Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Checkpoint Kinase 2: Enzyme activated in response to DNA DAMAGE involved in cell cycle arrest. The gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 22 at position 12.1. In humans it is encoded by the CHEK2 gene.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins: A group of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES which activate critical signaling cascades in double strand breaks, APOPTOSIS, and GENOTOXIC STRESS such as ionizing ultraviolet A light, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. These proteins play a role in a wide range of signaling mechanisms in cell cycle control.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.G2 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: CELL CYCLE regulatory signaling systems that are triggered by DNA DAMAGE or lack of nutrients during G2 PHASE. When triggered they restrain cells transitioning from G2 phase to M PHASE.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.Ataxia Telangiectasia: An autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by choreoathetosis beginning in childhood, progressive CEREBELLAR ATAXIA; TELANGIECTASIS of CONJUNCTIVA and SKIN; DYSARTHRIA; B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, and RADIOSENSITIVITY to IONIZING RADIATION. Affected individuals are prone to recurrent sinobronchopulmonary infections, lymphoreticular neoplasms, and other malignancies. Serum ALPHA-FETOPROTEINS are usually elevated. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p688) The gene for this disorder (ATM) encodes a cell cycle checkpoint protein kinase and has been mapped to chromosome 11 (11q22-q23).Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Radiation, Ionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Hydroxyurea: An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Genomic Instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression of the CELL CYCLE through the G1 PHASE and allow transition to S PHASE when the cells are ready to undergo DNA REPLICATION. DNA DAMAGE, or the deficiencies in specific cellular components or nutrients may cause the cells to halt before progressing through G1 phase.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Cell regulatory signaling system that controls progression through S PHASE and stabilizes the replication forks during conditions that could affect the fidelity of DNA REPLICATION, such as DNA DAMAGE or depletion of nucleotide pools.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded: Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA, across both strands adjacently.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.BRCA1 Protein: The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cyclin E: A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.Mimosine: 3-Hydroxy-4-oxo-1(4H)-pyridinealanine. An antineoplastic alanine-substituted pyridine derivative isolated from Leucena glauca.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Methyl Methanesulfonate: An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.DNA Repair Enzymes: Enzymes that are involved in the reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule, which contained damaged regions.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Aphidicolin: An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Thioguanine: An antineoplastic compound which also has antimetabolite action. The drug is used in the therapy of acute leukemia.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Blastula: An early non-mammalian embryo that follows the MORULA stage. A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). The layer of cells is called BLASTODERM.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Exonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.14-3-3 Proteins: A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cdc20 Proteins: Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Replication Protein A: A single-stranded DNA-binding protein that is found in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. It is required for DNA REPLICATION; DNA REPAIR; and GENETIC RECOMBINATION.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.1-Naphthylamine: A suspected industrial carcinogen (and listed as such by OSHA). Its N-hydroxy metabolite is strongly carcinogenic and mutagenic.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.DNA-Activated Protein Kinase: A serine-threonine protein kinase that, when activated by DNA, phosphorylates several DNA-binding protein substrates including the TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and a variety of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Exodeoxyribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Rad51 Recombinase: A Rec A recombinase found in eukaryotes. Rad51 is involved in DNA REPAIR of double-strand breaks.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2: An E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE that interacts with and inhibits TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53. Its ability to ubiquitinate p53 is regulated by TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Topoisomerase I Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE I.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Camptothecin: An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.G0 Phase: A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Methylnitronitrosoguanidine: A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesImmunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.PhosphoproteinsGenes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective: Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.Comet Assay: A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Hydroxamic Acids: A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.DNA Mismatch Repair: A DNA repair pathway involved in correction of errors introduced during DNA replication when an incorrect base, which cannot form hydrogen bonds with the corresponding base in the parent strand, is incorporated into the daughter strand. Excinucleases recognize the BASE PAIR MISMATCH and cause a segment of polynucleotide chain to be excised from the daughter strand, thereby removing the mismatched base. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Comparison of efficacy and toxicity profile between intraperitoneal and intravenous topotecan in human ovarian cancer xenografts. (1/1169)OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic and toxic profile of topotecan given intraperitoneally with intravenously in human ovarian cancer xenografted into athymic nude mice. METHOD: Eighty female Balb-c/nu-nu mice were randomized assigned into eight groups (n=10). Xenografts resulted from intramesentery injection of cultured human ovarian cancer cells SKOV3 in athymic mice. Onset of intraperitoneal treatment with either topotecan or cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg) was on day 7. Animals scheduled for topotecan i.p. received intraperitoneal application of topotecan (1.5 mg/kg x 2, 3.0 mg/kg x 2, 6.0 mg/kg x 2 or 10.0 mg/kg x 1). Animals scheduled for topotecan i.v. received intravenous administration of topotecan (6.0 mg/kg x 2 or 10.0 mg/kg x 1). Two weeks after drug application animals were killed. Tumor growth inhibition were assessed and compared with untreated mice and cisplatin intraperitoneally administered mice. Acute toxicity was determined by loss of body weight. Cell cycle division and apoptosis after drug administration was determined by flow cytometric analysis. RESULTS: In a panel of ten tumour xenografts, intraperitoneal topotecan was significantly more effective than intravenous administration. The toxicity profile suggested a better tolerability in terms of weight loss after intraperitoneal administration than cisplatin control. Topotecan 10.0 mg/kg i.p. per day (1 day) schedule was an optimal treatment for ovarian cancer and well tolerated by mice with no signs of acute toxicity. Topotecan and cisplatin induce cells G0-G1 arrest and apparent apoptosis. No significant difference among mice treated with topotecan intraperitoneally or intravenously or cisplatin was observed in term of apoptosis and cell cycle perturbation. CONCLUSION: The results may have implications for the future design of clinical studies on intraperitoneal application of topotecan. It suggests that apoptosis and cell cycle perturbation play an limited role in the mechanism of topotecan administration. (+info)
Cigarette smoke extract inhibits the proliferation of alveolar epithelial cells and induces apoptosis. (2/1169)Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) contains abundant oxidants and free radicals. Oxidative stress caused by cigarette smoking results in the destruction of the alveolar cell walls and emphysema. However, there exists discrepancy about how CSE works in the process. In the present study, we observed the effect of CSE on the cell growth of type II alveolar epithelial cell-derived A549 cell line, and provided molecular understanding of this effect. The MTT assay results showed that CSE decreased the cell viability of A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and cell cycle was arrested in G(1)/S phase. Furthermore, CSE-induced apoptosis of A549 cells was verified by Hoechst 33258 staining, electron microscopy in morphology, and the appearance of DNA fragmentation and annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) staining assay at molecular level. It was found that CSE treatment resulted in the upregulation of Fas/APO-1 receptor and activation of caspase-3. CSE also initiated accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which was detected by laser confocal microscopy. Taken together, CSE could inhibit the cell growth and induce apoptosis of A549 cells through Fas receptor pathway. Oxidative stress caused by CSE may be the radical factor leading to apoptosis as well as cell growth inhibition in alveolar epithelial cells. (+info)
Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta induces cell cycle arrest in a cyclin D1-dependent manner in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. (3/1169)The effect of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) has been repeatedly implicated in cell proliferation, but studies on the effect of GSK3beta in different cell lines with different stimuli have drawn different conclusions. To investigate the direct effect of GSK3beta on cell growth in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549, we changed its activity by transient transfection with two kinds of GSK3beta mutant plasmids, constitutively active form S9A-GSK3beta and dominant negative form KM-GSK3beta. Twenty-four hours later, cell counting, flow cytometry and Western blot detection were made respectively. The results showed that enhancing GSK3beta activity caused a decrease in cell number, as well as a higher percentage of cells at G(1) phase. Further, the expression of cyclin D1 was down-regulated by GSK3beta. Taken together, our observations suggest that GSK3beta may induce G(1) cell cycle arrest in a cyclin D1-dependent fashion and therefore possibly plays a growth-inhibitory role in A549 cells. (+info)
Adenine nucleotide translocase 4 deficiency leads to early meiotic arrest of murine male germ cells. (4/1169)(+info)
Silencing CENPF in bovine preimplantation embryo induces arrest at 8-cell stage. (5/1169)(+info)
Silencing of the IKKepsilon gene by siRNA inhibits invasiveness and growth of breast cancer cells. (6/1169)(+info)
SR and SR-related proteins redistribute to segregated fibrillar components of nucleoli in a response to DNA damage. (7/1169)(+info)
Unliganded progesterone receptors attenuate taxane-induced breast cancer cell death by modulating the spindle assembly checkpoint. (8/1169)(+info)
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Cell cycle analysis is commonly used in biomedical research studies and clinical diagnosis. It helps in distinguishing cells that are in different phases of cell cycle and used to determine the cellular response to biological stimulations and various drug
The cell membrane The DNA Hello, today we will be learning about the cell cycle. The cell cycle is a process that cells go through in order to divide.
Drag the Labels Onto the Diagram to Identify the Stages Of the Cell Cycle. - Drag the Labels Onto the Diagram to Identify the Stages Of the Cell Cycle. , Ponents Of Blood Article
CELL CYCLE CHECKPOINTS The cell cycle has regulatory points called checkpoint. A check point is one of several points in the eukaryotic cell cycle at which the progression of a cell to the next stage in the cell cycle can be halted until conditions are favourable (e.g. the DNA is repaired). These checkpoints occur near […]. ...
Great news, we have finally launched a website devoted to the Australian Cell Cycle community ! This site will serve as a hub for all the amazing cell cycle research that is performed in Australia. In addition, we will also be rebooting the Australian Cell Cycle Workshop (ACCW), with a tentative date of early April…
Cell cycle in somatic cells vs. ESCs. (a) Cell cycle regulation in somatic cells: mitogen signaling through MAPK path
Cell cycle: Cell cycle, the ordered sequence of events that occur in a cell in preparation for cell division. The cell cycle is a four-stage process in which the cell increases in size (gap 1, or G1, stage), copies its DNA (synthesis, or S, stage), prepares to divide (gap 2, or G2, stage), and divides
Introduction to Cell Cycle: The cell cycle is the process by which a cell replicates its genetic material and synthesized the other elements of the cell
Hello.. It appears Im stuck on another question. Ive figured out 3/4 of it, but I cant seem to find ANYWHERE in my textbook, anything about the stages of the cell cycle and cancer. If you can help me, that would be great ...
Find right answers right now! Which of the following is a correct statement about the events of the cell cycle? More questions about Science & Mathematics, which
epigenetic regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle in, frontiers the dna damage response in mammalian oocytes, cell cycle checkpoint, biobook leaf what happens at each of the cell cycle, 301 moved permanently
We welcome your input and comments. Please use this form to recommend updates to the information in ZFIN. We appreciate as much detail as possible and references as appropriate. We will review your comments promptly ...
Welcome to the Australian Cell Cycle Community website. This page is dedicated to bringing together all of the amazing research related to the cell cycle that is performed throughout Australia.
The cell cycle is the life of a cell from the time it is first formed from a dividing parent cell until its own division into two cells. Cell division involves the distribution of identical DNA to two daughter cells. A dividing cell duplicates its DNA,...
The longest phase of the cell cycle is the Gap 1 phase, or G1 phase. During this phase, the cell gears up for cell division by amassing more organelles and getting larger....
Science 9 Chapter 5.1 The Cell Cycle and Mitosis Pg152-158 Notes Cell Replacement and Development -Cells continue to divide as you continue to grow. -
See 13 Best Images of Cell Cycle And Mitosis Worksheet Answers. Inspiring Cell Cycle and Mitosis Worksheet Answers worksheet images. Cell Cycle Worksheet Answers Cell Cycle and Mitosis Worksheet Answer Key Cell Cycle Mitosis and Meiosis Test Answers Cell Cycle Worksheet Answer Key Cell Division Mitosis Worksheet and Answers
View Notes - Cell Cycle from BIOL 101 at UNC. Cell Cycle, Mitosis Meiosis Tuesday, February 10, 2009 10:19 AM 1. Cell Cycle aka Life of a Cell o Interphase Secreting Not dividing o Mitosis Nuclear
View Notes - bild lecture week 5.2 from BIOLOGY bild 1 at UCSD. Review: Monday. Skip chapter 11. Review: PSII PSI NADPH Mitosis and Cell Cycle 1.) Cell Cycle a. Alternates between interphase and
2 of 4 of my cell cycle unit. Image Credits: Biology (Campbell) 9th edition, copyright Pearson 2011, & The Internet. Provided under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. By David Knuffke.
Research groupsCell biology and Biotechnology Role of Hsp90 in cell cycle control and ageing Dr Andrés Garzón Villar. ..
Fucci Cell Cycle Vectors let you monitor cell cycle progression in living cells, in real-time, without fixation. They even let you visualize cell shape.
Fucci Cell Cycle Vectors let you monitor cell cycle progression in living cells, in real-time, without fixation. They even let you visualize cell shape.
Get all questions and answers of Cell Cycle And Cell Division of NEET1 Structures And Functions on TopperLearning. TopperLearnings Experts and Students has answered all of Cell Cycle And Cell Division of NEET1 Structures And Functions questions in detail.
Kinases Available in QuickScout™ Cell Cycle panel. The QuickScout™ Cell Cycle Panel mainly includes kinases which are directly involved in the cell-cycle, and their inhibition may interfere with cell proliferation. Contact us to learn more about this panel and how we can help you identify the clinical potential of your compounds.. ...
The cell cycle constitutes a series of stages that allow a cell to double its cellular components and divide into two daughter cells. Cell cycle and division are crucial for development of a multicellular organism, as well as...
The cell cycle is a five-stage process that begins with the prophase stage and ends with the cytokinesis stage. In between the beginning and end stages, the dividing cell passes through the stages of...
Research groupsCell biology and Biotechnology Cell cycle in yeast Dr Juan Jiménez Martínez. UPOPrincipal Investigator ..
welcome Today I well be teaching and showing you the cell cycle DNA The first step of the cell cycle is Interphase it when the DNA in the cell makes a
Nutr Cancer 63: 435- 443. Jaganathan SK( 2011) Can escapes from developmental aspects of the suggest oil film? Med Hypotheses 76: 535- 537.
海词词典，最权威的学习词典，专业出版aerobic cycle是什么意思，aerobic cycle的用法，aerobic cycle翻译和读音等详细讲解。海词词典：学习变容易，记忆很深刻。
How To Run a Recomp Cycle I hear this all the time I want to get bigger and rip up a bit Starting my cycle, looking to lean up and
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理化学研究所 多細胞システム形成研究センター（CDB） | Coupling cell cycle to cell fate: Cell-cycle regulation of Wnt signalling by the APC/C-Nek2 axis
Raveche, E S.; Schlam, M; and Steinberg, A D., "Cell cycle analysis of nzb cells. Abstr." (1981). Subject Strain Bibliography 1981. 1077 ...
Get an in-depth review and ask questions about Saylor BIO301: The cell cycle I. See what people are saying about Saylor BIO301: The cell cycle I.
Briefly describe all phases of the cell cycle and tell what happens in each. a)Interphase: G1, S phase, G2 phase. b)M phase If a cell never entered the resting phase would it be a problem? Why? What is the.
Get an answer for During which phase of the cell cycle does the organelle replication take place? and find homework help for other Biology questions at eNotes
Free practice questions for GRE Subject Test: Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology - Help with the Cell Cycle. Includes full solutions and score reporting.
This interactive module explores the phases, checkpoints, and protein regulators of the cell cycle. The module also shows how mutations in genes that encode cell cycle regulators can lead to the development of cancer.. ...
Looking into your microscope, you spot an unusual cell. Instead of the typical rounded cell shape, the cell has a very narrow middle separating two bulging ends. It sort of looks like the number 8! Then you realize that this cell ...
Université de Liège - ULg , Services généraux (Faculté des sciences) , Relations académiques et scientifiques (Sciences) ,] ...
For many organisms, the first goal of embryogenesis is to accumulate a large cell population to accommodate gastrulation. To achieve this quickly, embryos employ specialized cell cycles called cleavages that consist of continuous rounds of DNA replication and division. Cell proliferation occurs rapidly because cleavage cycles lack the gap phases and cell cycle checkpoints found in canonical cell cycles. Further, the genetic materials required to sustain cleavage cycles are preloaded during oogenesis, aiding efficient cell cycle progression. After a constant, organism-specific number of cleavages, many metazoan embryos undergo the mid-blastula transition (MBT), which initiates extensive cell cycle remodeling. Cell cycles lengthen, gap phases appear and checkpoint function is acquired. At the same time, the nearly quiescent zygotic genome is activated and transcriptional activity dramatically increases. This dissertation describes how these simultaneous MBT events are regulated. Chapter 2 addresses how
E2-2 alteration influences cell cycle exit of progenitors in vivo. (A)E2-2 overexpression increased cell cycle exit (EdU+Ki67-/EdU+) among the progenitor cell
Circadian oscillation and cell cycle progression are the two most essential rhythmic events present in almost all organisms. Circadian rhythms keep track of time and provide temporal regulation with a period of about 24 h. The cell cycle is optimiz
Surveillance mechanisms stop progression throughthe cell cycle at specific checkpoints (at the G1 → S, G2 → M and metaphase → anaphase transitions) if certain crucial requirements have not been met
Learn about the cell cycle, mitosis, and meiosis, including topics like the phases of chromosome segregation, the differences between cell cycle...
A ready-to-use reverse transfection format RNAi screening library targeting human cell cycle regulation genes. Just resuspend pre-dispensed siRNA, and add cells. Optimization plates are available.
The XL2430Ts OSD is just like every other BenQ monitor weve tested: full-featured and efficient. Pressing any bezel key or the wheel on the S Switch brings up a small menu.
Hello, I recently met Cell Profiler which seems great! I need to prepare a pipeline for myself but I couldn't figure out a few things. I seed two different types of cells in my plates and need to count only one type wh…
University of Iowa News. June 1, 2006. UI Cancer Researchers Receive Grant To Study Cell Cycle Checkpoints University of Iowa Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine researchers in the UI Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center have been awarded a five-year, $1.5 million grant from the National Cancer Institute to investigate a new hypothesis about how the mammalian cell cycle is regulated.. The cell cycle is the normal, orderly growth and division of cells. This process, also known as proliferation, is usually tightly controlled, but in cancers the process goes awry and malignant cells proliferate in an uncontrolled manner. Understanding the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that govern the cell cycle could lead to new and better cancer therapies that kill cancer cells but are not toxic to normal cells. The research team, led by Prabhat Goswami, Ph.D., UI assistant professor of radiation oncology in the Free Radical and Radiation Biology Graduate Program, will test the idea that reactive ...
Poly(b-L-malate) (PMLA) has been reported as an uncon-ventional, physiologically important biopolymer in plasmo-dia of myxomycetes, and has been proposed to function in the storage and transport of nuclear proteins by mimicking the phospho(deoxy)ribose backbone of nucleic acids. It is distributed in the cytoplasm and especially in the nuclei of these giant, multinucleate cells. We report here for the first time an increase in growth rate and a shortening of the cell cycle after the injection of purified PMLA. ... ...
An arrayed siRNA collection targeting mouse genes involved in cell cycle regulation. siGENOME siRNA is a cost-effective choice for RNAi screening. Available as SMARTpool or 4 individual siRNA reagents.
Study cell division with a complete set of reagents for detecting checkpoint regulators, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation.
The cell is the structural and functional unit of all organisms. The growth and development of an organism depend on the growth and development of the cell. The as an entity shows its own life cycle on par with the life cycle of the organism to which it belongs ...
How to figure out where you are in your monthly cycle. Dont know where you are in your monthly cycle? Not to worry-figuring it out is easy.
Cell Cycle DB103 DB009 DB010 DB011 DB012 DB104 DB105 DB013 DB106 DB014 DB015 DB114 DB018 DB016 DB017 DB051 DB095
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Chromosomes undergo dramatic morphological changes as cells advance through the cell cycle. Using powerful molecular and computational methods, several recent studies revealed an outstanding complexity of continuous structural changes accompanying cell cycle progression. In agreement with cell division being a fundamental cellular process, characteristic features of cell cycle stage‐specific genome structure are conserved from yeast to mouse. These studies further shine light on the critical roles that SMC complexes, already well known as fundamental regulators of chromosome topology, have in orchestrating structural dynamics throughout the cell cycle.. See also: L Lazar-Stefanita et al (September 2017) Y Kakui et al (2017),. SA Schalbetter et al (September 2017),. T Nagano et al (July 2017) ...
Gaurav Sharma 22 Figure 1. Diagram of biosensor localization during S phase in C. Elegans. An important part of development of any organism is differential regulation of the cell cycle since it leads to cell specification and differentiation. The cell cycle states and their coordination are already well-studied, but the mechanistic connection between the cell…
To present the main features of the Cell Cycle. Students copy down the information on a large sheet of paper. The main features are drawn in a circular diagram and students add key steps in their own drawings. Hence I can go through: * the four phases of the cycle * what happens during mitosis * the role of checkpoints * the role of mitosis promoting factors * the role of inhibitors * cancer in separate stages, which should result in less confusion for students.
A critical point in the cell cycle occurs in G1 phase, when cells must decide whether to enter a new round of cell division. At this time, cells assess nutrient...
Make a statement and embrace your sciencey self with this art print showing the stages of the cell cycle. Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase! • Museum quality fine art ...
Welcome to the website of the Cell Cycle Laboratory at the School of Medicine, University of Patras. The Cell Cycle Lab, headed by Assoc. Prof. Zoi Lygerou, is studying cell cycle control and the maintenance of genome integrity.
access-date= requires ,url= (help) May, Karen M; Kevin G. Hardwick (2006). "The spindle checkpoint". Journal of Cell Science. ... Reece, Jane B. (2011). "12". The Cell Cycle (9th ed.). San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. , ... Forces exerted by protein "motors" associated with spindle microtubules move the chromosomes toward the centre of the cell. ... Prometaphase is the phase of mitosis following prophase and preceding metaphase, in eukaryotic somatic cells. In prometaphase, ...
Shedding light on the DNA damage checkpoint. Cell Cycle 2007; 6:660-6. Lopes M, Foiani M, Sogo JM. Multiple mechanisms control ... Mol Cell 2006; 21:15-27. Friedberg EC. "Suffering in silence: the tolerance of DNA damage." Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2005; 6:943- ... At damaged sites in the genome, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells utilize a number of postreplication repair (PRR) ... Post-replication repair of DNA in ultraviolet-irradiated mammalian cells. No gaps in DNA synthesized late after ultraviolet ...
Cell cycle checkpoints: preventing an identity crisis. Science. December 1996, 274 (5293): 1664-72. Bibcode:1996Sci...274.1664E ... 細胞週期（英語：cell cycle），是指能持续分裂的真核细胞从一次有丝分裂结束后生长，再到下一次分裂结束的循环过程。細胞週期的长短反映了细胞所处状态，这是一个细胞物质积累与细胞分裂的循环过程。癌变的细
After DNA damage, cell cycle checkpoints are activated. Checkpoint activation pauses the cell cycle and gives the cell time to ... After rapid chromatin remodeling, cell cycle checkpoints are activated to allow DNA repair to occur before the cell cycle ... It leads to a pause in cell cycle allowing the cell time to repair the damage before continuing to divide. Checkpoint Proteins ... and some genes are involved in both DNA damage repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, for example ATM and checkpoint kinase ...
"Checkpoint inhibition of the APC/C in HeLa cells is mediated by a complex of BUBR1, BUB3, CDC20, and MAD2". J. Cell Biol. 154 ( ... Defects in BUB3 in the cell cycle can contribute to the following diseases: hepatocellular carcinoma gastric cancer breast ... "Checkpoint inhibition of the APC/C in HeLa cells is mediated by a complex of BUBR1, BUB3, CDC20, and MAD2". J. Cell Biol. 154 ( ... Yu, H. (2002). "Regulation of APC-Cdc20 by the spindle checkpoint". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 14 (6): 706-714. doi: ...
It is used to understand cell cycle checkpoints. Researchers are working to find a way to use this gene to create anti-cancer ... If MCR 1 is not present in the cell these check points do not work properly. Yin L, Locovei AM, D'Urso G (October 2008). " ... The most common function is found during the cell cycle when mutations occur because it becomes activated without ... "Activation of the DNA damage checkpoint in mutants defective in DNA replication initiation". Mol. Biol. Cell. 19 (10): 4374-82 ...
βTrCP plays important roles in regulating cell cycle checkpoints. In response to genotoxic stress, it contributes to turn off ... Cell cycle regulators constitute a major group of βTrCP substrates. During S phase, βTrCP keeps CDK1 in check by promoting the ... thereby preventing cell cycle progression before the completion of DNA repair. During recovery from DNA replication and DNA ... "SCFbetaTrCP-mediated degradation of Claspin regulates recovery from the DNA replication checkpoint response". Molecular Cell. ...
Borlado LR, Méndez J (February 2008). "CDC6: from DNA replication to cell cycle checkpoints and oncogenesis". Carcinogenesis. ... Cdc6, or cell division cycle 6, is a protein in eukaryotic cells that is studied in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... Cdc6p is normally present at high levels during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This is partly because the CDC6 gene is only ... of DNA replication and plays important roles in the activation and maintenance of the checkpoint mechanisms in the cell cycle ...
Lu X, Nannenga B, Donehower LA (2005). "PPM1D dephosphorylates Chk1 and p53 and abrogates cell cycle checkpoints". Genes Dev. ... and cell cycle control". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (4): 1094-105. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.4.1094-1105.2002. PMC 134641 . PMID 11809801. Li ... Cell. 15 (4): 621-34. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.08.007. PMID 15327777. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The ... Cell Res. 288 (1): 35-50. doi:10.1016/S0014-4827(03)00130-7. PMID 12878157. Bernards R (2004). "Wip-ing out cancer". Nat. Genet ...
April 1999). "Unique checkpoints during the first cell cycle of fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in rhesus ... 1999) Births of ICSI monkeys: unique checkpoints during the first cell cycle of fertilization. Nature Medicine 5:431-433. ... examined the role of the centrosome during assisted reproduction and identified unique check-points during the first cell cycle ... Hewitson, L.C., Leese, H.J. (1993) Energy metabolism of the trophectoderm and inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst. J Exp ...
The Start checkpoint is a major cell cycle checkpoint in yeast. The Start checkpoint ensures irreversible cell-cycle entry even ... Thus, larger cells spend less time in the Start checkpoint compared to smaller cells. Morgan, David. The Cell Cycle: Principles ... "Distinct Interactions Select and Maintain a Specific Cell Fate." Molecular Cell 43.4 (2011): 528-39. Mitosis Cell cycle S-phase ... a cell cycle gene, showed great coexpression in STE5-8A cells relative to wild type cells. Thus, Cln1/2 inhibition of Far1 ...
E2F integrates cell cycle progression with DNA repair, and G2(M) checkpoints., Genes and Development 16 (2002) 245-56. http:// ... V.R. Iyer, C.E. Horak, C.S. Scafe, D. Botstein, M. Snyder, P.O. Brown, Genomic binding sites of the yeast cell-cycle ... Then, the cells are lysed and the DNA is sheared by sonication or using micrococcal nuclease. This results in double-stranded ... Last, during the dry-lab portion of the cycle, gathered data are analyzed to either answer the initial question or lead to new ...
Yeast are a popular species for study because of the rapid cell cycle. Rb is one of the most studied checkpoint molecules. It ... In a healthy cell, checkpoints between phases permit a new phase to begin only when the previous phase is complete and ... Cyclins are molecules that manage the timing of cell cycle events. Cyclin dependent kinases pair up with cyclins to become ... Cyclins are named because they are created or destroyed at predetermined points within the cell cycle. Kinase inhibitors add ...
TRRAP is also required for the mitotic checkpoint and normal cell cycle progression. The MRN complex (composed of MRE11, RAD50 ... Herceg Z, Wang ZQ (March 2005). "Rendez-vous at mitosis: TRRAPed in the chromatin". Cell Cycle. 4 (3): 383-7. doi:10.4161/cc. ... Herceg Z, Wang ZQ (2006). "Rendez-vous at mitosis: TRRAPed in the chromatin". Cell Cycle. 4 (3): 383-7. doi:10.4161/cc.4.3.1546 ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (2007). "A Mouse for All Reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ...
One of the cell cycle checkpoints occurs during prometaphase and metaphase. Only after all chromosomes have become aligned at ... "The Cell Cycle". Kimball's Biology Pages. Retrieved 9 December 2012. Media related to Metaphase at Wikimedia Commons. ... Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which ... Metaphase accounts for approximately 4% of the cell cycle's duration. Preceded by events in prometaphase and ...
Checkpoints are eukaryotic DNA damage-inducible cell cycle arrests at G1 and G2. Checkpoint suppressor 1 suppresses multiple ... Mol Cell Biol. 17 (6): 3037-46. PMC 232156 . PMID 9154802. "Entrez Gene: CHES1 checkpoint suppressor 1". Maruyama K, Sugano S ( ... yeast checkpoint mutations including mec1, rad9, rad53 and dun1 by activating a MEC1-independent checkpoint pathway. ... "Reconstitution of a MEC1-independent checkpoint in yeast by expression of a novel human fork head cDNA". ...
... is found predominantly in proteins involved in cell cycle checkpoint functions responsive to DNA damage, for example as found ... "A superfamily of conserved domains in DNA damage-responsive cell cycle checkpoint proteins". FASEB J. 11 (1): 68-76. PMID ...
This protein is required for cell cycle progression through the S/M checkpoint. Three transcript variants encoding different ... The effect of NEDD8 inhibition may be greater for cancer cells than for normal cells if the cancer cells are already deficient ... "The amyloid precursor protein-binding protein APP-BP1 drives the cell cycle through the S-M checkpoint and causes apoptosis in ... "The amyloid precursor protein-binding protein APP-BP1 drives the cell cycle through the S-M checkpoint and causes apoptosis in ...
... fluoropyrimidines increase sensitivity by dysregulating S-phase cell cycle checkpoints in tumor cells. Gemcitabine progresses ... Tumor cells in a hypoxic environment may be as much as 2 to 3 times more resistant to radiation damage than those in a normal ... A radiosensitizer is an agent that makes tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy. It is sometimes also known as a ... One of the major limitations of radiotherapy is that the cells of solid tumors become deficient in oxygen. Solid tumors can ...
These proteins are key checkpoint proteins in the cell cycle. Cancer patients have a lowered expression of per1. Gery, et al. ... PER1 expression may have significant effects on the cell cycle. Cancer is often a result of unregulated cell growth and ... "The circadian gene per1 plays an important role in cell growth and DNA damage control in human cancer cells". Mol. Cell. 22 (3 ... Therefore, a cell's circadian clock may play a large role in its likelihood of developing into a cancer cell. PER1 is a gene ...
Prekeris R (2015). "Cut or NoCut: the role of JADE1S in regulating abscission checkpoint". Cell Cycle. 14 (20): 3219. doi: ... "Cell cycle-dependent chromatin shuttling of HBO1-JADE1 histone acetyl transferase (HAT) complex". Cell Cycle. 13 (12): 1885-901 ... Cells undergo morphological changes that do not resemble apoptosis but suggest severely impaired cell cycle including dyeing ... JADE1S but not JADE1L or HBO1 was found in centrosomes of dividing cells throughout the cell cycle, and neither of these ...
Throughout the cell cycle there are various checkpoints to ensure the cell is in good condition to progress to mitosis. The ... per cell per day 55,200 Double-strand breaks Human cells, per cell cycle 10 50 O6-methylguanines Mammalian cells, per cell per ... where it blocks cell cycle progression. Activation of p53 can trigger cell death or permanent cell cycle arrest. p53 can also ... During S phase the cell is more vulnerable to DNA damage than any other part of the cell cycle. G2 checkpoint checks for ...
... a cell cycle checkpoint gene required for cell cycle arrest and DNA damage repair in response to DNA damage. This protein ... Cell cycle checkpoint protein RAD17 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAD17 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... "Phosphorylation of serines 635 and 645 of human Rad17 is cell cycle regulated and is required for G1/S checkpoint activation in ... "The human checkpoint Rad protein Rad17 is chromatin-associated throughout the cell cycle, localizes to DNA replication sites, ...
"E2F integrates cell cycle progression with DNA repair, replication, and G(2)/M checkpoints". Genes & Development. 16 (2): 245- ... The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target ... Lindeman GJ, Gaubatz S, Livingston DM, Ginsberg D (May 1997). "The subcellular localization of E2F-4 is cell-cycle dependent". ... This protein binds specifically to retinoblastoma protein pRB in a cell-cycle dependent manner. Alternative gene splicing is ...
... a novel human gene that complements a fission yeast cell cycle checkpoint mutation". Mol. Biol. Cell. 6 (10): 1411-21. doi: ... 2002). "Antigenic and functional properties of the human red blood cell urea transporter hUT-B1". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (37): ... 1995). "Cloning and functional expression of a urea transporter from human bone marrow cells". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (50): 31649- ... J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 287 (1): C30-5. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00443.2003. PMID 14985236. ...
chromosome organization involved in meiotic cell cycle. • mitotic recombination. • protein homooligomerization. • response to ... Esophageal squamous cell cancer. Over-expression. 47%. Immunohistochemistry. . Renal cell carcinoma. Under-expression. 100% ... "MicroRNAs down-regulate homologous recombination in the G1 phase of cycling cells to maintain genomic stability". Elife. 3: ... "Association of BRCA1 with Rad51 in mitotic and meiotic cells". Cell. 88 (2): 265-75. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81847-4. PMID ...
Areas of interest include gene therapy, cell kinetics, pharmacokinetics, chemotherapy, oncology, developmental biology, wound ... Piotr Widlak, "The DNA Damage-Induced Cell Cycle Checkpoints," Journal of Theoretical Medicine, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 237-243, ... The DNA Damage-Induced Cell Cycle Checkpoints. Piotr Widlak Department of Experimental and Clinical, Radiobiology, Center of ...
... the spindle checkpoint) to regulate the cell cycle. ... How cells use checkpoints at the end of G1 phase, end of G2 ... How cells use checkpoints at the end of G1 phase, end of G2 phase, and partway through M phase (the spindle checkpoint) to ... Science·Biology·Cell division·Cell cycle regulation, cancer, and stem cells. Cell cycle checkpoints. ... Cell division. Cell cycle regulation, cancer, and stem cells. Cell cycle regulation, cancer, and stem cells. ...
Surveillance mechanisms stop progression throughthe cell cycle at specific checkpoints (at the G1 → S, G2 → M and metaphase → ... Walworth NC (2000) Cell‐cycle checkpoint kinases: checking in on the cell cycle. Current Opinion in Cell Biology 12: 697-704. ... Checkpoints in the Cell Cycle. Béla Novák, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary Jill C Sible, ... Mammalian checkpoint pathways that block cell cycle progression as a consequence of blocked deoxyribonucleic acid (. DNA. ) ...
Cell cycle checkpoint protein, Rad1 (IPR003011). Short name: Cell_cycle_checkpoint_Rad1 ... A conserved checkpoint pathway mediates DNA damage--induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in C. elegans.. Mol. Cell 5 435-43 ... Rad1 is a component of the 9-1-1 cell-cycle checkpoint response complex, which plays a role in checkpoint activation that ... In Caenorhabditis elegans, the cell cycle checkpoint protein RAD1 homologue mrt-2 has a role in genome stability by promoting ...
Cell cycle checkpoints are regulatory pathways that control the order and timing of cell cycle transitions and ensure that ... In addition, checkpoints respond to damage by arresting the cell cycle to provide time for repair and by inducing transcription ... Checkpoint pathways have components shared among all eukaryotes, underscoring the conservation of cell cycle regulatory ... Checkpoint loss results in genomic instability and has been implicated in the evolution of normal cells into cancer cells. ...
... this failure of cell cycle arrest responses in malignant cells can also be exploited therapeutically. Cells in which checkpoint ... Re-expression of p16INK4a in mesothelioma cells results in cell cycle arrest, cell death, tumor suppression and tumor ... Following flavopiridol treatment, nontransformed cells can undergo cell cycle arrest followed by cell death in vitro, and in ... Anticancer drug targets: cell cycle and checkpoint control. Geoffrey I. Shapiro1 and J. Wade Harper2 1Department of Adult ...
cell cycle checkpoint control protein RAD9A isoform 1 [Homo sapiens] cell cycle checkpoint control protein RAD9A isoform 1 [ ... This gene product is highly similar to Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad9, a cell cycle checkpoint protein required for cell cycle ... cell cycle checkpoint control protein RAD9A isoform 1 [Homo sapiens]. NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_004575.1 ... Cell Cycle. 2014] The checkpoint clamp protein Rad9 facilitates DNA-end resection and prevents alternative non-homologous end ...
After the cell has split into its two daughter cells, the cell enters G1. DNA repair processes and cell cycle checkpoints have ... Cell cycle checkpoints are control mechanisms in eukaryotic cells which ensure proper division of the cell. Each checkpoint ... Biochemical switches in the cell cycle Cell cycle analysis G2-M DNA damage checkpoint Postreplication checkpoint Meiotic ... known as the cell cycle control system, which monitors and dictates the progression of the cell through the cell cycle. This ...
Cell cycle checkpoints. Genetics as it applies to evolution, molecular biology, and medical aspects. ... Chapter 17 tells you all about the cell cycle and programmed cell death. Hint: you should something about S-cdk and the ORC. ... Could someone please tell me in detail what happens in the G1/S checkpoint? I hav been looking everywhere with no result. ... have you already searched in Molecular Biology of the Cell bij Alberts et al. ...
IR-induced cell-cycle checkpoint function was also defective, and induction of p21 was attenuated in thymus from Atm-deficient ... Atm selectively regulates distinct p53-dependent cell-cycle checkpoint and apoptotic pathways.. Barlow C1, Brown KD, Deng CX, ... To determine the relationship between Atm and p53, we examined cell-cycle and apoptotic responses in Atm-, p53-(ref. 8) and p21 ... p53 is a multi-functional protein that simultaneously regulates distinct downstream pathways controlling cell-cycle progression ...
Checkpoints: controls that ensure the order of cell cycle events Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Responses to DNA damage and regulation of cell cycle checkpoints by the ATM protein kinase family.. Hoekstra MF1. ... are thought to participate in responses to nuclear cues that activate DNA rearrangements or cell cycle arrests. Recent studies ... In mammalian cells, four protein kinases form the PI3-kinase-related protein kinase (PIK) superfamily. These four enzymes-FRAP ...
3B). Fewer mitotic cells were observed in Cdc25A-siRNA-treated cells relative to control cells. Control cells and cells ... Disruption of the checkpoint kinase 1/cell division cycle 25A pathway abrogates ionizing radiation-induced S and G2 checkpoints ... Disruption of the checkpoint kinase 1/cell division cycle 25A pathway abrogates ionizing radiation-induced S and G2 checkpoints ... Disruption of the checkpoint kinase 1/cell division cycle 25A pathway abrogates ionizing radiation-induced S and G2 checkpoints ...
Control mechanisms enforcing dependency in the cell cycle are here called checkpoints. Elimination of checkpoints may result in ... Checkpoints: controls that ensure the order of cell cycle events Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... The events of the cell cycle of most organisms are ordered into dependent pathways in which the initiation of late events is ... It appears that some checkpoints are eliminated during the early embryonic development of some organisms; this fact may pose ...
... Nat Genet. 2008 Mar;40(3):356-61. doi: 10.1038 ... that mitochondrial dysfunction activates at least two retrograde signals to specifically enforce a G1-S cell cycle checkpoint. ... we establish that disruption of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain specifically retards the cell cycle ... the mitochondrion can use AMP and ROS at sublethal concentrations as independent signaling molecules to modulate cell cycle ...
HOX11 interacts with protein phosphatases PP2A and PP1 and disrupts a G2/M cell-cycle checkpoint.. Kawabe T1, Muslin AJ, ... in mammalian cells. Inhibition of PP2A can regulate the cell cycle and control the activation of maturation-promoting factor in ... Microinjection of HOX11 into Xenopus oocytes arrested at the G2 phase of the cell cycle promoted progression to the M phase. G2 ... Transgenic mice that redirected HOX11 to the thymus demonstrated cell-cycle aberration and progression to malignancy. We ...
Overexpression of HSIX1 in MCF7 cells abrogated the G2 cell cycle checkpoint in response to x-ray irradiation. HSIX1 expression ... Overexpression of HSIX1 in MCF7 cells abrogates the G2 cell cycle checkpoint. (A) Northern blot analysis of HSIX1 transfectants ... expressed in the cell cycle and whose overexpression leads to an abrogation of the DNA damage-induced G2 cell cycle checkpoint ... when the cells were irradiated at a dose of 8 Gy to examine the DNA damage-induced G2 cell cycle checkpoint, a marked ...
Cells with suppressed expression of Rad51 gene have altered cell cycles and accumulate in the S and G2 phases. Our findings ... Role of human RAD51 recombinase in the cycle checkpoint and survival of a cell. ... However, some cells, e.g., MCF-7 cells, are insensitive to the suppression of Rad51 gene expression. ... Mladenov E., Tsaneva, I., and Anachkova, B., Cell Cycledependent Association of Rad51 with the Nuclear Matrix DNA, Cell Biol., ...
The essential checkpoint kinase Chk1 is required for cell-cycle delays after DNA damage or blocked DNA replication. However, it ... The Cell-Cycle Checkpoint Kinase Chk1 Is Required for Mammalian Homologous Recombination Repair Nat Cell Biol. 2005 Feb;7(2): ... The essential checkpoint kinase Chk1 is required for cell-cycle delays after DNA damage or blocked DNA replication. However, it ... Consistent with a functional interplay between Chk1 and RAD51, Chk1-depleted cells failed to form RAD51 nuclear foci after ...
The cell cycle is a complex sequence of events through which a cell duplicates its contents and divides, and involves many ... Cell-cycle Checkpoints and Aneuploidy on the Path to Cancer Elizabeth S Wenzel 1 , Amareshwar T K Singh 2 ... Cell-cycle Checkpoints and Aneuploidy on the Path to Cancer Elizabeth S Wenzel et al. In Vivo. Jan-Feb 2018. . ... Here, we present an overview of the importance of cell-cycle checkpoint regulation and chromosomal instability in the ...
A fungal ortholog of a key regulator for the mammalian cell cycle links cell division with the circadian cycle, gating the ... A fungal ortholog of a key regulator for the mammalian cell cycle links cell division with the circadian cycle, gating the ... The Neurospora Checkpoint Kinase 2: A Regulatory Link Between the Circadian and Cell Cycles ... The Neurospora Checkpoint Kinase 2: A Regulatory Link Between the Circadian and Cell Cycles ...
... cell line A549. Flow cytometry analysis showed xanthatin induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Xanthatin also had pro- ... We conclude that xanthatin displays significant antitumor effects through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction in A549 ... which contributed to the cell cycle arrest. Xathatin also increased total p53 protein levels, decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio and ... In this study, we demonstrated that xanthatin had obvious dose-/time-dependent cytotoxicity against the human non-small-cell ...
... suggesting ALDH1A1-dependent regulation of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair networks in ovarian cancer stem-like cells. ... A stable shRNA knockdown model for ALDH1A1 was utilized to determine its effect on cancer stem cell-like properties, cell cycle ... that ovarian cancer cells expressing ALDH1A1 may maintain platinum resistance by altered regulation of cell cycle checkpoint ... We evaluated ALDH+ ovarian cancer stem cell-like properties and their role in platinum resistance. Methods Isogenic ovarian ...
Cell cycle checkpoints are surveillance mechanisms that ensure the ordered progression of events during the cell division cycle ... SWITCHING OFF A CELL CYCLE CHECKPOINT. A model for feedback control of spindle checkpoint activity ... The checkpoint is functional and the APC is repressed, arresting the cell cycle at metaphase. (Right) When all chromosomes have ... It is important that checkpoints function at the correct stage of the cell cycle. For example, during mitosis, the spindle ...
Cell proliferation occurs rapidly because cleavage cycles lack the gap phases and cell cycle checkpoints found in canonical ... which initiates extensive cell cycle remodeling. Cell cycles lengthen, gap phases appear and checkpoint function is acquired. ... Further, the genetic materials required to sustain cleavage cycles are preloaded during oogenesis, aiding efficient cell cycle ... I show that SAC acquisition is independent of the N:C ratio and other MBT events like cell cycle elongation and zygotic ...
- Shah JV and Cleveland DW (2000) Waiting for anaphase: Mad2 and the spindle assembly checkpoint. (els.net)
- Chapter 3 investigates how the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is acquired at the MBT. (upenn.edu)
- We do find that activation of the DNA replication and spindle assembly checkpoints can fully arrest the network oscillator via overlapping but distinct mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA replication and spindle assembly are monitored by checkpoint controls that prevent nuclear division in cells that have failed to complete these processes. (rupress.org)
- As outlined in Table 1 , we will focus our attention on drugs targeting key players of the S and G2/M checkpoints activated in response to DNA damage and on drugs targeting the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). (biomedcentral.com)
- BUB3 forms a complex with BUB1 (BUB1/BUB3 complex) to inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) as soon as the spindle-assembly checkpoint is activated. (wikipedia.org)
- Another function of BUB3 is to promote correct kinetochore-microtubule (K-MT) attachments when the spindle-assembly checkpoint is active. (wikipedia.org)
- Furthermore, βTrCP controls APC/C by targeting REST, thereby removing its transcriptional repression on MAD2, an essential component of the spindle assembly checkpoint that keeps APC/C inactive until all chromatids are attached to the spindle microtubles. (wikipedia.org)
- The checkpoint ensuring that chromosome segregation is correct is termed spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), spindle checkpoint or mitotic checkpoint. (wikipedia.org)
- The eukaryotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors microtubule attachment to kinetochores and prevents anaphase onset until all kinetochores are aligned on the metaphase plate. (wikipedia.org)
- Mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAD2L1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- MAD2L1 is a component of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint that prevents the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. (wikipedia.org)
- As a safeguard against chromosome segregation errors, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) delays anaphase until all sister chromatid pairs have become bipolarly attached. (wikipedia.org)
- The Rad24-RFC complex is involved in both the mitotic and meiotic checkpoints [ PMID: 10511543 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Besides checkpoint activation, Rad24 is also involved in double-strand break ends processing, DNA repair and telomere maintenance [ PMID: 12944484 , PMID: 11267834 , PMID: 10675560 , PMID: 15454530 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- The checkpoint clamp protein Rad9 facilitates DNA-end resection and prevents alternative non-homologous end joining. (nih.gov)
- Checkpoint protein Rad9 plays an important role in nucleotide excision repair. (nih.gov)
- The C-terminal of Ddc1/Rad9 is critical for checkpoint activation. (usda.gov)
- Intramolecular binding of the rad9 C-terminus in the checkpoint clamp Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 is closely linked with its DNA binding. (nih.gov)
- This protein recruits the RAD1-RAD9-HUS1 checkpoint protein complex onto chromatin after DNA damage, which may be required for its phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
- H2A Ser 129 is not epistatic to the RAD24 and RAD9 checkpoint genes, suggesting a non-checkpoint role for the H2A PI(3)K site. (nih.gov)
- IR-induced cell-cycle checkpoint function was also defective, and induction of p21 was attenuated in thymus from Atm-deficient mice. (nih.gov)
- However, a defective G2-M checkpoint in these cells is accompanied by extensive chromosomal abnormalities. (nih.gov)
- The display screen identified a fresh checkpoint-defective allele of truncated on the C terminus. (exposed-skin-care.net)
- We discovered that checkpoint-defective alleles suppress the MMS awareness as well as the checkpoint recovery defect of cells. (exposed-skin-care.net)
- Because a defective G1/S checkpoint in BRCA1 heterozygotes could lead to a greater proportion of S-phase cells with unrepaired DNA damage (strand breaks) and a resultant increase in chromosomal instability, the frequency of micronuclei induced by UVA was examined. (lancs.ac.uk)
- Conclusion Our data suggest a defective G1/S checkpoint in cells from BRCA1 heterozygotes in response to UVA although this is not reflected in genomic instability as measured by micronuclei induction after oxidative stress or MMC treatment. (lancs.ac.uk)
- Blocking the interaction between miR-421 and ATM 3′UTR with an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide rescued the defective phenotype caused by miR-421 overexpression, indicating that ATM mediates the effect of miR-421 on cell cycle checkpoint and radiosensitivity. (pnas.org)
- Oesophageal cells were infected with the catalytic subunit of human telomerase (hTERT) using a defective retroviral vector. (bmj.com)
- These individuals appear to be primarily defective in homologous recombination, a process that accurately repairs double-strand breaks, both in somatic cells and during meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
- For instance, at least 36 DNA repair enzymes, when mutationally defective in germ line cells, cause increased risk of cancer (hereditary cancer syndromes). (wikipedia.org)
- CHK 1 and CHK 2 both function as essential components in the G2 DNA damage checkpoint by phosphorylating CDC25C in response to DNA damage. (acris-antibodies.com)
- In response to DNA damage, the 9-1-1 complex will be loaded onto the DNA damage site by clamp loader Rad24-RFC to activate the cell cycle checkpoint. (usda.gov)
- In response to DNA damage, cell cycle checkpoints can be activated in G1 phase, in S phase and at the G2/M transition [ 9 , 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- In response to DNA damage, the trimeric complex interacts with another protein complex consisting of checkpoint protein RAD17 and four small subunits of the replication factor C (RFC), which loads the combined complex onto the chromatin. (wikipedia.org)
- This protein is required to activate the intra-S phase and G2/M phase cell cycle checkpoints in response to DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
- Mutations in ERβ have been shown to influence cardiomyocytes, the cells that comprise the largest part of the heart, and can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). (wikipedia.org)
- This cell model suggests these mutations could occur to any cell in the body resulting in a cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- No. R1536 shows detection of a predominant band at ~60 kDa corresponding to phosphorylated CHK2 (arrowhead) in MCF-7 whole cell lysates after treatment with doxorubicin. (acris-antibodies.com)
- In another, completely different model of mitotic catastrophe, namely 14.3.3 -deficient HCT116 colon carcinoma cells treated with doxorubicin, Chk2 activation was also found to be deficient as compared to 14.3.3 -sufficient controls. (uu.nl)
- CHK2 regulates cell division, and has the ability to prevent cells from dividing too rapidly or in an uncontrolled manner. (wikipedia.org)
- The CHK2 protein plays a critical role in the DNA damage checkpoint. (wikipedia.org)
- Cell cycle analyses demonstrated that miR-494 induces a significant G1/S checkpoint reinforcement. (ovid.com)
- From these findings, it is suggested that mono-ADP-ribosylation of DNA causes a specific type of fork blockage that induces checkpoint activation and signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
- Triggering PD-1, expressed on monocytes and up-regulated upon monocytes activation, by its ligand PD-L1 induces IL-10 production which inhibits CD4 T-cell function. (wikipedia.org)
- Acetylation of p53 by KAT5 induces this cell death. (wikipedia.org)
- Further analyses demonstrated that miR-494 down-regulates multiple molecules involved in this transition checkpoint. (ovid.com)
- We describe how p38 MAPK regulates both the G2/M as well as a G1/S cell cycle checkpoint in response to cellular stress such as DNA damage. (ijbs.com)
- In this study, we demonstrate that miR-421 targets the 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) of ATM and down-regulates its expression, whereas miR-421 expression is driven by the N-Myc transcription factor, an oncogene that is frequently amplified in neuroblastoma cells. (pnas.org)
- In addition, PD-1 ligation up-regulates E3-ubiquitin ligases CBL-b and c-CBL that trigger T cell receptor down-modulation. (wikipedia.org)
- PD-1 is expressed on the surface of activated T cells, B cells, and macrophages, suggesting that compared to CTLA-4, PD-1 more broadly negatively regulates immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
- GCN2 also regulates the cell cycle by delaying entry into S phase upon ultraviolet (UV) radiation and exposure to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). (wikipedia.org)
- Here, we find that Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) atr−/− mutants were viable, fertile, and phenotypically wild-type in the absence of exogenous DNA damaging agents but exhibit altered expression of AtRNR1 (ribonucleotide reductase large subunit) and alteration of some damage-induced cell-cycle checkpoints. (plantcell.org)
- DNA damage-induced checkpoint response has been studied extensively in many laboratories but mainly in context of UV- or IR-induced alteration ( 14 , 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoints as a target for cancer therapy. (dartmouth.edu)
- Current Opinion in Cell Biology 12: 697-704. (els.net)
- Trends in Cell Biology 10: 154-158. (els.net)
- Trends in Cell Biology 10: 296-303. (els.net)
- have you already searched in 'Molecular Biology of the Cell' bij Alberts et al. (biology-online.org)
- Cell cycle analysis is a method in cell biology that employs flow cytometry to distinguish cells in different phases of the cell cycle. (wikibooks.org)
- T-Cell Costimulation Biology, Therapeutic Potential, and Challenges. (soringlobal.com)
- At Cell Systems, we talk a lot about systems biology, what it is, and how the journal encompasses and yet is bigger than this label. (soringlobal.com)
- Biology (Sci) : The physical and chemical properties of the cell and its components in relation to their structure and function. (mcgill.ca)
- Biology (Sci) : The cell: ultrastructure, division, chemical constituents and reactions. (mcgill.ca)
- Gerald Schatten (born 1949) is an American stem cell researcher with interests in cell, developmental, and reproductive biology. (wikipedia.org)
- He is Professor and Vice-Chair of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences and Professor of Cell Biology and Physiology at the University of Pittsburgh, where he is also Director of the Division of Developmental and Regenerative Medicine at the university's School of Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
- He graduated with an A.B. in Zoology from the University of California, Berkeley in 1971, where he also obtained his Ph.D. in Cell and Developmental Biology. (wikipedia.org)
- 1997-2001: Professor and Vice-Chair of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the Oregon Health & Science University and Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology. (wikipedia.org)
- In cell biology, the spindle apparatus (or mitotic spindle) refers to the cytoskeletal structure of eukaryotic cells that forms during cell division to separate sister chromatids between daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
- She made a "fundamental contribution to cell biology" in collaboration with physicist Stephen Pelc when they "were the first to ascribe a timeframe to cellular life," creating the concept of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Their nomenclature for the stages of cell replication is used universally and appears in every textbook of biology and pathology. (wikipedia.org)
- Hence, an understanding of the molecular interactions involved may suggest ways to sensitize cells to the effects of these compounds. (jci.org)
- Among molecular cell cycle-targeted drugs currently in the pipeline for testing in early-phase clinical trials, HDAC inhibitors may have therapeutic potential as radiosensitizers. (aacrjournals.org)
- As with other cell-cycle controls, checkpoints can also act at the level of local molecular interactions. (soringlobal.com)
- We review recent progress toward the understanding of the molecular mechanism of the spindle checkpoint and its role in guarding genome integrity at the chromosome level. (nih.gov)
- These models add a molecular framework to an old theory that depicts kinetochores as catalysts in the generation of the mitotic checkpoint signal. (nih.gov)
- Conclusions: Cell cycle lesions following mitochondrial and DNA damage led to failure of hepatic regeneration in acetaminophen toxicity but their reversibility offers molecular targets for treating acute liver failure. (elsevier.com)
- Although consumption of alcohol, tobacco smoking, and exposure to N -nitroso compounds have been linked to the development of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, the downstream molecular effects of these agents at the cellular level have not been well defined. (bmj.com)
- In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as 1 million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
- DNA damage, due to environmental factors and normal metabolic processes inside the cell, occurs at a rate of 10,000 to 1,000,000 molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
- Molecular Cell. (wikipedia.org)
- The PER1 mRNA is expressed in all cells, acting as a part of a transcription-translation negative feedback mechanism, which creates a cell autonomous molecular clock. (wikipedia.org)
- Schatten G, Hewitson L, Simerly C, Sutovsky P and Huszar G. (1998) Cell and Molecular Biological Challenges of ICSI: A.R.T. Before Science? (wikipedia.org)
- Aziz Sancar (born 8 September 1946) is a Turkish-American biochemist and molecular biologist specializing in DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints, and circadian clock. (wikipedia.org)
- The checkpoint regulatory mechanism has an important role in maintaining the integrity of the genome. (nih.gov)
- DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. (wikipedia.org)
- performed a genome wide expression study on 27 human mammary cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
- In a cell, DNA replication begins at specific locations, or origins of replication, in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
- Because endogenous (metabolically-caused) DNA damage is very frequent, occurring on average more than 60,000 times a day in the genomes of human cells, any reduced DNA repair is likely an important source of genome instability. (wikipedia.org)
- The process of genome instability often leads to a situation of aneuploidy, in which the cells present a chromosomic number that is either higher or lower than the normal complement for the species. (wikipedia.org)
- DNA re-replication (or simply rereplication) is an undesirable and possibly fatal occurrence in eukaryotic cells in which the genome is replicated more than once per cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- It is thought that topoisomerase inhibitors block the ligation step of the cell cycle, generating single and double stranded breaks that harm the integrity of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] The entire genome of a cancerous cell contains significantly less methylcytosine than the genome of a healthy cell. (wikipedia.org)
- In fact, cancer cell genomes have 20-50% less methylation at individual CpG dinucleotides across the genome. (wikipedia.org)
- Compared to the eukaryotic cell cycle, the prokaryotic cell cycle (known as binary fission) is relatively simple and quick: the chromosome replicates from the origin of replication, a new membrane is assembled, and the cell wall forms a septum which divides the cell into two. (wikipedia.org)
- Arlene H. Sharpe, M.D., Ph.D., and Abul K. Abbas, M.D. The eukaryotic cell cycle comprises a sequence of events that culminate in cell division. (soringlobal.com)
- The g 1 phase, or Gap 1 phase, is the first of four phases of the cell cycle that takes place in eukaryotic cell division. (soringlobal.com)
- Where Does DNA Replication Take Place in a Eukaryotic Cell? (reference.com)
- For a normal eukaryotic cell, mitotic exit is irreversible. (wikipedia.org)
- Despite different thresholds of Sic1 level that are required to trigger mitotic exit compared to G1-S transition, the level of Sic1 was shown to play a key role in regulating eukaryotic cell cycle by inhibiting the activity of CDKs. (wikipedia.org)
- In this in vivo genetic analysis in Drosophila melanogaster, we establish that disruption of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain specifically retards the cell cycle during the G1-S transition. (nih.gov)
- After a constant, organism-specific number of cleavages, many metazoan embryos undergo the mid-blastula transition (MBT), which initiates extensive cell cycle remodeling. (upenn.edu)
- The transition of cells from one cell cycle stage to another was studied by a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd)-flow cytometry (FCM) method. (lu.se)
- To assess the function of the G1/S transition checkpoint, we compared the responsiveness of activated lymphocytes to a G1/S transition inhibitor between patients with AD and normal controls. (psychiatryinvestigation.org)
- In its active state it is part of the checkpoint that blocks transition to anaphase. (wikipedia.org)
- The concentration of Dbf4 at the G1/S transition of the cell cycle is higher than the concentration at the M/G1 transition. (wikipedia.org)
- At the G1/S transition, the factor is inactivated and cannot be restored until the cell cycle has concluded. (wikipedia.org)
- The cell cycle has four stages (G1, S, G2 and M) and Tax is known to accelerate the transition between G1 and S phase. (wikipedia.org)
- It plays a major role in the G1/S transition, and functions in the p53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint. (wikipedia.org)
- The cell cycle surveillance mechanism that prevents sister-chromatid separation and transition into anaphase is called the spindle checkpoint. (wikipedia.org)
- Even though cyclin D levels in proliferating cells are sustained as long as the growth factors are present, a key player for G1/S transition is active cyclin D-Cdk4/6 complexes. (wikipedia.org)
- They examined cancer stem cell plasticity in which cancer stem cells can transition between non-cancer stem cells (Non-CSC) and CSC via in situ supporting a more Stochastic model. (wikipedia.org)
- Cell cycles lengthen, gap phases appear and checkpoint function is acquired. (upenn.edu)
- SK-BR-3 cells, on the other hand, progressed through the G1 checkpoint and were blocked in late S and G2 phases, presumably due to the activation of a later checkpoint. (lu.se)
- Hence, a cell verifies whether essential conditions are satisfied at checkpoints in G1, S, G2 and M phases, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- In a healthy cell, checkpoints between phases permit a new phase to begin only when the previous phase is complete and successful. (wikipedia.org)
- The centrosome cycle consists of four phases that are synchronized to cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Its expression peaks at late G1 phase and continues during G2 and M phases of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- How cells use checkpoints at the end of G1 phase, end of G2 phase, and partway through M phase (the spindle checkpoint) to regulate the cell cycle. (khanacademy.org)
- In some cell types, the photoreceptor protein cryptochrome (CRY) physically associates with TIM and helps regulate light-dependent degradation. (wikipedia.org)
- Checkpoint loss results in genomic instability and has been implicated in the evolution of normal cells into cancer cells. (sciencemag.org)
- Components of the cell cycle machinery are frequently altered in human cancer. (jci.org)
- Preliminary tests on several cancer cell lines suggest that HSIX1 may be overexpressed in multiple types of tumors. (pnas.org)
- 21PT, NT, MT1, and MT2 breast cancer cells were derived from a patient with an infiltrating and intraductal carcinoma ( 5 ) and were obtained from the laboratory of Ruth Sager (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute). (pnas.org)
- The role of aneuploidy in cancer cell development is often disputed, as conflicting hypotheses and research make it unclear as to whether aneuploidy is a cause or consequence of cancer. (nih.gov)
- Deregulation of the centrosome cycle and the origin of chromosomal instability in cancer. (nih.gov)
- In this study, we demonstrated that xanthatin had obvious dose-/time-dependent cytotoxicity against the human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line A549. (mdpi.com)
- Genomic instability results when the strict order of cell cycle events breaks down, and inactive checkpoints are often associated with aneuploidy, a common feature of cancer cells. (harvard.edu)
- University of Iowa Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine researchers in the UI Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center have been awarded a five-year, $1.5 million grant from the National Cancer Institute to investigate a new hypothesis about how the mammalian cell cycle is regulated. (uiowa.edu)
- In non-cancer cells, changing the cellular redox state with an antioxidant prevents progress into the S-phase of the cycle. (uiowa.edu)
- The same treatment does not affect the cancer cell cycle. (uiowa.edu)
- Primary fibroblasts from BRCA1 mutation-carrying members of breast cancer families display a G1/S cell cycle checkpoint defect following UVA irradiation but show normal levels of micronuclei following oxidative stress or mitomycin C treatment. (lancs.ac.uk)
- We investigated the antitumor effect of Cordyceps militaris extract (CME) on A549 cisplatin-resistant (CR) lung cancer cells. (usda.gov)
- We have treated two human breast cancer cell lines that differ in p53 status with epirubicin in order to study if there are differences in cell cycle kinetic response. (lu.se)
- The spindle checkpoint, aneuploidy, and cancer. (nih.gov)
- In this review we summarize developing concepts on how targeting cell cycle checkpoints may provide substantial improvement to cancer therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
- Nevertheless, the actual information on checkpoint biochemistry and its deregulation in cancer, along with the development of relative pharmacologic tools, is now offering new opportunities for cancer treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
- Abnormalities of p53, cyclin D, epidermal growth factor, and p16 have been described in oesophageal carcinomas 1- 6 and several oesophageal cancer cell lines have been developed for study. (bmj.com)
- Cancer Cell 12 , 215-229 (2007). (nature.com)
- This in turn may allow cancer cells to cross the basement membrane and invade surrounding tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- 2. E-cadherin in MET: The mesenchymal state cancer cells migrate to new sites and may undergo METs in certain favorable microenvironment. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, the cancer cells can recognize differentiated epithelial cell features in the new sites and upregulate E-cadherin expression. (wikipedia.org)
- Those cancer cells can form cell-cell adhesions again and return to an epithelial state. (wikipedia.org)
- The PER1 protein is important to the maintenance of circadian rhythms in cells, and may also play a role in the development of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- The central role of Cdc25s in the cell cycle has garnered them considerable attention from the pharmaceutical industry as potential targets for novel chemotherapeutic (anti-cancer) agents. (wikipedia.org)
- Tax also causes aneuploidy (abnormal chromosome numbers), which is a possible cause of transformation (normal cells becoming cancer cells). (wikipedia.org)
- Several forms of cancer are more dependent on PARP than regular cells, making PARP an attractive target for cancer therapy. (wikipedia.org)
- DNA is damaged thousands of times during each cell cycle, and that damage must be repaired, including in cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Cancer cells that are low in oxygen (e.g. in fast growing tumors) are sensitive to PARP inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
- This predisposition to cancer may be linked to the DSBs occurring at the development of lymphoid cells. (wikipedia.org)
- NBS1 is often over-expressed in prostate cancer, in liver cancer, in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, in non-small cell lung carcinoma, hepatoma, and esophageal cancer, in head and neck cancer, and in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. (wikipedia.org)
- This prevents autoimmune diseases, but it can also prevent the immune system from killing cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Cancer Cell. (wikipedia.org)
- Cancer cells are selectively sensitive to the generation of these DNA lesions. (wikipedia.org)
- These include: 1) spontaneous inactivation to a lactone form in blood, 2) rapid reversal of the trapped cleavable complex after drug removal, requiring prolonged infusions, 3) resistance of cancer cells overexpressing membrane transporters, and 4) dose-limiting side effects of diarrhea and neutropenia. (wikipedia.org)
- HSP90AB1 and its co-chaperones are frequently overexpressed in cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Cancer epigenetics is the study of epigenetic modifications to the DNA of cancer cells that do not involve a change in the nucleotide sequence. (wikipedia.org)
- Mitogens are important in cancer research due to their effects on the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Impaired spindle checkpoint function has been found in many forms of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Previous work has shown that high cyclin B1 expression levels are found in variety of cancers such as breast, cervical, gastric, colorectal, head and neck squamous cell, non-small-cell lung cancer, colon, prostate, oral and esophageal. (wikipedia.org)
- This trend has been observed in esophageal cancer, head and neck squamous cell cancer and breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. (wikipedia.org)
- Cancer stem cells were first identified by John Dick in acute myeloid leukemia in the late 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
- The cancer stem cell model, also known as the Hierarchical Model proposes that tumors are hierarchically organized (CSCs lying at the apex (Fig. 3). (wikipedia.org)
- While Howard and Pelc were sure of the significance of their findings, "the relevance of cell-cycle studies in the bean root to either cancer or medicine was not immediately accepted. (wikipedia.org)
- Following pretreatment with the HDAC inhibitor, the efficiency of clonogenic regrowth after irradiation was reduced, which is in accordance with the concept of increased probability of mitotic cell death when the chromatin structure is disrupted. (aacrjournals.org)
- ORC is a central component for eukaryotic DNA replication, and remains bound to chromatin at replication origins throughout the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- The time in between the five stages is called the interphase and represents the longest part of the cell cycle. (reference.com)
- In cells with a nucleus, as in eukaryotes, the cell cycle is also divided into three periods: interphase, the mitotic (M) phase, and cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
- After cell division, each of the daughter cells begin the interphase of a new cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
- Interphase is a series of changes that takes place in a newly formed cell and its nucleus, before it becomes capable of division again. (wikipedia.org)
- Previously it was called resting stage because there is no apparent activity related to cell division.Typically interphase lasts for at least 90% of the total time required for the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- It alternates with the much longer interphase, where the cell prepares itself for the process of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
- Looking at the uptake of Phosphorus-32 into the nucleus of dividing cells in the meristem of the broad bean root demonstrated the then "surprising conclusion that DNA replication occurs during a limited period in interphase, which they called "S-phase", the preceding "gap" was termed G1, the subsequent one G2. (wikipedia.org)
- In the presence of DNA damage, the cell can either repair the damage or induce cell death if the damage is beyond repair. (wikipedia.org)
- Other than Rb, viral cyclin D-Cdk6 complex also targets p27Kip, a Cdk inhibitor of cyclin E and A. In addition, viral cyclin D-Cdk6 is resistant to Cdk inhibitors, such as p21CIP1/WAF1 and p16INK4a which in human cells inhibits Cdk4 by preventing it from forming an active complex with cyclin D. Growth factors stimulate the Ras/Raf/ERK that induce cyclin D production. (wikipedia.org)
- The decision to commit to a new round of cell division occurs when the cell activates cyclin-CDK-dependent transcription which promotes entry into S phase. (wikipedia.org)
- In cells without a nucleus (prokaryotic), the cell cycle occurs via a process termed binary fission. (wikibooks.org)
- G0 phase is viewed as either an extended G1 phase, where the cell is neither dividing nor preparing to divide, or a distinct quiescent stage that occurs outside of the cell cycle. (wikibooks.org)
- In eukaryotic cells, DNA replication occurs in the nucleus during the S phase of the cell cycle. (reference.com)
- When DNA damage occurs in S phase, arising from stalled replication forks, nucleotide excision/repair process or as intermediates of DSB resolution, the intra S phase checkpoint is activated to prevent further replication [ 21 , 22 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Exit from each phase of the cell cycle occurs on degradation of the bound cyclin. (biomedcentral.com)
- This system acts like a timer, or a clock, which sets a fixed amount of time for the cell to spend in each phase of the cell cycle, while at the same time it also responds to information received from the processes it controls. (wikipedia.org)
- Since its expression pattern is suggestive of a role after S phase, we investigated the effect of HSIX1 in the G 2 cell cycle checkpoint. (pnas.org)
- Scales indicating cell counts ( y axes ) for G 1 and G 2 -M phase cells ( 2N and 4N , respectively) are provided. (aacrjournals.org)
- Goswami and his colleagues have discovered that the cellular redox state varies during the cell cycle, and a pro-oxidant signal is apparently necessary for cells to progress into S-phase of the cell cycle, in which DNA is synthesized, and the M-phase, in which cells divide. (uiowa.edu)
- Furthermore Dia2 plays a part in Mrc1 degradation during S-phase checkpoint recovery. (exposed-skin-care.net)
- We propose a model where Dia2 mediates Mrc1 degradation to greatly help cells job application the cell routine during recovery from MMS-induced DNA harm in S-phase. (exposed-skin-care.net)
- Interestingly we found that the proteolysis of the F-box protein Dia2 is definitely regulated from the S-phase checkpoint. (exposed-skin-care.net)
- These findings suggest that Dia2 plays a role in the S-phase checkpoint. (exposed-skin-care.net)
- Thus, for three normal (+/+) cell lines irradiated in monolayer, S-phase values averaged 15 ± 3.7% 14 h post-UVA (1 × 105 J/m2), as compared with 35.7 ± 1.9 (range) for two BRCA1(+/−) strains. (lancs.ac.uk)
- Cells that have temporarily or reversibly stopped dividing are said to have entered a state of quiescence called G0 phase. (wikibooks.org)
- The G0 phase is a period in the cell cycle in which cells exist in a quiescent state. (wikibooks.org)
- G0 is sometimes referred to as a "post-mitotic" state, since cells in G0 are in a non-dividing phase outside of the cell cycle. (wikibooks.org)
- On occasion, a distinction in terms is made between a G0 cell and a 'post-mitotic' cell (e.g., heart muscle cells and neurons), which will never enter the G1 phase, whereas other G0 cells may. (wikibooks.org)
- During this phase the biosynthetic activities of the cell, which had been considerably slowed down during M phase, resume at a high rate. (wikibooks.org)
- Thus, during this phase, the amount of DNA in the cell has effectively doubled, though the ploidy of the cell remains the same. (wikibooks.org)
- This If it does not receive a go-ahead signal, the cell exits the cycle and switches to a nondividing state, the G 0 phase. (soringlobal.com)
- Cell division is part of the cell cycle, and it is caused either by binary fission or as part of a multiple-phase cycle. (reference.com)
- In cells undefined during the G1 phase, hypophosphorylated Rb binds to the E2F-DP1 transcription factor and forms an inhibitory complex with HDAC, thereby inhibiting downstream key transcriptional activities. (abclonal.com)
- MCF-7 cells showed a block in the G1 phase after treatment with 50 nM epirubicin for 24 hours, in agreement with the actions of p53 at the G1 checkpoint. (lu.se)
- During the cell cycle, a cell verifies whether necessary conditions are satisfied at the end of each phase (i.e., checkpoint) since damages of any phase can cause severe cell cycle defect. (biomedcentral.com)
- The cell cycle can proceed to the next phase properly only if checkpoint conditions are met. (biomedcentral.com)
- It is important to reach the final phase after completing each phase properly since any mistakes can cause significant defect to the cell cycle process. (biomedcentral.com)
- Before entering S phase, the cell must be large enough and have undamaged DNA (G1 phase checkpoint). (biomedcentral.com)
- Before entering M phase, DNA synthesis should be completed (S and G2 phase checkpoint). (biomedcentral.com)
- In the presence of hydroxyurea, Gadd45a(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts show increased centrosome amplification coupled with loss of a sustained S-phase checkpoint. (nih.gov)
- Wild-type (WT) and h2a-s129a cells were synchronized in G1 phase with α-factor and then released in the presence of 20 μM camptothecin (CPT) or 0.03% methylmethanesulphonate (MMS), as indicated. (nih.gov)
- Ectopic expression of miR-421 resulted in S-phase cell cycle checkpoint changes and an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation, creating a cellular phenotype similar to that of cells derived from ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients. (pnas.org)
- We measured the proportion of each cell cycle phase in activated lymphocytes using flow cytometry and evaluated the responsiveness of these lymphocytes to rapamycin. (psychiatryinvestigation.org)
- Activated lymphocytes in patients with AD were not arrested in the G1 phase and they progressed to the late phase of the cell cycle despite rapamycin treatment, in contrast to those of normal subjects. (psychiatryinvestigation.org)
- This is particularly important in S phase of the cell cycle, when genomic DNA is most susceptible to various environmental hazards. (nih.gov)
- G0 is a resting phase where the cell has left the cycle and has stopped dividing. (wikipedia.org)
- The cell cycle starts with this phase. (wikipedia.org)
- Some cells enter the G0 phase semi-permanently and are considered post-mitotic, e.g., some liver, kidney, and stomach cells. (wikipedia.org)
- In G1 phase, a cell has three options. (wikipedia.org)
- 1) To continue cell cycle and enter S phase (2) Stop cell cycle and enter G0 phase for undergoing differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
- At the same time, during S phase all cells must duplicate their DNA very precisely, a process termed DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
- Cdc6p is normally present at high levels during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Notably, cells that were exposed to mating factors at later stages of the cycle continued division, and only arrested when the resulting daughter cells reached the "early stages" (or more technically, the G1 phase) of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- With the loss of function of Cdc7 in ESCs the S phase is stopped at the G2/M checkpoint. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition to S-phase checkpoints, G1 and G2 checkpoints exist to check for transient DNA damage which could be caused by mutagens such as UV damage. (wikipedia.org)
- The cells that arrested were able to survive due to the increased time in S/G2 phase allowing for DNA repair enzymes to function fully. (wikipedia.org)
- from G1 to S phase and G2 to M phase checkpoints. (wikipedia.org)
- First, procentrioles begin to form near each preexisting centriole as the cell moves from the G1 phase to the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
- During S and G2 phase of the cell cycle, the procentrioles elongate until they reach the length of the older mother and daughter centrioles(which takes on characteristics of a mother centriole). (wikipedia.org)
- S phase (synthesis phase) is the part of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated, occurring between G1 phase and G2 phase. (wikipedia.org)
- S phase: To produce two similar daughter cells, the complete DNA instructions in the cell must be duplicated. (wikipedia.org)
- Depending on levels of nutrients, energy and external factors, cells must decide to enter the cell cycle or move into a non-dividing state known as G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
- The cell prevents more than one replication from occurring by loading pre-replication complexes onto the DNA at replication origins during G1 phase which are dismantled in S-phase as replication begins. (wikipedia.org)
- S phase index (SPI) S-fraction or S-phase fraction (oncology/pathology prognosis) Bell, S.P. and Dutta, A.: DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
- During S phase the cell is more vulnerable to DNA damage than any other part of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Viral cyclin D binds human Cdk6 and inhibits Rb by phosphorylating it, resulting in free transcription factors which result in protein transcription that promotes passage through G1 phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Its activity during the cell cycle is tightly regulated by its association with the protein geminin, which both inhibits Cdt1 activity during S phase in order to prevent re-replication of DNA and prevents it from ubiquitination and subsequent proteolysis. (wikipedia.org)
- Two alternative transcripts have been found, a constitutively expressed transcript and a cell cycle-regulated transcript that is expressed predominantly during G2/M phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- The mitotic phase is a relatively short period of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)