Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Mastitis, Bovine: INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Leukocytosis: A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Reticulocyte Count: The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).DairyingC-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Didanosine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.Benzoxazines: OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.Erythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Mastitis: INFLAMMATION of the BREAST, or MAMMARY GLAND.Cytomegalovirus Retinitis: Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.T-Lymphocytopenia, Idiopathic CD4-Positive: Reproducible depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes below 300 per cubic millimeter in the absence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. This is a rare, heterogeneous syndrome and does not appear to be caused by a transmissible agent.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Indinavir: A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Blood Sedimentation: Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.Lymphopenia: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Stavudine: A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.Hematology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.LeukopeniaDouble-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Pneumonia, Pneumocystis: A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Leukapheresis: The preparation of leukocyte concentrates with the return of red cells and leukocyte-poor plasma to the donor.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins: Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Candidiasis, Oral: Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Thrombocytosis: Increased numbers of platelets in the peripheral blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Blood Cells: The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Lopinavir: An HIV protease inhibitor used in a fixed-dose combination with RITONAVIR. It is also an inhibitor of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Eosinophil Granule Proteins: Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Leukemoid Reaction: A peripheral blood picture resembling that of leukemia or indistinguishable from it on the basis of morphologic appearance alone. (Dorland, 27th ed)Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.PyrimidinonesSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Dideoxynucleosides: Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.AIDS-Related Complex: A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Oxazines: Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Mice, Inbred C57BLRandom Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Endothelium, Corneal: Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.Pancytopenia: Deficiency of all three cell elements of the blood, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Appendicitis: Acute inflammation of the APPENDIX. Acute appendicitis is classified as simple, gangrenous, or perforated.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Saquinavir: An HIV protease inhibitor which acts as an analog of an HIV protease cleavage site. It is a highly specific inhibitor of HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases, and also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.

In vitro effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) on bovine cells. (1/11947)

Bovine fetal muscle cells were exposed to culture media containing 2 mg and 20 mg per liter of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) for varying intervals to determine the in vitro response of mammalian cells to this compound. The concentrations of 2,4-D used were comparable to those used in spray programmes although the residues normally found in pasture are much lower since 2,4-D is rapidly degraded under field conditions. Untreated and treated cultures were analyzed for total cell count, mitotic index and the percentages of differentiating and degenerating cells. The response of cultures to treatment was similar irrespective of the concentrations of 2,4-D used although in higher concentrations there was an initial drop in mitotic index. Other changes noted in treated cultures included an increase in differentiating and degenerating cells compared to those in control. The mitotic cells in treated cultures exhibited unipolar and tripolar spindles and a variety of other abnormalities including malorientation of the mitotic apparatus in relation to the axis of the cell. Myoblasts in initial stages of myogenesis were noted to be in mitosis in treated cultures suggesting that 2,4-D may have a stimulatory effect on myoblasts which in normal myogenesis are in post mitotic stage.  (+info)

Urethral response to latex and Silastic catheters. (2/11947)

The reaction of the urethral mucosa to latex and Silastic catheters was compared in two groups of patients undergoing prostatectomy. The bacteriologic response in the two groups differed little; however, Silastic catheters produced less cellular reaction than latex catheters.  (+info)

Electronic volume analysis of L1210 chemotherapy. (3/11947)

The rapid analysis of in vivo chemotherapy on the L1210 ascites tumor grown in C57BL/6 X DBA/2F1 mice has been shown by means of an electronic volume analysis. The drugs were injected on the 4th day of tumor growth, and the cells in the peritoneal cavity were studied at 24-hr intervals on the 5th through 7th day. Using the electronic cell volume distributions, combined with labeling indices, cell morphology, and cell counts, it was found that the alkylating agents. 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and cyclophosphamide, at the dosages used, were more effective than the S-phase-specific drugs, palmitoyl ester of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, vincristine, and methotrexate.  (+info)

Analysis of the effects of food and of digestive secretions on the small intestine of the rat. 1. Mucosal morphology and epithelial replacement. (4/11947)

A modified Roux-en-Y repositioning of rat small intestine was performed so that the proximal segment of bowel (A) received only bile and pancreastic secretions, the second (B) received food direct from the stomach, and these two segments drained into a third (C). Four to five weeks after operation, cell production was assessed by injection of vincristine into operated, sham-operated and unoperated rats, and counts of blocked metaphases were made on isolated microdissected crypts. Villus height, crypt depth, and the number of crypts per villus (crypt/villus ratio) were also measured. Most of segment A showed no significant differences from sham-operated intestine, although the normal proximo-distal gradient of villus height was abolished. At the distal end (near the anastomosis with segments B and C), crypt depth and cell production were increased. The villus height gradient in segment B was also abolished, although crypt depth and cell production were significantly increased, especially at the proximal end. Crypt/villus ratio was also increased. Segment C showed all the characteristics of small bowel promoted to a more proximal position: increased villus height, crypt depth and cell production. Increased crypt/villus ratio was also observed. These results are discussed in terms of the role of food and of digestive secretions in the control of mucosal morphology and epithelial replacement.  (+info)

Transformation of intestinal epithelial cells by chronic TGF-beta1 treatment results in downregulation of the type II TGF-beta receptor and induction of cyclooxygenase-2. (5/11947)

The precise role of TGF-beta in colorectal carcinogenesis is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic alterations caused by chronic exposure to TGF-beta in non-transformed intestinal epithelial (RIE-1) cells. Growth of RIE-1 cells was inhibited by >75% following TGF-beta1 treatment for 7 days, after which the cells resumed a normal growth despite the presence of TGF-beta1. These 'TGF-beta-resistant' cells (RIE-Tr) were continuously exposed to TGF-beta for >50 days. Unlike the parental RIE cells, RIE-Tr cells lost contact inhibition, formed foci in culture, grew in soft agarose. RIE-Tr cells demonstrated TGF-beta-dependent invasive potential in an in vitro assay and were resistant to Matrigel and Na-butyrate-induced apoptosis. The RIE-Tr cells were also tumorigenic in nude mice. The transformed phenotype of RIE-Tr cells was associated with a 95% decrease in the level of the type II TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRII) protein, a 40-fold increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, and 5.9-fold increase in the production of prostacyclin. Most RIE-Tr subclones that expressed low levels of TbetaRII and high levels of COX-2 were tumorigenic. Those subclones that express abundant TbetaRII and low levels of COX-2 were not tumorigenic in nude mice. A selective COX-2 inhibitor inhibited RIE-Tr cell growth in culture and tumor growth in nude mice. The reduced expression of TbetaRII, increased expression of COX-2, and the ability to form colonies in Matrigel were all reversible upon withdrawal of exogenous TGF-beta1 for the RIE-Tr cells.  (+info)

p27 is involved in N-cadherin-mediated contact inhibition of cell growth and S-phase entry. (6/11947)

In this study the direct involvement of cadherins in adhesion-mediated growth inhibition was investigated. It is shown here that overexpression of N-cadherin in CHO cells significantly suppresses their growth rate. Interaction of these cells and two additional fibroblastic lines with synthetic beads coated with N-cadherin ligands (recombinant N-cadherin ectodomain or specific antibodies) leads to growth arrest at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The cadherin-reactive beads inhibit the entry into S phase and the reduction in the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors p21 and p27, following serum-stimulation of starved cells. In exponentially growing cells these beads induce G1 arrest accompanied by elevation in p27 only. We propose that cadherin-mediated signaling is involved in contact inhibition of growth by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and elevation of p27 levels.  (+info)

Gender-related differences in myocyte remodeling in progression to heart failure. (7/11947)

Gender-related differences responsible for the better prognosis of females with heart failure have not been clearly established. To address this issue, we investigated potential gender-related differences in myocyte remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive heart failure rats. Echocardiograms and myocyte growth were compared between males and females at compensated (2, 4, and 6 months) and decompensated (18 months in males and 24 months in females) stages of cardiac hypertrophy. Although left ventricular diastolic dimensions did not differ significantly between failing male and female rats, fractional shortening declined significantly only in failing males. Myocyte cross-sectional area did not change after 4 months of age in both genders, which is likely to be responsible for the absence of a change in left ventricular wall thickness during the progression to heart failure. Myocyte volume and cross-sectional area were significantly larger in males than females at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, although there were no significant differences at the failing stage. Reduced adaptive hypertrophic reserve was observed in males, which is likely to contribute to the higher morbidity and mortality of males with chronic heart failure.  (+info)

Luteal regression in the normally cycling rat: apoptosis, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and inflammatory cell involvement. (8/11947)

In hypophysectomized rats, prolactin induces regression of the corpora lutea. Luteal regression is accompanied by infiltration of monocytes/macrophages, declines in luteal mass and plasma progestins, and increased staining for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). We investigated whether similar events are induced during the estrous cycle, after the proestrous prolactin surge. Rats were killed on proestrus or on estrus, and one ovary was frozen for immunohistochemical detection of MCP-1, monocytes/macrophages (ED1-positive), and differentiated macrophages (ED2-positive) and for in situ detection of apoptotic nuclei. Corpora lutea of the current (proestrus) or preceding (estrus) cycle were dissected from the ovaries of additional rats and frozen for the same analyses and for determination of total protein content. In sections of whole ovaries, intensity and distribution of MCP-1 staining were increased in corpora lutea of multiple ages on estrus as compared to proestrus, as were numbers of differentiated macrophages and apoptotic nuclei per high-power field. Sections of isolated corpora lutea showed these increases on estrus, and the number of monocytes/macrophages per high-power field was also significantly increased. Accompanying these inflammatory/immune events, the corpora lutea on estrus showed decreased weight and total protein per corpus luteum, as compared to corpora lutea on proestrus. These changes are consistent with a proposed role for prolactin in the initiation of luteal apoptosis and of a sequence of inflammatory/immune events that accompany regression of the rat corpus luteum during the normal estrous cycle.  (+info)

Monitoring age-related changes of collagen content and vascularity in ganglia using unbiased stereological methods Journal Articles ...
21-23 SEPTEMBER 1998 Practical Workshop Course on Stereological Techniques in Biomedical Research. Harrow, UK This stereology course will be practical/workshop based and will include some theory to elucidate the techniques being carried out. Attendees will work with lung, brain, kidney, phrenic nerve and bone and will learn to measure total volumes, volumes within volumes, number density, total number, surface area density, total surface area, length density and total length of various tissue components and cells within these organs using stereological techniques including Cavalieris principle, physical disector, optical disector, optical brick, surface estimator, length estimator, point-sampled intercept, nucleator, star volume etc. The practical application of design based, unbiased sampling regimens - uniform random sampling, isotropic and vertical uniform random sampling - for both wax and resin processed tissues will also be taught. Attendees will be encouraged to bring any of their own ...
A map is crucial for all travelers, from fun-seeking vacationers to serious scientific researchers. This months article is a map of the Engineered Adaptability series and highlights the places future articles will stop en route to its destination-a design-based framework that explains adaptability. To keep everyone traveling together, the articles will decipher information from peer-reviewed forums and supply an orientation so readers know where theyre headed.. Where Adaptability Goes, Evolutionary Theory Follows. Adaptability is a characteristic of all living things. If organisms couldnt adapt to changing environments, then evolutionary theory would have nothing to work with. Evolutionists struggle to explain how adaptability could emerge since a creature cannot adapt until it is already adaptable. Evolution assumes that adaptability mysteriously arose through random genetic mutations that somehow proved advantageous. Evolutionary theory offers a naturalistic explanation for the origin of ...
I have a background as one of the main founders of the concept of neurostereology in close collaboration with professor emeritus Hans Jørgen Gundersen, Aarhus University. Through the 1990ies and onward I and my collaborators have applied the new scientific field, neurostereology, to human brains to describe structural changes caused by gender, age and disease. The methods include the physical and optical disector, the fractionator, and the nucleator that have been applied to brains from subjects with e.g. schizophrenia, Alzheimer´s dementia, chronic alcoholism, AIDS, ALS, and Parkinson´s disease. The main focus of the projects has been to obtain data for the human brain using methods that are superior to those previously available. Secondly, to be able to explain functional deficits from anatomical changes.. I have taught/organized or coorganized ≥80 national or international stereology courses and act as international expert in neurostereology and continuously supervise students in the ...
Quantitative data regarding leukocyte infiltration after cerebral ischemia were obtained by histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, or biochemistry.1,2,3,5,28⇓⇓⇓⇓ However, these approaches have some limitations. Cell quantification in histological sections is subject to a number of artifacts that can lead to biased conclusions.29,30⇓ This problem can be overcome with the use of unbiased stereological methods, which are, however, rather tedious and time consuming.29,30⇓ Conversely, the use of biochemical parameters such as protein expression and activity evaluation (eg, myeloperoxidase) or molecular biology methods (RNA and gene expression measurements) allows only an indirect quantification of the cell number. In fact, the activation state of the cell may indeed induce changes in mRNA and protein levels that will affect the results.. Although information about cell localization is lost after dissociation, the use of flow cytometry has several advantages. It allows a rapid ...
Demonstrates a novel seed-train cell culture process involving high-density cell banking, single-use technology, and perfusion at the n - 1 bioreactor stage.
Using positional cloning and candidate gene testing, we have identified the molecular basis for the cranial vessel dilation observed in vbg mutants. We meiotically mapped the vbg locus to an interval of 0.035 cM on LG23 and established a physical contig across this region containing the acvrl1 gene. The vbgy6 allele of acvrl1 contains a missense mutation in the C-terminal serine/threonine kinase domain, whereas the vbgft09e allele contains a nonsense mutation in the N-terminal ligand binding domain. The former polymorphism exhibited no recombination in 4256 vbgy6 mutants (8512 informative meioses). Furthermore, injection of antisense, morpholino-modified oligonucleotides specific to acvrl1 phenocopies the vascular defect seen in vbg mutants. Finally, at 40 hpf, when the vbg mutant phenotype is first detectable, acvrl1 mRNA is expressed predominantly in vessels that are consistently dilated in vbg mutants: the first aortic arch, internal carotid artery/caudal division, and basal communicating ...
The vast number of biological traits evolution must account for is one reason its pace is expected to be exceedingly slow. Per evolutionary theory, every protein, process, organ, and system is built by the gradual accumulation of extremely rare beneficial random genetic errors over millions of years. This expectation is summed up in the British Royal Societys description of a themed issue of one of its journals:. Twenty-five years ago, science and societys view of the pace of evolution was not that different from the one famously espoused by Darwin more than 100 years previously: "we see nothing of these slow changes in progress, until the hand of time has marked the long lapse of ages."3. Gould references that same dictate by Darwin, but just before it he adds, "Substantial change might occur as a very rare event, but most alteration must be insensible, even on geologic scales," by which he confirms that "gradualism may represent the most central conviction residing both within and behind all ...
Alteration in cell numbers at day 0, 36 hr, day 3, and day 7 p.i. in BALF of mice exposed to control water or water containing 100 ppb As (Flu + As) followed by
In this application Volvox which has localized cellular density due to its internal daughter colonies, was measured to obtain absorption spectra and fixed-wavelength mapping. ...
Join Curt Frye for an in-depth discussion in this video Using relative and absolute cell references, part of Excel for Mac 2016 Essential Training
One might wonder how many cells make up the human body. While the question appears simple, the answer most certainly is not. Cells are not uniform in size or in density. Red blood cells, for example, are tightly packed, while skin cells are much less dense. Dependent upon whether cell numbers are estimated by weight or by volume, the answers are entirely different. Scientists have determined, however, that the body comprises approximately 37.2 trillion cells, each with a particular function, including 2 billion heart muscle cells, 50 billion fat cells and the 240 billion cells that comprise a healthy liver. While cells are individual in structure, they work synergistically to support and maintain all vital bodily processes. Whether one has good health or poor health is determined at the cellular level.. Put this into perspective and one may realize the importance of good nutrition, as without adequate nutrients normal cellular functions become impaired and eventually health suffers. Vitamins, ...
A school district official shares his experiences and Lessons Learned from working within a design-based implementation research partnership.
The KENKEN craze is spreading quickly across the world! Created in 2004 by Japanese Math Teacher, Tetsuya Miyamoto, these puzzles are fun, educational, and addictive. At first, these puzzles appear very similar to Sudoku puzzles. They have a few added components (more math and logic required). There are various levels of difficulties (3x3 puzzles through 9x9 puzzles). For 3x3 puzzles, you use only numbers 1-3, for 4x4 puzzles you use only numbers 1-4, and so on. At the time of our review of this brand-new puzzle, the 3x3 puzzles had not been created. But they add new puzzles daily, so check back! The rules are simple: each number can only be used once in any row or column. There are also "cages" which are represented by heavily outlined sets of squares. The goal is to produce the target number (in the corner of the cage). Numbers can be repeated within one cage, just so the number is not already in the row or column. Want to learn more? View the How to Play link that includes written ...
After years of escalating growth, a new study looking at data from the CDC suggests that autism rates could drop off thanks to new diagnostic criteria for the
Empathic fallibility and conversational consent[edit]Certain transhumanist philosophers hold that since all assumptions about what others experience are fallible, and that therefore all attempts to help or protect beings that are not capable of correcting what others assume about them no matter how well-intentioned are in danger of actually hurting them, all sentient beings deserve to be sapient. These thinkers argue that the ability to discuss in a falsification-based way constitutes a threshold that is not arbitrary at which it becomes possible for an individual to speak for himself/herself/itself in a way that is not dependent on exterior assumptions. They also argue that all beings capable of experiencing something deserve to be elevated to this threshold if they are not at it, typically stating that the underlying change that leads to the threshold is an increase in the preciseness of the brains ability to discriminate. This includes increasing the neuron count and connectivity in animals ...
Basic Parity is a numbers puzzle game. The aim of the game is to get each number on a 3x3 board of numbers to be exactly the same. One of the numbers is always selected. This number can be moved by using the arrow keys or mouse. Each time you move the selector, the number you select will increase in number by one.
Defines relationship between a Probe and a Reference. A Probe may have one or more References associated with it. Accession numbers can be associated with Probes using the Reference object in conjunction with the ACC_AccessionReference table ...
Do you know your optimal BMI? What your blood-sugar level should be? Simply understanding a few key numbers can lead you to better health.
In the current version of the Excel Add-in, it is not possible to create a connection to a saved view or module with a total cell count of the
If no digit can be used more than once, find how many numbers can be formed from the digits 3,4,5,6,7,8 which are six-digit numbers and even ...
The science of the gut keeps getting more and more impressive (and a bit more complicated!). In the past, Ive concentrated on the enormous number of species of bacteria we have found in the gut. The number may be over 2000 species. What we have learned in a short time is that the balance of good vs bad bacteria species makes a world of difference in how the colon healthy organ functions.… Read more ...
macro defines the size of the compile-time sequence used to encode a type. The default value is 50. Increase it if you want the Typeof Library to handle very complex types, although this possibility is limited by the maximum number of template parameters supported by your compiler. On the other hand, if you work only with very simple types, decreasing this number may help to boost compile-time performance. ...
BioTek Instruments today introduced a new kit that can help researchers quickly obtain high-quality cell count results by automating the often tedious and error-prone process of mammalian cell counting.
I have three questions related to Mixing Tee Geometry:1) What is Cell Count? Is no of elements or no of elements + no of nodes? And also where do I get the …
Morphology and cellular composition of tumors harvested at day 7 and day 14. (A) Fluorescent sections of tumors harvested at 7 days post-inoculation (red fluore
Looking for online definition of stereologic in the Medical Dictionary? stereologic explanation free. What is stereologic? Meaning of stereologic medical term. What does stereologic mean?
Our study identifies an in vivo mechanism that regulates Yap activity within the zebrafish caudal fin blastema based on cell density differences along the regenerating tissue. The mesenchymal cells seem to respond to a mechanotransduction process that involves changes in cell morphology, junction assembly and cytoskeleton remodeling, which together lead to a graded control of tissue growth via Yap, the Hippo pathway effector.. Once formed, the blastema exhibits spatial compartmentalization (Nechiporuk and Keating, 2002). We show that Yap intracellular localization associates with these areas and could account for the different levels of proliferation described. Remarkably, the same Yap dynamics also correlates with the degree of cell density along the blastema PD axis. In distal high cell density domains, Yap is mainly cytoplasmic (inactive), whereas in proximal lower cell density domains, Yap is largely nuclear (active). The functional relevance of Yap intracellular localization was confirmed ...
Changing teaching strategies in engineering education to become more interactive is important, though difficult. Intentional design of faculty development to engage faculty to make small, incremental changes within the context of a supportive, like-minded community, is important. In this paper, we merged two different methods to examine the PIs design decisions, and evaluate the programs implementation and outcomes. For the first method, the grant evaluator applied conjecture mapping (Sandoval, 2004), a design-based research method, to examine the design and theoretical conjectures, the mediating processes, and outcomes of implementation of a faculty development project. The high level conjecture was that faculty who participate in a supportive teaching network will make initial small changes in their teaching, which will lead to increasingly larger changes over time. For the second method, the principal investigators applied self-study (Samaras, 2011), a qualitative research method, to examine ...
Dr. Mark West, co-developer of the Optical Fractionator stereology probe and Professor of Medical Neurobiology at Aarhus University in Denmark, says "Stereo Investigator is the most reliable tool for collecting unbiased stereology data. Its backed by excellent technical and research support teams at MBF - you can call to ask about stereology probes, tissue preparation, microscope hardware, basically anything regarding your stereology study.". In 2014, more labs than ever before also used Stereo Investigator to obtain stereology data from image stacks. Researchers captured images with Stereo Investigator using widefield fluorescence, confocal, single-photon, and/or two-photon microscope to acquire image stacks at random sites throughout their tissue specimens. These image stacks, acquired at the microscope in a systematic and random manner, are suitable for stereological analysis.. Stereo Investigator is increasingly used with a Zeiss ApoTome structured-illumination device on a widefield ...
Specular microscopy is a non-invasive photographic technique that allows you to visualize and analyse the corneal endothelium. This test is used to monitor the number, density, and quality of endothelial cells that line the back of the cornea. A microscope magnifies the cells thousands of times and the image is captured with a camera or video camera. The number of cells within one square millimeter are counted and recorded. The endothelium of a young, ten-year-old, healthy cornea has approximately 3,500 cells in each square millimeter. Normal aging causes the cells to gradually decrease over time. By age 60, most people have approximately 2,500 cells per square millimeter.. ...
Marinković, R.; Polzović, A.; Gudović, R.; Mijatov-Ukropina, L.; Marjanović, M., 1987: Stereologic analysis of the development of the corpus striatum between the 14th and 19th week of gestational age
Stereologic analysis of histologic parameters of a twice-recurrent ameloblastic fibroma.: The behavior of the odontogenic tumors with time remains a subject of
Chi Wang Ip is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Stereological Estimation of Dopaminergic Neuron Number in the Mouse Substantia Nigra Using the Optical Fractionator and Standard Microscopy Equipment
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the redox state of a cell have been implicated in several signal transduction cascades including those that regulate cell proliferation. Specifically, signaling by several growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), produces a transient increase in ROS. One effect of increases in ROS is the inactivation of tyrosine phosphatases. Pani et al. found that the redox status of cells in culture was different in sparse and dense cultures (sparse cultures have more ROS than dense cultures) and that this difference correlated with whether the cells exhibited contact inhibition. Dense cultures had lower levels of the active [guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound] form of the small GTPase Rac-1. Treatment of sparse cultures with drugs to inhibit leukotriene biosynthesis decreased the levels of ROS to those measured in dense cultures, suggesting that Rac-1 may stimulate leukotriene biosynthesis as a mechanism to increase ROS in sparsely cultured cells. The authors ...
1680 Cell density is a potent regulator of the cell cycle during exponential growth and thus affects gene expression. Many recent studies have characterized cell-density as a controlling factor for cell-cell interactions and the binding of surface-associated adhesion molecules to the cytoskeleton. We examined the impact of cell density on two distinct signal transduction pathways, Protein kinase B (Akt) and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). These pathways regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and exhibit cross-talk. Downstream, the MAPK and Akt pathways regulate p70S6kinase (p70S6K) and its substrate S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP). Whereas levels of phospho-S6RP are known to be regulated by phosphorylated-Akt, our findings suggest that in Jurkat cells this is dependent upon the cell density. We show that maximum phosphorylation of S6RP(S235/S236 and S240/244) is observed at lower cell densities (0.5x106 cells/mL). In contrast, levels of phosphorylated Akt increase ...
Quorum sensing is a mechanism whereby bacteria respond to specific signals and exhibit group behavior, which at high cell density may include virulence factors associated with disease. At low cell density, bacteria act as individuals and may not be as virulent. Most quorum inhibitors identified to date compete with the native signal and once the inhibitor is removed, signaling can resume. Here, we show that a dissolved metal, cadmium, disrupts the quorum sensing proteins, which requires the bacteria to replace the damaged proteins in order to resume quorum sensing. This represents a new strategy for disrupting bacterial signaling ...
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Methods and kits for the quantitation of cellular DNA and cell numbers are provided. Passive element uptake, element-labeled DNA intercalators, and element labeled affinity reagents are used to quantify DNA and cells. The DNA and the cells are analyzed by elemental analysis, including ICP-MS. The methods and kits provide a fast and accurate analysis of cellular DNA and cell numbers.
CSF cell count - MedHelps CSF cell count Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for CSF cell count. Find CSF cell count information, treatments for CSF cell count and CSF cell count symptoms.
This project will identify the characteristic immune cell profiles for two patient groups with allergic reactions with or without specific IgE in serum, also compared with healthy controls.
Gerosuppression in confluent cells.: The most physiological type of cell cycle arrest - namely, contact inhibition in dense culture - is the least densely studi
There is an ongoing process of increasing urbanization of the world population with socio-spatial polarization in large cities. Such population density increases the competition for urban land, arousing crescent ground ...
There are many important parameters when setting up and evaluating hematopoietic cultures. First is the cell source: hematopoietic cells from bone marrow, cord blood and mobilized peripheral blood may behave differently and result in different cell yields in culture. Most likely you would want to use CD34+ cells or even subsets of this population that are more highly enriched for stem cells and primitive progenitors (e.g., CD34+CD38- cells), but there may be applications in which non-purified cells or mononuclear fractions are sufficient. The cell concentration at the start of the culture is also important. At low cell concentrations (e.g. 10ˆ4 CD34+ cells per mL of culture medium) overall cell expansion (i.e., the number of cells generated per input CD34+ cell) is generally better than at high cell concentrations and there is less chance that the medium will be depleted due to overgrowth of cells in culture. However, this is very dependent on the quality and type of cells used, and on the ...
Allimax products helps in case of high cell counts in milk. Go to allimax.nl/en to find out more about Allimaxproducts or high cell counts in milk!
Telecommunication Minister Boutros Harb said Tuesday he would add another 1 million cellular lines in the market in the near future to meet growing demand.
Citafine 200 MG Injection is an anticancer agent which is used in the treatment of cancer of pancreas, breast, lungs and ovaries. It should be used under the supervision of a qualified physician. Close monitoring of lung function and blood cell count are necessary while receiving this medication. Buy Citafine 200 MG Injection Online. Know uses, side effects, dosage, contraindications, substitutes, benefit, interactions, purpose, drug interactions, precautions, warnings etc. Download Practo app & get your medicines home delivered.
symbol, or type it out by hand. Error forms and complex numbers can be mixed; the formulas shown above are used for complex numbers, too; note that if the error part evaluates to a complex number its absolute value (or the square root of the sum of the squares of the absolute values of the two error contributions) is used. Mathematically, this corresponds to a radially symmetric Gaussian distribution of numbers on the complex plane. However, note that Calc considers an error form with real components to represent a real number, not a complex distribution around a real mean. Error forms may also be composed of HMS forms. For best results, both the mean and the error should be HMS forms if either one is. The algebraic function ...
What are cells in the milk? What is a cell count? How do cells influence the milk and how do you reduce a high cell count? Get you answers here.
differential cell counting in mixed cultures - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: hello, i will be culturing neurons and macrophages together in a mixed culture. does anyone know of any methods for counting one cell type alone?
Just a year before his death in 1920 at the age of 32, mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan came upon a remarkable pattern in a special list of whole numbers.. The list represented counts of how many ways a given whole number can be expressed as a sum of positive integers. For example, 4 can be written as 3 + 1, 2 + 2, 2 + 1 + 1, and 1 + 1 + 1 + 1. Including 4 itself.... ...
Just a year before his death in 1920 at the age of 32, mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan came upon a remarkable pattern in a special list of whole numbers.. The list represented counts of how many ways a given whole number can be expressed as a sum of positive integers. For example, 4 can be written as 3 + 1, 2 + 2, 2 + 1 + 1, and 1 + 1 + 1 + 1. Including 4 itself but.... ...
This is a very hard question to answer because it involves a number of variables. The simplest answer is, samples preparation typically takes ~1 weeks for standard samples with all reagents on hand (QC, prep, QC). For newer or rarely used methods, the number can extend to a month if we need to gather reagents. Once the sample is ready, it goes in to the sequencing queue. This queue is often the longest part of the process. Once the full flowcell is ready and put on a sequencer, it takes ~1.3h per base to sequence (this used to be 1h but upgrades to the machines have slowed them down some). A 40nt read takes just over 2 days. Turn around (for PE samples) functionally takes about a 1/2 day. So a 100+100PE sample will take about 11 days once it is on the sequencer - if nothing goes wrong. Overall, when the queue is flowing at full speed, a 40nt SE submission with sample preparation can be returned with data in right around 3 weeks. 40+40PE samples more typically take ~4-6 weeks and 80+80PE runs ...
Todays subject is about antibiotics - their use and abuse. Its an article you should read because it involves you or a family member. Have you ever given any thought to how many antibiotics are prescribed each year in the United States? Read on and the high numbers may astound you. The over-prescribing of antibiotics is a major medical problem, besides the fact that people are getting medications they dont really need. These medicines have the potential to cause a
Hey guys! Currently Im progressing on Elegon 25m and some Moonkins say that they got insane DPS numbers with HotW in P1 and the execute phase (some speak of 250k DPS!). Well, of course those numbers may be over the top, but since the theorycrafting is discussing whether HotW is better then NG if used correctly Im getting kind of curious and want to try it out... Im one of the top tier DPS in my raid right now and Im doing good DPS already, but since every raid dps increase is beneficial
Overall jobless numbers may be showing some improvement, but among youths worldwide, things are nearly as bad as they were at their 2009 peak. Some 12.7% of people ages 15 to 24 -almost 75 million... Money News Summaries. | Newser
The word number may be abbreviated No. in the body of tables and line art or in the text when used as a specific designator. Do not use the number sign (#) in place of the abbreviation. The word number should always be spelled out when it is used as a proper noun (eg,
The word number may be abbreviated No. in the body of tables and line art or in the text when used as a specific designator. Do not use the number sign (#) in place of the abbreviation. The word number should always be spelled out when it is used as a proper noun (eg,
Some of our favorite activities, like eating and speaking, are made possible by our teeth. Despite their importance and the daily habits, we go through to ensure they remain healthy and strong, we dont always think about why we really have them. Each person can have up to 12 molars in total. This number may…
Page 2 - The UK forum has finally caught up with us on numbers of posts and they are now beating us!!! We have to do something - quick write more posts - ask more questions - get busy!!!:chuckle On the
Think your method of testing bodyfat is accurate? Youll be surprised to learn the fat-finding facts. Youre dieting & exercising but the numbers on the sca
Induced sputum cell counts are a non-invasive, reliable method for evaluating the presence, type, and degree of inflammation in the airways of the lungs. Current reference values for induced sputum cell counts in healthy adults do not account for the effects of circadian rhythm, including diurnal variation. The objective of this study was to describe the diurnal variation in induced sputum cell counts, compared between early morning and late afternoon, in healthy adult individuals. 100 healthy adult subjects with no history of lung disease and normal bronchial reactivity proceeded with induced sputum testing at 7 am and 4 pm on different days. The order of testing was randomized. The cytotechnologist preparing and performing the cell counts was blinded to the sample collection time and subject characteristics. 65 subjects were included in the final analyses. There was no significant change in the total and differential sputum cell counts between the 7 am and 4 pm collections. There was good inter
Background and objective:Gingival bleeding reduction in smokers has been associated with decreased blood vessel density. The mechanism of suppressive effect of cigarette smoking on blood vessel density is not precisely defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking on angiogenesis by assessing mast cells density and VEGF expression in chronic periodontitis. Materials& Methods: 52 paraffin embedded block of gingiva tissues with periodontitis obtained from 30 nonsmokers and 22 smokers undergoing flap surgery were examined immunohistochemically for VEGF expression. Mast cell counts was completed on toluidine blue stained slides. Exposure to cigarette smoking was calculated by the number of packs × year. Patients were classified into 4 groups based on the number of smoked cigarettes. The correlation between VEGF expression and mast cell counts was evaluated and compared in nonsmokers and smokers. Results: The mean number of mast cells (p=0.004) and average value of VEGF expression (p
Purpose: : Conventional static perimetry employs a constant stimulus size at all test locations, most often the Goldmann size III. When Differential Light Sensitivity (DLS) is recorded in linear (L-1, 1/Lambert) units, the relationship between DLS and ganglion cell number is approximately linear. The use of a fixed stimulus size gives rise to varying structure / function slopes across stimulus locations: the Goldmann III stimulus covers approximately 70 ganglion cells at 10 degrees and 15 ganglion cells at 30 degrees eccentricity. We tested the hypothesis that scaling stimulus diameter would reduce the normal variation of DLS with stimulus location (eccentricity). Methods: : We tested one eye each of 33 perimetrically-experienced healthy volunteers (as part of a continuing study, n=96). Primary testing was on a custom-built CRT display system using luminance increments and a circular stimulus scaled in size by estimates of location-specific normal ganglion cell density derived from histological ...
Results The total volume of 154 finger joints was estimated. A significant correlation between manual and stereologic estimations of synovial volumes was found (Spearman rho = 0.71, P = 0.002). 95% limits of agreement were ± 5-6 ml (14 finger joints per patient). The time used for volume determination in a patient varied from 1-2.5 h by manual outlining and from 0.5-1 h by stereologic determination. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of cell density on biomass and fatty acid productivity during cultivation of Rhodomonas salina in a tubular photobioreactor. AU - Thoisen, Christina. AU - Pedersen, Jakob Skov. AU - Jørgensen, Lars. AU - Kyhn, Anker. AU - Hansen, Benni Winding. AU - Nielsen, Søren Laurentius. PY - 2020/5/8. Y1 - 2020/5/8. U2 - 10.1111/ARE.14672. DO - 10.1111/ARE.14672. M3 - Journal article. JO - Aquaculture Research. JF - Aquaculture Research. SN - 1355-557X. ER - ...
Adult female rats in proestrus or estrus or 14 d after ovariectomy were perfused with 3% glutaraldehyde in PBS. The brains were removed and postfixed overnight. Subsequently, the hippocampi were dissected out and treated according to our standard protocol for electron microscopy (Kretz et al., 2004). Likewise, a part of the neocortex was dissected out and prepared for electron microscopy. To obtain matchable regions, the brain was dissected coronally at the level of the optic chiasm (approximately bregma 1.60 mm) and a 3-mm-thick slice was cut from the rostral part of the brain. The dorsolateral part of the cortex (∼5 mm in width) containing parts of the motor cortex and primary sensory cortex was separated from the remaining tissue and used for further analysis. Hippocampal slice cultures were fixed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde in phosphate buffer overnight and were treated according to the same standard protocol. An unbiased stereological method was used to evaluate the spine synapse density in ...
Abstract: Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) inhibit the formation and differentiation of neural stem cells during embryonic development. In this study, the effects of prenatal exposure to EMF on the number of granule cells in the dentate gyrus of 4-week-old rats were investigated. This experiment used a control (Cont) group and an EMF exposed (EMF) group (three pregnant rats each group). The EMF group consisted of six offspring (n=6) of pregnant rats that were exposed to an EMF of up to 900 megahertz (MHz) for 60 min/day between the first and last days of gestation. The control group consisted of five offspring (n=5) of pregnant rats that were not treated at all. The offspring were sacrificed when they were 4 weeks old. The numbers of granule cells in the dentate gyrus were analyzed using the optical fractionator technique. The results showed that prenatal EMF exposure caused a decrease in the number of granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the rats (P,0.01). This suggests that prenatal exposure to ...
A recent survey by Farmers Weekly revealed almost a third of dairy farmers are concerned about selective antibiotic use at drying off. However, as one Dors
This was a PPMSer who was severely leucopaenic. So immunosuppression can in some people cause white cells counts to go very low and as you keep taking the immunosuppressive your white cell numbers are not going to recover. If that happens you are going to be at risk from infection. This is biology and this is where induction therapy has an advantage as you are not on rug all the time and once the drug has washed out your white cells can recover if an infection comes along. ...
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research aims to publish findings of doctors at grass root level and post graduate students, so that all unique medical experiences are recorded in literature.
I took mum to the haematologist yesterday for her checkup, and got her blood tested. The blood test results were not too bad, although the platelets were still down a bit. The red and white cell numbers are down a bit - but the platelets are in the 70s whereas 150 is in the normal range. This is an improvement on last tuesday when they were 6, but still a bit low. Mums kidneys are still not 100% either, but this is a known issue, and mum just needs to keep up her fluids at this stage. The doctor decided to not do any more lumbar puncture chemo for the moment, and has put mum on weekly blood tests just in case. She is thinking that the results are caused by the chemo. I was due to go to a conference in the USA over the last weekend this month, but given the results I will not be going. The problem is that the conference is west coast USA, and so there is close to 24 hours from catching the first flight to arriving at the hotel at the other end. So if something happened with mum back here it ...
A grand challenge for educational research is to remove its weak link to practice. One of the strategies to confront these challenges can be through the use of Design-Based Research (DBR). A DBR approach includes working iterations of design, implementation and evaluation in real world learning contexts, making it especially suitable for research in Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL). This paper describes and contextualizes a workshop that points out the need to examine different design approaches and digital technology tools to explore TEL in educational practices. Since the goal of the workshop is to use multidiscipline perspectives of education and didactics (ED), computer science (CS), interaction design (ID), to show the complexity for supporting next generation learning, these perspectives will in the paper be described and put in relation to each other. What research questions within and in between the three perspectives should be included in a DBRapproach in order to inform and ...
The Muse® Count & Viability Kit 200X - 100 Tests (Part Number: MCH100104) was developed for absolute cell count and viability determination of difficult cell samples. It is designed to address the need for a compatible reagent for non-mammalian cell lines, such as SF-9 insect cells. These cells prefer significantly lower pH and higher osmolarity than mammalian cells for optimal viability. The reagent contains the same fluorescent DNA-binding dyes used in the Muse Count & Viability Kit, but in a highly concentrated formulation. These dyes have differential permeability to viable and non-viable cells, and provide absolute cell count and viability data on cell suspensions from a variety of cultured cell lines. Both viable and non-viable cells are differentially stained based on their permeability to the DNA-binding dyes in the reagent. Data generated using the Guava® Muse® Cell Analyzer with the Muse Software provides:. ...
Controversy, thy name is PubSci. This evening we heard a talk by Professor Martin Chaplin on the remarkable properties of water. The talk started with some very unusual observations: firstly that liquid water contracts when heated, while most things expand; secondly that water molecules may move apart as the water density increases. It sounds counter-intuitive…
On 21 Jun 1996 05:01:17 -0700, cram at PIPELINE.COM wrote: , my team and I are having trouble producing healthy-looking cell ,cultures at plating time. We thaw quickly, spin to remove DMSO and then ,plate. After one night, the cells are dividing slowly, and have a strange, ,small, sort of compact morphology. Overall, they are half the size as they ,appear when healthy. Only after another day or so do they have the nice ,flattened look to them, where you can see the cytoplasm and their nuclei ,are large, etc. Then they grow to confluency, no problem. , Could this be due to a low density at plating, perhaps too low? Or is ,it more likely caused by our cryopreservation? It depends on the cell line. Cells that are fairly density dependent for growth (NIH 3T3 cells, for ex.) do not thaw well if plated at lower densities that you would usually plate them after splitting them. Also, if your freeze killed a lot of the cells, the viable cell plating density after thawing is even lower. I always plate ...
The ability of the red blood cells to carry oxygen depends on the amount of hemoglobin. If the hemoglobin levels are low, the body is required to work a lot harder to supply oxygen to all the body tissues. Low hemoglobin level means the person is anemic and can result in symptoms like fatigue and shortness of breath.. The normal range of RBC is:. Male: 4.7 to 6.1 million cells per microliter (cells/mcl). Female: 4.2 to 5.4 million cells per microliter (cells/mcl). The normal ranges can differ for different laboratories and also differ depending on the measurements or samples. Usually, ranges given above are common measurements, but doctor should be consulted for the specific test results.. ...
This is a long video and the instructor may wish to break it up into smaller clips to assess comprehension. Hunter-gatherer populations were much less dense than later agriculturalists. The variety of their food supply protected them from crop failures and their sparseness reduced the spread of infectious diseases. Hunter-gatherers were healthier and worked less than early agriculturalists. Why didnt their numbers increase up to the same level of Malthusian misery? Their numbers may have been l ...
Null or exceptional values can be represented two ways in FHIR Observations. One way is to simply include them in the value set and represent the exceptions in the value. For example, measurement values for a serology test could be "detected", "not detected", "inconclusive", or "specimen unsatisfactory".. The alternate way is to use the value element for actual observations and use the explicit dataAbsentReason element to record exceptional values. For example, the dataAbsentReason code "error" could be used when the measurement was not completed. Note that an observation may only be reported if there are values to report. For example differential cell counts values may be reported only when , 0. Because of these options, use-case agreements are required to interpret general observations for null or exceptional values.. ...
The world around us, and we ourselves, teems with microbial life. Most of these microorganisms will not harm us but a small number can do serious damage if allowed to enter and grow in the human body. As evidenced by patients with SCID, it is the immune system that protects and defends against these pathogens.. The bodys cells have markers on their surface that identify the cells as part of that body or "self". The immune system is a complex collection of specialized cells, proteins, tissues, and organs designed to seek out and destroy anything unrecognizable as "self". This includes not only viruses and bacteria but also toxins, pollutants, pollen and any other foreign substances that are potentially harmful.. ...
Dry eye affects at least 30 million people in the U.S. and many more around the globe. Among patients with autoimmune disease-including Sjögrens syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis-that number can climb even higher. Although dry eye may sound like just an annoyance, it can range from mildly irritating to debilitating, depending on the extent of the… [Read More]. ...
Internet-Draft Flowspec Packet-Rate Action June 2016 community described in this draft is similar, except the quantity is interpreted as packets per second. +------+--------------------+-------------------------------------+ , type , extended community , encoding , +------+--------------------+-------------------------------------+ , TBD , packet-rate , 2-byte ASN, 4-byte unsigned integer , +------+--------------------+-------------------------------------+ Table 1 Packet-rate: The packet-rate extended community is a transitive extended community across the autonomous-system boundary and uses following extended community encoding: The first two octets carry the 2-octet id, which can be assigned from a 2-byte AS number. When a 4-byte AS number is locally present, the 2 least significant bytes of such an AS number can be used. This value is purely informational and should not be interpreted by the implementation. The remaining 4 octets carry the rate information as an unsigned integer in network ...
III. DISTRIBUTION. Grasses are the most universally diffused over the globe of all flowering-plants. There is no district in which they do not occur, and in nearly all they , are a leading and dominant feature of the flora. In actual j number of species Graminem comes considerably after Com- \ positce and Leguminosce, the two most numerous orders of phanerogams, but in number of individual plants it probably far exceeds either; whilst from the wide extension of many of its species, the proportion of Graminece to other orders in the various floras of the world is much higher than its whole number of species would lead one to expect. This number can, however, scarcely be put much below 6000, which is probably somewhat more than a fifth of all monocotyledons. This is only about ^th of the phanero-gams as a whole, yet in any given locality, with a very few exceptions, this proportion is largely exceeded. In tropical regions, where Leguminosce is the leading order, ; grasses closely follow as the ...
There are 28.35 grams per ounce; this number can be multiplied by 14 to get the number of grams per 14 ounces. There are 369.89 grams per 14...
I agree - the numbers can be hard to look at - but you know as well as we do that our little ones will not be controlled by numbers or letters - any more than we were controlled by the numbers and letters that tried to convince us to give up our babies for their own good. Im sorry you were going through this struggle recently - and its frustrating when the numbers dont always seem to add up the way we think they should. But then again, math never was my favorite subject. ;) The reality is - the numbers dont always give us clear cut data - they are flexible and ever-changing - but our children will show us how to solve each problem one day at a time. Hang in there. Nick is doing SO great! Love to you all. ,3. ReplyDelete ...
Each cell will undergo multiple rounds of cell divisons to produce separate colonies on the plate, so each cell is a colony forming unit. After incubation the number of colonies will reflect the number of CFUs originally present. This test gives the viable count (living cells only) compared to a microscopic count or dry weight test that gives the total cell count (living and dead cells ...
Over 60s and care home residents most at risk; changes in nurse numbers may be key The squeeze on public finances since 2010 is linked to nearly 120,000 excess
Numbers may have been down at this months Border and Lakeland Holstein Club sale, Carlisle but quality certainly wasnt hindered with a top price of 2000g
I once had a girl told me that she has slept with 19 guys, I remember right away I started not taking her seriously. She also told me that she did not start having sex until 21 and she was only 29 at the time. when I did the math quickly in my head, I realized that is almost 3 guys a year. Unfortunaly society is a little backward when it comes that, which means that number may get different reaction if its a guy rather a girl. I dont it is right ...
Normalise cell count for protein analysis - posted in Cell Biology: Hi, I have performed an ELISA to analyse protein concentration of a gene from multiple animals with different variations within the gene. However, I need to normalise the protein concentration to cell number, as, variable numbers of cells went in to the assay for each individual. Can anyone tell me the calculation for this. Thanks
Rqual-Gold 30mg / 25mg / 300mg / 5mg / 10mg / 10mg / 25mg / 6mg / 25mg / 5mg / 30mg / 10mg / 5mg / 2500IU / 5mg / 15mg / 250mcg / 15mg / 1mg / 1mg / 10mg / 400IU / 10mg / 15mcg / 1.5mg / 7.5mg / 5mg / 5mg / 1mg / 150mcg / 25mcg / 200mcg / 150million cells - 10 Soft Gel Capsules (Vitamin D3) drug information. Find its price or cost and dose. It is manufactured by Genesis Biotec Inc.
Rqual-Gold 30mg / 25mg / 300mg / 5mg / 10mg / 10mg / 25mg / 6mg / 25mg / 5mg / 30mg / 10mg / 5mg / 2500IU / 5mg / 15mg / 250mcg / 15mg / 1mg / 1mg / 10mg / 400IU / 10mg / 15mcg / 1.5mg / 7.5mg / 5mg / 5mg / 1mg / 150mcg / 25mcg / 200mcg / 150million cells - 10 Soft Gel Capsules (Selenium Monomethionine) drug information. Find its price or cost and dose. It is manufactured by Genesis Biotec Inc.
plotCellCounts(object, ...) # S4 method for SingleCellExperiment plotCellCounts( object, interestingGroups = NULL, fill = getOption(x = "acid.fill.discrete", default = acidplots::scale_fill_synesthesia_d()), labels = list(title = "Cell counts", subtitle = NULL, x = NULL, y = "cells" ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene expression profile of the adult human retinal ganglion cell layer. AU - Kim, Chan Y.. AU - Kuehn, Markus H.. AU - Clark, Abbot F.. AU - Kwon, Young H.. PY - 2006/12/22. Y1 - 2006/12/22. N2 - Purpose: Pathophysiological events in the retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) are a prominent feature of several optic neuropathies including glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to identify and catalog genes whose expression in the human retina is restricted to the GCL. Methods: Laser capture microdissection (LCM) technology was used to isolate tissue from the perimacular retina of three human donors without retinal or optic nerve disease. RNA was isolated from the (1) retinal GCL and (2) the inner and outer nuclear layers of the same retina, and the gene expression profiles of both fractions were determined using Affymetrix Hu133Plus 2.0 GeneChips. Data were analyzed to identify those genes whose expression is substantially more prevalent in the GCL when compared to the outer retinal ...
The researchers suggested that the increase in skeletal muscle satellite cell numbers induced by whey protein supplementation "may promote more favourable training adaptations over more prolonged periods."​. Other studies have also reported increases in satellite cell numbers in response to protein supplementation and strength training programmes of similar duration. Previous research has also suggested that increases in satellite cell numbers are a necessary precursor to increasing skeletal muscle mass.. However, more research is needed to clarify potential mechanisms and benefits of increased satellite cell numbers.. "More data are needed to examine how increasing dietary protein intake mechanistically affects satellite cell turnover and if protein-induced increases in satellite cell number provide any added benefit to resistance-trained individuals (i.e., reducing recovery time between training bouts due to satellite cell-mediated recovery mechanisms),"​ wrote the researchers.. The exact ...
Prediction of total quarter milk somatic cell counts based on foremilk sampling - Volume 76 Issue 3 - Olga Wellnitz, Marcus G Doherr, Marta Woloszyn, Rupert M Bruckmaier
The optical fractionator probe was used to quantify the number of neurons and glia in the dentate gyrus. Doctors have used lithium to treat patients with bipolar disorder since the 1970s. Known for its efficacy in stabilizing patients moods by regulating manic episodes, lithium is also associated with a decreased risk of suicide. But while this naturally occurring element is the most widely prescribed medication for those suffering from bipolar disorder, scientists still have much to learn about how lithium physically affects the brain.. A recent study published in the journal Bipolar Disorders adds to the growing body of evidence that says lithium contributes to cell proliferation in parts of the brain. Conducted by scientists at the University of Mississippi and the VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam, the study revealed an increased number of neurons and glia, and increased astrocyte density in the dentate gyrus of lithium-treated mice versus controls treated with a placebo.. Using the ...
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and erratic bowel habits. A diet low in fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) can reduce symptoms of IBS, possibly by reducing microbial fermentation products. We investigated whether ingestion of FODMAPs can induce IBS-like visceral hypersensitivity mediated by fermentation products of intestinal microbes in mice ...
0040] In the present invention, cells grown in perfusion cell culture are "switched" (e.g., shifted or transferred) to a fed-batch culture mode once the cells reach high cell density. In one embodiment, the switch occurs at a high cell density of at least above about 40×106 cells/mL. In another embodiment, the switch occurs at a high cell density of at least between about 40×106 cells/mL and 200×106 cells/mL. In particular embodiments, the switch occurs at high cell densities of about 41×106 cells/mL, 42×106 cells/mL, 43×106 cells/mL, 44×106 cells/mL, 45×106 cells/mL, 46×106 cells/mL, 47×106 cells/mL, 48×106 cells/mL, 49×106 cells/mL, 50×106 cells/mL, 51×106 cells/mL, 52×106 cells/mL, 53×106 cells/mL, 54×106 cells/mL, 55×106 cells/mL, 56×106 cells/mL, 57×106 cells/mL, 58×106 cells/mL, 59×106 cells/mL, 60×106 cells/mL, 61×106 cells/mL, 62×106 cells/mL, 63×106 cells/mL, 64×106 cells/mL, 65×106 cells/mL, 66×106 cells/mL, 67×106 cells/mL, 68×106 cells/mL, 69×106 ...
Sparse and dense cultures of chick embryo cells were affected differently by pH. The rates of cell multiplication and of thymidine-3H incorporation into DNA of dense cultures were increased as the pH was increased from 6.6 to 7.6. At pH higher than 7.6 the rate of multiplication decreased slightly in the dense cultures, but the rate of thymidine-3H incorporation continued to increase. The discrepancy was due in part to cell death and detachment at very high pH, and in part to a more rapid uptake of thymidine-3H at very high pH. Sparse cultures were much less sensitive to pH reduction and, when a suitably conditioned medium was used to minimize cell damage, very sparse cultures grew almost as well at pH 6.7 as at higher pH. The rates of cell multiplication and thymidine-3H incorporation at low pH decreased in the initially sparse cultures before they reached confluent cell densities. There was no microscope evidence of direct contact between plasma membranes of cells at these densities although ...
Cell count and differential[edit]. The number of white blood cells can give an indication of infection. The specific subtypes ... In the case of blood: it will contain some or all plasma proteins, white blood cells, platelets and (in the case of local ... The amount of red blood cells are an obvious sign of bleeding. ...
White blood cell count. *Glasgow Coma Scale. These were measured during the first 24 hours after admission, and utilized in ...
"Finger-prick blood samples can be used interchangeably with venous samples for CD4 cell counting indicating their potential for ... Complete Blood Count (UK: Full Blood Count). Analysis of 15 different blood test readings to provide information about overall ... It uses tiny trenches to separate blood cells from plasma (99 percent of blood cells were captured during experiments). ... Venipuncture is useful as it is a minimally invasive way to obtain cells and extracellular fluid (plasma) from the body for ...
Cell count is elevated and is lymphocytic. *Gamma globulin levels are elevated ... Meningitis inflames and breaks down any protective membrane and cells surrounding the brain, spinal cord, and other parts of ... These tight junctions help to enclose endothelial cells that line the brain capillaries. Only certain water-soluble substances ...
... a relative increase in red blood cell count.[14] ... Cytopenia, a decrease in blood cell count. *Capillary leak ... It can be due to an increase in the number of red blood cells[1] ("absolute polycythemia") or to a decrease in the volume of ... Neoplasms - Renal cell carcinoma or liver tumors, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and endocrine abnormalities including ... The overproduction of red blood cells may be due to a primary process in the bone marrow (a so-called myeloproliferative ...
Have lower cell counts. *Have higher fat and protein percentages[22]. Polled Holsteins[edit]. The first polled Holstein was ... Starbuck II is derived from frozen fibroblast cells, recovered one month before the death of Starbuck.[20] ...
Lymphoma in the bone marrow causes anemia, low platelet count, and low white blood cell count. Biopsy of affected lymph nodes ... but white blood cell counts must be monitored. Allogeneic and autologous stem cell transplantations (as is commonly done in ... The white blood cell count must be monitored. Prednisone used alone can work very well for weeks to months, but it may cause ... The white blood cell count must be monitored. Remission and survival times are comparable to dogs. Lower stage lymphoma has a ...
Platelet and white cell countEdit. The effect of pregnancy on platelet count is unclear, with some studies demonstrating a mild ... decline in platelet count and other studies that show no effect.[17] The white blood cell count increases with occasional ... which are measures of red blood cell concentration. Erythropoietin, which stimulates red blood cell production, increases ... During pregnancy the plasma volume increases by 40-50% and the red blood cell volume increases only by 20-30%.[15] These ...
doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(10)61493-6. "Red Blood Cell Pit Count". Red Blood Cell Lab. Children's Hospital Oakland Research ... Autosplenectomy can occur in cases of sickle-cell disease where the misshapen cells block blood flow to the spleen, causing ... Howell-Jolly bodies are found on red blood cells and contain chromatin remnants from basophilic cells. Under normal conditions ... One of the spleen's main tasks is to filter the blood and remove and recycle damaged or old red blood cells. Splenic function ...
Cell counts/vertex. and positions in honeycomb Vertex figure Picture 0. 1. 2. 3. Alt ... In hyperbolic geometry, a uniform honeycomb in hyperbolic space is a uniform tessellation of uniform polyhedral cells. In 3- ... the first category only including finite cells and vertex figures (finite subgroups), and the second includes affine subgroups ...
Pyrexia (fever). Leukocytosis (increased white blood cell count). Malaise (general feeling of being unwell). Loss of appetite. ...
C White blood cell count > 12,000 Wheeless Online Kocher Criteria Online Smith, Howard S. (2009). Current Therapy in Pain. ...
Counting with colony-forming units requires culturing the microbes and counts only viable cells, in contrast with microscopic ... The Most Probable Number method counts viable cells and is useful when enumerating low concentrations of cells or enumerating ... and when counting colonies it is uncertain if the colony arose from one cell or a group of cells. Expressing results as colony- ... The purpose of plate counting is to estimate the number of cells present based on their ability to give rise to colonies under ...
Buttarello, M; Plebani, M (Jul 2008). "Automated blood cell counts: state of the art". American Journal of Clinical Pathology. ... Modern complete blood count analyzers can provide an automated white blood cell differential, but they have a limited ability ... The aim is to get a region, called a monolayer, where the cells are spaced far enough apart to be counted and differentiated. ... The white blood cell differential can reveal abnormalities in the proportions of white blood cell types, such as neutrophilia ...
White blood cell count is usually elevated. Severe sepsis may present with hypothermia or leukopenia. The objective of ... There is relative destruction of the ganglion cells and swelling of the nerve fibres in the myenteric plexus, with concomitant ...
Expected cell count Adequate expected cell counts. Some require 5 or more, and others require 10 or more. A common rule is 5 or ... more in all cells of a 2-by-2 table, and 5 or more in 80% of cells in larger tables, but no cells with zero expected count. ... Each observation is allocated to one cell of a two-dimensional array of cells (called a contingency table) according to the ... The number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of cells n {\displaystyle n} , minus the reduction in degrees of ...
It may be used in living or fixed cells. DAPI-stained cells are especially appropriate for cell counting.[7] ... in viable cell counting. This EB/AO combined stain causes live cells to fluoresce green whilst apoptotic cells retain the ... Levenfus, I.: An efficient method for counting DAPI-stained cells using Fiji. Grin: Munich. 2011. ISBN 978-3-640-86284-9 ... In some cases, cells may be grown directly on a slide. For samples of loose cells (as with a blood smear or a pap smear) the ...
John Ranson (1938-1995). At admission: Age in years > 55 years WBC count > 16000 cells/mm3 Blood glucose > 11 mmol/L (> 200 mg/ ...
... total white cell count , 4.0 x 109/L. Decrease in all types of white blood cells (revealed by doing a differential count). ... The T cell activated macrophages engulf erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, as well as their progenitor cells. Along with ... Pancytopenia is a medical condition in which there is a reduction in the number of red and white blood cells, as well as ... If only two parameters from the complete blood count are low, the term bicytopenia can be used. The diagnostic approach is the ...
It takes a number of forms: Low red blood cell count: resulting in anemia. Low white blood cell count: leukopenia or ... Low granulocyte count: granulocytopenia Low red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet counts: pancytopenia. Polycythemia, ... Because neutrophils make up at least half of all white cells, they are almost always low in leukopenia[citation needed]. Low ... Cytopenia is a reduction in the number of mature blood cells. ...
"What causes low blood cell counts?". Retrieved March 3, 2012. "Managing a Low White Blood Cell Count (Neutropenia)". Retrieved ... stem cell transplant, bone marrow transplant, HIV, AIDS, and steroid use. Other causes of low white blood cell count include ... and the prescriber information suggests a complete blood count, including differential cell count, before and after, in ... Low white cell count may be due to acute viral infections, such as a cold or influenza. It has been associated with ...
The white blood cell count is often raised. The arthritis is usually polyarticular (i.e., it leads to an inflammation of ...
This may occur at any stage during treatment and without warning; monitoring of white cell count is not useful. Patients are ... If this confirms a low neutrophil count, discontinuation of the drug leads to recovery. However failure to report suggestive ... advised to immediately report symptoms of infection, such as sore throat or fever, so that a full blood count test may be ...
The hemocytometer can be used to count cells.. ... Some cell types are not limited by contact inhibition, such as ... Many cell lines exhibit differences in growth rate or gene expression depending on the degree of confluence. Cells are ... 100 percent confluence means the surface is completely covered by the cells, and no more room is left for the cells to grow as ... depending on the cell type. Usually by comparing the amount of space covered by cells with the unoccupied spaces using naked ...
... return to cell for count and lock-up; eat dinner in cell; leisure period from 6:00 pm until 9:00 pm in winter/10:00 pm in ... pick-up lunch and return to cell for count and lock-up; eat lunch in the cell; work from 1:00 pm until 3:30 pm; collect dinner ... Inmates could not control the volume of the radio nor the temperature of the cell. The lights in the cell remained on 24 hours ... clean cell, shave and wash-up; get breakfast from the kitchen and eat it in the cell; report for work at 8:00 am; leave work at ...
The element is known to damage cell membranes of water animals, causing several negative influences on reproduction and on the ... Yttrium, and less frequently scandium, are sometimes also counted as rare-earth metals. ... The high radioactivity of lawrencium would make it highly toxic to living cells, causing radiation poisoning. The same is true ... The radioactivity of the actinides generally makes them highly toxic to living cells, causing radiation poisoning. ...
A T-cell count measures the number of T cells in the blood. Your doctor may order this test if you have signs of a weak immune ... One type of T cell is the CD4 cell, or "helper cell." People with HIV/AIDS have regular T-cell tests to check their CD4 cell ... Normal results vary depending on the type of T-cell tested.. In adults, a normal CD4 cell count ranges from 500 to 1,200 cells/ ... A T-cell count measures the number of T cells in the blood. Your doctor may order this test if you have signs of a weak immune ...
2018 exhibition Cell Count, curated by Kyle Croft and Asher Mones. Taking HIV criminalization as a starting point, Cell Count ...
A CSF cell count is a test to measure the number of red and white blood cells that are in ... A CSF cell count is a test to measure the number of red and white blood cells that are in CSF. ...
And what are the symptoms of a raised red cell count? ... Sickle cell test * My daughters white cell count dropped very ... Polycythaemia (raised red cell count). What is polycythaemia? And what are the symptoms of a raised red cell count? ... Causes of a raised red cell count. Absolute erythrocytosis may be caused by an abnormality within the red blood cells (primary ... The dyed cells distribute themselves among your red cells, making it possible to calculate what the total mass of red cells ...
Things to consider if you have a low white blood cell count. If you have a low white blood cell count, consider taking the ... Boosting your white blood cell count. If you have a low white blood cell count, your doctor can prescribe medicines to help ... If you get an infection because you have a low white blood cell count, your symptoms may include:. *fever (call your doctor ... Breast cancer treatments that can lower your white blood cell count:. *chemotherapy: * Abraxane (chemical name: albumin-bound ...
This method does not require a reference material or ground truth cell number value and is independent of cell type and ... We have developed a method to assess the overall quality of a cell counting measurement. ... In cell counting, this fundamental principle implies that the measured cell number should be proportional to the dilution ... provides a relative measure of accuracy for cell counting by assessing closeness of agreement between the obtained cell count ...
Definition A white blood cell (WBC) count determines the concentration of white blood cells in the patients blood. A ... differential determines the percentage of each of the five types of mature white blood cells. ... The red blood cells are lysed using a detergent in the counting diluent. As the cells move one at a time through a counting ... The red blood cells are lysed using a detergent in the counting diluent. As the cells move one at a time through a counting ...
This diluted blood is then put into a counting chamber called a hemocytomer and the white cells are counted. Then the number of ... white blood cells. blood count. desmoplaquin. Glioblastoma. immune system. carboplatin. Helping your kid brother die. ... Higher than normal counts can indicate the presence of infection or leukemia. A differential is the percentages of different ... whole blood is mixed with a weak acid solution for the purpose of diluting the blood and gradually declining red blood cells ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory ... Cell Count, CSF. 2. Eosinophils Count, Absolute. 3. Storz Fluid Filter - 0.2 micron. 4. Storz Fluid Filter - 0.45 micron. 5. ...
According to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, no persons are required to respond to a collection of information unless it displays a valid OMB control number. The valid OMB control number for this information collection is 0990-0379. The time required to complete this information collection is estimated to average 5 minutes per response, including the time to review instructions, search existing data resources, gather the data needed, and complete and review the information collection. If you have comments concerning the accuracy of the time estimate(s) or suggestions for improving this form, please write to: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, OS/OCIO/PRA, 200 Independence Ave., S.W., Suite 336-E, Washington D.C. 20201, Attention: PRA Reports Clearance Officer ...
Count measures two components: the total number of WBCs (leukocytes), and the differential count. The differential count ... The White Blood Cell (WBC) Count measures two components: the total number of WBCs (leukocytes), and the differential count. ... White blood cells are a major component of the bodys immune system. Indications for a WBC count include infectious and ... The differential count measures the percentages of each type of leukocyte present. WBCs are composed of granulocytes ( ...
WBC - 4,500 to 10,000 cells/mcl. (Note: cells/mcl = cells per microliter). ... Acute emotional or physical stress can increase WBC counts. There are various types of white blood cells (WBCs) that normally ... This usually entails increased numbers of cells and an increase in the percentage of immature cells (mainly band zcells) in the ... Drugs that may increase WBC counts include epinephrine, allopurinol, aspirin, chloroform, heparin, quinine, corticosteroids, ...
Overview covers possible causes of increased disease-fighting cells. ... The exact threshold for a high white blood cell count varies from one laboratory to another. In general, for adults a count of ... A high white blood cell count is an increase in disease-fighting cells in your blood. ... more than 11,000 white blood cells (leukocytes) in a microliter of blood is considered a high white blood cell count. ...
White blood cells (WBCs) fight infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other pathogens (organisms that cause infection). ... When your blood is tested, ask for your WBC count and specifically, your neutrophil count. If your counts are low, do what you ... These cells are made in the bone marrow and travel in the blood throughout the body. They sense infections, gather at sites of ... When the neutrophil count gets this low, even the bacteria normally living in a persons mouth, skin, and gut can cause serious ...
Most people produce about 100 billion white cells each day. If someone has too many white blood cells, it can indicate an ... Find out more about white blood cells, the types, and how they work. ... White blood cells are vital to the body because they fight infection. ... A low white blood cell count can signal that an injury or condition is destroying cells faster than they are being made, or ...
... formerly called cell array of strings) and calculate the histogram count of every unique word. ... Hint: The cell array of strings approach is the dual of the string array approach, i.e., things that can be done via the string ... Case is insensitive, e.g., WORDS and words are treated as the same word, and you may return in the output cell array either the ... words = {and;but;Cody;dont;I;like;love;MATLAB;... on;problems;trivial}; count = [1; 1; 2; 1; 2; 1; 1; 2 ...
People can increase their red blood cell count through simple lifestyle changes, such as exercising, limiting alcohol, and ... A low red blood cell count, or anemia, can cause many symptoms and complications, including fatigue and weakness. ... Understanding blood count. Normal red blood cell counts vary from around 4.7 to 6.1 million cells per microliter (µL) for men ... Retinol, commonly known as vitamin A, supports the red blood cell count in a similar way to copper. It can help the cells ...
I have been going to a specialist for thyroid disorder and was told after blood work was done that my white blood cell count ... Not sure what a white blood cell count of 22 means but it is probably short-hand for a count of 22,000. Equally as important ... I have been going to a specialist for thyroid disorder and was told after blood work was done that my white blood cell count ... I had a blood count reading of this sort a couple of years ago and havent though much about it since. My doc wants to wait a ...
Learn about managing a low white blood cell count. ... A low white blood cell count increases the risk of infection ... Once the WBC count drops, it remains low for 7-10 days. The lowest level that blood cell counts reach is called the nadir. ... Low white blood cell count. Neutropenia and leukopenia are terms used to refer to lowered numbers of white blood cells (WBCs) ... The neutrophil count usually decreases with the WBC count, but it is possible to have a normal WBC count and still have ...
High white blood cell count. I am 16 years old and just wondering (I did not want to make a doctors appointment just for this ... High white blood cell count (leukocytosis) does not necessarily equate with leukemia. More common conditions which can result ... High white blood cell count (leukocytosis) does not necessarily equate with leukemia. More common conditions which can result ... I am just wondering what sort of medical problems are associated with a high white blood cell count? Anemia? Please help :) ...
Extended power outage? Your touchtone telephone will be up and running, even as cell sites go offline and your phone battery ... InGeneron Adds $23M to Test Stem Cell Therapy for Rotator Cuff Tears ...
low CD4 count-med related?. Apr 17, 2004. Twice, huge differences between labs/T cells and Abs Lymphs a week apart. Apr 11, ... I need help figuring out my white blood cell count and lymphocyte differential. Jul 27, 2003. ... Understanding my white boold count. Mar 22, 2008. Estimating CD4 count/percentage from Lymphocytes/Leukocytes percentage. Mar ... lymphocyte count in the early weeks of contracting HIV (week 5 to 7). Jul 24, 2016. ...
Video Tag: White Blood Cell Count. SAGES Webinar : Preparing for the ABSITE-December 2017. ... white blood cell count, Witzel tunnel technique, WSCM, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Video Authors. Alseidi A, Awad M, Blatnik J ... interstitial cells of Cajal, interventional radiology, intestinal metaplasia, intr-abdominal pressure, intraoperative ...
A somatic cell count (SCC) is a cell count of somatic cells in a fluid specimen, usually milk. In dairying, the SCC is an ... and are based on the somatic cell count and the bacteria plate count. Generally a lower somatic cell count indicates better ... The bacteria count using the standard plate count, direct microscopic count, or plate loop count methods shall be not more than ... The somatic cell count shall be not more than one million (1,000,000) cells per milliliter. The milk shall not contain drug ...
  • Our previous studies showed that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 regulate the initial interaction of fungal cells with macrophages and the pattern of adaptive immunity that further develops. (asm.org)
  • MyD88 −/− macrophages displayed impaired interaction with fungal yeast cells and produced low levels of IL-12, MCP-1, and nitric oxide, thus allowing increased fungal growth. (asm.org)
  • MyD88 −/− mice presented low levels of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines, suppressed lymphoproliferation, and impaired influx of inflammatory cells to the lungs, and this group of cells comprised lower numbers of neutrophils, activated macrophages, and T cells. (asm.org)
  • We analyzed the impact of ligand aggregation and LPS-induced signaling on CD14-dependent LPS internalization kinetics in human monocytic THP-1 cells and murine macrophages. (jimmunol.org)
  • Tissue resident macrophages are long-lived, self-replenishing myeloid cells. (pnas.org)
  • We have further shown that down-regulation of SAF expression with siRNA treatment can activate effector caspase-3/7 specifically in virus-infected macrophages without affecting the uninfected and bystander cells. (pnas.org)
  • Overall, our study describes the approach of modulating the lncRNA SAF for targeted elimination of HIV-1-infected macrophages that can lead to reduction and potential clearance of these viral reservoir cells. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we have identified the impact of the lncRNA SAF in regulating apoptotic effector caspases in macrophages, a long-lived cellular reservoir of HIV-1, that are largely immune to virus-induced cell death. (pnas.org)
  • Expression of SAF is significantly up-regulated in HIV-1-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) compared with bystander and virus-nonexposed cells. (pnas.org)
  • This induction of apoptotic caspases occurs exclusively in HIV-1-infected macrophages and not in bystander cells, leading to a significant reduction in HIV-1 replication and overall viral burden in the macrophage culture. (pnas.org)
  • This study identifies targeting of the lncRNA SAF as a potential means to specifically induce cell death in HIV-1-infected macrophages. (pnas.org)
  • The sporozoties will invade the avian host's reticuloendothelial (macrophages and monocytes) cells where they will develop into mernots . (kenyon.edu)
  • In the intestine, pAPCs including dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are strategically positioned to protect the gut while maintaining mucosal tolerance to food, self-antigens and microbiota. (nature.com)
  • Regulatory T cells (Treg) are an essential component of the immune system, balancing necessary aggressiveness against foes with tolerance for self-constituents ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A weakened immune system allows the bacteria to attack the red blood cells. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • The author of the photo says that the disease was caused by the cat's immune system attacking the red blood cells having detected an abnormality in them. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • CD4+ T cells are the crucial immune system cells typically depleted during HIV disease. (nih.gov)
  • The research also showed that the ingredient protected the skin immune system by slowing down the depletion of Langerhans cells (immune cells present in the outer layer of the skin) following exposure to a UVB/UVA solar simulator (LycoRed, 2008). (ift.org)
  • The immune system relies on diverse mechanisms working in concert to defend the host from infection and to identify and remove aberrant or damaged cells. (biotek.com)
  • Additionally, the immune system is a critical consideration for vaccine development and cell, tissue and organ transplants. (biotek.com)
  • Keep in mind that the elimination of dying or dead cancer cells is monitored by the immune system. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • Dysregulation of interactions between the gut microbiota and the mucosal immune system causes development of chronic intestinal inflammation, which is mediated by DCs through their unique role in priming T-cell responses 31 . (nature.com)
  • Studies were performed with normal and MyD88 −/− C57BL/6 mice intratracheally infected with P. brasiliensis yeast cells. (asm.org)
  • Regulatory T-cells (Treg) have been the focus of immunologic research due to their role in establishing tolerance for harmless antigens versus allowing immune responses against foes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our findings for the first time demonstrate that gp96 is essential for CD11c + cells to induce regulatory T cells and maintain gut homeostasis, illustrating the importance of protein immune chaperone in safeguarding against immune pathology. (nature.com)
  • In addition, the IL-1R family of cytokine receptors, including IL-18R and IL-33R, contains intracellular TIR domains and, like the majority of TLRs, uses MyD88 as an adaptor molecule to activate cells and induce the expression of specific genes such as the IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) genes ( 1 , 11 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Analysis of mice lacking monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), MCP-3, MCP-5, or MCP-2 plus MCP-5 revealed that MCP-3 and MCP-1 are the CCR2 agonists most critical for the maintenance of normal blood monocyte counts. (nih.gov)
  • Further functional studies on vimentin (VIM), a key protein involved in the cytoskeleton, revealed that HOTAIR exerts its effects on migration and invasion of HeLa cells, at least in part, through the regulation of VIM expression. (mcponline.org)
  • Chaperones are a functionally related group of proteins that assist protein folding in bacteria, plant and animal cells under physiological and stress conditions. (biologists.org)
  • The cell has a complex system for maintaining proper protein folding, which begins with facilitation of folding of nascent proteins, monitoring for the presence of unfolded proteins in different intracellular compartments, and targeting of misfolded or abnormal proteins for degradation. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we used injections of a retroviral vector into the SVZ of 5HT 3 -EGFP pups at postnatal day 4 (P4) to express the red fluorescent protein (RFP) in newborn cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • In WHV-infected adult woodchucks, strong T-cell responses to surface protein (WHsAg) and recombinant core protein (rWHcAg) are found ( 7 , 23 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • In the presence of LPS binding protein (LBP), large LPS aggregates were internalized extremely rapidly (70% of the cell-associated LPS was internalized in 1 min). (jimmunol.org)
  • CD14, expressed as a cell surface receptor on phagocytes (mCD14) 3 and as a soluble protein in serum (sCD14), rapidly binds LPS in the presence of LPS binding protein (LBP), another serum component. (jimmunol.org)
  • Fluid (CSF) from the spinal cord is obtained through lumbar puncture and tested for its cell count, antibodies to cryptococcal protein and glucose levels. (medindia.net)
  • In addition, transcription factor forkhead box A2 (Foxa2) was identified as a novel target of miR-200a and downregulated at mRNA and protein levels in miR-200a overexpressed cells. (jcancer.org)
  • Evaluation of brain sections indicates a reduction in myelin and glial fibrillary acidic protein labeling in oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, respectively, indicating pathological development of these cells. (asm.org)
  • A. Garcia-Perez, W.S. Spielman, W.K. Sonnenburg, and W.L. Smith , Use of Cell-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies to Isolate Renal Epithelia. (elsevier.com)
  • These cytotoxic effector molecules are characteristic for circulating effector-type CD8 + T cells but lack in certain human T RM -cell populations 17 . (nature.com)
  • We here test the hypothesis that the CD8 + T-cell compartment in the human brain harbors populations with T RM -cell features and demonstrate the existence of two CD69 + subsets, distinguished by the surface presence of CD103. (nature.com)
  • These findings suggest that neural stem cell populations might be affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD). (jneurosci.org)
  • H-G. Heidrich and K. Hannig , Separation of Cell Populations by Free-Flow Electrophoresis. (elsevier.com)
  • This article, I will talk about some quick formulas to count the number of uppercase or lowercase letters only of text strings. (extendoffice.com)
  • Dynamic array formulas, whether they're using existing functions or the dynamic array functions, only need to be input into a single cell, then confirmed by pressing Enter . (microsoft.com)
  • The following examples show you how to create multi-cell and single-cell array formulas. (microsoft.com)
  • This exercise shows you how to use multi-cell and single-cell array formulas to calculate a set of sales figures. (microsoft.com)
  • You might also notice that the formulas in cells H10:H19 are grayed out. (microsoft.com)
  • For starters, there are more than a dozen critical formulas Excel can automatically run for you so you're not combing through hundreds of cells with a calculator on your desk. (hubspot.com)
  • Excel formulas help you identify relationships between values in the cells of your spreadsheet, perform mathematical calculations using those values, and return the resulting value in the cell of your choice. (hubspot.com)
  • In more recent versions of Excel, this horizontal menu -- shown below -- allows you to find and insert Excel formulas into specific cells of your spreadsheet. (hubspot.com)
  • To insert one into your spreadsheet, highlight a cell in which you want to run a formula, then click the far-left icon, "Insert Function," to browse popular formulas and what they do. (hubspot.com)
  • Blood analysis revealed decreased red blood cell and hemoglobin levels, with normal ferritin levels, significant muscle damage, decreased testosterone levels, and increased cortisol levels. (velonews.com)
  • 3. Normal values for red blood cell parameters in adults RBC parameter Men Women Hemoglobin, g/dL 15.7 (14.0 to 17.5) 13.8 (12.3 to 15.3) Hematocrit, percent 46 (42 to 50) 40 (36 to 45) RBC count, million/microL 5.2 (4.5 to 5.9) 4.6 (4.1 to 5.1) Reticulocyte count, cells/microL 20,000 to 110,000 20,000 to 110,000 Reticulocyte percentage 1.6 ± 0.5 1.4 ± 0.5 (Schrier, 2018). (mindmeister.com)
  • Although the function of most lncRNAs remains to be elucidated, recent findings suggest their involvement in fundamental cellular processes, including apoptosis and the cell cycle ( 8 ⇓ - 10 ), chromatin modification ( 11 , 12 ), genomic reprogramming ( 13 , 14 ), gene imprinting ( 15 ), and RNA processing ( 16 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Cell apoptosis was determined by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end‑labeling assay. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The results of the present study indicate that chrysin induces apoptosis of human uveal melanoma cells via the mitochondrial signaling pathway and suggest that chrysin may be a promising agent in the treatment of uveal melanoma. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Although significant efforts in the past try to understand the toxicity of nanomaterials on various cell types and physiological systems, including reproduction, the effect of CNM on human sperm velocity and oxidative stress generation remain unexplored. (nature.com)
  • Evidence is still lacking that these cells acquire physiological neuronal properties and integrate into the already established cortical networks of young rodents. (jneurosci.org)
  • The adult mammalian brain contains neural stem cells (NSCs) with self-renewal and multilineage potential in the hippocampus and subventricular zone. (jneurosci.org)
  • We wish this were a joke, but it's the US Food and Drug Administration's latest claim in its battle with a Colorado clinic over its Regenexx-C™ procedure, a non-surgical treatment for people suffering from moderate to severe joint or bone pain using adult stem cells. (anh-usa.org)
  • It's the only way the agency can claim that adult stem cell therapy is within FDA's purview. (anh-usa.org)
  • The primary role of adult stem cells in a living organism is to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found. (anh-usa.org)
  • The addition of new cortical EGFP-expressing cells born in the SVZ rapidly decreases during postnatal development and is virtually absent or barely detectable in adult mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • The jour-ney under-tak-en by new-ly gen-er-at-ed neu-rons in the adult brain is like the cel-lu-lar equiv-a-lent of the ardu-ous upstream migra-tion of salmon return-ing to the rivers in which they were hatched. (sharpbrains.com)
  • In another outrageous power-grab, FDA says your own stem cells are drugs-and stem cell therapy is interstate commerce because it affects the bottom line of FDA-approved drugs in other states! (anh-usa.org)
  • Stem cells are drugs and therefore fall within their jurisdiction. (anh-usa.org)
  • The Centeno-Schultz Medical Clinic takes your blood and bone marrow, puts it into a centrifuge machine that separates the stem cells, and cultures it to get more cells before a doctor puts them back in your body to repair damaged tissue. (anh-usa.org)
  • The FDA states that when the stem cells are cultured, they become FDA-regulated drugs. (anh-usa.org)
  • The clinic has argued numerous times that stem cells aren't drugs because they are components of the patient's bone marrow from his or her own body. (anh-usa.org)
  • The FDA says otherwise: "Stem cells, like other medical products that are intended to treat, cure, or prevent disease, generally require FDA approval before they can be marketed. (anh-usa.org)
  • But new technology is giving doctors the ability to obtain more stem cells from a patient than previously thought possible, which is why we're now seeing new treatments. (anh-usa.org)
  • Blood, fat, or tissue is withdrawn from the patient, stem cells are obtained using one of these new processes, and the cells are injected back into the patient where they can repair the patient's tissue. (anh-usa.org)
  • We individually validate 153 probes and take advantage of our probe repository to quantify the extent of intermingling between multiple heterologous chromosome pairs, showing a much higher extent of intermingling in human embryonic stem cells compared to fibroblasts. (nature.com)
  • Stem cells, or immature blood cells, are stored in the bone marrow and have the ability to develop into all three types of mature blood cells. (stateuniversity.com)
  • When the body needs a specific type of blood cell, the bone marrow uses its stockpile of stem cells to produce the kind of mature cells needed for that particular situation. (stateuniversity.com)
  • found a plentiful source of stem cells in the fluid that cushions babies in the womb. (sports-central.org)
  • I read the article, it said 'They reported they were able to extract the stem cells without harm to mother or fetus. (sports-central.org)
  • Automated in-vitro cell detection and counting have been a key theme for artificial and intelligent biological analysis such as biopsy, drug analysis and decease diagnosis. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • Along with the rapid development of microfluidics and lab-on-chip technologies, in-vitro live cell analysis has been one of the critical tasks for both research and industry communities. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • In this paper, we investigated in-vitro detection of white blood cells using deep neural networks, and discussed how state-of-the-art machine learning techniques could fulfil the needs of medical diagnosis. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of chrysin on human uveal melanoma cells in vitro and compare to those on normal human scleral fibroblasts and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, it is a great challenge to obtain and then predict the precise information of live cells from numerous microscopic videos and images. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • The approach we used in this study was based on Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks (Faster RCNNs), and a transfer learning process was applied to apply this technique to the microscopic detection of blood cells. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • Our experimental results demonstrated that fast and efficient analysis of blood cells via automated microscopic imaging can achieve much better accuracy and faster speed than the conventionally applied methods, implying a promising future of this technology to be applied to the microfluidic point-of-care medical devices. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • B.D. Jensen and P.K. Horan , Flow Cytometry: Rapid Isolation and Analysis of Single Cells. (elsevier.com)
  • This cyclic approach to treatment -- known as "structured intermittent therapy" -- might, with further refinement, enable an HIV-infected person to have regular HAART-free periods while maintaining a minimal viral load and adequate levels of CD4+ T cells. (nih.gov)
  • A decrease in the T-cell response to viral antigens coincided with clearance of viral DNA. (asm.org)
  • Reactivation of T-cell responses to viral antigens and peptides occurred within 7 days after challenge of animals with WHV. (asm.org)
  • It is also unknown to what extent a long-lasting T-cell response may support protection from viral reinfection after resolution of an acute, self-limited HBV infection ( 30 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • There is a combined vaccination for hepatitis A and hepatitis B, though it might be less effective than the separate vaccinations for people with a low CD4 count or a detectable viral load . (tht.org.uk)
  • It uses drugs to target specific molecules (such as proteins) on the surface of cancer cells. (cancer.ca)
  • By targeting these molecules, the drugs stop the growth and spread of cancer cells while limiting harm to normal cells. (cancer.ca)
  • Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays or particles to destroy cancer cells. (cancer.ca)
  • It is toxic to fast-growing cancer cells. (denverhealth.org)
  • Cancer cells are destroyed to the point that cancer can no longer be found in the body. (denverhealth.org)
  • The cancer cells will not grow back. (denverhealth.org)
  • It may also destroy cancer cells that have spread to other parts of your body. (denverhealth.org)
  • Cisplatin works by stopping the cancer cells from multiplying. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Cisplatin damages the DNA inside the cancer cells and so prevents them from multiplying. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • However, during this period, cancer cells will also recover and start to replicate again. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • However, SN-38 is rapidly metabolized to the inactive SN-38 glucuronide (SN-38G) in the liver, which reduces the amount of SN-38 available for killing cancer cells. (nature.com)
  • Here, we investigated if local expression of β-glucuronidase (βG) on cancer cells to catalytically convert SN38G to SN38 could enhance the antitumor activity of CPT-11. (nature.com)
  • 13 For example, expression of carboxyesterases in cancer cells can catalyze the hydrolysis of CPT-11 to SN-38 and enhance CPT-11 antitumor activity. (nature.com)
  • 19 Expression of secreted βG at cancer cells can effectively activate glucuronide prodrugs, but leakage from the tumor microenvironment may allow systemic activation of prodrugs that produces adverse effects. (nature.com)
  • Inhibition of HOTAIR leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and ultrastructural alterations, suggesting a novel role of HOTAIR in maintaining mitochondrial function in cancer cells. (mcponline.org)
  • Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the function of HOTAIR in cancer cells. (mcponline.org)
  • If cancer cells grow in the kidney, it is called kidney cancer. (urologyhealth.org)
  • Cancer cells inside the body live in a very complex environment or neighborhood. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • Understanding the aspects of Hsp70 function that are required for protection will identify pathological processes that contribute to cell death and allow future work to target identified pathological mechanisms for brain protection. (biologists.org)
  • Today, to carry out a complete blood count (hemogram), a fully automated analyzer takes less than a minute, from extracting the material from the tube with different types of captors, to chemical preparation, characterization and counting of the different blood cells, search for immature or pathological cells and finally, analysis and transmission of the result. (horiba.com)
  • Here we show that human white matter-derived brain CD8 + T cells can be subsetted into CD103 − CD69 + and CD103 + CD69 + T cells both with a phenotypic and transcription factor profile consistent with T RM cells. (nature.com)
  • Brain CD4 + T cells also display T RM cell-associated markers but have low CD103 expression. (nature.com)
  • We conclude that the human brain is surveilled by T RM cells, providing protection against neurotropic virus reactivation, whilst being under tight control of key immune checkpoint molecules. (nature.com)
  • We recently phenotyped human T cells acutely isolated from the post-mortem brain 14 . (nature.com)
  • Since both apoptotic and necrotic cell death are involved in ischemic brain injury, the ability of Hsp70 to reduce both types of cell death makes it an appealing candidate for brain protection. (biologists.org)
  • Brain func-tions are con-trolled by mil-lions of brain cells. (sharpbrains.com)
  • Our dai-ly expe-ri-ences can trig-ger neu-ro-plas-tic changes in the brain, such as the growth of new brain cells (neu-rons) and new con-nec-tions (synaps-es) between neu-rons. (sharpbrains.com)
  • Brain cell count is lower than 10! (oddworldforums.net)
  • The proposed study is a single-arm, multi-center, open-label phase II study of the combination of palbociclib and ibrutinib in patients with previously treated mantle cell lymphoma to evaluate the efficacy of this combination, with the primary objective of the study being to assess median PFS and the secondary objectives to include ORR, CR, DOR, OS and toxicity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The proposed study is a single-arm, multi-center, open-label phase II study of the combination of palbociclib and ibrutinib in patients with previously treated mantle cell lymphoma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Relapsed follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (FL) in patients who have received at least two prior systemic therapies. (nih.gov)
  • Then three weeks after my diagnosis the unbearable news came, my father was diagnosed with Mantel cell Lymphoma. (cancer.org)
  • At 12 months after infection, T-cell responses to antigens and peptides were not detected. (asm.org)
  • You can sum part or all of that data by creating an array formula in a single cell instead of dragging the formula down through the 1,000 rows. (microsoft.com)
  • A 68-year-old female with IgA kappa multiple myeloma who attained a stringent complete response following autologous stem cell transplant is being treated with lenalidomide maintenance. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Compared with wild-type (WT) mice, MyD88 −/− mice developed a more severe infection of the lungs and had marked dissemination of fungal cells to the liver and spleen. (asm.org)
  • By a genetic strategy, we report here that selective deletion of gp96 from CD11c + cells in mice results in alteration of dendritic cell and T cell subsets in the gut as well as loss of antigen-specific regulatory T cell induction in the mesenteric lymph nodes. (nature.com)
  • At postnatal day 5, a critical time for cerebellar development, Purα and Cdk5 were both at peak levels in bodies and dendrites of Purkinje cells of PURA +/+ mice, but both were absent in dendrites of PURA −/− mice. (asm.org)
  • Functionalized materials are generally more miscible in water, hence, mostly used for cell toxicity studies. (nature.com)
  • Here, we explored the role of HOTAIR in HeLa cells and searched for proteins regulated by HOTAIR. (mcponline.org)
  • The T-cell responses in these woodchucks to WHcAg are predominantly to specific peptides of the antigen, whereas in chronically WHV-infected woodchucks an undetectable or weak T-cell response to these proteins and peptides is observed ( 23-25 ). (asm.org)
  • It may enter cells via clathrin-coated pits ( 11 , 12 ) or possibly via the noncoated invaginations reported to internalize other glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins ( 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ). (jimmunol.org)