Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.G2 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: CELL CYCLE regulatory signaling systems that are triggered by DNA DAMAGE or lack of nutrients during G2 PHASE. When triggered they restrain cells transitioning from G2 phase to M PHASE.G0 Phase: A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression of the CELL CYCLE through the G1 PHASE and allow transition to S PHASE when the cells are ready to undergo DNA REPLICATION. DNA DAMAGE, or the deficiencies in specific cellular components or nutrients may cause the cells to halt before progressing through G1 phase.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Cyclin E: A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cyclin D: A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Cell regulatory signaling system that controls progression through S PHASE and stabilizes the replication forks during conditions that could affect the fidelity of DNA REPLICATION, such as DNA DAMAGE or depletion of nucleotide pools.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cyclin D3: A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins: A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Hydroxyurea: An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.Caulobacter crescentus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6: Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cyclin D2: A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Mimosine: 3-Hydroxy-4-oxo-1(4H)-pyridinealanine. An antineoplastic alanine-substituted pyridine derivative isolated from Leucena glauca.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1: A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Cyclin A2: A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae: A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins: A group of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES which activate critical signaling cascades in double strand breaks, APOPTOSIS, and GENOTOXIC STRESS such as ionizing ultraviolet A light, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. These proteins play a role in a wide range of signaling mechanisms in cell cycle control.Checkpoint Kinase 2: Enzyme activated in response to DNA DAMAGE involved in cell cycle arrest. The gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 22 at position 12.1. In humans it is encoded by the CHEK2 gene.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Caulobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod- or vibroid-shaped or fusiform bacteria that commonly produce a stalk. They are found in fresh water and soil and divide by binary transverse fission.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins: A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.ThymidineNeoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Aphidicolin: An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57: A potent inhibitor of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES in G1 PHASE and S PHASE. In humans, aberrant expression of p57 is associated with various NEOPLASMS as well as with BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p107: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Cyclin G: A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Kinetin: A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2: An E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE that interacts with and inhibits TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53. Its ability to ubiquitinate p53 is regulated by TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.E2F2 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Mitotic Index: An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Geminin: Geminin inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex. It is absent during G1 phase of the CELL CYCLE and accumulates through S, G2,and M phases. It is degraded at the metaphase-anaphase transition by the ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX-CYCLOSOME.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.PhosphoproteinsEpithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cyclin A1: A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLGene Products, vpr: Trans-acting proteins which accelerate retroviral virus replication. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.Cyclin G1: A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Transformation/transcription domain-associated protein
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Cell Cycle. 6 (6): 750-7. doi:10.4161/cc.6.6.3986. PMC 2040307 . PMID 17361101. Lin Q, Yang W, Baird D, Feng Q, Cerione RA ( ... Côté JF, Vuori K (August 2007). "GEF what? Dock180 and related proteins help Rac to polarize cells in new ways". Trends in Cell ... endocytosis and cell cycle progression. Gene expression studies have suggested that Dock11 may have a role in the development ... Meller N, Merlot S, Guda C (November 2005). "CZH proteins: a new family of Rho-GEFs". Journal of Cell Science. 118 (Pt 21): ...
... plays an important role in cell cycle regulation by decelerating cells progression from G1 phase to S phase, and therefore ... p16 is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that slows down the cell cycle by prohibiting progression from G1 phase to S ... Ivanchuk SM, Mondal S, Rutka JT (June 2008). "p14ARF interacts with DAXX: effects on HDM2 and p53". Cell Cycle. 7 (12): 1836-50 ... Serrano M, Hannon GJ, Beach D (December 1993). "A new regulatory motif in cell-cycle control causing specific inhibition of ...
Cell Cycle. 8 (24): 4127-4137. doi:10.4161/cc.8.24.10240. PMID 19946211. Retrieved 1 November 2014. Song, Byeongwoon; Young, C ... and immunity in various cells, but specifically hepatocytes, adipocytes, and hematopoietic cells. For example, in adipocytes, ... And furthermore, in cells lacking C/EBP or in C/EBP-deficient mice, both are unable to undergo adipogenesis. This results in ... It is frequently absent from genes that encode proteins used in virtually all cells. This box along with the GC box is known ...
Peter ME (2009). "Let-7 and miR-200 microRNAs: guardians against pluripotency and cancer progression". Cell Cycle. 8 (6): 843- ... 4T1 cells) but not in other cells which are unable to colonize (4TO7 cells). Overexpression of miR-200c in non-metastatic 4TO7 ... In a series of mouse mammary isogenic cancer cell lines, the miR-200 family is highly expressed only in the cells that are able ... While the mir-200 family is highly expressed in normal epithelial cells, it is not expressed in normal fibroblast cells that ...
Shugoshin N terminal protein domain
Macy B, Wang M, Yu HG (2009). "The many faces of shugoshin, the "guardian spirit," in chromosome segregation". Cell Cycle. 8 (1 ... It senses tension between sister chromatids during mitosis, and it degrades when they separate preventing cell cycle arrest and ... Cell Cycle. 5 (10): 1094-101. doi:10.4161/cc.5.10.2747. PMID 16687935. Salic A, Waters JC, Mitchison TJ (2004). "Vertebrate ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.08.016. PMID 15339662. Xu Z, Cetin B, Anger M, Cho US, Helmhart W, Nasmyth K, et al. (2009). "Structure ...
"MicroRNA-221-222 regulate the cell cycle in mast cells". Journal of Immunology. 182 (1): 433-45. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.182.1.433 ... Sun T, Yang M, Kantoff P, Lee GS (2009). "Role of microRNA-221/-222 in cancer development and progression". Cell Cycle. 8 (15 ... It targets CD117, which then prevents cell migration and proliferation in endothelial cells. miR-221 is known as an anti ... and MEK/ERK-mediated cell cycle regulation". Biol Chem. 391 (7): 791-801. doi:10.1515/BC.2010.072. PMID 20624000. Chun-Zhi Z, ...
Cell Cycle. 8 (21): 3469-73. doi:10.4161/cc.8.21.9837. PMID 19829088. Zeng L, Carter AD, Childs SJ (Oct 2009). "miR-145 directs ... and KLF4 and represses pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells". Cell. 137 (4): 647-58. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.02.038. PMID ... Chivukula RR, Mendell JT (May 2009). "Abate and switch: miR-145 in stem cell differentiation". Cell. 137 (4): 606-8. doi: ... independent cell death in urothelial cancer cell lines with targeting of an expression signature present in Ta bladder tumors ...
Cell Cycle. 5 (1): 23-6. doi:10.4161/cc.5.1.2305. PMID 16357527. Hannah BL, Misenheimer TM, Annis DS, Mosher DF (Mar 2003). "A ... In tissue engineering, R-spondin 3 has been used to differentiate pluripotent stem cells into paraxial mesoderm progenitors ... Developmental Cell. 7 (4): 525-34. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2004.07.019. PMID 15469841. "Entrez Gene: RSPO3 R-spondin 3 homolog ( ... "Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells to muscle fiber to model Duchenne muscular dystrophy". Nature Biotechnology. 33 (9): ...
Taylor KM, Kille P, Hogstrand C (2012). "Protein kinase CK2 opens the gate for zinc signaling". Cell Cycle. 11 (10): 1863-1864 ... Zinc cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes and requires specific transporters, such as SLC39A7, to enter the cytosol ... Kim JE, Tannenbaum SR, White FM (2005). "Global phosphoproteome of HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells". J. Proteome Res. 4 ... the release of zinc ions from the endoplasmic reticulum This provides a signal transduction pathway by which activation of cell ...
Azzalin CM, Lingner J (2006). "The double life of UPF1 in RNA and DNA stability pathways". Cell Cycle. 5 (14): 1496-8. doi: ... Cell. 12 (3): 675-87. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00349-6. PMID 14527413. Yamashita A, Ohnishi T, Kashima I, Taya Y, Ohno S (2001 ... Cell. Biol. 21 (1): 209-23. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.1.209-223.2001. PMC 88795 . PMID 11113196. Lykke-Andersen J, Shu MD, Steitz JA ( ... Cell. Biol. 22 (23): 8114-21. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.23.8114-8121.2002. PMC 134073 . PMID 12417715. Lejeune F, Li X, Maquat LE ( ...
2007). "Regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57Kip2 expression by p63". Cell Cycle. 4 (11): 1625-31. doi: ... Cell. 16 (4): 1928-37. doi:10.1091/mbc.E04-07-0554. PMC 1073672 . PMID 15703217. Beretta C, Chiarelli A, Testoni B, et al. ( ... 2004). "Functional regulation of tissue plasminogen activator on the surface of vascular smooth muscle cells by the type-II ... 1995). "Reassessment of the subcellular localization of p63". J. Cell Sci. 108 (6): 2477-85. PMID 7673362. Maruyama K, Sugano S ...
"ING4 induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and enhances the chemosensitivity to DNA-damage agents in HepG2 cells". FEBS Letters. 570 ( ... Cell Cycle. 4 (9): 1153-6. doi:10.4161/cc.4.9.2040. PMID 16096374. Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (September 1996). " ... The protein encoded by this gene is similar to ING1, a tumor suppressor protein that can interact with TP53, inhibit cell ... Molecular Cell. 23 (4): 607-18. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2006.06.026. PMID 16916647. Unoki M, Shen JC, Zheng ZM, Harris CC ( ...
2007). "Replication stress, defective S-phase checkpoint and increased death in Plk2-deficient human cancer cells". Cell Cycle ... Ma S, Charron J, Erikson RL (2003). "Role of Plk2 (Snk) in mouse development and cell proliferation". Mol. Cell. Biol. 23 (19 ... Serum-inducible kinase is a member of the 'polo' family of serine/threonine protein kinases that have a role in normal cell ... 2003). "Silencing of the novel p53 target gene Snk/Plk2 leads to mitotic catastrophe in paclitaxel (taxol)-exposed cells". Mol ...
Cell division cycle protein 27 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDC27 gene. The protein encoded by this ... "Entrez Gene: CDC27 cell division cycle 27 homolog (S. cerevisiae)". Vodermaier HC, Gieffers C, Maurer-Stroh S, Eisenhaber F, ... Cell Cycle. 1 (4): 282-92. doi:10.4161/cc.1.4.139. PMID 12429948. Human CDC27 genome location and CDC27 gene details page in ... "Rapid microtubule-independent dynamics of Cdc20 at kinetochores and centrosomes in mammalian cells". The Journal of Cell ...
Cell Cycle. 8 (5): 677-8. doi:10.4161/cc.8.5.8065. PMC 2710531 . PMID 19223763. Antunica-Noguerol, M; Budziñski, M L; Druker, J ... Cell. 131 (2): 309-23. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.07.044. PMID 17956732. Arzt E, Stelzer G, Renner U, Lange M, Müller OA, Stalla ... January 1993). "Interleukin involvement in anterior pituitary cell growth regulation: effects of IL-2 and IL-6". Endocrinology ... January 2006). "Bone morphogenetic protein-4 inhibits corticotroph tumor cells: involvement in the retinoic acid inhibitory ...
2008). "Direct role of nucleotide metabolism in C-MYC-dependent proliferation of melanoma cells". Cell Cycle. 7 (15): 2392-400 ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569. He Y, Mou Z, Li W, et al. (2009). "Identification of IMPDH2 as a tumor- ... Cell Genet. 82 (3-4): 145-6. doi:10.1159/000015088. PMID 9858805. Pua KH, Stiles DT, Sowa ME, Verdine GL (10 January 2017). " ...
Cancer genome sequencing
Cell Cycle. 3 (6): 823-8. PMID 15197343. Kohane, I. S.; Masys, D. R.; Altman, R. B. (2006). "The Incidentalome: A Threat to ... The process of tumorigenesis that transforms a normal cell to a cancerous cell involve a series of complex genetic and ... February 2007). "The Epigenomics of Cancer". Cell. 128 (4). doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.029. PMID 17320506. Angela H. Ting; et ... If cell survival is determined by many mutations of small effect, it is unlikely that genome sequencing will uncover a single " ...
Other features of the Fanconi anaemia cell phenotype also include abnormal cell cycle kinetics (prolonged G2 phase), ... "Role of Fanconi DNA repair pathway in neural stem cell homeostasis". Cell Cycle. 7 (13): 1911-5. doi:10.4161/cc.7.13.6235. PMID ... As FANCA is also linked to cell-cycling and its progression from G2 phase, the stage impaired in megaloblastic anaemia, its ... that serve to modulate cell-cycle kinetics alongside this. Alternatively, BRCA1 might localize FANCA to the site of DNA damage ...
Wan Y, Chang HY (Sep 2010). "HOTAIR: Flight of noncoding RNAs in cancer metastasis". Cell Cycle. 9 (17): 3391-2. doi:10.4161/cc ... Woo CJ, Kingston RE (Jun 2007). "HOTAIR lifts noncoding RNAs to new levels". Cell. 129 (7): 1257-9. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.06. ... "Phosphorylation of the PRC2 component Ezh2 is cell cycle-regulated and up-regulates its binding to ncRNA". Genes & Development ... Cell. 129 (7): 1311-23. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.05.022. PMC 2084369 . PMID 17604720. Tsai MC, Manor O, Wan Y, Mosammaparast N, ...
Mir-26 microRNA precursor family
Overexpression of miR-26a brings about negative regulation of both cell proliferation and of the cell cycle. Therapeutic miR- ... which in turn causes inhibition of cell growth and cell-cycle progression. miR-26a again suppresses tumorigenesis in ... cell line LoVo cells, compared with other three colorectal cell lines SW480, HT29 and Caco-2. Overexpression of miR-26b ... "Human embryonic stem cells and metastatic colorectal cancer cells shared the common endogenous human microRNA-26b". J Cell Mol ...
2007). "HIV1 Vpr arrests the cell cycle by recruiting DCAF1/VprBP, a receptor of the Cul4-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase". Cell Cycle. 6 ... Wen X, Duus KM, Friedrich TD, de Noronha CM (2007). "The HIV1 protein Vpr acts to promote G2 cell cycle arrest by engaging a ... 2007). "Lentiviral Vpr usurps Cul4-DDB1[VprBP] E3 ubiquitin ligase to modulate cell cycle". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 ( ... 2007). "Targeted Vpr-derived peptides reach mitochondria to induce apoptosis of alphaVbeta3-expressing endothelial cells". Cell ...
Malicet C, Dagorn JC, Neira JL, Iovanna JL (2006). "p8 and prothymosin alpha: unity is strength". Cell Cycle. 5 (8): 829-30. ... 2006). "Cell growth-dependent subcellular localization of p8". J. Cell. Biochem. 97 (5): 1066-79. doi:10.1002/jcb.20682. PMID ... 2007). "The SYT-SSX fusion protein down-regulates the cell proliferation regulator COM1 in t(x;18) synovial sarcoma". Mol. Cell ... 2002). "Clinical and cell line specific expression profiles of a human gene identified in experimental central nervous system ...
Cell Cycle. 8 (22): 3742-9. doi:10.4161/cc.8.22.10047. PMID 19855176. Human CEP55 genome location and CEP55 gene details page ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. Chen CH, Lu PJ, Chen YC, et al. (2007). "FLJ10540-elicited cell transformation ... Associates with Centralspindlin to Control the Midbody Integrity and Cell Abscission during Cytokinesis". Mol. Biol. Cell. 17 ( ... CEP55 is a mitotic phosphoprotein that plays a key role in cytokinesis, the final stage of cell division. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
Efimova T (2010). "p38delta mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates skin homeostasis and tumorigenesis". Cell Cycle. 9 (3): ... Cell Res. 317 (1): 117-30. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2010.08.010. PMC 2998239 . PMID 20804750. Segat L, Brandão LA, Guimarães RL, et ... Cell. Biol. 24 (18): 8167-83. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.18.8167-8183.2004. PMC 515052 . PMID 15340077. Joneson T, Bar-Sagi D (1997). " ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.11.018. PMC 2638021 . PMID 19135240. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal This article incorporates ...
Cell Cycle. 8 (20): 3355-64. doi:10.4161/cc.8.20.9853. PMC 2829766 . PMID 19770592. He HC, Bi XC, Zheng ZW, Dai QS, Han ZD, ... Cell. 125 (4): 801-14. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569. Sakai N, Terami H, Suzuki S, Haga M, Nomoto K, Tsuchida N ... Peng Q, Zhou J, Zhou Q, Pan F, Zhong D, Liang H (2009). "Silencing hexokinase II gene sensitizes human colon cancer cells to 5- ... Peng Q, Zhou J, Zhou Q, Pan F, Zhong D, Liang H (2009). "Silencing hexokinase II gene sensitizes human colon cancer cells to 5- ...
Novak1997 - Cell Cycle | BioModels
A central event in the eukaryotic cell cycle is the decision to commence DNA replication (S phase). Strict controls normally ... A central event in the eukaryotic cell cycle is the decision to commence DNA replication (S phase). Strict controls normally ... rapid division cycles of diminishing cell size). We discuss essential features of the mechanism that are responsible for ... rapid division cycles of diminishing cell size). We discuss essential features of the mechanism that are responsible for ...
Techniques in Cell Cycle Analysis | SpringerLink
Quantification of the proliferative characteristics of normal and malignant cells has been of interest to oncolo- gists and ... cancer cell cell cycle cytokine development flow cytometry proliferation tissue tumor Vivo ... Initially, cell cycle analysis was pursued enthusiastically in the hope of gener- ating information useful for the development ... Human tumors of the same type have proved highly variable, and the cytokinetic tools available for cell cycle analysis have ...
cell cycle | Description, Stages, & Checkpoints | Britannica
... the ordered sequence of events that occur in a cell in preparation for cell division. The cell cycle is a four-stage process in ... which the cell increases in size, copies its DNA, prepares to divide, and divides. Learn more about the cell cycle and the ... Cell cycle, the ordered sequence of events that occur in a cell in preparation for cell division. The cell cycle is a four- ... the cell is forced to undergo programmed cell death, or apoptosis. However, the cell cycle and its checkpoint systems can be ...
Cell Cycle Control | SpringerLink
Unicellular organisms have to coordinate nuclear division, cytokinesis (cell separation) and DNA synthesis so that the correct ... Hartwell LH (1992) Defects in cell cycle checkpoints may be responsible for the genomic instability of cancer cells. Cell 71: ... cycle. Multicellular organisms, such as humans, also have to maintain the correct order of events within the cell cycle, and ... 1994) A cell cycle regulator potentially involved in genesis of many tumour types. Science 264:436-440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
Cell cycle. Stifled by inhibitions. - PubMed - NCBI
Histones and the Cell Cycle
Due to their affiliation with DNA, histones are important for successful cell replication, which takes place via the cell cycle ... which takes place via the cell cycle.. Cell Cycle Timing. The cell cycle consists of four phases (G1, S, G2 and M), all of ... the post-translational changes occur throughout the cell cycle.. The most typical kind of cell cycle phosphorylation is on H3s ... Histones and the Cell Cycle. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Histones-and-the-Cell-Cycle.aspx. ( ...
Cell Cycle and Related Protein
... John Farley,1 Laurent Ozbun,2 Goli Samimi,3 and Michael J. Birrer2 ... 2Cell and Cancer Biology Department, Medicine Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 ... 3Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program and Cell and Cancer Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute ...
The Cell Cycle: Problems | SparkNotes
G0 is a separate phase of interphase that cells can enter to pause the cell cycle. If a cell is not fully-grown or does not ... Previous section Components of the Cell Cycle Next section Duration of the Cell Cycle ... What are the two major phases of the cell cycle and during which does cell copying take place? During which does cleavage take ... The two major phases of the cell cycle are interphase and M phase. During one portion of interphase, the cells DNA is copied. ...
Cell Cycle Specificity
General concepts / Cell cycle specificity CELL CYCLE SPECIFICITY. Cell cycle was presented by Dr. Holy in Foundations. Cancer ... CELL CYCLE SPECIFIC DRUGS (CCS; esp. plant alkaloids and antimetabolites), and CELL CYCLE NON-SPECIFIC DRUGS (CCNS; esp. ... cells spend a different percentage of time in each portion of the cell cycle *the percentages indicated in the figure are ... it is common to follow treatment with a CCNS drug with a CCS drug, so that cancer cells are recruited into the cell cycle, ...
Cell Cycle Growth Control Committee | American Cancer Society
The American Cancer Societys Peer Review Committee for Cell Cycle Growth Control analyzes cell cycle and cell cycle control ... Peer Review Committee for Cell Cycle and Growth Control (CCG). Areas Reviewed. *Cell cycle and cell cycle control mechanisms in ... Oncogenes and suppressor genes as their expression or products affect cell cycle events ... Growth factors, inhibitors, radiation, effects of signal transduction on the cell cycle ...
Cell cycle regulation of mitochondrial function. - PubMed - NCBI
Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2015 Apr;33:19-25. doi: 10.1016/j.ceb.2014.10.006. Epub 2014 Nov 12. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; ... cell signaling, cell cycle regulation, and cancer. We show in this review that cellular, animal and molecular studies provided ... Cell cycle regulation of mitochondrial function.. Lopez-Mejia IC1, Fajas L2. ... which is fine tuned by members of the cell cycle regulators families. Currently, proteins such as cyclins, CDKs, or E2Fs are ...
Genetic Expression in the Cell Cycle - 1st Edition
Purchase Genetic Expression in the Cell Cycle - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780125437202, 9780323148924 ... Acetate Content of H4 in the Cell Cycle. V. H4 Acetate Content Varies during the Cell Cycle. VI. Acetate Turnover on H4 in the ... Cell Cycle Phase Distribution. IX. Cell Locomotion. X. Cytoskeletal Components. XI. Cell Surface Fibronectin. XII. Conclusions ... Modulation of Structure and Function of the Plasma Membrane in the Cell Cycle of Neuroblastoma Cells. I. Introduction. II. Cell ...
SCF Complex and the Cell Cycle
In a somatic (body) cell, the cell cycle takes roughly 24 hours to completes, starting with G1. In G1, cells become enlarged, ... The Cell Cycle. Cell division (mitosis) occurs through the following phases, each of which is characterized by unique events. ... Research characterizes iPS87 cell line as cancer-inducing, stem cell-like cell line ... As the cell cycle enters the mitotic stage, Wee1 (a G2 checkpoint kinase), is degraded alongside Emi1 (an early mitotic ...
'Cycle Your Cell' Â EPA Encourages Reuse of Cell Phones
We make it easy to give your old cell a new home Â cycle your cell. We will even give you a prepaid shipping label so you can ... Americans have heard the call to cycle your cell, and they are turning in their old phones in bigger numbers every day, said ... When you cycle your cell at CellForCash.com, we all benefit through resource conservation, solid waste reduction, ... We offer both individuals and non-profit groups the opportunity to send us old cell phones in working condition, and we pay ...
Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle Practice MCQ's (Campbell's Biology, 9e)
D) When they stop dividing, they do so at random points in the cell cycle, and they are not subject to cell cycle controls. ... E) When they stop dividing, they do so at random points in the cell cycle; they are not subject to cell cycle controls; and ... B) As cells become more numerous, the cell surface proteins of one cell contact the adjoining cells and they stop dividing. ... The data were obtained from a study of the length of time spent in each phase of the cell cycle by cells of three eukaryotic ...
apoptosis vs cell-cycle
If most of the cells in animal or plant tissues do not go ,to cell-cycle, what the factors could be to induce senescence? , I ... Can anyone tell me that if the cells in a mature animal or plant tissue still keep cell-division and cell-death to keep ... message was truncated but as of note: senescent cells (Hayflick cells) are not necessarily apoptotic. Many post-mitotic cells ... apoptosis vs cell-cycle. LOCKSHIN, RICHARD A YPRLBIO at sjumusic.stjohns.edu Mon Sep 26 14:30:49 EST 1994 *Previous message: ...
How bacteria control their cell cycle | EurekAlert! Science News
In an interdisciplinary study they explain why the current concept of the bacterial cell cycle has to be rewritten. The results ... Researchers at the Biozentrum of the University have demonstrated how bacteria coordinate cell division with the replication of ... Although it is natural to think that the cell cycle begins with the birth of the cell and ends with the next cell division, the ... the duplication of a cells genetic information on the one hand and cell division on the other. Although the cell cycle in ...
Hubble Space Telescope Solar Cell Module Thermal Cycle Test
... 929243. The Hubble space telescope (HST) solar array consists of ... The thermal cycle test was interrupted after 2,577 cycles, and a "cold-roll" test was performed on one of the modules in order ... Citation: Alexander, D., Edge, T., Willowby, D., and Gerlach, L., "Hubble Space Telescope Solar Cell Module Thermal Cycle Test ... an accelerated thermal cycle test in vacuum was conducted at NASAs Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), using two 128-cell ...
Cell cycle checkpoint protein, Rad1 (IPR003011) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
Cell cycle checkpoint protein, Rad1 (IPR003011). Short name: Cell_cycle_checkpoint_Rad1 ... A conserved checkpoint pathway mediates DNA damage--induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in C. elegans.. Mol. Cell 5 435-43 ... Rad1 is a component of the 9-1-1 cell-cycle checkpoint response complex, which plays a role in checkpoint activation that ... In Caenorhabditis elegans, the cell cycle checkpoint protein RAD1 homologue mrt-2 has a role in genome stability by promoting ...
Cell Cycle by Tresyni Hartman on Prezi
The DNA Damage-Induced Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Areas of interest include gene therapy, cell kinetics, pharmacokinetics, chemotherapy, oncology, developmental biology, wound ... Piotr Widlak, "The DNA Damage-Induced Cell Cycle Checkpoints," Journal of Theoretical Medicine, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 237-243, ... The DNA Damage-Induced Cell Cycle Checkpoints. Piotr Widlak Department of Experimental and Clinical, Radiobiology, Center of ...
Just-in-time assembly of cell-cycle protein complexes | Nature Precedings
... of the periodically expressed subunits differs significantly between organisms and is often mirrored by changes in cell-cycle- ... Our comparative analysis of eukaryotic cell-cycle complexes reveals that the identity ... Jensen, L., de Lichtenberg, U., Jensen, T. et al. Just-in-time assembly of cell-cycle protein complexes. Nat Prec (2008). https ... Just-in-time assembly of cell-cycle protein complexes. *Lars Jensen. 1. , ...
Cell cycle* | Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
Cell Cycle - QIAGEN
Cell Cycle RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Cell Cycle RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 genes key to cell ... Cell Cycle RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse Cell Cycle RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 genes key to cell ... Cell Cycle RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Cell Cycle RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 genes key to cell ... Cell cycle dysregulation commonly occurs during oncogenesis, and tumor cells often do not arrest the cell cycle when normally ...
Cell cycle - Wikipedia
Controlling the Cell Cycle The cell cycle & Cell death Transcriptional program of the cell cycle: high-resolution timing Cell ... Cell cycle checkpoints are used by the cell to monitor and regulate the progress of the cell cycle. Checkpoints prevent cell ... Using GFP to visualize the cell-cycle Science Creative Quarterlys overview of the cell cycle KEGG - Human Cell Cycle ... The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication ...
Feedback control of a master bacterial cell-cycle regulator | PNAS
... in the progeny swarmer cell until later in the cell cycle when the swarmer cell differentiates into a new stalked cell (2, 3). ... This cell-cycle pattern of CtrA≈P distribution, and thus cell-cycle progression, is caused by temporally regulated ... As wild-type cells bearing pctrA290 progressed through the cell cycle, samples were pulse labeled with [35S]methionine at the ... Both are cell-cycle regulated, with the activity of the P1 promoter peaking in early predivisional cells and the activity of ...
Regulation of the meiotic cell cycle in oocytes
The mitotic and meiotic cell cycle share many regulators, but there are also important differences between the two processes. ... Regulation of the meiotic cell cycle in oocytes Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2000 Dec;12(6):666-75. doi: 10.1016/s0955-0674(00)00150-2 ... The mitotic and meiotic cell cycle share many regulators, but there are also important differences between the two processes. ... been made recently into the signalling mechanisms that induce G2-arrested oocytes to resume and complete the meiotic cell cycle ...
REST regulates the cell cycle for cardiac development and regeneration | Nature Communications
... authors show that the transcription factor REST regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation by binding and repressing the cell cycle ... Here we show that REST also regulates the cardiomyocyte cell cycle. REST binds and represses the cell cycle inhibitor gene p21 ... e Immunostaining for cell cycle markers indicating that p21 inactivation rescues the cell cycle defect resulting from Rest ... g Immunostaining for cell cycle markers indicating p21 inactivation rescues the cell cycle defect resulting from Rest deletion ...
Cell cycle: Checkpoint Maintenance | Science Signaling
Fucci Cell Cycle Analysis | Yokogawa Nederland
Gating was performed based on the mean intensities of 488 nm and 561 nm for each cell. They were categorized into four stages, ... and the cell count for each was calculated. ... Cell stage categorized using FucciTime lapse imaging of Fucci- ... added Hela cells was conducted over 48 hrs at 1 hr intervals. ... Fucci Cell Cycle Analysis Fucci Cell Cycle Analysis *Publicatie ... Fucci Cell Cycle Analysis. Cell stage categorized using FucciTime lapse imaging of Fucci-added Hela cells was conducted over 48 ...
ProgressionProteinsMitoticPhosphorylationEmbryonicMitosisRegulationInterphaseReplicationProteinsChromosomesDivideCheckpointTumor cellsApoptosis and cell cycle arrestInhibitorDysregulationMembranePathwayCytoplasmTransitionDividesNucleusCancer cellsDivisionSpindle fibersTransitionsMachineryGeneticCyclinCell'sTranscriptionRegulatorsBiologyFlow cytometrySynthesisRegulatorProphaseOccurProcessesGenomicCurr Opin Cell BiolTumorsPropidium iodideEukaryotic cellReplicateRegulatesHela
- Reconstitution of the wild type FLCN protein into UOK257 cells delays cell cycle progression, due to a slower progression through the late S and G2/M-phases. (unizg.hr)
- The reintroduction of tumor-associated FLCN mutants (FLCN DF157, FLCN 1-469 or FLCN K508R) fails to delay cell cycle progression in UOK257 cells. (unizg.hr)
- In keeping with this observation, the reintroduction of a FLCN phosphomimetic mutant into the UOK257 cell line results in faster progression through the cell cycle compared to those expressing the wild type FLCN protein. (unizg.hr)
- Additionally, FLCN phosphorylation (on Serines 62 and 73) fluctuates throughout the cell cycle and peaks during the G2/M phase in cells treated with nocodazole. (unizg.hr)
- These findings suggest that the tumor suppression function of FLCN may be linked to its impact on the cell cycle and that FLCN phosphorylation is important for this activity. (unizg.hr)
- Mitosis is the process of how eukaryotic cells divide and replicate. (google.com)
- Without moving the slide, count the number of cells in interphase and each stage of mitosis and record below. (google.com)
- During M phase, or mitosis, the cell divides. (sparknotes.com)
- Cell division (mitosis) occurs through the following phases, each of which is characterized by unique events. (news-medical.net)
- If cells in the process of dividing are subjected to colchicine, a drug that interferes with the formation of the spindle apparatus, at which stage will mitosis be arrested? (google.com)
- Where do the microtubules of the spindle originate during mitosis in both plant and animal cells? (google.com)
- A group of cells is assayed for DNA content immediately following mitosis and is found to have an average of 8 picograms of DNA per nucleus. (google.com)
- The cell cycle includes 4 main phases: Gap 1 (G1), DNA replication (S), Gap 2 (G2), and mitosis (M). Tight regulation of the transition between these phases halts cell cycle progression if a phase is not properly completed. (qiagen.com)
- During interphase, the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis, preparing it for cell division and duplicating its DNA. (wikipedia.org)
- The cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1 phase, S phase (synthesis), G2 phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis). (wikipedia.org)
- Mitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. (genome.jp)
- Thus, most mutants perturbing mitosis or the cell cycle do not manifest a phenotype until the adult body differentiates in late larval and pupal stages. (mit.edu)
- Interphase is often included in discussions of mitosis, but interphase is technically not part of mitosis, but rather encompasses stages G1, S, and G2 of the cell cycle. (arizona.edu)
- The cell is engaged in metabolic activity and performing its prepare for mitosis (the next four phases that lead up to and include nuclear division). (arizona.edu)
- The stage of mitosis in which the duplicated sets of chromosomes separate and two indentical groups move to opposite poles of the cell. (mixbook.com)
- When Cut accurately transcribed the Notch signals, the cells progressed appropriately from the conventional mitosis (replication and division) to the specialized endocycle, where cells cease division but still replicate their DNA. (redorbit.com)
- After G2, the cell progresses into M phase, mitosis, during which chromosomes condense, and become separated by the mitotic spindle. (madsci.org)
- At the end of mitosis two new cells form by cytokinesis. (madsci.org)
- The cdks are also important in mitosis (M). They phosphorylate many proteins that are necessary for cells to separate their chromosomes and divide. (madsci.org)
- Cells spend 90 to 95 percent of the time in interphase, where DNA is synthesized and the cell doubles in mass before mitosis begins. (reference.com)
- During mitosis nuclear chromosomal separation and departmentalization of cytoplasm occur, and finally two distinct daughter cells are formed. (reference.com)
- Using these markers we found evidence for reversible changes in cell cycle status throughout the cochlea, while progression through S phase and mitosis was restricted to the region of the cochlea which sustained hair cell loss. (jneurosci.org)
- The G2 to M-phase transition of the cell cycle can be blocked if DNA is damaged, thus preventing mitosis with damaged chromosomes after replication. (abcam.com)
- Cells starting at a resting state or G0, will proceed to Interphase (G1, S, G2) followed by the M phase (mitosis and cytokinesis). (beckman.com)
- Gap 1 (G1) is the interval between mitosis and DNA replication that is characterized by cell growth. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Mitosis and the production of two daughter cells occur in M phase. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In mitosis, aurora kinases control chromatid segregation, thereby making these serine/threonine kinases essential for cell proliferation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- This exercise is designed to introduce you to the events that occur in the cell cycle and the process of mitosis that divides the duplicated genetic material creating two identical daughter cells. (curriki.org)
- This Demonstration shows the phases of the cell cycle, emphasizing in particular the phases of mitosis leading to cell division. (wolfram.com)
- Once the cell has accumulated enough genetic material to supply two cells, as well as chloroplasts and other cellular structures for both cells, it undergoes a process called mitosis, during which a single cell divides into two. (gardenguides.com)
- Similar to mitosis, during meiosis, one cell divides into two. (gardenguides.com)
- Cell cycle regulation of mitochondrial function. (nih.gov)
- Currently, proteins such as cyclins, CDKs, or E2Fs are being studied in the context of cell proliferation and survival, cell signaling, cell cycle regulation, and cancer. (nih.gov)
- and describe the use of conditional lethal mutants to study the regulation of the cell cycle of eukaryotic cells. (elsevier.com)
- The cell cycle relies on ubiquitin and the SCF complex plays an integral role in the regulation of this process. (news-medical.net)
- S-Phase Kinase Associated Protein 2 (Skp2), an FBP involved in cell cycle regulation, is one of the most highly studied FBPs. (news-medical.net)
- QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for cell cycle research that enables analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
- The Human Cell Cycle RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 genes key to cell cycle regulation. (qiagen.com)
- The Human Cell Cycle EpiTect Methyl II Signature PCR Array profiles the promoter methylation status of a panel of 22 genes key to cell cycle regulation. (qiagen.com)
- The Human Cell Cycle EpiTect Chip qPCR Array profiles the histone modification status or "histone code" of 84 genes key to cell cycle regulation. (qiagen.com)
- By elucidating the REST-p21 genetic mechanism underlying the cell cycle regulation of proliferating cardiomyocytes during cardiac development and regeneration, our study provides an opportunity for developing cell-based therapeutics for heart disease. (nature.com)
- Cyclin-CDK inhibitors (CKIs), such as p16Ink4a, p15Ink4b, p27Kip1, and p21Cip1, are involved in the negative regulation of CDK activities, thus providing a pathway through which the cell cycle is negatively regulated. (genome.jp)
- Conclusions: Our results show that CGGBP1 expression is important for cell cycle progression through multiple parallel mechanisms including the regulation of CDKN1A and GAS1 levels. (diva-portal.org)
- The focus is on understanding how such diverse developmental inputs can modulate cell cycle regulation and, reciprocally, how a common way of regulating cell cycle progression can participate in different developmental strategies. (wiley.com)
- Regulation of the Embryonic Cell Proliferation by Drosophila Cyclin D and Cyclin E Complexes (C. Lehner, et al. (wiley.com)
- Cell Cycle Regulation in Early Mouse Embryos (J. Kubiak & M. Ciemerych). (wiley.com)
- Biologists may have to change the way they view cell cycle regulation. (eurekalert.org)
- Glyphosate-based pesticides affect cell cycle regulation. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Glyphosate-based pesticides adversely affect cell cycle regulation at concentrations 500 to 4000 times lower than used in agriculatural applications. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Several glyphosate-based pesticides from different manufacturers were assayed in comparison with Roundup 3plus for their ability to interfere with the cell cycle regulation. (greenmedinfo.com)
- At the G1 to S-phase transition various stimuli such as DNA damage or growth factor withdrawal can result in a stop in cell cycle progression through regulation of Cyclin D-Cdk4/6 or Cyclin E-Cdk2 complex activity and the Retinoblastoma protein Rb. (abcam.com)
- Cell Cycle and Growth Control: Biomolecular Regulation and Cancer, Second Edition provides a solid basis for understanding cell cycle and growth control as it relates to biological regulation, with a special emphasis on examining these processes in the context of cancer. (wiley.com)
- Tools to study aspects of the cell cycle include mitotic inhibitors, CDK inhibitors, apoptosis inducers and inhibitors , DNA intercalators and crosslinkers , kinase inhibitors, and other bioactive small molecules for cell cycle regulation . (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Increasing evidence points to the role of membrane transport in the regulation of cell cycle, differentiation and other aspects of cell physiology that shape the multistep tumor progression, such as resistance to apoptosis and cell invasiveness. (frontiersin.org)
- Gene regulation during cell-cycle progression is an intricately choreographed process, ensuring accurate DNA replication and division. (biomedsearch.com)
- Employing genome-wide ribosome profiling, we uncover widespread translational regulation of hundreds of mRNAs serving as an unexpected mechanism for gene regulation underlying cell-cycle progression. (biomedsearch.com)
- A striking example is the S phase translational regulation of RICTOR, which is associated with cell cycle-dependent activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) signaling and accurate cell-cycle progression. (biomedsearch.com)
- Our findings illuminate the prevalence and dynamic nature of translational regulation underlying the mammalian cell cycle. (biomedsearch.com)
- The proper regulation of brain cell numbers is one of earliest critical steps in fetal brain development. (ucsd.edu)
- Draw and label (identify) a cell in interphase. (google.com)
- cancerous cells divide at a higher rate, therefore, more cells in the stage of interphase would suggest a higher effectiveness of chemotherapy. (google.com)
- Discuss the differences between interphase and stages of cell division. (google.com)
- The stages G1, S, and G2 make up interphase, which accounts for the span between cell divisions. (britannica.com)
- The two major phases of the cell cycle are interphase and M phase. (sparknotes.com)
- G0 is a separate phase of interphase that cells can enter to pause the cell cycle. (sparknotes.com)
- During which phase of interphase does cell growth occur? (sparknotes.com)
- Cell growth occurs constantly throughout interphase. (sparknotes.com)
- In cells with a nucleus, as in eukaryotes, the cell cycle is also divided into three periods: interphase, the mitotic (M) phase, and cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
- After cell division, each of the daughter cells begin the interphase of a new cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
- Interphase is a series of changes that takes place in a newly formed cell and its nucleus, before it becomes capable of division again. (wikipedia.org)
- Previously it was called resting stage because there is no apparent activity related to cell division.Typically interphase lasts for at least 90% of the total time required for the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- During the Interphase the cell grows and it makes copy of DNA, and it prepares to divide. (smore.com)
- In dividing Drosophila neural progenitors the apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle, the basal cortical localization of the cell fate determinants Numb and/or Prospero as well as the coordination of these events are mediated by several proteins which include Bazooka (Baz), Inscuteable (Insc) and Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) which localize as an apical cortical complex starting at interphase. (mendeley.com)
- Interphase is the stage of the cell cycle that usually lasts the longest. (reference.com)
- During interphase, the cell may not look like it is doing much, but many significant events are happening to prepare it for cell division. (reference.com)
- Three subphases make up interphase.The cell grows during the G1, or first gap, phase. (reference.com)
- The longest part of the cell cycle is interphase. (reference.com)
- During interphase, the cell undergoes a growth phase in which it acquires energy to copy DNA. (reference.com)
- During interphase, the cell may not look like it is doing much, but many signific. (reference.com)
- Interphase is the longest phase in the cell cycle. (prezi.com)
- By the end of Interphase, after G2, the cell is large enough to begin dividing and has two full sets of DNA (chromosomes). (prezi.com)
- Together, these three stages comprise the interphase phase of the cell cycle. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- A central event in the eukaryotic cell cycle is the decision to commence DNA replication (S phase). (ebi.ac.uk)
- Due to their affiliation with DNA, histones are important for successful cell replication, which takes place via the cell cycle. (news-medical.net)
- Histones can be classified as replication dependent or replication independent, which is decided by their expression pattern during the cell cycle. (news-medical.net)
- D) Cell division allows for lower rates of error per chromosome replication. (google.com)
- Researchers at the Biozentrum of the University have demonstrated how bacteria coordinate cell division with the replication of their genetic material. (eurekalert.org)
- Their findings show that, in bacteria, the cell cycle starts and ends with the initiation of DNA replication, with the cell division event occurring between two DNA replication events. (eurekalert.org)
- They observed the behavior of individual E. coli cells over long periods of time and systematically quantified multiple variables describing growth, cell division and DNA replication for thousands of cell cycles in several growth conditions. (eurekalert.org)
- one determining when the next cell division should occur, and the other determining when the next initiation of DNA replication should occur," explains Thomas Julou, head of the study. (eurekalert.org)
- Rad1 is a component of the 9-1-1 cell-cycle checkpoint response complex, which plays a role in checkpoint activation that permits DNA-repair pathways to prevent cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage and replication stress [ PMID: 9311982 , PMID: 21978893 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- For example, the G2-M DNA damage checkpoint ensures the fidelity of DNA replication, and arrests the cell cycle to allow time for replication error correction and DNA damage repair. (qiagen.com)
- The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
- The B period extends from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
- The D period refers to the stage between the end of DNA replication and the splitting of the bacterial cell into two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
- The transcriptional regulator CtrA controls several key cell-cycle events in Caulobacter crescentus , including the initiation of DNA replication, DNA methylation, cell division, and flagellar biogenesis. (pnas.org)
- We propose that the P1 promoter is activated after the initiation of DNA replication in the early predivisional cell. (pnas.org)
- The progeny- stalked cell immediately initiates DNA replication, whereas DNA replication is repressed in the progeny swarmer cell until later in the cell cycle when the swarmer cell differentiates into a new stalked cell ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
- Thus, the swarmer-to-stalked cell transition is coincident with the initiation of DNA replication. (pnas.org)
- A critical function of the CtrA response regulator is to bind to and repress the origin of replication in the swarmer cell and thus control the time of initiation of DNA replication ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
- The cells in G1Q are quiescent, temporarily withdrawn from the cell cycle (also identifiable as G0), the G1A are in the growth phase while G1B are the cells just prior entering S, with their growth (RNA and protein content, size) similar to that of the cells initiating DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
- Mammalian checkpoint pathways that block cell cycle progression as a consequence of blocked deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) replication and DNA damage. (els.net)
- R. Crabb , M. C. Mackey and A. Rey , Propagating fronts, chaos and multistability in a cell replication model, Chaos , 6 (1996), 477-492. (aimsciences.org)
- Aguda BD (2001) Kick‐starting the cell cycle: from growth‐factor stimulation to initiation of DNA replication. (els.net)
- Replication of DNA occurs during the synthesis (S) phase, which is followed by a second gap phase (G2) during which growth and preparation for cell division occurs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- As the cell cycle controls cell replication and apoptosis, it is essential for the passage through the phases of the cell cycle and related processes to be regulated. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- We hypothesized that targeting p57 Kip2 could stimulate adult human β cell replication. (jci.org)
- Indeed, when we suppressed CDKN1C expression in human islets obtained from deceased adult organ donors and transplanted them into hyperglycemic, immunodeficient mice, β cell replication increased more than 3-fold. (jci.org)
- These findings provide a molecular explanation for the massive β cell replication that occurs in children with focal hyperinsulinism. (jci.org)
- These data also provided evidence that β cells from older humans, in which baseline replication is negligible, can be coaxed to re-enter and complete the cell cycle while maintaining mature β cell properties. (jci.org)
- Expansion of pancreatic β-cells is a key goal of diabetes research, yet induction of adult human β-cell replication has proven frustratingly difficult. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The proteins that play a role in stimulating cell division can be classified into four groups- growth factors , growth factor receptors , signal transducers, and nuclear regulatory proteins ( transcription factors ). (britannica.com)
- Cells use special proteins and checkpoint signaling systems to ensure that the cell cycle progresses properly. (britannica.com)
- Ubiquitin ligase also regulates ubiquitinylation by stimulating the degradation of cell cycle proteins via the 26S proteasome. (news-medical.net)
- In G 1 , cells become enlarged, mRNA and new proteins are synthesized, and these are then used during the subsequent synthesis of DNA. (news-medical.net)
- In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)
- As malignant cells evolve, both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms commonly affect the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, causing overexpression of cyclins and loss of expression of cdk inhibitors. (jci.org)
- The cyclin dependent kinases, or cdks, are the proteins that drive the cell cycle. (madsci.org)
- Rb holds onto another protein, E2F, which is necessary to make the proteins which will allow the cell to enter S phase. (madsci.org)
- Cells control Cdt1 and Geminin levels post-translationally, using ubiquitination to target the unwanted proteins for proteasomal degradation. (clontech.com)
- Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (abgent.com)
- Even though the investigators genetically silenced the proteins or blocked them with a drug in normal as well as cancerous tissues, the animals remained healthy, they report in the Oct. 16 issue of the journal Cancer Cell . (medindia.net)
- The experiments targeted two related proteins, cyclin D1 and cyclin D3, that control cells' growth cycle. (medindia.net)
- Many types of cancer have abnormal amounts of the proteins, spurring the cells to grow too rapidly and form tumors. (medindia.net)
- The new results shown that the cancers' addiction to these proteins is an Achilles' heel that can be safely targeted with an inhibitor drug that halts cancer growth or causes cancer cells to die. (medindia.net)
- Cyclin proteins act as "checkpoint" guards to control cell's cycle of rest, growth and division. (medindia.net)
- When the cyclin D proteins were turned off using this technique, the addicted cancer cells shut down while normal cells were unaffected. (medindia.net)
- S phase is the time when all the cell's chromosomes are replicated so significant cell growth occurs here, but during both G1 and G2 cell growth occurs. (sparknotes.com)
- B) Cell division would allow for the orderly and efficient segregation of multiple linear chromosomes. (google.com)
- If there are 20 centromeres in a cell at anaphase, how many chromosomes are there in each daughter cell following cytokinesis? (google.com)
- During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
- M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Then in late S phase, the newly synthesized CcrM DNA methyltransferase brings the replicated chromosomes from the hemimethylated to the fully methylated state before cell division ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
- The chromosomes move to the center of cell. (smore.com)
- Chromosomes are split and the other chromatids move to opposite poles of the cell. (smore.com)
- Each cell contain one chromosomes it divide into four cells. (smore.com)
- The chromosomes begins to far/ opposite sides of the cell. (smore.com)
- Spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the middle of the cell nucleus. (arizona.edu)
- The paired chromosomes separate at the kinetochores and move to opposite sides of the cell. (arizona.edu)
- The duplicated chromosomes become aligned in the center of the cell, spindle fibers attach themselves to the centromere of the chromosomes. (mixbook.com)
- A type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth. (smore.com)
- As proliferating cells transition from G1 to M, the DNA content will double as the chromosomes are duplicated. (beckman.com)
- All cells have a nucleus, which contains chromosomes holding the plant's genetic information. (gardenguides.com)
- As division progresses, the chromosomes in the nucleus are pulled apart, and each cell receives a full set of genetic material. (gardenguides.com)
- As division concludes, new nuclei form around the chromosomes, and cell walls develop, dividing the two cells. (gardenguides.com)
- However, cells end up with only half of the normal number of chromosomes. (gardenguides.com)
- On the basis of the stimulatory and inhibitory messages a cell receives, it "decides" whether it should enter the cell cycle and divide. (britannica.com)
- Many cells do not enter G0 and continue to divide throughout an organism's life, e.g., epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
- The cell divide also split all into two new cells. (smore.com)
- Only cells in the nervous system and the imaginal cells that generate the adult body divide during larval stages, with larval tissues growing by increasing ploidy rather than cell number. (mit.edu)
- Cells multiply by going through a four-step cycle: expanding in size, copying their genetic information, preparing to divide, and then finally dividing into two cells. (mdc-berlin.de)
- A DNA-binding protein, Cut interprets and transcribes the developmental signals sent through the "Notch" gene, which regulates a layer of epithelial cells as they replicate and divide. (redorbit.com)
- One sign was the fact that cells can divide, even when parts of the cyclin-dependent kinase complex are removed. (eurekalert.org)
- Heinemann added, "But we also noticed that occasionally cells did not divide, and that these cells still showed metabolic oscillations. (eurekalert.org)
- The current view is too narrow and cannot explain why cells still divide when part of the cyclin-dependent kinase complex is removed. (eurekalert.org)
- The cell cycle is a complex and carefully controlled series of events that allows cells to grow and divide when they should (for example, in a growing baby) and not when they shouldn't. (madsci.org)
- Cells that escape from cell cycle control, and divide whenever they want to, can become cancer cells. (madsci.org)
- These signals (sometimes called growth factors) will tell the cell to divide, or to keep hanging out in G1. (madsci.org)
- Some cells, like nerve and muscle cells, never divide and spend their entire lives in G1. (madsci.org)
- In order for the cell to divide into two cells, two copies of DNA are needed, one for each cell. (madsci.org)
- Blood cells divide rapidly, whereas nerve cells stop dividing once they have matured. (reference.com)
- These new hair cells appear to be derived from a support cell precursor which is stimulated to divide by events associated with hair cell loss. (jneurosci.org)
- Cells divide following a series of defined steps that involve changes in protein expression, cell morphology, and DNA synthesis. (beckman.com)
- How Do Plant Cells Divide? (gardenguides.com)
- For example, mutations in a protein called p53 , which normally detects abnormalities in DNA at the G1 checkpoint, can enable cancer-causing mutations to bypass this checkpoint and allow the cell to escape apoptosis. (britannica.com)
- In Caenorhabditis elegans, the cell cycle checkpoint protein RAD1 homologue mrt-2 has a role in genome stability by promoting DNA double strand break-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and is required for maintaining telomere length and germline immortality [ PMID: 10882129 , PMID: 10646593 , PMID: 16951081 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- The novel DNA damage checkpoint protein ddc1p is phosphorylated periodically during the cell cycle and in response to DNA damage in budding yeast. (ebi.ac.uk)
- A conserved checkpoint pathway mediates DNA damage--induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in C. elegans. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Cells in which checkpoint control is disrupted are more sensitive to additional genotoxic or microtubular damage. (jci.org)
- Here, we review key aspects of cell cycle and checkpoint control, as well as exploitable abnormalities commonly found in cancer, in order to focus on promising targets of new agents presently in clinical trial or under development. (jci.org)
- Walworth NC (2000) Cell‐cycle checkpoint kinases: checking in on the cell cycle. (els.net)
- Checkpoint loss results in genomic instability and has been implicated in the evolution of normal cells into cancer cells. (sciencemag.org)
- The current understanding of the mechanism and kinetics of the G1 checkpoint called the restriction point (R‐point) in mammalian cells is discussed. (els.net)
- Cell cycle dysregulation commonly occurs during oncogenesis, and tumor cells often do not arrest the cell cycle when normally required. (qiagen.com)
- Most tumor cells have a very high metabolism. (eurekalert.org)
- 2OHOA increases sphingomyelin (SM) levels in the membranes of tumor cells, which typically display decreased SM membrane content, and remodeled membranes, compared with normal cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Cell-cycle dysregulation is a hallmark of tumor cells and human cancers. (greenmedinfo.com)
Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest1
- Dysregulation of this process can result in the progressive transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. (news-medical.net)
- In the last decade, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that dysregulation of the cell cycle can cause injured kidneys to progress to CKD. (mdpi.com)
- Dysregulation of the cell cycle has been shown to result in a number of diseases, most notably cancer and other proliferative diseases. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Pramparo said the new findings provide in vivo evidence for the involvement of cell cycle processes in ASD brain maldevelopment and significantly illuminate the complexities involved in early dysregulation and disruption of the developing ASD brain. (ucsd.edu)
- First, a growth factor must bind to its receptor on the cell membrane . (britannica.com)
- Most fluorescent DNA dyes (one of exceptions is Hoechst 33342) are not plasma membrane permeant, that is, unable to pass through an intact cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
- The cell cycle kit is a ready to use reagent to monitor cell cycle consist of a detergent, Propidium Iodide (PI), and RNAse A. The detergent permeabilizes the cell membrane, allowing the PI to access the DNA. (beckman.com)
- a structure known as a cell plate forms midway between the divided nuclei, which gradually develops into a separating membrane. (prezi.com)
- Nuclear membrane forms, spindle fibers retract, daughter cells begin to invaginate? (sporcle.com)
- Plant cells contain a cell wall, a rigid membrane that provides shape for the cell and controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell. (gardenguides.com)
- The arrest might, at least partially, be attributed to DNA damage since activation of the DNA-damage response pathway leads to cell cycle arrest. (mdpi.com)
- Thus, controlled manipulation of this pathway holds promise for the expansion of β cells in patients with type 2 diabetes. (jci.org)
- Others were modified to develop a type of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) that is driven by an abnormal pathway known as Notch1. (medindia.net)
- Our Fucci cell cycle reporters let you label just the nucleus, or both the nucleus and cytoplasm, allowing visualization of cell shape. (clontech.com)
- Although most Fucci probes label only cell nuclei, we offer a truncated version of hGeminin that is able to migrate to the cytoplasm between S and M phases, enabling the morphology of the cell to be visualized. (clontech.com)
- More importantly, and in contrast to anticipated results, the human β-cell G1/S atlas reveals that almost all of the critical G1/S cell cycle control molecules are located in the cytoplasm of the quiescent human β-cell. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Cytoplasm duplicates, cell grows? (sporcle.com)
- Phosphorylated CtrA (CtrA≈P) is present in the swarmer cell, rapidly disappears at the swarmer-to-stalked cell transition, and accumulates again in the predivisional cell. (pnas.org)
- This network contains many positive feedback loops that generate a bistable switch in E2F activity which is similar to a toggle switch and explains the transition from growth‐factor‐dependent to growth‐factor‐independent transition of cell cycle progression at the R‐point. (els.net)
- The restriction point (R‐point) marks the transition from growth‐factor‐dependent to growth‐factor‐independent cell cycle progression. (els.net)
- Each living cell grows and divides, thus generating new offspring. (eurekalert.org)
- The cell cycle is a process in which a cell grows and divides to create a copy of itself. (mixbook.com)
- Plant growth occurs when one cell divides into two, differentiating into stems, leaves, flowers and roots. (gardenguides.com)
- For a stimulatory signal to reach the nucleus and "turn on" cell division, four main steps must occur. (britannica.com)
- Third, this activation must stimulate a signal to be transmitted, or transduced, from the receptor at the cell surface to the nucleus within the cell. (britannica.com)
- Measurements of the amount of DNA per nucleus were taken on a large number of cells from a growing fungus. (google.com)
- In which stage of the cell cycle did the nucleus contain 6 picograms of DNA? (google.com)
- In bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus, the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. (wikipedia.org)
- In prokaryotes which lack a cell nucleus, the cell cycle occurs via a process termed binary fission. (smore.com)
- Unbridled cell cycle progression in the presence of such damage is usually lethal, which may explain the selective sensitivity of some cancer cells to DNA-damaging treatments. (jci.org)
- Marinopyrrole A induced apoptosis in Mcl-1-dependent cancer cells and sensitized cancer cells to ABT-737. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The compound has no effect on SM levels in non-cancer cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- CPI-613 is an E1α pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) modulator that prevents cancer cells from metabolizing glucose for energy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Multiple genetic changes occur during the evolution of normal cells into cancer cells. (sciencemag.org)
- This evolution is facilitated in cancer cells by loss of fidelity in the processes that replicate, repair, and segregate the genome. (sciencemag.org)
- Combined use of lower concentrations of jerantinine A and γ-tocotrienol induced potent cytotoxic effects on U87MG cancer cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Wasabi compounds may possess activity against the growth and cancer stem cells phenotypes of human pancreatic cancer cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Blocking cyclin D1 in the mice drove the breast cancer cells into a kind of permanent retirement called senescence, an irreversible halt to their growth cycle. (medindia.net)
- Inhibiting cyclin D3 in the T-ALL leukemia mice caused the cancer cells to self-destruct -- a programmed death process called apoptosis. (medindia.net)
- In addition to these tests with mouse cancers, the scientists found that the cyclin-D-inhibiting drug had similar effects on human blood cancer cells in the laboratory. (medindia.net)
- The authors say the results show that blocking cyclin D "represents a highly selective anticancer strategy that specifically targets cancer cells without significantly affecting normal tissues. (medindia.net)
- Cell cycle , the ordered sequence of events that occur in a cell in preparation for cell division . (britannica.com)
- For a newly evolving protist, what would be the advantage of using eukaryote-like cell division rather than binary fission? (google.com)
- C) Cell division would be faster than binary fission. (google.com)
- cell-division and let the cells become senescent? (bio.net)
- Strictly speaking, it describes a periodic repetition of two coordinated cycles: the duplication of a cell's genetic information on the one hand and cell division on the other. (eurekalert.org)
- Although it is natural to think that the cell cycle begins with the birth of the cell and ends with the next cell division, the new research argues for a major shift in this concept. (eurekalert.org)
- The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
- Before a cell can enter cell division, it needs to take in nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
- On cell division, one pole yields a swarmer cell, and the other pole yields a nonmotile stalked cell (Fig. 1 B ), each with different cell fates ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- Division of the asymmetric predivisional cell is preceded by the synthesis and assembly of the polar flagellum and the tubulin-like cell division protein, FtsZ ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
- Precise activation and inactivation of CDKs at specific points in the cell cycle are required for orderly cell division. (genome.jp)
- Nearly all cell division mutants in Drosophila were recovered in late larval/pupal lethal screens, with less than 10 embryonic lethal mutants identified, because larval development occurs without a requirement for cell division. (mit.edu)
- To identify cell-cycle components whose maternal pools are depleted in embryogenesis or that have specific functions in embryogenesis, we screened for mutants defective in cell division during embryogenesis. (mit.edu)
- It is when the loose DNA starts to gather to form chromatid, the DNA copies itself, the spindle fibers start to form, and the cell prepares itself for cell division. (mixbook.com)
- The Cell Cycle Machinery an Asymmetric Cell Division of Neural Progenitors in the Drosophila Embryonic Central Nervous System (W. Chia, et al. (wiley.com)
- Spindle Positioning During the Symmetric First Cell Division of Caenorhabditis Elegans Embryos (P. Gonczy, et al. (wiley.com)
- But now University of Groningen scientists have found evidence that a metabolic oscillator acts as the "conductor" of cell division. (eurekalert.org)
- Cells go through repetitive cycles of DNA duplication, growth, and cell division. (eurekalert.org)
- Heinemann reasoned that metabolic oscillations might set the pace for cell division. (eurekalert.org)
- We argue that metabolism and the cyclin-dependent kinase complex are coupled oscillators, which together orchestrate the growth and division of eukaryotic cells. (eurekalert.org)
- Both oscillations have their own natural frequency, and, under normal circumstances, these two oscillations are coupled and compromise with each other at a common frequency, which then governs the cell division process. (eurekalert.org)
- The Cell Cycle line is explicitly inspired by biological cell division , according to Nervous System. (fastcodesign.com)
- What Causes Cell Division? (reference.com)
- A worldwide used product Roundup 3plus, based on glyphosate as the active herbicide, was suggested to be of human health concern since it induced cell cycle dysfunction as judged from analysis of the first cell division of sea urchin embryos, a recognized model for cell cycle studies. (greenmedinfo.com)
- The groups of specialized cells that make up the various human tissues depend on an intricate communication network to regulate gene expression that in turn mediates growth, cell-type specific function, division, and programmed cell death. (wiley.com)
- The cell cycle is a repeated pattern of growth and division that occurs in eukaryotic cells. (prezi.com)
- Cell cycle progression is regulated by the cyclic rise and fall of kinase expression, and their interaction with, and action on, their cyclin targets. (qiagen.com)
- Similar cell cycle compartments are also recognized by multiparameter analysis that includes measurement of expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin B1, each in relation to DNA content Concurrent measurement of DNA content and of incorporation of DNA precursor 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) by flow cytometry is an especially useful assay, that has been widely used in analysis of the cell cycle in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
- Central players are the cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks), which govern the initiation, progression, and completion of cell cycle events. (jci.org)
- These permitted us to investigate the requirements for Cyclin E function in neuroblast cell fate determination, a role previously shown for a null Cyclin E allele. (mit.edu)
- All textbooks describe the cyclin-dependent kinase complex as the one and only/exclusive regulator of the eukaryotic cell cycle. (eurekalert.org)
- The cyclin-dependent kinase complex was identified as the regulator of these cell cycles, and in 2001 the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine was awarded for this discovery. (eurekalert.org)
- The overall picture Heinemann and his colleagues have sketched in the Molecular Cell article is a system, in which the metabolic oscillator pulls the cyclin-dependent kinase complex through its cycle and dynamically gate the occurrence of the different cell cycle events. (eurekalert.org)
- You can think of the cyclin as the gas for the cell cycle car. (madsci.org)
- Also unknown was whether normal cells could get along without cyclin D1: If not, treating cancer by targeting the protein might be too dangerous. (medindia.net)
- In this study, we identified cell cycle factors as potent regulators of health and longevity in C. elegans. (mendeley.com)
- How cancer can be linked to overactive positive cell cycle regulators (oncogenes) or inactive negative regulators (tumor suppressors). (khanacademy.org)
- In addition, only a handful of cell cycle regulators (e.g., p53, p21) have been thoroughly studied during renal repair. (mdpi.com)
- In contrast to classical molecular biology approaches where the effects of mutations are analyzed, the current study uses a new approach in which analysis of the subtle fluctuations that normally growing cells exhibit is used to infer how the underlying process is controlled. (eurekalert.org)
- Current Opinion in Cell Biology 12: 697-704. (els.net)
- Trends in Cell Biology 10: 154-158. (els.net)
- Trends in Cell Biology 10: 296-303. (els.net)
- The cell cycle is one of the most studied processes in biology," says Professor Nikolaus Rajewsky, Scientific Director of MDC's Berlin Institute for Medical Systems Biology (BIMSB), who spearheaded the project. (mdc-berlin.de)
- Current Opinion in Cell Biology 13: 738-747. (els.net)
- Try the links in the MadSci Library for more information on Cell Biology . (madsci.org)
- Cell cycle analysis by DNA content measurement is a method that most frequently employs flow cytometry to distinguish cells in different phases of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Analysis of cell cycle, via monitoring the quantity of DNA is routinely performed by flow cytometry and is a common assay for the platform. (beckman.com)
- All of these cell-cycle events are controlled by a single protein, the essential response regulator CtrA ( 9 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
- however, the involvement of the cell cycle regulator in asymmetric cell divisions has not been previously shown. (mendeley.com)
- Here we present evidence from ongoing experiments which suggest a requirement for the key cell cycle regulator cdc2 in asymmetric cell divisions. (mendeley.com)
- Although the cell cycle in plant and animal cells has been elucidated quite precisely in the past decades, it has remained unclear how these two processes are coordinated in bacteria. (eurekalert.org)
- The process of cells multiplying is one of the most well-understood processes in life. (mdc-berlin.de)
- Cells are capable of performing multiple processes at the same time. (mdc-berlin.de)
- However, in reality, other biological processes are causing additional movement, that are uncoupled from the cell cycle, in a third dimension. (mdc-berlin.de)
- Rare gene mutations capable of increasing or decreasing cell number and brain size have been reported for tiny percentages of all ASD individuals, but for the vast majority of ASD children, the genomic defects behind abnormal brain overgrowth or undergrowth have remained unknown. (ucsd.edu)
- The new study points to a common underlying defective functional genomic network - cell cycle - in living ASD toddlers, which plays a central role in fetal brain development. (ucsd.edu)
- for example, by allowing identi- fication of rapidly proliferating tumors against which cell cycle-specific agents could be used with maximum effec- tiveness and by allowing rational scheduling of cell cyc- specific therapeutic agents to maximize the therapeutic ratio. (springer.com)
- Unfortunately, several difficulties have prevented realiza- tion of the early promise of cell cycle analysis: Proliferative patterns of the normal and malignant tissues have been found to be substantially more complex than originally an- ticipated, and synchronization of human tumors has proved remarkably difficult. (springer.com)
- Human tumors of the same type have proved highly variable, and the cytokinetic tools available for cell cycle analysis have been labor intensive, as well as somewhat subjective and in many cases inapplicable to humans. (springer.com)
- In many types of cancer, an excess of cyclins allows cells to grow too fast and form tumors. (medindia.net)
- Before analysis, the cells are usually permeabilised and treated with a fluorescent dye that stains DNA quantitatively, such as propidium iodide (PI) or 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). (wikipedia.org)
- The first protocol for cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide staining was presented in 1975 by Awtar Krishan from Harvard Medical School and is still widely cited today. (wikipedia.org)