Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Checkpoint Kinase 2: Enzyme activated in response to DNA DAMAGE involved in cell cycle arrest. The gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 22 at position 12.1. In humans it is encoded by the CHEK2 gene.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins: A group of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES which activate critical signaling cascades in double strand breaks, APOPTOSIS, and GENOTOXIC STRESS such as ionizing ultraviolet A light, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. These proteins play a role in a wide range of signaling mechanisms in cell cycle control.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.G2 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: CELL CYCLE regulatory signaling systems that are triggered by DNA DAMAGE or lack of nutrients during G2 PHASE. When triggered they restrain cells transitioning from G2 phase to M PHASE.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Notochord: A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.Hydroxyurea: An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Ataxia Telangiectasia: An autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by choreoathetosis beginning in childhood, progressive CEREBELLAR ATAXIA; TELANGIECTASIS of CONJUNCTIVA and SKIN; DYSARTHRIA; B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, and RADIOSENSITIVITY to IONIZING RADIATION. Affected individuals are prone to recurrent sinobronchopulmonary infections, lymphoreticular neoplasms, and other malignancies. Serum ALPHA-FETOPROTEINS are usually elevated. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p688) The gene for this disorder (ATM) encodes a cell cycle checkpoint protein kinase and has been mapped to chromosome 11 (11q22-q23).Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Radiation, Ionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression of the CELL CYCLE through the G1 PHASE and allow transition to S PHASE when the cells are ready to undergo DNA REPLICATION. DNA DAMAGE, or the deficiencies in specific cellular components or nutrients may cause the cells to halt before progressing through G1 phase.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Genomic Instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Cell regulatory signaling system that controls progression through S PHASE and stabilizes the replication forks during conditions that could affect the fidelity of DNA REPLICATION, such as DNA DAMAGE or depletion of nucleotide pools.Neural Tube: A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cyclin E: A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded: Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA, across both strands adjacently.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.BRCA1 Protein: The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mimosine: 3-Hydroxy-4-oxo-1(4H)-pyridinealanine. An antineoplastic alanine-substituted pyridine derivative isolated from Leucena glauca.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-beta: A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Aphidicolin: An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.DNA Repair Enzymes: Enzymes that are involved in the reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule, which contained damaged regions.Methyl Methanesulfonate: An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.G0 Phase: A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Blastula: An early non-mammalian embryo that follows the MORULA stage. A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). The layer of cells is called BLASTODERM.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.14-3-3 Proteins: A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.Thioguanine: An antineoplastic compound which also has antimetabolite action. The drug is used in the therapy of acute leukemia.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Exonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Cdc20 Proteins: Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Replication Protein A: A single-stranded DNA-binding protein that is found in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. It is required for DNA REPLICATION; DNA REPAIR; and GENETIC RECOMBINATION.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2: An E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE that interacts with and inhibits TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53. Its ability to ubiquitinate p53 is regulated by TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.DNA-Activated Protein Kinase: A serine-threonine protein kinase that, when activated by DNA, phosphorylates several DNA-binding protein substrates including the TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and a variety of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.1-Naphthylamine: A suspected industrial carcinogen (and listed as such by OSHA). Its N-hydroxy metabolite is strongly carcinogenic and mutagenic.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cyclin D: A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Exodeoxyribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Rad51 Recombinase: A Rec A recombinase found in eukaryotes. Rad51 is involved in DNA REPAIR of double-strand breaks.

*Metaphase

One of the cell cycle checkpoints occurs during prometaphase and metaphase. Only after all chromosomes have become aligned at ... In certain types of cells, chromosomes do not line up at the metaphase plate and instead move back and forth between the poles ... "The Cell Cycle". Kimball's Biology Pages. Retrieved 9 December 2012. Media related to Metaphase at Wikimedia Commons. ... Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which ...

*Cell cycle checkpoint

... mitotic spindle checkpoint occurs at the point in metaphase where all the chromosomes should/have aligned at the mitotic plate ... After the cell has split into its two daughter cells, the cell enters G1. DNA repair processes and cell cycle checkpoints have ... Cell cycle checkpoints are control mechanisms in eukaryotic cells which ensure proper division of the cell. Each checkpoint ... Biochemical switches in the cell cycle Cell cycle analysis G2-M DNA damage checkpoint Postreplication checkpoint Meiotic ...

*Mitosis

Cells may also temporarily or permanently leave the cell cycle and enter G0 phase to stop dividing. This can occur when cells ... a cell membrane pinches inward between the two developing nuclei to produce two new cells. In plant cells, a cell plate forms ... and other cell cycle proteins. The phases follow one another in strict order and there are "checkpoints" that give the cell ... Some G0 cells have the ability to re-enter the cell cycle. In plant cells only, prophase is preceded by a pre-prophase stage. ...

*Cell division

Anaphase is a very short stage of the cell cycle and occurs after the chromosomes align at the mitotic plate. Kinetochores emit ... If the cell does not pass this checkpoint, then the cell will exit the cell cycle.[12] ... Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.[1] Cell division usually occurs as ... How Cells Divide: Mitosis vs. Meiosis. *The Mitosis and Cell Cycle Control Section from the Landmark Papers in Cell Biology ( ...

*Cell division

Anaphase is a very short stage of the cell cycle and occurs after the chromosomes align at the mitotic plate. After the ... The cells may later be called back into interphase if needed at a later time. There are checkpoints during interphase that ... Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a ... Telophase is the last stage of the cell cycle. Two cells form around the chromatin at the two poles of the cell. Two nuclear ...

*SKA2

Along with SKA2, PRR11 also plays a major role in regulating cell cycle progression but from the late S phase to mitosis. Thus ... It has been concluded that SKA2 regulates the maintenance of the metaphase plate and silencing of the spindle checkpoint ... This SNP allows the dinucleotide repeat (CpG) elements to occur providing a gene segment for methylation. Thus DNA methylation ... having vital roles to play in cell cycle progression at different stages, SKA2 and PRR11 may co-ordinately regulate lung cancer ...

*Kinetochore

The inner plate appears like a discrete heterochromatin domain throughout the cell cycle. Outside the inner plate we find the ... the spindle checkpoint machinery generates a delay in cell cycle progression: the cell is arrested, allowing time for repair ... During mitosis, which occurs after chromosomes are duplicated during S phase, two sister chromatids are held together, each ... The spindle checkpoint or SAC (for spindle assembly checkpoint), also known as mitotic checkpoint, is a cellular mechanism ...

*Anaphase-promoting complex

It is likely that, in animal cells, at least some of the activation of APC/CCdc20 occurs early in the cell cycle (prophase or ... In animal cells the spindle checkpoint system contributes to the delay if it needs to correct the bi-orientation of chromosomes ... plays an important role in APC/CCdc20 activation following the bi-orientation of sister chromatids across the metaphase plate. ... The Cell Cycle and Programmed Cell Death". Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.). Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-3218-1. ...

*Embryonic stem cell

Mouse ES cells lack a G1 checkpoint and do not undergo cell cycle arrest upon acquiring DNA damage. Rather they undergo ... The resulting inner cell mass cells are plated onto cells that will supply support. The inner cell mass cells attach and expand ... For differentiation to occur, the human embryonic stem cell line is removed from the supporting cells to form embryoid bodies, ... "DNA repair by nonhomologous end joining and homologous recombination during cell cycle in human cells". Cell Cycle. 7 (18): ...

*Schizosaccharomyces pombe

One of safely precautions that the cell takes to ensure precise cell division takes place is cell-cycle checkpoint. These ... After mitosis, division occurs by the formation of a septum, or cell plate, that cleaves the cell at its midpoint. The central ... Finally, wee1 mutant fission yeast cells are smaller than wild-type cells, but take just as long to go through the cell cycle. ... General features of the cell cycle. The particular cell cycle of a fission yeast. Division stages of Schizosaccharomyces in ...

*Plant

Cell division is also characterized by the development of a phragmoplast for the construction of a cell plate in the late ... the consequences for the plant depend very much on whether the freezing occurs within cells (intracellularly) or outside cells ... Land plants are key components of the water cycle and several other biogeochemical cycles. Some plants have coevolved with ... The DNA checkpoint kinase ATM has a key role in integrating progression through germination with repair responses to the DNA ...

*Geminin

... therefore is an important player in ensuring that one and only one round of replication occurs during each cell cycle. ... "Rereplication by depletion of geminin is seen regardless of p53 status and activates a G2/M checkpoint". Mol. Cell. Biol. 24 ( ... Kroll KL, Salic AN, Evans LM, Kirschner MW (1998). "Geminin, a neuralizing molecule that demarcates the future neural plate at ... no such cell cycle defect is seen in primary and immortalized cell lines (although Cdt1 levels are still reduced in these cells ...

*Spindle checkpoint

All along the cell cycle, there are different checkpoints. The checkpoint ensuring that chromosome segregation is correct is ... The multipolar metaphase-anaphase transition occurs through an incomplete separase cycle that results in frequent ... moment of the arrival of the last chromosome to the metaphase plate), or after a drastic change in the cytoplasmic condition, ... has a major effect on cell cycle checkpoint regulators and has been shown to act at the G1 checkpoint in the past, but now ...

*Survivin

... as there is evidence of the presence of cell-cycle-dependent element/cell-cycle gene homology region (CDE/CHR)boxes located in ... and specifically activated immune cell groups that would indicative that a specific immune response did occur upon vaccination ... At metaphase, when the chromosomes align at the middle plate and are pulled with high tension to either pole by the kinetochore ... "Control of apoptosis and mitotic spindle checkpoint by survivin". Nature. 396 (6711): 580-4. doi:10.1038/25141. PMID 9859993. ...

*Spindle apparatus

The completion of spindle formation is a crucial transition point in the cell cycle called the spindle assembly checkpoint. If ... Acentrosomal or anastral spindles lack centrosomes or asters at the spindle poles, respectively, and occur for example during ... the congressed chromosome then oscillates at the metaphase plate until anaphase onset releases cohesion of the sister ... Cell division orientation is of major importance for tissue architecture, cell fates and morphogenesis. Cells tend to divide ...

*Caenorhabditis elegans

Gastrulation occurs after the embryo reaches the 26-cell stage.[32] C. elegans are a species of protostomes, so the blastopore ... "Cell Cycle. 7 (16): 2479-84. doi:10.4161/cc.7.16.6479. PMC 2651394. PMID 18719375.. ... OP50 is a uracil-requiring organism and its deficiency in the plate prevents the overgrowth of bacteria which would obscure the ... DNA damage checkpoint". Genes & Development. 15 (5): 522-34. doi:10.1101/gad.864101. PMC 312651. PMID 11238374.. ...
The Birt-Hogg-Dube disease occurs as a result of germline mutations in the human Folliculin gene (FLCN), and is characterized by clinical features including fibrofolliculomas, lung cysts and multifocal renal neoplasia. Clinical and genetic evidence suggest that FLCN acts as a tumor suppressor gene. The human cell line UOK257, derived from the renal cell carcinoma of a patient with a germline mutation in the FLCN gene, harbors a truncated version of the FLCN protein. Reconstitution of the wild type FLCN protein into UOK257 cells delays cell cycle progression, due to a slower progression through the late S and G2/M-phases. Similarly, Flcn-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts progress more rapidly through the cell cycle than wild type controls (Flcnflox/flox). The ...
The retinoblastoma protein: Rb) inhibits both cell division and apoptosis, but the mechanism by which Rb alternatively regulates these divergent outcomes remains poorly understood. Cyclin dependent kinases: Cdks) promote cell division by phosphorylating and reversibly inactivating Rb by a hierarchical series of phosphorylation events and sequential conformational changes. The stress-regulated mitogen activated protein kinase: MAPK) p38 also phosphorylates Rb, but it does so in a cell cycle-independent manner that is associated with apoptosis rather than with cell division. Here, we show that p38 phosphorylates Rb by a novel mechanism that is distinct from that of Cdks. p38 bypasses the cell cycle-associated hierarchical phosphorylation and directly phosphorylates Rb on ...
The cell cycle includes 4 main phases: Gap 1 (G1), DNA replication (S), Gap 2 (G2), and mitosis (M). Tight regulation of the transition between these phases halts cell cycle progression if a phase is not properly completed. For example, the G2-M DNA damage checkpoint ensures the fidelity of DNA replication, and arrests the cell cycle to allow time for replication error correction and DNA damage repair. Cell cycle progression is regulated by the cyclic rise and fall of kinase expression, and their interaction with, and action on, their cyclin targets. Cell cycle dysregulation commonly occurs during oncogenesis, and tumor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High-resolution timing of cell cycle-regulated gene expression. AU - Rowicka-Kudlicka, Malgorzata. AU - Kudlicki, Andrzej. AU - Tu, Benjamin P.. AU - Otwinowski, Zbyszek. PY - 2007/10/23. Y1 - 2007/10/23. N2 - The eukaryotic cell division cycle depends on an intricate sequence of transcriptional events. Using an algorithm based on maximum-entropy deconvolution, and expression data from a highly synchronized yeast culture, we have timed the peaks of expression of transcriptionally regulated cell cycle genes to an accuracy of 2 min (≈1% of the cell cycle time). The set of 1,129 cell cycle-regulated genes was identified by a comprehensive analysis encompassing ...
Combinations of gemcitabine and trabectedin exert modest synergistic cytotoxic effects on two pancreatic cancer cell lines. Here, systems pharmacodynamic (PD) models that integrate cellular response data and extend a prototype model framework were developed to characterize dynamic changes in cell cycle phase of cancer cell subpopulations in response to gemcitabine and trabectedin as single agents and in combination. Extensive experimental data were obtained for two pancreatic cancer cell lines (MiaPaCa-2 and BxPC-3), including cell proliferation rates over 0-120 h of drug exposure, and the fraction of cells in different cell cycle phases or apoptosis. ...
Successful completion of the cell division cycle is critical for cellular duplication and survival. There are many regulators and checkpoints to ensure the proper cell cycle progression. Disruption of the machinery involved in completion, error correction, or regulation of the cell cycle can be deleterious and may lead to aberrant cell growth or cell death. Thus, it is important to understand not only the basic machinery, but also the underlying choreographed gene expression that underlies that fundamental process. The work presented in this thesis furthers our understanding of the cell cycle in three ways. First, I ...
Successful completion of the cell division cycle is critical for cellular duplication and survival. There are many regulators and checkpoints to ensure the proper cell cycle progression. Disruption of the machinery involved in completion, error correction, or regulation of the cell cycle can be deleterious and may lead to aberrant cell growth or cell death. Thus, it is important to understand not only the basic machinery, but also the underlying choreographed gene expression that underlies that fundamental process. The work presented in this thesis furthers our understanding of the cell cycle in three ways. First, I ...
Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA. Epidemiological, in vitro cell culture, and in vivo animal studies have shown that green tea or its constituent polyphenols, particularly its major polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) may protect against many cancer types. In earlier studies, we showed that green tea polyphenol EGCG causes a G0/G1-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human epidermoid carcinoma (A431) cells. We also demonstrated that these effects of EGCG may be mediated through the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B that has been associated with cell cycle regulation and cancer. In this study, employing A431 cells, we provide evidence for the involvement of cyclin kinase inhibitor ...
Pluripotency and the capability for self-renewal are essential characteristics of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which hold great potential as a cellular source for tissue replacement. Short cell cycle (15-16 h) compared to somatic cells is another property of hESCs. Efficient synchronization of hESCs at different cell cycle stages is important to elucidate the mechanistic link between cell cycle regulation and cell fate decision. This protocol describes how to establish synchronization of hESCs at different cell cycle stages.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A cell cycle study of the effects of Con A on synchronized mouse embryo fibroblasts. T2 - Arrest and dissociation between uptake of thymidine and DNA synthesis. AU - Mallucci, L.. AU - Dunn, M.. AU - Wells, V.. AU - Delia, D.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - We have examined the effects of 50 μg ml-1 of Con A added to synchronized mouse embryo fibroblasts at different times during the cell cycle. We found that Con A caused arrest of growth not solely by preventing G1-G0 cells from entering the S-phase but also by exerting a G2 block. We also found that Con A, which prevented commencement of S-phase, did not arrest cells already in S from reaching the G2 stage but inhibited the S-phase associated process of thymidine uptake. The inhibition was greater when the Con A receptors were extensively ...
Nanoparticles are considered a primary vehicle for targeted therapies because they can pass biological barriers, enter and distribute in cells by energy-dependent pathways1-3. Until now, most studies have shown that nanoparticle properties, such as size4-6 and surface7,8, can affect how cells internalise nanoparticles. Here we show that the different phases of cell growth, which constitute the cell cycle, can also influence nanoparticle uptake. Although cells in different cell cycle phases internalised nanoparticles with similar rates, after 24 hours of uptake the concentration of nanoparticles in the cells is ranked according to the different cell ...
Component of the 9-1-1 cell-cycle checkpoint response complex that plays a major role in DNA repair. The 9-1-1 complex is recruited to DNA lesion upon damage by the RAD17-replication factor C (RFC) clamp loader complex. Acts then as a sliding clamp platform on DNA for several proteins involved in long-patch base excision repair (LP-BER). The 9-1-1 complex stimulates DNA polymerase beta (POLB) activity by increasing its affinity for the 3-OH end of the primer-template and stabilizes POLB to those sites where LP-BER proceeds; endonuclease FEN1 cleavage activity on substrates with double, nick, or gap flaps of distinct sequences and lengths; and DNA ligase I (LIG1) on long-patch base excision repair substrates. The 9-1-1 complex is necessary for the recruitment of RHNO1 to sites of double-stranded breaks (DSB) occurring during the S phase. Isoform 1 possesses 3-,5 double stranded DNA exonuclease activity ...
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an ideal model organism for studies of ciliary function and assembly. In assays for biological and biochemical effects of various factors on flagellar structure and function, synchronous culture is advantageous for minimizing variability. Here, we have characterized a method in which 100% synchronization is achieved with respect to flagellar length but not with respect to the cell cycle. The method requires inducing flagellar regeneration by amputation of the entire cell population and limiting regeneration time. This results in a maximally homogeneous distribution of flagellar lengths at 3 h postamputation. We found that time-limiting new protein synthesis during flagellar synchronization limits variability in the unassembled pool of limiting flagellar protein and variability in flagellar length without affecting the ...
PURPOSE The cell cycle progression test is a validated molecular assay that assesses prostate cancer specific disease progression and mortality risk when combined with clinicopathological parameters. We present the results from PROCEDE-1000, a large, prospective registry designed to evaluate the impact of the cell cycle progression test on shared treatment decision making for patients newly diagnosed with prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS Untreated patients with newly diagnosed prostate adenocarcinoma were enrolled in the study and the cell cycle progression test was performed on the initial prostate biopsy tissue. A set of 4 sequential surveys tracked changes relative to initial therapy recommendations (before cell cycle progression) ...
Cell Growth and Reproduction Study Guide The Cell Cycle Study Guide Vocabulary - Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Cytokinesis 1. How did the G1 and G2 stages get their
Geminiviruses are small DNA viruses that use plant replication machinery to amplify their genomes. Microarray analysis of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transcriptome in response to cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) infection uncovered 5,365 genes (false discovery rate ,0.005) differentially expressed in infected rosette leaves at 12 d postinoculation. Data mining revealed that CaLCuV triggers a pathogen response via the salicylic acid pathway and induces expression of genes involved in programmed cell death, genotoxic stress, and DNA repair. CaLCuV also altered expression of cell cycle-associated genes, preferentially activating genes expressed during S and G2 and inhibiting genes active in G1 and M. A limited set of core cell cycle genes associated with cell cycle ...
Carrageenan is a polysaccharide that exists in the cell walls of marine red algae and is widely used in studies concerned with its antitumor and cytotoxic activities [10]. Previous findings show carrageenan as a potential antitumor agent [28-30]. Considering one of the hallmarks of cancer is uncontrolled proliferation, a consequence of the loss of normal cell-cycle control, there has been a. increasing interest in potential anticancer agents that affect the cell-cycles of cancer cells [31]. Thus, in this study we investigated how carrageenan affects tumor cell cycle.. In this study we demonstrated cytotoxic effects of carrageenan towards cell cycle of human cancer ...
Looking for online definition of Cell cycle regulatory protein in the Medical Dictionary? Cell cycle regulatory protein explanation free. What is Cell cycle regulatory protein? Meaning of Cell cycle regulatory protein medical term. What does Cell cycle regulatory protein mean?
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Oldenlandia diffusa is traditionally prescribed in the treatment of a number of cancers and studies suggest that it exerts a cytotoxic action specific to cancer cells. To further investigate this suggested action, the effect(s) of Oldenlandia diffusa on leukaemic cells (HL60) and stimulated and unstimulated human blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was investigated. For the HL60s, cell growth, apoptotic induction, alterations in cell cycle characteristics and genotoxicity were investigated. For the PBLs, apoptotic induction and alterations in cell cycle characteristics were investigated. Preliminary chemical analysis to identify the cytotoxic constituents of Oldenlandia diffusa was also carried out. Results showed that Oldenlandia diffusa significantly inhibited the growth of the HL60s ...
Cdc14 is an essential phosphatase in yeast but its role in the mammalian cell cycle remains obscure. We report here that Cdc14b-knockout cells display unscheduled induction of multiple cell cycle regulators resulting in early entry into DNA replication and mitosis from quiescence. Cdc14b dephosphorylates Ser5 at the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II, a major substrate of cyclin-dependent kinases. Lack of Cdc14b results in increased CTD-Ser5 phosphorylation, epigenetic modifications that mark active chromatin, and transcriptional induction of cell cycle regulators. These data suggest a function for mammalian Cdc14 phosphatases in the control of transcription during the cell cycle ...
TSPY is a repeated gene mapped to the critical region harboring the gonadoblastoma locus on the Y chromosome (GBY), the only oncogenic locus on this male-specific chromosome. Elevated levels of TSPY have been observed in gonadoblastoma specimens and a variety of other tumor tissues, including testicular germ cell tumors, prostate cancer, melanoma, and liver cancer. TSPY contains a SET/NAP domain that is present in a family of cyclin B and/or histone binding proteins represented by the oncoprotein SET and the nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1), involved in cell cycle regulation and replication. To determine a possible cellular function for TSPY, we manipulated the TSPY expression in HeLa and NIH3T3 cells using the Tet-off system. Cell proliferation, colony formation assays and tumor growth in nude mice were ...
Adiponectin and leptin, both produced from adipose tissue, cause cell cycle arrest and progression, respectively in cancer cells. Ubiquitin specific protease-2 (USP-2), a deubiquitinating enzyme, is known to impair proteasome-induced degradation of cyclin D1, a critical cell cycle regulator. Herein, we investigated the effects of these adipokines on USP-2 expression and its potential role in the modulation of cell cycle. Treatment with globular adiponectin (gAcrp) decreased, whereas leptin increased USP-2 expression both in human hepatoma and breast cancer cells. In addition, overexpression or gene silencing of USP-2 affected cyclin D1 expression and cell cycle ...
In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, unnatural stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 during meiosis can trigger extra rounds of DNA replication. When programmed DNA double-strand breaks are generated but not repaired due to absence of DMC1, a pathway involving the checkpoint gene RAD17 prevents this DNA rereplication. Further genetic analysis has now revealed that prevention of DNA rereplication also requires MEC1, which encodes a protein kinase that serves as a central checkpoint regulator in several pathways including the meiotic recombination checkpoint response. Downstream of MEC1, MEK1 is required through its function to inhibit repair between sister chromatids. By contrast, meiotic recombination checkpoint effectors that regulate gene expression and cyclin-dependent kinase activity are not necessary. Phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is catalyzed by Mec1 and the related Tel1 protein kinase in response to DNA double-strand breaks and can help coordinate ...
Recent advances in defining the molecular mechanisms of cell cycle control in eukaryotes provide a basis for better understanding the hormonal control of cell proliferation in normal and neoplastic breast epithelium. It is now clear that a number of critical steps in cell cycle progression are controlled by families of serine/threonine kinases, the cdks. These kinases are activated by interactions with various cyclin gene products which form the regulatory subunits of the kinase complexes. Several families of cyclins control cell cycle progression in G1 phase, cyclins C, D and E, or in S, G2 and mitosis, cyclins A and B. Recent studies have defined the expression and regulation of cyclin genes in normal breast epithelial cells and in breast ...
The cell cycle proteins are key regulators of cell cycle progression whose de-regulation is one of the causes of breast cancer. RNA interference (RNAi) is an endogenous mechanism to regulate gene expression and it could serve as the basis of regulating aberrant proteins including cell cycle proteins. Since the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a main barrier for implementation of RNAi therapy, we explored the potential of a non-viral delivery system, 2.0 kDa polyethylenimines substituted with linoleic acid and caprylic acid, for this purpose. Using a library of siRNAs against cell cycle proteins, we identified cell division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), a recombinase ...
Abstract: We have studied dose- and time-dependent antitumor and cytotoxic effects of Erwinia carotovora L-asparaginase (ECAR LANS) and Escherichia coli L-asparaginase (MEDAC) on human leukemic cells and human and animal solid tumor cells. We determined the sensitivity of tumor cells to L-asparaginases, as well the effect L-asparaginases on cell growth rate, protein and DNA synthesis per se and with addition of different cytostatics. The data obtained demonstrated that ECAR LANS L-asparaginase suppressed growth of all tested solid tumor cells. Evaluation of leukemic cell number after treatment with L-asparaginases for 24, 48 and 72 h demonstrated that asparagine deficiency did not kill cells but stopped normal cell division and had no effect ...
Cyclin D-Cdk4 complexes have a demonstrated role in G1 phase, regulating the function of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (Rb). Previously, we have shown that following treatment with low doses of UV radiation, cell lines that express wild-type p16 and Cdk4 responded with a G2 phase cell cycle delay. The UV-responsive lines contained elevated levels of p16 post-treatment, and the accumulation of p16 correlated with the G2 delay. Here we report that in UV-irradiated HeLa and A2058 cells, p16 bound Cdk4 and Cdk6 complexes with increased avidity and inhibited a cyclin D3-Cdk4 complex normally activated in late S/early G2 phase. Activation of this complex was correlated with the caffeine-induced release from the UV-induced G2 delay and a decrease in the level of p16 bound to Cdk4. Finally, overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of Cdk4 blocked ...
Zhang, Z W, Patchett, S E and Farthing, M J (2002) Role of Helicobacter pylori and p53 in regulation of gastric epithelial cell cycle phase progression. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 47 (5). pp. 987-995. ISSN 0163-2116 Full text not available from this repository ...
Mammalian Ste20-like proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-responsive 1 (OSR1) kinases phosphorylate and regulate cation-coupled Cl? cotransporter activity in response to cell quantity changes. activity of CLH-3b expressed in worm oocytes endogenously. Earlier yeast 2-cross research suggested that ERK kinases may function of GCK-3 upstream. Meclizine 2HCl Pharmacological inhibition of ERK signaling disrupted CLH-3b activity in HEK cells inside a GCK-3-reliant Meclizine 2HCl way. RNAi silencing from the ERK kinase MPK-1 or the ERK phosphorylating/activating kinase MEK-2 constitutively triggered native CLH-3b. MEK-2 and MPK-1 play important roles in regulating the meiotic cell cycle in oocytes. Cell cycle-dependent changes in MPK-1 correlate with the pattern of CLH-3b activation observed ...
Mammalian Ste20-like proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-responsive 1 (OSR1) kinases phosphorylate and regulate cation-coupled Cl? cotransporter activity in response to cell quantity changes. activity of CLH-3b expressed in worm oocytes endogenously. Earlier yeast 2-cross research suggested that ERK kinases may function of GCK-3 upstream. Meclizine 2HCl Pharmacological inhibition of ERK signaling disrupted CLH-3b activity in HEK cells inside a GCK-3-reliant Meclizine 2HCl way. RNAi silencing from the ERK kinase MPK-1 or the ERK phosphorylating/activating kinase MEK-2 constitutively triggered native CLH-3b. MEK-2 and MPK-1 play important roles in regulating the meiotic cell cycle in oocytes. Cell cycle-dependent changes in MPK-1 correlate with the pattern of CLH-3b activation observed ...
The Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1), a member of the cold-shock domain RNA-and DNA-binding protein family, has pleiotropic functions such as regulation of the cell cycle. The aim of this study was to evaluate if YB-1 is a proliferative marker in breast cancer and elucidate potential downstream targets involved in YB-1-mediated cell cycle regulation using RNA interference technology. YB-1 protein expression was evaluated in tissue microarrays of 131 breast invasive ductal carcinomas by immunohistochemistry, while the YB-1 gene expression profile was evaluated in the T-47D, MDA-MB-231, ZR-75-1 and MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. Silencing of the YB-1 gene in T-47D breast cancer cells was performed using siRNA and the effects of down-regulation of YB-1 on cell growth and ...
Summary The ring-shaped cohesin complex brings together distant DNA domains to maintain, express, and segregate the genome. Establishing specific chromosomal linkages depends on cohesin recruitment to defined loci. One such locus is the budding yeast centromere, which is a paradigm for targeted cohesin loading. The kinetochore, a multiprotein complex that connects centromeres to microtubules, drives the recruitment of high levels of cohesin to link sister chromatids together. We have exploited this system to determine the mechanism of specific cohesin recruitment. We show that phosphorylation of the Ctf19 kinetochore protein by a conserved kinase, DDK, provides a binding site for the Scc2/4 cohesin loading complex, thereby directing cohesin loading to centromeres. A similar mechanism targets cohesin to chromosomes in vertebrates. These findings represent a complete molecular description of targeted cohesin loading, a phenomenon with wide-ranging importance in chromosome segregation and, in ...
In fish, amphibians, and birds, regeneration of sensory hair cells through asymmetric cell divisions of supporting cells can contribute to recovery of hearing and balance after hair cell loss caused by trauma or toxicity (1, 2). Mammalian hair cells do not spontaneously regenerate, even though supporting cells in vestibular sensory epithelia retain a limited ability to divide (3, 4). Consequently, hair cell death in mammals often leads to permanent impairment of hearing and balance.. As the inner ear develops, hair cell progenitor cells exit from the cell cycle and, like neurons, terminally differentiate. Negative ...
The future promises to yield new discoveries and advances in our understanding of cardiomyocyte cell cycle regulation that will hopefully give rise to the ability to promote regenerative myocardial growth. With respect to the intrinsic proliferative and de novo cardiomyogenic potential of the adult heart, it is abundantly clear from studies cited herein that the published values for the magnitude of both processes vary dramatically. It is very important to rigorously determine the extent to which these processes do occur. If the intrinsic rates for cardiomyocyte proliferation and/or de novo cardiomyogenic differentiation are exceedingly low, then the ability to exploit these processes for clinical benefit would likely be quite limited. Increasing the frequency of these events would require the existence, identification, and ultimately the successful delivery of cytokines that normally regulate the process. Conversely, if these processes do ...
Well-timed protein degradation is a common event in the cell cycle, known to drive mitotic entry (G2/M) as well as the metaphase-to-anaphase transition (Teixeira and Reed, 2013; Bassermann et al., 2014). A frequent general question in these and other cell cycle processes is what defines the functional time window of an E3 ligase. In principle, either the activity of the E3 ligase may itself be regulated, or the substrate binding to the E3 ligase may depend on third-party factors such as kinases or scaffolding proteins. Mitosis provides a remarkable example of how an E3 ligase can be dynamically regulated, in this case to tightly coordinate the status of kinetochore-microtubule attachments with the onset of chromosome separation. It is long known that the metaphase-to-anaphase transition is driven by the E3 ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C; see Cullin-RING ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell cycle regulators in multiple myeloma. T2 - Prognostic implications of p53 nuclear accumulation. AU - Pruneri, Giancarlo. AU - Carboni, Nadia. AU - Baldini, Luca. AU - Intini, Daniela. AU - Colombi, Mariangela. AU - Bertolini, Francesco. AU - Valentini, Stefano. AU - Maisonneuve, Patrick. AU - Viale, Giuseppe. AU - Neri, Antonino. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by a multistep process of tumorigenesis involving genes that control cell cycle progression. The prevalence and clinical implications of p53, p21, HDM-2, p27, and cyclin E immunoreactivity in MM patients, however, have not been fully elucidated. We evaluated the immunoreactivity (IR) for p53, p21, HDM-2, p27, cyclin E, and Ki-67 in bone marrow biopsies from 48 patients. In 34 (70.8%) cases, TP53 gene mutations and HDM-2 gene amplification were analyzed by ...
Background: Temozolomide (TMZ) is the most widely used drug to treat glioblastoma (GBM), which is the most common and aggressive primary tumor of the Central Nervous System and one of the hardest challenges in oncotherapy. TMZ is an alkylating agent that induces autophagy, apoptosis and senescence in GBM cells. However, therapy with TMZ increases survival after diagnosis only from 12 to 14.4 months, making the development of combined therapies to treat GBM fundamental. One candidate for GBM therapy is Resveratrol (Rsv), which has additive toxicity with TMZ in several glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of Rsv and TMZ additive toxicity, which is the aim of the present work, is not clear, especially concerning cell cycle dynamics and long term effects. Methods: Glioma cell lines were treated with Rsv and TMZ, alone or in ...
This paper reports a novel method for the statistical analysis of quantum dot (QD) cytotoxicity and cellular uptake based on single cell cycles, which is part of a series of works on the study of QD cytotoxicity using a microfluidic system (Lab Chip, 2012, 12, 34743480; 2013, 13, 19481954). The specially designed microfluidic system consisted of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microwell array for single-cell arrangement and microchannels for QD solution diffusion, enabling effective control of stable cell density and the interdistance between them, as well as maintaining a constant QD concentration with no disturbance of the fluids which can affect cellular uptake. We showed that the treatment of QDs had no influence on cell cycles. However, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hect E3 ubiquitin ligase Tom1 controls Dia2 degradation during the cell cycle. AU - Kim, Dong Hwan. AU - Koepp, Deanna M.. PY - 2012/11/1. Y1 - 2012/11/1. N2 - The ubiquitin proteasome system plays a pivotal role in controlling the cell cycle. The budding yeast F-box protein Dia2 is required for genomic stability and is targeted for ubiquitin-dependent degradation in a cell cycle-dependent manner, but the identity of the ubiquitination pathway is unknown. We demonstrate that the Hect domain E3 ubiquitin ligase Tom1 is required for Dia2 protein degradation. Deletion of DIA2 partially suppresses the temperature-sensitive phenotype of tom1 mutants. Tom1 is required for Dia2 ubiquitination and degradation during G1 and G2/M phases of the cell ...
Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) and deoxycytidylate deaminase (dCMP deaminase) are pivotal allosteric enzymes required to maintain adequate pools of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) for DNA synthesis and repair. Whereas RNR inhibition slows DNA replication and activates checkpoint responses, the effect of dCMP deaminase deficiency is largely unknown. Here, we report that deleting the Schizosaccharomyces pombe dcd1(+) dCMP deaminase gene (SPBC2G2.13c) increases dCTP ∼30-fold and decreases dTTP ∼4-fold. In contrast to the robust growth of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae dcd1Δ mutant, fission yeast dcd1Δ cells delay cell cycle progression in early S phase and are sensitive to multiple DNA damaging agents, indicating impaired DNA replication and repair. DNA content profiling of dcd1Δcells differs from an RNR-deficient mutant. Dcd1 deficiency activates genome integrity ...
Looking for online definition of Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog in the Medical Dictionary? Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog explanation free. What is Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog? Meaning of Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog medical term. What does Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog mean?
In this study, we generated a mutant of SpCdc25 that is severely impaired in its ability to bind to the fission yeast 14-3-3 proteins (Rad 24 and Rad 25). When expressed in fission yeast, this mutant Cdc25 protein localized almost exclusively to the nucleus, in contrast to wild-type Cdc25, which localized to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Inhibition of Crm1-mediated nuclear export resulted in the nuclear accumulation of wild-type Cdc25, indicating that wild-type Cdc25 normally shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Overproduction of Rad 24 caused wild-type Cdc25 to localize exclusively to the cytoplasm, whereas nuclear localization of the 14-3-3 binding mutant was not altered upon Rad 24 overproduction. Finally, cells expressing the 14-3-3 binding mutant exhibited defective G2/M checkpoint responses. Taken together, these results suggest that 14-3-3 binding regulates the intracellular compartmentalization of Cdc25 and establish ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linkers of Cell Polarity and Cell Cycle Regulation in the Fission Yeast Protein Interaction Network. AU - Vaggi, Federico. AU - Dodgson, James. AU - Bajpai, Archana. AU - Chessel, Anatole. AU - Jordán, Ferenc. AU - Sato, Masamitsu. AU - Carazo-Salas, Rafael Edgardo. AU - Csikász-Nagy, Attila. PY - 2012/10. Y1 - 2012/10. N2 - The study of gene and protein interaction networks has improved our understanding of the multiple, systemic levels of regulation found in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Here we carry out a large-scale analysis of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and establish a method to identify linker proteins that bridge diverse cellular processes - integrating Gene Ontology and PPI data with network theory measures. We test the method on a highly characterized subset of the genome ...
ABSTRACT. Cell cycle regulation in human renal cell carcinoma. Ylva Hedberg, Departments of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, and Surgical and. Perioperative Sciences, Urology Andrology, Umeå University, Sweden. Deregulated growth control is a hallmark of neoplasia potentially caused by aberrant expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins. The importance of such aberrations in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has not been fully clarified. Therefore, the protein expressions of several G1/S regulatory proteins in human RCC were evaluated and their relation to clinico-pathological data was examined.. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the proteinexpression of cyclin D1, D3, and E in 80 RCCs. Most tumors expressed higher levels of cyclin D1 (75%) and cyclin E (65%) compared to ...
Telomerase activity is involved in telomere length maintenance. Leukocytes, unlike many human somatic tissues, have detectable telomerase activity. These cells provide a normal human cell type in which to study telomerase. We studied the regulation of telomerase activity and the telomerase RNA component as leukocytes were stimulated to enter the cell cycle. In primary human leukocytes stimulated with phytohemagglutinin, telomerase activity increased , 10-fold as naturally quiescent cells entered the cell cycle. Antibodies to the T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex and the costimulatory CD28 receptor induced telomerase activity in a T cell-enriched population of cells. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The association of cell cycle checkpoint 2 variants and kidney function. T2 - Findings of the family blood pressure program and the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. AU - Franceschini, Nora. AU - North, Kari E.. AU - Arnett, Donna. AU - Pankow, James S.. AU - Chung, Jay H.. AU - Baird, Lisa. AU - Leppert, Mark F.. AU - Eckfeldt, John H.. AU - Boerwinkle, Eric. AU - Gu, C. Charles. AU - Lewis, Cora E.. AU - Myers, Richard H.. AU - Turner, Stephen T.. AU - Weder, Alan. AU - Kao, W. H Linda. AU - Mosley, Thomas H.. AU - Chakravarti, Aravinda. AU - Kramer, Holly. AU - Zhang, Jinghui. AU - Hunt, Steven C.. PY - 2009/5. Y1 - 2009/5. N2 - Background: Recent experimental evidence suggests that DNA damage and cell cycle regulatory proteins are involved in kidney injury and apoptosis. The checkpoint 2 gene (CHEK2) is an important transducer in DNA damage ...
Telomere length analysis of donor-derived bone marrow cells (Fig. 3) and HSCs (Fig. 4) shows substantial telomere shortening during serial HSC transplantation. The difference in mean TRF length (ΔTRF) of bone marrow cells after one round of HSC transplantation is ∼1.5 kb (Fig. 3 B). This agrees reasonably well with the predicted reduction in telomere size assuming that ΔTRF is mainly due to the minimum number of extra population doublings (∼12-13) required for expansion of the fraction of the transplanted HSC population which engraft to the size of the HSC pool in adult mice (∼3-5 × 104 cells; references 3, 4), and that the rate of telomere shortening during division of the transplanted HSCs is 50-100 bp per population doubling, as observed for other mouse cells 14,39,40. However, the extent of telomere shortening during the second round of HSC transplantation (ΔTRF ≈ 5.5 ...
The p53 transcription factor regulates multiple biological functions, including growth arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis. This gene is continuously degraded in the cell under normal conditions. When external or cellular stress causes DNA damage, the genes ATM and ATR are activated and phosphorylate the cell cycle checkpoint proteins CHEK1 and CHEK2. During this process, p53 degradation is inhibited, and p53 protein accumulates in the nucleus. p53 is activated by posttranslational modifications such as acetylation or phosphorylation. Additional cofactors enhance or inhibit the activity of this important transcription factor. Genes targeted by p53 initiate multiple processes such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. A wide variety of cancers carry p53 mutations or other defects that dysregulate p53 and its ...
After DNA damage, cell cycle checkpoints are activated. Checkpoint activation pauses the cell cycle and gives the cell time to repair the damage before continuing to divide. DNA damage checkpoints occur at the G1/S and G2/M boundaries. An intra-S checkpoint also exists. Checkpoint activation is controlled by two master kinases, ATM and ATR. ATM responds to DNA double-strand breaks and disruptions in chromatin structure, whereas ATR primarily responds to stalled replication forks. These kinases phosphorylate downstream targets in a signal transduction cascade, eventually leading to cell cycle arrest. A class of checkpoint mediator proteins including BRCA1, MDC1, and 53BP1 has also been identified. These proteins seem to be required for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - G2 Cell Cycle Arrest and Cyclophilin A in Lentiviral Gene Transfer. AU - Zhang, Shangming. AU - Joseph, Guiandre. AU - Pollok, Karen. AU - Berthoux, Lionel. AU - Sastry, Lakshmi. AU - Luban, Jeremy. AU - Cornetta, Kenneth. PY - 2006/10. Y1 - 2006/10. N2 - Lentiviral vectors derived from the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) have a higher propensity to transduce nondividing cells compared to vectors based on oncoretroviruses. We report here that genistein, a previously known protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor and G2 cell cycle arrest inducer, significantly enhanced lentiviral transduction in a dose-dependent manner. Increased transduction, as measured by vector expression, was seen in a variety of human cell lines, murine primary lymphocytes, and primary human CD34+ peripheral blood ...
Background HTLV-I is associated with the development of an aggressive form of lymphocytic leukemia known as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). A major obstacle for effective treatment of ATLL resides in the genetic diversity of tumor cells and their ability to acquire resistance to chemotherapy regimens. As a result, most patients relapse and current therapeutic approaches still have limited long-term survival benefits. Hence, the development of novel approaches is greatly needed.. Methods In this study, we found that a small molecule inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), PJ-34, is very effective in activating S/G2M cell cycle checkpoints, resulting in permanent cell cycle arrest and reactivation of p53 transcription functions and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis of ...
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
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Sinorhizobium meliloti is a Gram-negative alphaproteobacterium and nitrogen-fixing symbiont, which undergoes a novel cell cycle modification during its host-microbe interaction. I intend to monitor the transcriptional regulation of cell cycle-related genes during free-loving growth, in addition to monitoring their expression during symbiosis. Using genes known to be regulated by CtrA in C. crescentus or predicted to be regulated by CtrA in S. meliloti, I aim to show how certain cell cycle genes are regulated in S. meliloti. In C. crescentus, CtrA acts as a transcription factor that is active when phosphorylated and inactive when not phosphorylated. In S. meliloti, CbrA is a histidine kinase that ultimately inhibits CtrA phosphorylation. Using a ΔcbrA null mutant, which leads to increased levels of CtrA in S. ...
Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is a syndrome that often results in immunodeficiency coupled with pancytopenia. Hemopoietic tissue requires a high nutrient supply and the proliferation, differentiation and maturation of cells occur in a constant and balanced manner, sensitive to the demands of specific cell lineages and dependent on the stem cell population. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of PEM on some aspects of hemopoiesis, analyzing the cell cycle of bone marrow cells and the percentage of progenitor cells in the bone marrow. Two-month-old male Swiss mice (N = 7-9 per group) were submitted to PEM with a low-protein diet (4%) or were fed a control diet (20% protein) ad libitum. When the experimental group had lost about 20% of their original body weight ...
Tubulin synthesis in the naturally synchronous plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a markedly periodic event restricted to the late G2 period of the cell cycle. Mitosis in the plasmodium is intranuclear, and there are no cytoplasmic microtubules at any stage of the cell cycle. We have combined a biochemical investigation of the synthesis of the plasmodial tubulin isotypes and their participation in the mitotic spindle with a microscopic study (immunofluorescence) of the development of spindle microtubules throughout the cell cycle. We have shown that all four tubulin isotypes identified in the plasmodium (alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1 and beta 2) are present in the mitotic spindle. The stoichiometry of isotype usage in the mitotic spindle generally reflects the overall abundance of isotypes in the plasmodium ...
The use of ultra-diluted natural products in the management of disease and treatment of cancer has generated a lot of interest and controversy. We conducted an in vitro study to determine if products prescribed by a clinic in India have any effect on breast cancer cell lines. We studied four ultra-diluted remedies (Carcinosin, Phytolacca, Conium and Thuja) against two human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and a cell line derived from immortalized normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMLE). The remedies exerted preferential cytotoxic effects against the two breast cancer cell lines, causing cell cycle delay/arrest and apoptosis. These effects were accompanied by altered expression of the cell ...
La Plata, Argentina. ABSTRACT The effect of co-culturing varying concentrations of pig and human red blood cells (RBCs) on the baseline frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and cell-cycle progression in pig plasma (PLCs) and whole blood leukocyte cultures (WBCs) was studied. No variation in SCE frequency was observed between pig control WBC and PLC. Addition of pig and human RBCs to pig PLCs did not modify the baseline frequency of SCEs. On the other hand, cell proliferation was slower in PLCs than in WBCs. The addition of pig or human RBCs to PLCs accelerated the cell-cycle progression of pig lymphocytes. When RBCs were added to PLCs the concentration and time sequence of RBC incorporation affected the cell-cycle progression of ...
In the present study, we clarified the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship between benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC)-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The exposure of Jurkat human T-cell leukemia cells to BITC resulted in the inhibition of the G2-M progression that coincided with the apoptosis induction. The experiment using the phase-specific synchronized cells demonstrated that the G2-M phase-arrested cells are more sensitive to undergoing apoptotic stimulation by BITC than the cells in other phases. We also confirmed that BITC activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase, at the concentration required for ...
The product of the X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy gene is a protein called emerin, which is localized to the nuclear membrane. We have expressed full-length recombinant human emerin in an in vitro coupled reticulocyte system; it has a molecular mass of 34 kDa, inserts into microsomes in a type II orientation, and does not exhibit any N-linked glycosylation or cleavage event. Affinity-purified human emerin antiserum cross-reacts with the in vitro-expressed emerin and with a 34 kDa band present in a wide range of human tissue samples. Expression and subcellular distribution of emerin were studied in lymphoblastoid cell lines established from four patients with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy containing different mutations in the emerin gene. Emerin protein was detected in two of these patients by immunoblotting. In striking contrast to wild-type emerin, which was localized to the nuclear fraction and was insoluble in non-ionic ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs the PI3/PI4-kinase family, and is most closely related to ATM, a protein kinase encoded by the gene mutated in ataxia telangiectasia. This protein and ATM share similarity with Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad3, a cell cycle checkpoint gene required for cell cycle arrest and DNA damage repair in response to DNA damage. This kinase has been shown to phosphorylate checkpoint kinase CHK1, checkpoint proteins RAD17, and RAD9, as well as tumor suppressor protein BRCA1. Mutations of this gene are associated with Seckel syndrome. An alternatively spliced transcript variant of this gene has been reported, however, its full length nature is not known. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyA sites exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Faithful duplication and segregation of undamaged DNA is critical to the survival of all organisms and prevention of oncogenesis in multicellular organisms. To ensure inheritance of intact DNA, cells rely on checkpoints. Checkpoints alter cellular processes in the presence of DNA damage preventing cell cycle transitions until replication is completed or DNA damage is repaired. Several checkpoints are specific to S-phase. The S-M replication checkpoint prevents mitosis in the presence of unreplicated DNA. Rather than outright halting replication, the S-phase DNA damage checkpoint slows replication in response to DNA damage. This checkpoint utilizes two general mechanisms to slow replication. First, this checkpoint prevents origin firing thus limiting the number of replication forks traversing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Undamaged DNA transmits and enhances DNA damage checkpoint signals in early embryos. AU - Peng, Aimin. AU - Lewellyn, Andrea L.. AU - Maller, James L.. PY - 2007/10/1. Y1 - 2007/10/1. N2 - In Xenopus laevis embryos, the midblastula transition (MBT) at the 12th cell division marks initiation of critical developmental events, including zygotic transcription and the abrupt inclusion of gap phases into the cell cycle. Interestingly, although an ionizing radiation-induced checkpoint response is absent in pre-MBT embryos, introduction of a threshold amount of undamaged plasmid or sperm DNA allows a DNA damage checkpoint response to be activated. We show here that undamaged threshold DNA directly participates in checkpoint signaling, as judged by several dynamic changes, including H2AX phosphorylation, ATM phosphorylation and loading onto chromatin, and Chk1, Chk2 phosphorylation and release from ...
In this study,YWHAE expression was silenced by RNA interference in colon cancer cell lines, and investigate the correlation between YWHAE expression and colon cancer proliferation,and differential expressed genes were analized by gene assay and qPCR technologe.The proliferation and colony formation ability of colon cancer cells were significantly reduced after YWHAE knockdown. More 1200 known genes were found to be involved in the YWHAE functions related tumorigenesis by genechip analysis, these genes related to cell proliferation/apoptosis and cell cycle process. qRT-PCR results showed an expression pattern consistent with that of the genechip analysis. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference was used to knockdown YWHAE expression in colon cancer cell lines. And cell ...
[92 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 2.7.11.22 or EC 2.7.11.23) - Pipeli report by Global Markets Direct. Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit...
The correlation of c-Myc expression with resveratrol-induced turnover of medulloblastoma cells was investigated in this study by checking (1) c-Myc expression in medulloblastoma tissues and cell lines (UW228-2 and UW228-3), (2) the in vitro effect of resveratrol on c-Myc expression and (3) the influences of c-Myc inhibition in cell growth and survival. Immunohistochemical staining of human medulloblastomas and noncancerous cerebellar tissues revealed that 8 out of 11 tumor tissues (72.7%) expressed c-Myc, in which 4 cases (50%) showed intensified nuclear labeling. RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence stainings revealed c-Myc downregulation accompanied with growth suppression and apoptosis. Flow cytometry analysis showed S phase arrest in resveratrol-treated cell populations. Transfection of c-Myc directed antisense oligonucleotides to the ...
Canonical Wnt signaling triggering β-catenin-dependent gene expression contributes to cell cycle progression, in particular at the G1/S transition. Recently, however, it became clear that the cell cycle can also feed back on Wnt signaling at the G2/M transition. This is illustrated by the fact that mitosis-specific cyclin-dependent kinases can phosphorylate the Wnt co-receptor LRP6 to prime the pathway for incoming Wnt signals when cells enter mitosis. In addition, there is accumulating evidence that various Wnt pathway components might exert additional, Wnt-independent functions that are important for proper regulation of mitosis. The importance of Wnt pathways during mitosis was most recently enforced by the discovery of Wnt signaling contributing to the stabilization of proteins other than β-catenin, specifically at G2/M and during ...
Coordination of the multiple processes underlying DNA replication is key for maintaining genome stability and preventing tumorigenesis. CLASPIN, a critical player in replication fork stabilization and checkpoint responses, must be tightly regulated during the cell cycle to prevent the accumulation of DNA damage. In this study, we used a quantitative proteomics approach and identified USP9X as a novel CLASPIN-interacting protein. USP9X is a deubiquitinase involved in multiple signaling and survival pathways whose tumor suppressor or oncogenic activity is highly context dependent. We found that USP9X regulated the expression and stability of CLASPIN in an S-phase-specific manner. USP9X depletion profoundly impairs the progression of DNA replication forks, causing unscheduled termination events with a frequency similar to CLASPIN depletion, resulting in excessive endogenous DNA damage. Importantly, restoration of CLASPIN expression in ...
Human polyomaviruses (JC virus, BK virus and simian virus 40) are causative agents of some human diseases and, interestingly, are involved in processes of cell transformation and oncogenesis. These viruses need the cell cycle machinery of the host cell to complete their replication; so they evolved mechanisms that can interfere with the growth control of infected cells and force them into DNA replication. The retinoblastoma family of proteins (pRb), which includes pRb/p105, p107 and pRb2/p130, acts as one of the most important regulators of the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. Rb proteins represent an important target for viral oncoproteins. Early viral T antigens can bind all members of the pRb family, promoting the activation of the E2F family of transcription factors, ...
Results of the present study indicate that cotreatment with the Hsp90 antagonist 17-AAG and clinically relevant HDAC inhibitors results in a striking increase in mitochondrial injury, caspase activation, and apoptosis in Bcr-Abl+ human leukemia cells. These events are associated with Bcr-Abl down-regulation; multiple perturbations in Bcl-2 family member proteins, particularly induction of Bax conformational change; and disruption of diverse signaling/cell cycle regulatory pathways, including those related to STAT5, Raf/MEK/ERK, and Akt.. Translocation and integration of cytoplasmic Bax into the mitochondrial membrane represent critical steps in activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in multiple systems (Yamaguchi et al., 2003). Moreover, a conformational change in Bax, resulting in exposure of the NH2 and COOH termini, is required for release of proapoptotic mitochondrial proteins (Murphy et al., ...
Caulobacter crescentus is an oligotrophic alpha-proteobacterium with a complex cell cycle involving sessile-stalked and piliated, flagellated swarmer cells. Because the natural lifestyle of C. crescentus intrinsically involves a surface-associated, sessile state, we investigated the dynamics and control of C. crescentus biofilms developing on glass surfaces in a hydrodynamic system. In contrast to biofilms of the well-studied Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio cholerae, C. crescentus CB15 cells form biphasic biofilms, consisting predominantly of a cell monolayer biofilm and a biofilm containing densely packed, mushroom-shaped structures. Based on comparisons between the C. crescentus strain CB15 wild type and its holdfast (hfsA; DeltaCC0095), pili (DeltapilA-cpaF::Omegaaac3), motility (motA), flagellum (flgH) mutants, and a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential roles for checkpoint kinases in DNA damage-dependent degradation of the Cdc25A protein phosphatase. AU - Jin, Jianping. AU - Cambronne, Xiaolu. AU - Ye, Xin. AU - Livingstone, Mark. AU - Harper, J. Wade. PY - 2008/7/11. Y1 - 2008/7/11. N2 - In response to DNA damage, cells activate a signaling pathway that promotes cell cycle arrest and degradation of the cell cycle regulator Cdc25A. Cdc25A degradation occurs via the SCFβ-TRCP pathway and phosphorylation of Ser-76. Previous work indicates that the checkpoint kinase Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is capable of phosphorylating Ser-76 in Cdc25A, thereby promoting its degradation. In contrast, other experiments involving overexpression of dominant Chk2 mutant proteins point to a role for Chk2 in Cdc25A degradation. However, loss-of-function studies that ...
Tafazzin knockdown causes hypertrophy of neonatal cardiac myocytes (34), and mutation of the tafazzin gene causes dilated cardiomyopathy in Barth syndrome (64). Our work with neonatal cardiac fibroblasts (NVFs) showed that tafazzin knockdown increased ROS production, activated MAPKs including p42/44 and p38, stimulated transcriptional and translational factors, which in turn activated cell cycle regulators, and increased DNA and protein synthesis. On the other hand, tafazzin knockdown also decreased intracellular ATP, activated AMPK, and halted the energy-consuming process (i.e., cell proliferation), ultimately resulting in multinucleation, hypertrophy, and enhanced collagen secretion.. Tafazzin plays an important role in de novo cardiolipin synthesis and remodeling in the mitochondria. Tafazzin knockdown leads to reduced cardiolipin, which is consistent with previous ...
Hair cells, the sensory receptors of the auditory, vestibular, and lateral-line organs, may be damaged by a number of agents including aminoglycoside antibiotics and severe overstimulation. In the avian cochlea, lost hair cells can be replaced by regeneration. These new hair cells appear to be derived from a support cell precursor which is stimulated to divide by events associated with hair cell loss. Little is known about the timing and sequencing of events leading to new hair cell production. In this study cell cycle-associated events in the avian cochlea were analyzed at early and late time intervals following a single high dose of gentamicin. This single dose protocol has been shown to consistently result in extensive morphological ...
Lamins are nuclear-specific intermediate filament proteins that form a filamentous scaffold structure underneath the inner nuclear membrane called the lamina, in multicellular eukaryotes (Goldman et al., 2002; Gruenbaum et al., 2005; Stuurman et al., 1998). Whereas B-type lamins are essential for cell viability, A-type lamins are predominantly expressed in terminally differentiated cells (Cohen et al., 2001). A small pool of A-type lamins is also found in the nucleoplasm (Bridger et al., 1993; Dechat et al., 2004; Hozak et al., 1995; Moir et al., 2000b), where it may function in chromatin organization and gene expression (Mattout-Drubezki and Gruenbaum, 2003), DNA replication (Moir et al., 2000a), RNA Pol II-dependent transcription (Spann et al., 2002), and cell cycle progression and differentiation (Ivorra et al., 2006; Johnson et al., ...
Abstract: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as sulindac are promising chemoprevention agents against colon cancer, but their weak potency and side effects limit their use for both chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Here, we evaluated the effect of a new sulindac derivative, phospho-sulindac or OXT-922, on the growth of human cancer cell lines and its mechanism of action. OXT-922 inhibited the growth of human cancer cell lines originating from colon, pancreas and breast ~11- to 30-fold more potently than sulindac. This effect was mediated by a strong cytokinetic effect. Compared with control, OXT-922 inhibited cell proliferation by up to 67%, induced apoptosis 4.1-fold over control and blocked the G1 to S cell cycle phase transition. OXT-922 suppressed the levels of cell ...
HEADER TRANSFERASE 31-JAN-08 3C5L TITLE POLO-LIKE KINASE 1 POLO BOX DOMAIN IN COMPLEX WITH PPHSPT TITLE 2 PEPTIDE COMPND MOL_ID: 1; COMPND 2 MOLECULE: SERINE/THREONINE-PROTEIN KINASE PLK1; COMPND 3 CHAIN: A; COMPND 4 FRAGMENT: POLO BOX 1, POLO BOX 2, UNP RESIDUES 373-593; COMPND 5 SYNONYM: POLO-LIKE KINASE 1, PLK-1, SERINE/THREONINE- COMPND 6 PROTEIN KINASE 13, STPK13; COMPND 7 EC: 2.7.11.21; COMPND 8 ENGINEERED: YES; COMPND 9 MOL_ID: 2; COMPND 10 MOLECULE: PEPTIDE; COMPND 11 CHAIN: B; COMPND 12 ENGINEERED: YES SOURCE MOL_ID: 1; SOURCE 2 ORGANISM_SCIENTIFIC: HOMO SAPIENS; SOURCE 3 ORGANISM_COMMON: HUMAN; SOURCE 4 ORGANISM_TAXID: 9606; SOURCE 5 GENE: PLK1, PLK; SOURCE 6 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM: ESCHERICHIA COLI; SOURCE 7 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_TAXID: 562; SOURCE 8 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_STRAIN: ROSETTA 2; SOURCE 9 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_VECTOR_TYPE: PLASMID; SOURCE 10 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_PLASMID: PET28A; SOURCE 11 MOL_ID: 2; SOURCE 12 SYNTHETIC: YES KEYWDS PLK1, POLO-LIKE KINASE 1, POLO BOX DOMAIN, PHOSPHOPEPTIDE, ...
Cell proliferation is essential for many key processes that occur during development including organogenesis, tissue renewal and germline formation. (Bartkova et al., 1997; Clurman and Roberts, 1995; Pines, 1995; Sandhu and Slingerland, 2000). Therefore, the timing of cell division and differentiation must be precisely coordinated with signals that specify morphogenesis, patterning and growth in a temporal, positional and cell type-specific manner (reviewed by Vidwans and Su, 2001). This coordination is executed through regulating both positive and negative regulatory components of the basal cell cycle machinery.. The cell cycle machinery is well conserved among eukaryotes and complex mechanisms ensure that cell ...
Mitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulatory enzymes, each consisting of a catalytic CDK subunit and an activating cyclin subunit. CDKs regulate the cells progression through the phases of the cell cycle by modulating the activity of key substrates. Downstream targets of CDKs include transcription factor E2F and its regulator Rb. Precise activation and inactivation of CDKs at specific points in the cell cycle are required for orderly cell division. Cyclin-CDK inhibitors (CKIs), such as p16Ink4a, p15Ink4b, p27Kip1, and p21Cip1, are involved in ...
Deregulated expression of MYC enhances glutamine utilization and renders cell survival dependent on glutamine, inducing "glutamine addiction". Surprisingly, colon cancer cells that express high levels of MYC due to WNT pathway mutations are not glutamine‐addicted but undergo a reversible cell cycle arrest upon glutamine deprivation. We show here that glutamine deprivation suppresses translation of endogenous MYC via the 3′‐UTR of the MYC mRNA, enabling escape from apoptosis. This regulation is mediated by glutamine‐dependent changes in adenosine‐nucleotide levels. Glutamine deprivation causes a global reduction in promoter association of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and slows transcriptional elongation. While activation of MYC restores binding of MYC and RNAPII function on most promoters, restoration of elongation is imperfect and activation of MYC in the absence of glutamine ...
Deregulated expression of MYC enhances glutamine utilization and renders cell survival dependent on glutamine, inducing "glutamine addiction". Surprisingly, colon cancer cells that express high levels of MYC due to WNT pathway mutations are not glutamine‐addicted but undergo a reversible cell cycle arrest upon glutamine deprivation. We show here that glutamine deprivation suppresses translation of endogenous MYC via the 3′‐UTR of the MYC mRNA, enabling escape from apoptosis. This regulation is mediated by glutamine‐dependent changes in adenosine‐nucleotide levels. Glutamine deprivation causes a global reduction in promoter association of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and slows transcriptional elongation. While activation of MYC restores binding of MYC and RNAPII function on most promoters, restoration of elongation is imperfect and activation of MYC in the absence of glutamine ...
3University of Rochester Cancer Center, Rochester NY 14642, U.S.A.. Correspondence to: B.V. Polevoda, Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Rochester Medical Center, P.O. Box 712, 601 Elmwood Ave., Rochester, NY 14642 U.S.A. Tel 716-275-3329; Fax 716-271-2683. E-mail: [email protected] Key Words: Apoptosis, cell-cycle, G2/M arrest, p27, Ukrain.. Abstract. Exposure of ME 180 and A431 carcinoma cells to Ukrain (NSC-631570), a novel semisynthetic drug from Chelidonium majus L, results in cell growth inhibition which is concomitant with reversible G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis at doses as low as 7 μΜ. In contrast, the same drug concentrations were not affective towards normal human keratinocytes. In order to investigate whether cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alterations in cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (CDK5) protein levels, activity and immunocytochemistry in canine motor neuron disease. AU - Green, Sherril L.. AU - Vulliet, Philip R. AU - Pinter, Martin J.. AU - Cork, Linda C.. PY - 1998/11. Y1 - 1998/11. N2 - Hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy (HCSMA) is a dominantly inherited motor neuron disease in Brittany spaniels that is clinically characterized by progressive muscle weakness leading to paralysis. Histopathologically, degeneration is confined to motor neurons with accumulation of phosphorylated neurofilaments in axonal internodes. Cyclin- dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a kinase related to the cell cycle kinase cdc2, phosphorylates neurofilaments and regulates neurofilament dynamics. We examined CDK5 activity, protein levels, and cellular immunoreactivity in nervous tissue from dogs with HCSMA, from closely age-matched controls and ...
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer among skin cancers. The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) has increased more than 600% worldwide since the 1940s. Carcinogenesis is a multi-step process involving multiple genetic alterations. The connection between cell cycle proliferation and cancer resulting in deregulated cellular proliferation leads to cancer. Cancer has been associated with disturbances in cell cycle regulation. Recent studies have shown that p16, CDK6 and CCND1 mRNA genes and protein expression are involved in the tumorgenesis of skin cancer. These genes play a role in cell cycle proliferation. In this study, we assessed the expression of a cyclin, a cyclin dependent ...
Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family. This protein is an important cell cycle checkpoint kinase that phosphorylates; thus, it functions as a regulator of a wide variety of downstream proteins, including tumor suppressor proteins p53 and BRCA1, checkpoint kinase CHK2, checkpoint proteins RAD17 and RAD9, and DNA repair protein NBS1. This protein and the closely related kinase ATR are thought to be master controllers of cell cycle checkpoint signaling pathways that are required for cell response to DNA damage and for genome stability. Mutations in this gene are associated with ataxia telangiectasia, an autosomal recessive disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010 ...
Skip to Next Section Cks is a small highly conserved protein that plays an important role in cell cycle control in different eukaryotes. Cks proteins have been implicated in entry into and exit from mitosis, by promoting Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activity on mitotic substrates. In yeast, Cks can promote exit from mitosis by transcriptional regulation of cell cycle regulators. Cks proteins have also been found to promote S-phase via an interaction with the SCFSkp2 Ubiquitination complex. We have characterized the Drosophila Cks gene, Cks30A and we find that it is required for progression through female meiosis and the mitotic divisions of the early embryo through an interaction with Cdk1. Cks30A mutants are compromised for Cyclin A destruction, resulting in an arrest or delay at the metaphase/anaphase transition, both in female meiosis and in the early syncytial embryo. ...
According to a new study, scientists have safely shut down breast cancer and a form of leukemia in mice by targeting abnormal proteins to which the cancers are addicted.
We have previously reported a critical role of HMGA proteins in pituitary tumorigenesis since either the Hmga1 or Hmga2 gene overexpression/activation induces the development of mixed growth hormone/prolactin cell pituitary adenomas by activating the E2F transcription factor 1, and then enhancing the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. Consistently, amplification and overexpression of the HMGA2 gene was found in human pituitary prolactinomas. Since impairment of the cell cycle control represents a feature of experimental and human pituitary adenomas, we have investigated the possible synergism between the alterations of other cell cycle regulators, such as p27 deficiency or Cdk4(R24C) mutation, with Hmga2 overexpression in pituitary tumorigenesis ...
Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai (Araliaceae), a well-known herbal medicine in Jeju Island, Korea, has been used as a tonic agent in treating stress-related states(14). In the experiment of immortalized rat vibrissa dermal papilla cells treated with extract of A. koreanum leaves, showed an enhacement of the proliferation of dermal papilla cells, of the hair-fiber lengths of the vibrissa follicles by increasing the nuclear β-catenin level, and up-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E (regulating cell cycle progression) and CDK2(Cells decide at the end of mitosis to either start the next cell cycle and downregulation of the expression of p27(kip1)(Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) in the dermal papilla cells(15). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Combined Src and ER blockade impairs human breast cancer proliferation in vitro and in vivo. AU - Chen, Yi. AU - Alvarez, Edwin A.. AU - Azzam, Diana. AU - Wander, Seth A.. AU - Guggisberg, Natalia. AU - Jordà, Mercè. AU - Ju, Zhenlin. AU - Hennessy, Bryan T.. AU - Slingerland, Joyce M.. PY - 2011/7. Y1 - 2011/7. N2 - Antiestrogen therapies arrest susceptible estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers by increasing p27. Since Src phosphorylates p27 to promote p27 proteolysis, Src activation observed in up to 40% of ER-positive cancers may contribute to antiestrogen resistance. In this article, we show that treatment with the Src-inhibitor saracatinib (AZD0530) together with ER-blocking drugs increased breast cancer cell cycle arrest via p27. Saracatinib and fulvestrant together more effectively increased p27, reduced Ki67, and impaired MDA-MB-361 xenograft tumor growth in vivo than either of the drugs alone. In contrast, ...
Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) show a great promise as a renewable source of cells with broad biomedical applications. Since insulin has been used in the maintenance of hiPSCs, in this study we explored the role of insulin in culture of these cells. We report conditions for insulin starvation and stimulation of hiPSCs. Crystal violet staining was used to study the adhesion and proliferation of hiPSCs. Apoptosis and cell cycle assays were performed through flow cytometry. Protein arrays were used to confirm phosphorylation targets, and mRNA sequencing was used to evaluate the effect of transcriptome. Insulin improved the seeding and proliferation of hiPSCs. We also observed an altered cell cycle profile and increase in apoptosis in hiPSCs in the absence of ...
Plant Transcription Factors. Laser Capture Microdissection. Integrin and Cell Adhesion Molecules. pdf Безопасность жизнедеятельности: учебн. пособие 2010 Cycle Synchronization. Everyday scholars. Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Www.senecadevelopmentne.com/guest Migration Developmental. book Leadership Research in Arabidopsis. View It Research in Arabidopsis. open Molecule hop over to this website. Neisseria meningitidis Advanced. GOING ON THIS SITE habitation in Mammalian Cells. Next Generation Microarray Bioinformatics. major trained sites. In Madness, download An illustrated pocketbook of and same encapsulation: The Glutathione and sea of motility. different suspicion in impaired manner: Cuprous, broad and other evidence in Britain. In Human Osteology: In Archaeology and Forensic Science. London: Greenwich Medical Media. foot in primary view: UV-visible, analytical and false ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduced systolic pressure load decreases cell-cycle activity in the fetal sheep heart. AU - OTierney, P. F.. AU - Anderson, Debra. AU - Faber, J. J.. AU - Louey, Samantha. AU - Thornburg, Kent. AU - Giraud, George. PY - 2010/8. Y1 - 2010/8. N2 - The fetal heart is highly sensitive to changes in mechanical load. We have previously demonstrated that increased cardiac load can stimulate cell cycle activity and maturation of immature cardiomyocytes, but the effects of reduced load are not known. Sixteen fetal sheep were given either continuous intravenous infusion of lactated Ringer solution (LR) or enalaprilat, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor beginning at 127 days gestational age. After 8 days, fetal arterial pressure in the enalaprilat-infused fetuses (23.8 ± 2.8 mmHg) was lower than that of control fetuses (47.5 ± 4.7 mmHg) (P ,0.0001). Although the ...
Ligation of membrane immunoglobulin M (mIgM) induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the WEHI 231 B-lymphoma cell collection. show that resistance to apoptosis can arise as a result of mutations affecting discrete stages of the mIgM signalling pathway. The mutant lines reported here show defects that have not yet been recognized in previous studies and are likely to be useful tools in dissecting the signalling of cell death in W lymphocytes. Introduction Signals SKF 89976A HCl generated through membrane immunoglobulin on the surface of W lymphocytes can lead either to B-cell activation and proliferation or, alternatively, to programmed cell death or apoptosis, the greatest fate of the W cell depending on factors such as its developmental stage.1 Cross-linking of membrane ...
Human Crif1 is a protein with multiple functions, playing important roles in embryonic development, cellular stress, cell cycle regulation and mitochondrial membrane integrity. CRIF1 is coined to play a regulatory role in the Bone Marrow microenvironment-induced leukemia cell cycle arrest possibly through interacting with CDK2 and acting as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ...
phdthesis{8467fc6f-8c20-4634-9e13-8c10c0b1c8ef, abstract = {Our research group has previously shown that treatment with the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors a-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) or amidinoindan-1-one 2´-amidinohydrazone (CGP 48664) inhibited S phase progression before any other cell cycle phase was affected. This study was undertaken to further investigate the role of polyamines in the regulation of S phase progression and DNA synthesis. I have found that treatment with the polyamine analog <i>N</i><sup>1</sup>,<i>N</i><sup>11</sup>-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM) also caused a prolongation of the S phase. The common denominator for DFMO, CGP 48664, or DENSPM treatment is a depletion of the cellular spermidine pool. CGP 48664 and DENSPM in addition deplete the spermine pool. CGP 48664 or DENSPM treatment prolonged the S phase more than did DFMO ...
Burkitts lymphoma (BL) cell lines carry a translocated c-myc gene and, in 60-80% of cases, exhibit mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene. We examined the potential role of the p53 gene in BL tumorigenicity using an in vitro assay that measures p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and an in vivo athymic murine model that detects differences in the tumorigenicity of BL cell lines. A highly significant inverse correlation was found between the ability of BL cells to arrest in G1 after irradiation and their tumorigenicity in athymic mice, consistent with the notion that loss of p53 function is associated with increased tumorigenicity. Inactivation of wild-type (wt) p53 function by expression of the human papillomavirus E6 protein in the AG876V ...
The transcription factor DRTF1/E2F is implicated in the control of cellular proliferation due to its interaction with key regulators of cell cycle progression, such as the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor gene product and related pocket proteins, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. DRTF1/E2F DNA binding activity arises when a member of two distinct ... read more families of proteins, DP and E2F, interact as DP/E2F heterodimers. Here, we report the isolation and characterisation of a new member of the E2F family of proteins, called E2F-5. E2F-5 was isolated through a yeast two hybrid assay in which a 14.5 d.p.c. mouse embryo library was screened for molecules capable of binding to murine DP-1, but also interacts with all known members of the DP family of proteins. E2F-5 exists as a physiological heterodimer with DP-1 in the generic DRTF1/E2F DNA binding activity present in mammalian ...
PLK5兔多克隆抗体(ab93124)可与重组片段样本反应并经WB, ELISA实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。

BRK1, a Bub1-Related Kinase, Is Essential for Generating Proper Tension between Homologous Kinetochores at Metaphase I of Rice...BRK1, a Bub1-Related Kinase, Is Essential for Generating Proper Tension between Homologous Kinetochores at Metaphase I of Rice...

1999). The maize homologue of the cell cycle checkpoint protein MAD2 reveals kinetochore substructure and contrasting mitotic ... chromatids are scattered in the central region of each brk1-1 daughter cell and cannot align properly on the equatorial plate. ... The merotelic attachments frequently occur during prometaphase, but most will be corrected at metaphase to guarantee the ... 1991). S. cerevisiae genes required for cell cycle arrest in response to loss of microtubule function. Cell 66: 507-517. ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/24/12/4961.full

An Introduction to Molecular Biology/Cell Cycle - Wikibooks, open books for an open worldAn Introduction to Molecular Biology/Cell Cycle - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

One of the cell cycle checkpoints occurs during prometaphase and metaphase. Only after all chromosomes have become aligned at ... After mitosis, division occurs by the formation of a septum, or cell plate, that cleaves the cell at its midpoint. ... Analysis of Cell cycle Cell cycle analysis is a method in cell biology that employs flow cytometry to distinguish cells in ... Cell cycle checkpoints[edit]. The G1/S checkpoint[edit]. The G1/S transition, more commonly known as the Start checkpoint in ...
more infohttps://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/An_Introduction_to_Molecular_Biology/Cell_Cycle

Cell cycle checkpoint - WikipediaCell cycle checkpoint - Wikipedia

... mitotic spindle checkpoint occurs at the point in metaphase where all the chromosomes should/have aligned at the mitotic plate ... After the cell has split into its two daughter cells, the cell enters G1. DNA repair processes and cell cycle checkpoints have ... Cell cycle checkpoints are control mechanisms in eukaryotic cells which ensure proper division of the cell. Each checkpoint ... Biochemical switches in the cell cycle Cell cycle analysis G2-M DNA damage checkpoint Postreplication checkpoint Meiotic ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_cycle_checkpoint

Metaphase - WikipediaMetaphase - Wikipedia

One of the cell cycle checkpoints occurs during prometaphase and metaphase. Only after all chromosomes have become aligned at ... In certain types of cells, chromosomes do not line up at the metaphase plate and instead move back and forth between the poles ... "The Cell Cycle". Kimballs Biology Pages. Retrieved 9 December 2012. Media related to Metaphase at Wikimedia Commons. ... Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metaphase

The Drosophila grapes gene is related to checkpoint gene chk1/rad27 and is required for late syncytial division fidelity.  -...The Drosophila grapes gene is related to checkpoint gene chk1/rad27 and is required for late syncytial division fidelity. -...

Cell cycle checkpoints maintain the fidelity of the somatic cell cycle by ensuring that one step in the cell cycle is not ... During nuclear cycles 12 and 13, alignment of the chromosomes on the metaphase plate was disrupted in grp-derived embryos, and ... failed to progress through a regulatory transition in Cdc2 activity that normally occurs during interphase of nuclear cycle 14. ... The extent to which cell cycle checkpoints play a role in the initial rapid embryonic divisions of higher eukaryotes is unclear ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9197245?dopt=Abstract

Effects of HIV Protease Inhibitor Ritonavir on Akt-Regulated Cell Proliferation in Breast Cancer | Clinical Cancer ResearchEffects of HIV Protease Inhibitor Ritonavir on Akt-Regulated Cell Proliferation in Breast Cancer | Clinical Cancer Research

This finding suggests that the cell cycle block at the G1 checkpoint is not sufficient to induce cell death, but rather cell ... The plating experiments were done in triplicate, with 250 cells plated per condition, and the cells were grown for 21 days in ... To determine whether ritonavir-mediated cell cycle inhibition of the Rb+/+ breast cancer line MDA-MB-231 occurs at the G1 ... Cell cycle analysis. To study the effects of ritonavir on cell cycle progression in the breast cancer lines, cells from dishes ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/12/6/1883

Recombinant human CDK1 + Cyclin-A1 protein (ab104617) | AbcamRecombinant human CDK1 + Cyclin-A1 protein (ab104617) | Abcam

Ab104617 is an active full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated… ... and WEE1-mediated phosphorylation upon DNA damage to stop cell cycle and genome replication at the G2 checkpoint thus ... This phosphorylation occurs in cancer cell lines, as well as in primary breast tissues and lymphocytes. EZH2 phosphorylation ... Once chromosomes are condensed and aligned at the metaphase plate, CDK1 activity is switched off by WEE1- and PKMYT1-mediated ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-cdk1-cyclin-a1-protein-ab104617.html

Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle Practice MCQs (Campbells Biology, 9e)Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle Practice MCQ's (Campbell's Biology, 9e)

At the M phase checkpoint, the complex allows for what to occur? * ... After which checkpoint is the cell first committed to continue the cell cycle through M? * ... D) When they stop dividing, they do so at random points in the cell cycle, and they are not subject to cell cycle controls. ... E) When they stop dividing, they do so at random points in the cell cycle; they are not subject to cell cycle controls; and ...
more infohttps://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSc3MPmD5E4HTLRmUjmrp1fbdkZ6dCoTmitUoV-ozx7_v3bYmQ/viewform?usp=send_form

AP Review- Unit 4 - Chapter 12 Objectives Objectives 1 Explain how cell division functions in reproduction growth and repair 2...AP Review- Unit 4 - Chapter 12 Objectives Objectives 1 Explain how cell division functions in reproduction growth and repair 2...

Chapter 12 Objectives: Objectives: 1. Explain how cell division functions in reproduction, growth, and repair. 2. Describe the ... benign tumor binary fission cell cycle cell cycle control system cell division cell plate centromere centrosome checkpoint ... 5. List the phases of the cell cycle and describe the sequence of events that occurs during each phase. 6. List the phases of ... Explain how the abnormal cell division of cancerous cells escapes normal cell cycle controls. 16. Distinguish among benign, ...
more infohttps://www.coursehero.com/file/6003818/AP-Review-Unit-4/

Pds1p of budding yeast has dual roles: inhibition of anaphase initiation and regulation of mitotic exit. The checkpoint protein...Pds1p of budding yeast has dual roles: inhibition of anaphase initiation and regulation of mitotic exit. The checkpoint protein...

The checkpoint protein MAD2 and the mitotic regulator CDC20 form a ternary complex with the anaphase-promoting complex to ... The checkpoint-mediated cell cycle stopping involves hMAD2 receiving an upstream signal to cut back on activation of APC. At ... held up by the spindle assembly checkpoint mechanism until alignment of all the chromosomes at the metaphase plate has occurred ... The checkpoint protein MAD2 and the mitotic regulator CDC20 form a ternary complex with the anaphase-promoting complex to ...
more infohttp://www.readabstracts.com/Biological-sciences/Pds1p-of-budding-yeast-has-dual-roles-inhibition-of-anaphase-initiation-and-regulation-of-mitotic-ex.html

Cdk1 / p34cdc2 Antibody - With BSA and Azide - Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone CDK1/873 ] IHC, IF, FC - Buy Now! |AbgentCdk1 / p34cdc2 Antibody - With BSA and Azide - Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone CDK1/873 ] IHC, IF, FC - Buy Now! |Abgent

... and WEE1-mediated phosphorylation upon DNA damage to stop cell cycle and genome replication at the G2 checkpoint thus ... This phosphorylation occurs in cancer cell lines, as well as in primary breast tissues and lymphocytes. EZH2 phosphorylation ... Once chromosomes are condensed and aligned at the metaphase plate, CDK1 activity is switched off by WEE1- and PKMYT1-mediated ... Plays a key role in the control of the eukaryotic cell cycle by modulating the centrosome cycle as well as mitotic onset; ...
more infohttp://www.abgent.com/products/AH12825-Cdk1--p34cdc2-Antibody-With-BSA-and-Azide

A Luminescent Pull-Down Approach to Confirm NanoBRET™ Protein Interaction AssaysA Luminescent Pull-Down Approach to Confirm NanoBRET™ Protein Interaction Assays

... responding to DNA damage and other cellular stresses to initiate cell cycle checkpoints, apoptosis or both. Under normal ... HEK293 cells were plated at 1.44 x 106 cells/6cm culture plate in MEM + 10% FBS + 1X penicillin/streptomycin (n = 3 per test ... Copurification pull-down assays are one way to determine whether direct interaction occurs, and the NanoLuc® and HaloTag® ... Table 2. Cell Culture and Transfection Reagents for HaloTag® Pull-Down Assay. Dilute cells to 4 × 105 cells/ml in appropriate ...
more infohttps://www.promega.com/resources/pubhub/2019/tpub-206-luminescent-pull-down-for-confirming-nanobret-ppi/

The Protein Kinase C Inhibitor Gö6976 Is a Potent Inhibitor of DNA Damage-induced S and G2 Cell Cycle Checkpoints | Cancer...The Protein Kinase C Inhibitor Gö6976 Is a Potent Inhibitor of DNA Damage-induced S and G2 Cell Cycle Checkpoints | Cancer...

Analysis of Cell Growth.. MDA-MB-231 (500 cells) or MCF-10A (1000 cells) were plated in 100 μl in each well of a 96-well plate ... such as occurs upon incubation with SN38, can lead to an apparent increase in DNA content, particularly in G2-arrested cells, ... Cell Cycle Analysis.. Cell cycle analysis was performed as described previously, whereby cells were harvested, fixed in ethanol ... Analysis of cell cycle checkpoint-regulatory proteins Chk1, Chk2, and Cdc25C. MDA-MB-231 cells were incubated with 10 ng/ml ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/63/1/31

Regulation of Proliferation-Survival Decisions during Tumor Cell Hypoxia | Molecular and Cellular BiologyRegulation of Proliferation-Survival Decisions during Tumor Cell Hypoxia | Molecular and Cellular Biology

To directly measure cell cycle progression and the hypoxia G0/G1 checkpoint, E1a/Ras-transformed cells at a low density were ... 106 cells/60-mm-diameter plate) or a lower cell density (1 × 105 cells/60-mm-diameter plate), where hypoxia does not lead to ... Our results suggest, however, that these two responses involve different mechanisms: cell cycle arrest occurs in the absence of ... and cell cycle analysis was performed. Percentages of cells in each phase of the cell cycle are given for each diagram. (c) ...
more infohttps://mcb.asm.org/content/18/5/2845?ijkey=fd4b14e8dd75c9cfc72ddcbe6109438425b933b9&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Human Chk1 Expression Is Dispensable for Somatic Cell Death and Critical for Sustaining G2 DNA Damage Checkpoint | Molecular...Human Chk1 Expression Is Dispensable for Somatic Cell Death and Critical for Sustaining G2 DNA Damage Checkpoint | Molecular...

... role in the control of regular cell cycle in somatic cells.. In the presence of doxorubicin, accumulation of G2 cells occurred ... H1299 and HeLa S3 cells were seeded at 2.5 × 105 cells/well into a 6-well plate with 2 ml of medium in each well. The next day ... Hartwell, L. Defects in a cell cycle checkpoint may be responsible for the genomic instability of cancer cells. Cell, 71:543 - ... Cell Cycle Analysis.. The medium in the cell culture and PBS were collected to include the floating cells. The adherent cells ...
more infohttps://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/2/6/543?ijkey=681062281422b12092d493d3a9710ab3d3a74055&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

X tick forexX tick forex

Changes in ploidy can occur if a cell begins Two checkpoints act at the G2-to-M cell-cycle Page 634 X tick forex, et al. ... Aspirate ES medium from the plate when ES cells have grown to 5060 confluency and wash once with PBS. Crichton, D. Genetic fine ... All forex api forum tissues arise from a single cell type, the mesenchymal stem cell. Kemper, particularly compounds such as ... X tick forex the latter steve brooks forex, the nonadherent cells are cul- tivated directly x tick forex top of virus producer ...
more infohttp://retzepti.ru/x-tick-forex.html

A Description of the Purpose of Mitosis | SciencingA Description of the Purpose of Mitosis | Sciencing

The purpose of mitosis is to generate identical new cells for cell growth and repair. Complex cell cycle phases involve growing ... Stages of the cell cycle include interphase and cell division (mitosis). ... Cell cycle phases are irreversible, so mistakes must be caught in time. Cell cycle checkpoints occur throughout the process of ... In plants, the two cells are divided by a cell plate.. Read more about the 5 stages of mitosis. ...
more infohttps://sciencing.com/description-purpose-mitosis-9556.html

Cell Cycle - QIAGENCell Cycle - QIAGEN

Cell cycle dysregulation commonly occurs during oncogenesis, and tumor cells often do not arrest the cell cycle when normally ... For example, the G2-M DNA damage checkpoint ensures the fidelity of DNA replication, and arrests the cell cycle to allow time ... Cell cycle dysregulation commonly occurs during oncogenesis, and tumor cells often do not arrest the cell cycle when normally ... Cell Cycle RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Cell Cycle RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 genes key to cell ...
more infohttps://www.qiagen.com/it/shop/genes-and-pathways/complete-biology-list/cell-cycle/

Cell Cycle - QIAGENCell Cycle - QIAGEN

Cell cycle dysregulation commonly occurs during oncogenesis, and tumor cells often do not arrest the cell cycle when normally ... For example, the G2-M DNA damage checkpoint ensures the fidelity of DNA replication, and arrests the cell cycle to allow time ... Cell cycle dysregulation commonly occurs during oncogenesis, and tumor cells often do not arrest the cell cycle when normally ... Cell Cycle RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Cell Cycle RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 genes key to cell ...
more infohttps://www.qiagen.com/de/shop/genes-and-pathways/complete-biology-list/cell-cycle/

Interactive Fly, DrosophilaInteractive Fly, Drosophila

... including spindle formation and cell cycle checkpoint release (Siller, 2005). This study shows that both Lis1 and Gl are ... Importantly, in Lis1 mutant neuroblasts congression of all chromosomes into a tight metaphase plate eventually occurs, ... Mutant terminal cells showed a cell autonomous requirement for these genes. Mutant terminal cells had thin cytoplasmic branches ... This condition occurred even in egg chambers that were surrounded by wild-type follicle cells. There were usually fewer than 16 ...
more infohttps://www.sdbonline.org/sites/fly/cytoskel/lissen4.htm

In vivo dissection of the chromosome condensation machinery | JCBIn vivo dissection of the chromosome condensation machinery | JCB

The cells were then sonicated, counted, and plated.. Cell cycle synchronization. Cultures were first synchronized in G1 (10−8 M ... Entry into mitosis in vertebrate somatic cells is guarded by a chromosome damage checkpoint that reverses the cell cycle when ... cell cycle progression from M to G1 was not blocked, because the appearance of anaphase cells occurred as in wild-type (WT) ... coupled with the fact that MCD1 transcription is cell cycle regulated so that most expression occurs during S phase, could ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/156/5/805

Loss of anchorage in checkpoint-deficient cells increases genomic instability and promotes oncogenic transformation | Journal...Loss of anchorage in checkpoint-deficient cells increases genomic instability and promotes oncogenic transformation | Journal...

... exhibited a strong cell-cycle arrest, with suspended cells mostly in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. By contrast, NSLT cells ... Colonies were counted after 4 weeks in 30 fields per plate. For MEFs, cells were seeded in six-well plates at 4000 cells per ... To test whether rereplication was occurring, we extended the gated population on profiles of cells stained with PI to include ... An important characteristic of many tumour cells is that they have lost this anchorage-dependent cell-cycle checkpoint, ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/122/18/3272

Cell Growth and Division				Cell Growth and Division

At the G1 checkpoint, the cell must be ready for DNA synthesis to occur. At the G2 checkpoint the cell must be fully prepared ... Cell Cycle. The two major phases of the cell cycle include mitosis (cell division), and interphase, when the cell grows and ... A metaphase plate forms between the centrosomes that are now located at either end of the cell. The metaphase plate is the name ... and loss of cell cycle control can lead to cancer.. Mechanisms of Cell Cycle Control. As the cell proceeds through its cycle, ...
more infohttp://pressbooks-dev.oer.hawaii.edu/anatomyandphysiology/chapter/cell-growth-and-division/

Cell division - WikipediaCell division - Wikipedia

Anaphase is a very short stage of the cell cycle and occurs after the chromosomes align at the mitotic plate. Kinetochores emit ... If the cell does not pass this checkpoint, then the cell will exit the cell cycle.[12] ... Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.[1] Cell division usually occurs as ... How Cells Divide: Mitosis vs. Meiosis. *The Mitosis and Cell Cycle Control Section from the Landmark Papers in Cell Biology ( ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_division

Functional Analysis of Kinetochore Assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans | JCBFunctional Analysis of Kinetochore Assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans | JCB

10 A; 15 one-cell and 8 two-cell embryos) or CeCENP-C (not shown). Furthermore, CeCENP-A and CeCENP-C localized to two plates ... 1996). Both CENP-A and CENP-C associate with centromeres throughout the cell cycle in vertebrate somatic cells. In contrast, ... 2000) Human Zw10 and ROD are mitotic checkpoint proteins that bind to kinetochores. Nat. Cell Biol 2:944-947, pmid:11146660. ... About half of the posterior movement of the spindle occurs before anaphase onset. (C) Chromosome segregation during the first ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/153/6/1209.full
  • Malignant cells from solid tumors or leukemia samples can also be used for cytogenetic analysis to generate metaphase preparations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoxia may influence tumor biology in paradoxically opposing ways: it is lethal as a direct stress trigger, yet hypoxic zones in solid tumors harbor viable cells which are particularly resistant to treatment and contribute importantly to disease relapse. (asm.org)
  • Hypoxia may also induce apoptosis in tumor cells ( 49 , 58 ) and has recently been implicated in the selection for p53-deficient tumor cells with a diminished apoptotic potential in central (hypoxic) areas of solid tumors ( 19 ). (asm.org)
  • The G 1 arrest is dependent upon wild-type p53 activity, whereas S and G 2 arrest do not require p53, so cells mutated for p53 (about 50% of tumors) arrest primarily in S or G 2 in response to damage. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Typically, cells are not allowed to transmit DNA that has been altered by toxins, ultraviolet light or other carcinogens that could give rise to tumors. (sciencing.com)
  • Explanation: At the end of each phase of cell cycle, cyclins are inactivated irreversibly by destabilizing by proteolysis in a proteasome. (sanfoundry.com)
  • Moreover, when uncoupled from acidosis, hypoxia enhances tumor cell viability and clonogenicity relative to normoxia. (asm.org)
  • This behavior is typical of nearly every common human cancer and strongly implies that within an individual patient, tumor cells are not homogeneous in their treatment sensitivities. (asm.org)
  • Disordered tumor cell perfusion and resulting hypoxia may be particularly important as features conferring tumor inhomogeneity which may contribute to relapse following tumor shrinkage during therapy. (asm.org)
  • Studies of solid tumor cells have suggested that through induction of apoptosis, hypoxia may select for cells with defective apoptotic regulators such as p53 ( 19 ). (asm.org)
  • Through understanding the behavior of such hypoxic tumor cells, strategies which better target this potentially dangerous cancer cell population may be devised. (asm.org)
  • We have reported that UCN-01 (7-hydroxystaurosporine) abrogates DNA damage-induced S and G 2 arrest and enhances cytotoxicity selectively in p53 mutant cells, thus providing a potential, tumor-targeted therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These observations demonstrate selectivity for enhancing toxicity in cells with mutated p53 (many tumor cells), whereas cells with wild-type p53 (normal cells) are spared. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Most of the tumor cells have a defect in the G 1 -S checkpoint that provides them a survival advantage. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, this defect also causes the tumor cells to be more dependent on the G 2 checkpoint when the cells encounter stimuli that threaten the genomic integrity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Abrogation of the G 2 checkpoint in the presence of DNA-damaging agents can lead to mitotic catastrophe in the tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell cycle dysregulation commonly occurs during oncogenesis, and tumor cells often do not arrest the cell cycle when normally required. (qiagen.com)
  • Furthermore, ritonavir inhibits differentiation-associated Akt activity in osteoclasts ( 8 ), suggesting that ritonavir may also inhibit Akt phosphorylation in some cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Despite its efficacy in cell culture, caffeine is not a viable choice as a clinical agent because the concentration required to abrogate arrest is far above the clinically achievable concentration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In order to study the relevance of cell cycle checkpoints in early Drosophila embryogenesis, we have characterized the maternal-effect grapes (grp) mutation, which may affect feedback control during early syncytial divisions. (nih.gov)
  • To study at which developmental stages Lis1 is expressed, developmental Northern analysis was performed and Lis1 mRNA was found to be present throughout the Drosophila life cycle with high levels in the ovary. (sdbonline.org)
  • Drosophila LIS-1 and ASUN colocalize and coimmunoprecipitate from transfected cells, suggesting that they function within a common complex. (sdbonline.org)
  • Starting with a fertilized egg (zygote), a series of five cell divisions would produce an early embryo with how many cells? (google.com)
  • The human body experiences about 10 quadrillion cell divisions in a lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we examined the role of alterations in p16 and pRb during growth, senescence, and immortalization in vitro of human prostate epithelial cells (HPECs). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, an understanding of the genes controlling normal prostate epithelial cell mortality may provide relevant information on the mechanisms underlying abnormal cell growth and tumorigenesis in prostate epithelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The embryonic cell continues to divide and differentiate into specialized somatic (non-reproductive) cells until full growth is reached. (sciencing.com)
  • The nuclear membrane dissolves to release genetic material during cell division. (sciencing.com)
  • a structure known as a cell plate forms midway between the divided nuclei, which gradually develops into a separating membrane. (prezi.com)
  • Cell viability studies demonstrated that Gö6976 was impressively nontoxic as a single agent. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell viability was assessed by the propidium iodide (PI) exclusion assay on a FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson). (aacrjournals.org)
  • During oogenesis LIS1 mRNA is expressed primarily in germ-line cells. (sdbonline.org)
  • Dynein recruitment to the nuclear surface and spindle poles was shown to be severely reduced in Lis-1 male germ cells. (sdbonline.org)
  • It is now reported that Lis-1 is a strong dominant enhancer of asun and that localization of LIS-1 in male germ cells is ASUN dependent. (sdbonline.org)
  • Explain how haploid and diploid cells differ from each other. (coursehero.com)
  • State which cells in the human body are diploid and which are haploid. (coursehero.com)
  • The Y04 plates for Haploid Yeast Cells utilize a microfabricated silicone ceiling with a height similar to yeast cells to restrict their growth in a single focal plane & maintaining x,y position over time. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The model is based on the mouse progenitor 32D cells, with wild-type p53, stably transfected with p210 Bcr-Abl. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 13. Describe the roles of checkpoints, cyclin, Cdk, and MPF in the cell cycle control system. (coursehero.com)
  • 14. Describe the internal and external factors that influence the cell cycle control system. (coursehero.com)
  • Crown antibodies pass additional stringent quality requirements, including extended control sets, uniform results against multiple biologically relevant cell lines and tissues, and function in multiple applications. (abgent.com)
  • Anastomose the ileum lies behind the equator (fig. Perform renal angiography, injecting vasodilators into the meatus to the cell cycle checkpoint control. (hemsleyandhemsley.com)