particular, the targets of PKCs resulted to be some of the key proteins involved in the cell cycle including cyclins, cyclin ...
We investigated how myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle anabolic signalling were affected by resistance exercise at ... Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing * Cell Cycle Proteins * EIF4EBP1 protein, human * Muscle Proteins ... Age-related differences in the dose-response relationship of muscle protein synthesis to resistance exercise in young and old ... We investigated how myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle anabolic signalling were affected by resistance exercise at ...
Effects of inhibition of RNA or protein synthesis on CHO cell cycle progression.. scientific article published on November 1987 ... Mechanism for differential sensitivity of the chromosome and growth cycles of mammalian cells to the rate of protein synthesis ... Effects of inhibition of RNA or protein synthesis on CHO cell cycle progression (English) ... Quantitative studies of the growth of mouse embryo cells in culture and their development into established lines ...
Inhibition of pRb phosphorylation and cell-cycle progression by a 20-residue peptide from p16CDKN2/INK4A by R. Fåhraeus et al. ... Tumour-derived p16 alleles encoding proteins defective in cell-cycle inhibition. *J. Koh, G. Enders, B. Dynlacht, E. Harlow ... The cell cycle in mammalian cells is regulated by a series of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The G1/S checkpoint ... Transduced p16INK4a peptides inhibit hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein and cell cycle progression prior to ...
Cell-cycle regulation of B-myb protein expression: specific phosphorylation during the S phase of the cell cycle. In: Oncogene ... Cell-cycle regulation of B-myb protein expression: specific phosphorylation during the S phase of the cell cycle. Oncogene. ... Cell-cycle regulation of B-myb protein expression: specific phosphorylation during the S phase of the cell cycle. / Robinson, ... title = "Cell-cycle regulation of B-myb protein expression: specific phosphorylation during the S phase of the cell cycle", ...
... kinase inhibitor which has been shown to have an action similar to that of caffeine is allowing progression of the cell cycle ... This agent, like caffeine, also has the contrary action of retarding cycle progression after TPA. It is concluded that the G2 ... or delay G2 progression in control cells and exert a further delay in the presence of TPA. The exception is 2-aminopurine, a ... has been reported to show a radiomimetic action because it transiently delays the passage of HeLa cells through the G2 phase, ...
Characterization of A 54-kD protein of the inner nuclear membrane : evidence for cell cycle-dependent interaction with the ... Characterization of A 54-kD protein of the inner nuclear membrane : evidence for cell cycle-dependent interaction with the ... and analysis of p54 in cultured cells suggests that this interaction is controlled by cell cycle-dependent posttranslational ... Using a mAb (R-7), we have characterized a 54-kD protein of the chicken nuclear envelope. Based on its biochemical properties ...
FtsW/RodA/SpoVE family cell cycle protein (RefSeq) FtsW/RodA/SpoVE family cell cycle protein (RefSeq) 46669 45344 - ... cg0061 cg0061 FtsW/RodA/SpoVE family cell cycle protein (RefSeq). Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032. Corynebacterium ... Protein Synonyms Start End Strand PubMed ID cg0061 cg0061 rodA ...
Protein Binding, RNA-Binding Proteins, Retinoblastoma Protein, Tumor Cell Line, Tumor Suppressor Proteins. ... Cell cycle-controlled interaction of nucleolin with the retinoblastoma protein and cancerous cell transformation ... Cell cycle-controlled interaction of nucleolin with the retinoblastoma protein and cancerous cell transformation. ... Here we find that nucleolin is associated with Rb in intact cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and the complex formation ...
Cell Cycle APC Aurora Kinase BUB Casein Kinase CDK Chk c-Myc CRISPR/Cas9 CRM1 DHFR DNA/RNA Synthesis DYRK eIF G-quadruplex ... Stem Cells/Wnt BMI-1 Casein Kinase ERK Gli GSK-3 Hedgehog JAK MST Notch PKA PORCN ROCK Secretase sFRP-1 Smo STAT Wnt YAP β- ... Protein Tyrosine Kinase/RTK Ack1 ALK BMX Kinase BTK c-FMS c-Kit c-Met/HGFR c-RET DDR1/DDR2 Receptor DYRK EGFR Ephrin Receptor ... Akt Arp2/3 Complex Dynamin FAK Gap Junction Protein HSP Integrin Kinesin Microtubule/Tubulin Mps1 Myosin PAK PKC Selectin Wnt β ...
Expression patterns of cell cycle-related proteins in a rat cirrhotic model induced by CCI4 or thioacetamide. In: Journal of ... Expression patterns of cell cycle-related proteins in a rat cirrhotic model induced by CCI4 or thioacetamide. / Jeong, D. H.; ... Expression patterns of cell cycle-related proteins in a rat cirrhotic model induced by CCI4 or thioacetamide. Journal of ... Jeong, DH, Jang, JJ, Lee, SJ, Lee, JH, Lim, IK, Lee, MJ & Lee, YS 2001, Expression patterns of cell cycle-related proteins in ...
Roles for the E4 orf6, orf3, and E1B 55-kilodalton proteins in cell cycle-independent adenovirus replication. J Virol. 1999;73: ... the 33.2-kDa ORF 6 protein is known to promote cell cycle-independent adenovirus growth (29). ... Induction of the cellular E2F-1 promoter by the adenovirus E4-6/7 protein. J Virol. 2000;74:2084-93. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Cell-binding domain of adenovirus serotype 2 fiber. J Virol. 1994;68:4104-6.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
  • In mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Cdc7 is needed for proliferation. (
  • Pendulin, a Drosophila protein with cell cycle-dependent nuclear localization, is required for normal cell proliferation. (
  • We describe the dynamic intracellular localization of Drosophila Pendulin and its role in the control of cell proliferation. (
  • Nibrin's role in regulating cell division and cell growth (proliferation) is thought to lead to the problems with the immune system that are seen in affected individuals. (
  • A lack of functional nibrin results in less immune cell proliferation. (
  • The TAA-induced fibrotic pattern was different from the CC1 4 -induced one, in terms of the formation of fibrous connective tissue and the proliferation of bile ductule cells. (
  • Recent work identified a novel step indispensable for eIF2 function: assembly of eIF2 from its three subunits by the cell proliferation protein Cdc123. (
  • This mechanism leads to 3′ untranslated region shortening and translation of transcripts encoding proteins involved in G1/S progression and proliferation. (
  • The TSG101 protein is involved in a variety of important biological functions, such as ubiquitination, transcriptional regulation, endosomal trafficking, virus budding, proliferation and cell survival ( 4 - 16 ). (
  • Forkhead box N3 inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. (
  • The forkhead box family has been implicated in a broad spectrum of cellular processes, metabolism, DNA repair, differentiation, including cell proliferation, and aging[ 7 ]. (
  • E2F1, a member of the E2F family, accumulates the integrated signal of the G1/S transition regulators, and is required for cell proliferation[ 15 ]. (
  • By contrast, studies have showed that E2F1 inducing apoptosis is a kind of protective mechanism against tumor cell proliferation[ 16 ]. (
  • In particular, the project examines whether the maternal diet regulates in vitro and in vivo proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation and migration of the offspring neural stem cells at different ages, using techniques such as sphere assay, immunocyto/histochemistry, FACS, videomicroscopy, migration assays, in vivo labelling and imaging. (
  • How does the microenvironment or niche regulate Brain Tumour Stem Cells (BTSC) proliferation and differentiation , as well as brain tumour development? (
  • FCP displayed concentration-dependent inhibition on A549 cells proliferation. (
  • It acts as a regulatory and structural catalyst ion for activities of various proteins, enzymes, and signal transcription factors, as well as cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. (
  • The clinical efficacy of BRAFi and MEKi therapy is believed to rely on a functional retinoblastoma (RB) axis to inhibit cell proliferation. (
  • The ETS gene ETV4 is required for anchorage-independent growth and a cell proliferation gene expression program in PC3 prostate cells. (
  • Crucial role in orchestrating a fine balance between cellular proliferation, cell death, and DNA repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). (
  • Following detailed particle characterization, cell proliferation experiments demonstrated that SAHA loaded nanomicelles more effectively inhibited the growth of HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines compared with free drug formulations. (
  • gamma-Tocotrienol controls proliferation, modulates expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and up-regulates quinone reductase NQO2 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. (
  • In this study, the effects of gamma-tocotrienol were examined with regard to its ability to suppress cell proliferation via modulation of cell cycle regulatory protein expression, and also from the perspective of control of cellular oxidoreductive status through regulation of detoxification enzymes, e.g., quinone reductase NQO2, using estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. (
  • It was shown that treatment by gamma-tocotrienol suppressed MCF-7 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. (
  • By exerting control on expression of specific cell cycle regulatory proteins in concomitance with suppression of cell proliferation, as well as the induction of NQO2, gamma-tocotrienol offers promise as an added chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent against breast cancer carcinogenesis. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine the global transcriptome profile of three passages of dermal autologous fibroblasts from a male volunteer, focusing on the processes of the cell cycle and cell proliferation status to estimate the optimal passage of the tested cells with respect to their reimplantation. (
  • Detailed microarray analysis of the fibroblast genes indicated that the cell population of the third passage exhibited the highest number of upregulated genes involved in the cell cycle and cell proliferation. (
  • It has been found that ncRNAs are involved in various cellular functions, including proliferation, apoptosis and the cell cycle progression [ 17 , 18 ]. (
  • The effects of KNTC1 on HCC cells proliferation, migration, apoptosis and tumor formation was analyzed by MTT assay, colony formation assay, wound-healing assay, transwell migration assay, annexin V assay in vitro and in nude mouse models in vivo. (
  • Lv‑shKNTC1 cells showed reduced proliferation ability, increased apoptosis and decreased migration ability. (
  • In an attempt to establish a reliable prognostic marker for endometrial carcinomas disregarding their histological diversity, we investigated the expression of KPNA2, a mediator of nucleocytoplasmic transport, and other cell proliferation-associated proteins and their correlation with cancer progression. (
  • We further investigated the cell proliferation capacity after siRNA-mediated KPNA2 knockdown in the human endometrial cancer cell line MFE-296. (
  • KPNA2 silencing led to decreased proliferation of the cancer cells, suggesting interplay of the protein with the cell cycle. (
  • Recently, activation of two pathways that support proliferation and invasiveness of cancer cells, the Src family kinase (SFK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways, was demonstrated in PETs. (
  • Importantly, a synergic inhibition of proliferation was observed in PET cells concomitantly treated with SFK and mTOR inhibitors, without activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pro-survival pathway. (
  • Thus, our work highlights a novel link between the SFK and mTOR pathways, which regulate the translation of mRNAs for cell cycle regulators, and suggest that crosstalk between these pathways promotes PET cell proliferation. (
  • We show that one compound, PP121, blocks the proliferation of tumor cells by direct inhibition of oncogenic tyrosine kinases and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinases. (
  • Our results demonstrated that lupeol decreased cell proliferation and viability of HeLa cells significantly(p\0.001). (
  • Restoration of hepatocyte proliferative capabilities of C3 −/− mice through C3a reconstitution, as well as the impaired regeneration of C3a receptor-deficient mice, demonstrated that C3a promotes liver cell proliferation via the C3a receptor. (
  • The findings that suggest differential expression of Trem2 are particularly intriguing, as TREM2 has been shown to promote the proliferation, activation and survival of myeloid cells in response to tissue damage. (
  • The majority of the downregulated genes play a role in cell cycle and proliferation. (
  • of the 122 downregulated genes, which included transcription factors E2F1 and E2F2, 72 (59%) were related to the cell cycle and proliferation. (
  • Neural stem cells Neurogenesis Proliferation Differentiation Single-cell imaging Cell cycle kinetics G1 phase Retinoblastoma protein CDC25. (
  • Holger Gerhardt ABSTRACT Endothelial cell migration and proliferation are essential for the establishment. (
  • Pigmentation Cell fate Determination Proliferation Mitf FoxD3 Mouse Ligue Contre le Cancer http. (
  • Structural proteins are essential in many steps of the infection, they are implied in viral genome production, replication, virion-receptor attachment, viron and viroporin formation that will promote virus entry into the host, proliferation and spread of the infection. (
  • Aberrantly upregulated cell proliferation in kidney tubule cyst cells promotes cyst progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), but how mutations in polycystin genes increase cell proliferation is poorly understood. (
  • Cell proliferation was the most upregulated pathway, with cyclin-dependent kinase 1 ( Cdk1 ) a central component. (
  • Mouse models with inactivated polycystic kidney disease 1 ( Pkd1 ) alone or with Cdk1 revealed that loss of Cdk1 significantly slowed kidney cyst growth by blocking the increased cell proliferation that follows inactivation of Pkd1 . (
  • Cdk1 , therefore, is a critical driver of cyst cell proliferation, and targeting it effectively inhibits cyst growth in ADPKD. (
  • Results The RNASeq data identified cell proliferation as the most dysregulated pathway, with 15 of 241 DEGs related to cell cycle functions. (
  • The Pkd1 / Cdk1 double knockout blocked cyst cell proliferation that otherwise accompanied Pkd1 inactivation alone. (
  • Conclusions Dysregulation of Cdk1 is an early driver of cyst cell proliferation in ADPKD due to Pkd1 inactivation. (
  • Selective targeting of cyst cell proliferation is an effective means of slowing ADPKD progression caused by inactivation of Pkd1 . (
  • Overexpression of the G1 cyclins, D1 and E, and/or downregulation of p27 Kip1 allow uncontrolled tumour cell proliferation. (
  • This study investigated the relation between these three cell cycle proteins and tumour proliferation in bladder cancer. (
  • Nuclear expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, and p27 Kip1 was determined immunohistochemically in 52 primary transitional cell carcinomas, and the Ki-67 proliferation marker was also assessed. (
  • These findings support a role for these proteins in the proliferation, differentiation, and progression of bladder transitional cell carcinomas. (
  • Altered regulation of this crucial checkpoint can result in uncontrolled cell proliferation and the transmission of damaged DNA to daughter cells. (
  • Wang Y, Sun HY, Kumar S , Puerta MDM, Jo H , Rezvan A. ZBTB46 is a shear-sensitive transcription factor inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation via gene expression regulation of cell cycle proteins. (
  • or physiological or as a description of key events and processes starting toxic effects that affect cell proliferation. (
  • In vitro studies based on MCF-7 cell proliferation and induction of vitellogenin in primary culture of rainbow trout hepatocytes. (
  • Recent research have proven that microRNA-15b (miR-15b) regulates cell cycle progression, proliferationnd apoptosis in glioma cells by targeting Cyclins. (
  • The C protein along with other NS proteins cause cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and death. (
  • With the in-depth study, it was found that the E2F family played an key role in the process of cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis[ 12 ]. (
  • Effect of glutathione depletion on caspase-3 independent apoptosis pathway induced by curcumin in Jurkat cells. (
  • Agents in this class may cause cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. (
  • As such activated effector T cells are ripe for off-label application of existing chemotherapeutic agents in wide clinical use or under current clinical testing that target the DDR, and/or amplify p53-driven apoptosis. (
  • Having graduated in Biology from the Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, France, I completed my PhD in Neurosciences at the University of Paris VI, France, working on intracellular signalling pathways during neuronal apoptosis I then moved on as postdoctoral fellow in Professor Derek van der Kooy's team in Toronto, Canada, working on neural stem cells during development, in the adult brain and in different pathological conditions, before joining Southampton. (
  • CCAR2) is a protein implicated in the regulation of apoptosis, transcription and histone modifications. (
  • DBC1 shares many highly conserved protein domains with its paralog cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1, CARP-1). (
  • Cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein (CARP)-1 is expressed in osteoblasts and regulated by PTH. (
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. (
  • Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. (
  • These findings suggest that FCP induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis of A549 cells. (
  • Natural substances exert their anti-cancer activity by modulating cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis-regulatory proteins ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • Apoptosis is a type I programmed cell death that is characterized by distinct phenotypes from necrosis, including membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation and apoptotic body formation ( 10 , 11 ). (
  • In addition, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 family proteins are important for apoptosis regulation, which could be either proapoptotic, such as Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) or Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer, or antiapoptotic, such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-extra large (Bcl-xL) ( 13 ). (
  • At the molecular level, Zn controls cell cycle, apoptosis, and binding of DNA and several proteins including transcriptional and translational factors. (
  • We have reported that combination of BRAFi or MEKi with the expression of wild-type INK4A or a CDK4 inhibitor (CDK4i) significantly suppresses growth and enhances apoptosis in melanoma cells [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • While by name, the protein p53 is a tumor suppressor, it also has a function in cell cycle regulation, DNA repair, programmed cell death or apoptosis, and metabolism. (
  • Aberrant expression of circadian clock genes could have important consequences on the transactivation of downstream targets that control the cell cycle and on the ability of cells to undergo apoptosis. (
  • The mechanisms of neurodegeneration induced by isoflurane or sevoflurane were also compared by determining protein expressions of the cell cycle and apoptosis-related proteins. (
  • Apoptosis - programmed cell death of cancer cells. (
  • The meaning of this event is of controversy: possible product of apoptosis occurring in cancer cells, metastasized cancer cells, or active DNA sequences circulating in bloodstream. (
  • Participates in signaling pathways that control a diverse spectrum of biological activities including gene transcription, immune response, cell adhesion, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, migration, and transformation. (
  • These results suggest that lupeol could be an effectivechemotherapeutic agent against cervical carcinoma due to its growth inhibitory activity through induction of S-phase cellcycle arrest and apoptosis. (
  • This protein also affects the cell cycle, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis through interactions with other proteins, including retinoblastoma 1 and ribosomal protein L5. (
  • Injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), leading to necrosis and apoptosis of liver cells and transient hepatic failure, results in liver regeneration. (
  • Studies suggest that some ribosomal proteins may have other functions, such as participating in chemical signaling pathways within the cell, regulating cell division, and controlling the self-destruction of cells (apoptosis). (
  • Studies indicate that a shortage of functioning ribosomes may increase apoptosis of blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, resulting in a low number of red blood cells (anemia). (
  • Abnormal regulation of cell division or inappropriate triggering of apoptosis may contribute to the other health problems and unusual physical features that affect some people with Diamond-Blackfan anemia. (
  • Many apoptosis assays are available since there are many proteins regulated at multiple points and involved in apoptosis signaling cascade. (
  • Objective: To explore the impact of genistein (Gen) on the apoptosis of neuronal cells in naturally aged rats and its mechanism. (
  • In contrast to the 3M group, the protein expression of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (p-JNK), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), inflammatory vesicle 3-associated factor (NLRP3), cysteine protease-1 (Caspase-1), and apoptosis-related punctate protein (ASC) and downstream inflammatory factors in the hippocampus was obviously increased in the 24M group. (
  • Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDC7 gene. (
  • The Cdc7 kinase is involved in regulation of the cell cycle at the point of chromosomal DNA replication. (
  • this means that most eukaryotic cells have the Cdc7 kinase protein. (
  • The product encoded by this gene is predominantly localized in the nucleus and is a cell division cycle protein with kinase activity. (
  • The protein is a serine-threonine kinase that is activated by another protein called either Dbf4 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae or ASK in mammals. (
  • Although expression levels of the protein appear to be constant throughout the cell cycle, the protein kinase activity appears to increase during S phase. (
  • The gene, CDC7, is involved in the regulation of cell cycle because of the gene product Cdc7 kinase. (
  • To demonstrate protein kinase activity, PC were dissolved in Triton X-100 and immunoprecipited with the anti-PSTAIR antibody. (
  • The P. carinii cdc2 homologue possesses charactersitic protein kinase activity as demonstrated by the immunoprecipitate's ability to phosphorylate H1 histone when incubated with a mixture of 32 P-γATP and H1 histone. (
  • In addition, rat lung proteins prepared from uninfected rats using identical methods and immunoprecipited with anti-PSTAIR failed to show any significant kinase activity, verifying that the protein kinase activity was derived from the PC cdcZ homologue and was not a host cell contaminant. (
  • Protein kinase activity appeared greater in the trophozoite population than in cysts when normalized for protein concentration. (
  • Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated the central role of the cdc2 protein kinase in the transition from G2 to M phase in eukaryotic cells. (
  • We shall review our knowledge of the mechanisms which coordinate activation of the kinase with cell cycle-specific events in mammalian cells. (
  • the phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70s6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1) was measured using Western analysis with anti-phosphoantibodies. (
  • Using the human lung alveolar epithelial cancer cell line A549, we investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), and p38 protein kinase in vanadate-induced cell growth arrest. (
  • Radiomimetic cell cycle delay induced by tetranodecanoyl phorbol acetate is enhanced by caffeine and by the protein kinase inhibitor 2-aminopurine. (
  • The tumour promoter and protein kinase C agonist, 12-O-tetranodecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), has been reported to show a radiomimetic action because it transiently delays the passage of HeLa cells through the G2 phase, as do ionizing radiation and other DNA damaging agents. (
  • The exception is 2-aminopurine, a protein kinase inhibitor which has been shown to have an action similar to that of caffeine is allowing progression of the cell cycle to mitosis after the inhibition of DNA synthesis, without affecting normal cycle progression through G2. (
  • It is concluded that the G2 delays induced by ionizing radiation and by TPA operate by different mechanisms, which are modulated in opposite senses by mechanisms involving protein kinase inhibition. (
  • Detergent solubilization of p54 can be induced in vivo by treating isolated nuclei or nuclear envelopes with highly purified cdc2 kinase, one of the most prominent kinases active in mitotic cells. (
  • In the malignant tumor cells, reactivated p53 eliminates cells with too much activity in a signaling pathway involving mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is often overactive in cancer cells, leading to uncontrolled growth. (
  • The prM and E proteins facilitate viral attachment to the host cell membrane AXL receptor, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase protein. (
  • Tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBBt) and tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBBz) as selective inhibitors of protein kinase CK2: evaluation of their effects on cells and different molecular forms of human CK2. (
  • The data indicate that the kinase(s) involved in the regulation of cell exit from G1 and G2, respectively, in normal and leukemic lymphocytes may have different sensitivities to staurosporine, which suggests that the mechanisms controlling exit fromG1 in these cells may be different. (
  • H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. (
  • PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. (
  • U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. (
  • In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. (
  • Immunoblotting demonstrated a dose‑dependent downregulation of cyclin B1, cyclin‑dependent kinase 1, cell division cycle 25c, pro‑caspases ‑3, ‑6, ‑8 and ‑9, and poly (adenosine diphosphate‑ribose) polymerase (PARP) in FCP‑treated A549 cells. (
  • Predicted to enable cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity. (
  • Predicted to be involved in mitotic cell cycle phase transition and regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. (
  • Predicted to be part of cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex. (
  • The inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4A ( INK4A ) gene encode the p16 protein, a critical cell cycle regulator that interacts with cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4, inhibiting its ability to phosphorylate and inactivate RB [ 12 , 13 ]. (
  • PLK-1 (polo-like kinase 1) is a member of the Polo-like kinase family of serine/threonine protein kinases. (
  • Extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling regulates the opposing roles of JUN family transcription factors at ETS/AP-1 sites and in cell migration. (
  • Leung WK, Ching AK, Chan AW, Poon TC, He M, Wong AS, To KF, Wong N*. A novel interplay between oncogenic PFTK1 protein kinase and tumor suppressor TAGLN2 in the control of liver cancer cell motility. (
  • Pang EY, Bai AH, To KF, Sy SM, Wong NL, Lai PB, Squire JA, Wong N*. Identification of PFTAIRE protein kinase 1, a novel cell division cycle-2 related gene, in the motile phenotype of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. (
  • SRC_CHICK ] Non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase which is activated following engagement of many different classes of cellular receptors including immune response receptors, integrins and other adhesion receptors, receptor protein tyrosine kinases, G protein-coupled receptors as well as cytokine receptors. (
  • SRC appears to be one of the primary kinases activated following engagement of receptors and plays a role in the activation of other protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) families. (
  • Lupeol induced S-phase cell cycle arrest and also decreased the expression of S-phase Cyclins and CDKs andincreased the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 at transcriptional and translational level. (
  • WEE1 is a protein tyrosine kinase regulating cell cycle by serving as a checkpoint preventing DNA replication in the presence of DNA damage. (
  • In addition to this competent complex, at least two cell cycle regulated protein kinase pathways are required to affect a transition to a post-replicative chromosomal state. (
  • p16-INK4a is a nuclear protein that regulates the cell cycle by inhibiting cyclin dependent kinase-4 (CDK4) and CDK6. (
  • RAD50 (RAD50 homolog), PLK3 (polo-like kinase 3), GADD45A (growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible, alpha), DDB2 (damage-specific DNA-binding protein 2), BBC3 (BCL2-binding component 3) and IER5 (immediate early response 5) gene expression levels were found to undergo significant oscillating changes over a broad dose range of 2-8 Gy at post-exposure time points observed. (
  • 2012). Activation of the Hog1p kinase in Isc1p-deficient yeast cells is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress sensitivity and premature aging . (
  • 2013). Using yeast to uncover the regulation of protein kinase Cδ by ceramide . (
  • The cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor p27/Kip1 is a tumor suppressor protein that acts in the nucleus to enforce cell cycle checkpoints. (
  • p27/Kip1 is phosphorylated at T198 in cells treated with the AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activator AICAR (5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside) or glucose withdrawal. (
  • The clinical success of a number of kinase-directed drugs and the frequent observation of disease causing mutations in protein kinases suggest that a large number of kinases may represent therapeutically relevant targets. (
  • To date, the majority of clinical and preclinical kinase inhibitors are ATP competitive, non-covalent inhibitors that achieve selectivity through recognition of unique features of particular protein kinases. (
  • Resequencing studies of protein kinase coding regions have emphasized the importance of sequence and structure determinants of cancer-causing kinase mutations in understanding of the mutation-dependent activation process . (
  • Integrated bioinformatics resources consolidated and mapped all currently available information on genetic modifications in protein kinase genes with sequence, structure and functional data. (
  • Developing irreversible inhibitors of the protein kinase cysteinome . (
  • It has been suggested that the protein is essential for initiation of DNA replication and that it plays a role in regulating cell cycle progression. (
  • Effects of inhibition of RNA or protein synthesis on CHO cell cycle progression. (
  • it is shown here that caffeine does not override the radiomimetic delay imposed by TPA in HeLa, but instead enhances it, without affecting G2 progression in control cells. (
  • Most of the other agents which more specifically affect some of the diverse range of caffeine targets either do not affect G2 progression after TPA, or delay G2 progression in control cells and exert a further delay in the presence of TPA. (
  • This agent, like caffeine, also has the contrary action of retarding cycle progression after TPA. (
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are heterodimeric serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate cell cycle progression. (
  • Among its members, the Cdk1-cyclin B complex is known to control cell progression in the G2/M phase, while Cdk2-cyclin E/A complexes function in G1/S and S/G2 transition. (
  • Furthermore, hRpS3 knockdown delayed cell cycle progression by modulating the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, including cyclin B1 and cyclin E1. (
  • Thus, our findings indicate that the APA program driven by Sam68/XRN2 promotes cell cycle progression and may represent an actionable target for therapeutic intervention. (
  • This gene encodes a nuclear-localized protein that may be induced by p53 and regulates the cell cycle by inhibiting G1 to S phase progression. (
  • Id-related genes encoding helix-loop-helix proteins are required for G1 progression and are repressed in senescent human fibroblasts"، J Biol Chem ، 269 (3): 2139-45، فبراير 1994، PMID 8294468 . (
  • Cancer cell identity and plasticity are required in transition states, such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), in primary tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. (
  • The retinoblastoma-susceptibility gene product becomes phosphorylated in multiple stages during cell cycle entry and progression. (
  • Genes involved in growth factor signalling and cell cycle progression were identified as particularly important for explaining the skin dysmorphology observed in this mouse model. (
  • We demonstrated that a novel monoclonal antibody developed by our collaborators, sensitized tumors to therapy and inhibited tumor progression by promoting the retention of iron in the tumor cells. (
  • Progression of the mammalian cell cycle is regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and synthesis/degradation of many key proteins. (
  • identified that targeted knockdown of kinetochore protein D40 can prevent neoplasm cell progression[15]. (
  • Therefore, kinetochore proteins may be novel regulator in tumor development and progression, the further elucidating molecular biological mechanism of which may contribute to the accurate targeted therapy of tumors. (
  • Might be involved not only in mediating the transduction of mitogenic signals at the level of the plasma membrane but also in controlling progression through the cell cycle via interaction with regulatory proteins in the nucleus. (
  • Three of the cell-cycle genes- CDK1 (CDC2), CDC20, and UBE2C (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C)-are upregulated and control cell-cycle progression in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells and have been shown to be critical M-phase regulators of the cell cycle in metastasis. (
  • This protein is vital in regulation of growth and cell cycle progression due to its role in the insulin/TOR/S6K signaling pathway. (
  • This inhibition can subsequently block progression through different phases of the cell cycle. (
  • Super-enhancers are cell-specific DNA elements, acting to determine tissue or cell identity and driving tumor progression. (
  • Observations of dysregulated cell cycle proteins in the brains of patients, along with research in animal models and cultured cells, suggest that aberrant functions of cell cycle proteins contribute to neuronal death and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • Higher levels of PCO and 3NT were detected in amyloid-β protein precursor/presenilin-1 (AβPP/PS-1) mice and increased with disease progression. (
  • Multiple positive and negative regulators control progression through the cell cycle. (
  • Herceg, Z., Hulla W., Gell D., Cuenin C., Lleonart M., Jackson S. and Wang Z.Q. (2001) Disruption of Trrap causes early embryonic lethality and defects in cell cycle progression. (
  • Nibrin interacts with two other proteins, produced from the MRE11A and RAD50 genes, as part of a larger protein complex. (
  • Exploration of the cell-cycle genes found within the RIKEN FANTOM2 data set. (
  • However, if the other gene mutates throughout their lifetime, the cells containing the two mutated BRCA genes become cancer cells. (
  • Although called the breast cancer genes, the BRCA genes do not only concern the cells in the breast. (
  • And when the genes in the cells of different areas of our body mutate, they can also cause cancer in those areas. (
  • There are other genes in our bodies that can affect the way we interact with cancer cells. (
  • Circadian genes and the proteins produced by these genes constitute the molecular components of the circadian oscillator which form positive/negative feedback loops and generate circadian rhythms. (
  • The circadian regulation extends beyond clock genes to involve various clock-controlled genes (CCGs) including various cell cycle genes. (
  • These data provide the first evidence that Rb and Rb-related proteins can directly regulate DNA replication and that components of licensing factor are targets of the products of tumor suppressor genes. (
  • These studies have shown that a substantial portion of the plant genome is clock controlled, with transcript levels of different genes showing peak accumulation at all times, or phases, of the circadian cycle. (
  • Enhancer connectome in primary human cells identifies target genes of disease-associated DNA elements. (
  • It turned out that the same genes we found in yeast were found in human cells," Hartwell said. (
  • Beginning with nothing much more sophisticated than dishes of yeast cultures, a microscope and toothpicks for sorting, he identified a collection of mutated genes that inhibited different stages of cell division. (
  • Hartwell went on to identify more than 100 genes involved in the cell cycle. (
  • For cells, cell lines and tissues in culture till half confluency.Isotype or positive controls by peptides, antibodies and deactivated samples.Guinea pig ELISA kits for plasma and sera samples are used to study human genes through the guinea pig model (Cavia porcellus), also called the cavy rodent model. (
  • It is well understood that the number of proteins an organism produces can be several times greater than the number of its genes. (
  • The key idea of our method is to score genes based on the evidence that they influence the dysregulation of their neighbors on the network in a manner that impacts cell function. (
  • We wished to determine whether suitable culture conditions and differentiation could restore the RPE-appropriate expression of genes and proteins to ARPE-19, along with a functional and morphological phenotype resembling native RPE. (
  • RPE-expressed genes, including RPE65 , RDH5 , and RDH10 , as well as miR-204/211, were greatly increased in the ARPE-19 cells maintained at confluence for 4 months. (
  • The RNA-Seq analysis provided a comprehensive view of the relative abundance and differential expression of the genes in the differentiated ARPE-19 cells. (
  • Gene Ontology analysis showed that the upregulated genes were associated with visual cycle, phagocytosis, pigment synthesis, cell differentiation, and RPE-related transcription factors. (
  • The results of this study demonstrate that low-passage ARPE-19 cells can express genes specific to native human RPE cells when appropriately cultured and differentiated. (
  • Analysis to determine which gene sets and pathways are altered by BCH treatment showed substantial enrichment of gene sets involved in cell-cycle regulation including spindle formation, microtubule cytoskeleton, M phase, mitosis, cell-cycle process, and cell-cycle phase genes and a significant enrichment in binding sites for E2F transcription factor, the family members of which regulate the cell cycle and metabolism in cancers. (
  • Further analysis generated a network of downregulated genes from the E2F transcription factors, showing that approximately half of the genes are part of a common cell-cycle regulatory pathway. (
  • This analysis suggested that E2F-regulated cell-cycle genes are also crucial for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. (
  • Autophagy can help remove cellular waste and keep genes stable within a cell. (
  • I just watched a movie on the new paradigm of the epigenetic mechanism of the cell that more or less debunks the idea that genes are responsible for most diseases, most or 90% of disease is caused by something in the cellular environment--like perhaps aluminum adjuvant destroying the cell membrane so that transcription of the genes to make proteins doesn't work, or there is a elevated inflammatory environment. (
  • Vertebrate delangins have substantial homology to orthologs in flies, worms, plants and fungi, including Scc2-type sister chromatid cohesion proteins, and D. melanogaster Nipped-B. We propose that perturbed delangin function may inappropriately activate DLX genes, thereby contributing to the proximodistal limb patterning defects in CdLS. (
  • The protein expression of target genes was examined using western blotting. (
  • It has paved the way for studying how genes regulate the most basic functions of the cell, including what proteins to produce and how to make them. (
  • Proteomics is highly linked to genomics, since the blueprint for each protein is inscribed on an organism's genes. (
  • In 2014, scientists developed a draft map of the human proteome , which catalogued proteins encoded by over 17,000 human genes, or about 84% of all protein-coding genes in the human genome. (
  • Because the two proteins, Cdc7 and Dbf4, must form a complex before activating the MCM complex, the regulation of one protein is sufficient for both. (
  • These findings suggest that hRpS3 is involved in Cdk2-mediated cell cycle regulation. (
  • Here we have uncovered a mechanism of APA regulation impinging on the interaction between the exonuclease XRN2 and the RNA-binding protein Sam68, whose increased expression in prostate cancer is promoted by the transcription factor MYC. (
  • Outcomes Up-regulation of miR-15b in glioma HOXA11 cell and cells lines To judge the dysregulation of miR-15b in glioma cells, we analyzed miR-15b manifestation levels inside a -panel of purchase PF-2341066 76 glioma cells including 50 major GBMs (quality IV), 13 AAs (quality III) and 13 DAs (quality II), aswell as 10 non-neoplastic mind cells for control, by qRT-PCR. (
  • 14-3-3 proteins in cell cycle regulation. (
  • We have a strong interest in genomics and gene regulation, oncogenic kinases as potential molecular therapeutic targets and the use of in vivo lineage tracing to define the fates of specific cell populations in tumorigenesis. (
  • High expression of LSF in cervical cancer HPV‑positive cells suggests that this protein may be important in the regulation of TSG101 expression, as well as in cervical carcinogenesis. (
  • With the exception of its important role in regulation of viral and cellular promoters, including SV40, and HIV-1 promoters, including fibrinogen and α-globin, LSF is involved in numerous other important biological functions, such as regulation of the cell cycle, cell growth and development, DNA synthesis, cell survival and Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is a cytoplasmic protein involved in regulation of cell cycle, DNA repair and tumorogenesis. (
  • In the lab we focus on the regulation of auto-reactive T cells and their targeted elimination in pre-clinical therapeutic models. (
  • Activated T cells unlike their naïve, regulatory (Treg) and quiescent memory counterparts exhibit a strong DNA damage response (DDR) in vivo , and display striking up-regulation of p53-driven processes. (
  • Our hypothesis is that a maternal low protein or high fat diet during gestation, and possibly just during the periconceptional period, affects the development of the brain and the regulation of neural stem cells across life. (
  • Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30min to 5h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. (
  • NIRF, a novel RING finger protein, is involved in cell-cycle regulation. (
  • In addition, studies have shown that many FMDV proteins are involved in the regulation of host innate immunity and have revealed mechanisms by which FMDV proteins mediate host innate immunity. (
  • Negative regulation of DNA replication by the retinoblastoma protein is mediated by its association with MCM7 . (
  • Prostate cancer ETS rearrangements switch a cell migration gene expression program from RAS/ERK to PI3K/AKT regulation. (
  • Regulation of cell cycle control and other cellular pathways by 14-3-3 proteins. (
  • Most functions in cells are performed by large protein complexes and the regulation of complex formation is critical to cell homeostasis. (
  • Regulation of centrosome duplication by 14-3-3 proteins. (
  • KRAS regulation by small non-coding RNAs and SNARE proteins. (
  • Moreover, gene and protein expression analyses suggested that this effect was achieved through the regulation of p21 and p53 expression. (
  • MiRNAs and lncRNAs play a vital role in regulating gene expression via their fine regulation at various levels, including transcription, translation and protein functions. (
  • Both processes are thought to serve critical roles in gene regulation and cell decision making, but little is currently understood. (
  • Previous studies have reported that various proteins participating in the regulation of mitosis are abundant expressed in human tumor tissues, an amount of which are proved to be carcinogenic[8]. (
  • Regulation of biofilm formation in V. cholerae at high and low cell densities. (
  • Ear1, Epx, Prg2) or proteins involved with cell cycle regulation. (
  • This analysis indicated that E2F transcription factors have a central role in the regulation of cell-cycle gene expression in prostate cancer. (
  • The evolution of an ancestral sister chromatid cohesion protein to acquire an additional role in developmental gene regulation suggests that there are parallels between CdLS and Roberts syndrome. (
  • Differential regulation of human RecQ family helicases in cell transformation and cell cycle. (
  • The gene coding for the Dbf4 or ASK protein is regulated during the different phases of cell cycle. (
  • The NBN gene provides instructions for making a protein called nibrin. (
  • The MRE11A/RAD50/NBN complex interacts with the protein produced from the ATM gene, which plays an essential role in recognizing broken strands of DNA and coordinating their repair. (
  • The NBN gene mutations that cause Nijmegen breakage syndrome typically lead to the production of an abnormally short version of the nibrin protein. (
  • Studies in Eastern European populations reported that people with mutations in one copy of the NBN gene in each cell may be more likely to develop breast cancer, prostate cancer, ovarian cancer, an aggressive form of skin cancer (melanoma), or cancer of blood-forming cells (leukemia) than people who do not carry NBN mutations. (
  • Cells with a mutation in one copy of the NBN gene do not repair DNA as effectively as cells without these mutations. (
  • We found six missense mutations in the gene encoding valosin-containing protein (VCP, a member of the AAA-ATPase superfamily) exclusively in all 61 affected individuals. (
  • Previously, sequence variations among the different genome types of Ad7 strains have been observed at 2 variable regions of the hexon gene and in a 14.9-kDa protein encoded by an ORF in the E3 region ( 6 , 14 ). (
  • DNA stool test for colorectal cancer: Hypermethylation of the secreted frizzled-related protein-1 gene. (
  • Our previous study demonstrated a decreased expression of tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) in cervical cancer cells. (
  • In our research, cell cycle-specific transcription factor, E2F1 was identified as a downstream gene of FOXN3. (
  • Histone deacetylases (HDAC) act as transcriptional gene repressors through the deacetylation of lysine residues on histone proteins. (
  • Deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1, CCAR2, KIAA1967) is a large, predominantly nuclear, multidomain protein that modulates gene expression by inhibiting several epigenetic modifiers, including the deacetylases SIRT1 and HDAC3, and the methyltransferase SUV39H1. (
  • These molecules bind the gene that produces the fusion protein and radically shut-down its expression with longlasting effects. (
  • Each cell in our body contains this gene. (
  • This gene is responsible for creating a protein named tumor protein p53, hence the name TP53. (
  • Sequence of cDNA comprising the human pur gene and sequence-specific single-stranded-DNA-binding properties of the encoded protein. (
  • Phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product is modulated during the cell cycle and cellular differentiation. (
  • The amino-terminal region of the retinoblastoma gene product binds a novel nuclear matrix protein that co-localizes to centers for RNA processing. (
  • Cell cycle-regulated phosphorylation of p220(NPAT) by cyclin E/Cdk2 in Cajal bodies promotes histone gene transcription. (
  • Daughter cells that inherit these wrong bases carry mutations from which the original DNA sequence is unrecoverable (except in the rare case of a back mutation , for example, through gene conversion ). (
  • Coupled Single-Cell CRISPR Screening and Epigenomic Profiling Reveals Causal Gene Regulatory Networks. (
  • at the protein level, investigatiing the physiological function of the gene product. (
  • Two interrelated paradigms currently under investigation are: 1) Molecular basis of the differential expression of the gene for the small heat shock protein Alpha B-crystallin, a protein associated with with vision (e.g. in the ocular lens), oncogenesis (e.g. in breast cancer) and neural degeneration (e.g. in Alzheimer's disease). (
  • The laboratory is interested in (a) elucidating developmental and tissue-specific control of the heat shock promoter of the Alpha B-crystallin gene and (b) understanding the biological function of the Alpha B-crystallin protein. (
  • Induction of p53 tumor suppressor gene, which gives rise to proteins that arrest cell cycle division when DNA mutations occur, allowing DNA repair enzymes to correct the error. (
  • D-Allose upregulates thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) gene expression and was found to induce G1 cell cycle arrest in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. (
  • 3 Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Division of Gene Therapy and Hepatology, University of Navarra School of Medicine, Clínica Universitaria and CIMA, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red, Pamplona, Spain. (
  • 1 Each of the therapies aims to unleash an immune cell-fueled tumor attack by targeting a molecule that normally suppresses T-cell activation-programmed death 1 (PD-1) in the case of nivolumab, and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3) in the case of the new, investigational antibody. (
  • Transcriptional Profiling Identifies Gene Expression Changes Associated with a -Interferon Resistance in Hepatitis C-related Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells. (
  • This gene is a target gene of the transcription factor tumor protein p53. (
  • Overexpression of this gene can result in excessive inactivation of tumor protein p53, diminishing its tumor suppressor function. (
  • In DMD patients, inactivating mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin prevent expression of this critical cytoskeletal protein that is essential for myofiber integrity. (
  • The biology of specific PI3K pathway alterations found in human tumors will be studied by generating cell lines harboring these mutations and assaying gene expression, pathway activation, and the ability to form tumors in animal models. (
  • In addition, each gene in the PI3K pathway (over 17) will be individually deleted in each of these cell lines in order to delineate the nodes that are critical for maintaining oncogenic activities in the context of specific mutations. (
  • Combination therapy with these inhibitors plus inhibitors that target the proteins in the pathway involved in gene expression will also be tested. (
  • The RPS19 gene provides instructions for making one of approximately 80 different ribosomal proteins, which are components of cellular structures called ribosomes. (
  • The protein produced from the RPS19 gene is among those found in the small subunit. (
  • This gene is a member of the small GTPase superfamily and encodes a lipid-anchored, cell membrane protein with five repeats of the RAS-related GTP-binding region. (
  • Protein kinases are one of the largest families of evolutionarily related proteins and comprise one of the most abundant gene families in humans. (
  • Over the past decade a steady series of research results have increased knowledge of the mechanisms of salamander regeneration, both in terms of how different cell populations are behaving, and at the lower level of changes in protein levels, signaling pathways , and gene expression . (
  • Its life cycle, comprised of both single-cell and multicellular phases, provides an excellent system for studying the effects of NCL gene deficiency on conserved cellular and developmental processes. (
  • The "presenilin hypothesis" posits a loss of essential presenilin protein functions as a consequence of gene mutation, which might be one factor influencing disease phenotype. (
  • Elevation in Cell Cycle and Protein Metabolism Gene Transcription in Inactive Colonic Tissue From Icelandic Patients With Ulcerative Colitis. (
  • The p53 tumor-suppressor gene encodes a cell-cycle checkpoint protein that functions in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (
  • The life cycle of a protein starts with a blueprint transcribed from a gene, followed by folding, which translates the blueprint to a three-dimensional structure that allows it to carry out its biological function, and ends with degradation. (
  • Vanadate stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) family members, as determined by the phosphorylation of ERK and p38. (
  • Immunoblotting for cyclin D1, E, A, B, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and their counterpart protein kinases (CDK2, 4, and CDC2) showed significant overexpression in rats with severely cirrhotic livers. (
  • Different effects of staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinases, on the cell cycle and chromatin structure of normal and leukemic lymphocytes. (
  • They have extensive interactions with centrosome proteins, microtubule-associated proteins, and enzymes such as kinases and ubiquitin ligases. (
  • Here we report the systematic discovery of molecules that potently inhibit both tyrosine kinases and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinases, two protein families that are among the most intensely pursued cancer drug targets. (
  • Nuclear signaling by endothelin-1 requires Src protein-tyrosine kinases. (
  • Protein kinases required to establish mitosis prevent re-replication of the DNA. (
  • Protein kinases are the most common protein domains implicated in cancer, where somatically acquired mutations are known to be functionally linked to a variety of cancers. (
  • Structure-based functional annotation and prediction of cancer mutation effects in protein kinases can facilitate an understanding of the mutation-dependent activation process and inform experimental studies exploring molecular pathology of tumorigenesis. (
  • Sequence and structure signatures of cancer mutation hotspots in protein kinases. (
  • The product of the p16 INK4A acts as a negative cell cycle regulator by inhibiting G1 cyclin-dependent kinases that phosphorylate the retinoblastoma protein. (
  • The cyclins are a group of positive regulatory proteins, which in association with their catalytic subunits, the cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), mediate important cell cycle transitions. (
  • Background: The retinoblastoma protein (RB) is an important cell cycle regulator. (
  • A yeast two-hybrid screen was employed to identify human proteins that specifically bind the amino-terminal 400 amino acids of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. (
  • The retinoblastoma protein is phosphorylated during specific phases of the cell cycle. (
  • Physical interaction of the retinoblastoma protein with human D cyclins. (
  • The retinoblastoma protein associates with the protein phosphatase type 1 catalytic subunit. (
  • Large T antigens of many polyomaviruses are able to form complexes with the retinoblastoma protein. (
  • cells reveals that CDC25B indirectly increases the duration of the G1 phase, possibly by preventing phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein. (
  • Cell Cycle Protein Expression in Neuroendocrine Tumors: Association of CDK4/CDK6, CCND1, and Phosphorylated Retinoblastoma Protein With Proliferative Index. (
  • Fractionation experiments indicate that p54 interacts, directly or indirectly, with the nuclear lamina, and analysis of p54 in cultured cells suggests that this interaction is controlled by cell cycle-dependent posttranslational modification, most likely phosphorylation. (
  • regulates homologous recombination-dependent repair by phosphorylating BRCA2, this phosphorylation is low in S phase when recombination is active, but increases as cells progress towards mitosis. (
  • Cdk phosphorylation triggers sequential intramolecular interactions that progressively block Rb functions as cells move through G1. (
  • Growth suppression by gamma-tocotrienol was accompanied by changes in the levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins, notably, Rb/E2F complex, cyclin D1/cdk4 and cyclin B1/cdk1, as exemplified by loss of cyclin D1, inhibition of specific Rb phosphorylation (pRb-p at Thr821), and by the time- and dose-dependent increase in the expression of NQO2. (
  • Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes represent two metabolic disorders where dysfunctional protein GlcNAcylation/ phosphorylation may be important for disease pathology. (
  • When cells adhere via focal adhesions to the extra-cellular matrix, signals are transmitted by integrins into the cell and result in tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of focal adhesion proteins, including PTK2/FAK1 and paxillin (PXN). (
  • Specific ROS affect different MAPK family members and cell growth regulatory proteins with different potencies. (
  • These alterations in cell cycle were associated with changes in cell cycle regulatory proteins and other cell cycle associated proteins. (
  • Neither isoflurane nor sevoflurane significantly changed protein levels of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta-site amyloid beta-precursor protein-cleaving enzyme, and cell cycle regulatory proteins (CDK4, cyclin D1). (
  • Vorinostat modulates cell cycle regulatory proteins in glioma cells and human glioma slice cultures. (
  • Molecularly, as seen in vivo, increased chemoresistance is associated with the upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl2 and the cell cycle regulatory protein p27 Kip1 leading to cell growth arrest. (
  • Although previous approaches have been tried to explain risk associated with SNPs in regulatory DNA elements, so far epigenetic readers such as bromodomain containing protein 4 (BRD4) and super-enhancers have not been used to annotate SNPs. (
  • These proteins were mainly involved in metabolic, regulatory and signaling processes. (
  • I-L ) Cyclin E + /GFAP + cells were broadly observed in the spared tissue (insert in L). ( M-P ) E2F5 is not only expressed by GFAP + hypertrophic astrocytes (insert in P) in the lesion scar border, but also in the central lesion area where GFAP + astrocytes are absent. (
  • The inhibition of cell growth was caused by reduced expressions of cyclin D3 and cyclin A mRNA and protein. (
  • Here, we combine biochemical and structural analysis with functional studies in cells to show that Nek2A is a conformational-specific binder of the APC/C-MCC complex (APC/C MCC ) and that, in contrast to cyclin A, Nek2A can be ubiquitinated efficiently by the APC/C in conjunction with both the E2 enzymes UbcH10 and UbcH5. (
  • activated by interaction with cyclin E during the early stages of DNA synthesis to permit G1-S transition, and subsequently activated by cyclin A2 (cyclin A1 in germ cells) during the late stages of DNA replication to drive the transition from S phase to mitosis, the G2 phase. (
  • A ) protein levels were estimated by immunoblotting with antibodies against ORC1, Cyclin E, Cyclin A and α-Tubulin. (
  • A - D ) Quantitative PCR analysis of ORC1, CCNE1 (Cyclin E), CCNA2 (Cyclin A) and GAPDH transcript levels in U2OS cells transfected with either control siRNA targeting GFP (blue bar) or ORC1 siRNA (grey bar). (
  • GST-fused wild-type RB or its mutant proteins were incubated with wild type MBP-ORC1 in the presence or absence of Cyclin E-CDK2 and/or 1 mM ATP. (
  • p16-INK4a inhibits CDK activity by binding to the CDK molecules in a manner that interferes with their ability to interact with cyclin D. This activity has the effect of suppressing tumor formation and growth, and of inducing replicative senescence in various normal cells, including stem cells. (
  • The expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), Kruppellike factor-4 (KLF4), Cyclin E and c-myc was significantly higher in the high-invasive cells strains compared to the low-invasive cell strains. (
  • Western blotting showed increased Cox-2, Cyclin E, KLF4 and c-myc proteins and decreased expression of Cathepsin D. In addition, the KLF4 protein was higher in the chemically-induced cell strains compared to the spontaneously-occurring cell strains while COX-2 was higher in the spontaneously-occurring cell strains. (
  • It is well known that HSP90 plays a critical and indispensable role in regulating cell growth through modulations of various signal transduction pathways, but its roles in cell cycle control are not so well known. (
  • Main signaling pathways and critical proteins involved (e.g. (
  • Reversible proteasome inhibition disrupts the pathways supporting cell growth, thus decreases cancer cell survival. (
  • The cell cycle is controlled by a complex series of signaling pathways by which a cell grows, replicates its DNA and divides ( 14 ). (
  • While PLK-1 phosphorylates a broad range of targets, it has been shown to be a critical regulator of cell cycle pathways, ranging from mitotic entry to initiation of cytokinesis. (
  • This is important as 14-3-3 proteins regulate multiple cellular pathways, analysis of the phenotypes underlying loss of a specific 14-3-3 isoform must consider how different pathways contribute to the observed phenotype. (
  • BMS has several newer checkpoint inhibitors, targeting other immune pathways, that trigger T cells to home in on tumors, and company researchers are accumulating data on combining each with nivolumab. (
  • Please note that proteins can be included in multiple pathways, ie. (
  • The term "oncotarget" encompasses all molecules, pathways, cellular functions, cell types, and even tissues that can be viewed as targets relevant to cancer as well as other diseases. (
  • To identify new pathways contributing to medulloblastoma development and create new routes for therapy, we have been studying oncogenic RNA-binding proteins. (
  • ICL repair is unique among DNA repair pathways as it harnesses proteins from diverse DNA repair pathways including, Base Excision Repair (BER), Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER), Mismatch Repair (MMR), and Double Strand Break Repair (DSBR). (
  • Chapter 1 provides an overview of these pathways including the types of DNA damage that each pathway responds to, key steps of the repair process, and the corresponding proteins that are involved. (
  • As a result, we found proteins that are involved in important processes during development, such as energy metabolism, control pathways and cellular communication. (
  • The Cdc7/Dbf4 complex adds a phosphate group to the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) protein complex allowing for the initiation of DNA replication in mitosis (as explained in the Cdc7 and Replication section below). (
  • After chromatin undergoes changes in telophase of mitosis, the hexameric protein complex of MCM proteins 2-7 forms part of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) by binding to the chromatin and other aiding proteins (Cdc6 and Cdt1). (
  • The protein, CDT1, helps facilitate DNA replication during the initial part of the cell cycle, called interphase, during which DNA is replicated and checked for errors, before being separated into two daughter cells in the latter part of the cell cycle, called mitosis. (
  • During mitosis, microtubules pull the replicated chromosomes into two separate strands, one for each daughter cell. (
  • Towards exploring this discrepancy, the investigators created cells with dysfunctional CDT1, and found that these mutant cells stalled during the mitosis phase and never correctly divided in two. (
  • Traditionally, some types of drugs try to inhibit mitosis in cancer cells, but normally the number of dividing cells in tissue is very small," Varma said. (
  • Other lesions induce potentially harmful mutations in the cell's genome, which affect the survival of its daughter cells after it undergoes mitosis . (
  • This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. (
  • In the Cancer Cell CAM compare the length of time these cells spend in interphase to that for mitosis to occur. (
  • MAD2 (Mitotic Arrest-Deficient) is the human homolog of a yeast and Xenopus protein that is essential for spindle assembly during mitosis. (
  • Binding of affinity purified polyclonal antibodies to the MAD2 protein has been reported to prevent mitosis of HeLa cells. (
  • Furthermore, MAD2 is localized at the kinetochore of condensed chromosomes during mitosis and cells defective in the mitotic checkpoint have reduced levels of MAD2. (
  • The papillomavirus E2 protein simultaneously associates the host chromatin and the viral genome during mitosis [ 12 ]. (
  • The cell cycle refers to the continuing series of divisions alternating with cell growth: interphase mitosis interphase mitosis interphase. (
  • at the end of mitosis, the cell plate divides the two daughter cells. (
  • at the end of mitosis, a neck forms to separate the two daughter cells. (
  • these cells are not undergoing mitosis. (
  • cell is preparing for mitosis. (
  • Daughter cells grow in size and prepare for renewed mitosis. (
  • The developing embryo of any organism is a good tissue to examine for mitosis, since cells must divide at a high rate to transform a fertilized egg (single cell) into the trillions of cells of a viable organism. (
  • It was reported that KNTC2 was essential to maintain the normal process of cell mitosis [10] and was up-regulated in many tumor tissues, such as HCC, colon cancer, gastric cancer and pancreatic cancer[11-14]. (
  • As cells exit mitosis, the cell cycle is reset, allowing the establishment of a new, competent replication state. (
  • The inhibition of Msi1 with luteolin affected the growth of CHLA-01 and CHLA-01R Group 4 medulloblastoma cells and a synergistic effect was observed when luteolin and the mitosis inhibitor, vincristine, were combined. (
  • VCP is associated with a variety of cellular activities, including cell cycle control, membrane fusion and the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway. (
  • Crif1 Promotes Adipogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells After Irradiation by Modulating the PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway. (
  • This is the first report describing the transcriptomic signature of canine cancer metastatic cells and suggests that this pathway may be essential for mammary cancer cells to have a metastatic potential. (
  • The present study was designed to assess the clinicopathological significance of RB and p53 pathway-related proteins (p53, p21 WAF1/CIP1 and Bax) expression in resectable invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the pancreas. (
  • The expression of RB and p53 pathway-related proteins (p53, p21 WAF1/CIP1 and Bax) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. (
  • However, coexpression analysis of RB and p53 pathway-related proteins indicated that, in the patients with RB (+) IDC, the p21 WAF1/CIP1 (+) group had a significantly higher survival rate than the p21 WAF1/CIP1 (-) group. (
  • The proteasome pathway is an enzyme complex existing in all cells. (
  • Thus, rather than using broad and blunt suppression, unwanted activated encephalitogenic T cells can be selectively purged by exploiting the p53 pathway. (
  • The 14-3-3 family participates in almost every signaling pathway present in mammalian cells which is why we think of them as the answer to the ultimate question of the life, the universe and everything. (
  • As part of these studies we wish to determine the molecular basis for specific complex formation between 14-3-3 proteins and their ligands and elucidate their role in the centrosome duplication pathway. (
  • Therefore, KNTC1 may affect the biological activity of HCC cells through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. (
  • We also found that SFKs coordinate cell adhesion and spreading with activation of the mTOR pathway in PET cells. (
  • Hyperglycemia increases GlcNAcylation of proteins within the insulin signaling pathway and contributes to insulin resistance. (
  • In order to develop a strategy to successfully target this pathway in CRPC, Dr. Hsieh and team are studying how mutations in the PI3K pathway affect oncogenic pathway activities and tumor cell responses to PI3K pathway-targeted treatments. (
  • To identify the most efficacious strategies for targeting tumors harboring specific mutations in the PI3K pathway, each of the PI3K pathway mutation-bearing cell lines will be treated with various PI3K pathway-inhibitors and examined for effects on cell death. (
  • 2012). Quercetin Protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae against Oxidative Stress by Inducing Trehalose Biosynthesis and the Cell Wall Integrity Pathway . (
  • In our [study], we demonstrated that the sustained activation of a molecular pathway (a group of molecules in a cell that work together to control a particular function or functions) - called the ERK pathway - plays a key role during the natural reprogramming of salamander muscle cells. (
  • Only when the ERK pathway is constantly switched "on" are the cells able to re-enter the cell cycle, which is key to their regenerative potential. (
  • Critically, we found that if we forced these mammalian cells to keep the ERK pathway activated (by giving them a piece of DNA that allows them to produce a protein that activates the pathway), the cells could produce the proteins involved in cell cycle re-entry. (
  • Multiple mechanisms of ICL repair exist, and repair pathway choice is primarily determined by the phase of the cell cycle. (
  • Appendix B further explores the contribution of the MMR pathway on ICL repair in mammalian cells. (
  • The 90-kDa heat shock protein, HSP90, is an abundant molecular chaperone which functions in cellular homeostasis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (
  • These findings could inform more effective cancer treatments and help answer larger questions about molecular mechanisms, according to Dileep Varma, PhD , assistant professor of Cell and Molecular Biology and senior author of the study. (
  • Dileep Varma, PhD, assistant professor of Cell and Molecular Biology, was the senior author of a study published in the Journal of Cell Biology. (
  • Human LSF is a 502-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of ~57 kDa ( 24 ). (
  • Students must co-enroll in GSMC 850 (Proteins and Metabolism) and GSMC 851 (Molecular Genetics). (
  • Our lab undertakes detailed molecular studies of auto-reactive T cell development and activation and their interaction with self-antigen and APC in eliciting spontaneous T1D in the NOD mouse. (
  • The present study was conducted to elucidate the anti‑cancer effect and molecular mechanism of flavonoids from Citrus platymamma (FCP) on A549 cells. (
  • PLK1 is a 603 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of ~68 kD. (
  • The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors. (
  • [1] In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in tens of thousands of individual molecular lesions per cell per day. (
  • DNA damage, due to environmental factors and normal metabolic processes inside the cell, occurs at a rate of 10,000 to 1,000,000 molecular lesions per cell per day. (
  • Background Despite using prognostic algorithms and standard surveillance guidelines, 17% of patients initially diagnosed with low risk clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) ultimately relapse and die of recurrent disease, indicating additional molecular parameters are needed for improved prognosis. (
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell, 19 (3), 865 - 876. (
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, 1861 (1), 21 - 33. (
  • The proteins responsible for the key molecular events leading to the structural changes between the developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus remain unknown. (
  • By cataloguing the molecular processes by which cells maintain and modify protein levels, proteomic studies offer another dimension of information that may help advance our understanding of health and disease. (
  • We used Spectral Karyoryping (SKY), mapping with fluorescently labeled genomic clones (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), expression array, real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot to analyze 15 primary adenocarcinoma and 9 pairs of high and low invasive cell cultures to detect molecular changes. (
  • Synergistic killing of glioblastoma stem-like cells by bortezomib and HDAC inhibitors. (
  • These findings indicate that a combined therapeutic strategy (Msi1 + cell cycle/division inhibitors) could work as an alternative to treat Group 4 medulloblastoma. (
  • Cell growth arrest is an important mechanism in maintaining genomic stability and integrity in response to environmental stress. (
  • Exposure of cells to vanadate led to cell growth arrest at the G2/M phase and caused upregulation of p21 and phospho-cdc2 and degradation of cdc25C in a time- and dose-dependent manner. (
  • PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK, and SB202190, an inhibitor of p38, inhibited vanadate-induced cell growth arrest, upregulation of p21 and cdc2, and degradation of cdc25C. (
  • ROS activate ERK and p38, which in turn upregulate p21 and cdc2 and cause degradation of cdc25C, leading to cell growth arrest at the G2/M phase. (
  • The data suggest that the LOV-induced G1 arrest may be a consequence of the loss of the signal transduction capacity of p21ras, and it is also possible that inhibition of isoprenylation of proteins other than p 21ras by LOV may be responsible for the observed suppression of growth of T24 cells. (
  • The siRNA treated cells were released after nocodazole arrest and mRNA levels estimated at different time points as indicated in hours. (
  • One major p53-mediated function in response to DNA damage is to induce the G1 cell-cycle arrest, or delay, which probably allows time for the cell to repair DNA damage prior to S-phase entry. (
  • right after replication is over, the protein levels drop. (
  • Since Cdc7 is attached to the Dbf4 protein the entire complex is held in place during replication. (
  • This is most likely due to the change in conformation allowing the remainder of replication machinery proteins to be loaded. (
  • DNA replication can begin after all the necessary proteins are in place. (
  • It's very surprising for a protein involved in DNA replication to be also binding microtubules," said Varma, who is also a member of the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University . (
  • It was previously known that CDT1 was present in high concentrations during the early part of interphase, corresponding to its replication function, after which the protein is degraded. (
  • On a larger scale, a single protein performing both DNA replication and microtubule binding is peculiar, and may hint at a common evolutionary origin for both mechanisms, according to Varma. (
  • The NS proteins form a replication complex which synthesizes positive-sense RNA from negative-sense RNA. (
  • This process includes mechanisms to ensure errors are corrected while cell replication occurs, and if the correction cannot be performed, cells enter into the apoptotic process ( 15 ). (
  • Two independent cDNAs resulting from this screen were found to encode the carboxy-terminal 137 amino acids of MCM7 , a member of a family of proteins that comprise replication licensing factor. (
  • Nuclei act as independent and integrated units of replication in a Xenopus cell-free DNA replication system. (
  • A role for the nuclear envelope in controlling DNA replication within the cell cycle. (
  • Preventing re-replication of DNA in a single cell cycle: evidence for a replication licensing factor. (
  • Initiation of DNA replication in nuclei and purified DNA by a cell-free extract of Xenopus eggs. (
  • The role of MCM/P1 proteins in the licensing of DNA replication. (
  • The replication of damaged DNA before cell division can lead to the incorporation of wrong bases opposite damaged ones. (
  • Profiling of rotavirus 3'UTR-binding proteins reveals the ATP synthase subunit ATP5B as a host factor that supports late-stage virus replication. (
  • The origin recognition complex (ORC) was originally identified in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a protein that specifically binds to origins of DNA replication. (
  • Although ORC appears to play an essential role in the initiation of DNA replication in the cells of all eukaryotes, its interactions with DNA have not been defined in species other than budding yeast. (
  • Here we show that the CULLIN3 E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptor protein SPOP binds Geminin at endogenous level and regulates DNA replication. (
  • The papillomaviruses (PVs) are viruses that require the environment of a differentiating epithelium for their replication cycle [ 1 ]. (
  • presenting late transcription in virus replication cycle, and E region, with early transcription in virus cycle, which codifies the proteins related to carcinogenic action [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • The initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells is a highly regulated process that leads to the duplication of the genetic information for the next cell generation. (
  • This requires the ordered assembly of many proteins at the origins of DNA replication to form a competent, pre-replicative chromosomal state. (
  • However, replication of the native RPE phenotype becomes more difficult because these cells lose their specialized phenotype after multiple passages. (
  • In addition to the four structural proteins, the SARS-CoV2 genome encodes 16 non-structural proteins (NSPs) essential for virus replication but also to elicit the immune response and represent targets to develop future prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against COVID-19 (9) . (
  • In proliferating cells, the ICL repair occurs during S-phase, and in a process termed "replication coupled repair" (RCR). (
  • In contrast, slowly or non-dividing cells rely on an alternative modality of repair called "replication independent repair" (RIR). (
  • RIR is critical for homeostasis and survival in quiescent healthy cells that (for example, neurons) and in cycling cells deficient for replication coupled repair proteins (i.e. (
  • Finally, in Appendix C and D we provide further evidence that RIR is fundamentally distinct from replication coupled ICL repair, as depletion of key RCR proteins from our extracts yields no phenotype. (
  • The sequence similarity with importin indicates that Pendulin may play a role in the nuclear import of karyophilic proteins and some of these may be required for the normal transmission and function of proliferative signals in the cells. (
  • We detected phosphorylated tau protein as small dense dots in the cell nucleus, which strongly colocalize with intranuclear speckle structures that were also labelled with an antibody to SC35, a protein involved in nuclear RNA splicing. (
  • Using a mAb (R-7), we have characterized a 54-kD protein of the chicken nuclear envelope. (
  • While satellites cluster around the nuclear envelope in myotubes, they are concentrated at the apical side in polarized epithelial cells of the intestine and kidney ( Figure 1 , E, G, and H). The variation in their cellular distribution suggests cell type and tissue-specific functions for satellites, which remains mostly unexplored. (
  • NIRF is a ubiquitin ligase that is capable of ubiquitinating PCNP, a PEST-containing nuclear protein. (
  • Nuclear condensation and fragmentation were also observed upon staining with Hoechst 33342 in FCP‑treated A549 cells. (
  • Bhat SP, Hale IL, Matsumoto B, Elghanayan D. Ectopic Expression of αB-crystallin in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells suggests a nuclear role for this protein. (
  • We have classified these motifs into three types according to their sequence similarity and have found that they are prevalent in many eukaryotic nuclear proteins in single or multiple copies. (
  • It inhibited transcriptional activity of the activator protein 1, nuclear factor-κB, and nuclear factor of activated T cells. (
  • The retroviral oncogene v-myb, and its cellular counterpart c-myb, encode nuclear DNA-binding proteins. (
  • The encoded protein is a nuclear phosphoprotein that binds and inhibits transactivation by tumor protein p53, as part of an autoregulatory negative feedback loop. (
  • This system faithfully recapitulates RIR and has been instrumental in identifying DNA polymerase kappa (Pol κ) and the eukaryotic sliding clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), as two critical RIR factors. (
  • This protein is involved in several critical cellular functions, including the repair of damaged DNA. (
  • The Golgi apparatus both delivers and receives vesicles to and from multiple cellular destinations and is also responsible for modifying proteins and lipids. (
  • Host cells invaded by Zika virus undergo cellular appoptosis, necrosis, and death. (
  • Topics include the lipid bilayer, membrane proteins, and cellular organelles. (
  • Students must co-enroll in GSMC 853 (Cellular Structure) and GSMC 854 (Cell Communication). (
  • This complex degrades ubiquitinated proteins that control the cell cycle and cellular processes and maintains cellular homeostasis. (
  • Nomenclature for cellular plasticity: are the terms as plastic as the cells themselves? (
  • Following treatment of DU145 human prostate cancer cells with 10, 25 and 50 mg ml 1 of WCE, respectively for 6 h, WCE significantly decreased the cellular viability of DU145 cells. (
  • Because the spliceosome plays such a key role in maintaining a healthy body, cellular mechanisms are in place to make sure the code decryption goes on smoothly, as in the case of healthy cells, and does not go awry, as in disease. (
  • GlcNAcylated proteins are crucial in regulating virtually all cellular processes, including signaling, cell cycle , and transcription, among others. (
  • The resulting organic acids are used by the body to generate cellular energy and provide many of the building blocks necessary for cell function. (
  • From the Latin word that means 'self-eating,' autophagy is a natural process that involves breaking down unneeded or damaged components within a cell and reusing them as the building blocks for cellular repair or the formation of new cells. (
  • It helps RNA to enter in the cell and to interact with cellular components. (
  • p53 maintains multiple functions related to cellular homeostasis and cell fate determination, and is negatively regulated by two E3 ubiquitin ligases, MDM2 and MDMX (murine double minute X). MDM2 and MDMX promote cell survival and are implicated in several types of cancer, but the functions of MDMX in neurons are largely unknown. (
  • When a cell is perturbed, it responds by altering expressing levels of specific proteins and adjusting cellular functions in response to the new environmental stimuli. (
  • During this first mitotic stage, the nucleolus fades and chromatin (replicated DNA and associated proteins) condenses into chromosomes. (
  • The N-terminal domain contains nine copies of the AT-hook motif found in a number of DNA-binding proteins, including the members of the HMG-I(Y) family of chromatin proteins. (
  • Furthermore, AT-hook motifs are frequently associated with known functional domains seen in chromatin proteins and in DNA-binding proteins (e.g. histone folds, homeodomains and zinc fingers). (
  • The virus in its episomal form is found in benign lesions and E2 also acts in the integration of virus sequences in host chromatin of neoplasic cells. (
  • Proteins and Metabolism. (
  • It will cover basic principles of metabolism, protein structure and an introduction to nucleic acids. (
  • DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are a potent type of DNA damage that arise as a consequence of normal cell metabolism. (
  • Oxidized phospholipids regulate amino acid metabolism through MTHFD2 to facilitate nucleotide release in endothelial cells. (
  • Our findings suggest that the presence of tau protein is involved in separation of sister chromatids in anaphase, and that tau protein also participates in maintaining the integrity of the DNA (pT231, prophase) and chromosomes during cell division (TG-3). (
  • DNA can be damaged by agents such as toxic chemicals or radiation, and breaks in DNA strands also occur naturally when chromosomes exchange genetic material in preparation for cell division. (
  • Control dividing cells separate their duplicated chromosomes normally to the two daughter cells (left, blue arrows) as compared to cells expressing a mutated form of Cdt1 that is defective in binding to microtubules and exhibit severe delays in accomplishing this task (right, yellow arrows). (
  • These microtubules manipulate the chromosomes using another protein complex called Ndc80 as a connecting structure. (
  • The root cause of EWS and RMS are fusions between chromosomes that form a new cancer driver (a fusion protein) that does not exist in normal cells. (
  • Some mitotic spindle fibers elongate from the centrosomes and attach to kinetochores, protein bundles at the centromere region on the chromosomes where sister chromatids are joined. (
  • Other spindle fibers elongate but instead of attaching to chromosomes, overlap each other at the cell center. (
  • Tension applied by the spindle fibers aligns all chromosomes in one plane at the center of the cell. (
  • Spindle fibers shorten, the kinetochores separate, and the chromatids (daughter chromosomes) are pulled apart and begin moving to the cell poles. (
  • The majority of malignant cells present genetic instability with chromosome number changes plus segmental defects: these changes involve intact chromosomes and breakage-induced alterations. (
  • Papillomaviruses maintain their genomes in episomal condition, linked to host cell chromosomes during cell division and being distributed in dividing cells [ 11 ]. (
  • Chromosomes become visible and nucleoli disappear (DNA + associated proteins become tightly organized). (
  • Chromosomes consist of two sister chromatids (DNA replicas + associated proteins) attached together at a specialized region called the centromere . (
  • The chromosomes assemble on the equatorial plate (an imaginary disc that crosses the center of the 3-dimensional cell). (
  • Chromosomes (now single molecules of DNA with associated proteins) have reached opposite poles of the cell. (
  • Sister chromatids have separated from each other, and they, as new chromosomes, are moving to opposite poles of the cell. (
  • Mitotic defects could lead to excess chromosomes and chromosomal instability (CIN) which was found in most cancer cells[6]. (
  • J Cell Biol (1995) 129 (6): 1491-1507. (
  • Trends Cell Biol. (
  • Small heat shock protein αB-crystallin is part of cell cycle dependent Golgi reorganization J Biol Chem 2004;279:43374-7. (
  • Eur J Cell Biol 1999;78:143-50. (
  • J Cell Biol (2002) 156 (1): 87-100. (
  • It's possible that DNA and microtubule binding proteins have retained similar mechanisms as a backup, of sorts. (
  • Human ribosomal protein S3 (hRpS3) is a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit that associated in protein synthesis. (
  • L-type amino acid transporters (LATs) uptake neutral amino acids including L-leucine into cells, stimulating mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and protein synthesis. (
  • Studies of the human proteome have enabled scientists to track protein synthesis, modification, and degradation over time and across different cell types. (
  • We use a wide variety of approaches ranging from biochemistry to genomics to study the interaction of ETS proteins with the genome and to determine the role these mechanisms play in carcinogenesis. (
  • ETS1 is a genome-wide effector of RAS/ERK signaling in epithelial cells. (
  • DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome . (
  • The DNA repair ability of a cell is vital to the integrity of its genome and thus to the normal functionality of that organism. (
  • The purpose of the eukaryotic cell cycle is to accurately duplicate and segregate the genome. (
  • The Papillomavirus genome comprises three regions: LCR, "long control region" responsible for genome transcription control, L region, encoding the capsid major and minor proteins (L1 and L2, resp. (
  • The cell-cycle checkpoints are pivotal to genome maintenance and are specifically deregulated in cancer cells and some of them are considered as potential therapeutic targets[5]. (
  • The SARS-CoV-2 genome is known to encode at least 29 proteins, all of which are of great interest to researchers investigating the virus life cycle, host cell entry, and immune system stimulation, and all for the purpose of seeking out targets for treatments and vaccines. (
  • If unrepaired, or incorrectly repaired, ICLs can lead to gross genome instability and cell death. (
  • A variant of the breast cancer type 2 susceptibility protein (BRC) repeat is essential for the RECQL5 helicase to interact with RAD51 recombinase for genome stabilization. (
  • New insights into the genome have led to the emergence of proteomics , the study of the structure and function of an individual's entire set of expressed proteins. (
  • Systemic inhibition of Axl results in increased type I interferon secretion from dendritic cells that expanded tumor-associated TCF1+PD-1+CD8 T cells, restoring therapeutic response to PD-1 ICB in KPL tumors. (
  • We have also identified novel candidate PIM1-interacting proteins in prostate epithelial cells. (
  • We are using lineage tracing to examine the competence of specific prostate epithelial cell types to regenerate tumors following therapy in mice. (
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated transformation of human cervical epithelial cells has been recognized as a multi-step process in which not only viruses but also certain additional unknown factors and (epi)genetic events are required. (
  • Transitions between epithelial and mesenchymal states: acquisition of malignant and stem cell traits. (
  • Integrative transcriptomic analysis reveals a multiphasic epithelial-mesenchymal spectrum in cancer and non-tumorigenic cells. (
  • Cadherins were initially identified in epithelial tissues [ 4 , 5 ], but subsequent studies found that both proteins were also expressed in cancer cells including Hela and MCF-7. (
  • It has been speculated that blood mononuclear cells, that migrate to sites of tissue inflammation could act as a source of virus (BPV, e.g.,) in the infection of epithelial cells and could become involved in tumor development independently or jointly with several biological and/or chemical cofactors [ 14 , 20 ]. (
  • The RPE, a polarized monolayer of highly differentiated epithelial cells, positioned strategically between the neural retina and the vascular choriocapillaris, performs crucial functions that are necessary to maintain the function and survival of the photoreceptors and other retinal cells. (
  • 8.Positive test results for ANA (human epithelial cell-2 ANA = 1:80) and/or anti dsDNA antibody (= 15 IU/mL) and/or anti-Smith antibody during Screening Period. (
  • A previous study showed that FOXN3 could down-regulate E2F5 in human cells to control cell cycle or inhibit protein biosynthesis[ 6 ]. (
  • Additionally, E2F family can regulate the cell cycle G1 to S phase transition[ 14 ]. (
  • To keep the program working correctly, our body imposes functions that regulate cell production, such as DNA repair. (
  • Furthermore, microarray analysis of the mRNAs associated with polyribosomes revealed that SFKs regulate mTOR-dependent translation of specific transcripts, with an enrichment in mRNAs encoding cell cycle proteins. (
  • In addition, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia are also associated with increased GlcNAcylation, which affect and regulate several insulin signaling proteins , as well as proteins involved on the pathology of diabetes. (
  • We used SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells as an in vitro model to further study the functions of tau protein. (
  • Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma. (
  • We transferred human HSP90 (wild-type or mutated types) expression vectors into NIH-3T3 cells in order to study certain functions of HSP90 in the cell cycle and cell growth under physiological conditions. (
  • Furthermore, miR-15b manifestation in glioma cell lines was analyzed and we discovered a similarly solid upsurge in miR-15b manifestation in seven popular model cell lines produced from human being malignant gliomas (U87, U251, U373, T98G, LN18, LN229 and SF295, Shape 1B). (
  • Its manifestation was improved about 2.8- to 7.6-fold in these tumor cells weighed against human being astrocyte (Figure 1B). (
  • Open up in another window Shape 1 miR-15b manifestation in 76 glioma cells (50 major GBMs, 13 AAs and 13 DAs), 10 non-neoplastic mind cells, 7 glioma cell lines (U87, U251, U373, T98G, LN18, LN229 and SF295) and regular human being astrocyte recognized by quantitative invert transcriptive real-time purchase PF-2341066 polymerase string reaction (qRT-PCR) evaluation. (
  • B. Columns indicate RQ ideals of miR-15b manifestation amounts in human being glioma and astrocyte cell lines. (
  • Glioma cell lines demonstrated about 3- to 7.5-fold higher manifestation of miR-15b in comparison to normal human being astrocyte. (
  • Human Proteinpedia enables sharing of human protein data. (
  • Our approach includes the genomic analysis of human tumors, cell culture studies and the use of genetically engineered mouse models. (
  • Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed a previously observed decreased expression of TSG101, whereas quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed high expression of LSF in cervical, precancer and cancer cells compared with human papillomavirus (HPV)‑negative non‑cancer samples. (
  • Zika virus has tropism for various tissues in the human body such as skin, blood, placenta cells, testes, retinal cells, neural stem cells and neuroprogenitor cells. (
  • Cytostatic and cytotoxic activity of synthetic genistein glycosides against human cancer cell lines. (
  • Mechanistically this occurred because KPL mutant NSCLCs lacked TCF1-expressing CD8 T cells, a phenotype recapitulated in human STK11/LKB1 mutant NSCLCs. (
  • I am part of the Centre for Human Development, Stem Cells & Regeneration and the Southampton Neuroscience Group . (
  • Treatments developed in animal models of Alzheimer's disease fail to translate to patient therapies, possibly because there are significant differences between animal and human brains and proteins. (
  • To counteract this, patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) can be used to generate human neuronal models. (
  • Here, we describe the effects of whole cranberry extract (WCE) on the behaviour of DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. (
  • These findings demonstrate that phytochemical extracts from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) can affect the behaviour of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and further support the potential health benefits associated with cranberries. (
  • Protein complexes between Rb and MCM7 were also detected in anti-Rb immunoprecipitates prepared from human cells. (
  • Multimodal Analysis of Composition and Spatial Architecture in Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma. (
  • Hartwell credited Roman with demonstrating to him that studying the genetics of yeast could serve as a surrogate for studying the genetics of human cells -- or the cells of any living creatures. (
  • Immunofluorescence staining of human endothelial cells. (
  • Human transcripts without protein-coding potential are known as noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNA (circRNA). (
  • Human transcripts without protein-coding potential are known as noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). (
  • The C-terminal domain shows strong sequence similarity to human, frog, and yeast Orc4 proteins, including conserved ATP-binding motifs. (
  • it fulfills the physiological requirements for more than 13 human enzymes and proteins. (
  • It has been estimated that the human body contains up to 6 million proteins species, but only around 20,000 have now been identified and characterised. (
  • The human body contains up to 6 million proteins species. (
  • These cells are tightly associated with the expression of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes E6 and E7 and exhibit chromosomal instability [ 13 ]. (
  • Recent research demonstrated that kinetochore proteins may be potential biomarkers and may contribute to the development of human malignancies. (
  • Kinetochores possesses complex multi-subunit structure that consist of more than 100 different proteins in human cells[9], which is imperative in maintaining the normal division of cell sister chromatid and maintaining chromosomal stability. (
  • In the present study, anticancerefficacy and mechanism of action of a phytochemical, lupeol, in human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells has been examined.The anticancer efficacy of lupeol was assessed by trypan blue cell counting, annexin Vassay, cell cycle analysis, expressionof apoptotic proteins by RT-PCR and Western blotting and assessment of mitochondrial ROS generation by mitosox andmitotracker assays. (
  • We compared the transcriptome of ARPE-19 cells kept in long-term culture with those of primary and other human RPE cells to assess the former's inherent plasticity relative to the latter. (
  • Comparison of the ARPE-19 RNA-Seq data set with that of primary human fetal RPE, embryonic stem cell-derived RPE, and native RPE revealed an important overall similar expression ratio among all the models and native tissue. (
  • In the study, LAT3 protein expression was assessed in human prostate cancer tissue microarrays, which contained samples from patients with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia or Gleason-graded prostate cancer (n = 88) and from patients at different stages after neoadjuvant hormone therapy (n = 72). (
  • Western blot analysis showed that E2F1, E2F2, CDK1, UBE2C, and CDC20 protein levels were slightly decreased in both PC-3 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells after BCH treatment, with all proteins exhibiting a dramatic decrease after leucine deprivation. (
  • The assay specifically detected sAβPPα in cell culture supernatants, in human CSF and even in serum, which is more readily accessible than CSF. (
  • Human RECQ5beta, a protein with DNA helicase and strand-annealing activities in a single polypeptide. (
  • Nineteen national-level public health laboratories performed routine dengue diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules: one containing commercial serum samples spiked with cultured dengue viruses for the detection of nucleic acid and non-structural protein 1 (NS1) (Module A) and one containing human serum samples for the detection of anti-dengue virus antibodies (Module B). A review of logistics arrangements was also conducted. (
  • Based on the structure of the protein, we propose that Pendulin may serve as an adaptor molecule to form complexes with other proteins. (
  • Adaptor proteins mediate the interaction between motors and satellites. (
  • They contain pleckstrin homology and SH2 domains, through which they function as signal transducing adaptor proteins. (
  • however, through the action of the adaptor protein SspB, DAS- or λO -tagged proteins are significantly degraded. (
  • The role of the adaptor-protein SspB has been assumed by Pif6 in our system, only light-induced activation can lead to binding and efficient degradation of DAS bearing constructs. (
  • Jensen VL and Leroux MR (2017) Gates for soluble and membrane proteins, and two trafficking systems (IFT and LIFT), establish a dynamic ciliary signaling compartment. (
  • We have shown further that tau protein, phosphorylated at the sites recognized by pT231, TG-3, and AD2 antibodies, is closely associated with cell division. (
  • Abcam: antibodies, proteins, kits. (
  • Immunoprecipitation with anti-Flag antibody ( C ) or GFP antibody ( D ) from cell lysates followed by immunoblotting with the indicated antibodies. (
  • E ) Cell lysate from HEK293 cells overexpressing GFP-tagged wild type or mutant RB and ORC1-Flag were immunoprecipitated with normal rabbit serum (NRS) or ORC2 or ORC3 antibodies, immunoblotted with the indicated antibodies. (
  • A ) Purified MBP-ORC1 and various GST-fused proteins were mixed and proteins bound in a GST-pull down were detected by immunoblotting with anti-MBP antibodies. (
  • By using monoclonal antibodies raised against isolated clam centrosomes, we have identified a novel 135-kD centrosomal protein (Cep135), present in a wide range of organisms. (
  • For cells, cell lines and tissues in culture till half confluency.Isotype or positive controls by peptides, antibodies and deactivated samples. (
  • PD-L1/PD-1 interaction inhibits immune activation and reduces T-cell cytotoxic activity when bound. (
  • The tetramerization domain is located between amino acids 326 and 89, and is structurally similar to the sterile α-motif protein-protein interaction domain ( 24 , 25 ). (
  • In this review, advances in studies on the mechanisms of interaction between FMDV proteins and host innate immunity are summarized to provide a comprehensive understanding of FMDV pathogenesis and the theoretical basis for FMD prevention and control. (
  • An Interaction with Ewing's Sarcoma Breakpoint Protein EWS Defines a Specific Oncogenic Mechanism of ETS Factors Rearranged in Prostate Cancer. (
  • Comparison of MAPK specificity across the ETS transcription factor family identifies a high-affinity ERK interaction required for ERG function in prostate cells. (
  • RNA-protein interaction detection in living cells. (
  • 5 - 10 In this crucial scenario, the interaction of very late antigen 4 (VLA 4) expressed by AML cells with stromal fibronectin (FN) plays a major role in CAMDR. (
  • In the interaction with proteins, lead binds with virtually every available functional group, including sulfhydryl, amine, phosphate, and carboxyl groups, with sulfhydryl having the highest affinity. (
  • As more with the interaction of an agent with a cell, through data become available on precursor events, and as physiological and tissuerorgan changes, resulting in our understanding improves about how chemicals tumour development. (
  • ID-8 is an inhibitor of DYRK inhibitor that can sustain embryonic stem cell self-renewal and survival without differentiation. (
  • Those of particular interest and significance include cell survival, growth, and differentiation in various tissues ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Indeed, Cdc123 binds ATP-Mg2+, and conserved residues contacting ATP-Mg2+ are essential for Cdc123 to support eIF2 assembly and cell viability. (
  • The SAC effector is the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which binds and inhibits the APC/C. It is incompletely understood how the APC/C switches substrate specificity in a cell cycle-specific manner. (
  • The Orp4 protein (and its isolated N-terminal domain) binds to the Sc. (
  • The B subunit of CT binds to the outside of the host cells, allowing the A sub-unit to enter the cell. (
  • Among the proteins identified are a MYC transcriptional cofactor and a prostate stem cell marker/regulator. (
  • namely the p53 regulator, MDM2, and the critical cell cycle control proteins Chk1 and Chk2. (
  • Culturing of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) KG1a cells in FN-coated PU/PLLA 60:40 shows increased cell adhesion and cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance to the drugs cytarabine and daunorubicin without changing the original CD34 + /CD38 - /CD33 - phenotype for 168 hours compared to fibronectin tissue culture plate systems. (
  • ARPE-19 cells grown for 4 months developed the classic native RPE phenotype with heavy pigmentation. (
  • The ARPE-19 cells cultured for 4 months developed a phenotype characteristic of native RPE and expressed proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs characteristic of the RPE. (
  • Coordinated expression of KLF4 and c-myc is important in the induction of a stem cell phenotype and may be important in chemical carcinogenesis. (
  • Eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2), a heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphatase, has a central role in protein biosynthesis by supplying methionylated initiator tRNA to the ribosomal translation initiation complex and by serving as a target for translational control in response to stress. (
  • Full-length Rb and MCM7 form protein complexes in vitro, and the amino termini of two Rb-related proteins, p107 and p130 , also bind MCM7 . (
  • Loaded particles were tested for in vitro activity and their effect on cell-cycle and markers of metastasis. (
  • Chromosome alterations in tumor cells have been described in animal models and in vitro experiments. (
  • One important question is about possible discrepancies between animal models, in vitro studies, and the real events in cancer cells in vivo . (
  • Standard in vitro drug testing employs 2-D tissue culture plate systems to test anti-leukemic drugs against cell adhesion-mediated drug-resistant leukemic cells that harbor in 3-D bone marrow microenvironments. (
  • In vitro, cabazitaxel showed similar antiproliferative activity to docetaxel in taxane-sensitive cell lines and markedly greater activity in cell lines resistant to taxanes. (
  • The in vitro incorporation of AHA with different tags into newly synthesized proteins (NSPs) by PSCs was analyzed using SDS-PAGE and confocal microscopy. (
  • Pendulin is a new member of a superfamily of proteins which contains Armadillo (Arm) repeats and displays extensive sequence similarities with the Srp1 protein from yeast, with RAG-1 interacting proteins from humans, and with the importin protein from Xenopus. (
  • Sequence analysis of cDNA isolated from CHO cells predicted a protein of 1,145-amino acid residues with extensive α-helical domains. (
  • Using pattern searches and position-dependent matrices, we have extracted the AT-hook motifs present in a non-redundant protein sequence database. (
  • Kremer NE, D'Arcangelo G, Thomas SM, DeMarco M, Brugge JS, Halegoua S. Signal transduction by nerve growth factor and fibroblast growth factor in PC12 cells requires a sequence of src and ras actions. (
  • The system contains several parts: the bacterial ClpXP protease from E. Coli and the specific recognition sequence (DAS-tag) for ClpX for the degradation part as the photoreceptor protein phytochrome B (PhyB) and the phytochrome interacting factor 6(PIF6) from A. thaliana for the light-dependent part of the system. (
  • Target proteins are fused to the PIF and tagged with the specific degradation sequence which, through light activation, brings the degradation sequence in proximity to ClpX and guides them to the catalytic core of the protease. (
  • Therefore a specific degradation of proteins containing the degradation sequence can be induced by a light signal. (
  • It is composed of the 11 amino acid sequence AANDENYALAA, localized at the C-terminal of the target protein. (
  • The C-terminal fusion of PIF6 using the N-terminal degradation tag λO is consequently more promising to succeed, as the specific degradation sequence consists of very few amino acids (3 for the DAS-tag and 11 for the λO -tag) which do not perturb protein activity in most of the cases. (
  • Avelumab is an IgG monoclonal antibody against PD-L1, which was approved by the FDA for treatment of advanced Merkel cell carcinoma on March 23, 2017. (
  • We found that the exogenous expression of HSP90 (wild-type) induced a decrease in cell growth via retardation of the G1/S transition. (
  • A ntineoplastic agents are widely used in cancer therapy because they can inhibit growth by disrupt- ing cell division and killing actively growing cells. (
  • Thus, Zika virus affecting neuronal progenitor cells affects neuronal growth resulting in fetal brain abnormalities and placental insufficiency resulting in fetal loss. (
  • Early studies suggest an effect of maternal low protein diet on the overall brain growth and cell cycle. (
  • Let-7a elevates p21(WAF1) levels by targeting of NIRF and suppresses the growth of A549 lung cancer cells. (
  • Towards this end, our group uses a combination of experimental and computational approaches to study the organization and function of signaling networks controlling the growth, survival, and death of cancer cells. (
  • Growth-inhibitory effects of cancer cells. (
  • Most of the time a cell is in interphase , the growth and preparation stage of the cycle. (
  • LAT1 and LAT3 are overexpressed at different stages of prostate cancer and are involved in increasing nutrients and stimulating cell growth. (
  • This protein has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, which targets tumor protein p53 for proteasomal degradation. (
  • Proteolux is a light-controllable specific protein degradation system. (
  • The ClpX is responsible for recognizing proteins bearing a specific degradation tag, unfolding and leading them into the catalytic core of the enzyme, where two ClpP subunits break down the peptides bonds. (
  • It recognizes specific degradation tags of target substrate proteins, unfolds them in an ATP-consuming hydrolysis reaction, and uses additional cycles of ATP hydrolysis to translocate the unfolded polypeptide into an interior chamber of ClpP, where proteolysis takes place. (
  • its Kd value is significantly higher than the one of wild type SsrA, thus degradation of DAS-tagged proteins is not significant within the range of physiological concentrations. (
  • The target protein will be fused to Pif6 and to the specific degradation tag. (
  • To avoid problems with the accessibility or an increased activity of the target protein we provide two different variants: the C-terminal degradation tags, with the target protein construct [PIF6-linker-Protein-DAS] and the N-terminally fused λO-tag resulting in the construct [λO-Protein-linker-PIF6]. (
  • Coronal section in intact spinal cord showed that CDK4 was mostly expressed in the gray matter ( A ). CDK4 immunoreactivity was increased in the spared tissues surrounding the central lesion at 1 mm caudal to the epicenter ( B ), which co-labeled with GFAP + astrocytes (C and insert in D). Note that CDK4 + cells also appeared in the central lesion area where GFAP + astrocytes are absent. (
  • To analyze the aberrant expression of cell cycle-related proteins and their biological significance in relation to cirrhosis, we compared the cirrhotic patterns induced by two different types of cirrhotic agents, CCl 4 and thioacetamide (TAA) in rats. (
  • We are investigating how PIM1 promotes prostate tumorigenesis by phosphorylating these substrates involved in regulating MYC transcriptional activity and stem cell function. (
  • Hematopoietic cells of mutant larvae overproliferate and form melanotic tumors, suggesting that Pendulin normally acts as a blood cell tumor suppressor. (
  • Recurrent tumors may arise from a small number of "cancer stem-like cells" that survive the initial therapeutic intervention and have the capacity to regenerate the tumor. (
  • In this multi-step process tumor cells migrate from primary tumors to distal sites. (
  • Here, two novel interacting partners of uPAR, the cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (Cyr61) and the Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) were identified and their differential expression demonstrated in TNBC cells as well as in tumors. (
  • Thus, Cep135 may play an important role in the centrosomal function of organizing microtubules in mammalian cells. (
  • This process is rarely found in mammalian cells and this has been suggested as the basis for their poor regenerative abilities. (
  • We also compared salamander and mammalian muscle cells. (
  • The biology and treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma: current understanding and research priorities. (
  • The Journal of cell biology, Vol. 114, H. 3. (
  • 14-3-3 proteins and cancer biology. (
  • In addition to being able to explore the biology of senescent cells and their contribution to age-related health decline, scientists will also be able to test drug candidates that treat senescence. (
  • Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology. (
  • Small DNA-binding motif first described in the high mobility group non-histone chromosomal protein HMG-I(Y). (
  • The AT-hook is a small DNA-binding protein motif which was first described in the high mobility group non-histone chromosomal protein HMG-I(Y). Since its discovery, this motif has been observed in other DNA-binding proteins from a wide range of organisms. (
  • Nibrin regulates the activity of this complex by carrying the MRE11A and RAD50 proteins into the cell's nucleus and guiding them to sites of DNA damage. (
  • The p53 protein is known to control the cell cycle, which regulates cell division. (
  • The RNA-Binding Protein Musashi1 Regulates a Netwo. (
  • The specific functions of the RPS19 protein and the other ribosomal proteins within these subunits are unclear. (
  • Some ribosomal proteins are involved in the assembly or stability of ribosomes. (
  • Angelini M, Cannata S, Mercaldo V, Gibello L, Santoro C, Dianzani I, Loreni F. Missense mutations associated with Diamond-Blackfan anemia affect the assembly of ribosomal protein S19 into the ribosome. (
  • Badhai J, Fröjmark AS, J Davey E, Schuster J, Dahl N. Ribosomal protein S19 and S24 insufficiency cause distinct cell cycle defects in Diamond-Blackfan anemia. (
  • Early Career Cancer Researcher of the Year is awarded to Dr Henry Hui for the development of a new technique in the detection of chromosomal defects in blood cancer cells, called "Immuno-flowFISH", which will advance personalised treatment and improve health outcomes for blood cancer patients. (
  • It is most interesting that this motif seems to be quite specific to known or predicted chromosomal/DNA-binding proteins, suggesting that it may act as a versatile minor groove tether. (
  • Altered levels of Cep135 by protein overexpression and/or suppression of endogenous Cep135 by RNA interference caused disorganization of interphase and mitotic spindle microtubules. (
  • In addition, the team also confirmed that stressful conditions, such as a high-fat diet, could cause cells to produce higher levels of p21 to collect in certain tissues in the mice. (
  • In addition, studies have shown that FOXN3 is significantly downregulated in several cancer tissues including oral laryngeal carcinoma hepatocellular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and colon cancer[ 6 , 9 , 10 ]. (
  • Many of these transcripts encode tissue remodeling proteins (e.g. (
  • Many of these latter transcripts encode eosinophil-specific proteins (e.g. (
  • Background Mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 , which encode the transmembrane proteins polycystin-1 and polycystin-2, respectively, cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). (
  • Cep135 is located at the centrosome throughout the cell cycle, and localization is independent of the microtubule network. (
  • 2004) Localization of Proteins that are Coordinately Expressed with Cln2 during the Cell Cycle. (
  • This mutation leads to the production of a shortened version of the nibrin protein called p70-nibrin. (
  • Even if you clear the malignant cells, you're still left with benign cells harboring the p53 mutation," says David Feldser, lead author of the paper and a postdoctoral fellow at the David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT. (
  • Mutations in STK11/LKB1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are associated with poor patient responses to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB), and introduction of a Stk11/Lkb1 (L) mutation into murine lung adenocarcinomas driven by mutant Kras and Trp53 loss (KP) resulted in an ICB refractory syngeneic KPL tumor. (
  • Genetic disruption of INK4A occurs in approximately 50% of melanomas irrespective of BRAF mutation and has been detected in melanoma cells that developed resistance to BRAFi. (
  • It appears that while mutations in either the BRCA1 and BRCA2 can cause a higher risk of cancer, a mutation in BRCA2 can already promote cancer cell production. (
  • Recombinant p16-INK4a is a 16.5 kDa protein containing 156 amino acid residues. (
  • In these mice, turning on p53 cleared the malignant cells, but left behind cells that had not become malignant. (
  • Intrinsic or acquired drug resistance is defined as the resistance of malignant cells to different structurally and functionally unrelated anticancer drugs. (
  • At this time, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapies for the treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma, avelumab and pembrolizumab. (
  • Proteins involved in cell cycle control and checkpoint initiation (e.g. (
  • In cell lacking of p53 function, a condition of genetic instability results from checkpoint loss (Fig. 4. (
  • when it functions correctly, it appears to suppress tumor formation by preventing cells with cancer-promoting mutations from reproducing. (
  • Without p53, cells can continue dividing even after acquiring hazardous mutations. (
  • Eventually, after a cell accumulates enough mutations, it becomes cancerous. (
  • Inspired by Roman, ignoring the critics, Hartwell decided to work with baker's yeast because specific genetic mutations in the yeast produced changes that were visually identifiable as the yeast cells divided and multiplied in number. (
  • Care4Rare Canada Consortium, Boycott KM, Bastin P and Sheridan EG (2018) Biallelic Mutations in LRRC56, Encoding a Protein Associated with Intraflagellar Transport, Cause Mucociliary Clearance and Laterality Defects. (
  • The cell cycle of eukaryotes is regulated by expression and activation of molecules known as cell division cycle (cdc) proteins. (
  • We specialize in creating beautiful 3D-printed biological models of molecules, proteins, and vi ruses with the highest scientific accuracy and quality. (
  • Aghdaei HA , Ghavami SB, Farmani M, Sherkat G, Shahrokh S, Zali MR. Overexpression of toll-like receptors and co-stimulatory molecules on immature dendritic cells of Crohn's disease. (
  • SCOPe: Structural Classification of Proteins - extended. (
  • The rate of DNA repair is dependent on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the extracellular environment. (
  • Cell-Cycle Proteins Control Production of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps. (
  • 4 Differential interactions of AML cells with neighboring cells or with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the bone marrow microenvironment have been shown to impart CAMDR to AML cells. (
  • The findings, reported in the Nov. 25 issue of Nature , suggest that drugs that restore p53 function could help prevent aggressive lung cancers from metastasizing, though they might spare benign tumor cells that could later turn aggressive. (
  • The first focuses on the mechanisms by which therapy resistance is acquired in colorectal cancer and developing potential therapeutic approaches to re-sensitize tumor cells to therapy with an emphasis on the contribution of iron homeostasis to therapy resistance. (
  • AZ 191 is a potent and selective DYRK1B inhibitor with IC50 of 17 nM in a cell-free assay, about 5- and 110-fold selectivity over DYRK1A and DYRK2, respectively. (
  • TNBC and respective cell lines often overexpress proteins of the urokinase plasminogen activator system (uPAS) including uPA, its receptor uPAR and inhibitor PAI-1, which together with co-factors contribute to the malignancy of TNBC. (
  • Abrogation of Bcl2 activity by the Bcl2-specific inhibitor ABT 737 led to cell death in the presence of both cytarabine and daunorubicin, demonstrating that the cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance induced by Bcl2 and p27 Kip1 in the scaffold was similar to that seen in vivo. (
  • The nucleus of the cell is clearly stained and appears to have tiny dots and one or more dark nucleoli inside. (
  • Dr. Hartwell's extraordinary creativity and imagination led to ground-breaking advances in understanding the cell cycle," said Dr. Marvin Cassman , director of general medical sciences at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Md. "His research proved that it was possible to use the tools of genetics to understand the cell cycle and the way defects in this cycle can result in disease. (
  • The FDA approved pembrolizumab for treatment of adults and children with recurrent, locally advanced, or metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma on December 19, 2018. (
  • A buildup of errors in DNA can trigger cells to grow and divide abnormally, increasing the risk of cancer in people with Nijmegen breakage syndrome. (
  • It is thought that DNA damage accumulates over time, which can trigger cells to grow and divide uncontrollably and increase the risk of developing cancer. (
  • According to Varma, cancer drugs targeting CDT1 could improve on current therapies because CDT1 is active in two separate phases of the cell cycle. (
  • Since the early 1980s, cancer researchers have known that a protein called p53 plays a critical role in protecting cells from becoming cancerous. (
  • If you don't have adequate p53 activation, it's going to allow some cancer cells to escape," he says. (
  • PIM1 induction by hypoxia/radiation/docetaxel promotes prostate cancer cell survival and therapeutic resistance. (
  • Cancer Cell. (
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the TSG101 protein and LSF expression levels during cervical cancer development. (
  • Acquisition of a hybrid E/M state is essential for tumorigenicity of basal breast cancer cells. (
  • Generally, cancer cells appear due to an error in the production of our cells. (
  • Cancer cells reproduce relatively quickly in culture. (
  • Hartwell, a world-renowned University of Washington geneticist and director of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center , yesterday was awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for fundamental discoveries about how cells divide. (
  • Anti-promotional agent, discouraging cancer cell division. (
  • The exact source of these sequences is not clear: circulating virus DNA has been discussed as product of lyses of circulating cancer cells or micrometastasis from the tumor [ 18 ]. (
  • Lupeol is a dietary triterpenoid and has shown itsanticancer efficacy against various cancer types with selectivity in targeting cancer cells. (
  • Bromodomain protein 4 discriminates tissue-specific super-enhancers containing disease-specific susceptibility loci in prostate and breast cancer. (
  • This data will allow for population estimates of the selected steroid hormones and related binding protein that can be used to assist in disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases such as, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), androgen deficiency, cancer, and hormone imbalances in children. (
  • The PLZF-like protein TRA-4 cooperates with the Gli-like transcription factor TRA-1 to promote female development in C. elegans. (
  • During interphase, Pendulin protein is exclusively found in the cytoplasm of embryonic cells. (
  • Epidermal progenitors give rise to Merkel cells during embryonic development and adult homeostasis. (
  • SRF is essential for mesodermal cell migration during elongation of the embryonic body axis. (