Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Techniques used in microbiology.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Aerobic bacteria are types of microbes that require oxygen to grow and reproduce, and use it in the process of respiration to break down organic matter and produce energy, often found in environments where oxygen is readily available such as the human body's skin, mouth, and intestines.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Cell separation is the process of isolating and distinguishing specific cell types or individual cells from a heterogeneous mixture, often through the use of physical or biological techniques.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

Angiotensin II increases the release of endothelin-1 from human cultured endothelial cells but does not regulate its circulating levels. (1/8613)

We investigated the effect of angiotensin II on endothelin-1 secretion in vitro and in vivo. In vivo, angiotensin II was given intravenously to 23 essential hypertensive and 8 control subjects according to different protocols: Study A, 1.0 ng x min-1 x kg-1 and 3.0 ng x min-1 x kg-1 angiotensin II for 30 min each; Study B, 1.0 ng x min-1 x kg-1 and 3.0 ng x min-1 x kg-1 angiotensin II for 120 min each; Study C, 3.0 ng x min-1 x kg-1 angiotensin II for 30 min followed by a dose increment of 3.0 ng x min-1 x kg-1 every 30 min until mean blood pressure levels increased by 25 mmHg; Study D, 1.0 ng x min-1 x kg-1 followed by 3.0 ng x min-1 x kg-1 angiotensin II for 60 min each on two different NaCl diets (either 20 mmol NaCl/day or 220 mmol NaCl/day, both for 1 week). In all in vivo studies neither plasma nor urine endothelin-1 levels changed with angiotensin II infusion. In contrast, angiotensin II (10(-9), 10(-8), 10(-7) mol/l) stimulated endothelin-1 secretion from cultured human vascular endothelial cells derived from umbilical cord veins in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The in vitro angiotensin II effects were abolished by candesartan cilexetil, an inhibitor of the membrane-bound AT1 receptor, and also by actinomycin D, an RNA synthesis inhibitor, and cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, indicating that endothelin-1 release depended on AT1 receptor subtype and de novo protein synthesis. Our findings indicate that angiotensin II regulates endothelin-1 release by cultured endothelial cells through an AT1 receptor-dependent pathway, but does not influence circulating endothelin-1 levels in vivo.  (+info)

A technique for dual determination of cytotoxic and helper lymphocyte precursor frequency by a miniaturized dye release method. (2/8613)

Helper (HTLPf) and cytotoxic (CTLPf) lymphocyte precursor frequency assays are increasingly used in bone marrow stem cell and organ transplant compatibility testing. Current techniques require large cell numbers and radioisotopes. To improve the technique, we developed a miniaturized fluorescent read-out combined HTLPf/CTLPf limiting dilution assay. The assay requires only 5 x 10(6) stimulators, 2 x 10(6) responders and 0.24 x 10(6) target cells in Terasaki plates (40 microl/well). For the HTLPf, culture supernatants from each well were assayed for IL-2 production. The IL-2-dependent proliferation of the mouse 9.12 cell line was detected by a semi-automated fluorescent dye technique. After addition of rhIL-2 (recombinant human IL-2) on days 3 and 7, CTLPs were detected on day 10 by measuring the lysis of dye-labeled targets. Results were comparable to standard radioisotope-based techniques. The assay had a coefficient of variation of approximately 30%. The assay detected helper CD4 cells, pure cytotoxic CD8, helper CD8 cells and helper/cytotoxic CD8 cells. Discrimination was demonstrated between HLA-matched related and non-related pairs. The ease of testing and small cell numbers required should facilitate further evaluation of HTLPf and CTLPf for compatibility testing in unrelated donor transplantation and monitoring immune responses following adoptive transfer of lymphocytes.  (+info)

Generation and characterization of aggrecanase. A soluble, cartilage-derived aggrecan-degrading activity. (3/8613)

A method was developed for generating soluble, active "aggrecanase" in conditioned media from interleukin-1-stimulated bovine nasal cartilage cultures. Using bovine nasal cartilage conditioned media as a source of the aggrecanase enzyme, an enzymatic assay was established employing purified aggrecan monomers as a substrate and monitoring specific aggrecanase-mediated cleavage products by Western analysis using the monoclonal antibody, BC-3 (which recognizes the new N terminus, ARGS, on fragments produced by cleavage between amino acid residues Glu373 and Ala374). Using this assay we have characterized cartilage aggrecanase with respect to assay kinetics, pH and salt optima, heat sensitivity, and stability upon storage. Aggrecanase activity was inhibited by the metalloprotease inhibitor, EDTA, while a panel of inhibitors of serine, cysteine, and aspartic proteinases had no effect, suggesting that aggrecanase is a metalloproteinase. Sensitivity to known matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as well as to the endogenous tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, TIMP-1, further support the notion that aggrecanase is a metalloproteinase potentially related to the ADAM family or MMP family of proteases previously implicated in the catabolism of the extracellular matrix.  (+info)

The cellular ecology of progressive neoplastic transformation: a clonal analysis. (4/8613)

A comparison was made of the competence for neoplastic transformation in three different sublines of NIH 3T3 cells and multiple clonal derivatives of each. Over 90% of the neoplastic foci produced by an uncloned transformed (t-SA') subline on a confluent background of nontransformed cells were of the dense, multilayered type, but about half of the t-SA' clones produced only light foci in assays without background. This asymmetry apparently arose from the failure of the light focus formers to register on a background of nontransformed cells. Comparison was made of the capacity for confluence-mediated transformation between uncloned parental cultures and their clonal derivatives by using two nontransformed sublines, one of which was highly sensitive and the other relatively refractory to confluence-mediated transformation. Transformation was more frequent in the clones than in the uncloned parental cultures for both sublines. This was dramatically so in the refractory subline, where the uncloned culture showed no overt sign of transformation in serially repeated assays but increasing numbers of its clones exhibited progressive transformation. The reason for the greater susceptibility of the pure clones is apparently the suppression of transformation among the diverse membership that makes up the uncloned parental culture. Progressive selection toward increasing degrees of transformation in confluent cultures plays a major role in the development of dense focus formers, but direct induction by the constraint of confluence may contribute by heritably damaging cells. In view of our finding of increased susceptibility to transformation in clonal versus uncloned populations, expansion of some clones at the expense of others during the aging process would contribute to the marked increase of cancer with age.  (+info)

Micronucleus test using cultured new born rat astrocytes. (5/8613)

Micronuclei is induced in cytoplasm as a consequence of the formation of chromosomal fragments or remaining chromosomes during cell division by the cause of clastogens or spindle poisons, and is used as an indicator of genotoxicity screening tests. There are few short-term genotoxicity screening tests using brain cells. We attempted to establish a new in vitro micronucleus test (MN test) system by use of central nervous system cells. Primary cultured astrocytes were prepared from newborn male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In growth curve of astrocytes, doubling time was determined to be 31 h. In time study, the highest frequency of micronuclei was observed at 48 h, 72 h and 6 h-exposure-66 h-recovery by vincristine (VCR), mitomycin C (MMC) without metabolic activation system and cyclophosphamide (CPM) with metabolic activation system, respectively. Dose-response relationships between micronucleus frequency and concentrations of MMC, VCR and CPM were observed, respectively. It is suggested that the in vitro MN test using new born rat-astrocytes could be used as a screening test of environmental and occupational genotoxic chemicals in the central nervous system cells.  (+info)

In-vitro fertilization and culture of mouse embryos in vitro significantly retards the onset of insulin-like growth factor-II expression from the zygotic genome. (6/8613)

In this study, the effect of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and culture of mouse embryos in vitro on the normal expression of insulin-like growth factor-II (IFG-II) ligand and receptor was examined. The expression of IGF-II increased in a linear fashion at least up to the 8-cell stage of development. IGF-II expression in embryos collected fresh from the reproductive tract was significantly (P < 0.001) greater than in embryos fertilized in the reproductive tract and cultured in vitro (in-situ fertilized: ISF), and its expression was further reduced (P < 0.001) in IVF embryos at all development stages tested. The expression of IGF-II was significantly (P < 0.001) lower when embryos were cultured individually in 100 microl drops compared with culture in groups of 10 in 10 microl drops of medium. The addition of platelet activating factor to culture medium partially overcame this density-dependent decline of expression. Culture of ISF and IVF zygotes also caused the onset of new IGF-II mRNA transcription from the zygotic genome to be significantly (P < 0.001) retarded, until at least the 8-cell stage of development. This effect was greater (P < 0.05) for IVF than for ISF embryos. Neither IVF nor culture had any obvious effect on IFG-II/mannose-6-phosphate receptor (IGF-IIr) mRNA expression.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of a new human breast cancer cell line, KPL-4, expressing the Erb B family receptors and interleukin-6. (7/8613)

A new human breast cancer cell line, KPL-4, was recently isolated from the malignant pleural effusion of a breast cancer patient with an inflammatory skin metastasis. This cell line can be cultured under serum-free conditions and is tumorigenic in female athymic nude mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the expression of Erb B-1, -2 and -3. Dot blot hybridization showed a 15-fold amplification of the erb B-2. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed a detectable level of mRNA expression of all the Erb B family receptors. In addition, all the receptors were autophosphorylated under a serum-supplemented condition. Unexpectedly, transplanted KPL-4 tumours induced cachexia of recipient mice. A high concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was detected in both the culture medium and the serum of mice. The weight of tumours significantly correlated with the serum IL-6 level. The antiproliferative effect of a humanized anti-Erb B-2 monoclonal antibody, rhuMAbHER2, was investigated. This antibody significantly inhibited the growth of KPL-4 cells in vitro but modestly in vivo. Loss of mouse body weight was partly reversed by rhuMAbHER2. These findings suggest that KPL-4 cells may be useful in the development of new strategies against breast cancer overexpressing the Erb B family receptors and against IL-6-induced cachexia.  (+info)

Generation and characterization of human smooth muscle cell lines derived from atherosclerotic plaque. (8/8613)

The study of atherogenesis in humans has been restricted by the limited availability and brief in vitro life span of plaque smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We describe plaque SMC lines with extended life spans generated by the expression of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 E6 and E7 genes, which has been shown to extend the life span of normal adult human aortic SMCs. Resulting cell lines (pdSMC1A and 2) demonstrated at least 10-fold increases in life span; pdSMC1A became immortal. The SMC identity of both pdSMC lines was confirmed by SM22 mRNA expression. pdSMC2 were generally diploid but with various structural and numerical alterations; pdSMC1A demonstrated several chromosomal abnormalities, most commonly -Y, +7, -13, anomalies previously reported in both primary pdSMCs and atherosclerotic tissue. Confluent pdSMC2 appeared grossly similar to HPV-16 E6/E7-expressing normal adult aortic SMCs (AASMCs), exhibiting typical SMC morphology/growth patterns; pdSMC1A displayed irregular cell shape/organization with numerous mitotic figures. Dedifferentiation to a synthetic/proliferative phenotype has been hypothesized as a critical step in atherogenesis, because rat neonatal SMCs and adult intimal SMCs exhibit similar gene expression patterns. To confirm that our pdSMC lines likewise express this apparent plaque phenotype, osteopontin, platelet-derived growth factor B, and elastin mRNA levels were determined in pdSMC1A, pdSMC2, and AASMCs. However, no significant increases in osteopontin or platelet-derived growth factor B expression levels were observed in either pdSMC compared with AASMCs. pdSMC2 alone expressed high levels of elastin mRNA. Lower levels of SM22 mRNA in pdSMC1A suggested greater dedifferentiation and/or additional population doublings in pdSMC1A relative to pdSMC2. Both pdSMC lines (particularly 1A) demonstrated high message levels for matrix Gla protein, previously reported to be highly expressed by human neointimal SMCs in vitro. These results describe 2 novel plaque cell lines exhibiting various features of plaque SMC biology; pdSMC2 may represent an earlier plaque SMC phenotype, whereas pdSMC1A may be representative of cells comprising an advanced atherosclerotic lesion.  (+info)

Cell culture is a technique used in scientific research to grow and maintain cells from plants, animals, or humans in a controlled environment outside of their original organism. This environment typically consists of a sterile container called a cell culture flask or plate, and a nutrient-rich liquid medium that provides the necessary components for the cells' growth and survival, such as amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and hormones.

There are several different types of cell culture techniques used in research, including:

1. Adherent cell culture: In this technique, cells are grown on a flat surface, such as the bottom of a tissue culture dish or flask. The cells attach to the surface and spread out, forming a monolayer that can be observed and manipulated under a microscope.
2. Suspension cell culture: In suspension culture, cells are grown in liquid medium without any attachment to a solid surface. These cells remain suspended in the medium and can be agitated or mixed to ensure even distribution of nutrients.
3. Organoid culture: Organoids are three-dimensional structures that resemble miniature organs and are grown from stem cells or other progenitor cells. They can be used to study organ development, disease processes, and drug responses.
4. Co-culture: In co-culture, two or more different types of cells are grown together in the same culture dish or flask. This technique is used to study cell-cell interactions and communication.
5. Conditioned medium culture: In this technique, cells are grown in a medium that has been conditioned by previous cultures of other cells. The conditioned medium contains factors secreted by the previous cells that can influence the growth and behavior of the new cells.

Cell culture techniques are widely used in biomedical research to study cellular processes, develop drugs, test toxicity, and investigate disease mechanisms. However, it is important to note that cell cultures may not always accurately represent the behavior of cells in a living organism, and results from cell culture experiments should be validated using other methods.

Batch cell culture techniques refer to a method of growing cells in which all the necessary nutrients are added to the culture medium at the beginning of the growth period. The cells are allowed to grow and multiply until they exhaust the available nutrients, after which the culture is discarded. This technique is relatively simple and inexpensive but lacks the ability to continuously produce cells over an extended period.

In batch cell culture, cells are grown in a closed system with a fixed volume of medium, and no additional nutrients or fresh medium are added during the growth phase. The cells consume the available nutrients as they grow, leading to a decrease in pH, accumulation of waste products, and depletion of essential factors required for cell growth. As a result, the cells eventually stop growing and enter a stationary phase, after which they begin to die due to lack of nutrients and buildup of toxic metabolites.

Batch cell culture techniques are commonly used in research settings where large quantities of cells are needed for experiments or analysis. However, this method is not suitable for the production of therapeutic proteins or other biologics that require continuous cell growth and protein production over an extended period. For these applications, more complex culture methods such as fed-batch or perfusion culture techniques are used.

Culture techniques are methods used in microbiology to grow and multiply microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses, in a controlled laboratory environment. These techniques allow for the isolation, identification, and study of specific microorganisms, which is essential for diagnostic purposes, research, and development of medical treatments.

The most common culture technique involves inoculating a sterile growth medium with a sample suspected to contain microorganisms. The growth medium can be solid or liquid and contains nutrients that support the growth of the microorganisms. Common solid growth media include agar plates, while liquid growth media are used for broth cultures.

Once inoculated, the growth medium is incubated at a temperature that favors the growth of the microorganisms being studied. During incubation, the microorganisms multiply and form visible colonies on the solid growth medium or turbid growth in the liquid growth medium. The size, shape, color, and other characteristics of the colonies can provide important clues about the identity of the microorganism.

Other culture techniques include selective and differential media, which are designed to inhibit the growth of certain types of microorganisms while promoting the growth of others, allowing for the isolation and identification of specific pathogens. Enrichment cultures involve adding specific nutrients or factors to a sample to promote the growth of a particular type of microorganism.

Overall, culture techniques are essential tools in microbiology and play a critical role in medical diagnostics, research, and public health.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Organ culture techniques refer to the methods used to maintain or grow intact organs or pieces of organs under controlled conditions in vitro, while preserving their structural and functional characteristics. These techniques are widely used in biomedical research to study organ physiology, pathophysiology, drug development, and toxicity testing.

Organ culture can be performed using a variety of methods, including:

1. Static organ culture: In this method, the organs or tissue pieces are placed on a porous support in a culture dish and maintained in a nutrient-rich medium. The medium is replaced periodically to ensure adequate nutrition and removal of waste products.
2. Perfusion organ culture: This method involves perfusing the organ with nutrient-rich media, allowing for better distribution of nutrients and oxygen throughout the tissue. This technique is particularly useful for studying larger organs such as the liver or kidney.
3. Microfluidic organ culture: In this approach, microfluidic devices are used to create a controlled microenvironment for organ cultures. These devices allow for precise control over the flow of nutrients and waste products, as well as the application of mechanical forces.

Organ culture techniques can be used to study various aspects of organ function, including metabolism, secretion, and response to drugs or toxins. Additionally, these methods can be used to generate three-dimensional tissue models that better recapitulate the structure and function of intact organs compared to traditional two-dimensional cell cultures.

Tissue culture techniques refer to the methods used to maintain and grow cells, tissues or organs from multicellular organisms in an artificial environment outside of the living body, called an in vitro culture. These techniques are widely used in various fields such as biology, medicine, and agriculture for research, diagnostics, and therapeutic purposes.

The basic components of tissue culture include a sterile growth medium that contains nutrients, growth factors, and other essential components to support the growth of cells or tissues. The growth medium is often supplemented with antibiotics to prevent contamination by microorganisms. The cells or tissues are cultured in specialized containers called culture vessels, which can be plates, flasks, or dishes, depending on the type and scale of the culture.

There are several types of tissue culture techniques, including:

1. Monolayer Culture: In this technique, cells are grown as a single layer on a flat surface, allowing for easy observation and manipulation of individual cells.
2. Organoid Culture: This method involves growing three-dimensional structures that resemble the organization and function of an organ in vivo.
3. Co-culture: In co-culture, two or more cell types are grown together to study their interactions and communication.
4. Explant Culture: In this technique, small pieces of tissue are cultured to maintain the original structure and organization of the cells within the tissue.
5. Primary Culture: This refers to the initial culture of cells directly isolated from a living organism. These cells can be further subcultured to generate immortalized cell lines.

Tissue culture techniques have numerous applications, such as studying cell behavior, drug development and testing, gene therapy, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

"Evaluation studies" is a broad term that refers to the systematic assessment or examination of a program, project, policy, intervention, or product. The goal of an evaluation study is to determine its merits, worth, and value by measuring its effects, efficiency, and impact. There are different types of evaluation studies, including formative evaluations (conducted during the development or implementation of a program to provide feedback for improvement), summative evaluations (conducted at the end of a program to determine its overall effectiveness), process evaluations (focusing on how a program is implemented and delivered), outcome evaluations (assessing the short-term and intermediate effects of a program), and impact evaluations (measuring the long-term and broad consequences of a program).

In medical contexts, evaluation studies are often used to assess the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of new treatments, interventions, or technologies. These studies can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care, guide policymakers in developing evidence-based policies, and promote accountability and transparency in healthcare systems. Examples of evaluation studies in medicine include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the outcomes of a new treatment to those of a standard or placebo treatment, observational studies that examine the real-world effectiveness and safety of interventions, and economic evaluations that assess the costs and benefits of different healthcare options.

Blood is the fluid that circulates in the body of living organisms, carrying oxygen and nutrients to the cells and removing carbon dioxide and other waste products. It is composed of red and white blood cells suspended in a liquid called plasma. The main function of blood is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. It also transports nutrients, hormones, and other substances to the cells and removes waste products from them. Additionally, blood plays a crucial role in the body's immune system by helping to fight infection and disease.

Microbiological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and analysis of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. These techniques are essential in fields like medical microbiology, food microbiology, environmental microbiology, and industrial microbiology.

Some common microbiological techniques include:

1. Microbial culturing: This involves growing microorganisms on nutrient-rich media in Petri dishes or test tubes to allow them to multiply. Different types of media are used to culture different types of microorganisms.
2. Staining and microscopy: Various staining techniques, such as Gram stain, acid-fast stain, and methylene blue stain, are used to visualize and identify microorganisms under a microscope.
3. Biochemical testing: These tests involve the use of specific biochemical reactions to identify microorganisms based on their metabolic characteristics. Examples include the catalase test, oxidase test, and sugar fermentation tests.
4. Molecular techniques: These methods are used to identify microorganisms based on their genetic material. Examples include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and gene probes.
5. Serological testing: This involves the use of antibodies or antigens to detect the presence of specific microorganisms in a sample. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting.
6. Immunofluorescence: This technique uses fluorescent dyes to label antibodies or antigens, allowing for the visualization of microorganisms under a fluorescence microscope.
7. Electron microscopy: This method uses high-powered electron beams to produce detailed images of microorganisms, allowing for the identification and analysis of their structures.

These techniques are critical in diagnosing infectious diseases, monitoring food safety, assessing environmental quality, and developing new drugs and vaccines.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Aerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that require oxygen to live and grow. These bacteria use oxygen as the final electron acceptor in their respiratory chain to generate energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Aerobic bacteria can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the air, as well as on the surfaces of living things. Some examples of aerobic bacteria include species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus.

It's worth noting that some bacteria can switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen. These bacteria are called facultative anaerobes. In contrast, obligate anaerobes are bacteria that cannot tolerate oxygen and will die in its presence.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Centrifugation is a laboratory technique that involves the use of a machine called a centrifuge to separate mixtures based on their differing densities or sizes. The mixture is placed in a rotor and spun at high speeds, causing the denser components to move away from the center of rotation and the less dense components to remain nearer the center. This separation allows for the recovery and analysis of specific particles, such as cells, viruses, or subcellular organelles, from complex mixtures.

The force exerted on the mixture during centrifugation is described in terms of relative centrifugal force (RCF) or g-force, which represents the number of times greater the acceleration due to centrifugation is than the acceleration due to gravity. The RCF is determined by the speed of rotation (revolutions per minute, or RPM), the radius of rotation, and the duration of centrifugation.

Centrifugation has numerous applications in various fields, including clinical laboratories, biochemistry, molecular biology, and virology. It is a fundamental technique for isolating and concentrating particles from solutions, enabling further analysis and characterization.

The pharynx is a part of the digestive and respiratory systems that serves as a conduit for food and air. It is a musculo-membranous tube extending from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.

The pharynx has three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is the uppermost region, which lies above the soft palate and is connected to the nasal cavity. The oropharynx is the middle region, which includes the area between the soft palate and the hyoid bone, including the tonsils and base of the tongue. The laryngopharynx is the lowest region, which lies below the hyoid bone and connects to the larynx.

The primary function of the pharynx is to convey food from the oral cavity to the esophagus during swallowing and to allow air to pass from the nasal cavity to the larynx during breathing. It also plays a role in speech, taste, and immune defense.

Agar is a substance derived from red algae, specifically from the genera Gelidium and Gracilaria. It is commonly used in microbiology as a solidifying agent for culture media. Agar forms a gel at relatively low temperatures (around 40-45°C) and remains stable at higher temperatures (up to 100°C), making it ideal for preparing various types of culture media.

In addition to its use in microbiology, agar is also used in other scientific research, food industry, and even in some artistic applications due to its unique gelling properties. It is important to note that although agar is often used in the preparation of food, it is not typically consumed as a standalone ingredient by humans or animals.

Bacteroides are a genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are normally present in the human gastrointestinal tract. They are part of the normal gut microbiota and play an important role in breaking down complex carbohydrates and other substances in the gut. However, some species of Bacteroides can cause opportunistic infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or when they spread to other parts of the body. They are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, making infections caused by these bacteria difficult to treat.

Specimen handling is a set of procedures and practices followed in the collection, storage, transportation, and processing of medical samples or specimens (e.g., blood, tissue, urine, etc.) for laboratory analysis. Proper specimen handling ensures accurate test results, patient safety, and data integrity. It includes:

1. Correct labeling of the specimen container with required patient information.
2. Using appropriate containers and materials to collect, store, and transport the specimen.
3. Following proper collection techniques to avoid contamination or damage to the specimen.
4. Adhering to specific storage conditions (temperature, time, etc.) before testing.
5. Ensuring secure and timely transportation of the specimen to the laboratory.
6. Properly documenting all steps in the handling process for traceability and quality assurance.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

Cell separation is a process used to separate and isolate specific cell types from a heterogeneous mixture of cells. This can be accomplished through various physical or biological methods, depending on the characteristics of the cells of interest. Some common techniques for cell separation include:

1. Density gradient centrifugation: In this method, a sample containing a mixture of cells is layered onto a density gradient medium and then centrifuged. The cells are separated based on their size, density, and sedimentation rate, with denser cells settling closer to the bottom of the tube and less dense cells remaining near the top.

2. Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS): This technique uses magnetic beads coated with antibodies that bind to specific cell surface markers. The labeled cells are then passed through a column placed in a magnetic field, which retains the magnetically labeled cells while allowing unlabeled cells to flow through.

3. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS): In this method, cells are stained with fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies that recognize specific cell surface or intracellular markers. The stained cells are then passed through a laser beam, which excites the fluorophores and allows for the detection and sorting of individual cells based on their fluorescence profile.

4. Filtration: This simple method relies on the physical size differences between cells to separate them. Cells can be passed through filters with pore sizes that allow smaller cells to pass through while retaining larger cells.

5. Enzymatic digestion: In some cases, cells can be separated by enzymatically dissociating tissues into single-cell suspensions and then using various separation techniques to isolate specific cell types.

These methods are widely used in research and clinical settings for applications such as isolating immune cells, stem cells, or tumor cells from biological samples.

Reagent kits, diagnostic are prepackaged sets of chemical reagents and other components designed for performing specific diagnostic tests or assays. These kits are often used in clinical laboratories to detect and measure the presence or absence of various biomarkers, such as proteins, antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, or small molecules, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues.

Diagnostic reagent kits typically contain detailed instructions for their use, along with the necessary reagents, controls, and sometimes specialized equipment or supplies. They are designed to simplify the testing process, reduce human error, and increase standardization, ensuring accurate and reliable results. Examples of diagnostic reagent kits include those used for pregnancy tests, infectious disease screening, drug testing, genetic testing, and cancer biomarker detection.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

In the context of medical research, "methods" refers to the specific procedures or techniques used in conducting a study or experiment. This includes details on how data was collected, what measurements were taken, and what statistical analyses were performed. The methods section of a medical paper allows other researchers to replicate the study if they choose to do so. It is considered one of the key components of a well-written research article, as it provides transparency and helps establish the validity of the findings.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

Anaerobiosis is a state in which an organism or a portion of an organism is able to live and grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). In biological contexts, "anaerobe" refers to any organism that does not require oxygen for growth, and "aerobe" refers to an organism that does require oxygen for growth.

There are two types of anaerobes: obligate anaerobes, which cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen and will die if exposed to it; and facultative anaerobes, which can grow with or without oxygen but prefer to grow in its absence. Some organisms are able to switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen, a process known as "facultative anaerobiosis."

Anaerobic respiration is a type of metabolic process that occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen. In this process, organisms use alternative electron acceptors other than oxygen to generate energy through the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration. Examples of alternative electron acceptors include nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic metabolism is less efficient than aerobic metabolism in terms of energy production, but it allows organisms to survive in environments where oxygen is not available or is toxic. Anaerobic bacteria are important decomposers in many ecosystems, breaking down organic matter and releasing nutrients back into the environment. In the human body, anaerobic bacteria can cause infections and other health problems if they proliferate in areas with low oxygen levels, such as the mouth, intestines, or deep tissue wounds.

Sputum is defined as a mixture of saliva and phlegm that is expelled from the respiratory tract during coughing, sneezing or deep breathing. It can be clear, mucoid, or purulent (containing pus) depending on the underlying cause of the respiratory issue. Examination of sputum can help diagnose various respiratory conditions such as infections, inflammation, or other lung diseases.

Bacterial infections are caused by the invasion and multiplication of bacteria in or on tissues of the body. These infections can range from mild, like a common cold, to severe, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. The symptoms of a bacterial infection depend on the type of bacteria invading the body and the area of the body that is affected.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can live in many different environments, including in the human body. While some bacteria are beneficial to humans and help with digestion or protect against harmful pathogens, others can cause illness and disease. When bacteria invade the body, they can release toxins and other harmful substances that damage tissues and trigger an immune response.

Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, making treatment more difficult. It is also essential to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that all bacteria are eliminated and reduce the risk of recurrence or development of antibiotic resistance.

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its own tissues and organs. It is characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (systemic inflammation) that can lead to blood clotting issues, tissue damage, and multiple organ failure.

Sepsis happens when an infection you already have triggers a chain reaction throughout your body. Infections that lead to sepsis most often start in the lungs, urinary tract, skin, or gastrointestinal tract.

Sepsis is a medical emergency. If you suspect sepsis, seek immediate medical attention. Early recognition and treatment of sepsis are crucial to improve outcomes. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, intravenous fluids, and may require oxygen, medication to raise blood pressure, and corticosteroids. In severe cases, surgery may be required to clear the infection.

Hemolysis is the destruction or breakdown of red blood cells, resulting in the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding fluid (plasma). This process can occur due to various reasons such as chemical agents, infections, autoimmune disorders, mechanical trauma, or genetic abnormalities. Hemolysis may lead to anemia and jaundice, among other complications. It is essential to monitor hemolysis levels in patients undergoing medical treatments that might cause this condition.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other animals. Many species of Staphylococcus can cause infections in humans, but the most notable is Staphylococcus aureus, which is responsible for a wide range of illnesses, from minor skin infections to life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, endocarditis, and sepsis.

Staphylococcus species are non-motile, non-spore forming, and typically occur in grape-like clusters when viewed under a microscope. They can be coagulase-positive or coagulase-negative, with S. aureus being the most well-known coagulase-positive species. Coagulase is an enzyme that causes the clotting of plasma, and its presence is often used to differentiate S. aureus from other Staphylococcus species.

These bacteria are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, including penicillin, due to the production of beta-lactamases. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a particularly problematic strain that has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics and can cause severe, difficult-to-treat infections.

Proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, and environmental cleaning are crucial measures for preventing the spread of Staphylococcus in healthcare settings and the community.

Coculture techniques refer to a type of experimental setup in which two or more different types of cells or organisms are grown and studied together in a shared culture medium. This method allows researchers to examine the interactions between different cell types or species under controlled conditions, and to study how these interactions may influence various biological processes such as growth, gene expression, metabolism, and signal transduction.

Coculture techniques can be used to investigate a wide range of biological phenomena, including the effects of host-microbe interactions on human health and disease, the impact of different cell types on tissue development and homeostasis, and the role of microbial communities in shaping ecosystems. These techniques can also be used to test the efficacy and safety of new drugs or therapies by examining their effects on cells grown in coculture with other relevant cell types.

There are several different ways to establish cocultures, depending on the specific research question and experimental goals. Some common methods include:

1. Mixed cultures: In this approach, two or more cell types are simply mixed together in a culture dish or flask and allowed to grow and interact freely.
2. Cell-layer cultures: Here, one cell type is grown on a porous membrane or other support structure, while the second cell type is grown on top of it, forming a layered coculture.
3. Conditioned media cultures: In this case, one cell type is grown to confluence and its culture medium is collected and then used to grow a second cell type. This allows the second cell type to be exposed to any factors secreted by the first cell type into the medium.
4. Microfluidic cocultures: These involve growing cells in microfabricated channels or chambers, which allow for precise control over the spatial arrangement and flow of nutrients, waste products, and signaling molecules between different cell types.

Overall, coculture techniques provide a powerful tool for studying complex biological systems and gaining insights into the mechanisms that underlie various physiological and pathological processes.

Tissue engineering is a branch of biomedical engineering that combines the principles of engineering, materials science, and biological sciences to develop functional substitutes for damaged or diseased tissues and organs. It involves the creation of living, three-dimensional structures that can restore, maintain, or improve tissue function. This is typically accomplished through the use of cells, scaffolds (biodegradable matrices), and biologically active molecules. The goal of tissue engineering is to develop biological substitutes that can ultimately restore normal function and structure in damaged tissues or organs.

A Colony-Forming Units (CFU) assay is a type of laboratory test used to measure the number of viable, or living, cells in a sample. It is commonly used to enumerate bacteria, yeast, and other microorganisms. The test involves placing a known volume of the sample onto a nutrient-agar plate, which provides a solid growth surface for the cells. The plate is then incubated under conditions that allow the cells to grow and form colonies. Each colony that forms on the plate represents a single viable cell from the original sample. By counting the number of colonies and multiplying by the known volume of the sample, the total number of viable cells in the sample can be calculated. This information is useful in a variety of applications, including monitoring microbial populations, assessing the effectiveness of disinfection procedures, and studying microbial growth and survival.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), stem cells are "initial cells" or "precursor cells" that have the ability to differentiate into many different cell types in the body. They can also divide without limit to replenish other cells for as long as the person or animal is still alive.

There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which come from human embryos, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. Embryonic stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all cell types in the body, while adult stem cells have more limited differentiation potential.

Stem cells play an essential role in the development and repair of various tissues and organs in the body. They are currently being studied for their potential use in the treatment of a wide range of diseases and conditions, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and neurological disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the properties and capabilities of these cells before they can be used safely and effectively in clinical settings.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Cell culture techniques, Microfluidics). ... culture cells as well as perform many other important ... Young EW, Beebe DJ (March 2010). "Fundamentals of microfluidic cell culture in controlled microenvironments". Chem Soc Rev. 39 ... "Microfluidic stochastic confinement enhances analysis of rare cells by isolating cells and creating high density environments ... This technique is relatively cheap and can be used to make nearly any architecture used in microfluidic experiments. Depending ...
Cell culture techniques, Microbiology techniques). ... The technique was first described in 1938 by Miles, Misra and ... The Miles and Misra Method (or surface viable count) is a technique used in Microbiology to determine the number of colony ...
Cell biology, Cell culture techniques). ... Cell fusion is a necessary event in the maturation of cells so ... This leads to cell fusion since PEG induces cell agglutination and cell-to-cell contact. Though this type of cell fusion is the ... Polyethylene glycol cell fusion is the simplest, but most toxic, way to fuse cells. In this type of cell fusion polyethylene ... Cell fusion is an important cellular process in which several uninucleate cells (cells with a single nucleus) combine to form a ...
Phelan K, May KM (March 2015). "Basic techniques in mammalian cell tissue culture". Current Protocols in Cell Biology. 66 (1): ... ISBN 978-0-471-19350-0. Schantz JT, Ng KW (2004). A manual for primary human cell culture. World Scientific. p. 89. Comroe JH ( ... is used in a standard antibiotic cocktail to prevent bacterial infection in cell culture. When purifying protein from a ... This results in an unstable ribosomal-mRNA complex, leading to premature stopping of protein synthesis, leading to cell death. ...
ISBN 978-4-320-05386-1. "Main Types of Cell Culture". Fundamental Techniques in Cell Culture: a Laboratory Handbook. Retrieved ... Vero cells are a lineage of cells used in cell cultures. The 'Vero' lineage was isolated from kidney epithelial cells extracted ... F6B1.1) HeLa cells Immortalised cell line History and Characterization of the Vero Cell Line -- A Report prepared by CDR ... Shimizu B (1993). Seno K, Koyama H, Kuroki T (eds.). Manual of selected cultured cell lines for bioscience and biotechnology ( ...
v t e (Cell culture techniques, Biopharmaceuticals, All stub articles, Pharmacology stubs). ... The Sf9 cell line is one of the most commonly used lines in insect cell culture. Drugmand, Jean-Christophe; Schneider, Yves- ... Insects cell lines are commonly used in place of prokaryotic ones because post-translational modifications of proteins are ... The use of insect cell lines as production hosts is an emerging technology for the production of bio pharmaceuticals. There are ...
Investigations into the Nature of Human Acute Leukaemia Using Cell Culture Techniques. (PhD thesis). Queen Mary, ... In 2008 Balkwill was awarded an Order of the British Empire (OBE). Balkwill's books for children Cells are Us and Cell Wars won ... Watt, Fiona (1 April 2005). "Women in Cell Science". Journal of Cell Science. The Company of Biologists. 118 (Pt 7): 1339-40. ... She obtained a BSc in Cellular Pathology at the University of Bristol and a PhD on leukaemia cell biology in the Medical ...
Freshney IR (2005-07-29). Culture of Animal Cells: A manual of basic technique. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ... Cells containing vector with an insert may be identified using blue/white selection by growing cells in media containing an ... Insertion of a vector into the target cell is usually called transformation for bacterial cells, transfection for eukaryotic ... The purpose of a vector which transfers genetic information to another cell is typically to isolate, multiply, or express the ...
Introduction to Cell and Tissue Culture: Theory and Technique. Plenum Press. New York City and London. (Articles with short ... The decrease in viable cells after plating is due to "anchorage-dependence"--cells must attach to the bottom of the culture ... cells inoculated}}}}\times 100} The first method is more accurate. Cell growth in culture generally undergoes a decline after ... cells plated on day 0 × 100 {\displaystyle \mathrm {PE} ={\frac {\#\,{\text{cells on day 1}}}{\#\,{\text{cells plated on day 0 ...
They were the first calves to be produced using standard cell-culturing techniques. In 2001, Brazil cloned their first heifer, ... 24 January 2018). "Cloning of Macaque Monkeys by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer". Cell. 172 (4): 881-887.e7. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... In 1986, the first mouse was cloned in the Soviet Union from an embryo cell. The first mouse from adult cells, Cumulina, was ... However, the cloning was done from early embryonic cells, while the sheep Dolly in 1996 was cloned from an adult cell. Megan ...
For this technique, suspension cultured cells of tobacco (e.g.: NT1 or BY2 cell lines of Nicotiana tabacum) are immobilised by ... Transient expression in cultured plant cell packs is a new procedure, recently patented by the Fraunhofer Institute IVV, ... or even in cultures of plant cells, in order to produce a desired protein. In the method, a suspension of Agrobacterium ... plant cell packs), whereafter the bacteria transfer the desired gene into the plant cells via transfer of T-DNA. The main ...
... and cell composition. The study of cells is performed using several microscopy techniques, cell culture, and cell fractionation ... Many techniques commonly used to study cell biology are listed below: Cell culture: Utilizes rapidly growing cells on media ... Direct cell-cell contact is when a receptor on a cell binds a molecule that is attached to the membrane of another cell. ... Cell signaling or cell communication is important for cell regulation and for cells to process information from the environment ...
A study of biopsy techniques and cell culturing techniques from extraembryonic membrane. Clin.Genet., 6, 294-306 Meena ... Development of techniques for early sampling of foetal cells. Acta Pathologica Microbiologic. Scandinavia 73: 7377 Hahnemann, N ...
Sterile pyuria is urine which contains white blood cells while appearing sterile by standard culturing techniques. It is often ... Pyuria is the condition of urine containing white blood cells or pus. Defined as the presence of 6-10 or more neutrophils per ... the number of bacteria in a culture is > 10^5) and other symptoms associated with passing urine. The presence of leukocyturia ... caused by sexually transmitted infections, such as gonorrhea, or viruses which will not grow in bacterial cultures. Sterile ...
... Basics - Introduction to cell culture, covering topics such as laboratory set-up, safety and aseptic technique ... Cancer Cells in Culture Evolution of Cell Culture Surfaces Hypertext version of the Cell Line Data Base Cell Culture ... Plant cell lines Tobacco BY-2 cells (kept as cell suspension culture, they are model system of plant cell) Other species cell ... cells Cell-to-cell contact can stimulate cell cycle arrest, causing cells to stop dividing, known as contact inhibition. Cell- ...
Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Laboratory techniques, Botany, Cell culture ... is a plant growth medium used in the laboratories for cultivation of plant cell culture. MS0 was invented by plant scientists ... However, according to recent scientific findings, MS medium is not suitable as a nutrient solution for deep water culture or ... Along with its modifications, it is the most commonly used medium in plant tissue culture experiments in the laboratory. ...
Capes-Davis, Amanda; Freshney, R. Ian (2021). Freshney's Culture of Animal Cells: A Manual of Basic Technique and Specialized ... 3T3 cells are several cell lines of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The original 3T3 cell line (3T3-Swiss albino) was established ... These cells are also contact inhibited. The cells are sensitive to sarcoma virus and leukemia virus focus formation. 3T3 cells ... This cell line was originally established from the primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells that were cultured by the ...
"Biocompatibility of microplates for culturing epithelial renal cells evaluated by a microcalorimetric technique". Journal of ... the size of the donor animal has no effect on the metabolic rate of the cell when cultured in vitro. Mammalian cells in culture ... Degradation of a culture medium in which metabolism and growth of living cells is being studied. Thus great care must be taken ... 33,000 cells is detectable. Based on this sensitivity, IMC was used to perform a large number of pioneering studies of cultured ...
Culture of Animal Cells: A Manual of Basic Technique and Specialized Applications, Sixth Edition Animal-cell culture media: ... was an American cell biologist known for his research in cell culture techniques and carcinogenesis. Born in Greenville, South ... Capes-Davis, Amanda (17 March 2021). Freshney's culture of animal cells : a manual of basic technique and specialized ... He established the first continuous cell line derived from mouse fibroblast (L-cells) and later also the first clonal cell line ...
Cell culture techniques make it possible to produce epithelial sheets for the replacement of damaged oral mucosa. Partial- ... This early use of electrospun lattices for cell culture and tissue engineering showed that various cell types would adhere to ... Allogeneic cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts in bovine collagen (Gintuit) is the first cell-based product made from ... It was noted that as opposed to the flattened morphology typically seen in 2D culture, cells grown on the electrospun fibers ...
... transgenic cells, and macrophages. Freshney, R. Ian (2010). Culture of animal cells : a manual of basic technique and ... cell culture. A suspension of the parent cells is made. Appropriate dilutions are then made, depending on cell number in the ... 2011). Animal cell culture. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 239-240. ISBN 978047066658-6. Butterworth, Alice S; Robertson, Alan J ... "Transgenic expression of HLA-E single chain trimer protects porcine endothelial cells against human natural killer cell- ...
Together they worked on a technique to insert foreign DNA in cultured human cells. The technique of calcium phosphate ... With Graham's contributions in transfection of the cells with the adenovirus 5 this led to the cell line of HEK 293 cells. HEK ... In 1972 van der Eb obtained and managed to culture embryonic kidney cells from an aborted or miscarried human foetus. ... fundamental in the creation of the technique of calcium phosphate transfection and the founding of the HEK 293 and PER.C6 cell ...
Freshney, R. Ian (2010). Culture of animal cells : a manual of basic technique and specialized applications (6th ed.). Hoboken ... The Mouse Fibroblast Cultures and Changes Seen in the Living Cells". JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 4 (2): 165 ... It is a base of many cell culture media. Earle, Wilton R.; Schilling, Edward L.; Stark, Thomas H.; Straus, Nancy P.; Brown, ...
New and Old Techniques in Cell and Developmental Biology. 91 (4): 50-56. doi:10.1016/j.diff.2016.01.008. ISSN 0301-4681. PMID ... The media used for a growing organ culture are generally the same as those used for tissue culture. The techniques for organ ... Cell culture Tissue culture 3D bioprinting Hoshino, Takao (1981-01-01), Fedoroff, Sergey; Hertz, Leif (eds.), Cellular Aspects ... The following are four techniques employed for embryonic organ culture. The following are general steps in organ culture on ...
Different techniques are used to automate patch clamp recordings from cells in cell culture and in vivo. This work has been ... Another technique automates the positioning of patch clamping cells in cultures. It uses a nanopipette on a precise, piezo- ... Because the cells are dissociated from one another in suspension cultures, the ionic currents in a single cell can be measured ... Because handling cells in suspension is much easier than handling cells in culture or in vivo, patch clamp recordings can be ...
His lab utilizes novel cell culturing and imaging techniques to study metastasis in real-time. His lab is known for having ... Some of Ewald's research is focused on the cancer cell microenvironment and how it communicates with other cells. His research ... Ewald developed an innovative light microscopy method to study cell-to-cell movement that he calls 4-D Confocal Microscopy. ... He uses 3D gels that imitate the behavior of the collagen matrix in the human body to test its interaction with cancer cells. ...
One of the simplest methods involves using calcium phosphate to bind the DNA and then exposing it to cultured cells. The ... There are many ways to directly introduce DNA into animal cells in vitro. Often these cells are stem cells that are used for ... If successful, the technique produces an adult plant that contains the transgene in every cell. In animals it is necessary to ... which forces the DNA to enter the cells through either cell pores or the damaged cell wall. Electroporation is another method ...
Two major alternatives to in vivo animal testing are in vitro cell culture techniques and in silico computer simulation. ... Cell culture can be an alternative to animal use in some cases. For example, cultured cells have been developed to create ... Tumoroids-3D cell cultures derived from cells biopsied from human patients-can be used in studying the genomics and drug ... However, even though cell or tissue culture methods may reduce the number of experiments performed on intact animals, the ...
... such as the culturing of parasitized cells). Since cells are too small for certain research techniques, a synchronous culture ... A synchronous or synchronized culture is a microbiological culture or a cell culture that contains cells that are all in the ... normal cultures have cells in all stages of the cell cycle. Obtaining a culture with a unified cell-cycle stage is useful for ... Cells in different growth stages have different physical properties. Cells in a culture can thus be physically separated based ...
This technique has helped improve the study of cell patterning that was not possible with traditional cell culture techniques. ... Once the ink has been applied to the substrate the SAM layer acts as a resist to common wet etching techniques allowing for the ... The reduction in time and DNA material are the critical advantages for using this technique. The stamps were able to be used ... Contact Inking: as opposed to wet inking this technique does not permeate the PDMS bulk. The ink molecules only contact the ...
... the influence of Margaret Reed Lewis for the formulation of cell culture media and development of tissue culture techniques. ... instrumental in devising standardized tissue culture techniques and developing commercial media and products for cell culture. ... She ran its annual course on the techniques, application and philosophy of tissue culture. As part of her work with this group ... The organization's goal was to promote the development of tissue culture techniques to solve problems in biology and medicine. ...
Learn more about our academic programs, campus life, and financial aid ...
... and theoretical knowledge of key techniques to perform cell culture. ... This course provides students with a sound, practical, and theoretical knowledge of key techniques to perform cell culture. Co- ...
... the hub for all things cell culture - launched by Corning Life Sciences. ... Find the latest cell culture news and information for your lab at Nucleus, ... At The Bench , Cell Culture Lab Techniques and Best Practices from the Nucleus Cell Culture Blog , Corning. ... Cryopreservation of cells and cell lines is a key technique in 3D cell culture. ...
This article on cell culture basics describes different techniques such as adherent vs suspension and 2D vs 3D methods. ... What is cell culture? Cell culture Cell culture refers to the process of growing cells under controlled conditions outside ... CH/en/technical-documents/technical-article/cell-culture-and-cell-culture-analysis/mammalian-cell-culture/cell-culture- ... Cell culture techniques. Adherent vs. suspension cultures. There are two basic systems for growing cells: adherent and ...
3D models provide a more accurate representation of cells in vivo and are more stable than 2D cultures, making them very ... Culturing cells in three dimensions allows more physiologically relevant observations to be made regarding cellular ... Cell / Tissue Culture *Cell Adhesion Assays *Cell Lines, Stem Cells and Primary Cells *Cell-Based Assays *DNA / RNA Extraction ... 3D Cell Culture. Culturing cells in three dimensions allows more physiologically relevant observations to be made regarding ...
Cells were covered with an inert oil to prevent their dehydration, and some cells were cultured from metaphase I to tetrad cell ... Reliable techniques for the living cell culture and correlative light and electron microscopy (EM) of meiotic pollen mother ... The Culture and Correlative Electron Microscopy of Pollen Mother Cells in Meiosis: Development of Techniques and Some ... The Culture and Correlative Electron Microscopy of Pollen Mother Cells in Meiosis: Development of Techniques and Some ...
... a range of molecular mechanisms deconstructed by studying cancer cells in 3D models suggest that tumor cells cultured in two- ... These 3D cell culture models are particularly beneficial for investigating mechanistic processes and drug resistance in tumor ... These 3D cell culture models are particularly beneficial for investigating mechanistic processes and drug resistance in tumor ... Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of utilizing 3D cell culture models in drug discovery programs; however, it is ...
A detailed list of our techniques and protocols for the sake of transparency, reliability, and replicability of our research ... Cell culture techniques. Splitting Cells Splitting cells (transferring cells from one flask to a new one) is essential to ... Plating Cells This explains the process of cell counting to determine concentration and the plating of cells in to 12 well ... If there are any questions or suggestions to better clarify our techniques, feel free to contact us. We are happy to work ...
Techniques for Cell Culture Improvement. February 15, 2007. Insights. Embryonic Stem Cells: Not Just From Humans. February 15, ...
Rapid Cell Culture Assay Technique for Murine Leukaemia Viruses. scientific article published on February 19, 1971 ... Mixed culture cytopathogenicity: a new test for growth of murine leukemia viruses in tissue culture ...
... what are the other plant conservation techniques? Click here to learn all about the ex situ techniques used to preserve plant ... How Plant Cell Technology Is Helping Culturists Worldwide In Their Tissue Culture Application?. Plant Cell Technology is ... Got a Plant Tissue Culture or Plant Cell Technology story to share?. Anjali Singh, MS. Wed love to hear from you! Send your ... 2023 Plant Cell Technology, All rights reserved. , Your partner in plant tissue culture , Custom Bigcommerce Stencil Theme - ...
Tailor-made cancer treatments? New cell culture technique paves the way. By R&D Editors , December 19, 2014. ... The technique may also bring doctors closer to their goal of capturing cancer cells for diagnosis with a quick, non-invasive " ... The capture and culture process starts with a microfluidic chip device that captures cancer cells as a blood sample is pumped ... The new capture and culture method changes this by providing a reliable way to get usable numbers of circulating tumor cells ...
Multifrequency Impedance Measurement Technique for Wireless Characterization of Microbiological Cell Cultures. in: Review of ... Multifrequency Impedance Measurement Technique for Wireless Characterization of Microbiological Cell Cultures. J Wissenwasser, ... Multifrequency Impedance Measurement Technique for Wireless Characterization of Microbiological Cell Cultures. / Wissenwasser, ... title = "Multifrequency Impedance Measurement Technique for Wireless Characterization of Microbiological Cell Cultures", ...
Cell and Tissue Culture Techniques. This course provides students with a sound, practical, and theoretical knowledge of key ... Part three of the series will include basic chemistry techniques and some more advanced instrumentation used in the… ...
Cell Lines and Culture Techniques.. The human prostate cancer cell line DU-145 (doubling time, 16-20 h) was routinely ... Each derivative protected both parental and OAZ-transfected DU-145 cells from X-ray-induced cell killing at 37°C. When cultures ... DU-145 cells or clonally selected DU-145 cells transfected with the HSP70 promoter-OAZ construct (DU-CB cells) were seeded in T ... DU-145 cells or clonally selected DU-145 cells transfected with the HSP70 promoter-OAZ construct (DU-CB cells) were seeded in T ...
Demonstrate aseptic cell culture techniques. *Perform transformation into a bacterial cell. *Perform transfection into a ... Use frequency domain techniques to design controllers.. *Estimate time response of systems to impulse, step, ramp, and ... Use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for civil engineering practice. ... Draw the pole-zero diagram and the root loci, and use root locus techniques to design controllers. ...
... culture duration or splitting methods, some hESC lines are inherently more prone than others to karyotypic ins … ... conditions may partially contribute to hESC chromosomal changes but also confirm the hypothesis that regardless of the culture ... Cell Culture Techniques * Cell Line * Embryonic Stem Cells / ultrastructure* * Genomic Instability* * Humans ... this karyotypic aberration did not confer selective advantage to the genetically abnormal cells within the bulk culture and the ...
3D cell culture technique. The technique, called Modular Neuronal Network (MoNNet), allows researchers to model highly complex ... Tomer lab introduces "brain-in-a-dish" 3D cell culture technique in Nature Communications paper ... Tomer lab introduces "brain-in-a-dish" 3D cell culture technique in Nature Communications paper ... performing systematic optimization of established cell culture techniques, and discovered a methodology that allowed a cluster ...
Cell Culture Techniques * Female * Gene Knockout Techniques / methods* * Lung / embryology* * Lung / pathology ... 2 Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 29202, USA. ...
Cell Culture Techniques. 10,000+ publications. Bioinformatics. 10,000+ publications. Education. 10,000+ publications. Training ...
Cell and tissue culture techniques,. *Production and purification of agronomic relevant proteins in different expression ... Current topics in cell biology and biochemistry of plants (e.g. chromatin, signalling, cell polarity, cell-cell communication ... Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology of Plants. Prof. Dr. Thomas Dresselhaus. Plant Biotechnology. Prof. Dr. Thomas ... and cell fusion);. *Current topics in plant biotechnology (e.g. transformation methods and tissue culture, breeding traits and ...
Application of modified fluorophore-assisted light inactivation technique in nervous system cell and explant cultures Article ... Application of modified fluorophore-assisted light inactivation technique in nervous system cell and explant cultures. Medical ... In order to apply the FALI technique to culture systems over a long period of time, we established a simple and easy-to-use ... Functional proteomic screens reveal an essential extracellular role for hsp90 alpha in cancer cell invasiveness. Nature Cell ...
The percentage of neurons in the neuron glia co-culture was increased without affecting the total number of cells, indicating ... The percentage of neurons in the neuron glia co-culture was increased without affecting the total number of cells, indicating ... Cell Culture Techniques. New York: Humana Press, c/o Springer Science + Business Media (2011). 467 p. ... a division of GABAergic cell types is controlling network activities in hippocampus (53-55). Those GABAergic cells in a cell- ...
Generation of patterned cell co-cultures in silicone tubing using a microelectrode technique and electrostatic assembly. In: ... Generation of patterned cell co-cultures in silicone tubing using a microelectrode technique and electrostatic assembly. Annual ... Generation of patterned cell co-cultures in silicone tubing using a microelectrode technique and electrostatic assembly. / Kaji ... Generation of patterned cell co-cultures in silicone tubing using a microelectrode technique and electrostatic assembly.. ...
An Economic Comparison of Three Cell Culture Techniques. Comparing the economic feasibility of a typical glycosylated protein. ... View MoreAnalytical MethodsBioBusinessCell Culture/FermentationContinuous ProcessingDrug DeliveryFill/FinishFormulationProcess ... The Use of the ATF System to Culture Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells in a Concentrated Fed-Batch System. ... Analytical MethodsBioBusinessCell Culture/FermentationContinuous ProcessingDrug DeliveryFill/FinishFormulationProcess ...
Cell culture techniques, Microfluidics). ... culture cells as well as perform many other important ... Young EW, Beebe DJ (March 2010). "Fundamentals of microfluidic cell culture in controlled microenvironments". Chem Soc Rev. 39 ... "Microfluidic stochastic confinement enhances analysis of rare cells by isolating cells and creating high density environments ... This technique is relatively cheap and can be used to make nearly any architecture used in microfluidic experiments. Depending ...
Reporting Update on the Re-implantation of Culture-Expanded Mesenchymal Stem Cells using Autologous Platelet Lysate Technique. ... We may use your own platelets/PRP and/or bone marrow concentrate (containing your own live stem cells) via regenerative ... medicine techniques to promote healing and relieve pain. Our goal is to help our patients return to their active lifestyles as ...
The Scientist brings together a panel of experts to discuss challenges and strategies for optimizing your pluripotent stem cell ... Techniques for optimizing cell-culture conditions. * Considerations for controlling media systems moving towards clinical ... Pluripotent stem cells, both induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells, represent an attractive, physiologically ... Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture: Challenges and Strategies. The Scientist brings together a panel of experts to discuss ...
Adult stem cell isolation and tissue culture techniques. *Microscopy including Fluorescence and Time Lapse ... Curtis, A. S.G., Reid, S., Martin, I. , Vaidyanathan, R., Smith, C.-A. , Nikukar, H. and Dalby, M. J. (2013) Cell interactions ... Curtis, A. S.G., Reid, S., Martin, I. , Vaidyanathan, R., Smith, C.-A. , Nikukar, H. and Dalby, M. J. (2013) Cell interactions ... Casson, J., Davies, O. G., Smith, C.-A. , Dalby, M. J. and Berry, C. C. (2018) Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular ...
Professor for cell culture techniques and molecular biology at Hamburg University of Applied Sciences - since 2020 ... Cell reports, 26, 250-265 e255.. Béthune, J., Jansen, R.P., Feldbrugge, M. and Zarnack, K. (2019) Membrane-Associated RNA- ... Trends in cell biology, 29, 178-188.. Egetemaier, S. and Béthune, J. (2019). Proteomik-Analyse von dynamischen Proteinkomplexen ... A paralog-specific role of COPI vesicles in the neuronal differentiation of mouse pluripotent cells. Life Science Alliance, 3, ...
  • 4 In cell culture assays, a large proportion of the reproducibility issues come from biological variation between passages or generations of cells. (
  • Because cells in vivo interact with their environment in three dimensions, 3D cell culture tools, reagents, and techniques have led to the creation of more predictive in vitro cell models for diverse applications and disciplines including cancer research, drug discovery, neuroscience, and regenerative medicine. (
  • We may use your own platelets/PRP and/or bone marrow concentrate (containing your own live stem cells) via regenerative medicine techniques to promote healing and relieve pain. (
  • While most experiments in the 20th century were 2D-based (in 2D cultures cells are grown on a flat surface, such as the bottom of a petri dish or flask), the end of twentieth century and early twenty‐first century brought the progress in 3D cell culture technology and created the possibility of the tissue engineering and the regenerative medicine development. (
  • In the first half of 2021, more than $250 million flowed into cell-meat startups, Bloomberg reports . (
  • Batch Cell Culture Techniques" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Batch Cell Culture Techniques" by people in this website by year, and whether "Batch Cell Culture Techniques" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Batch Cell Culture Techniques" by people in Profiles. (
  • An adherent vessel preserves cell biology, but a cell suspension culture yields scale. (
  • It is an in vitro tool that aids the understanding of cell biology and the mechanisms of diseases. (
  • Nature Cell Biology. (
  • The main advantages achieved through miniaturization of sample volume with regards to chemical biology applications include the ability to perform high-throughput experiments using a minimum of sample, the means to isolate, amplify and detect rare events from a complex mixture, and the resources to perturb the environment of a cellular sample at the scale of the cell itself. (
  • Trends in cell biology , 29, 178-188. (
  • In addition to relevant experience in cell biology (obtained during PhD and/or postdoctoral studies) the candidate should have excellent project management and communication skills. (
  • Our results showed that beginning at four months, nFe2O3-exposed Beas2B underwent neoplastic-like transformation, as indicated by increased cell proliferation and attachment-independent colony formation. (
  • On the other hand, for primary teeth, enzymatic digestion always promoted a higher cell proliferation. (
  • 3D Cell Culture: Tumor-specific cancer treatments, org. (
  • However, modeling the complexity of cancer utilizing these cell lines on standard plastic substrata, does not accurately represent the tumor microenvironment. (
  • Research into developing advanced tumor cell culture models in a three-dimensional (3D) architecture that more prescisely characterizes the disease state have been undertaken by a number of laboratories around the world. (
  • These 3D cell culture models are particularly beneficial for investigating mechanistic processes and drug resistance in tumor cells. (
  • In addition, a range of molecular mechanisms deconstructed by studying cancer cells in 3D models suggest that tumor cells cultured in two-dimensional monolayer conditions do not respond to cancer therapeutics/compounds in a similar manner. (
  • Researchers say it's a major step forward in the study of circulating tumor cells, which are shed from tumors and circulate through the blood of cancer patients. (
  • The new capture and culture method changes this by providing a reliable way to get usable numbers of circulating tumor cells from even early-stage patients. (
  • The American embryologist Ross Granville Harrison developed the first in vitro cell culture technique at the very beginning of the twentieth century, when he successfully grew tissue fragments from frog embryos outside the body. (
  • And because the cells circulate in the blood, they can be gathered with a blood draw rather than a more invasive tissue biopsy. (
  • The technique may also bring doctors closer to their goal of capturing cancer cells for diagnosis with a quick, non-invasive "blood biopsy" instead of the tissue biopsies that are currently used. (
  • Furthermore, continuous FALI of Nrp2 for 24 hours in developing neural tissue resulted in a significant reduction of Sema3F binding to Nrp2 expressing lateral olfactory tract (LOT) in organotypic culture of mouse telencephalon without any detrimental effects on LOT development. (
  • The controlled co-cultures inside the elastic tubing should be of value for cell-cell interaction studies following application of chemical or mechanical stimuli and for tissue engineering-based bioreactors. (
  • The endothelial cells form contacts with each other and attach to their synthetic tissue environment in the channel, thus forming a parent blood vessel after about a day," explains Britta Trappmann. (
  • The researchers first enriched the hydrogel tissue framework with varying amounts of peptides that activate a certain type of adhesion molecule found in the membrane of endothelial cells called integrins. (
  • Based on application, the market can be segmented into biopharmaceutical manufacturing, tissue culture and engineering, gene therapy, cytogenetics and others. (
  • Pulp cells cultures were established by two approaches: enzyme digestion (3 mg/mL type I colagenase and 4 mg/mL dispase), or culture of the tissue explants in cell culture dishes. (
  • 1 Today, cell culture has already helped countless discoveries, such as the development of vaccines against poliomyelitis, measles, mumps and other infectious diseases. (
  • Over the years, cell culture techniques contributed to a broad spectrum of breakthrough discoveries including introduction of new vaccines and medicines. (
  • Mycoplasma contamination is considered to be a potential problem for vaccines that are produced in cell cultures. (
  • Safety and Complications Reporting Update on the Re-implantation of Culture-Expanded Mesenchymal Stem Cells using Autologous Platelet Lysate Technique. (
  • The Scientist brings together a panel of experts to discuss challenges and strategies for optimizing your pluripotent stem cell culture. (
  • Pluripotent stem cells, both induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells, represent an attractive, physiologically relevant cellular system for disease modeling, drug discovery, and cell-based therapy. (
  • Attendees can interact with the experts during the live webinar by asking questions and sharing their experiences using stem cells. (
  • The growth of this market is expected due to the increase in demand for biopharmaceuticals and ongoing stem cell research programs in this region. (
  • The cell population displayed an immunophenotype compatible to the one of stem cells, with remarkable positive expression of CD117. (
  • We introduce chromosome conformation capture protocols for brain and compare higher-order chromatin structures at the chromosome 6p22.2-22.1 schizophrenia and bipolar disorder susceptibility locus, and additional neurodevelopmental risk genes, (DPP10, MCPH1) in adult prefrontal cortex and various cell culture systems, including neurons derived from reprogrammed skin cells. (
  • 9) Sano Y, Watanabe W, Matsunaga S. Choromophore-assisted laser inactivation-towards a spatiotemporal-functional analysis of proteins, and the ablation of chromatin, organelle and cell function. (
  • They covered the chip with microscopic posts that slow and trap cells, then coated it with antibodies that bind to the cancer cells. (
  • We employed a fluorophore-assisted light inactivation (FALI) technique that uses light irradiation to produce photogenerated singlet oxygen free radical damage that is directed at targeted proteins through chromophore-conjugated antibodies. (
  • In 2D applications, adherent cells are grown in a monolayer system on a flat surface, e.g. in a T-flask. (
  • Highly characterized cryopreserved human colonic organoids and a step-by-step organoid culture protocol for epithelial intestinal organoid differentiation from iPS cells. (
  • However, technical challenges persist in the standardization of culture growth conditions and differentiation protocols. (
  • Initially, all these cells are identical, but soon, they start to form the three germ layers, which represent the first stage of differentiation of the developing embryo. (
  • Adherent cultures are grown on an artificial substrate, whereas cells grown in suspension are free-floating in the culture medium. (
  • This is why some experiments are conducted using 3D cultures, which can be grown using scaffold-based or scaffold-free techniques. (
  • When cells are not grown on supports, they may form 3D aggregates called spheroids, which secrete their own ECM to become more like native solid tissues. (
  • They also added cancer-associated fibroblast cells that were grown in the lab of Diane Simeone, surgical director at the Multidisciplinary Pancreatic Cancer Clinic of the U-M Cancer Center. (
  • Different types of cancer cells grown as spheroids in various cell culture media (for details see Peirsman et al. (
  • One of the 3D cell culture techniques used nowadays to provide better insights into cancer related processes such as cancer cell migration, invasion and drug resistance are so called spheroid cultures, cancer cells grown as near-spherical multicellular aggregates. (
  • With the help of New Harvest research fellow Allison Esperanza-building on a 2013 piece from the Atlantic's Alexis Madrigal-I've compiled a list of claims made by companies and research institutions regarding their ambitions for when cell-grown meat will hit the market. (
  • The cultures are grown in a sterile synthetic liquid medium devoid of enriched supplements such as serum. (
  • Culturing cells in three dimensions allows more physiologically relevant observations to be made regarding cellular interactions and gene expression. (
  • A cell culture chamber suitable for various microscopy techniques. (
  • A synthetic hydrogel in which endothelial cells (pink cell nuclei) form new blood vessels that grow from a parent blood vessel (upright on the left). (
  • In one channel, the scientists seed endothelial cells, which line blood vessels in natural tissues. (
  • When this has happened, the scientists deliver a growth factor cocktail of molecules that drive blood vessel growth in natural tissues through the second channel, whereupon the endothelial cells migrate into the hydrogel. (
  • The scientists then wanted to find out which properties of the hydrogel determine whether the migrating endothelial cells actually form new blood vessels. (
  • The higher the concentration of peptides, the more the endothelial cells migrated together through the hydrogel. (
  • The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) has been recognized as a pan-echovirus receptor expressed on intestinal enterocytes (primary site of infection) and liver hepatocytes and microvascular endothelial cells lining the blood-brain barrier (secondary sites of infection). (
  • Scaffold-based 3D methods usually involve growing adherent cells in hydrogel scaffolds. (
  • The TrueGel3D® HTS Hydrogel Plate is a ready-to-use solution to easily establish 3D cell cultures using fully synthetic hydrogels in a simple and automation-compatible manner. (
  • In scaffold-based culture, cells are supported in all dimensions either by an artificial structure or by a polymer network known as a hydrogel. (
  • The scientists, working in a special hydrogel with properties they can change in a controlled manner, first grew a parent blood vessel from human blood vessel lining cells. (
  • Through these capabilities researchers have been able to use microfluidics to crystallize proteins, perform the polymerase chain reaction, sequence DNA, study protein expression of single cells, perturb embryonic development in flies, culture cells as well as perform many other important biological studies. (
  • Junyue Cao, Malte Spielmann and their colleagues describe, which cell types differentiate between days 9.5 and 13.5 of mouse embryonic development, and how they transform into organs. (
  • The cells can't adhere to the walls due to the continuous stirring, so spheroids are formed. (
  • Adhere cells to solid substrates using poly-lysine, which enhances electrostatic interaction between negatively charged ions of the cell membrane and the culture surface. (
  • They investigated the role played by the activation of so-called adhesion molecules in the cell membrane through which cells adhere to their surrounding environment. (
  • Due to their simplicity, 2D techniques can't mimic the cells' in vivo environment, where they usually grow in three dimensional structures with complex cell-to-cell interactions. (
  • 3D models provide a more accurate representation of cells in vivo and are more stable than 2D cultures, making them very useful for long-term studies. (
  • Cells are embedded in hydrogels to simulate the in vivo extracellular matrix. (
  • Though these manufactured supports are less like the in vivo ECM, they may enhance reproducibility and facilitate cell retrieval from the culture. (
  • MoNNet reimagines years of organoid research that traditionally seeks to develop in vivo large-scale cellular interactions and organizations in a cell-culture dish by recapitulating development. (
  • 3D cell culture models may be generally classified into two principal categories based on method: 1) scaffold-based methods using hydrogels or structural scaffolds and 2) scaffold-free approaches using freely floating cell aggregates, typically referred to as spheroids. (
  • Both scaffolded and scaffold-free systems enable interaction in all directions with substrate, other cells, and extracellular factors. (
  • We are happy to work together with fellow researchers to troubleshoot or discuss ways to improve techniques. (
  • The technique ensures the security of food crops and their availability to farmers, breeders, and lab researchers whenever required. (
  • In a development that could lead to a deeper understanding of cancer and better early-stage treatment of the disease, University of Michigan researchers have devised a reliable way to grow a certain type of cancer cells from patients outside the body for study. (
  • The technique, called Modular Neuronal Network (MoNNet), allows researchers to model highly complex learning and memory neuronal networks in order to non-invasively study prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders. (
  • The consortium aims to provide new tools and better guidance for researchers interested in 3D cell culture techniques. (
  • In their study the researchers examined about two million cells, with the RNA of each cell labeled individually with a specially developed method termed sci-RNA-seq. (
  • Together with researchers from Berlin, the American team used this method to study the activity of all cells from mouse embryos at the age of 9.5 to 13.5 days. (
  • Functional proteomic screens reveal an essential extracellular role for hsp90 alpha in cancer cell invasiveness. (
  • This gelatin coating protocol for cell culture applications offers information regarding types of gelatin, surface coverage concentration, and tips for optimization. (
  • Coating surfaces with laminin for culturing cells requires specific conditions for optimal results. (
  • Protocols for coating coverslips to culture neurospheres and general cell culture are included. (
  • Ionic adsorption of poly-L-lysine at the tubular region retaining a heparin coating was used to switch the heparin surface from cell-repellent to cell-adhesive, thereby facilitating the adhesion of a second cell type. (
  • Amorphous silica coating protects against iron oxide nanoparticle -induced cell transformation and genotoxicity. (
  • One set was tested by culture techniques for the presence of live organisms at the Mycoplasma Laboratory, Science Applications International Corporation, National Cancer Institute, Frederick Research and Development Center, Frederick, MD. A commercial nongovernment facility, Charles River Tektagen, tested the second set for mycoplasma DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. (
  • One of the first electrochemical models proposed that the cell membrane exerts linear physicochemical changes ( 12 , 13 ) to assess the EMF parameters for which biological effects might be expected. (
  • Spheroid culture is often favored for high-throughput compound screening in drug development and toxicology, where spheroids present more biologically-relevant models than 2D cultures. (
  • Spheroid culture can be achieved in diverse environments including low-attachment microplates, bioreactors, and microfluidics culture systems. (
  • 1,500 3D spheroid experiments and provides a recommended minimum information for spheroid culture. (
  • Despite the different approaches and techniques, all experiments have one thing in common: it's difficult to grow viable cells in the desired quantity to obtain reproducible results. (
  • Splitting cells (transferring cells from one flask to a new one) is essential to maintain them throughout the week or later move on to plating and future experiments below. (
  • This inherent feature of microfluidic experiments can either lend to the advantages of using microfluidics or it can necessitate further refinement of experimental technique. (
  • This technique is relatively cheap and can be used to make nearly any architecture used in microfluidic experiments. (
  • All-in-one 18 well chamber slide for cost-effective experiments with small cell numbers and low reagent volumes. (
  • Furthermore, rise in the demand for 3D cell culture and increase in the risk of communicable disease will generate great opportunities for the cell culture reagent market. (
  • Poor facilities and infrastructure hampers the growth of the cell culture reagent market. (
  • Globally, the cell culture reagent market can be segmented on the basis of product, application, end user and region. (
  • North America is the most dominant region in the global cell culture reagent market in terms of revenue, this is because the region has the most developed healthcare infrastructure and is engaged in various R&D initiatives. (
  • Cell Suspension Culture or Adherent Surface: Which Is Right for Your Lab? (
  • There are two basic systems for growing cells: adherent and suspension cultures. (
  • While only a few cell types naturally grow in suspension (e.g. lymphocytes), many adherent cell types can be adapted to suspension cultures. (
  • There are two reasons for culturing naturally adherent cells in suspension. (
  • The major downside of suspension cultures is that they require daily cell counts and viability determination to follow growth patterns, whereas adherent cultures can easily be inspected under a microscope. (
  • Adherent cultures can be further divided into 2D and 3D cultures. (
  • Dr. Angeles Rabadan in the Tomer lab spearheaded the project, performing systematic optimization of established cell culture techniques, and discovered a methodology that allowed a cluster of cells in culture to self-organize in a way that resembles the modular adult brain and acquires complex neuronal functions such as neuronal ensembles and local-global network synchrony. (
  • After the fusion of the egg cell with the sperm, the zygote transforms into a cluster of cells by serial cell divisions. (
  • Traditional cell culture was developed on simple, nonporous two-dimensional (2D) surfaces, which facilitated the expansion of this vital technique across the life sciences. (
  • We'll provide you with tips on reproducibility, contamination, viability and automation to help you overcome the major cell culture challenges. (
  • Subsequently, all cell nuclei were extracted and a molecular barcode specific to the respective embryo was introduced to the RNA molecules of each cell. (
  • The percentage of neurons in the neuron glia co-culture was increased without affecting the total number of cells, indicating an enhancement of neurogenesis. (
  • Béthune, J., Artus-Revel, C.G. and Filipowicz, W. (2012) Kinetic analysis reveals successive steps leading to miRNA-mediated silencing in mammalian cells. (
  • Human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas2B) were continuously exposed to nFe2O3 or nano-SiO2 coated nFe2O3 (SiO2-nFe2O3) for up to 6.5 months at an occupationally relevant low dose (0.6 microg/cm2 or 2.88 microg/mL) and evaluated over time for indications of neoplastic-like transformation and its underlying mechanism. (
  • Described in this protocol is the lipofectamine transfection of plated cells with cDNA and/or siRNA. (
  • The first advantage of suspension cultures is that it's easier to passage the cells, as you don't need to detach them from a culture vessel by enzymatic or mechanical dissociation. (
  • A team headed by biomedical engineer Dr Britta Trappmann from the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine in Münster, Germany, has developed a cell culture system in which, for the first time, a functional blood vessel system is able to grow within a framework made of synthetic materials. (
  • Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest. (
  • Finally, we applied the SELT-FALI technique for functional screening of key molecules in LOT development, which resulted in the discovery of a novel functional molecule that functions in LOT formation, and this molecule was termed the lateral olfactory tract usher substance (LOTUS). (
  • Rapid and integrated cell line and process development, comprehensive analytical development and following reliable GMP manufacturing is performed by a highly skilled and experienced team. (
  • However high research and development (R&D) costs, and the unavailability of proper facilities and infrastructure for cell based research are few of the reasons which is limiting the market growth. (
  • In addition, they described 56 developmental trajectories in organ development for different cell types. (
  • Spielmann has spent the last two years as postdoc with Jay Shendure and Cole Trapnell at the University of Washington, Seattle, USA, where he worked on the development of a single cell RNA labeling system. (
  • In order to find out which genes of a cell were active at a certain point of development, the scientists examined the transcriptome. (
  • EVs were first isolated from the feces of asymptomatic children early in the 1950s, soon after the development of cell culture techniques. (
  • Some evidence suggests that dissolution of IONP following endocytosis into cells may disrupt iron homeostasis, resulting in genotoxicity and neoplastic-like cellular transformation. (
  • They then investigated how the material properties of the artificial cell environment influenced the formation of additional blood vessels and fine-tuned them. (
  • Living PMCs were successfully cultured in a slide chamber on agar/sucrose medium. (
  • The new technique is more than three times as effective as previous methods. (
  • It grew new cells from 73 percent of the patients in a recent study, more than three times the success rate of previous methods and a first for early-stage cancers. (
  • This study was developed to compare the morphological, proliferative and immunophenotypic profiles of pulp cells from permanent and primary teeth, obtained by two isolation methods. (
  • Chromophore-asssted light inactivation of Halo Tag fusion proteins labeled with eosin in living cells. (
  • In order to mimic the natural environment of cells, many additional biomolecules and cells would have to be integrated into the model system in later steps - these may be signaling proteins, immune cells or cells to stabilize the blood vessels. (
  • These structural proteins are important to determine host range and tropism, and they play a crucial role in delivering the RNA genome into the cytoplasm of new host cells. (
  • Generation of patterned cell co-cultures in silicone tubing using a microelectrode technique and electrostatic assembly. (
  • The combination of the electrode-based technique with electrostatic deposition enabled the formation of patterned co-cultures within the semi-closed tubular structure. (
  • Instead of uploading word docs that can become outdated very quickly, we use as a public medium to share our protocols and techniques. (
  • In contrast, when the scientists blocked integrin function they observed that the cells only migrated individually. (
  • In total, the scientists were able to identify 38 different main cell types and over 500 subtypes. (
  • The vaccine, which is administered subcutaneously over an 18-month schedule, is derived from sterile, acellular filtrates of microaerophilic cultures of the avirulent, nonencapsulated V770-NP1-R strain of Bacillus anthracis . (
  • Secondly, suspension cultures are easier to scale up, as the cell growth is only limited by their concentration in the medium, not by the available surface area. (
  • Forced-floating: a cell suspension is loaded into the wells of a low adhesion polymer-coated microplate. (
  • Hanging drop: a cell suspension is loaded into the wells of a hanging drop plate. (
  • Agitation based: a cell suspension is placed in a rotating bioreactor. (
  • The AGE1.CR.pIX cell line grows in true suspension and has been optimized for viral vaccine production and stability. (
  • To assess the role of the polyamine transport system in radioprotection by amifostine derivatives, human DU-145 prostate cancer cells were transfected with a cDNA that encodes antizyme (OAZ), a polyamine-inducible protein that suppresses polyamine transport under control of a minimal heat shock promoter. (
  • Thus, the FALI technique can be used for protein disruption with temporal resolution. (
  • The cell-adhesive protein fibronectin selectively adsorbed onto the newly exposed surface, making it possible to initiate a localized cell culture. (
  • Cell concentrations and resulting protein concentrations are higher in a concentrated fed-batch process than in a standard fed-batch culture system. (
  • In a July 7 press release , Aleph Farms-the jewel of Israel's bustling alternative-protein sector-vowed to make its cultured meat products publicly available in 2022. (
  • Choose your target audience from a list of available market segments: Cell-Based Techniques, Genomics/Genetic Techniques, Protein Techniques. (
  • Human cancer cell lines are an integral part of drug discovery practices. (
  • But progress has been slow, largely because the cells are rare in early-stage cancer patients. (
  • This culture method gives clinicians a way to study each patient's cancer much earlier and much more frequently," Nagrath said. (
  • The capture and culture process starts with a microfluidic chip device that captures cancer cells as a blood sample is pumped across it. (
  • After the cancer cells were captured on the chip, the team pumped in a mixture of collagen and Matrigel growth medium. (
  • The captured cancer cells prospered in the mixture, reproducing additional cells in 73 percent of tested samples. (
  • Primary cancer cells don't grow well on a flat surface, and like people, they need neighbors to really prosper," Nagrath said. (
  • The collagen and Matrigel provide a three-dimensional environment for the cells to grow, while the cancer-associated fibroblasts give them the neighboring cells they need. (
  • Cancer cells change constantly and they can quickly develop resistance to a given treatment," Wicha said. (
  • Monoclonal Anti-MUC1 (mouse IgG1 isotype) is derived from the hybridoma 1D1 produced by the fusion of mouse myeloma cells and splenocytes from BALB/c mice immunized with semi-purified MUC1 from pleural effusion of a breast cancer patient. (
  • EVs cause cytopathic effects in primate cell cultures, although not initially associated with any disease condition. (