Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.
Walking aids generally having two handgrips and four legs.
Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Smooth muscle-like cells adhering to the wall of the small blood vessels of the KIDNEY at the glomerulus and along the vascular pole of the glomerulus in the JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS. They are myofibroblasts with contractile and phagocytic properties. These cells and their MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX constitute the GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM.
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.
Tumors or cancer of the PARANASAL SINUSES.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Diseases affecting or involving the PARANASAL SINUSES and generally manifesting as inflammation, abscesses, cysts, or tumors.
A mucosal tumor of the urinary bladder or nasal cavity in which proliferating epithelium is invaginated beneath the surface and is more smoothly rounded than in other papillomas. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (1/19654)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (2/19654)

The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system [1] [2]. In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb [3] [4] [5], Prospero [5] [6] [7] and Miranda [8] [9] into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface [1]. Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized [10]. We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo.  (+info)

Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530. (3/19654)

Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases.  (+info)

B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through SP1-binding sites. (4/19654)

B-MYB is an ubiquitous protein required for mammalian cell growth. In this report we show that B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through a 120 bp segment proximal to the transcription start site. The B-MYB-responsive element does not contain myb-binding sites and gel-shift analysis shows that SP1, but not B-MYB, protein contained in SAOS2 cell extracts binds to the 120 bp B-myb promoter fragment. B-MYB-dependent transactivation is cooperatively increased in the presence of SP1, but not SP3 overexpression. When the SP1 elements of the B-myb promoter are transferred in front of a heterologous promoter, an increased response to B-MYB results. In contrast, c-MYB, the prototype member of the Myb family, is not able to activate the luciferase construct containing the SP1 elements. With the use of an SP1-GAL4 fusion protein, we have determined that the cooperative activation occurs through the domain A of SP1. These observations suggest that B-MYB functions as a coactivator of SP1, and that diverse combinations of myb and SP1 sites may dictate the responsiveness of myb-target genes to the various members of the myb family.  (+info)

Comparative molecular genetic profiles of anaplastic astrocytomas/glioblastomas multiforme and their subsequent recurrences. (5/19654)

Malignant glial tumors (anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas multiforme) arise mostly either from the progression of low grade precursor lesions or rapidly in a de novo fashion and contain distinct genetic alterations. There is, however, a third subset of malignant gliomas in which genetic lesions remain to be identified. Following surgical resection, all gliomas appear to have an inherent tendency to recur. Comparative molecular analysis of ten primary malignant gliomas (three anaplastic astrocytomas and seven glioblastomas multiforme) with their recurrences identified two distinct subgroups of recurrent tumors. In one group, primary tumors harbored genetic aberrations frequently associated with linear progression or de novo formation pathways of glial tumorigenesis and maintained their genetic profiles upon recurrence. In the other subset with no detectable known genetic mutations at first presentation, the recurrent tumors sustained specific abnormalities associated with pathways of linear progression or de novo formation. These included loss of genes on chromosomes 17 and 10, mutations in the p53 gene, homozygous deletion of the DMBTA1 and p16 and/ or p15 genes and amplification and/or overexpression of CDK4 and alpha form of the PDGF receptor. Recurrent tumors from both groups also displayed an abnormal expression profile of the metalloproteinase, gel A, and its inhibitor, TIMP-2, consistent with their highly invasive behavior. Delineation of the molecular differences between malignant glioblastomas and their subsequent recurrences may have important implications for the development of rational clinical approaches for this neoplasm that remains refractory to existing therapeutic modalities.  (+info)

Evidence for F-actin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved in assembly and stability of the medial actomyosin ring in fission yeast. (6/19654)

Cell division in a number of eukaryotes, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is achieved through a medially placed actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although several components of the actomyosin ring have been identified, the mechanisms regulating ring assembly are still not understood. Here, we show by biochemical and mutational studies that the S.pombe actomyosin ring component Cdc4p is a light chain associated with Myo2p, a myosin II heavy chain. Localization of Myo2p to the medial ring depended on Cdc4p function, whereas localization of Cdc4p at the division site was independent of Myo2p. Interestingly, the actin-binding and motor domains of Myo2p are not required for its accumulation at the division site although the motor activity of Myo2p is essential for assembly of a normal actomyosin ring. The initial assembly of Myo2p and Cdc4p at the division site requires a functional F-actin cytoskeleton. Once established, however, F-actin is not required for the maintenance of Cdc4p and Myo2p medial rings, suggesting that the attachment of Cdc4p and Myo2p to the division site involves proteins other than actin itself.  (+info)

The role of RBF in the introduction of G1 regulation during Drosophila embryogenesis. (7/19654)

The first appearance of G1 during Drosophila embryogenesis, at cell cycle 17, is accompanied by the down-regulation of E2F-dependent transcription. Mutant alleles of rbf were generated and analyzed to determine the role of RBF in this process. Embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic RBF products show constitutive expression of PCNA and RNR2, two E2F-regulated genes, indicating that RBF is required for their transcriptional repression. Despite the ubiquitous expression of E2F target genes, most epidermal cells enter G1 normally. Rather than pausing in G1 until the appropriate time for cell cycle progression, many of these cells enter an ectopic S-phase. These results indicate that the repression of E2F target genes by RBF is necessary for the maintenance but not the initiation of a G1 phase. The phenotype of RBF-deficient embryos suggests that rbf has a function that is complementary to the roles of dacapo and fizzy-related in the introduction of G1 during Drosophila embryogenesis.  (+info)

The amino-terminal C/H1 domain of CREB binding protein mediates zta transcriptional activation of latent Epstein-Barr virus. (8/19654)

Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is maintained as a nucleosome-covered episome that can be transcriptionally activated by overexpression of the viral immediate-early protein, Zta. We show here that reactivation of latent EBV by Zta can be significantly enhanced by coexpression of the cellular coactivators CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. A stable complex containing both Zta and CBP could be isolated from lytically stimulated, but not latently infected RAJI nuclear extracts. Zta-mediated viral reactivation and transcriptional activation were both significantly inhibited by coexpression of the E1A 12S protein but not by an N-terminal deletion mutation of E1A (E1ADelta2-36), which fails to bind CBP. Zta bound directly to two related cysteine- and histidine-rich domains of CBP, referred to as C/H1 and C/H3. These domains both interacted specifically with the transcriptional activation domain of Zta in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Interestingly, we found that the C/H3 domain was a potent dominant negative inhibitor of Zta transcriptional activation function. In contrast, an amino-terminal fragment containing the C/H1 domain was sufficient for coactivation of Zta transcription and viral reactivation function. Thus, CBP can stimulate the transcription of latent EBV in a histone acetyltransferase-independent manner mediated by the CBP amino-terminal C/H1-containing domain. We propose that CBP may regulate aspects of EBV latency and reactivation by integrating cellular signals mediated by competitive interactions between C/H1, C/H3, and the Zta activation domain.  (+info)

The p53 transcription factor regulates multiple biological functions, including growth arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis. This gene is continuously degraded in the cell under normal conditions. When external or cellular stress causes DNA damage, the genes ATM and ATR are activated and phosphorylate the cell cycle checkpoint proteins CHEK1 and CHEK2. During this process, p53 degradation is inhibited, and p53 protein accumulates in the nucleus. p53 is activated by posttranslational modifications such as acetylation or phosphorylation. Additional cofactors enhance or inhibit the activity of this important transcription factor. Genes targeted by p53 initiate multiple processes such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. A wide variety of cancers carry p53 mutations or other defects that dysregulate p53 and its cofactors, making this gene an important and highly-studied tumor suppressor. Analyzing the expression, regulation, and sequence of p53 signaling genes can help determine their relative ...
A novel approach to the study of the control of the mammalian cell cycle was opened by the cloning of a human gene by complementation of a fission-yeast cdc2 cell-cycle mutant. We have investigated the behaviour of the RNA and protein products of this human gene, CDC2Hs, and its murine equivalent, CDC2Mm during serum starvation and re-feeding of cultured fibroblasts. In contrast to the pattern of wild-type cdc2+ expression in fission yeast previously described, the mammalian homologue displays variation in both RNA and protein levels during exit from and re-entry into the mitotic cycle. Like its yeast counterpart, however, the mammalian CDC2 protein (p34CDC2) becomes dephosphorylated upon shifting from exponential growth to quiescence, and rephosphorylated late in the G1 phase when cells are stimulated to re-enter the cycle. We propose that phosphorylation of p34CDC2 serves as a regulatory mechanism generally in eukaryotic cells, while transcriptional control of the CDC2 gene in higher eukaryotes may be
According to a new study, scientists have safely shut down breast cancer and a form of leukemia in mice by targeting abnormal proteins to which the cancers are addicted.
Human Crif1 is a protein with multiple functions, playing important roles in embryonic development, cellular stress, cell cycle regulation and mitochondrial membrane integrity. CRIF1 is coined to play a regulatory role in the Bone Marrow microenvironment-induced leukemia cell cycle arrest possibly through interacting with CDK2 and acting as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ...
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Component of the 9-1-1 cell-cycle checkpoint response complex that plays a major role in DNA repair. The 9-1-1 complex is recruited to DNA lesion upon damage by the RAD17-replication factor C (RFC) clamp loader complex. Acts then as a sliding clamp platform on DNA for several proteins involved in long-patch base excision repair (LP-BER). The 9-1-1 complex stimulates DNA polymerase beta (POLB) activity by increasing its affinity for the 3-OH end of the primer-template and stabilizes POLB to those sites where LP-BER proceeds; endonuclease FEN1 cleavage activity on substrates with double, nick, or gap flaps of distinct sequences and lengths; and DNA ligase I (LIG1) on long-patch base excision repair substrates. The 9-1-1 complex is necessary for the recruitment of RHNO1 to sites of double-stranded breaks (DSB) occurring during the S phase. Isoform 1 possesses 3-,5 double stranded DNA exonuclease activity ...
The cell cycle proteins are key regulators of cell cycle progression whose de-regulation is one of the causes of breast cancer. RNA interference (RNAi) is an endogenous mechanism to regulate gene expression and it could serve as the basis of regulating aberrant proteins including cell cycle proteins. Since the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a main barrier for implementation of RNAi therapy, we explored the potential of a non-viral delivery system, 2.0 kDa polyethylenimines substituted with linoleic acid and caprylic acid, for this purpose. Using a library of siRNAs against cell cycle proteins, we identified cell division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), a recombinase RAD51, and serine-threonine protein kinase CHEK1 as effective targets for breast cancer therapy, and demonstrated their therapeutic potential in breast cancer MDA-MB-435, MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells with respect to another well-studied cell cycle protein, kinesin spindle protein. We also explored the efficacy of dicer-substrate siRNA
The cell cycle includes 4 main phases: Gap 1 (G1), DNA replication (S), Gap 2 (G2), and mitosis (M). Tight regulation of the transition between these phases halts cell cycle progression if a phase is not properly completed. For example, the G2-M DNA damage checkpoint ensures the fidelity of DNA replication, and arrests the cell cycle to allow time for replication error correction and DNA damage repair. Cell cycle progression is regulated by the cyclic rise and fall of kinase expression, and their interaction with, and action on, their cyclin targets. Cell cycle dysregulation commonly occurs during oncogenesis, and tumor cells often do not arrest the cell cycle when normally required. Key genes that regulate cell cycle progression and checkpoints encode cullins, cyclins, and cyclin-dependent kinases and their inhibitors. Other cell cycle regulatory genes include apoptosis regulators and DNA damage sensors ...
In this study, we generated a mutant of SpCdc25 that is severely impaired in its ability to bind to the fission yeast 14-3-3 proteins (Rad 24 and Rad 25). When expressed in fission yeast, this mutant Cdc25 protein localized almost exclusively to the nucleus, in contrast to wild-type Cdc25, which localized to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Inhibition of Crm1-mediated nuclear export resulted in the nuclear accumulation of wild-type Cdc25, indicating that wild-type Cdc25 normally shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Overproduction of Rad 24 caused wild-type Cdc25 to localize exclusively to the cytoplasm, whereas nuclear localization of the 14-3-3 binding mutant was not altered upon Rad 24 overproduction. Finally, cells expressing the 14-3-3 binding mutant exhibited defective G2/M checkpoint responses. Taken together, these results suggest that 14-3-3 binding regulates the intracellular compartmentalization of Cdc25 and establish that 14-3-3 binding to Cdc25 is required for fission ...
A recent in-depth view of cell cycle regulation and cancer has provided novel samples of research at the Frontiers of Science. However, the number of foremost revealing information about both the topics has been derived from the intersection of these two fields.1-5 This review intends to introduce the basics of the cell cycle and its regulation at different checkpoints in relation to cancer. Cancer is broadly a result of unchecked cell multiplication due to abnormal activity of varied cell cycle proteins; therefore, cell cycle regulators are considered attractive targets in cancer therapy. Many cancers are uniquely linked with these proteins and are therefore selectively sensitive to their inhibition.6 After a long run of research on the physiological functions of cell cycle proteins and their relevance for cancer, these data recently got converted into the first approved cancer therapeutics, targeting the regulator of cell cycle.7 Here, we are reviewing the role of cell cycle proteins in ...
Every living cell is packed full of tiny molecular machines. Many of these machines are made from proteins: assembled chains of amino acid building blocks, which twist, wrap and fold up into complex three-dimensional shapes. The way that these machines interact with each other, and other molecules in the cell, ultimately determines how a cell behaves, divides (or not) and dies.. Viruses hijack this cellular machinery and reprogram it to their own ends using their own set of proteins. Many viruses are tiny, with genomes that encode only a handful of proteins, and yet they need to take control of a multitude of host processes. The way that they achieve this is by mimicking small host interaction motifs called SLiMs (short linear motifs), which are the focus of study in my lab.. For example, some viruses use the host DNA replication machinery for their own replication and mimic a SLiM that interacts with an important cell cycle checkpoint protein called retinoblastoma. By mimicking the ...
After DNA damage, cell cycle checkpoints are activated. Checkpoint activation pauses the cell cycle and gives the cell time to repair the damage before continuing to divide. DNA damage checkpoints occur at the G1/S and G2/M boundaries. An intra-S checkpoint also exists. Checkpoint activation is controlled by two master kinases, ATM and ATR. ATM responds to DNA double-strand breaks and disruptions in chromatin structure, whereas ATR primarily responds to stalled replication forks. These kinases phosphorylate downstream targets in a signal transduction cascade, eventually leading to cell cycle arrest. A class of checkpoint mediator proteins including BRCA1, MDC1, and 53BP1 has also been identified. These proteins seem to be required for transmitting the checkpoint activation signal to downstream proteins. p53 is an important downstream target of ATM and ATR, as it is required for inducing apoptosis following DNA damage.[33] At the G1/S checkpoint, p53 functions by deactivating the CDK2/cyclin E ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Maintenance of the DNA-damage checkpoint requires DNA-damage-induced mediator protein oligomerization. AU - Usui, Takehiko AU - Foster, Steven. AU - Petrini, John H. J.. N1 - Open Archive. PY - 2009/1/30. Y1 - 2009/1/30. N2 - Oligomeric assembly of Brca1 C-terminal (BRCT) domain-containing mediator proteins occurs at sites of DNA damage. However, the functional significance and regulation of such assemblies are not well understood. In this study, we defined the molecular mechanism of DNA-damage-induced oligomerization of the S. cerevisiae BRCT protein Rad9. Our data suggest that Rad9s tandem BRCT domain mediates Rad9 oligomerization via its interaction with its own Mec1/Tel1-phosphorylated SQ/TQ cluster domain (SCD). Rad53 activation is unaffected by mutations that impair Rad9 oligomerization, but checkpoint maintenance is lost, indicating that oligomerization is required to sustain checkpoint signaling. Once activated, Rad53 phosphorylates the Rad9 BRCT domain, which attenuates ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs the PI3/PI4-kinase family, and is most closely related to ATM, a protein kinase encoded by the gene mutated in ataxia telangiectasia. This protein and ATM share similarity with Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad3, a cell cycle checkpoint gene required for cell cycle arrest and DNA damage repair in response to DNA damage. This kinase has been shown to phosphorylate checkpoint kinase CHK1, checkpoint proteins RAD17, and RAD9, as well as tumor suppressor protein BRCA1. Mutations of this gene are associated with Seckel syndrome. An alternatively spliced transcript variant of this gene has been reported, however, its full length nature is not known. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyA sites exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
DNA-damage checkpoints maintain genomic integrity by mediating a cell-cycle delay in response to genotoxic stress or stalled replication forks. In response to damage, the checkpoint kinase ATR phosphorylates and activates its effector kinase Chk1 in a process that critically depends on Claspin [1]. However, it is not known how exactly this kinase cascade is silenced. Here we demonstrate that the abundance of Claspin is regulated through proteasomal degradation. In response to DNA damage, Claspin is transiently stabilized, and its expression depends on Chk1 kinase activity. In addition, we show that Claspin is degraded upon mitotic entry, a process that depends on the β-TrCP-SCF ubiquitin ligase and Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1). We demonstrate that Claspin interacts with both β-TrCP and Plk1 and that inactivation of these components or the β-TrCP recognition motif in Claspin prevents its mitotic degradation. Interestingly, expression of a nondegradable Claspin mutant inhibits recovery from a ...
Cell proliferation is essential for many key processes that occur during development including organogenesis, tissue renewal and germline formation. (Bartkova et al., 1997; Clurman and Roberts, 1995; Pines, 1995; Sandhu and Slingerland, 2000). Therefore, the timing of cell division and differentiation must be precisely coordinated with signals that specify morphogenesis, patterning and growth in a temporal, positional and cell type-specific manner (reviewed by Vidwans and Su, 2001). This coordination is executed through regulating both positive and negative regulatory components of the basal cell cycle machinery.. The cell cycle machinery is well conserved among eukaryotes and complex mechanisms ensure that cell cycle progression occurs in a timely and precise sequence. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) drive progression through the different cell cycle phases (reviewed by Nigg, 2001). In yeasts, these catalytic subunits are regulated through their association with stage-specific cyclin regulatory ...
The Polo Kinase is a central regulator of cell division required for several events of mitosis and cytokinesis. In addition to a kinase domain (KD), Polo-like kinases (Plks) comprise a Polo-Box domain (PBD), which mediates protein interactions with targets and regulators of Plks. In all organisms that contain Plks, one Plk family member fulfills several essential functions in the regulation of cell division, and here we refer to this conserved protein as Polo Kinase (Plk1 in humans). The PBD and the KD are capable of both cooperation and mutual inhibition in their functions. Crystal structures of the PBD, the KD and, recently, a PBD-KD complex have helped understanding the inner workings of the Polo Kinase. In parallel, an impressive array of molecular mechanisms has been found to mediate the regulation of the protein. Moreover, the targeting of Polo Kinase in the development of anti-cancer drugs has yielded several molecules with which to chemically modulate Polo Kinase to study its biological ...
Mitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulatory enzymes, each consisting of a catalytic CDK subunit and an activating cyclin subunit. CDKs regulate the cells progression through the phases of the cell cycle by modulating the activity of key substrates. Downstream targets of CDKs include transcription factor E2F and its regulator Rb. Precise activation and inactivation of CDKs at specific points in the cell cycle are required for orderly cell division. Cyclin-CDK inhibitors (CKIs), such as p16Ink4a, p15Ink4b, p27Kip1, and p21Cip1, are involved in the negative regulation of CDK activities, thus providing a pathway through which the cell cycle is negatively regulated. Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA damage by activating signaling pathways that promote cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. In response to DNA ...
Many anticancer agents induce DNA strand breaks or cause the accumulation of DNA replication intermediates. The protein encoded by ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad 3-related (ATR) generates signals in response to these altered DNA structures and activates cellular survival responses. Accordingly, ATR has drawn increased attention as a potential target for novel therapeutic strategies designed to potentiate the effects of existing drugs. In this study, we use a unique panel of genetically modified human cancer cells to unambiguously test the roles of upstream and downstream components of the ATR pathway in the responses to common therapeutic agents. Upstream, the S-phase-specific cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2 was required for robust activation of ATR in response to diverse chemotherapeutic agents. While Cdk2-mediated ATR activation promoted cell survival after treatment with many drugs, signaling from ATR directly to the checkpoint kinase Chk1 was required for survival responses to only a ...
Early studies in lower Eukaryotes have defined a role for the members of the NimA related kinase (Nek) family of protein kinases in cell cycle control. Expansion of the Nek family throughout evolution has been accompanied by their broader involvement in checkpoint regulation and cilia biology. Moreover, mutations of Nek family members have been identified as drivers behind the development of ciliopathies and cancer. Recent advances in studying the physiological roles of Nek family members utilizing mouse genetics and RNAi-mediated knockdown are revealing intricate associations of Nek family members with fundamental biological processes. Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive account of our understanding of Nek kinase biology and their involvement in cell cycle, checkpoint control and cancer.
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica (FHC) is an international,English-language journal devoted to the developing fields of histochemistry,cytochemistry,cell biology,cell and tissue biology.It is source of the recent research in fields of and cell biology
BC: Thats what the cell cycle does!. FC: Cell Cycle. 1: What is the cell cycle? , The cell cycle is a process in which a cell grows and divides to create a copy of itself. Some orangisms reproduce through the cell cycle and in complex multicellular organisms, the cell cycle is used to allow the organism to grow and to reproduce worn out cells.. 2: Interphase , During interphase, a cell increase in mass, replicates its DNA, and prepares prophase.. 4: Prophase , It is when the loose DNA starts to gather to form chromatid, the DNA copies itself, the spindle fibers start to form, and the cell prepares itself for cell division.. 6: Metaphase , The duplicated chromosomes become aligned in the center of the cell, spindle fibers attach themselves to the centromere of the chromosomes.. 8: Anaphase , The stage of mitosis in which the duplicated sets of chromosomes separate and two indentical groups move to opposite poles of the cell.. 10: Telophase , A nuclear membrane re-forms around each new group of ...
BC: Thats what the cell cycle does!. FC: Cell Cycle. 1: What is the cell cycle? , The cell cycle is a process in which a cell grows and divides to create a copy of itself. Some orangisms reproduce through the cell cycle and in complex multicellular organisms, the cell cycle is used to allow the organism to grow and to reproduce worn out cells.. 2: Interphase , During interphase, a cell increase in mass, replicates its DNA, and prepares prophase.. 4: Prophase , It is when the loose DNA starts to gather to form chromatid, the DNA copies itself, the spindle fibers start to form, and the cell prepares itself for cell division.. 6: Metaphase , The duplicated chromosomes become aligned in the center of the cell, spindle fibers attach themselves to the centromere of the chromosomes.. 8: Anaphase , The stage of mitosis in which the duplicated sets of chromosomes separate and two indentical groups move to opposite poles of the cell.. 10: Telophase , A nuclear membrane re-forms around each new group of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorylation of human Rad9 is required for genotoxin-activated checkpoint signaling. AU - Roos-Mattjus, Pia. AU - Hopkins, KM. AU - Oestreich, AJ. AU - Vroman, BT. AU - Johnson, KL. AU - Naylor, S. AU - Lieberman, HB. AU - Karnitz, LM. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Rad9, a key component of genotoxin-activated checkpoint signaling pathways, associates with Hus1 and Rad1 in a heterotrimeric complex (the 9-1-1 complex). Rad9 is inducibly and constitutively phosphorylated. However, the role of Rad9 phosphorylation is unknown. Here we identified nine phosphorylation sites, all of which lie in the carboxyl-terminal 119-amino acid Rad9 tail and examined the role of phosphorylation in geno-toxin-triggered checkpoint activation. Rad9 mutants lacking a Ser-272 phosphorylation site, which is phosphorylated in response to genotoxins, had no effect on survival or checkpoint activation in Mrad9(-/-) mouse ES cells treated with hydroxyurea (HU), ionizing radiation (IR), or ultraviolet radiation ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
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Although, by definition, cancer cells have a deregulated cell cycle, tumors often retain an intact G1 cell cycle checkpoint response via p53-dependent transacti...
The mitotic checkpoint protein Bub3 is involved with the essential spindle checkpoint pathway which operates during early embryogenesis. Bub3 is…
The most recent publications in Cell Cycle Checkpoints and accross biochemistry, molecular biology, neuroscience, development, biotechnology and medicine.
Cdc7 and CK1g1 independently and additively phosphorylate the Chk1-binding domain of claspin to activate replication checkpoint with differential contribution of each kinase in different cell types.
In many cells the timing of entry into mitosis is controlled by the balance between the activity of inhibitory Wee1-related kinases (Swe1p in budding yeast) and the opposing effect of Cdc25-related phosphatases (Mih1p in budding yeast) that act on the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc2 (Cdc28p in budding …
SPDYE6 (speedy/RINGO cell cycle regulator family member E6), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
In response to genotoxic stress, the DNA damage response, which is governed primarily by the ATM-CHK2, ATR-CHK1, and p38-MK2 (also known as MAPKAPK2) checkpoint effector pathways, becomes activated in order to slow cell-cycle progression and allow time for DNA repair. The CHK1 and MK2 pathways converge on inhibition of cell division cycle 25 (CDC25)-mediated activation of cyclin-dependent kinases, prompting Dietlein and colleagues to hypothesize that simultaneous small-molecule inhibition of CHK1 and MK2 may synergistically silence the DNA damage checkpoint. To systematically characterize combinatorial drug-inhibitor relationships, 96 cancer cell lines were screened with various concentrations of the CHK1 inhibitor PF477736 and the MK2 inhibitor PF3644022, and PreCISE (predictor of chemical inhibitor synergistic effects) software was used to calculate synergism scores based on GI50 drug curves. Synergistic effects between PF477736 and PF3644022 were observed in 33 of 96 cell lines and were ...
海词词典,最权威的学习词典,专业出版cell cycle proteims是什么意思,cell cycle proteims的用法,cell cycle proteims翻译和读音等详细讲解。海词词典:学习变容易,记忆很深刻。
Equity mission statement The Australian Cell Cycle Meeting aims to promote the highest standard of research in the areas of cell cycle, DNA damage response and telomeres. To this end, the Australian Cell Cycle Meeting endeavours to foster a culture of inclusion and equity in all of its activities, including conference organisation, conference participation, and…
E2-2 alteration influences cell cycle exit of progenitors in vivo. (A)E2-2 overexpression increased cell cycle exit (EdU+Ki67-/EdU+) among the progenitor cell
MOTIVATION: KEN-box-mediated target selection is one of the mechanisms used in the proteasomal destruction of mitotic cell cycle proteins via the APC/C
CELL CYCLE CHECKPOINTS The cell cycle has regulatory points called checkpoint. A check point is one of several points in the eukaryotic cell cycle at which the progression of a cell to the next stage in the cell cycle can be halted until conditions are favourable (e.g. the DNA is repaired). These checkpoints occur near […]. ...
Cell cycle in somatic cells vs. ESCs. (a) Cell cycle regulation in somatic cells: mitogen signaling through MAPK path
Time‐lapse imaging of cell‐cycle phase transitions reveals that phase durations are uncoupled and can be modeled as an Erlang process. Phase coupling can be forced by perturbing a strong cell‐cycle regulator acting on multiple phases.. See full publication here.. ...
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numerous post-translational modifications lead to stabil- In contrast to the key role of p53 in maintenance of the isation of the p53 protein and activation of its DNA-induced G1 arrest, no specific roles for p53 or p21 sequence-specific DNA binding [9,30]. Only then can p53 have been implicated in the control of the intra-S-phase efficiently stimulate transcription of cell-cycle inhibitors checkpoint. This is perhaps not so surprising as the such as p21 (Figure 2). Furthermore, the p21 protein has to S-phase checkpoint, manifested by a decreased rate of accumulate to levels sufficiently high to inhibit the CDK- DNA synthesis after generation of DSBs, is by definition a containing complexes, before cell-cycle progression transient phenomenon [5]. The absence of the mainte- becomes efficiently blocked. Although p53 has recently nance component during S phase, contrary to the G1 and been described binding to 5′ untranslated region of CDK4 G2 checkpoints, might be beneficial for the cells by ...
Cell cycle analysis is commonly used in biomedical research studies and clinical diagnosis. It helps in distinguishing cells that are in different phases of cell cycle and used to determine the cellular response to biological stimulations and various drug
A ready-to-use reverse transfection format RNAi screening library targeting human cell cycle regulation genes. Just resuspend pre-dispensed siRNA, and add cells. Optimization plates are available.
The cell cycle constitutes a series of stages that allow a cell to double its cellular components and divide into two daughter cells. Cell cycle and division are crucial for development of a multicellular organism, as well as...
Research groupsCell biology and Biotechnology Role of Hsp90 in cell cycle control and ageing Dr Andrés Garzón Villar. ..
Cell cycle, the ordered sequence of events that occur in a cell in preparation for cell division. The cell cycle is a four-stage process in which the cell increases in size, copies its DNA, prepares to divide, and divides. Learn more about the cell cycle and the proteins that regulate its progression.
Introduction to Cell Cycle: The cell cycle is the process by which a cell replicates its genetic material and synthesized the other elements of the cell
Finden Sie alle Bücher von Herausgegeben von Schönthal, Axel H. - Checkpoint Controls and Cancer. Bei der Büchersuchmaschine können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 1617374261
The cell membrane The DNA Hello, today we will be learning about the cell cycle. The cell cycle is a process that cells go through in order to divide.
Drag the Labels Onto the Diagram to Identify the Stages Of the Cell Cycle. - Drag the Labels Onto the Diagram to Identify the Stages Of the Cell Cycle. , Ponents Of Blood Article
In cycling cells, there is a resassortment of Cip/Kip proteins between CDK4/5 and CDK2 as cells progress through G1. Their ... INK4 proteins are cell-cycle inhibitors. When they bind to CDK4 and CDK6, they induce an allosteric change that leads to the ... is to block progression of the cell cycle beyond the G1 restriction point. In addition, INK4 proteins play roles in cellular ... but not CDK4 activity in activated T cells that suggest p18INK4c may set an inhibitory threshold in resting T cells. Cells ...
The balance between repressor and activator E2F regulate cell cycle progression. When activator E2F family proteins are knocked ... E2F family members play a major role during the G1/S transition in mammalian and plant cell cycle (see KEGG cell cycle pathway ... Activators such as E2F1, E2F2, E2F3a promote and help carryout the cell cycle, while repressors inhibit the cell cycle. Yet, ... The repressor genes E2F7/E2F8, located on chromosome 7, are transcription factors responsible for protein coding cell cycle ...
Ruzinova MB, Benezra R (2003). "Id proteins in development, cell cycle and cancer". Trends in Cell Biology. 13 (8): 410-8. doi: ... DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ID1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... "The MyoD-inducible p204 protein overcomes the inhibition of myoblast differentiation by Id proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (9): ... This protein may play a role in cell growth, senescence, and differentiation. Two transcript variants encoding different ...
ISBN 978-0-19-920610-0. Nasmyth K (April 1993). "Control of the yeast cell cycle by the Cdc28 protein kinase". Curr. Opin. Cell ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that ... Kaldis P, Aleem E (2007). "Cell cycle sibling rivalry: Cdc2 vs. Cdk2". Cell Cycle. 4 (11): 1491-1494. doi:10.4161/cc.4.11.2124 ... phosphorylation of these proteins leads to cell cycle progression. Cdk1 is a small protein (approximately 34 kilodaltons), and ...
Bartkova J, Grøn B, Dabelsteen E, Bartek J (February 2003). "Cell-cycle regulatory proteins in human wound healing". Archives ... Stem cells give rise to progenitor cells, which are cells that are not self-renewing, but can generate several types of cells. ... Macrophages are a type of repairing cell that devour dead cells and pathogens, and trigger other immune cells to respond to ... Transmembrane receptor proteins called integrins, which are made of glycoproteins and normally anchor the cell to the basement ...
SLBP levels are controlled by cell-cycle proteins, causing SLBP to accumulate as cells enter S phase and degrade as cells leave ... Link between cell-cycle control machinery and histone synthesis[edit]. Nuclear protein Ataxia-Telangiectasia (NPAT), also known ... These proteins are synthesized during S phase of the cell cycle. There are different mechanisms which contribute to the ... In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into ...
... whose activity is restricted to the G1-S phase of the cell cycle, where cells make proteins necessary for mitosis and replicate ... This suggests that Cdk2 is non-essential for the cell cycle of healthy cells, but essential for meiosis and reproduction. Cells ... Kaldis P, Aleem E (November 2005). "Cell cycle sibling rivalry: Cdc2 vs. Cdk2". Cell Cycle. 4 (11): 1491-4. doi:10.4161/cc.4.11 ... Cobrinik D (April 2005). "Pocket proteins and cell cycle control". Oncogene. 24 (17): 2796-809. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1208619. ...
Proteins, 53, 917-930 Wrzeszczynski K.O. and Rost,B. (2004) Cataloguing proteins in cell cycle control. Methods Mol. Biol., 241 ... and annotations homology to proteins involved in cell-cycle control. The PredictProtein web service is available at www. ... "Twilight zone of protein sequence alignments". Protein Engineering. 12 (2): 85-94. doi:10.1093/protein/12.2.85. PMID 10195279. ... Proteins, 46, 195-205. Jones D.T. (1999) Protein secondary structure prediction based on position-specific scoring matrices. J ...
This protein functions as a regulator at the early steps of DNA replication. It localizes in the cell nucleus during cell cycle ... Cell division control protein 6 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDC6 gene. The protein encoded by this ... and Minichromosome Maintenance Proteins during the Cell Cycle: Assembly of Prereplication Complexes in Late Mitosis". Mol. Cell ... and Minichromosome Maintenance Proteins during the Cell Cycle: Assembly of Prereplication Complexes in Late Mitosis". Mol. Cell ...
... and minichromosome maintenance proteins during the cell cycle: assembly of prereplication complexes in late mitosis". Mol. Cell ... Fujita M, Yamada C, Goto H, Yokoyama N, Kuzushima K, Inagaki M, Tsurumi T (1999). "Cell cycle regulation of human CDC6 protein ... The acetylation of this protein inhibits the initiation of DNA replication and cell cycle progression. MCM3 has been shown to ... "Cell cycle regulation of human CDC6 protein. Intracellular localization, interaction with the human mcm complex, and CDC2 ...
"Entrez Gene: CDC2L1 cell division cycle 2-like 1 (PITSLRE proteins)". Zhang, Songwen; Cai Mingmei; Zhang Si; Xu Songli; Chen ... 1990). "Increased expression of a 58-kDa protein kinase leads to changes in the CHO cell cycle". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... 2000). "Identification and characterization of a novel cell cycle-regulated internal ribosome entry site". Mol. Cell. 5 (4): ... The protein kinase encoded by this gene could be cleaved by caspases and was demonstrated to play roles in cell apoptosis. ...
SLBP levels are controlled by cell-cycle proteins, causing SLBP to accumulate as cells enter S phase and degrade as cells leave ... These proteins are synthesized during S phase of the cell cycle. There are different mechanisms which contribute to the ... "Phosphorylation of stem-loop binding protein (SLBP) on two threonines triggers degradation of SLBP, the sole cell cycle- ... both being short and basic proteins. Histone proteins are among the most highly conserved proteins in eukaryotes, emphasizing ...
... and other phorbol esters interact with protein kinase C (PKC). Protein kinase C controls the cell cycle, so chemicals ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Black A, Black J (2013). "Protein kinase C signaling and cell cycle regulation. Review ... affecting the activity of several intracellular pathways that regulate cell cycle and apoptosis among others. PKC binding to ... but can create circumstances in which initiated cells are more susceptible to additional mutations or in which initiated cells ...
Overexpression of the protein inhibits cell cycle progression. Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been ... Lysine methyltransferase 2E is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KMT2E gene. This gene is a member of the myeloid/ ... lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) family and encodes a protein with an N-terminal PHD zinc finger and a central SET ...
positive regulation of protein catabolic process. • negative regulation of protein export from nucleus. • cell cycle arrest. • ... Yu X, Baer R (Jun 2000). "Nuclear localization and cell cycle-specific expression of CtIP, a protein that associates with the ... protein homodimerization activity. • kinase binding. • RNA binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • ubiquitin-protein ... "Cell cycle-dependent colocalization of BARD1 and BRCA1 proteins in discrete nuclear domains". Proceedings of the National ...
Loor G, Zhang SJ, Zhang P, Toomey NL, Lee MY (Dec 1997). "Identification of DNA replication and cell cycle proteins that ... Westberg C, Yang JP, Tang H, Reddy TR, Wong-Staal F (Jul 2000). "A novel shuttle protein binds to RNA helicase A and activates ... Westberg C, Yang JP, Tang H, Reddy TR, Wong-Staal F (Jul 2000). "A novel shuttle protein binds to RNA helicase A and activates ... This gene encodes a DEAD box protein with RNA helicase activity. It may participate in melting of DNA:RNA hybrids, such as ...
2001). "The cell-cycle regulatory protein Cks1 is required for SCF(Skp2)-mediated ubiquitinylation of p27". Nat. Cell Biol. 3 ( ... Protein destruction: Adapting roles for Cks proteins. Cur Biol. 11: R431-R435 Xu, K., Belunis, C., et al. 2003. Protein-protein ... "The cell-cycle regulatory protein Cks1 is required for SCF(Skp2)-mediated ubiquitinylation of p27". Nat. Cell Biol. 3 (3): 321- ... "Crystal structure and mutational analysis of the human CDK2 kinase complex with cell cycle-regulatory protein CksHs1". Cell. 84 ...
"Id2 specifically alters regulation of the cell cycle by tumor suppressor proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 (6): 2570-8. doi: ... DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ID2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... "The helix-loop-helix protein Id-2 enhances cell proliferation and binds to the retinoblastoma protein". Genes Dev. 8 (11): 1270 ... This protein may play a role in negatively regulating cell differentiation. A pseudogene has been identified for this gene. A ...
Loor G, Zhang SJ, Zhang P, Toomey NL, Lee MY (Dec 1997). "Identification of DNA replication and cell cycle proteins that ... binding proteins in human cell lysates. Identification of the human CHL12/RFCs2-5 complex as a novel PCNA-binding protein". The ... binding proteins in human cell lysates. Identification of the human CHL12/RFCs2-5 complex as a novel PCNA-binding protein". The ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
... these proteins include cell cycle proteins, signaling proteins, and protein-processing enzymes. S. cerevisiae is currently the ... since bud formation occupies the whole cell cycle. Both mother and daughter cells can initiate bud formation before cell ... In yeast cultures growing more slowly, cells lacking buds can be seen, and bud formation only occupies a part of the cell cycle ... This bud grows during the cell cycle and detaches; fission yeast divide by forming a cell wall Cytokinesis begins at G1 for ...
... p140 of replication factor C is upregulated in cycling cells and associates with G1 phase cell cycle regulatory proteins". ... Loor G, Zhang SJ, Zhang P, Toomey NL, Lee MY (Dec 1997). "Identification of DNA replication and cell cycle proteins that ... binding proteins in human cell lysates. Identification of the human CHL12/RFCs2-5 complex as a novel PCNA-binding protein". The ... binding proteins in human cell lysates. Identification of the human CHL12/RFCs2-5 complex as a novel PCNA-binding protein". The ...
... evidence for cyclin mRNA and protein regulation in the cell cycle and for interaction with p34cdc2". Cell. 58 (5): 833-46. doi: ... Reduction of cyclin B1 can stop cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle and triggers cell death by preventing the chromosomes ... Evidence for cyclin mRNA and protein regulation in the cell cycle and for interaction with p34cdc2". Cell. 58 (5): 833-846. doi ... One of the hallmarks of cancer is the lack of regulation in the cell cycle. The role of cyclin B1 is to transition the cell ...
"Proteolysis of MLL family proteins is essential for taspase1-orchestrated cell cycle progression". Genes & Development. 20 (17 ... "MLL1 Inhibition Reprograms Epiblast Stem Cells to Naive Pluripotency". Cell Stem Cell. 18 (4): 481-94. doi:10.1016/j.stem. ... MLL1 has been found to be an important regulator of epiblast-derived stem cells, post-implantation epiblast derived stem cells ... "Protein interactions of the MLL PHD fingers modulate MLL target gene regulation in human cells". Molecular and Cellular Biology ...
"Localization and phosphorylation of HP1 proteins during the cell cycle in mammalian cells". Chromosoma. 108 (4): 220-34. doi: ... "Heterochromatin formation in mammalian cells: interaction between histones and HP1 proteins". Molecular Cell. 7 (4): 729-39. ... "Heterochromatin formation in mammalian cells: interaction between histones and HP1 proteins". Molecular Cell. 7 (4): 729-39. ... Chromobox protein homolog 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CBX5 gene. It is a highly conserved, non-histone ...
Cell division cycle 26 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDC26 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is highly ... APC is composed of a group of highly conserved proteins and functions as a cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin-protein ligase. APC ... "Entrez Gene: Cell division cycle 26". Retrieved 2018-10-16. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) v t e This article ... thus is responsible for the cell cycle regulated proteolysis of various proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. PDBe-KB ...
The BRCT domain is found predominantly in proteins involved in cell cycle checkpoint functions responsive to DNA damage, for ... "A superfamily of conserved domains in DNA damage-responsive cell cycle checkpoint proteins". FASEB J. 11 (1): 68-76. doi: ... November 1998). "Structure of an XRCC1 BRCT domain: a new protein-protein interaction module". EMBO J. 17 (21): 6404-11. doi: ... Human proteins containing this domain include: BARD1; BRCA1 CTDP1; TDT or DNTT ECT2 LIG4 MCPH1; MDC1 NBN PARP1; PARP4; PAXIP1; ...
The encoded protein may be involved in cell cycle progression. This protein interacts with protein arginine methyltransferases ... Chromatin target of PRMT1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHTOP gene. This gene encodes a small nuclear protein ... a newly identified nucleolar protein that can regulate cell proliferation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (18): ... Teng IF, Wilson SA (2013). "Mapping interactions between mRNA export factors in living cells". PLOS ONE. 8 (6): e67676. Bibcode ...
"Cell cycle-regulated phosphorylation of the human SIX1 homeodomain protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (29): ... Ford HL, Kabingu EN, Bump EA, Mutter GL, Pardee AB (October 1998). "Abrogation of the G2 cell cycle checkpoint associated with ... Homeobox protein SIX1 (Sineoculis homeobox homolog 1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIX1 gene. The vertebrate ... and Dach proteins mediated through CREB binding protein". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 (19): 6759-66. doi:10.1128/MCB. ...
Raposo, A. E., & Piller, S. C. (2018). Protein arginine methylation: an emerging regulator of the cell cycle. Cell Division, 13 ... Her research focused on a virus protein from HIV called Vpr; her work was the first research to show that a HIV protein could ... Extracellular HIV-1 virus protein R causes a large inward current and cell death in cultured.. Proceedings of the National ... Exhibits a Reduced Ability to Specifically Detect Tetracysteine-Containing Proteins Within Live Cells. Journal of Fluorescence ...
M phase of mitotic cell cycle. · mitotic prophase. · mitotic anaphase. · mitotic cell cycle. · apoptotic process. · cellular ... endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. · protein localization to nucleus. · sterol regulatory element binding protein ... Lamin A/C binding protein LAP2alpha is required for nuclear anchorage of retinoblastoma protein. Mol. Biol. Cell. December 2002 ... It stays associated with the membrane through protein-protein interactions of itself and other membrane associated proteins, ...
... s are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... Other catenin, cadherin or cell cycle regulators may also be useful in treating a variety of cancers. While recent studies in ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ...
Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ... Cells are homogenised in a blender and filtered to remove debris. *The homogenised sample is placed in an ultracentrifuge and ... used density gradient centrifugation to determine which isotope or isotopes of nitrogen were present in the DNA after cycles of ... By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ...
Sertoli cell proliferation. • توصيل الإشارة. • peptide hormone processing. • positive regulation of gene expression. • cell- ... J Protein Chem. 7 (4): 325-39. PMID 3151250. doi:10.1007/BF01024882. تحقق من التاريخ في: ,date=. (مساعدة) ... on the mouse estrous cycle". Regul. Pept. 81 (1-3): 67-71. PMID 10395410. doi:10.1016/S0167-0115(99)00022-1. ... positive regulation of cell migration. • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • حمل أنثوي. • ...
... protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by preventing the STAT1 signalling protein in the neighbouring cell ... Their life cycle is thought to begin with a virion attaching to specific cell-surface receptors such as C-type lectins, DC-SIGN ... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ...
"14-3-3 proteins form a guidance complex with chloroplast precursor proteins in plants". The Plant Cell. 12 (1): 53-64. doi: ... The Toc34 protein can then take up another molecule of GTP and begin the cycle again.[38] ... Soll J, Schleiff E (March 2004). "Protein import into chloroplasts". Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology. 5 (3): 198-208. ... Protein targeting and importEdit. See also: Protein targeting. The movement of so many chloroplast genes to the nucleus means ...
The retinoids appear to influence the cell life cycle in the follicle lining. This helps prevent the accumulation of skin cells ... protein.[45] PPARα increases the activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and NF-κB, thereby leading to the recruitment of ... Retinoids are medications that reduce inflammation, normalize the follicle cell life cycle, and reduce sebum production.[45][84 ... and Th1 cells.[45] IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ...
The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... Rituximab has a general regulatory effect on the cell cycle.. *It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 ( ... cells in destroying these B cells. When an NK cell latched onto the cap, it had an 80% success rate at killing the cell. In ... The CD20 proteins are sticking out of the cell membrane, and rituximab, the Y-shaped antibody, is binding to the CD20 proteins. ...
The C. crescentus life cycle is governed by regulators such as TipN, a cell cycle protein. Yale University's data strongly ... Cell cycleEdit. The Caulobacter cell cycle regulatory system controls many modular subsystems that organize the progression of ... Cell cycle regulation includes feedback signals that pace progression of the cell cycle engine to match progress of events at ... An essential feature of the Caulobacter cell cycle is that the chromosome is replicated once and only once per cell cycle. This ...
To be more specific, photoreceptor proteins in the cell absorb photons, triggering a change in the cell's membrane potential. ... Early Notch signaling maintains progenitor cycling. Photoreceptor precursors come about through inhibition of Notch signaling ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... ON bipolar cells or inhibit (hyperpolarize) OFF bipolar cells. Thus, it is at the photoreceptor-bipolar cell synapse where ...
the nitrogen-fixing protein complex may be packaged into specialized cells called heterocysts." Aren't bacteria single-celled? ... They are a significant component of the marine nitrogen cycle and an important primary producer in many areas of the ocean, but ... Several cells may live together, forming filaments (or colonies). Andres 09:28, 11 Aug 2004 (UTC). *If someone knows more (or ... This form of motility has been shown to be regulated by the cAMP receptor protein. Hedger 11:30, 14 2007. The mechanism for ...
... cell-cycle processes). PAX8 is shown to be involved in tumor cell proliferation and differentiation, signal transduction, ... Over 90% of thyroid tumors arise from follicular thyroid cells.[8] A fusion protein, PAX8-PPAR-γ, is implicated in some ... The PAX genes give instructions for making proteins that attach themselves to certain areas of DNA.[6] This nuclear protein is ... regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation. • cell differentiation. • mesonephric tubule ...
... infection-fighting cells) and protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) typically rise to characteristically abnormal levels, ... burgdorferi sensu lato was previously thought to be hindered in its ability to be maintained in an enzootic cycle in California ... The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... A hexavalent (OspA) protein subunit-based vaccine candidate VLA15 was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug ...
The second sperm cell fuses with two cell nuclei, producing a triploid (3n) cell. ... Much of the pollen gets taken back to the nest or hive, where it is used as a source of protein, most needed by the larvae. ... Angiosperm life cycle. What happens after pollination is fertilisation. In plants it is a double fertilisation in which two ... This cell divides by mitosis into two haploid sperm cells. As the pollen tube grows, it makes its way from the stigma, down the ...
Nicholas C. Price, Lewis Stevens (1999). Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins ( ... Bridges, C.D. and Alvarez, R.A. (1987). "The visual cycle operates via an isomerase acting on all-trans retinol in the pigment ... Eric J. Toone (2006). Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Protein Evolution (Volume 75 izd.). Wiley- ... "RPE65 is the isomerohydrolase in the retinoid visual cycle". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102: 12413-12418. PMID 16116091. ...
Electrolysis cells can be either open cell or closed cell. In open cell systems, the electrolysis products, which are gaseous, ... 254-255, 329 "[paraphrasing Morrison] The usual cycle in such cases, he notes, is that interest suddenly erupts (...) The ... It was adopted as a software product name Adobe ColdFusion and a brand of protein bars (Cold Fusion Foods).[182] It has also ... the power input to the cell was equal to the calculated power leaving the cell within measurement accuracy, and the cell ...
... a cell division cycle gene in the genomic region of deletion in DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndromes". Proceedings of the ... "A novel mitochondrial septin-like protein, ARTS, mediates apoptosis dependent on its P-loop motif". Nature Cell Biology. 2 (12 ... protein ligase and promotes the degradation of the synaptic vesicle-associated protein, CDCrel-1". Proceedings of the National ... Caltagarone J، Rhodes J، Honer WG، Bowser R (August 1998). "Localization of a novel septin protein, hCDCrel-1, in neurons of ...
Odontocetes, such as the sperm whale, possess teeth with cementum cells overlying dentine cells. Unlike human teeth, which are ... Life cycle. See also: Right whale § Courtship and reproduction, and Fin whale § Breeding ... "More DNA support for a Cetacea/Hippopotamidae clade: the blood-clotting protein gene gamma-fibrinogen" (PDF). Molecular ... they contain both rod and cone cells, meaning they can see in both dim and bright light, but they have far more rod cells than ...
... which is the protein red blood cells use to carry oxygen throughout the body. Sickle cell anemia occurs when the HBB gene ... Williams theorized that antagonistic effects will be exhibited during an organism's life cycle if it is closely linked and ... "sickle cell disease". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ MD, Kenneth R. Bridges. "How Does Sickle Cell Cause ... Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease that causes deformed red blood cells with a rigid, crescent shape instead of the normal ...
The albumin (9) further protects the embryo and serves as a reservoir for water and protein. The allantois (8) is a sac that ... North American box turtles breathe continuously during locomotion, and the ventilation cycle is not coordinated with the limb ... Cell. 25 (4): 326-328. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2013.05.011. PMID 23725759.. ... The yolk sac (2) surrounding the yolk (3) contains protein and fat rich nutrients that are absorbed by the embryo via vessels ( ...
If the group in position 1 is changed to N-alkyl, haloalkyl, alkynyl and small cycle or aminoalkyl the activity is increased. ... Fig 2. Schematic diagram of a GABAA receptor protein ((α1)2(β2)2(γ2)) which illustrates the five combined subunits that form ... making the cell hyperpolarized and less likely to fire. GABAA PAMs increase the effect of GABA by making the channel open more ... The synaptic anchoring protein Gephyrin is indirectly linked to the GABAA receptors. ...
Low-carbohydrate diets such as Atkins and Protein Power are relatively high in protein and fats. Low-carbohydrate diets are ... In this process, fats, obtained from adipose tissue, or fat cells, are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids, which can be ... "2-4-6-8", a popular diet of this variety, follows a four-day cycle in which only 200 calories are consumed the first day, 400 ... When the body is expending more energy than it is consuming (e.g. when exercising), the body's cells rely on internally stored ...
S. frugiperda cells (Sf9 and Sf21 cell lines) are commonly used in biomedical research for the purpose of recombinant protein ... The fall armyworm's life cycle is completed within 30 days during summer, and 60 days during the spring and autumn seasons; ... "The Plant Cell Online. 12 (7): 1031-1040. doi:10.1105/tpc.12.7.1031. ISSN 1040-4651. PMC 149047. PMID 10899972.. ... This protein was found to significantly decrease fall armyworm larva growth.[12] ...
In Africa, a third infectious cycle known as "savannah cycle" or intermediate cycle, occurs between the jungle and urban cycles ... The viruses infect, amongst others, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. They attach to the cell surfaces via specific ... and forms a complex with protein E. The immature particles are processed in the Golgi apparatus by the host protein furin, ... Besides the urban cycle, both in Africa and South America, a sylvatic cycle (forest or jungle cycle) is present, where Aedes ...
... small acid-soluble spore proteins), that protect the spore DNA from UV radiation and heat. The core also contains normal cell ... In the natural situation, this means the vegetative cycles occur within the low oxygen environment of the infected host and, ... A stained preparation of the cell Bacillus subtilis showing endospores as green and the vegetative cell as red ... Endospores are resistant to most agents that would normally kill the vegetative cells they formed from. Unlike persister cells ...
"Functional Design of Proteins". Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition. W. H. Freeman. ... which catalyzes the oxidation of succinate to fumarate in the Krebs cycle. Malonate is a competitive inhibitor of succinic ... The active site is a region on an enzyme which a particular protein or substrate can bind to. The active site will only allow ... Cells in the central nervous system (astrocytes) include MAO-B that oxidizes MPTP to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), which ...
This gene is a transcription factor that regulates the cell cycle and hence functions as a tumor suppressor. By inducing G ( ... This process increases transcription of certain genes, notably CYP1A1, followed by increased CYP1A1 protein production.[28] ... BaP was shown to cause genetic damage in lung cells that was identical to the damage observed in the DNA of most malignant lung ... BaP has an effect on the number of white blood cells, inhibiting some of them from differentiating into macrophages, the body's ...
chromosome organization involved in meiotic cell cycle. • mitotic recombination. • protein homooligomerization. • response to ... protein C-terminus binding. • protein binding. • four-way junction DNA binding. • identical protein binding. • ... Renal cell carcinoma. Under-expression. 100%. Western (protein) blotting and mRNA. [25]. ... This protein can interact with the ssDNA-binding protein RPA, BRCA2, PALB2[10] and RAD52. ...
"Cell. 157 (6): 1380-1392. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.05.009. PMC 4144415 . PMID 24906154.. ... Required for many proteins and enzymes, notably hemoglobin to prevent anemia Meat, seafood, nuts, beans, dark chocolate[23] ... J. Dighton (2007). "Nutrient Cycling by Saprotrophic Fungi in Terrestrial Habitats". In Kubicek, Christian P.; Druzhinina, ... Boron is an essential plant nutrient, required primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls.[45][46][47] Boron has ...
Some types of cell adhesion proteins or cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) such as integrins, cadherins, NCAMs, or selectins ... "Structural model of ligand-G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) complex based on experimental double mutant cycle data: MT7 snake ... Integral polytopic proteinEdit. Main article: Transmembrane protein. The most common type of IMP is the transmembrane protein ( ... Integral monotopic proteinsEdit. Main article: Integral monotopic protein. Integral monotopic proteins are associated with the ...
Effects of 14-3-3 proteins on cell cycle progression and the regulation of 14-3-3 activity during the cell cycle are reviewed ... the association with 14-3-3 proteins requires a specific phosphorylation of the protein ligand and mediates cell cycle arrest. ... Cell cycle deregulation caused by changes in 14-3-3 expression has been implicated in cancer formation. 14-3-3 proteins ... 14-3-3 proteins in cell cycle regulation.. Hermeking H1, Benzinger A. ...
... John Farley,1 Laurent Ozbun,2 Goli Samimi,3 and Michael J. Birrer2 ... 2Cell and Cancer Biology Department, Medicine Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 ... 3Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program and Cell and Cancer Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Cell cycle checkpoint protein, Rad1 (IPR003011). Short name: Cell_cycle_checkpoint_Rad1 ... In Caenorhabditis elegans, the cell cycle checkpoint protein RAD1 homologue mrt-2 has a role in genome stability by promoting ...
... differs significantly between organisms and is often mirrored by changes in cell-cycle-dependent phosphorylation of the protein ... Our comparative analysis of eukaryotic cell-cycle complexes reveals that the identity of the periodically expressed subunits ... Jensen, L., de Lichtenberg, U., Jensen, T. et al. Just-in-time assembly of cell-cycle protein complexes. Nat Prec (2008). https ... Just-in-time assembly of cell-cycle protein complexes. *Lars Jensen. 1. , ...
General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Names. cell cycle protein FtsW. YP_011717.1. *identified by match to ... cell cycle protein FtsW. Locus tag. DVU2505. Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. REVIEWED. Organism. Desulfovibrio ... YP_011717.1 cell cycle protein FtsW [Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough]. See identical proteins and their annotated ... DVU2505 cell cycle protein FtsW [ Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough ] Gene ID: 2795633, updated on 14-Apr-2016 ...
... scientists have safely shut down breast cancer and a form of leukemia in mice by targeting abnormal proteins to which the ... that control cells growth cycle. Many types of cancer have abnormal amounts of the proteins, spurring the cells to grow too ... Addiction to Cell-cycle Proteins Shuts Down Tumors in Mice: Study. by Rukmani Krishna on October 22, 2012 at 11:31 PM Cancer ... Cyclin proteins act as "checkpoint" guards to control cells cycle of rest, growth and division. The D-cyclins determine when a ...
... Bioessays. 1995 Jun;17(6):509-18. doi: 10.1002/bies. ... The E6/p53 and E7/Rb1 interactions result in a deregulation of the cell cycle with loss of control of crucial cellular events, ... genes are deleted or mutated in several cancers and both proteins regulate the transcription of genes involved in cell cycle ... Extensive studies on HPV E6 and E7 proteins have demonstrated their involvement in malignant transformation. E6 and E7 bind the ...
Cyclin D1 regulates entry into and progression through the cell cycle by controlling the activity of the cyclin-dependent ... Their screen (which they termed "genetic-proteomic") identified previously known binding partners with roles in cell cycle ... Cyclin D1 increased Notch1 gene transcription by recruiting the histone acetylase CBP (CREB-binding protein) to the Notch1 ... and which promotes proliferation of retinal progenitor cells. Similar to Notch1-deficient mice, Ccnd1-/- mice exhibit retinal ...
... released and how they stop a fungus from establishing an infection in mice and human cells in the journal Developmental Cell. ... there are immune cells called neutrophils that, when faced with a pathogenic threat, will expel their DNA like a net to contain ... Cell cycle proteins help immune cells trap microbes with nets made of DNA. Cell Press ... cell.. com/. developmental-cell/. fulltext/. S1534-5807(17)30826-2 Developmental Cell (@Dev_Cell), published by Cell Press, is ...
The ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax in the cell can determine whether or not the cell initiates apoptosis or survives. Some cancer cells ... Cell, 74, 609-619 (1993).
Ogawa, N., et al., Arthritis Rheum., 39, 1875-1885 (1996). ... Bcl-2 is a member of a large gene family encoding proteins that can either inhibit (e.g. Bcl-2, Bcl-xL) or promote ( ... USA Home > Product Directory > Cell Biology > Cell Signaling and Neuroscience > Apoptosis and Cell Cycle > Bcl-2 Family ...
Adaptor proteins NUMB and NUMBL promote cell cycle withdrawal by targeting ERBB2 for degradation. ... Adaptor proteins NUMB and NUMBL promote cell cycle withdrawal by targeting ERBB2 for degradation. ... Our studies provide insight into mechanisms by which NUMB and NUMBL promote cardiomyocyte cell cycle withdrawal and highlight ... Failure of trabecular myocytes to undergo appropriate cell cycle withdrawal leads to ventricular noncompaction and heart ...
Using cell synchronisation methods we show that Gadd45 levels are highest in the G1 … ... We show that Gadd45 is a nuclear protein, widely expressed in normal tissues, particularly in quiescent cellular populations. ... Gadd45 is a nuclear cell cycle regulated protein which interacts with p21Cip1 Oncogene. 1995 Nov 2;11(9):1675-83. ... Using cell synchronisation methods we show that Gadd45 levels are highest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and are greatly ...
i) global regulation of gene expression; ii) cell cycle proteins cytolocalization; iii) latency development in vitro and in ... Transcriptional regulation and cellular localization of mycobacterial cell cycle proteins during dormancy. ... Conditional mutants unable to express important cell cycle regulators will be constructed and used to study their role in ... In this project we propose to study the relation between the cell cycle and dormancy development in Mycobacterium tuberculosis ...
SNIP1 levels resulted in significantly reduced cell proliferation and accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. ... These results define both a new function for SNIP1 and identify a previously unrecognized regulator of the cell cycle and ... Here, we have used short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to knockdown SNIP1 expression in human cell lines. Surprisingly, we found ... Consistent with this result, we observed that cyclin D1 protein and mRNA levels were reduced. Moreover, SNIP1 depletion results ...
... we discuss how environmental conditions affect chromosome segregation and how segregation proteins influence other cell cycle ... we discuss how environmental conditions affect chromosome segregation and how segregation proteins influence other cell cycle ... In addition, both ParA and ParB were shown to interact with the other proteins, including those involved in cell division or ... In addition, both ParA and ParB were shown to interact with the other proteins, including those involved in cell division or ...
protein coding gene. Chr2:103762941-103797649 (-). 129S1/SvImJ MGP_129S1SvImJ_G0026207. protein coding gene. Chr2:105752128- ... protein coding gene. Chr2:113020134-113054346 (-). DBA/2J MGP_DBA2J_G0026043. protein coding gene. Chr2:100956080-100991126 (-) ... protein coding gene. Chr2:104145313-104180580 (-). BALB/cJ MGP_BALBcJ_G0026177. protein coding gene. Chr2:101687474-101723027 ... protein coding gene. Chr2:104485794-104523191 (-). C57BL/6NJ MGP_C57BL6NJ_G0026628. protein coding gene. Chr2:109293375- ...
Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Cell division cycle associated 5Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ... p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.,p>,a href=/help/ ...
We stock a wide selection of proteins of all kinds. Visit us online today. ... Shop for the cell cycle recombinant proteins you need here at ProSci Inc.! ...
We stock a wide selection of proteins of all kinds. Visit us online today. ... Shop for the cell cycle recombinant proteins you need here at ProSci Inc.! ... Cell Cycle. The cell cycle is a multistep process where eukaryotic cells grow and divide into two daughter cells. The cell ... The cell cycle is a vital process by which tissues such as skin, blood cells, and hair are able to renew; however, errors in ...
The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the ... a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls progression through mitosis and the G1 phase of the cell cycle. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. Q13042. CDC16 cell division cycle 16 homolog (S. cerevisiae), ... This protein is involved in the pathway protein ubiquitination, which is part of Protein modification.. View all proteins of ...
Saylor.orgs Cell Biology/Trimeric G (Guanosine) Protein Cycle. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... Retrieved from " ... Saylor.orgs Cell Biology. This page may need to be reviewed for quality. ...
Cell Cycle-dependent Induction of GABP Binding to the Skp2 Promoter.. We next examined the effect of cell cycle progression on ... Cell cycle dependence of the abundance of Skp2 mRNA in NIH 3T3 cells. A, total RNA was isolated either from cells in ... For cell cycle analysis, single-cell suspensions of NIH 3T3 or T98G cells were fixed in 70% ethanol overnight at −20°C and then ... Cell Culture and Cell Cycle Analysis.. Mouse NIH 3T3 cells were maintained in DMEM supplemented with 10% calf serum (Life ...
The S100A6 calcium-binding protein regulates endothelial cell-cycle progression and senescence.. [Leyuan Bao, Adam F Odell, Sam ... Comparison of primary and transformed human cells revealed significant differences in S100A6 protein levels in these cells. In ... we depleted protein levels using RNA interference and this caused increased cell-cycle arrest in the G2/M phase under different ... The S100 family of calcium-binding proteins regulates many aspects of cell function but their roles in vascular physiology are ...
Manipulation of PAR mRNA in DU145 and NIH3T3 cells indicated that its expression level is an impo ... protein is a 148 amino acid polypeptide ubiquitously expressed in normal cells and overexpressed in many malignancies. ... 0/Cell Cycle Proteins; 0/Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0/INCENP protein, human; 0/JTB protein, human; 0/Membrane Proteins ... Cell Cycle Proteins / chemistry, genetics, metabolism, physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / ...
Extracellular matrix molecules profoundly regulate cell behavior, including proliferation. In glomerulonephritis, type I ... Blood Proteins / pharmacology. Cell Adhesion / physiology. Cell Cycle Proteins*. Cell Nucleus / enzymology. Cells, Cultured. ... 0/Blood Proteins; 0/Cdkn1b protein, rat; 0/Cell Cycle Proteins; 0/Cyclin E; 0/Integrin alpha1beta1; 0/Integrins; 0/Microtubule- ... Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / ...
... and p27 belongs to cell-cycle-regulators and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and Ki-67 the proliferation markers in ... Ki-67 could work throughout the cell cycles to cause malignant transformation. In conclusion, this is a first study showing the ... p27 may interact with CDK1 which promote IP cell proliferation and correlate to sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma. ... We use protein expression patterns by immunohistochemical method to see whether the expression of p53, p16, p21, ...
Cell Division Cycle 34 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non- glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 236 ... Cell Division Cycle 34 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non- glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 236 ... For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA).. Avoid multiple freeze-thaw cycles. ... CDC34 takes part in the control of cell cycle and DNA replication. Cdc34 in association with different E3 complexes, including ...
... and regulatory proteins that control G1-Sphase transition, like cyclins could participate in dy.. ... Disturbances in the expressions of centrosomal proteins (CEPs) ... Cyclin D1 is a cell cycle protein that regulates the ... Prognostic and Predictive Values of cell Cycle Proteins Centrosomal Protein 5 (CEPP 5). Ola Harb1*, Ibtesam Elhasadi2, Sharifa ... Centrosomal protein 55 (CEP55) has an important role in participation in the final stage of cell division, and cell cycle ...
Cell cycle regulation of histone H1 kinase activity associated with the adenoviral protein E1A ... Cell cycle regulation of histone H1 kinase activity associated with the adenoviral protein E1A ... Cell cycle regulation of histone H1 kinase activity associated with the adenoviral protein E1A ... Cell cycle regulation of histone H1 kinase activity associated with the adenoviral protein E1A ...
An insulin-stimulated protein kinase similar to yeast kinases involved in cell cycle control ... An insulin-stimulated protein kinase similar to yeast kinases involved in cell cycle control ... An insulin-stimulated protein kinase similar to yeast kinases involved in cell cycle control ... An insulin-stimulated protein kinase similar to yeast kinases involved in cell cycle control ...
  • Immunoprecipitation of Gadd45 from mammalian cells reveals that it is tightly associated with a protein which reacts with antibodies to the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21Cip1. (
  • Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDC7 gene. (
  • The Cdc7 kinase is involved in regulation of the cell cycle at the point of chromosomal DNA replication. (
  • this means that most eukaryotic cells have the Cdc7 kinase protein. (
  • The product encoded by this gene is predominantly localized in the nucleus and is a cell division cycle protein with kinase activity. (
  • The protein is a serine-threonine kinase that is activated by another protein called either Dbf4 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae or ASK in mammals. (
  • Although expression levels of the protein appear to be constant throughout the cell cycle, the protein kinase activity appears to increase during S phase. (
  • The gene, CDC7, is involved in the regulation of cell cycle because of the gene product Cdc7 kinase. (
  • S100A6 depletion caused a decrease in both cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and phospho-CDK1 levels, which are essential for eukaryote cell-cycle progression. (
  • METHODS: We studied how two structurally distinct forms of type I collagen, monomer versus polymerized fibrils, affect cell proliferation, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, and expression of G1-phase regulatory proteins in cultured rat mesangial cells (MCs). (
  • Cyclin and cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) partake the important roles in cell cycle during proliferation and affect different cell cycle phases [ 6 - 9 ]. (
  • the kinase activity was modulated during the cell division cycle, and association of pRb with E1A apparently was not required for this activity. (
  • A protein kinase characterized by its ability to phosphorylate microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2), is thought to be an early intermediate in an insulin-stimulated phosphorylation cascade and in a variety of other mammalian cell responses to extracellular signals. (
  • A complementary DNA that encodes this protein serine-threonine kinase has been cloned, and the protein designated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1). (
  • Genetic screens for cell division cycle mutants in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans led to the discovery of never-in-mitosis A (NIMA), a serine/threonine kinase that is required for mitotic entry. (
  • To date, a relatively small number of protein kinase families that regulate mitosis have been identified. (
  • CDC42 acts as a signal transduction convergence point in intracellular signalling networks, and mediates multiple signalling pathways, including tyrosine kinase receptors, heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), cytokine receptors, integrins, and physical and chemical stress (Etienne-Manneville, 2004). (
  • The cell cycle is tightly controlled throughout its phases-G1, S, G2, and M. Individual cyclins, specific for each phase of the cell cycle, accumulate and activate CDKs at the appropriate times during the cell cycle and subsequently are degraded, causing kinase inactivation. (
  • Similar to eukaryotes, bacterial scaffolding-like proteins emerged as platforms for kinase activation and signaling. (
  • However, the antiproliferative effects of morphine were not antagonized by Nx, pertussis toxin, forskolin, and 8-bromo-cAMP, suggesting that the typical opioid receptor-coupled signaling cascade involving the G i , adenylyl cyclase, and protein kinase A was not involved. (
  • FAK displays consensus sequences for phosphorylation by cell division cycle kinase-2-cyclin B, and might be a PP1 substrate. (
  • Inhibition of cyclin D1 expression or induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1 expression was found in mimosine-treated lung cancer cells. (
  • Combined application of ATP, cAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PK) induced a reversible increase in the SA channel activity in 70% of those excised patches which did not respond to ATP. (
  • An increase in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity is associated with vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and rapamycin, which blocks the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin, inhibits this proliferation in vitro and in vivo. (
  • p70 S6 kinase, a target of PI 3-kinase and the mammalian target of rapamycin, was rapidly activated on growth factor stimulation of quiescent coronary artery smooth muscle cells and after balloon injury of rat carotid arteries. (
  • These events were associated with increases in the protein levels of cyclin B1, cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 1, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and p21 Cip1 in vivo and in vitro, whereas inhibition of the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway with either rapamycin or wortmannin blocked the upregulation of these cell cycle proteins, but not mRNA, and arrested the cells in vitro before S phase. (
  • These data suggest that cell cycle progression in vascular cells in vitro and in vivo depends on the integrity of the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway in allowing posttranscriptional accumulation of cell cycle proteins. (
  • 7 mTOR, which can be blocked by the immunosuppressant rapamycin after the latter has formed a complex with the immunophilin FK-binding protein (FKBP), 8 possesses kinase activity that is required for p70 S6 kinase activation 9 and may also be directly involved in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. (
  • 12 mTOR may sense nutrient availability within the cell and provide basal phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase, whereas PI 3-kinase may mediate subsequent mitogen-induced phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase. (
  • In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and p70 S6 kinase by PI 3-kinase and mTOR are critical events during the mitogenic stimulation of coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs) in vitro and in response to vascular injury in vivo. (
  • To gain insight into the mechanism underlying the effect of BZD on the cell cycle progression, the mRNA and protein expression of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), CDK6 and p21 was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. (
  • Cell cycle regulation of the yeast Cdc7 protein kinase by association with the Dbf4 protein. (
  • Yeast Cdc7 protein kinase and Dbf4 protein are both required for the initiation of DNA replication at the G1/S phase boundary of the mitotic cell cycle. (
  • Cdc7 kinase function is stage-specific in the cell cycle, but total Cdc7 protein levels remained unchanged. (
  • Therefore, Cdc7 kinase is regulated by a posttranslational mechanism that ensures maximal Cdc7 activity at the G1/S boundary, which is consistent with Cdc7 function in the cell cycle. (
  • In this study, the Dbf4 protein was shown to be required for Cdc7 kinase activity in that Cdc7 kinase activity is thermolabile in vitro when extracts prepared from a temperature-sensitive dbf4 mutant grown under permissive conditions are used. (
  • Therefore, because of the common point of function for the two proteins and the fact that the Dbf4 protein is essential for Cdc7 function, we propose that Dbf4 may represent a cyclin-like molecule specific for the activation of Cdc7 kinase. (
  • It has also been demonstrated that TGF-β induced cell cycle arrest can be partially attributed to the regulatory effects of TGF-β on both the expression and activity of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors [CDKI] such as p21 and p27. (
  • It's well established that in response to various types of stimuli, such as growth factor stimulation or DNA damage, protein kinase has become activated in cells and phosphorylate, a subset of proteins within the cell and these phosphorylated substrates then are believed to be responsible for many of the molecular effects that follow after the initial stimulus. (
  • Instead, it appears to be the interaction of the phosphorylated substrates with specific phosphoserine, phosphothreonine or phosphotyrosine-binding domains that coordinates the action of the protein kinase with the molecular effect that we observe. (
  • A multicopy suppressor gene of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae G1 cell cycle mutant gene dbf4 encodes a protein kinase and is identified as CDC5. (
  • Vpr expression in cells caused p34cdc2 to remain in the phosphorylated, inactive state, p34cdc2/cyclin B complexes immunoprecipitated from cells expressing Vpr were almost completely inactive in a histone H1 kinase assay. (
  • Previous work has suggested that cell cycle resumption, but not cortical granule release, is mediated by calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamKII). (
  • Proteomic work to determine possible protein interactions highlight a possible phosphorylation by cyclin dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1) in the cytoplasm and dephosphorylation by IMC2a to allow it to associate with the IMC similar to the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation mechanisms used by glideosome associated protein 45 (GAP45) to help associate and anchor the glideosome to the IMC. (
  • The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) exists in two isoforms, PKA-I (type I) and PKA-II (type II), that contain an identical catalytic (C) subunit but distinct regulatory (R) subunits, RI and RII, respectively. (
  • Global Markets Direct's, 'Cell Division Cycle 7 Related Protein Kinase (CDC7 or EC - Pipeline Review, H1 2020', provides in depth analysis on Cell Division Cycle 7 Related Protein Kinase (CDC7 or EC targeted pipeline therapeutics. (
  • Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in Cell Division Cycle 7 Related Protein Kinase (CDC7 or EC targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects. (
  • The report analyses the pipeline products from therapy areas Oncology under development targeting Cell Division Cycle 7 Related Protein Kinase (CDC7 or EC (
  • Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC or EC - Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) is a cyclin-dependent kinase associated with P-TEFb. (
  • Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC or EC pipeline Target constitutes close to 26 molecules. (
  • It also reviews key players involved in Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC or EC targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (
  • Cell-cycle-dependent expression of the STK-1 gene encoding a novel murine putative protein kinase. (
  • We have cloned a novel putative serine/threonine kinase-encoding gene, designed STK-1, from murine embryonic stem (ES) cell and testis cDNA libraries. (
  • The kinase most closely related to STK-1 is Xenopus laevis XLP46 protein kinase which shows 71% amino-acid identity to STK-1 between their kinase domains. (
  • AFX-like Forkhead transcription factors, which are controlled by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB) signaling, are involved in regulating cell cycle progression and cell death. (
  • This finding suggests the way PCNA participates in the control of the G1 phase, by allowing cyclin kinase complexes to find and phosphorylate protein targets. (
  • Cell synchronization experiments showed a significant increment of ANKK1-kinase in mitotic cells while ANKK1-kinase overexpression affects G1 and M phase that were found to be modulated by ANKK1 alleles and apomorphine treatment. (
  • Injection of retrovirus expressing the NICD into the subretinal space of Ccnd1 -/- pups rescued proliferation of retinal progenitor cells, thus confirming that cyclin D1 affects Notch signaling during retinal development. (
  • Surprisingly, we found that reduction in SNIP1 levels resulted in significantly reduced cell proliferation and accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (
  • In mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Cdc7 is needed for proliferation. (
  • Manipulation of PAR mRNA in DU145 and NIH3T3 cells indicated that its expression level is an important determinant of cell in vitro proliferation, clonogenicity in soft agar and in vivo tumorigenicity. (
  • BACKGROUND: Extracellular matrix molecules profoundly regulate cell behavior, including proliferation. (
  • We use protein expression patterns by immunohistochemical method to see whether the expression of p53, p16, p21, and p27 belongs to cell-cycle-regulators and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and Ki-67 the proliferation markers in sixty patients with sinonasal inverted papilloma, and 10 of them with squamous cell carcinoma transformation. (
  • Finally, we found that PCNA, p27 may interact with CDK1 which promote IP cell proliferation and correlate to sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma. (
  • The CDK1 is a very crucial initiator for cell proliferation and malignant transformation factor [ 10 ]. (
  • The p27 interacts with cyclin E-CDK2, cyclin A-CDK2, and cyclin D1-CDK4 complexes, affecting cell proliferation and apoptosis [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • The cell cycle is a highly dynamic process that is essential for cell proliferation. (
  • These observations suggest a tight link between the rate of cell cycle progression and the switch of NE cell proliferation to neurogenesis. (
  • We examined positive regulators of the cell cycle (cyclin A, cyclin B1, and cyclin D1), cell cycle inhibitors (p16, p21, p27, p53, and Rb), and the proliferation markers Ki-67 and topoisomerase IIA by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray, comprising 136 cases of OSCC. (
  • Here we identify modes of L1 proteins' entrance into the nucleus, a necessary step for L1 proliferation. (
  • Proto-oncogenes normally act at different levels of cell proliferation, but can promote tumor growth when mutated. (
  • Oncogenes, such as BRCA1 and BCL2, serve to promote cell proliferation or block apoptosis, and are often transcription factors, growth factors or growth factor receptors, or apoptotic regulators. (
  • Our previous results demonstrated that the plant amino acid mimosine blocked cell cycle progression and suppressed proliferation of human lung cancer cells in vitro by multiple mechanisms. (
  • Pendulin, a Drosophila protein with cell cycle-dependent nuclear localization, is required for normal cell proliferation. (
  • We describe the dynamic intracellular localization of Drosophila Pendulin and its role in the control of cell proliferation. (
  • 1 2 3 Cellular proliferation involves changes not only in the level of gene transcription but also in the rate of protein translation. (
  • Bushen Zhuangjin Decoction promotes chondrocyte proliferation by stimulating cell cycle progression. (
  • The aim of these investigations was to analyse the effects of growth factors on the proliferation of hRPE cells and on the mRNA expression of transcription factors, cell cycle proteins and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. (
  • Human RPE cells were incubated in the presence of TGFß1, TGFß2, PDGF, VEGF or bFGF and cell proliferation was determined by the BrdU incorporation after 24 - 72h. (
  • RPE cell proliferation was significant increased by PDGF and bFGF after 48h and decreased by TGFß1 and TGFß2 after 48 - 72h. (
  • These results show that some of the examined cytokines induce contrary effects in respect of proliferation and extracellular matrix formation by hRPE cells in vitro . (
  • To provide insight into the biological effects of activated Yes-associated protein (YAP) on the proliferation, apoptosis, and senescence of human periodontal ligament stem cells (h-PDLSCs). (
  • The proliferation activity was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), and the cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry. (
  • We also aimed to evaluate the expression of TGF-β1 and p27 in the context of other cell cycle and proliferation markers such as cyclin D1 and Ki-67. (
  • Growth factors do not only stimulate cell proliferation, but they may also act as growth inhibitors, depending on the cell type and the stimulatory pathway that is involved. (
  • It has been reported that TGF-β influence different cell functions, including growth, proliferation and differentiation. (
  • In this study we examined proliferation of a lung cancer cell line after treatment with 12 concentrations of powdered G. lucidum for 24, 48, and 120 hours. (
  • Based on half-maximal inhibitory concentrations values, proliferation of the H1793 cell line seemed to be sensitive to the extract in a time- and dose-dependent manner. (
  • These results suggest that the decrease in cellular proliferation correlated with a change in both cell cycle progression and apoptosis, and that the triterpenoid in G. lucidum is the bioactive component. (
  • These results suggest that the nuclear form of Spa-1 in the lymphoid cells is involved in the negative regulation of normal lymphocyte proliferation possibly as a distinct member of Ran/RCC-1 system. (
  • The helix-loop-helix protein Id1 has been implicated in regulating mammary epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well characterized. (
  • Under low serum conditions, ectopic expression of Id1, but not Id2, allowed continued proliferation of immortalized mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells. (
  • Accumulating evidence suggests that curcumin induces cell death through activation of apoptotic pathways and inhibition of cell growth and proliferation. (
  • Cell cycle regulatory proteins and checkpoints are downstream elements of cellular signaling cascades crucial for cell proliferation. (
  • Taken together, the findings suggest that 'targeting TSN nuclease activity could inhibit pathological cell proliferation. (
  • P18INK4c has been shown to play an important role in modulating TCR-mediated T cell proliferation. (
  • The loss of p18INK4c in T cells reduced the requirement of CD28 costimulation for efficient T cell proliferation. (
  • 14-3-3 proteins in cell cycle regulation. (
  • In addition, 14-3-3 proteins have been implicated in the transcriptional regulation of CDK-inhibitors as they modulate the transcription factors p53, FOXO and MIZ1. (
  • Effects of 14-3-3 proteins on cell cycle progression and the regulation of 14-3-3 activity during the cell cycle are reviewed in this chapter. (
  • Their screen (which they termed "genetic-proteomic") identified previously known binding partners with roles in cell cycle control (such as CDK4 and CDK6), as well as new binding partners that function in transcriptional regulation. (
  • These data suggest that Gadd45 may act in the regulation of the cell cycle. (
  • Because the two proteins, Cdc7 and Dbf4, must form a complex before activating the MCM complex, the regulation of one protein is sufficient for both. (
  • These data suggest that the cell cycle-dependent binding of GABP to the Skp2 promoter plays an important role in the regulation of Skp2 expression and cell cycle progression from G 1 to S phase. (
  • Centrosomal proteins (CEPs) are the molecules that are found inside the centrosome and are participating in the regulation of its related functions [ 3 ]. (
  • CEP55 was detected to have many roles in centrosome associated cellular functions, like centrosomal duplication, progression of cell cycle and in cytokinesis regulation [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • These results provide a resource for scientists studying protein regulation during biological transitions. (
  • To date over 70 Rho-GEFs, 60 Rho-GAPs and 3 Rho-GDIs have been identified in mammals, reflecting the complexity of regulation of these classes of proteins. (
  • Cell cycle regulation may be an important mechanism underlying the transition from proliferative to differentiative divisions of NE cells ( Dehay and Kennedy, 2007 ). (
  • Since SPO12 appears to encode a limiting factor, it may be a rate limiting cofactor that is involved in the regulation of the Dbf2 and Dbf20 protein kinases. (
  • The cell cycle is under strict regulation. (
  • This review reports the current knowledge on the phosphorylation of proteins involved in the maintenance of genome integrity and the regulation of cell cycle in bacteria that reveals surprising similarities to eukaryotes. (
  • It is now accepted that cancer is more accurately described as being the product of malfunctions within the regulation of the cell cycle, such that injured or mutated cells which are normally killed, are allowed to progress through the cell cycle, accumulating mutations. (
  • Cell cycle- and Vpr-mediated regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 expression in primary and transformed T-cell lines. (
  • We hypothesized that these 2 molecules converge on a critical pathway of translational regulation that is essential for successful upregulation of cell cycle-regulatory proteins in activated smooth muscle cells. (
  • This cell cycle-dependent regulation could be the result of association with the Dbf4 protein. (
  • Gene regulation in trypanosomes has been investigated mostly in species that undergo morphological and physical transformations during their life cycles. (
  • Using thorNIH3T3 fibroblasts stably transfected with Spa-1 cDNA, it was indicated that ectopic overexpression of Spa-1 protein in the arrested G1 phase by serum starvation resulted in the catastrophic cell death during the following S phase, suggesting that Spa-1 protein was involved in the negative regulation of cell cylce progression. (
  • Compensation by RII β stabilization may represent a novel biochemical adaptation mechanism of the cell in response to sequence-specific loss of RI α expression, which leads to sustained down-regulation of PKA-I activity and inhibition of tumor growth. (
  • Publications] Michio Matsuhashi: 'Functions of penicillin-binding proteins and their regulation. (
  • These data indicate that in mammary epithelial cells, Id1 has cell cycle regulatory functions that are similar to those of c-Myc, and suggest that cyclin D1 may be involved in Id1 regulation of cell cycle progression. (
  • These data suggest that Rb is an essential GI-specific mediator that links Ras-dependent mitogenic signalling to cell-cycle regulation. (
  • Both cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis are mediated in part by transcriptional regulation of p27kip1. (
  • Detailed analysis of p130 regulation demonstrates that following Forkhead-induced cell cycle arrest, cells enter G0 and become quiescent. (
  • So the regulator unbinding, and the associated gene expression regulation, is tied to the growth cycle of the cell. (
  • Firstly in this study, we demonstrate that Ect2 has a role in cell cycle regulation in human glioma cells. (
  • Abstract -Cell cycle progression represents a key event in vascular proliferative diseases, one that depends on an increased rate of protein synthesis. (
  • article{1996014, abstract = {Multicellular organisms depend on cell production, cell fate specification, and correct patterning to shape their adult body. (
  • The Cdc7/Dbf4 complex adds a phosphate group to the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) protein complex allowing for the initiation of DNA replication in mitosis (as explained in the Cdc7 and Replication section below). (
  • After chromatin undergoes changes in telophase of mitosis, the hexameric protein complex of MCM proteins 2-7 forms part of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) by binding to the chromatin and other aiding proteins (Cdc6 and Cdt1). (
  • Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls progression through mitosis and the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (
  • The decreased PAR levels in DU145 cells resulted in defects in centrosome segregation, in failed cytokinesis and chromosome alignment, and in increased number of apoptotic cells, polyploidy and aberrant mitosis. (
  • Strikingly, a large number of intrinsically disordered proteins, which lack a fixed 3D-structure, become more stable and soluble during mitosis. (
  • Not surprisingly, cells have developed complex, and often redundant, mechanisms that enable them to undergo mitosis without errors. (
  • Cell-cycle-dependent protein kinases, along with their counteracting phosphatases, regulate the phosphorylation status of many hundreds of substrate proteins that, in turn, dictate the events that orchestrate mitosis. (
  • The founding member of the NEK family is the never-in-mitosis A (NIMA) protein of Aspergillus nidulans , which was identified by Ron Morris and colleagues in a genetic screen for cell division cycle mutants ( Oakley and Morris, 1983 ). (
  • The protein, CDT1, helps facilitate DNA replication during the initial part of the cell cycle, called interphase, during which DNA is replicated and checked for errors, before being separated into two daughter cells in the latter part of the cell cycle, called mitosis. (
  • During mitosis, microtubules pull the replicated chromosomes into two separate strands, one for each daughter cell. (
  • Towards exploring this discrepancy, the investigators created cells with dysfunctional CDT1, and found that these mutant cells stalled during the mitosis phase and never correctly divided in two. (
  • Traditionally, some types of drugs try to inhibit mitosis in cancer cells, but normally the number of dividing cells in tissue is very small," Varma said. (
  • The mitosis of cells needs to undergo prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, which is a continuous process from one parent cell to two daughter cells. (
  • After being stimulated, these cells can still enter the cell cycle and continue to undergo mitosis. (
  • However, progressively more PP1 activity was assayed in FAK-immunoprecipitates obtained from cells released from mitosis. (
  • The results suggest that FAK dephosphorylation by PP1δ occurs in cells released from mitosis, and confirmed the specific association of PP1δ, as detected previously in adherent cells. (
  • The mitotic checkpoint, or spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), is the major cell cycle control mechanism to delay the onset of anaphase during mitosis. (
  • A few years ago, Vaquero showed that SIRT2 regulates the removal of this epigenetic mark just before beginning the process of cell division (mitosis), probably to allow adequate compaction of chromosomes during mitosis. (
  • In the study published now Genes & Development, IDIBELL researchers have explored the functional relationship between SIRT2, this epigenetic mark and mitosis, to try to understand the consequences of SIRT2 activity and loss of epigenetic marks H4K16Ac during mitosis and cell cycle in general. (
  • We found that mice in the absence of SirT2, make mitosis and cell division but accumulates genetic damage and increased levels of genomic instability, so these animals are more likely to develop tumors. (
  • Using multiple techniques such as structural modelling, X-ray scattering, X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy, scientists have found that the Spc110 protein provides a greater function in mitosis originally believed. (
  • Cyclin D1 increased Notch1 gene transcription by recruiting the histone acetylase CBP (CREB-binding protein) to the Notch1 promoter. (
  • Bcl-2 is a member of a large gene family encoding proteins that can either inhibit (e.g. (
  • Smad nuclear interacting protein 1 (SNIP1) is an evolutionarily conserved protein containing a forkhead-associated (FHA) domain that regulates gene expression through interactions with multiple transcriptional regulators. (
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (
  • The gene coding for the Dbf4 or ASK protein is regulated during the different phases of cell cycle. (
  • Analysis of total endothelial mRNAs using a human gene chip array revealed significant gene expression of the S100 calcium-binding protein family members S100A6, S100A10, S100A11 and S100A13. (
  • Several cellular proteins form stable complexes with the proteins encoded by the adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) gene in extracts derived from adenovirus infected or transformed cells. (
  • one, a 105-kilodalton protein (pRb), is the product of the retinoblastoma gene, and the other, a 60-kilodalton protein, is a human cyclin A. Two other proteins that bind E1A have now been shown to be related to p34cdc2. (
  • It grows with normal kinetics in cells coinfected with a recombinant retrovirus, retroUL69, which expresses UL69 protein, demonstrating that its growth defect results from the mutation in the UL69 gene. (
  • TN sub UL69 +pUL69 lacks the UL69 gene but contains UL69 protein in virus particles. (
  • TN sub UL69 −pUL69 lacks the UL69 gene and protein. (
  • The mutant virions lacking both the UL69 gene and protein fail to induce a cell-cycle block with normal efficiency, whereas the mutant particles lacking the gene but containing the protein can institute the block. (
  • The mutant virus lacking the UL69 gene and protein is defective for replication in fibroblasts, producing a normal yield only after a significant delay. (
  • The mutant virus lacking the UL69 gene and protein fails to efficiently induce a G 1 block after infection of fibroblasts, whereas the mutant virus lacking the UL69 gene but containing UL69 protein can institute the block. (
  • In eukaryotes, protein phosphorylation plays a key role in cell signaling, gene expression, and differentiation. (
  • A gene on chromosome 1q25 that encodes a tumour suppressor involved in transcriptional and post-transcriptional control pathways, which is part of the PAF protein complex. (
  • To identify new cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets for colorectal cancers (CRCs), we performed immunohistochemical analysis using tissue microarrays covering archival tumor tissue samples from 434 CRC patients and antibodies to cell division cycle-associated protein 1 (CDCA1) that was originally identified as an oncoantigen by our gene expression profile database, and compared its expression with several clinicopathological factors. (
  • Interestingly, one specimen in which we also found a high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia showed the progressive loss of pRb2/p130 from normal prostatic cells to prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia cells, suggesting that in prostatic cancer, lack of expression of the tumor suppressor gene pRb2/p130 could be involved in the progression of the disease, from an early stage. (
  • Caprin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPRIN1 gene. (
  • A gene on chromosome 16p12.2 that encodes a member of the CDC5/Polo subfamily of serine/threonine protein kinases, which performs several key functions during the M phase of the cell cycle-e.g., regulating centrosome maturation and spindle assembly, removing cohesins from chromosome arms, inactivating anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) inhibitors, and regulating mitotic exit and cytokinesis. (
  • The Vpr accessory gene product of human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus is believed to play a role in permitting entry of the viral core into the nucleus of nondividing cells. (
  • Hypothetical proteins comprise roughly half of the predicted gene complement of T. gondii and P. falciparum and represent the largest class of uniquely functioning proteins in these parasites. (
  • Following the idea that functional relationships can be informed by the timing of gene expression, we devised a strategy to identify the core set of apicomplexan cell division cycling genes with important roles in parasite division, which includes many uncharacterized proteins. (
  • The analysis identified more than 100 ortholog gene pairs with unknown function in T. gondii and P. falciparum that displayed co-conserved mRNA abundance, dynamics of cyclical expression and similar peak timing that spanned the complete division cycle in each parasite. (
  • These results demonstrate the utility of using gene expression timing and dynamic profile to identify proteins with unique roles in Apicomplexa biology. (
  • Classical stochastic models of protein production usually do not consider several phenomena within the cell such as cell volume growth, cell division or gene replication, furthermore concentrations of RNA-polymerases and ribosomes are in general assumed to be constant. (
  • Starting from the classical two-stage protein production model, we successively integrate the volume growth, the random partition of compounds at division, the gene replication and the sharing of RNA-polymerases and ribosomes for the production of all types of proteins. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a small GTPase of the Rho-subfamily, which regulates signaling pathways that control diverse cellular functions including cell morphology, migration, endocytosis and cell cycle progression. (
  • We previously identified the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein-like 1 (AIPL1) gene, mutations of which cause approximately 10% of Leber congenital amaurosis. (
  • In contrast, inactivation of Ras in quiescent cells prevented growth-factor induction of both immediate-early gene transcription and exit from GO in an Rb-independent manner. (
  • In this study, gene expression profiling of C2C12 myoblasts reveals that transcripts involved in cell cycle and muscular development pathways are modulated by Fxr1 -depletion. (
  • When a particular protein is needed, a regulator protein binds to the DNA chain at the appropriate place, causing the adjacent gene to be "expressed" to make the protein. (
  • But there must also be a mechanism to turn off the gene when enough of the protein has been produced. (
  • In a solution of DNA and regulator proteins they saw that when the concentration of the protein rises, another regulator causes the unbinding of the first regulator, stopping expression of the gene. (
  • When the intruding metal atoms have been disposed of the cell will be filled with an excess of the "unmetalized" regulator protein, which helps the first regulator to unbind and replaces it on the operator site in a different way that turns off the gene. (
  • The experiment confirmed the earlier finding that unbinding the first regulator and halting gene transcription followed an increase in the concentration of the unmetalized regulator protein. (
  • When they removed Tudor-SN from cancer cells using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technique, cancer cell growth was significantly delayed. (
  • Furthermore, Tudor-SN affects the cell cycle by regulating microRNAs, small non-coding RNA molecules that function to downregulate gene expression. (
  • Cells counteract oxidative stress by altering metabolism, cell cycle and gene expression. (
  • Rad1 is a component of the 9-1-1 cell-cycle checkpoint response complex, which plays a role in checkpoint activation that permits DNA-repair pathways to prevent cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage and replication stress [ PMID: 9311982 , PMID: 21978893 ]. (
  • MRT-2 checkpoint protein is required for germline immortality and telomere replication in C. elegans. (
  • The E6/p53 and E7/Rb1 interactions result in a deregulation of the cell cycle with loss of control of crucial cellular events, such as DNA replication, DNA repair and apoptosis. (
  • It is postulated that the interactions of Gadd45 with both p21Cip1 and PCNA are important for the modulation of cell cycles, and for the inhibition of DNA replication. (
  • The dynamic interaction between ParA and ParB drives movement and exerts positioning of the chromosomal origin of replication ( oriC ) within the cell. (
  • During chromosome replication, segregation proteins position newly duplicated chromosomal origin of replication ( oriC ) regions and ensure proper chromosome organization. (
  • It has been suggested that the protein is essential for initiation of DNA replication and that it plays a role in regulating cell cycle progression. (
  • right after replication is over, the protein levels drop. (
  • Since Cdc7 is attached to the Dbf4 protein the entire complex is held in place during replication. (
  • This is most likely due to the change in conformation allowing the remainder of replication machinery proteins to be loaded. (
  • DNA replication can begin after all the necessary proteins are in place. (
  • RESULTS: Polymerized type I collagen completely prevented the increase of DNA synthesis and cell replication induced by 5% fetal calf serum (FCS) or 25 ng/mL platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in MCs on monomer type I collagen. (
  • CDC34 takes part in the control of cell cycle and DNA replication. (
  • We find that loss of function in replication protein A (RPA), which consists of three highly conserved protein subunits and functions in DNA replication, leads to disintegration of the optic lobe neuroepithelium and premature differentiation of neuroepithelial cells into medulla neuroblasts. (
  • It's very surprising for a protein involved in DNA replication to be also binding microtubules," said Varma, who is also a member of the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University . (
  • It was previously known that CDT1 was present in high concentrations during the early part of interphase, corresponding to its replication function, after which the protein is degraded. (
  • On a larger scale, a single protein performing both DNA replication and microtubule binding is peculiar, and may hint at a common evolutionary origin for both mechanisms, according to Varma. (
  • Protein phosphorylation is also involved in the global control of DNA replication during the cell cycle, as well as in the mechanisms that cope with stress-induced replication blocks. (
  • However, it remains unclear whether protein phosphorylation in bacteria can also regulate the activity of proteins involved in DNA-mediated processes such as DNA replication or repair. (
  • Viral protein R (Vpr) plays an important role in the replication and pathogenesis of Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). (
  • Cell cycle checkpoints exist to protect the cells by arresting cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage or replication stress. (
  • We assembled an expanded list of orthologs from the T. gondii and P. falciparum genome sequences (2781 putative orthologs), compared their mRNA profiles during synchronous replication, and sorted the resulting set of dual cell cycle regulated orthologs (744 total) into protein pairs conserved across many eukaryotic families versus those unique to the Apicomplexa. (
  • The immunohistochemical results showed that all four promoters decreased the focal expression of p53 and p21, two proteins known to inhibit replication upon DNA damage, in both nucleus and cytoplasm. (
  • PCNA is essential for DNA metabolism, playing fundamental roles in replication, repair, recombination and also in cell cycle control [5 7]. (
  • It was initially described as a protein factor that stimulated activity and increased processivity of δ and ε type DNA polymerases [8 10], acting as a "sliding clamp" on DNA in a Replication Factor C (RF C) dependent way to allow the entry of the replicative DNA polymerase to the replication fork, stimulating it. (
  • Thus, it has been proposed that PCNA, besides being a processivity factor for DNA polymerases, it works as a recruiting platform for these and other proteins to the replication fork, or else to DNA with single stranded fragments, indicative of DNA damage [17]. (
  • The physiological meaning of this complex has not been determined, but it is suggested that it may contribute to coordination between cell cycle progression and DNA replication [21, 22]. (
  • 14-3-3 proteins function at several key points in G(1)/S- and G(2)/M-transition by binding to regulatory proteins and modulating their function. (
  • This notion provokes the question of whether chromosome segregation can be regarded as a regulatory stage of the cell cycle. (
  • These observations suggest that SCF Skp2 is the principal ubiquitin ligase responsible for determination of the abundance of cell cycle regulatory proteins during progression of cells from G 1 to S phase. (
  • Distinct structural forms of type I collagen modulate cell cycle regulatory proteins in mesangial cells. (
  • Disturbances in the expressions of centrosomal proteins (CEPs) and regulatory proteins that control G1-Sphase transition, like cyclins could participate in dysregulation of cell cycle control that has been incriminated in the pathogenesis of several malignancies. (
  • UL69 protein is a constituent of the virion ( 8 ) that exhibits transcriptional regulatory activity ( 9 , 10 ). (
  • Accumulating evidence supported by functional and biochemical studies suggests that phospho-regulatory mechanisms also take place during the bacterial cell cycle. (
  • Modulation of cell cycle regulatory protein expression and suppression of tumor growth by mimosine in nude mice. (
  • However, whether mimosine may modulate the expression of these cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppress tumor growth in vivo is unknown. (
  • Chang H, Weng C, Yen M, Chuang L and Hung W: Modulation of cell cycle regulatory protein expression and suppression of tumor growth by mimosine in nude mice. (
  • 1990. Human immunodeficiency virus vpr product is a virion-associated regulatory protein. (
  • In cycling cells, progression from G2 to M phase is driven by activation of the p34cdc2/cyclin B complex, an event caused, in part, by dephosphorylation of two regulatory amino acids of p34cdc2 (Thr-14 and Tyr-15). (
  • Effects of combined radiofrequency radiation exposure on the cell cycle and its regulatory proteins. (
  • This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found to interact with CDK9 and cyclin T, which suggested a possible involvement of this protein in AIDS. (
  • Cyclin D1 regulates entry into and progression through the cell cycle by controlling the activity of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (
  • ERK1 has striking similarity to two protein kinases, KSS1 and FUS3, from yeast. (
  • The yeast kinases function in an antagonistic manner to regulate the cell cycle in response to mating factors. (
  • Thus, ERK1 and the two yeast kinases constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved enzymes involved in regulating the response of eukaryotic cells to extracellular signals. (
  • Since that discovery, NIMA-related kinases, or NEKs, have been identified in most eukaryotes, including humans where eleven genetically distinct proteins named NEK1 to NEK11 are expressed. (
  • Biochemical studies of CDC42 show that, in response to external signals originating from cell surface receptors and cell adhesion molecules, GEFs engage CDC42 and form macromolecular complexes with scaffolding proteins and/or kinases and with specific effector molecules triggering a signalling cascade to direct cellular responses (Cerione, 2004). (
  • Spo12 is a limiting factor that interacts with the cell cycle protein kinases Dbf2 and Dbf20, which are involved in mitotic chromatid disjunction. (
  • The DBF2 and DBF20 genes of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode a pair of structurally similar protein kinases. (
  • The cell cycle is governed by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which are positively regulated by cyclins and negatively regulated by CDK inhibitors (CKIs) [ 3 ]. (
  • Similar to eukaryotes, bacteria use Hanks-type kinases and phosphatases for signal transduction, and protein phosphorylation is involved in numerous cellular processes. (
  • In all living cells, many cellular processes are controlled through the reversible phosphorylation of proteins on serine, threonine and tyrosine (Ser/Thr/Tyr) which results from the opposing action of kinases and phosphatases. (
  • Multiple Protein Kinases via Activation of Transcription Factors NF-kappaB, AP-1 and C/EBPdelta Regulate the IL-6/IL-8 Production by HIV-1 Vpr in Astrocytes. (
  • The unique aspect of our approach to this problem has been making the claim that phosphorylation of substrates by protein kinases alone may not be enough to elicit the particular molecular effects that are observed. (
  • Therefore, it becomes important for us to not only identify the phosphopeptide-binding domains and their substrates, but to also use systems biology approaches to understand the activation of different protein kinases as a function of time, in order to understand how signalling networks are coordinated in time and space. (
  • PCNA also associates to proteins functioning in cell cycle control, as D cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks) and p21 [7, 18, 19]. (
  • Cdks are a family of protein kinases whose function is to regulate the cell cycle and p21 is a regulator of cyclin Cdk kinases. (
  • The novel DNA damage checkpoint protein ddc1p is phosphorylated periodically during the cell cycle and in response to DNA damage in budding yeast. (
  • note that this is unrelated to the budding yeast protein Fin1 that localises to the mitotic spindle). (
  • Our comparative analysis of eukaryotic cell-cycle complexes reveals that the identity of the periodically expressed subunits differs significantly between organisms and is often mirrored by changes in cell-cycle-dependent phosphorylation of the protein products. (
  • Supershift" analysis indicated that the protein-probe complexes detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assays contain GABP. (
  • Cdc34 in association with different E3 complexes, including SCF, targets many different substrates for ubiquitination and degradation during cell division, signal transduction, and development. (
  • CKIs, which inhibit certain cyclin/CDK complexes, also rise and decline at specific times during the cell cycle [ 4 ]. (
  • Different cyclin-CDK complexes regulate various cell cycle transitions. (
  • Based on the structure of the protein, we propose that Pendulin may serve as an adaptor molecule to form complexes with other proteins. (
  • Using the technique of Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, we have detected the formation of complexes between the homotrimer protein ring Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, PCNA, and two fundamental regulators of the cell cycle, CdkA and Cyclin D4;2 along germination of maize seeds. (
  • Our studies provide insight into mechanisms by which NUMB and NUMBL promote cardiomyocyte cell cycle withdrawal and highlight previously unsuspected connections between pathways that are important for cardiomyocyte cell cycle reentry, with relevance to ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy and regenerative medicine. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R (Vpr) induces CCL5 expression in astrocytes via PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways. (
  • Proteins in ERK, Bcl-2, and p53 signaling pathways were detected by Western blotting. (
  • There is also integration of the cell cycle and the DNA damage checkpoint pathways so that it appears not only due to cell cycle checkpoints inactivate progression through the cell cycle, but progression through the cell cycle may be required in order to activate DNA damage checkpoints. (
  • Secondly, do redundant Ca 2+ signaling pathways operate at fertilization to ensure cell cycle resumption? (
  • The Ras proto-oncogene is a central component of mitogenic signal-transduction pathways, and is essential for cells both to leave a quiescent state (GO) and to pass through the GI/S transition of the cell cycle. (
  • Immunofluorescence studies with protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) isoforms-specific antibodies detected PP1δ, but not α or γ1, at focal adhesions. (
  • A ) Comparison of immunofluorescence stainings using several antibodies against ORF1p and HeLa M2 cells expressing a recoded L1. (
  • B ) Quantification of nuclear and cytoplasmic ORF1p and ORF2p in HeLa cells expressing a recoded L1 (ORFeus) or a native L1 (L1rp) and stained with JH74 or JH73g antibodies in combination with mouse anti-FLAG M2 antibody. (
  • C ) Western blot of HeLa M2 cells expressing ORFeus, L1rp or no L1 (HeLa) blotted with the indicated antibodies in combination with 4H1 always in green. (
  • Cells expressing ORFeus are fixed with formalin and stained with 4H1 mouse anti-ORF1p (red) and rabbit anti-FLAG antibodies (green). (
  • A ) HeLa-M2 cells transfected with empty pCEP-puro vector (LD207), L1rp (MT302) and ORFeus (LD401) were stained with secondary antibodies without incubation with primary antibodies. (
  • The Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) was initially found as a nuclear protein that was recognized by auto antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and whose synthesis was related with a proliferative state of the cells [1] since it was synthesized during the S phase of the cell cycle. (
  • The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the formation of 'Lys-11'-linked polyubiquitin chains and, to a lower extent, the formation of 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains. (
  • Skp2 is the F-box protein component of an SCF-type ubiquitin ligase that interacts specifically with p27 Kip1 and thereby promotes its ubiquitylation and degradation. (
  • Subsequent studies of genetic expression showed that Hausp stabilizes Cry1 by removing protein chains that trigger Cry1 degradation. (
  • Ect2 promotes G1/S transition by modulating the levels of CDK inhibitor p27Kip1 through mRNA stability and protein degradation, as well as Rb phosphorylation. (
  • On the contrary, the p21, P27, and CDK inhibitors, limited CDKs and arrest the cell cycle [ 8 ]. (
  • This cycle is regulated by its intrinsic GTPase activity and its interaction with three protein families: guanine exchange factors (GEFs), guanine dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) (Bishop and Hall, 2000). (
  • In fact, FAK immunoprecipitated from metabolically-labelled mitotic HeLa cells without tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors was phosphorylated on Ser only and was dephosphorylated in vitro by purified muscle PP1, with loss of phospho-Ser. (
  • INK4 proteins are cell-cycle inhibitors. (
  • SNIP1 itself is a 396 amino-acid protein that contains an N-terminal bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a putative forkhead-associated (FHA) domain in its C-terminus. (
  • PAR pattern of expression and its dynamic localization suggested a functional relationship to chromosomal passenger proteins (CPP). (
  • Phosphorylation provides a sensitive and dynamic way to regulate protein activity, stability, protein interaction and sub-cellular localization. (
  • Mutational analysis of cell cycle arrest, nuclear localization and virion packaging of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr. (
  • L1 protein expression and localization ( A ) Representative pictures of immunostained HeLa M2 cells expressing a recoded L1 (ORFeus) or a non-recoded L1 (L1rp). (
  • Based on this, the aim of the study was to investigate whether altered localization and/or p53 protein expression is an early event in tumor development in liver that possibly contributes to the growth advantage of initiated hepatocytes. (
  • Anti- FZR1 (Fizzy-Related Protein Homolog, Fizzy/Cell Division Cycle 20 Related 1 (Drosophila)) by USBiological, Cat. (
  • Polymorphisms of the p15INK4b/p16INK4a homolog were found to segregate with melanoma susceptibility in the Xiphophorus indicating that INK4 proteins have been involved with tumor suppression for over 350 million years. (
  • It is characterized by active metabolism, rapid synthesis of RNA and protein, and a significant increase of cell volume. (
  • Cells react to increased oxidant levels by arresting in the cell cycle, adjusting metabolism and through induction of antioxidant proteins. (
  • The S100A6 calcium-binding protein regulates endothelial cell-cycle progression and senescence. (
  • The S100 family of calcium-binding proteins regulates many aspects of cell function but their roles in vascular physiology are less well understood. (
  • Here, we report that the E2Fa transcription factor of Arabidopsis thaliana is an essential component that regulates the asymmetric cell division marking lateral root initiation. (
  • NUB1 is a negative regulator of the NEDD8 conjugation system, which regulates many biological events, including cell cycle transition and apoptosis. (
  • The mechanism by which Ras signalling regulates cell-cycle progression is unclear, however. (
  • In this study conducted in collaboration with the research group of Lourdes Serrano Institute of Human Genetics at Rutgers University in New Jersey (USA) and published in the journal Genes & Development, researchers describe epigenetic mechanisms whereby one of these proteins, the sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) regulates cell cycle progression and genomic stability. (
  • We show that Gadd45 is a nuclear protein, widely expressed in normal tissues, particularly in quiescent cellular populations. (
  • The majority of these studies have relied on overexpression of SNIP1, however, and the cellular function of the endogenous protein remains obscure. (
  • Depletion of endothelial S100A6 levels also elevated β-galactosidase expression, which is an important hallmark of cellular senescence and exit from the mammalian cell cycle. (
  • The centrosome that is an important cellular structure had many cellular functions e.g. a microtubule-organizer in human cells and it is involved in normal cell division [ 2 ]. (
  • Protein synthesis is one of the most fundamental biological processes to maintain cellular proteostasis. (
  • Tudor-SN protein is a multifunctional protein implicated in a variety of cellular processes. (
  • In addition, INK4 proteins play roles in cellular senescence, apoptosis and DNA repair. (
  • The Rb1 and p53 genes are deleted or mutated in several cancers and both proteins regulate the transcription of genes involved in cell cycle progression control. (
  • S100A6 depletion also decreased expression of CDK1, cyclin A1 (CCNA1) and cyclin B (CCNB1) genes with effects on cell-cycle progression. (
  • Similarly, mutation of tumor suppressor genes would hinder the inhibition of cell cycle progression, thus facilitating abnormal growth. (
  • We have cloned genes encoding these three CSBP II proteins, termed RBP63, RBP45, and RBP33, and characterized their binding properties. (
  • Although the majority of the protein coding genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase II, well-defined RNA polymerase II promoters in these organisms have so far remained elusive, with the only exception being the spliced leader promoter ( 13 ). (
  • A representative sample of cyclical unknown genes (16 total) was epitope tagged in T. gondii tachyzoites yielding the discovery of new protein constituents of the parasite inner membrane complex, key mitotic structures and invasion organelles. (
  • By tracking the movement of proteins in a living cell with nanometer-scale precision, Cornell researchers have gained a new insight into the way cells regulate the expression of their genes. (
  • The DNA in every living cell contains blueprints - we call them "genes" - for every protein the cell may need to make. (
  • The regulator proteins also bind to metal atoms, and when they do they change shape in a way that causes them to bind to DNA at operator sites that turn on the genes to make more defensive proteins. (
  • The researchers found that functional microRNAs are degraded in human cells by Tudor-SN, and that loss of Tudor-SN leads to a decrease in many microRNA molecules, which in turn downregulate genes critical for cell growth. (
  • This allows the hypophosphorylated Rb to repress transcription of S-phase genes causing cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. (
  • Cell cycle deregulation caused by changes in 14-3-3 expression has been implicated in cancer formation. (
  • Here, we have used short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to knockdown SNIP1 expression in human cell lines. (
  • These results define both a new function for SNIP1 and identify a previously unrecognized regulator of the cell cycle and cyclin D1 expression. (
  • Significantly, a C. elegans genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) analysis has examined the effect of knocking down expression of the C. elegans SNIP1 protein. (
  • Herein, we investigated the expression and function of S100-related family members in endothelial cells. (
  • We then examined the expression and functional properties of the major S100 family member, S100A6, in vascular endothelial cells. (
  • Protein expression of cyclins D1 and E was markedly down-regulated in MCs plated on polymerized type I collagen for eight hours in 5% FCS, as compared with MCs on monomer type I collagen. (
  • Incubation with 5% FCS reduced expression of the cdk-inhibitor protein p27Kip1 on monomer but not on polymerized type I collagen. (
  • No variation of p16, p21, PLUNC (palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone protein) and p53 expression was correlated to sinonasal IP malignant transformation by multivariate survey. (
  • PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) acts as an antigen expression in the cell nuclei in the phase of DNA synthesis during cell cycle and considers the cancer prognosis, but the relationship to IP is still controversial [ 5 ]. (
  • We have previously shown that expression of the HCMV UL69 protein in human tumor cells or primary fibroblasts blocks cell-cycle progression ( 7 ). (
  • Cells expressing UL69 protein after transfection with an expression plasmid or infection with a recombinant retrovirus accumulate in the G 1 compartment of the cell cycle. (
  • In addition, transfection of siRNAs against CDCA1 suppressed its expression and induced apoptosis of CRC cells. (
  • Knockdown of CDCA1 expression with siRNA significantly suppressed growth of NSCLC cell lines ( 16 ). (
  • Expression of the different proteins in normal and pathological specimens was evaluated by the Wilcoxon test. (
  • A matrix of correlation (Spearman coefficient) was used to evaluate the possible association in expression among the different proteins. (
  • Logistic regression analysis was used to test the multivariable prognostic value of the levels of protein expression for the probability of disease development. (
  • Multivariate analysis showed that pRb2/p130 and p107 may be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of prostate cancers, and that the expression of the retinoblastoma-related protein pRb2/p130 along with Ki-67 (MIB-1), expressed as differences between cytoplasmic and nuclear concentrations, could be considered new parameters to be evaluated in discriminating patients at a higher risk for prostate cancer. (
  • HIV-1 Vpr increases viral expression by manipulation of the cell cycle: a mechanism for selection of Vpr in vivo. (
  • Defects in PLK1 are associated with gastric, thyroid and B-cell malignancies, with increased expression linked to a worse prognosis. (
  • The mRNA and protein expression of cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6 in the BZD-treated chondrocytes was significantly upregulated, while the mRNA and protein expression of p21 was significantly downregulated, compared with that in the untreated chondrocytes. (
  • A) Western blot analysis showing the protein expression of cell cycle regulators in chondrocytes treated with or without BZD. (
  • To gain an insight into the effect of BZD on the cell cycle of chondrocytes, the mRNA and protein expression of cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK6 and p21 was analyzed using RT-PCR and western blotting. (
  • The protein levels of cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK6 and p21 were similar to their respective mRNA expression (Fig. 5). (
  • Effects on the mRNA expression of cell cycle proteins were observed significantly by bFGF after 24h stimulation. (
  • B ) Quantification of ORF1p and ORF2p expression in the cytoplasm and nucleus of HeLa cells expressing the indicated L1 element (error = S.E.M.) of at least 10 20X fields with about 100 cells each. (
  • Enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-labeled lentiviral vector was used to activate YAP in h-PDLSCs, then qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to evaluate the expression level of YAP. (
  • Suppression of Hsp70 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in increased apoptosis of cells infected with a Vpr-positive, but not Vpr-defective, HIV-1. (
  • p27 expression is reduced in pancreatic adenocarcinomas and decreased protein levels of p27 may play a role in the differentiation of pancreatic cancer. (
  • Developmentally regulated expression of the PD-1 protein on the surface of double negative (CD4^-CD8^-) thymocytes. (
  • Increased expression of RI α /PKA-I has been shown in human cancer cell lines, in primary tumors, in cells after transformation, and in cells upon stimulation of growth. (
  • Growth inhibition accompanied reduction in RI α /PKA-I expression and compensatory increases in RII β protein and PKA-II β , the RII β -containing holoenzyme. (
  • Study of p53 expression and post-transcriptional modifications after GSM-900 radiofrequency exposure of human amniotic cells. (
  • It is possible that complex formation with elevated Mdm2 together with increased Bcl-2 protein expression contributes to the sequestration and inactivation of p53 in cytoplasm. (
  • Furthermore, both nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of cyclin A and - B proteins was lost. (
  • In mitoinhibited liver the expression level of these two proteins was rather the opposit indicating slightly different roles for pRb and p107 during regeneration and cell cycle control, at least in this animal model. (
  • Fan, L , George, V , Brooks, G and Li, J-M (2008) Nox2 modulation of cell cycle inhibitory protein p21(cip1) expression in endothelial cells In: 28th Annual Meeting of the European Section of the International-Society-for-Heart-Research, 2008-05-28 - 2008-05-31, Athens, GREECE. (
  • and FKHR-L1 (FOXO3a) also directly control transcription of the retinoblastoma-like p130 protein and cause upregulation of p130 protein expression. (
  • Enforced expression of INK4 proteins can lead to G1 arrest by promoting redistribution of Cip/Kip proteins and blocking cyclin E-CDK2 activity. (
  • Therefore, the expression of p15INK4b or p16INK4A keeps the Rb-family proteins hypophosphorylated. (
  • Once a neutrophil is induced to release its NETs, it anchors itself in the tissue and breaks down its nuclear envelope: the barrier between the nuclear DNA and the rest of the cell. (
  • The researchers were intrigued by this, because normally cells only break down their nuclear envelope before they divide. (
  • In eukaryotes, proteins containing an FHA domain are found to be almost exclusively nuclear and seem to be prevalent among proteins which function in the cell cycle and DNA damage response ( Zhou, 2000 ). (
  • Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated the presence in nuclear extracts of proteins that bind to this sequence. (
  • We found that dfmr1 embryos display defects in the rapid nuclear division cycles that precede gastrulation in nuclear migration and in pole cell formation. (
  • While the aberrations in nuclear division are correlated with a defect in the assembly of centromeric/centric heterochromatin, the defects in pole cell formation are associated with alterations in the actin-myosin cytoskeleton. (
  • Cells become spherical, the nucleolus and nuclear envelope have completely disappeared. (
  • Chromatid gradually helixes, chromatin and nucleoli are reappeared, endoplasmic reticulum vesicle combined to form nuclear envelope, the cell equatorial zone is narrowing, and finally completely split into two daughter cells. (
  • A positive correlation between p27 and pRb2/p130 levels expressed, in normal and cancer counterparts in the same sample, as the difference between cytoplasmic and nuclear protein concentrations ( P = 0.045) was found. (
  • The sequence similarity with importin indicates that Pendulin may play a role in the nuclear import of karyophilic proteins and some of these may be required for the normal transmission and function of proliferative signals in the cells. (
  • C ) Proximity analysis of cells with (purple) or without (yellow) nuclear ORF1p is reported. (
  • White arrowheads indicate cells with nuclear ORF1p. (
  • The lower row of pictures shows a magnification of clustered cells expressing nuclear ORF1p and stained with 4H1 and JH73g antibody. (
  • Quantification of nuclear and cytoplasmic ORF1p and ORF2p in HeLa M2 cells expressing the indicated recoded or non-recoded L1s with or without the 5'UTR. (
  • Nuclear small G protein system involved in cell cycle. (
  • Spa-1 encodes a nuclear protein possessing a human Rap1 GTPase activating protein-related domain (GRD) at N-terminus followed by unique sequence containing a number of PEST sequences and leucine zipper-like motif at its C-terminus. (
  • Previous studies demonstrated that nuclear accumulation of p53 and other proteins is essential for efficient tumor suppression. (
  • Due to its involvement in cell cycle and its overexpression in several human cancers PAR could represent an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. (
  • In vitro reconstitution assays, in addition to employment of the two-hybrid system for protein-protein interactions, have demonstrated that the Cdc7 and Dbf4 proteins interact both in vitro and in vivo. (
  • This indicates that the Cdc7 and Dbf4 proteins act at a common point in the cell cycle. (
  • CDC42 encodes a 21.3 kDa, 191 amino acids small GTPase protein that belongs to the Rho family of Ras GTPases superfamily. (
  • Cells containing oncogenic mutations in-vivo often responded by activating the INK4A/ARF/INK4B locus that encodes the INK4 tumor suppressor proteins. (
  • In most cases, the association with 14-3-3 proteins requires a specific phosphorylation of the protein ligand and mediates cell cycle arrest. (
  • A conserved checkpoint pathway mediates DNA damage--induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in C. elegans. (
  • We show that during hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) exposure, the polyamine transporter Tpo1 controls spermidine and spermine concentrations and mediates induction of antioxidant proteins, including Hsp70, Hsp90, Hsp104 and Sod1. (
  • Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the core binding motif, CACTTCCG, which is similar to that of GA-binding protein (GABP), is essential for Skp2 transcription. (
  • The carboxyterminal BRCT domain of BRCA1 corresponds precisely to the recently identified minimal transcription activation domain of this protein, indicating one such function. (
  • Some of the various functions attributed to Vpr, including the induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest, activating the NF-κB pathway, and promoting viral reverse transcription, might be interrelated. (
  • Prostate androgen regulated (PAR) protein is a 148 amino acid polypeptide ubiquitously expressed in normal cells and overexpressed in many malignancies. (
  • The BRCT domain consists of approximately 95 amino acid residues and occurs as a tandem repeat at the carboxyl terminus of numerous proteins, but has been observed also as a tandem repeat at the amino terminus or as a single copy. (
  • Azidohomoalaine (AHA) is a non-radioactive and "clickable" amino acid analog of methionine which can be incorporated into newly synthesized proteins. (
  • One of these brands, the acetylation of the amino acid lysine 16 of histone H4 protein (H4K16Ac), appears to be particularly important in regulating the organization and genome integrity. (
  • INK4 proteins are highly similar in terms of structure and function, with up to 85% amino acid similarity. (
  • While those second and third exons are shared by p16INK4a and ARF, the proteins are encoded in different reading frames meaning that p16INK4a and ARF are not isoforms, nor do they share any amino acid homology. (
  • Despite the functional diversity of all these proteins, participation in DNA damage-responsive checkpoints appears to be a unifying theme. (
  • Some of these molecular effects include things like cell cycle checkpoints, DNA damage repair, or the decision of a cell to undergo apoptosis or withdraw from the cell cycle and senensence. (
  • 1. E.coli histone-like protein H-NS was detected in the oriC-membrane complex by using an anti-H-NS antibody. (
  • Publications] Akihiro Kaidow: 'Anucleate Cell Production by Escherichiacoli Δhns Mutant Lacking a Histone-Like Protein,H-NS. (
  • Although there is no evidence that human NEKs are essential for mitotic entry, it is clear that several NEK family members have important roles in cell cycle control. (
  • Roles of protein phosphorylation, calcium ion and cytoskeltal proteins in bacterial cell cycle. (
  • The screening also showed that Hausp binds to Cry2, but not as strongly, suggesting that the nearly identical proteins actually have different roles related to DNA repair. (
  • Thus, we have shown that the transition from neuroepithelial cells to neuroblasts is directly regulated by cell cycle regulators and propose a model in which the inhibition of neuroepithelial cell cycle progression downregulates Notch signaling activity through Numb, which leads to the onset of neurogenesis. (
  • This was primarily caused by inhibition of cell cycle progression from G 1 to S phase. (
  • Blockade of Fas by Fas-fusion protein or inhibition of caspase 8 resulted in a partial inhibition of morphine-induced apoptosis. (
  • Inhibition of cell growth is the most commonly used endpoint for in vitro toxicity of biomaterials. (
  • Y-box binding protein 1 is up-regulated in proliferative breast cancer and its inhibition deregulates the cell cycle. (
  • Here, we show a crucial role of some cell cycle regulators in this transition. (
  • Inactivation of the core cell cycle regulators, including the G1/S regulators E2F1 , Cyclin E , Cdk2 , and PCNA , and the G2/M regulators Cyclin A , Cyclin B , and Cdk1 , mimic RPA loss-of-function phenotypes, suggesting that cell cycle progression is required for both maintaining neuroepithelial cell identity and suppressing neuroblast formation. (
  • BZD affects the protein levels of the cell cycle regulators in chondrocytes. (
  • Tracking events inside the cell lets researchers see how regulators interact with chromosomes. (
  • Several checkpoint mechanisms guarantee that the next step in cell cycle progression is only entered after error-free completion of the previous phase. (
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans, the cell cycle checkpoint protein RAD1 homologue mrt-2 has a role in genome stability by promoting DNA double strand break-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and is required for maintaining telomere length and germline immortality [ PMID: 10882129 , PMID: 10646593 , PMID: 16951081 ]. (
  • Cyclin proteins act as "checkpoint" guards to control cell's cycle of rest, growth and division. (
  • 000114857 001__ 114857 000114857 005__ 20181203021031.0 000114857 037__ $$aARTICLE 000114857 245__ $$aA superfamily of conserved domains in DNA damage-responsive cell cycle checkpoint proteins 000114857 269__ $$a1997 000114857 260__ $$c1997 000114857 336__ $$aJournal Articles 000114857 500__ $$aEuropean Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany. (
  • 000114857 520__ $$aComputer analysis of a conserved domain, BRCT, first described at the carboxyl terminus of the breast cancer protein BRCA1, a p53 binding protein (53BP1), and the yeast cell cycle checkpoint protein RAD9 revealed a large superfamily of domains that occur predominantly in proteins involved in cell cycle checkpoint functions responsive to DNA damage. (
  • It has been shown that the interaction between the checkpoint proteins Rad9A and TopBP1 is a crucial upstream event required for the ATR-dependent checkpoint response to DNA damage, which can be activated throughout different points in the cell cycle. (
  • The BiFC assay employed in this project must be further optimized to effectively study the interaction between Rad9A and TopBP1, as well as other checkpoint proteins. (
  • To explore the molecular basis for the cell cycle-dependent oscillation of Skp2 mRNA, we have now characterized the promoter region of Skp2 . (
  • Cell Division Cycle 34 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non- glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 236 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 26.7kDa. (
  • These findings could inform more effective cancer treatments and help answer larger questions about molecular mechanisms, according to Dileep Varma, PhD , assistant professor of Cell and Molecular Biology and senior author of the study. (
  • Dileep Varma, PhD, assistant professor of Cell and Molecular Biology, was the senior author of a study published in the Journal of Cell Biology. (
  • 4 We hypothesized that in addition to the generalized increases in protein synthesis necessary for cell growth, there is a highly regulated increase in the translation of certain mRNA species, including those that encode cell cycle proteins, and we also hypothesized that the molecular machinery regulating this translation represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention. (
  • A second distinct binding protein termed CSBP II has been purified from CSBPA null mutant cells, lacking both CSBPA and CSBPB proteins, and contains three major polypeptides with predicted molecular masses of 63, 44.5, and 33 kDa. (
  • Molecular cloning of a novel mitogen-inducible nucler protein with a RanGTPase-activating domain that affects cell cycle progression. (
  • Our studies provide a possible molecular mechanism why curcumin induces apoptosis preferentially in cancer cells and suggest that phosphorylation of Cdc27 could be used as a biomarker to predict the therapeutic response of cancer cells to curcumin. (
  • Rescue of this molecular phenotype is possible by re-expressing human FXR1P in Fxr1 -depleted C2C12 cells. (
  • PCNA is a highly conserved protein, with minimal differences in yeasts, mammals, humans or plants [2 4] and a conserved molecular mass of around 29 kDa. (
  • Many proteins have already been screened by immunohistochemistry with the aim to find the most reliable indicator of progressive disease. (
  • The FMR family of KH domain RNA-binding proteins is conserved from invertebrates to humans. (
  • Thus, the BRCT domain is likely to perform critical, yet uncharacterized, functions in the cell cycle control of organisms from bacteria to humans. (
  • Pendulin is a new member of a superfamily of proteins which contains Armadillo (Arm) repeats and displays extensive sequence similarities with the Srp1 protein from yeast, with RAG-1 interacting proteins from humans, and with the importin protein from Xenopus. (
  • HT-29 cells, which express dominant negative p53 and show no increase of GTPase activity when treated with morphine, were less sensitive in vitro and were not affected in vivo . (
  • RBP45 and RBP33 are phosphoproteins, and RBP45 has been found to bind in vivo specifically to target mRNA containing cycling sequences. (
  • These include a family of RNA binding proteins recently identified from Trypanosoma cruzi that shows highly restrictive binding interactions in vivo with specific mRNAs ( 9 ). (
  • In vivo, Vpr might, by preventing p34cdc2 activation, delay or prevent apoptosis of infected cells. (
  • Here, we report that these in vivo findings are consistent with observations made in cancer cells in culture. (
  • Using cell synchronisation methods we show that Gadd45 levels are highest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and are greatly reduced during S phase. (
  • Skp2 is first detectable at the transition between G 1 and S phases, accumulates during S and G 2 phases, and then decreases in abundance as cells proceed through M phase. (
  • To assess the function of endothelial S100A6, we depleted protein levels using RNA interference and this caused increased cell-cycle arrest in the G2/M phase under different conditions. (
  • In this study, we showed that PAR is a short-lived protein with a peak in G2/M phase. (
  • The p21 is an inhibitor of G1 cell phase CDKs which restrain cells entry into S phase. (
  • the first phase of cell division. (
  • CDC25A is essential for progression from G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle. (
  • Using functional, biochemical, and imaging approaches, we also show a clear cell cycle bias for L1 retrotransposition that peaks during the S phase. (
  • A phase where the cell has left the cycle and has stopped dividing. (
  • The cells begin the second cycle through again after M phase. (
  • The cells stop in the G2 phase and are called G2 phase cells (R2), which can be stimulated to enter the cell cycle. (
  • The cells stop in the G1 phase and are called resting cells or G0 cells. (
  • The subcellular distribution of Pendulin is dependent on the phase of cell cycle. (
  • Cell density, total protein, total protein per cell, fraction of cells in G0/G1- or S-phase, the concentration of ATP, ADP and AMP were used as endpoints. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R (Vpr) arrests cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle by inhibiting p34cdc2 activity. (
  • 69:882-888, 1995), who showed that Vpr prevents the establishment in vitro of chronically infected HIV producer cell lines, apparently by causing infected cells to arrest in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. (
  • These findings strongly suggest that Vpr arrests cells in G2 by preventing the activation of the p34cdc2/cyclin B complex that is required for entry into M phase. (
  • Independently of its S phase function, and similarly to what it has been found in mammal cells, during maize germination, PCNA also associates to D type cyclins and to A type Cdks [25]. (
  • The stages of the cell cycle are divided into two major phases, a preparatory phase and a division phase. (
  • A dividing cell spends most of its time in the preparatory phase. (
  • Now, a study (Tudor-SN-mediated endonucleolytic decay of human cell microRNAs promotes G1/S phase transition) shows that a protein called Tudor-SN is associated with the preparatory phase and that inhibiting the protein could slow cancer cell division. (
  • Binding of recombinant Gadd45 protein to overlapping p21Cip1 peptides in ELISA assays and use of the yeast two hybrid assay show that Gadd45 directly interacts with this cell cycle inhibitor. (
  • ProSci offers recombinant proteins to aid in the study of the cell cycle. (
  • In one experiment, human T-ALL cells were infused into mice that then developed the disease. (
  • In addition to these tests with mouse cancers, the scientists found that the cyclin-D-inhibiting drug had similar effects on human blood cancer cells in the laboratory. (
  • Researchers from Germany and the United States describe an important step in how these NETs are released and how they stop a fungus from establishing an infection in mice and human cells in the journal Developmental Cell . (
  • Then, they observed human brains with fungal infections and confirmed that our neutrophils are also using cell cycle proteins. (
  • Comparison of primary and transformed human cells revealed significant differences in S100A6 protein levels in these cells. (
  • In primary human endothelial cells, S100A6 was present in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. (
  • Human cytomegalovirus blocks cell-cycle progression in the G 1 compartment upon infection of primary human fibroblasts. (
  • HCMV infection blocks cell-cycle progression in primary human fibroblasts ( 3 - 6 ). (
  • Here, we review the functions of the human NEKs, with particular emphasis on those family members that are involved in cell cycle control, and consider their potential as therapeutic targets in cancer. (
  • The vast majority of human cancer cells are aneuploid, meaning they have too few or, more commonly, too many chromosomes. (
  • MCF-7 [wild-type p53, estrogen receptor positive (20) ] and MDA-MB231 [p53 mutation (21) , estrogen receptor negative (22) ] human breast cancer cells were cultured in DMEM and RPMI 1640, respectively, supplemented with 10% FCS and 1% penicillin/streptomycin at 37°C in a 5% CO 2 atmosphere. (
  • Through its co-evolution with the human genome, L1 has intertwined itself with host cell biology. (
  • In this study, we examined the anti-cancer effect of mimosine on human H226 lung cancer cells grown in nude mice. (
  • The human immunodeficiency virus Vpr protein binds Cdc25C: implications for G2 arrest. (
  • h-PDLSCs were isolated successfully and were positive for human mesenchymal stem cell surface markers. (
  • Jia L, Gu W, Zhang Y, Jiang B, Qiao X, Wen Y. Activated Yes-Associated Protein Accelerates Cell Cycle, Inhibits Apoptosis, and Delays Senescence in Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells. (
  • Prey plasmids were isolated from the positive clones of the library screening and were co-transformed with either the bait or the empty pGBK-T7 vector into the yeast cells to confirm the interactions The human ortholog was then tested to confirm that the human proteins could also interact in this system. (
  • We observed an increase of p21-a regulator of cell-cycle progression-in Fxr1 -knocked-down mouse C2C12 and FSHD human myoblasts. (
  • Surprisingly, not only nontransformed cells, but also cancer cells such as human colon carcinoma cells, are forced into quiescence by Forkhead activation. (
  • This information could help understand the process in human cells and the abnormalities that occur in cancer. (
  • The human body senses light and adjusts its rhythms to a day-night cycle called the circadian clock. (
  • In the human body, cryptochromes no longer have a direct role in DNA repair either, but they are essential for regulating blood sugar levels and protein production on a day-night cycle. (
  • They used a technique called proteomic screening, in collaboration with the laboratory of TSRI Professor John Yates, to test for a wide range of proteins that could bind to Cry1 or Cry2 from mouse and human cells. (
  • Effect of human papillomavirus on cell cycle-related proteins p16INK4A, p21waf1/cip1, p53 and cyclin D1 in sinonasal inverted papilloma and laryngeal carcinoma. (
  • Secondly, we show that suppression of Ect2 reduces viability of chemo- and radio-resistant human glioma cells in vitro. (
  • ANKK1 mRNA and protein isoforms vary along neurodevelopment in the human and mouse brain. (
  • In a study published in Cell , Mikhail Savitski - together with the Bork and Beck labs at EMBL Heidelberg - systematically studied the amount of different proteins during six phases of the cell cycle. (
  • Each monomer contains a region called InterDomain Connector Loop (IDCL) which is bound by different proteins possessing a domain known as of Interaction to PCNA or PIP. (
  • Co-ordinated progression through the cell cycle is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity. (
  • We thus propose that S100A6 has an important role in regulating endothelial commitment to, and progression through, the cell cycle. (
  • The CSBP II binding activity was found to cycle in parallel with target mRNA levels during progression through the cell cycle. (
  • The D-cyclins determine when a cell begins making DNA in preparation for dividing to form new cells. (
  • In many types of cancer, an excess of cyclins allows cells to grow too fast and form tumors. (
  • All the cyclins interacted with at least two Cdks, with the exception of the novel cyclin-like protein CG14939, which only interacted with Eip63E. (
  • After YAP was activated by lentiviral vector, the mRNA and protein of YAP were highly expressed, and more YAP translocated into the nucleus. (
  • Chromosome segregation is a crucial stage of the cell cycle. (
  • To address this question, we discuss how environmental conditions affect chromosome segregation and how segregation proteins influence other cell cycle processes. (
  • Thus, the chromosome segregation process may link critical stages of the cell cycle. (
  • However, the mechanisms by which chromosome arrangement and segregation are adjusted to physiological state of bacterial cell only begun to emerge. (
  • Furthermore, many cancers exhibit chromosome instability, whereby there is frequent loss or gain of chromosomes at each cell division. (
  • Indeed, physical analysis of chromosome copy number in dbf2 revertants able to grow at 37 degrees showed that the frequency of chromosome VIII acquisition increased when cells were incubated at the restrictive temperature, and reached a frequency of more than 100-fold the amount in wild-type yeast. (
  • Publications] Yoshio Okada: 'Cytoplasmic axial filaments in Escherichiacoli cells : Possible function in the mechanism of chromosome segregation and cell division' J.Bacteriol.176. (
  • Ordinarily, DNA is tightly coiled and "condensed" in the chromosome, but it becomes less condensed when the cell grows so that the chromosome can be duplicated, and again becomes tightly condensed when the duplication finishes and the cell is ready to divide. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • The DNA sequence contains 6 exons and the transcript length is 1,512 bps translated to a 191 residues protein. (
  • Crithidia fasciculata cycling sequence binding proteins (CSBP) have been shown to bind with high specificity to sequence elements present in several mRNAs that accumulate periodically during the cell cycle. (
  • Polypeptides of identical size were radiolabeled in UV cross-linking assays performed with purified CSBP II and 32 P-labeled RNA probes containing six copies of the cycling sequence. (
  • All three CSBP II proteins show specificity for binding the wild-type cycling sequence in vitro. (
  • The presence of three highly conserved tetratricopeptide (TPR) motifs in the AIPL1 protein sequence suggested a role as a chaperone protein and made yeast-two hybrid studies a promising approach to determine a potential target of this activity. (
  • The cell cycle, or called cell-division cycle, is the sequence of events by which cells grow and divide. (
  • Although it is still not known why curcumin preferentially kills tumor cells, it has been identified as one of the major natural agents that inhibit tumor initiation and tumor promotion. (
  • Measuring protein synthesis during the cell cycle in mammalian cells has been challenging. (
  • This pathogenic activity of Vpr is related in part to its capacity to induce cell cycle G 2 arrest and apoptosis of target T cells. (
  • In addition, both ParA and ParB were shown to interact with the other proteins, including those involved in cell division or cell elongation. (
  • Our results suggest a possibility that our BiFC fusion proteins of interest interact in a non-specific manner, although further characterization is required to confirm this. (
  • Changes in amounts of proteins that regulate the cell cycle were consistent with longer G 1 and G 2 phases. (
  • Interactions are colored if they involve proteins contacting two Cdks (red), three Cdks (blue), or five Cdks (green). (
  • The other family of CKIs, CIP/KIP proteins are capable of inhibiting all CDKs. (
  • Zychlinsky, Amulic, and colleagues hypothesized that neutrophils were using the same cell cycle proteins used for cell division to release the NETs. (
  • The role of segregation proteins is to control the positioning of chromosomal (or plasmid) DNA during cell division. (
  • Centrosomal protein 55 (CEP55) has an important role in participation in the final stage of cell division, and cell cycle progression. (
  • CDC25A is specifically degraded in reaction to DNA damage, which inhibits cells with chromosomal abnormalities from progressing in the course of cell division. (
  • Here, we review our current knowledge of how NEKs contribute to the process of cell division. (
  • The life of a cell begins with the division of a parent cell, ending with the formation of its daughter cells, or the death of the cell. (
  • The daughter cell formation is usually used as a marker for the end of a cell division. (
  • The cell cycle refers to the entire process that the cell undergoes from the completion of one division to the end of the next division. (
  • These data revealed that cell division cycle-associated protein 1 ( CDCA1 ) was overexpressed in cancer tissues including CRC and lung cancer tissues. (
  • The main conclusions are that, among all different mechanisms studied, the random partitioning of macro-molecules at division is the only one which may have a significant impact on the variance of protein concentration. (
  • However, the major platform for all types of cancer is automous and uncontrolled cell division and though most types of cancer are possible to treat and cure by surgery, chemical therapy or irradiation, more efficient and less toxic therapies are urgently needed. (
  • Now Chen's research group has repeated the experiment in living cells, confirming their original results and adding a surprising new discovery: While unbinding is still tied to the concentration of the protein, it is also linked to the cell's cycle of growth and division. (
  • The cell cycle is a multistep process where eukaryotic cells grow and divide into two daughter cells . (
  • The increased protein translation observed during cell cycle progression is associated with phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 5 and activation of translation factors, in particular, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF-4E). (
  • Publications] Vic Norris: 'Cell cycle control : Prokaryotic solutions to eukaryotic problems? (
  • We used immunoblot analysis to examine the amounts of cell cycle proteins (cyclin D, Cdk4, and Cdc2) and apoptotic proteins (Bcl-xL and Bax) after treatment with a range of G. lucidum concentrations. (
  • Other known or paralogous interactions include, Cdc2c-dap, Cdc2-twe, and the interactions of Cdc2 and Cdc2c with CG9790, a Cks1-like protein. (
  • The inverted papilloma (IP) is a type of tumor in which surface epithelial cells grow downward into the underlying supportive tissue. (
  • The retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of the proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). (
  • Transforming growth factor-β [TGF-β] is such an example, being a growth stimulator in fibroblastic cells with TGF-β receptors, but a negative regulator in epithelial cells. (
  • PAR, a protein involved in the cell cycle, is functionally related to chromosomal passenger proteins. (
  • The centrosomal-protein 55 (CEP55), is a centrosome- associated protein has assize of about ~55 kDa and had been mapped on the 10q23 chromosomal location [ 4 ]. (
  • Even though the investigators genetically silenced the proteins or blocked them with a drug in normal as well as cancerous tissues, the animals remained healthy, they report in the Oct. 16 issue of the journal Cancer Cell . (
  • Many types of cancer have abnormal amounts of the proteins, spurring the cells to grow too rapidly and form tumors. (
  • The new results shown that the cancers' addiction to these proteins is an Achilles' heel that can be safely targeted with an inhibitor drug that halts cancer growth or causes cancer cells to die. (
  • Blocking cyclin D1 in the mice drove the breast cancer cells into a kind of permanent retirement called senescence, an irreversible halt to their growth cycle. (
  • Inhibiting cyclin D3 in the T-ALL leukemia mice caused the cancer cells to self-destruct -- a programmed death process called apoptosis. (
  • It wasn't known for many years, however, whether knocking out cyclin D1 could halt an established cancer, or if breast cancer needed the protein long-term. (
  • Also unknown was whether normal cells could get along without cyclin D1: If not, treating cancer by targeting the protein might be too dangerous. (
  • When the cyclin D proteins were turned off using this technique, the addicted cancer cells shut down while normal cells were unaffected. (
  • The authors say the results show that blocking cyclin D "represents a highly selective anticancer strategy that specifically targets cancer cells without significantly affecting normal tissues. (
  • Some cancer cells, such as melanoma, overexpress Bcl-2 preventing apoptosis and allowing malignant growth to continue. (
  • inhibits breast cancer cell migration by targeting nit. (
  • Freeman Laboratory of Cancer Cell Biology, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, NY 11724. (
  • According to Varma, cancer drugs targeting CDT1 could improve on current therapies because CDT1 is active in two separate phases of the cell cycle. (
  • HT-29 colon cancer cells [dominant negative p53 (20) ] were cultured in McCoy's medium. (
  • Cancer was thought to arise when cell growth exceeds the rate at which cells die, so that cells are dividing at an uncontrollable rate. (
  • A small compound targeting TACC3 revealed its different spatiotemporal contributions for spindle assembly in cancer cells. (
  • We demonstrate that the antisense depletion of RI α in cancer cells results in increased RII β protein without increasing the rate of RII β synthesis or RII β mRNA levels. (
  • In this report, we demonstrate, using cultured cancer cells, that the loss of RI α by antisense treatment results in biochemical compensation by RII β and that this compensation is attributable to an increase in the half-life of RII β protein without changes in the rate of RII β protein synthesis or RII β mRNA levels. (
  • Investigation of the effects of distance from sources on apoptosis, oxidative stress and cytosolic calcium accumulation via TRPV1 channels induced by mobile phones and Wi-Fi in breast cancer cells. (
  • Because APC/C not only ensures cell cycle arrest upon spindle disruption but also promotes cell death in response to prolonged mitotic arrest, it has become an attractive drug target in cancer therapy. (
  • Cell cycle profiles were determined in control and curcumin-treated medulloblastoma and various other cancer cell lines. (
  • One major characteristic of cancer is uncontrolled growth of the cells in the body. (
  • If we can find ways to control the rapid growth of cancer cells, it may lead to new cancer therapies. (
  • Lead researcher Dr. Reyad Elbarbary noted that the levels of Tudor-SN are higher in cancer cells compared with in healthy cells. (
  • New research from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) shows that two proteins critical for maintaining healthy day-night cycles also protect against mutations that could lead to cancer. (
  • The new study, published in the journal eLife, shows that the two proteins have an unexpected role in DNA repair, possibly protecting cells from cancer-causing mutations triggered by UV radiation. (
  • The team found that Cry1 could bind with Hausp, a protein with a known role in regulating an anti-cancer protein called p53. (
  • This could suggest that cells without Cry2 would be more susceptible to cancer," said Lamia. (
  • Thus, rapidly proliferating cells, for example, cancer cells or infective bacterial cells, have to compensate increased oxidant amounts, rendering them sensitive to pro‐oxidant therapies [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • Lentiviral Vpr usurps Cul4-DDB1[VprBP] E3 ubiquitin ligase to modulate cell cycle. (
  • The retinoblastoma protein (a universal tumor suppressor) and related proteins may contain a distant relative of the BRCT domain. (
  • Tumor suppressors, such as p53 and the retinoblastoma protein (RB), function to repress or halt the cell cycle, promote apoptosis, or both. (
  • These results are consistent with the view that the UL69 protein contributes to the cytomegalovirus-induced cell-cycle block, and they suggest that UL69 protein delivered to cells within virions can induce the block without the synthesis of additional UL69 protein encoded by the infecting viral genome. (
  • These results demonstrate that UL69 protein contributes to the cell-cycle block observed after infection with HCMV, and reveal that UL69 protein delivered to cells within infecting virions is able to induce the block without the synthesis of additional UL69 protein encoded by the infecting genome. (
  • During this period, DNA synthesis was terminated and a large number of RNA and proteins were synthesized, including tubulin and maturation factors. (
  • Here we describe a protocol to measure protein synthesis by AHA labeling and flow cytometry. (
  • Taking advantage of gating different cell populations, we provide a typical example of the flow cytometric-based analysis of protein synthesis during the cell cycle. (
  • Traditionally measurement of protein synthesis is performed by pulse labeling of translation products using radiolabeled amino acids such as [ 35 S]methionine and [ 35 S]cysteine but the use of radioactive materials is the major disadvantage. (
  • Several defensive proteins detoxify the metals or bind to metal atoms and push them out of the cell. (
  • The abundance of Skp2 mRNA oscillates in a cell cycle-dependent manner, being maximal in S and G 2 phases. (
  • During different phases of the cycle, proteins are regulated differently. (
  • The arrest occurs at multiple phases of the cell cycle, including a point late in the G 1 compartment. (
  • No PP1 was associated with FAK immunoprecipitated from mitotic HeLa cells. (
  • HeLa cells expressing Flag tagged ORFeus for 24 hr, were stained with anti-ORF1p JH74 Ab and DAPI. (
  • 50 μg of protein were loaded in HeLa, ORFeus and L1rp lanes and 25 μg protein in the ORFeus/2 lanes. (
  • D ) Western blotting of ORF1p and ORF2p immunoprecipitated (IP) form lysates of HeLa cells expressing recoded (ORFeus/LD401) or native (L1rp/MT302) L1. (
  • HeLa-M2 cells expressing recoded L1/ORFeus ( A-D ) or L1rp ( E-H ) cultured for 24 hr in the presence of doxycycline 0.1 μg/ml. (
  • BiFC vectors expressing TopBP1, Rad9A, and the Rad9A-S387 mutant were constructed and optimized for transfection in HeLa cells. (
  • A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parson's lab at King's College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinson's. (
  • In the Drosophila optic lobe, neuroepithelial cells first divide symmetrically to expand the stem cell population and then transform into asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts, which generate medulla neurons. (