Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Leukocyte Migration-Inhibitory Factors: Protein factor(s) released by sensitized lymphocytes (and possibly other cells) that inhibit the movement of LEUKOCYTES, especially polymorphonuclear cells, away from their site of release. Assays for these factors are used as tests for cellular immunity. Two of the common assays are the LEUKOCYTE MIGRATION CAPILLARY TUBE TECHNIQUE (LMCT) and the LEUKOCYTE MIGRATION AGAROSE TEST (LMAT).Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors: Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Tuberculin: A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.Cell Migration Assays, Leukocyte: Assays that measure the rate of migration of LEUKOCYTES. They may involve a variety of techniques such as measuring the movement of leukocytes through substrates such as AGAROSE gels or the rate of exit of cells from a glass capillary.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Transfer Factor: Factor derived from leukocyte lysates of immune donors which can transfer both local and systemic cellular immunity to nonimmune recipients.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Glutens: Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Ascitic Fluid: The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cyclin E: A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.G0 Phase: A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Tuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.Leukocyte Adherence Inhibition Test: Test for cell-mediated antitumor immunity and related serum blocking factors based on the finding that leukocytes from cancer patients, but not from controls, when mixed in vitro with antigenic extracts of tumors of the same histological type, undergo a diminution in their normal adherence to glass surfaces. Sera from tumor-bearing patients block the LAI reaction of their own leukocytes or those of other patients with the same type of tumor.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Cyclin D: A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).G2 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: CELL CYCLE regulatory signaling systems that are triggered by DNA DAMAGE or lack of nutrients during G2 PHASE. When triggered they restrain cells transitioning from G2 phase to M PHASE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cell Migration Assays: Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Myelin Basic Protein: An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1: A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.FucoseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Mice, Inbred C57BLSaccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Mimosine: 3-Hydroxy-4-oxo-1(4H)-pyridinealanine. An antineoplastic alanine-substituted pyridine derivative isolated from Leucena glauca.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cyclin D2: A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.Cyclin D3: A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins: A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6: Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Protein-Energy Malnutrition: The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.

*Sesquiterpene lactone

Lactone Suppresses Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration via Inhibition of Cell Cycle Progression". Biol. ...

*PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway

Too much inhibition leads to unregulated cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. However, enough PTEN inhibition promotes ... one can temporarily and safely effect the PI3K/AKT pathway to influence cell migration, survival and proliferation. ... Cells that are forced to overexpress AKT increase the amount of CREB and proliferation compared to wild type cells. These cells ... FOXO knockouts lose the ability for cells to enter a quiescent state as well as cells losing their neural stem cell character, ...

*DIRAS3 (gene)

ARHI influences also the cell cycle, specifically ARHI's strong inhibition of the cyclin D1 promoter. Cyclin D1 is an essential ... This interaction inhibits the activation of MEK and ERK and even cell migration. In cancer tissues, where ARHI is not expressed ... protein in the cell's progression from G1 to S phase, and its regulation by ARHI is critical in maintaining healthy cells. This ... "Expression of the tumor suppressor ARHI inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancer cells by inducing G1 cell cycle arrest". ...

*S100A9

... and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes ... "Inhibition of dendritic cell differentiation and accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cancer is regulated by ... S100 calcium-binding protein A9 (S100A9) also known as migration inhibitory factor-related protein 14 (MRP14) or calgranulin B ... 2017). "S100-A9 protein in exosomes from chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells promotes NF-κB activity during disease progression ...

*Akt/PKB signaling pathway

Liang J, Slingerland JM (2003). "Multiple Roles of the PI3K/PKB (Akt) Pathway in Cell Cycle Progression". Cell Cycle. 2 (4): ... Activated Akt mediates downstream responses, including cell survival, growth, proliferation, cell migration and angiogenesis, ... Pharmacological inhibition of Akt promotes nuclear translocation of TFEB, lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy. Akt promotes G1-S ... In addition to its effects on cell survival and cell cycle progression, the PI3K-Akt pathway promotes other characteristics of ...

*Mir-26 microRNA precursor family

... which in turn causes inhibition of cell growth and cell-cycle progression. miR-26a again suppresses tumorigenesis in ... Ectopic expression of miR-26b inhibits the proliferation, migration, invasion and vasculogenic mimicry of human glioma cells. ... Ectopic expression of miR-26a influences cell cycle progression by targeting the bona fide oncogene EZH2 which is a polycomb ... Overexpression of miR-26a brings about negative regulation of both cell proliferation and of the cell cycle. Therapeutic miR- ...

*Mir-126

Inhibition of cancer progression occurs through mir-126s negative control of proliferation, migration, invasion and cell ... Tissue repair and maintenance are important parts of the life cycle of an organism, cells and tissues must remain in ... This includes controlled cell death and responses to wounds. During apoptosis cell death, cells release apoptotic bodies ... Increased expression of mir-126 inhibits cell proliferation of non-small cell lung carcinoma cells in vitro and prevents tomour ...

*Macrophage migration inhibitory factor

"Restoration of contact inhibition in human glioblastoma cell lines after MIF knockdown". BMC Cancer. 9: 464. doi:10.1186/1471- ... "Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is necessary for progression of autoimmune diabetes mellitus". Journal of Cellular ... "Intracellular action of the cytokine MIF to modulate AP-1 activity and the cell cycle through Jab1". Nature. 408 (6809): 211-6 ... "Macrophage migration inhibitory factor elicits an angiogenic phenotype in human ectopic endometrial cells and triggers the ...

*CIP/KIP

C-terminal scatter domain mediates Rac-dependent cell migration independent of cell cycle arrest functions". Molecular and ... This sequestering then frees up Cyclin A-, E-CDK2 to hyperphosphorylate Rb and promote progression of the cell cycle. This ... Their activity primarily involves the binding and inhibition of G1/S- and S-Cdks; however, they have also been shown to play an ... Coqueret O (2003). "New roles for p21 and p27 cell-cycle inhibitors: A function for each cell compartment?". Trends in Cell ...

*Richard Pestell

... in the cell cycle field, his research has shown the discovery that cyclins are direct transcriptional targets of oncogenic and ... "BRCA1 inhibition of estrogen receptor signaling in transfected cells". Science. 284 (5418): 1354-6. doi:10.1126/science. ... Pestell's research has included contributions to understanding of cancer onset and progression including breast and prostate ... cellular migration, mitochondrial metabolism (the Warburg effect), angiogenesis and nuclear receptor function and hormone ...

*BTG2

The pro-differentiative action of BTG2 appears to be consequent not only to inhibition of cell cycle progression but also to a ... The impairment of migration of the precursors of cerebellar granule neurons (GCPs) depends on the inhibition of expression of ... and HDAC9 Bind to PC3/Tis21/Btg2 and Are Required for Its Inhibition of Cell Cycle Progression and Cyclin D1 Expression" (PDF ... B-cell translocation gene 2) and in other mammals by the homologous Btg2 gene. This protein controls cell cycle progression and ...

*S100A4

... and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes ... This antibody abolished endothelial cell migration, tumor growth and angiogenesis in immunodeficient mouse xenograft models of ... MiaPACA-2 and M21-S100A4 cells. It is concluded that extracellular S100A4 inhibition is an attractive approach for the ... in promoting endothelial cell migration by increasing KDR expression and MMP-9 activity. In vivo overexpression of S100A4 led ...

*Androgen deprivation therapy

EMT has established roles in promoting biological phenotypes associated with tumor progression (migration/invasion, tumor cell ... and cell survival in circulation as Circulating tumor cells. Thus, activation of these programs via inhibition of the androgen ... A vicious cycle whereby lowering testosterone levels leads to decreased sexual activity, which in turn cause both free and ... These pro-growth signals, however, can be problematic when they occur in a cancer cell. Antiandrogens can enter cells and ...

*RHOA

... cell cycle progression and cell transformation. The specific gene that encodes RhoA, ARHA, is located on chromosome 3 and ... On the other hand, silencing RhoA lessened androgen-regulated cell viability and handicapped prostate cancer cell migration. ... Inhibition of this pathway by its various components usually results in some level of improved re-myelination. After global ... RhoA plays a pivotal role in G1 cell cycle progression, primarily through regulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase ...

*Cyclin D1

Li Z, Wang C, Prendergast GC, Pestell RG (2006). "Cyclin D1 functions in cell migration". Cell Cycle. 5 (21): 2440-2. doi: ... Inactive pRb allows cell cycle progression through the G1/S transition and allows for DNA synthesis. Cyclin D1-CDK4 also ... Serrano M, Hannon GJ, Beach D (December 1993). "A new regulatory motif in cell-cycle control causing specific inhibition of ... Cyclin D1 is a protein required for progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. During the G1 phase, it is synthesized ...

*MTOR inhibitors

It was found that rapamycin inhibited cellular proliferation and cell cycle progression. Research on mTOR inhibition has been a ... and Rho related to cell survival, migration and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. The mTORC1 signaling cascade is activated ... Inhibition of HIF1α translation by preventing PDGF/PDGFR and VEGF/VEGFR can result from mTOR inhibition. A G0-G1 cell-cycle ... attenuate cell cycle progression, and inhibit angiogenesis in many cancer cell lines and also in human cancer. In fact they ...

*Cyclin A

E2F is unable to activate the transcription of cyclins involved in cell cycle progression, such as cyclin A and the cell cycle ... The absence of cyclin A prior to the R point is due to the inhibition of E2F by hypophosphorylated pRb. After the cell passes ... New research has since debunked this assumption, shedding light on cyclin A/CDK2 migration to the centrosomes in late G2. ... Cell cycle arrest allows the cell to repair DNA damage before the cell divides and passes damaged DNA to daughter cells. ...

*Proneural genes

... where Achaete-scute complex proneural genes have been shown to inhibit cell-cycle progression. The proneural genes also have an ... Lateral inhibition is a cell-cell interaction that occurs within a proneural cluster to determine and limit the cells that give ... The coexpression of ''Ato'' and ''Da'' is important for the migration of the different cell types of an ommatidium and for the ... Every cell of the proneural cluster shares a common neuroblasts-forming potential. The local inhibition of the remaining cells ...

*Epithelioid sarcoma

... and it can enhance cell cycle progression, cell survival, and block normal cell death (apoptosis). Interestingly, it has been ... "Inhibition of CRM1-dependent nuclear export sensitizes malignant cells to cytotoxic and targeted agents". Seminars in Cancer ... and abrogated invasion and migration capacities. Of interest, while the simple blockade of EGFR with a single agent has shown ... Cyclin D1 is a protein requisite for cell cycle progression and has been shown to be up-regulated in epithelioid sarcoma. ...

*FOXO1

... activation plays a role in cell cycle progression regulation. The transcription and half- life of cyclin-dependent kinase ... producing cells could be generated through the inhibition of FOXO1 in intestinal organoids generated from intestinal stem cells ... It encourages the migration of the keratinocytes through upregulating the growth factor. In the Innate Immune system, FOXO1 has ... A study detects that FOXO1 regulates the nuclear localization of p27KIP1 in porcine granulosa cells and impacts cell cycle ...

*CD29

Meredith J, Takada Y, Fornaro M, Languino LR, Schwartz MA (Sep 1995). "Inhibition of cell cycle progression by the ... proteins and their role in hepatic stellate cell motility and wound healing migration". Journal of Hepatology. 37 (3): 322-30. ... the function of this isoform was an inhibitory one on DNA synthesis in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The third isoform, ... and signaling in cell adhesion". Cell. 69 (1): 11-25. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92)90115-s. PMID 1555235. Sastry SK, Horwitz AF ( ...

*NEDD9

... promotes colonic cell migration and cancer progression". Oncogene. 30 (23): 2633-43. doi:10.1038/onc.2010.632. PMC 3164309 . ... points of dialog between the cell cycle and cell attachment signaling networks". Cell Cycle. 5 (4): 384-91. doi:10.4161/cc.5.4. ... Inhibition of AURKA and HDAC6 activity by alisertib and tubastatin A in xenograft models of breast cancer has led to a decrease ... These GTPases regulate cell motility, proliferation and also contribute to tumor progression and invasion. In many cell types, ...

*Mir-205

It also impaired cell growth, migration, clonability, and invasiveness of prostate cancer cells. Micro-RNA-205 induced the ... Its re-expression induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and resulted in a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, such as up- ... Inhibition of microRNA-205 increased the number of phosphorylated FAK and phosphorylated Pax, and decreased filamentous actin. ... miR-200c expression is significantly correlated with early stage T1 bladder tumor progression, and propose miR-200 and miR-205 ...

*Zalutumumab

Without a signal, cell cycle characteristics to enhance tumor growth are inhibited and the cancer progression is suppressed. ... Zalutumumab works through inhibition of the EGFR signal. The EGFR is a receptor tyrosine kinase. Its structure includes an ... Through this mechanisam, apoptosis is inhibited, angiogenesis, migration, adhesion, and invasion occur. Each of these is a ... The NK cell is then activated through the cross linking of the Fc receptors which sends a signal to induce apoptosis and cell ...

*CDC42

... cell migration, endocytosis and cell cycle progression. Rho GTPases are central to dynamic actin cytoskeletal assembly and ... There was evidence that Cdc42 inhibition by AZA197 treatment suppresses proliferative and pro-survival signaling pathways via ... Cell division control protein 42 homolog, also known as Cdc42, is a protein involved in regulation of the cell cycle. It was ... The migration ability of HeLa cells transfected with Cdc42 was higher than that of non-transfected cells. It was proposed that ...
Definition of Macrophage migration inhibition test with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
In seven patients with chronic beryllium disease (Be) the Be lymphocyte transformation test was positive in 100%, independent of steroid therapy, and was reproducible. The Be macrophage migration inhibition test was only positive in four of seven patients (57%) not on steroids, and was not reproducible. In 72 potentially exposed healthy beryllium workers the lymphocyte transformation test was negative in all subjects. The macrophage test was positive in four of 78 and again the results were not reproducible. The workers with positive results showed no differences in age, type or duration of employment from those with negative results and showed no evidence of disease. In addition, the macrophage test was positive in two of 45 non-exposed control subjects. We also confirmed the above advantages of the lymphocyte transformation technique by using tuberculin antigen (PPD). The PPD lymphocyte transformation test gave positive results in approximately 60% of healthy beryllium ...
The Birt-Hogg-Dube disease occurs as a result of germline mutations in the human Folliculin gene (FLCN), and is characterized by clinical features including fibrofolliculomas, lung cysts and multifocal renal neoplasia. Clinical and genetic evidence suggest that FLCN acts as a tumor suppressor gene. The human cell line UOK257, derived from the renal cell carcinoma of a patient with a germline mutation in the FLCN gene, harbors a truncated version of the FLCN protein. Reconstitution of the wild type FLCN protein into UOK257 cells delays cell cycle progression, due to a slower progression through the late S and G2/M-phases. Similarly, Flcn-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts progress more rapidly through the cell cycle than wild type controls (Flcnflox/flox). The reintroduction of ...
Yamamoto, K and Anacker, R L., "Macrophage migration inhibition studies with cells from mice vaccin- ated with cell walls of mycobacterium bovis bcg. Characterization of the experimental system." (1970). Subject Strain Bibliography 1970. 938 ...
The retinoblastoma protein: Rb) inhibits both cell division and apoptosis, but the mechanism by which Rb alternatively regulates these divergent outcomes remains poorly understood. Cyclin dependent kinases: Cdks) promote cell division by phosphorylating and reversibly inactivating Rb by a hierarchical series of phosphorylation events and sequential conformational changes. The stress-regulated mitogen activated protein kinase: MAPK) p38 also phosphorylates Rb, but it does so in a cell cycle-independent manner that is associated with apoptosis rather than with cell division. Here, we show that p38 phosphorylates Rb by a novel mechanism that is distinct from that of Cdks. p38 bypasses the cell cycle-associated hierarchical phosphorylation and directly phosphorylates Rb on Ser567, which is not phosphorylated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High-resolution timing of cell cycle-regulated gene expression. AU - Rowicka-Kudlicka, Malgorzata. AU - Kudlicki, Andrzej. AU - Tu, Benjamin P.. AU - Otwinowski, Zbyszek. PY - 2007/10/23. Y1 - 2007/10/23. N2 - The eukaryotic cell division cycle depends on an intricate sequence of transcriptional events. Using an algorithm based on maximum-entropy deconvolution, and expression data from a highly synchronized yeast culture, we have timed the peaks of expression of transcriptionally regulated cell cycle genes to an accuracy of 2 min (≈1% of the cell cycle time). The set of 1,129 cell cycle-regulated genes was identified by a comprehensive analysis encompassing all available cell cycle yeast data ...
Combinations of gemcitabine and trabectedin exert modest synergistic cytotoxic effects on two pancreatic cancer cell lines. Here, systems pharmacodynamic (PD) models that integrate cellular response data and extend a prototype model framework were developed to characterize dynamic changes in cell cycle phase of cancer cell subpopulations in response to gemcitabine and trabectedin as single agents and in combination. Extensive experimental data were obtained for two pancreatic cancer cell lines (MiaPaCa-2 and BxPC-3), including cell proliferation rates over 0-120 h of drug exposure, and the fraction of cells in different cell cycle phases or apoptosis. Cell ...
Successful completion of the cell division cycle is critical for cellular duplication and survival. There are many regulators and checkpoints to ensure the proper cell cycle progression. Disruption of the machinery involved in completion, error correction, or regulation of the cell cycle can be deleterious and may lead to aberrant cell growth or cell death. Thus, it is important to understand not only the basic machinery, but also the underlying choreographed gene expression that underlies that fundamental process. The work presented in this thesis furthers our understanding of the cell cycle in three ways. First, I investigate the cell ...
Successful completion of the cell division cycle is critical for cellular duplication and survival. There are many regulators and checkpoints to ensure the proper cell cycle progression. Disruption of the machinery involved in completion, error correction, or regulation of the cell cycle can be deleterious and may lead to aberrant cell growth or cell death. Thus, it is important to understand not only the basic machinery, but also the underlying choreographed gene expression that underlies that fundamental process. The work presented in this thesis furthers our understanding of the cell cycle in three ways. First, I investigate the cell ...
The cell cycle includes 4 main phases: Gap 1 (G1), DNA replication (S), Gap 2 (G2), and mitosis (M). Tight regulation of the transition between these phases halts cell cycle progression if a phase is not properly completed. For example, the G2-M DNA damage checkpoint ensures the fidelity of DNA replication, and arrests the cell cycle to allow time for replication error correction and DNA damage repair. Cell cycle progression is regulated by the cyclic rise and fall of kinase expression, and their interaction with, and action on, their cyclin targets. Cell cycle dysregulation commonly occurs during oncogenesis, and tumor cells often do not arrest the cell ...
Mowat, A M. and Ferguson, A, "Migration inhibition of lymph node lymphocytes as an assay for regional cell-mediated immunity in the intestinal lymphoid tissues of mice immunized orally with ovalbumin." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3434 ...
Pluripotency and the capability for self-renewal are essential characteristics of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which hold great potential as a cellular source for tissue replacement. Short cell cycle (15-16 h) compared to somatic cells is another property of hESCs. Efficient synchronization of hESCs at different cell cycle stages is important to elucidate the mechanistic link between cell cycle regulation and cell fate decision. This protocol describes how to establish synchronization of hESCs at different cell cycle stages.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A cell cycle study of the effects of Con A on synchronized mouse embryo fibroblasts. T2 - Arrest and dissociation between uptake of thymidine and DNA synthesis. AU - Mallucci, L.. AU - Dunn, M.. AU - Wells, V.. AU - Delia, D.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - We have examined the effects of 50 μg ml-1 of Con A added to synchronized mouse embryo fibroblasts at different times during the cell cycle. We found that Con A caused arrest of growth not solely by preventing G1-G0 cells from entering the S-phase but also by exerting a G2 block. We also found that Con A, which prevented commencement of S-phase, did not arrest cells already in S from reaching the G2 stage but inhibited the S-phase associated process of thymidine uptake. The inhibition was greater when the Con A receptors were extensively clustered.. AB - We ...
Nanoparticles are considered a primary vehicle for targeted therapies because they can pass biological barriers, enter and distribute in cells by energy-dependent pathways1-3. Until now, most studies have shown that nanoparticle properties, such as size4-6 and surface7,8, can affect how cells internalise nanoparticles. Here we show that the different phases of cell growth, which constitute the cell cycle, can also influence nanoparticle uptake. Although cells in different cell cycle phases internalised nanoparticles with similar rates, after 24 hours of uptake the concentration of nanoparticles in the cells is ranked according to the different cell cycle phases: G2/M , S , G0/G1. ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Influence of route and dose of antigen on the migration inhibition and plaque-forming cell responses to sheep erythrocytes in the lizard, Calotes versicolor. by Swaminathan Jayaraman et al.
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an ideal model organism for studies of ciliary function and assembly. In assays for biological and biochemical effects of various factors on flagellar structure and function, synchronous culture is advantageous for minimizing variability. Here, we have characterized a method in which 100% synchronization is achieved with respect to flagellar length but not with respect to the cell cycle. The method requires inducing flagellar regeneration by amputation of the entire cell population and limiting regeneration time. This results in a maximally homogeneous distribution of flagellar lengths at 3 h postamputation. We found that time-limiting new protein synthesis during flagellar synchronization limits variability in the unassembled pool of limiting flagellar protein and variability in flagellar length without affecting the range of ...
PURPOSE The cell cycle progression test is a validated molecular assay that assesses prostate cancer specific disease progression and mortality risk when combined with clinicopathological parameters. We present the results from PROCEDE-1000, a large, prospective registry designed to evaluate the impact of the cell cycle progression test on shared treatment decision making for patients newly diagnosed with prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS Untreated patients with newly diagnosed prostate adenocarcinoma were enrolled in the study and the cell cycle progression test was performed on the initial prostate biopsy tissue. A set of 4 sequential surveys tracked changes relative to initial therapy recommendations (before cell cycle ...
Cell Growth and Reproduction Study Guide The Cell Cycle Study Guide Vocabulary - Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Cytokinesis 1. How did the G1 and G2 stages get their
Geminiviruses are small DNA viruses that use plant replication machinery to amplify their genomes. Microarray analysis of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transcriptome in response to cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) infection uncovered 5,365 genes (false discovery rate ,0.005) differentially expressed in infected rosette leaves at 12 d postinoculation. Data mining revealed that CaLCuV triggers a pathogen response via the salicylic acid pathway and induces expression of genes involved in programmed cell death, genotoxic stress, and DNA repair. CaLCuV also altered expression of cell cycle-associated genes, preferentially activating genes expressed during S and G2 and inhibiting genes active in G1 and M. A limited set of core cell cycle genes associated with cell cycle reentry, late G1, S, and early G2 had increased RNA ...
Carrageenan is a polysaccharide that exists in the cell walls of marine red algae and is widely used in studies concerned with its antitumor and cytotoxic activities [10]. Previous findings show carrageenan as a potential antitumor agent [28-30]. Considering one of the hallmarks of cancer is uncontrolled proliferation, a consequence of the loss of normal cell-cycle control, there has been a. increasing interest in potential anticancer agents that affect the cell-cycles of cancer cells [31]. Thus, in this study we investigated how carrageenan affects tumor cell cycle.. In this study we demonstrated cytotoxic effects of carrageenan towards cell cycle of human cancer cells in HeLa expressing FUCCI probes [24]. ...
Looking for online definition of Cell cycle regulatory protein in the Medical Dictionary? Cell cycle regulatory protein explanation free. What is Cell cycle regulatory protein? Meaning of Cell cycle regulatory protein medical term. What does Cell cycle regulatory protein mean?
Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors definition. define Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors. Explain Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors. What is Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors? Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors FAQ.
See 13 Best Images of Cell Cycle And Mitosis Worksheet Answers. Inspiring Cell Cycle and Mitosis Worksheet Answers worksheet images. Cell Cycle Worksheet Answers Cell Cycle and Mitosis Worksheet Answer Key Cell Cycle Mitosis and Meiosis Test Answers Cell Cycle Worksheet Answer Key Cell Division Mitosis Worksheet and Answers
Oldenlandia diffusa is traditionally prescribed in the treatment of a number of cancers and studies suggest that it exerts a cytotoxic action specific to cancer cells. To further investigate this suggested action, the effect(s) of Oldenlandia diffusa on leukaemic cells (HL60) and stimulated and unstimulated human blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was investigated. For the HL60s, cell growth, apoptotic induction, alterations in cell cycle characteristics and genotoxicity were investigated. For the PBLs, apoptotic induction and alterations in cell cycle characteristics were investigated. Preliminary chemical analysis to identify the cytotoxic constituents of Oldenlandia diffusa was also carried out. Results showed that Oldenlandia diffusa significantly inhibited the growth of the HL60s and induced apoptosis in a ...
Cdc14 is an essential phosphatase in yeast but its role in the mammalian cell cycle remains obscure. We report here that Cdc14b-knockout cells display unscheduled induction of multiple cell cycle regulators resulting in early entry into DNA replication and mitosis from quiescence. Cdc14b dephosphorylates Ser5 at the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II, a major substrate of cyclin-dependent kinases. Lack of Cdc14b results in increased CTD-Ser5 phosphorylation, epigenetic modifications that mark active chromatin, and transcriptional induction of cell cycle regulators. These data suggest a function for mammalian Cdc14 phosphatases in the control of transcription during the cell cycle ...
TSPY is a repeated gene mapped to the critical region harboring the gonadoblastoma locus on the Y chromosome (GBY), the only oncogenic locus on this male-specific chromosome. Elevated levels of TSPY have been observed in gonadoblastoma specimens and a variety of other tumor tissues, including testicular germ cell tumors, prostate cancer, melanoma, and liver cancer. TSPY contains a SET/NAP domain that is present in a family of cyclin B and/or histone binding proteins represented by the oncoprotein SET and the nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1), involved in cell cycle regulation and replication. To determine a possible cellular function for TSPY, we manipulated the TSPY expression in HeLa and NIH3T3 cells using the Tet-off system. Cell proliferation, colony formation assays and tumor growth in nude mice were utilized to ...
Adiponectin and leptin, both produced from adipose tissue, cause cell cycle arrest and progression, respectively in cancer cells. Ubiquitin specific protease-2 (USP-2), a deubiquitinating enzyme, is known to impair proteasome-induced degradation of cyclin D1, a critical cell cycle regulator. Herein, we investigated the effects of these adipokines on USP-2 expression and its potential role in the modulation of cell cycle. Treatment with globular adiponectin (gAcrp) decreased, whereas leptin increased USP-2 expression both in human hepatoma and breast cancer cells. In addition, overexpression or gene silencing of USP-2 affected cyclin D1 expression and cell cycle progression/arrest by adipokines. Adiponectin ...
Recent advances in defining the molecular mechanisms of cell cycle control in eukaryotes provide a basis for better understanding the hormonal control of cell proliferation in normal and neoplastic breast epithelium. It is now clear that a number of critical steps in cell cycle progression are controlled by families of serine/threonine kinases, the cdks. These kinases are activated by interactions with various cyclin gene products which form the regulatory subunits of the kinase complexes. Several families of cyclins control cell cycle progression in G1 phase, cyclins C, D and E, or in S, G2 and mitosis, cyclins A and B. Recent studies have defined the expression and regulation of cyclin genes in normal breast epithelial cells and in breast cancer ...
Cellular hypersensitivity to an extract of human pancreas, using the leucocyte migration test (LMT), was found in twenty-nine of 101 diabetic and eight of fifty normal control subjects. However, the difference in response between diabetics and controls was confined to young insulin-dependent patients, there being no distinction between normal subjects and older diabetics treated by diet or oral hypoglycemic agents. The use of rat liver mitochondria and bovine insulin as antigens in the LMT did not induce inhibition of leucocyte migration in diabetics or controls.. ...
Abstract: We have studied dose- and time-dependent antitumor and cytotoxic effects of Erwinia carotovora L-asparaginase (ECAR LANS) and Escherichia coli L-asparaginase (MEDAC) on human leukemic cells and human and animal solid tumor cells. We determined the sensitivity of tumor cells to L-asparaginases, as well the effect L-asparaginases on cell growth rate, protein and DNA synthesis per se and with addition of different cytostatics. The data obtained demonstrated that ECAR LANS L-asparaginase suppressed growth of all tested solid tumor cells. Evaluation of leukemic cell number after treatment with L-asparaginases for 24, 48 and 72 h demonstrated that asparagine deficiency did not kill cells but stopped normal cell division and had no effect ...
Cyclin D-Cdk4 complexes have a demonstrated role in G1 phase, regulating the function of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (Rb). Previously, we have shown that following treatment with low doses of UV radiation, cell lines that express wild-type p16 and Cdk4 responded with a G2 phase cell cycle delay. The UV-responsive lines contained elevated levels of p16 post-treatment, and the accumulation of p16 correlated with the G2 delay. Here we report that in UV-irradiated HeLa and A2058 cells, p16 bound Cdk4 and Cdk6 complexes with increased avidity and inhibited a cyclin D3-Cdk4 complex normally activated in late S/early G2 phase. Activation of this complex was correlated with the caffeine-induced release from the UV-induced G2 delay and a decrease in the level of p16 bound to Cdk4. Finally, overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of Cdk4 blocked ...
Zhang, Z W, Patchett, S E and Farthing, M J (2002) Role of Helicobacter pylori and p53 in regulation of gastric epithelial cell cycle phase progression. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 47 (5). pp. 987-995. ISSN 0163-2116 Full text not available from this repository ...
Mammalian Ste20-like proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-responsive 1 (OSR1) kinases phosphorylate and regulate cation-coupled Cl? cotransporter activity in response to cell quantity changes. activity of CLH-3b expressed in worm oocytes endogenously. Earlier yeast 2-cross research suggested that ERK kinases may function of GCK-3 upstream. Meclizine 2HCl Pharmacological inhibition of ERK signaling disrupted CLH-3b activity in HEK cells inside a GCK-3-reliant Meclizine 2HCl way. RNAi silencing from the ERK kinase MPK-1 or the ERK phosphorylating/activating kinase MEK-2 constitutively triggered native CLH-3b. MEK-2 and MPK-1 play important roles in regulating the meiotic cell cycle in oocytes. Cell cycle-dependent changes in MPK-1 correlate with the pattern of CLH-3b activation observed during oocyte meiotic ...
Mammalian Ste20-like proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-responsive 1 (OSR1) kinases phosphorylate and regulate cation-coupled Cl? cotransporter activity in response to cell quantity changes. activity of CLH-3b expressed in worm oocytes endogenously. Earlier yeast 2-cross research suggested that ERK kinases may function of GCK-3 upstream. Meclizine 2HCl Pharmacological inhibition of ERK signaling disrupted CLH-3b activity in HEK cells inside a GCK-3-reliant Meclizine 2HCl way. RNAi silencing from the ERK kinase MPK-1 or the ERK phosphorylating/activating kinase MEK-2 constitutively triggered native CLH-3b. MEK-2 and MPK-1 play important roles in regulating the meiotic cell cycle in oocytes. Cell cycle-dependent changes in MPK-1 correlate with the pattern of CLH-3b activation observed during oocyte meiotic ...
The Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1), a member of the cold-shock domain RNA-and DNA-binding protein family, has pleiotropic functions such as regulation of the cell cycle. The aim of this study was to evaluate if YB-1 is a proliferative marker in breast cancer and elucidate potential downstream targets involved in YB-1-mediated cell cycle regulation using RNA interference technology. YB-1 protein expression was evaluated in tissue microarrays of 131 breast invasive ductal carcinomas by immunohistochemistry, while the YB-1 gene expression profile was evaluated in the T-47D, MDA-MB-231, ZR-75-1 and MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. Silencing of the YB-1 gene in T-47D breast cancer cells was performed using siRNA and the effects of down-regulation of YB-1 on cell growth and regulation of the ...
The future promises to yield new discoveries and advances in our understanding of cardiomyocyte cell cycle regulation that will hopefully give rise to the ability to promote regenerative myocardial growth. With respect to the intrinsic proliferative and de novo cardiomyogenic potential of the adult heart, it is abundantly clear from studies cited herein that the published values for the magnitude of both processes vary dramatically. It is very important to rigorously determine the extent to which these processes do occur. If the intrinsic rates for cardiomyocyte proliferation and/or de novo cardiomyogenic differentiation are exceedingly low, then the ability to exploit these processes for clinical benefit would likely be quite limited. Increasing the frequency of these events would require the existence, identification, and ultimately the successful delivery of cytokines that normally regulate the process. Conversely, if these processes do occur at the ...
Well-timed protein degradation is a common event in the cell cycle, known to drive mitotic entry (G2/M) as well as the metaphase-to-anaphase transition (Teixeira and Reed, 2013; Bassermann et al., 2014). A frequent general question in these and other cell cycle processes is what defines the functional time window of an E3 ligase. In principle, either the activity of the E3 ligase may itself be regulated, or the substrate binding to the E3 ligase may depend on third-party factors such as kinases or scaffolding proteins. Mitosis provides a remarkable example of how an E3 ligase can be dynamically regulated, in this case to tightly coordinate the status of kinetochore-microtubule attachments with the onset of chromosome separation. It is long known that the metaphase-to-anaphase transition is driven by the E3 ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C; see Cullin-RING and APC/C E3 ligases text box), ...
Glutathione S-transferase activity was identified in cytosol from human lymphoid-cell lines and peripheral leucocytes (polymorphonuclear-leucocyte/monocyte and small-lymphocyte fractions) and compared with human liver enzyme. The findings of closely similar elution volume in gel filtration, substrate (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) and inhibitory (probenecid) kinetics indicate that the liver, leucocyte and lymphoid-cell transferases are closely related. The interaction of reduced glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene was shown to occur in intact-lymphoid-cell culture, to be linear with time and quantity of cells and to have kinetics similar to those of the enzyme reaction catalysed by cytosol. ...
Definition of Macrophage migration-inhibitory factors with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Migration of monocytic-phagocytic cells from guinea pigs immunized with complete Freunds adjuvant is regularly and specifically inhibited in tissue culture by 5 to 10µg/ml of PPD. Migration of leukocytes and spindle cells from such animals is inhibited by PPD less consistently and to a lesser degree.. Cutaneous hypersensitivity to PPD in these animals develops 5 days after adjuvant immunization; at this time migration of mononuclear cells from explants of lung and regional node is inhibited by addition of 10 µg/ml of PPD. Splenic cells become sensitive 2 to 3 weeks after immunization and hepatic macrophages become sensitive only several weeks later.. Cellular hypersensitivity to antigen, as measured by this technique, develops in guinea pigs infected with Histoplasma or immunized with ...
Cellular immunity to the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and a liver-specific lipoprotein was studied, using the leucocyte migration test, in 38 asymptomatic blood donors found to have HBsAg in the serum. Sensitization to HBsAg was found in 26% and was related to the presence of liver damage, being detected in 47% of those with elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase but in only 13% with normal enzyme levels. The frequency of sensitization to this antigen in those with chronic persistent or chronic aggressive hepatitis on biopsy was also higher than in those with unrelated or minimal changes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Terbinafine inhibits endothelial cell migration through suppression of the Rho-mediated pathway. AU - Ho, Pei Yin. AU - Zhong, Wen-Bin. AU - Ho, Yan Soon. AU - Lee, Wen Sen. PY - 2006/12. Y1 - 2006/12. N2 - We showed previously that terbinafine, an allylamine with fungicidal activity, could inhibit angiogenesis by suppressing the endothelial cell proliferation. In the present study, we further showed that terbinafine (0-120 μmol/L) dose dependently inhibited the adhesion and migration of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). Western blot analysis showed that terbinafine decreased the levels of Ras protein and membrane-bound RhoA protein. Moreover, the terbinafine-induced migration inhibition in HUVEC was prevented by pretreatment with farnesol or geranylgeraniol. Pretreatment of HUVEC with Ras inhibitor peptide ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in rats. AU - Kobayashi, M.. AU - Nasuhara, Y.. AU - Kamachi, A.. AU - Tanino, Y.. AU - Betsuyaku, Tomoko. AU - Yamaguchi, E.. AU - Nishihira, J.. AU - Nishimura, M.. PY - 2006/4. Y1 - 2006/4. N2 - Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that reportedly counteracts the anti-inflammatory effect of endogenous glucocorticoids. There have only been a few reports that demonstrate a potential link between MIF and bronchial asthma. In an attempt to further clarify the precise role of MIF in asthma, the present authors examined the effect of anti-MIF antibody (Ab) on airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in an ovalbumin-immunised rat asthma model. Actively immunised Brown Norway rats received ovalbumin inhalation with or without treatment of anti-MIF Ab. The levels of MIF in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly elevated ...
Methods The migratory ability of peripheral neutrophils from healthy donors (HD) and different tumour cell lines (myeloid leukaemia HL60 cells and human pancreatic adenocarcinoma COLO357 cells) was analysed in response to N-Formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) or Protease-activated receptor 2 (Par-2) agonist. Because it has been shown before [2], IgGs from HD and SSc patients were used as additional stimulus for migration. Neutrophils and HL60 cells were preincubated (1h) with sitaxentan or ambrisentan, respectively, before being tested for migration (1h) using the Transwell assay. COLO357 cells were incubated (48h) in the presence of sitaxentan and migration was tested in the Oris Pro Cell assay. Migration was analysed by automatic ...
|p|One of the first cytokines described, MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor) was originally identified in studies of delayed hypersensitivity reactions where it was shown to inhibit macrophage migration. It is an important mediator of the innate immune response with potential roles in the pathophysiology of inflammatory, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The human MIF gene encodes a 115 amino acid, 12.5 kDa secreted protein. Crystallographic studies suggest that MIF exists as a homotrimer, although some reports show that it may exist as a dimer or monomer as well. Although MIF exhibits no homology with other known cytokines, it shares structural homology with several bacterial enzymes. It has been speculated that MIF is an inflammatory mediator possibly associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) severity.|/p|
The ability of macrophages to migrate is critical for a proper immune response. During an innate immune response, macrophages migrate to sites of infection or inflammation where they clear pathogens through phagocytosis and activate an adaptive immune response by releasing cytokines and acting as antigen-presenting cells. Unfortunately, improper regulation of macrophage migration is associated with a variety of dieases including cancer, atherosclerosis, wound-healing, and rheumatoid arthritis. In this thesis, engineered substrates were used to study the chemical and physical mechanisms of macrophage migration. We first used microcontact printing to generate surfaces specifically functionalized with fibronectin and functionally blocked against cell adhesion to study the migration of RAW/LR5 murine macrophages. Using these surfaces we found that macrophage migration is ...
Elevated serum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is associated with severe sepsis, but it is not clear whether bacteria stimulate synthesis of MIF by blood leukocytes directly or via induction of TNF. Here we assess production of MIF mRNA and protein by blood leukocytes from healthy human subjects (n = 28) following exposure to bacteria commonly associated with sepsis (Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae). Bacteria did not increase levels of MIF mRNA or secreted protein. CD14 + monocytes were the main cell type producing MIF before and after stimulation. Exposure of leukocytes to TNF did not induce MIF. Hence elevated levels of serum MIF observed in sepsis may not reflect MIF produced by blood leukocytes stimulated directly by bacteria or TNF.. ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine, is considered an attractive therapeutic target in multiple inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. In addition to its known biologic activities, MIF can also function as a tautomerase. Several small molecules have been reported to be effective inhibitors of MIF tautomerase activity in vitro. Herein we employed a robust activity-based assay to identify different classes of novel inhibitors of the catalytic and biological activities of MIF. Several novel chemical classes of inhibitors of the catalytic activity of MIF with IC(50) values in the range of 0.2-15.5 microm were identified and validated. The interaction site and mechanism of action of these inhibitors were defined using structure-activity studies and a battery of biochemical and biophysical methods. MIF inhibitors emerging from these studies could be divided into three categories based on their mechanism of action: 1) molecules that covalently modify the ...
Peptides , Prion Protein (PrP) Fragments , PrP (106-126); This peptide increases membrane microviscosity, intracellular Ca2+ concentration and cell migration in circulating leucocytes, and oxygen production in monocytes and neutrophils. It also induces apoptotic cell death and impairment of L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity in the GH3 cell lines. PrP (106 126) stimulates leucocyte migration in a dose-dependent manner.; KTNMKHMAGAAAAGAVVGGLG; H-Lys-Thr-Asn-Met-Lys-His-Met-Ala-Gly-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Gly-Ala-Val-Val-Gly-Gly-Leu-Gly-OH
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Prospecbio \ Mouse Anti Human Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor MIF \ ant-311 for more molecular products just contact us
University of Pennsylvania researchers have discovered links between skin cancer growth and the presence or absence of certain cancer-related molecules.
... , Authors: Jan-Philipp Bach, Michael Bacher, Richard Dodel. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
PubMed journal article Macrophage migration inhibitory factor elicits an angiogenic phenotype in human ectopic endometrial cells and triggers the production of major angiogenic factors via CD44, CD74, and MAPK signaling pathway were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Effect of interferon Tau on the secretion of E-cadherin and macrophage migration inhibitory factor from bovine endometrial epithelial ...
Leukocyte migration is the hallmark of inflammation in vivo, and αMβ2 and Fg have been shown to contribute to leukocyte migration in multiple systems (23)(24). This study has used αMβ2 transfectants and selected mutants to dissect the molecular requirements for αMβ2-mediated cell migration to Fg and its derivatives. The major conclusions of our study are the following. (a) Fg supports a chemotactic cell migration mediated by αMβ2. This response is dependent on Fg concentration and occurs at low (1-50 μg/ml) Fg levels. (b) The αM I domain is necessary but not sufficient to support cell migration to Fg. In contrast to cell adhesion to Fg, efficient migration requires the β2 subunit. (c) The P1 and P2 peptides, as well as the D100 fragment, support ...
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The effect of specific antigen on the development of physical interactions between lymph node lymphocytes (LNL) obtained from animals which had been immunized to that antigen and macrophages was examined. We found that the presence of antigen, either limited to the macrophage () or free in the medium, profoundly increased the degree of ) or free in the medium, profoundly increased the degree of Mphi-LNL interaction observed. This enhanced interaction was dependent on the coincidence in the cultures of Mphi bearing antigen and LNL from animals specifically immunized to that antigen. Although antigen-independent interactions developed equally well between syngeneic and allogeneic combinations of lymphocytes and macrophages, antigen mediated interactions required that macrophages and lymphocytes be syngeneic. Prolongation of antigen-mediated Mphi-LNL interactions resulted in the induction of LNL DNA synthesis, initially involving those lymphocytes physically associated with antigen-bearing Mphi. ...
HLDA WorkshopHLDA VI-WS Code M MA58Quantity100 testsVolume0.4ImmunogenPermanent human cell line derived from peripheral leucocytes of a patient suf...
1. Grossmann M, Schmidramsl H. An extract of Petasites hybridus is effective in the prophylaxis of migraine. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000;38:430-435. 2. Carle R. Plant-based antiphlogistics and spasmolytics [translated from German]. Z Phytother. 1988;9:67-76 3. Scheidegger C, Dahinden C, Wiesmann U. Effects of extracts and of individual components from Petasites on prostaglandin synthesis in cultured skin fibroblasts and on leucotriene synthesis in isolated human peripheral leucocytes. Pharm Acta Helv. 1998;72:376-378. 4. Reglin F. Butterbur root-a pain reliever with wide-range application possibilities. Praxis-Telegram. 1998;1:13-14. 5. Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C, eds. PDR for Herbal Medicines. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics; 1998: 1020-1022. 6. Carle R. Plant-based antiphlogistics and spasmolytics [translated from German]. Z Phytother. 1988;9:67-76. 7. Ziolo G, Samochowiec L. Study on clinical properties and mechanisms of action of Petasites in bronchial asthma and chronic ...
transfer factor - MedHelps transfer factor Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for transfer factor. Find transfer factor information, treatments for transfer factor and transfer factor symptoms.
Bay-Richter et al. Journal of Neuroinflammation (2015) 12:163 DOI /s JOURNAL OF NEUROINFLAMMATION RESEARCH Behavioural and neurobiological consequences of macrophage migration inhibitory
The main objective of this study was to elucidate the possibilities to use wheat gluten (WG) as a binder for particleboards, as well as soy protein isolate (SPI). The focus was on the effect of the adhesive formulation and the processing conditions, while the press parameters were kept constant. Some aspects of the dispersion and the preparation of the dispersions that were investigated are: the dispersing agent (sodium hydroxide 0.1 M or citric acid 0.05 M), the time (1, 3 or 5h) to prepare the dispersion, the temperature (room temperature, 50 or 80°C) during the preparation of the dispersions and the effect of storing (1, 2.5 or 4 days) the dispersions before application. Additionally, utilization of cross-linker polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin (PAAE) and trimethylolpropane triacetoacetate (AATMP) were evaluated. Furthermore, the utilization of green particles versus dried particles was examined. The concentration (12, 16, 20 or 24%) of WG dispersion and the process for applying it to the ...
We are investigating the role of DNA repair in prevention of cancer and in human development. We perform clinical, molecular, and translational investigations of two rare genetic disorders with defective DNA repair: xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) with clinical and cellular hypersensitivity to ultraviolet radiation and a 10,000-fold increased risk of skin cancer and
Abstract Delayed hypersensitivity phenomena in cutaneous leishmaniasis of the guinea pig, caused by Leishmania enriettii, were investigated with an antigen prepared from promastigotes grown in culture. Cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity was shown to persist for several months after resolution of lesions. Two in vitro correlates of delayed hypersensitivity, blastoid transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the inhibition of migration of peritoneal macrophages, were also positive. Macrophage inhibition persisted several months after resolution. These results suggest that immunity to this form of leishmaniasis is cell-mediated.
Catenarin Prevents Type 1 Diabetes in Nonobese Diabetic Mice via Inhibition of Leukocyte Migration Involving the MEK6-p38 and MEK7-JNK Pathways. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Transfer factors are essentially small immune messenger molecules that are produced by all higher organisms. They are an ancient part of the immune system and represent "an archaic dialect in the language of cells." Transfer factors were originally described as immune molecules that are derived from blood or spleen cells that cause antigen-specific cell-mediated immunity, primarily delayed hypersensitivity and the production of lymphokines, as well as binding to the antigens themselves. They have a molecular weight of approximately 5000 Daltons and are composed entirely of amino acids. Transfer factors were discovered by Henry Sherwood Lawrence in 1954. A second use of the term transfer factor applies to a likely different entity derived from cow colostrum or chicken egg yolk which is marketed as an oral dietary supplement under the same name citing claims of benefit to the immune system. In 1942, Merrill ...
We seek to understand the mechanisms by which host immunity converts from a protective response to one producing disease and tissue pathology. A main focus of our efforts is on the cytokine, MIF, which we cloned from the pituitary gland and discovered to counter-regulate the immunosuppressive actions of glucocorticoids. MIF production is tightly linked to the expression of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and anti-MIF strategies are effective in reducing immunopathology in many experimental models of disease.An important goal for us is to elucidate the emergence of steroid resistance, aclinical problem that restricts the effective treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.. Our laboratory investigations encompass the biochemical, biological, andgenetic characterization of MIF, and we remain focused on understanding MIFs role in physiology and pathology. We have uncovered a unique action for MIF in sustaining inflammatory signal transduction, a pathway that impacts ...
We seek to understand the mechanisms by which host immunity converts from a protective response to one producing disease and tissue pathology. A main focus of our efforts is on the cytokine, MIF, which we cloned from the pituitary gland and discovered to counter-regulate the immunosuppressive actions of glucocorticoids. MIF production is tightly linked to the expression of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and anti-MIF strategies are effective in reducing immunopathology in many experimental models of disease.An important goal for us is to elucidate the emergence of steroid resistance, aclinical problem that restricts the effective treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.. Our laboratory investigations encompass the biochemical, biological, andgenetic characterization of MIF, and we remain focused on understanding MIFs role in physiology and pathology. We have uncovered a unique action for MIF in sustaining inflammatory signal transduction, a pathway that impacts ...
We seek to understand the mechanisms by which host immunity converts from a protective response to one producing disease and tissue pathology. A main focus of our efforts is on the cytokine, MIF, which we cloned from the pituitary gland and discovered to counter-regulate the immunosuppressive actions of glucocorticoids. MIF production is tightly linked to the expression of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and anti-MIF strategies are effective in reducing immunopathology in many experimental models of disease.An important goal for us is to elucidate the emergence of steroid resistance, aclinical problem that restricts the effective treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.. Our laboratory investigations encompass the biochemical, biological, andgenetic characterization of MIF, and we remain focused on understanding MIFs role in physiology and pathology. We have uncovered a unique action for MIF in sustaining inflammatory signal transduction, a pathway that impacts ...
Blocking of monocyte migration induced by supernatant of RA SCL stimulated with TNF-α. Monocyte migration induced by supernatants of RA SCLs (RA6/1 and RA8/3)
1MFI: Crystal structure of macrophage migration inhibitory factor complexed with (E)-2-fluoro-p-hydroxycinnamate at 1.8 A resolution: implications for enzymatic catalysis and inhibition.
1MFI: Crystal structure of macrophage migration inhibitory factor complexed with (E)-2-fluoro-p-hydroxycinnamate at 1.8 A resolution: implications for enzymatic catalysis and inhibition.
David Bruneau, LMT is a Massage Therapist at Laplante Muscular therapy 1001 Providence Rd, Whitinsville, MA 01588. Wellness.com provides reviews, contact information, driving directions and the phone number for David Bruneau, LMT in Whitinsville, MA.
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By Cindy Bontrager. The 2017 space migration project is underway to reallocate spaces vacated as a result of the 2016 space migration project. The space migration process allows the university to make strategic, transparent space changes that provide long-term benefits to campus. This phase includes space in Anderson, Fairchild, Holton, Leasure and Seaton halls, as well as Hale Library and Unger Complex - the former old Foundation building. Additional information regarding the available space as well as a schedule of building tours and proposal guidelines is available on the space migration website.. The process for submitting and reviewing space migration proposals will follow a similar format as the previous projects. Concept proposals must be approved and submitted by a dean or vice president by Dec. 16. Final space migration outcomes are expected to be announced by April 17, 2017. The general project ...
Immunology lecture on chemokines, chemokine receptor profiles, kinin and clotting system, fibrinolytic system, neutrophils, acute and chronic inflammation and NSAIDs.
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Definition of migration of leukocytes in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is migration of leukocytes? Meaning of migration of leukocytes as a finance term. What does migration of leukocytes mean in finance?
MIF Protein, 0.1 mg. The cytokine Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been identified to be secreted by the pituitary gland and the monocyte/macrophage and to play an important role in endotoxic shock.
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Subject: RE: DATAFILE?? The best way to find out is to try it. You will probably find that it depends. If you use a LMT and do uniform extents then it will do it by concatenation. (fill up the first file then move on to the 2nd etc.). If you create an LMT and do automatic extents then it is different. It does it by striping. The first extent goes in the first file, the 2nd in the 2nd file... You can see this by setting up a small test. Jim -----Original Message ...
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sundoc Migration; Titel: Untersuchungen zum Organika - Abbaupotiential aquatischer Hyphomyceten, Verfasser: Augustin, Torsten, 2003 ; Halle, Saale : Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek
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Years of conversation fill a ton of digital pages, and weve kept all of it accessible to browse or copy over. Whether youre looking for reveal articles for older champions, or the first time that Rammus rolled into an "OK" thread, or anything in between, you can find it here. When youre finished, check out the boards to join in the latest League of Legends discussions. GO TO BOARDS ...

Laboratory InvestigationLaboratory Investigation

SEPT6 promotes HSC activation, proliferation, cell cycle progression, survival and migration through the TGF-β1/Smad, MAPK and ... Adenovirus-mediated SEPT6 inhibition attenuates thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis. *Yuhui Fan. *, Zhipeng Du ... High-content, cell-by-cell assessment of HER2 overexpression and amplification: a tool for intratumoral heterogeneity detection ... High-content, cell-by-cell assessment of HER2 overexpression and amplification: a tool for intratumoral heterogeneity detection ...
more infohttp://www.nature.com/labinvest/?error=cookies_not_supported&code=cea94c8f-6275-4f2c-8db5-119bb310f8bc

IMPDH2 promotes colorectal cancer progression through activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and PI3K/AKT/FOXO1 signaling pathways |...IMPDH2 promotes colorectal cancer progression through activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and PI3K/AKT/FOXO1 signaling pathways |...

Inhibition of IMPDH was capable of blocking cell-cycle progression in human T lymphocytes and suppressing the growth of human ... that inactivation of the mTOR pathway in IMPDH2-overexpressed CRC cells led to inhibition of cell invasion and migration. More ... IMPDH2 accelerated the cell cycle transition in CRC cells. To explore the possible mechanism of IMPDH2 in CRC progression, gene ... It is well established that cell-cycle progression is one of the most predominant factors to promote cell proliferation. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs13046-018-0980-3

Analysis of the CDK4/6 Cell Cycle Pathway in Leiomyosarcomas as a Potential Target for Inhibition by PalbociclibAnalysis of the CDK4/6 Cell Cycle Pathway in Leiomyosarcomas as a Potential Target for Inhibition by Palbociclib

It has been previously shown that the LMS cell line SK-LMS-1 has a defect in the p16 pathway and that this cell line can be ... For SK-LMS-1 we confirm and for SK-UT-1 we show that both LMS cell lines express CDK4 and that, in addition, strong CDK6 ... SK-UT-1 did not respond to palbociclib inhibition. To compare these ,i,in vitro,/i, findings with patient tissue samples, a p16 ... a decreased cell proliferation, and G,sub,0,/sub,/G,sub,1,/sub,-phase arrest with decreased S/G,sub,2,/sub, fractions. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/sarcoma/2019/3914232/

Eps8 - Epidermal growth factor receptor kinase substrate 8 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Eps8 gene & proteinEps8 - Epidermal growth factor receptor kinase substrate 8 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Eps8 gene & protein

Indirectly involved in cell cycle progression; its degradation following ubiquitination being required during G2 phase to ... dendritic cell migration and cancer cell migration and invasion. Acts as a regulator of axonal filopodia formation in neurons: ... In contrast, it is phosphorylated in the presence of BDNF leading to inhibition of its actin-capping activity and stimulation ... capping activity is auto-inhibited and inhibition is relieved upon ABI1 interaction. Also shows actin bundling activity when ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q08509

Dehydrocostus lactone inhibits in vitro gastrinoma cancer cell growth through apoptosis induction, sub-G1 cell cycle arrest,...Dehydrocostus lactone inhibits in vitro gastrinoma cancer cell growth through apoptosis induction, sub-G1 cell cycle arrest,...

Material and methods : MTT cell viability assay was used to determine cytotoxic... ... of the present study was to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of dehydrocostus lactone against human BON-1 cancer cell ... lactone suppresses vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration via inhibition of cell cycle progression. Biol Pharm ... Flow cytometry was used to assess the effect on cell cycle phase distribution. Effects of the drug on cell apoptosis and ...
more infohttps://www.termedia.pl/Dehydrocostus-lactone-inhibits-in-vitro-gastrinoma-cancer-cell-growth-through-apoptosis-induction-sub-G1-cell-cycle-arrest-DNA-damage-and-loss-of-mitochondrial-membrane-potential,19,31621,0,1.html

Sesquiterpene lactone - WikipediaSesquiterpene lactone - Wikipedia

Lactone Suppresses Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration via Inhibition of Cell Cycle Progression". Biol. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sesquiterpene_lactone

Brain Sciences  | Free Full-Text | Ethanol Neurotoxicity in the Developing Cerebellum: Underlying Mechanisms and Implications |...Brain Sciences | Free Full-Text | Ethanol Neurotoxicity in the Developing Cerebellum: Underlying Mechanisms and Implications |...

Ethanols harmful effects include neuronal cell death, impaired differentiation, reduction of neuronal numbers, and weakening ... reduce the survival and migration of neurons, and lead to various developmental defects in the brain. Here we review the ... In this period neuronal maturation and differentiation begin and neuronal cells start migrating to their ultimate destinations ... Ethanol also inhibits the cell proliferation by altering the levels of proteins required for cell cycle progression, e.g., ...
more infohttp://mdpi.com/2076-3425/3/2/941/htm

miR-526a regulates apoptotic cell growth in human carcinoma cells. | Sigma-AldrichmiR-526a regulates apoptotic cell growth in human carcinoma cells. | Sigma-Aldrich

... of miR-526a-mediated growth stimulation is associated with rapid cell cycle progression and inhibition of cell apoptosis by ... In this study, miR-526a overexpression was found to promote cancer cell proliferation, migration, and anchor-independent colony ... MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in the regulation of cell cycle, cell growth, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. Our previous ... miR-526a regulates apoptotic cell growth in human carcinoma cells.. [Xiaoli Yang, Cui Wang, Changzhi Xu, Zhifeng Yan, Congwen ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/26002288

EPS8 Gene - GeneCards | EPS8 Protein | EPS8 AntibodyEPS8 Gene - GeneCards | EPS8 Protein | EPS8 Antibody

Indirectly involved in cell cycle progression; its degradation following ubiquitination being required during G2 phase to ... dendritic cell migration and cancer cell migration and invasion. Acts as a regulator of axonal filopodia formation in neurons: ... In contrast, it is phosphorylated in the presence of BDNF leading to inhibition of its actin-capping activity and stimulation ... Cytoplasm, cell cortex. Cell projection, ruffle membrane. Cell projection, growth cone. Cell projection, stereocilium. Cell ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?id_type=entrezgene&id=2059

PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway - WikipediaPI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway - Wikipedia

Too much inhibition leads to unregulated cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. However, enough PTEN inhibition promotes ... one can temporarily and safely effect the PI3K/AKT pathway to influence cell migration, survival and proliferation. ... Cells that are forced to overexpress AKT increase the amount of CREB and proliferation compared to wild type cells. These cells ... FOXO knockouts lose the ability for cells to enter a quiescent state as well as cells losing their neural stem cell character, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PI3K/AKT/mTOR_pathway

Exploring Pharmacological Mechanisms of Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction in the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury via a Network...Exploring Pharmacological Mechanisms of Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction in the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury via a Network...

... cell adhesion, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, migration, and transformation [55]. SRC can result in blood-brain barrier ( ... D. Z. Liu, F. R. Sharp, K. C. Van et al., "Inhibition of Src family kinases protects hippocampal neurons and improves cognitive ... migration, proliferation, and secretion of cytokines and reactive oxygen species of Microglial cells [74]. The activation of ... promotes cell migration, neurite outgrowth, and synapse formation during neural development [92]. It aggregates in the injured ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/8916938/

Pdef Expression in Human Breast Cancer Is Correlated with Invasive Potential and Altered Gene Expression | Cancer ResearchPdef Expression in Human Breast Cancer Is Correlated with Invasive Potential and Altered Gene Expression | Cancer Research

Pdef-dependent Inhibition of Cell Growth Is Mediated through Cell Cycle Changes.. To begin to understand the molecular basis of ... MDA-MB-231 cells expressing Pdef also show significantly reduced cell migration, less than 5-6% of the migration seen with the ... Ho A., Dowdy S. F. Regulation of G(1) cell-cycle progression by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev., ... C, cell cycle analysis of untreated cells or cells treated with Ad-GFP or Ad-Pdef at an MOI of 100 and harvested 36 h after ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/63/15/4626?ijkey=b6695a1e8e832ae99774e7dd4b2221a813845946&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Mitochondrial fission-induced mtDNA stress promotes tumor-associated macrophage infiltration and HCC progression | OncogeneMitochondrial fission-induced mtDNA stress promotes tumor-associated macrophage infiltration and HCC progression | Oncogene

Depleting cytosolic mtDNA using DNase I or blocking TLR9 pathway by TLR9 antagonist, siRNA for TLR9 or p65 in HCC cells with ... Confocal microscopy and real-time PCR were used to detect cytosolic mtDNA content in HCC cells. The relationship between the ... Finally, the effect of Drp1 overexpression in HCC cells on recruitment and polarization of TAMs was investigated. Our data ... Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission induced the cytosolic mtDNA stress to enhance the CCL2 secretion from HCC cells by TLR9- ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41388-019-0772-z?error=cookies_not_supported&code=0660862e-8238-486e-9a4d-1d6a3ea19d47

Triptolide inhibits proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells by inhibition of cell cycle regulators and cytokine...Triptolide inhibits proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells by inhibition of cell cycle regulators and cytokine...

Additionally, we show that triptolide treatment decreased expression of VEGF and COX-2, which promote cancer progression and ... Triptolide inhibits proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells by inhibition of cell cycle regulators and cytokine ... Triptolide Inhibits Proliferation and Migration of Colon Cancer Cells by Inhibition of Cell Cycle Regulators and Cytokine ... Triptolide Inhibits Proliferation and Migration of Colon Cancer Cells by Inhibition of Cell Cycle Regulators and Cytokine ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19922946

Cell Cycle-Dependent Tumor Engraftment and Migration Are Enabled by Aurora-A | Molecular Cancer ResearchCell Cycle-Dependent Tumor Engraftment and Migration Are Enabled by Aurora-A | Molecular Cancer Research

4C, P = 0.13), indicating that inhibition of Aurora-A dampens migration without altering cell-cycle progression into G2-phase. ... is critical to motile or scattering epithelial cells (4). Thus, cell-cycle progression and cell migration necessitate ... Cell Cycle and Senescence Cell Cycle-Dependent Tumor Engraftment and Migration Are Enabled by Aurora-A. Tony L.H. Chu, Marisa ... cell migration, and associated phenotypes in epithelial cells or carcinoma cells expressing a fluorescence ubiquitin cell-cycle ...
more infohttps://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/16/1/16

PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway - WikipediaPI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway - Wikipedia

Too much inhibition leads to unregulated cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. However, enough PTEN inhibition promotes ... one can temporarily and safely effect the PI3K/AKT pathway to influence cell migration,[26] survival[27] and proliferation.[6] ... Cells that are forced to overexpress AKT increase the amount of CREB and proliferation compared to wild type cells. These cells ... FOXO knockouts lose the ability for cells to enter a quiescent state as well as cells losing their neural stem cell character, ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/PI3K/AKT/mTOR_pathway

MNK1/2 inhibition limits oncogenicity and metastasis of KIT-mutant melanoma. | Sigma-AldrichMNK1/2 inhibition limits oncogenicity and metastasis of KIT-mutant melanoma. | Sigma-Aldrich

... with oncogenic C-KIT inhibited cell migration and mRNA translation of the transcriptional repressor SNAI1 and the cell cycle ... This suggested that blocking MNK1/2 activity may inhibit tumor progression, at least in part, by blocking translation ... MNK1/2 inhibition limits oncogenicity and metastasis of KIT-mutant melanoma.. [Yao Zhan, Jun Guo, William Yang, Christophe ... initiation of mRNAs encoding cell migration proteins. Moreover, we developed an MNK1/2 inhibitor (SEL201), and found that ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/29035277

HDAC inhibitor-based therapies: can we interpret the code?  - PubMed - NCBIHDAC inhibitor-based therapies: can we interpret the code? - PubMed - NCBI

... including progression through the cell cycle, cell differentiation and development, cell migration and motility, angiogenesis ... Influence of HDACs on different cell biological processes and consequences of HDAC inhibition. HDACs are involved in many ... and cell-based studies have shown a number of other outcomes to result from HDI treatment, including cell-cycle arrest, cell ... These processes could promote tumour cell survival, proliferation and metastasis. HDAC inhibition blocks some of these ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23141799?dopt=Abstract

IJMS | Free Full-Text | Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) System in Liver DiseasesIJMS | Free Full-Text | Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) System in Liver Diseases

... cell survival, migration, inhibition of apoptosis, protein synthesis and cell growth), and show that systemic IGF1 ... cell cycle progression, uncontrolled proliferation, cell survival, migration, inhibition of apoptosis, protein synthesis and ... Corosolic Acid Induces Non-Apoptotic Cell Death through Generation of Lipid Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Renal ... Carcinoma Caki Cells. Next Article in Special Issue. Somatotropic Axis Dysfunction in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/5/1308

IJMS | Free Full-Text | Pterostilbene Suppresses Ovarian Cancer Growth via Induction of Apoptosis and Blockade of Cell Cycle...IJMS | Free Full-Text | Pterostilbene Suppresses Ovarian Cancer Growth via Induction of Apoptosis and Blockade of Cell Cycle...

Pterostilbene reduces cell viability in several different ovarian cancer cell lines by suppressing cell cycle progression and ... Pterostilbene additionally inhibited cell migration in multiple ovarian cancer cell lines. The above results suggest that ... as well as STAT3 downstream genes that regulate cell cycle and apoptosis, indicating that inhibition of STAT3 pathway may be ... In this study, the therapeutic potential of pterostilbene was evaluated in ovarian cancer cells. ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/7/1983

The AMEDEO Literature GuideThe AMEDEO Literature Guide

MicroRNA-30e inhibits adhesion, migration, invasion and cell cycle progression of prostate cancer cells via inhibition of the ... Inhibition of tankyrase by a novel small molecule significantly attenuates prostate cancer cell proliferation.. Cancer Lett. ... beta-TrCP upregulates HIF-1 in prostate cancer cells.. Prostate. 2018 Nov 28. doi: 10.1002/pros.23746.. PubMed Text format ... Prostate-specific markers to identify rare prostate cancer cells in liquid biopsies.. Nat Rev Urol. 2018 Nov 27. pii: 10.1038/ ...
more infohttps://amedeo.com/medicine/prc/prc8.htm

Targeting Integrin-Linked Kinase Suppresses Invasion and Metastasis through Downregulation of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal...Targeting Integrin-Linked Kinase Suppresses Invasion and Metastasis through Downregulation of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal...

... cell-cycle progression, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion/migration, and angiogenesis. However, the role of ILK ... Effects of ILK inhibition on tumor growth and the cell cycle in RCC in vitro. A, Western blot analysis following transfection ... D, cell-cycle analysis of Caki-1 cells treated with si-ILK. The cell cycle was analyzed in Caki-1 cells treated with si-ILK or ... Cell migration assay. A wound-healing assay was used to assess directional cell migration. Cells were plated onto 6-well plates ...
more infohttps://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/14/4/1024

Down-regulation of Forkhead Box M1 Transcription Factor Leads to the Inhibition of Invasion and Angiogenesis of Pancreatic...Down-regulation of Forkhead Box M1 Transcription Factor Leads to the Inhibition of Invasion and Angiogenesis of Pancreatic...

4 ), suggesting the mechanistic roles of these molecules during FoxM1-induced cell cycle progression and cell cycle arrest by ... Cell migration and invasion assay. Cell migration was assessed using 24-well inserts (BD Biosciences) with 8-μm pores according ... we postulated whether cell growth inhibition was due to cell cycle arrest in any specific phase of the cell cycle. Indeed, we ... Effects of altered FoxM1 expression on the cell cycle of human PC cells. The cell cycle distribution was determined using ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/67/17/8293

Fam107a - Actin-associated protein FAM107A - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Fam107a gene & proteinFam107a - Actin-associated protein FAM107A - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Fam107a gene & protein

Also involved in neuroblastoma G1/S phase cell cycle progression and cell proliferation inhibition by stimulating ... assembly promoting malignant glial cell migration in an actin-, microtubule- and MAP1A-dependent manner. ... assembly promoting malignant glial cell migration in an actin-, microtubule- and MAP1A-dependent manner. Also involved in ... neuroblastoma G1/S phase cell cycle progression and cell proliferation inhibition by stimulating ubiquitination of NF-kappa-B ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q78TU8

Thioridazine induces apoptosis by targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in cervical and endometrial cancer cells | SpringerLinkThioridazine induces apoptosis by targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in cervical and endometrial cancer cells | SpringerLink

... a well-known anti-psychotic agent was found to have anti-cancer activity in cancer cells. However, the... ... Akt activation induces cell cycle progression, survival, migration and metabolism through phosphorylation of various ... 3a). The inhibition of PI3K in the two cells resulted in inhibition of Akt, which is one of the major downstream targets of ... may modulate the regulation of cell cycle progression by interfering with the PI3K/Akt pathway and induces G1 cell cycle arrest ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10495-012-0717-2
  • Dehydrocostus inhibits in vitro gastrinoma cancer cell growth and therefore may prove beneficial in the management of gastrinoma cancer. (termedia.pl)
  • Finally, 14-3-3σ knockdown supports migratory capacity of melanoma cells in vitro , while 14-3-3σ overexpression has opposing effects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we report on the anti-proliferative, anti-migratory, and anti-invasive properties of the natural, nontoxic compound Curcumin observed in five human glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data show that Curcumin bears anti-proliferative, anti-migratory, and anti-invasive properties against GBM cells in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
  • In combination, these ethanol effects disrupt cellular homeostasis, reduce the survival and migration of neurons, and lead to various developmental defects in the brain. (mdpi.com)
  • We show here that p27 Kip1 inhibits cellular changes that normally occur during cell locomotion (eg, lamellipodia formation and reorganization of actin filaments and focal adhesions). (ahajournals.org)
  • In line with this, treatment of different metastatic melanoma cell lines with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR), a potent inhibitor of cytosine methylation, significantly induces 14-3-3σ protein expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is an intracellular signaling pathway important in regulating the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • When there are low amounts of available energy, the PI3K/AKT pathway is less active and cells adopt a quiescent state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PI3K/AKT pathway has a natural inhibitor called PTEN whose function is to limit proliferation in cells, helping to prevent cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Directly inhibiting PI3K in NSCs leads to a population of cells that are purely HB9+ and differentiate at an elevated efficiency into motor neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following injury, neural stem cells enter a repair phase and express high levels of PI3K to enhance proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lowering the effect of the PI3K pathway and increasing the effect of GSK3β and HB9 in NSCs is a potential way of generating these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exploiting the glycosylation-sensitive Ras(27H5) antibody, we here show that CT166 induces an epitope change in Ras, resulting in inhibited ERK and PI3K signaling and delayed cell cycle progression. (mdpi.com)
  • Despite the importance of this process, the intracellular mechanisms that regulate radial migration remain poorly understood. (embopress.org)
  • TBI is a diverse group of sterile injuries induced by primary and secondary mechanisms that give rise to cell death, inflammation, and neurologic dysfunction in patients of all demographics [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, we find that expression of Pdef in invasive cancer cells inhibits their ability to invade and migrate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, miR-526a overexpression was found to promote cancer cell proliferation, migration, and anchor-independent colony formation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Overexpression of Beclin‐1 or TFEB in new‐born neurons lacking let‐7 resulted in re‐activation of autophagy and restored radial migration. (embopress.org)
  • Interestingly, overexpression of 14-3-3σ induces senescence of melanoma cells and is involved in melanoma cell senescence under genotoxic stress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overexpression of the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase, suppresses the ability of melanoma cells to form colonies in soft agar as well as tumors in nude mice ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Finally, the effect of Drp1 overexpression in HCC cells on recruitment and polarization of TAMs was investigated. (nature.com)
  • Depleting cytosolic mtDNA using DNase I or blocking TLR9 pathway by TLR9 antagonist, siRNA for TLR9 or p65 in HCC cells with Drp1 overexpression significantly decreased the recruitment and polarization of TAMs. (nature.com)
  • Transcriptional changes were associated with changes in protein expression, including inhibition of cyclin D1, cyclin B1, cyclin-dependent kinase 6, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, tubulin polymerization, cholesterol and steroid synthesis, and upregulation of cyclooxygenase 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 1. (uzh.ch)
  • IMPDH2 was upregulated in CRC cells and tissues at both mRNA and protein level. (springer.com)
  • We also determined that Pdef protein is reduced in human invasive breast cancer and is absent in invasive breast cancer cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We confirm that inhibition of SK-LMS-1 with palbociclib led to a strong decrease in protein levels of Phospho-Rb (Ser780), a decreased cell proliferation, and G 0 /G 1 -phase arrest with decreased S/G 2 fractions. (hindawi.com)
  • The relationship between the expression of mitochondrial fission key regulator dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and the percentage of CD163 (a marker of TAMs)-positive cells was investigated in HCC tissues using immunohistochemistry. (nature.com)
  • Flow cytometric analysis indicated that Nox4 small interfering RNAs and diphenylene iodonium induced G 2 -M cell cycle arrest, which was also observed with another melanoma cell line, 928mel. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Blocking CCR2 by antagonist significantly reduced TAM infiltration and suppressed HCC progression in mouse model. (nature.com)
  • MTT cell viability assay was used to determine cytotoxic effects of dehydrocostus lactone in BON-1 cells. (termedia.pl)
  • Growth-suppressive effects of Pdef expression are mediated in part by a G 0 -G 1 cell cycle arrest associated with elevated p21 levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • showed that palbociclib leads to a reversible arrest in the G 1 phase of the cell cycle and that Rb-positive cell lines like SK-LMS-1 and HT-1080 are more sensitive to agents that work preferentially in the S-G 2 phase such as doxorubicin and WEE1 kinase inhibitors in xenograft models [ 27 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Silencing of Nox4 expression in melanoma MM-BP cells by small interfering RNAs decreased ROS production and thereby inhibited anchorage-independent cell growth and tumorigenecity in nude mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell migration occurred with an elevated velocity and directionality during the S-G 2 -phase of the cell cycle, and cells in this phase possess front-polarized centrosomes with augmented microtubule nucleation capacity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Crown antibodies pass additional stringent quality requirements, including extended control sets, uniform results against multiple biologically relevant cell lines and tissues, and function in multiple applications. (abgent.com)
  • We demonstrate that human Pdef is expressed at high levels primarily in tissues with high epithelial cell content, including prostate, colon, and breast. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Methods: The efficacy of the Aurora B kinase inhibitor barasertib-HQPA was evaluated in BRAF mutated cells, sensitive and made resistant to vemurafenib after chronic exposure to the drug, and in BRAF wild type cells. (unimore.it)
  • HCT116, HT29, KM20, and SW620 cells were treated with TRP at the indicated doses for 24 h and the extracted RNA subjected to RPA as described in the Methods section. (nih.gov)
  • It has been previously shown that the LMS cell line SK-LMS-1 has a defect in the p16 pathway and that this cell line can be inhibited by the CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitor palbociclib. (hindawi.com)
  • Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission induced the cytosolic mtDNA stress to enhance the CCL2 secretion from HCC cells by TLR9-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway, and thus promoted the TAM recruitment and polarization. (nature.com)