A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC, members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Basic functional unit of plants.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC, some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.
Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The area within CELLS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (1/4939)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (2/4939)

Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners.  (+info)

Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins. (3/4939)

Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Plasma membrane recruitment of RalGDS is critical for Ras-dependent Ral activation. (4/4939)

In COS cells, Ral GDP dissociation stimulator (RalGDS)-induced Ral activation was stimulated by RasG12V or a Rap1/Ras chimera in which the N-terminal region of Rap1 was ligated to the C-terminal region of Ras but not by Rap1G12V or a Ras/Rap1 chimera in which the N-terminal region of Ras was ligated to the C-terminal region of Rap1, although RalGDS interacted with these small GTP-binding proteins. When RasG12V, Ral and the Rap1/Ras chimera were individually expressed in NIH3T3 cells, they localized to the plasma membrane. Rap1Q63E and the Ras/Rap1 chimera were detected in the perinuclear region. When RalGDS was expressed alone, it was abundant in the cytoplasm. When coexpressed with RasG12V or the Rap1/Ras chimera, RalGDS was detected at the plasma membrane, whereas when coexpressed with Rap1Q63E or the Ras/Rap1 chimera, RalGDS was observed in the perinuclear region. RalGDS which was targeted to the plasma membrane by the addition of Ras farnesylation site (RalGDS-CAAX) activated Ral in the absence of RasG12V. Although RalGDS did not stimulate the dissociation of GDP from Ral in the absence of the GTP-bound form of Ras in a reconstitution assay using the liposomes, RalGDS-CAAX could stimulate it without Ras. RasG12V activated Raf-1 when they were coexpressed in Sf9 cells, whereas RasG12V did not affect the RalGDS activity. These results indicate that Ras recruits RalGDS to the plasma membrane and that the translocated RalGDS induces the activation of Ral, but that Rap1 does not activate Ral due to distinct subcellular localization.  (+info)

ETO-2, a new member of the ETO-family of nuclear proteins. (5/4939)

The t(8;21) is associated with 12-15% of acute myelogenous leukemias of the M2 subtype. The translocation results in the fusion of two genes, AML1 (CBFA2) on chromosome 21 and ETO (MTG8) on chromosome 8. AML1 encodes a DNA binding factor; the ETO protein product is less well characterized, but is thought to be a transcription factor. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of ETO-2, a murine cDNA that encodes a new member of the ETO family of proteins. ETO-2 is 75% identical to murine ETO and shares very high sequence identities over four regions of the protein with ETO (domain I-III and zinc-finger). Northern analysis identifies ETO-2 transcripts in many of the murine tissues analysed and in the developing mouse embryo. ETO-2 is also expressed in myeloid and erythroid cell lines. We confirmed the nuclear localization of ETO-2 and demonstrated that domain III and the zinc-finger region are not required for nuclear localization. We further showed that a region within ETO, containing domain II, mediates dimerization among family members. This region is conserved in the oncoprotein AML-1/ETO. The recent identification of another ETO-like protein, myeloid translocation gene-related protein 1, together with the data presented here, demonstrates that at least three ETO proteins exist with the potential to form dimers in the cell nucleus.  (+info)

The amyloid precursor protein interacts with Go heterotrimeric protein within a cell compartment specialized in signal transduction. (6/4939)

The function of the beta-amyloid protein precursor (betaAPP), a transmembrane molecule involved in Alzheimer pathologies, is poorly understood. We recently reported the presence of a fraction of betaAPP in cholesterol and sphingoglycolipid-enriched microdomains (CSEM), a caveolae-like compartment specialized in signal transduction. To investigate whether betaAPP actually interferes with cell signaling, we reexamined the interaction between betaAPP and Go GTPase. In strong contrast with results obtained with reconstituted phospholipid vesicles (Okamoto et al., 1995), we find that incubating total neuronal membranes with 22C11, an antibody that recognizes an N-terminal betaAPP epitope, reduces high-affinity Go GTPase activity. This inhibition is specific of Galphao and is reproduced, in the absence of 22C11, by the addition of the betaAPP C-terminal domain but not by two distinct mutated betaAPP C-terminal domains that do not bind Galphao. This inhibition of Galphao GTPase activity by either 22C11 or wild-type betaAPP cytoplasmic domain suggests that intracellular interactions between betaAPP and Galphao could be regulated by extracellular signals. To verify whether this interaction is preserved in CSEM, we first used biochemical, immunocytochemical, and ultrastructural techniques to unambiguously confirm the colocalization of Galphao and betaAPP in CSEM. We show that inhibition of basal Galphao GTPase activity also occurs within CSEM and correlates with the coimmunoprecipitation of Galphao and betaAPP. The regulation of Galphao GTPase activity by betaAPP in a compartment specialized in signaling may have important consequences for our understanding of the physiopathological functions of betaAPP.  (+info)

NKp44, a triggering receptor involved in tumor cell lysis by activated human natural killer cells, is a novel member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (7/4939)

Surface receptors involved in natural killer (NK) cell triggering during the process of tumor cell lysis have recently been identified. Of these receptors, NKp44 is selectively expressed by IL-2- activated NK cells and may contribute to the increased efficiency of activated NK cells to mediate tumor cell lysis. Here we describe the molecular cloning of NKp44. Analysis of the cloned cDNA indicated that NKp44 is a novel transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the Immunoglobulin superfamily characterized by a single extracellular V-type domain. The charged amino acid lysine in the transmembrane region may be involved in the association of NKp44 with the signal transducing molecule killer activating receptor-associated polypeptide (KARAP)/DAP12. These molecules were found to be crucial for the surface expression of NKp44. In agreement with data of NKp44 surface expression, the NKp44 transcripts were strictly confined to activated NK cells and to a minor subset of TCR-gamma/delta+ T lymphocytes. Unlike genes coding for other receptors involved in NK cell triggering or inhibition, the NKp44 gene is on human chromosome 6.  (+info)

The iron transport protein NRAMP2 is an integral membrane glycoprotein that colocalizes with transferrin in recycling endosomes. (8/4939)

The natural resistance associated macrophage protein (Nramp) gene family is composed of two members in mammals, Nramp1 and Nramp2. Nramp1 is expressed primarily in macrophages and mutations at this locus cause susceptibility to infectious diseases. Nramp2 has a much broader range of tissue expression and mutations at Nramp2 result in iron deficiency, indicating a role for Nramp2 in iron metabolism. To get further insight into the function and mechanism of action of Nramp proteins, we have generated isoform specific anti-Nramp1 and anti-Nramp2 antisera. Immunoblotting experiments indicate that Nramp2 is present in a number of cell types, including hemopoietic precursors, and is coexpressed with Nramp1 in primary macrophages and macrophage cell lines. Nramp2 is expressed as a 90-100-kD integral membrane protein extensively modified by glycosylation (>40% of molecular mass). Subcellular localization studies by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy indicate distinct and nonoverlapping localization for Nramp1 and Nramp2. Nramp1 is expressed in the lysosomal compartment, whereas Nramp2 is not detectable in the lysosomes but is expressed primarily in recycling endosomes and also, to a lower extent, at the plasma membrane, colocalizing with transferrin. These findings suggest that Nramp2 plays a key role in the metabolism of transferrin-bound iron by transporting free Fe2+ across the endosomal membrane and into the cytoplasm.  (+info)

Definition of distinct compartments in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells for membrane-volume sorting, polarized sorting and apical recycling.
The present study suggests that the NH2-terminal amino acids of the galectin-3 leader sequence regulate cellular translocation of galectin-3, but this activity does not depend on the phosphorylation of Ser6 by casein kinase I. The function of the unusual NH2-terminal leader domain of galectin-3 was studied using site-directed mutagenesis to produce a cDNA lacking the 11 NH2-terminal amino acids (residues 2-12), which was then expressed in the galectin-3-null BT-549 human breast carcinoma cell line. Galectin-3 contains no typical signal peptide sequence and presumably is secreted by a mechanism independent of the classical secretary pathway in a manner similar to β-fibroblast growth factor and interleukin 1 (10) . It is believed that galectin-3 undergoes a post-translational modification after being synthesized on free cytoplasmic ribosomes and that the NH2-terminal Met and Ala could be acylated, thus blocking secretion and translocation of galectin-3 to the cell surface (25) . Because wild-type ...
In this study, we generated a mutant of SpCdc25 that is severely impaired in its ability to bind to the fission yeast 14-3-3 proteins (Rad 24 and Rad 25). When expressed in fission yeast, this mutant Cdc25 protein localized almost exclusively to the nucleus, in contrast to wild-type Cdc25, which localized to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Inhibition of Crm1-mediated nuclear export resulted in the nuclear accumulation of wild-type Cdc25, indicating that wild-type Cdc25 normally shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Overproduction of Rad 24 caused wild-type Cdc25 to localize exclusively to the cytoplasm, whereas nuclear localization of the 14-3-3 binding mutant was not altered upon Rad 24 overproduction. Finally, cells expressing the 14-3-3 binding mutant exhibited defective G2/M checkpoint responses. Taken together, these results suggest that 14-3-3 binding regulates the intracellular compartmentalization of Cdc25 and establish that 14-3-3 binding to Cdc25 is required for fission ...
Intracellular compartmentalization through interactions among MAPKs and scaffold proteins plays an important role in the regulation of signal transduction pathways (Morrison and Davis, 2003; Kolch, 2005). For example, active MEK-ERK complexes are retained in the cytoplasm and in sites of focal adhesion through interaction with the transmembrane protein Sef (Torii et al., 2004) and paxilin (Ishibe et al., 2004), respectively. Moreover, kinase suppressor of Ras 1 (Muller et al., 2001) and the complex p14-MEK-partner 1 (Teis et al., 2002; Pullikuth et al., 2005) are recruited to the plasma membrane and the endosome, respectively, where they enhance MEK and ERK activity. On the other hand, the association between ERKs and structural nuclear proteins, such as kinetochores, may serve anchoring purposes (Shapiro et al., 1998). To the best of our knowledge, we show here for the first time that A-type lamins function as a nuclear docking platform for EKR1/2, and that NE-bound ERK1/2 contributes to the ...
Ever since the beginning of biochemical analysis, yeast has been a pioneering model for studying the regulation of eukaryotic metabolism. During the last three decades, the combination of powerful yeast genetics and genome-wide approaches has led to a more integrated view of metabolic regulation. Multiple layers of regulation, from suprapathway control to individual gene responses, have been discovered. Constitutive and dedicated systems that are critical in sensing of the intra-and extracellular environment have been identified, and there is a growing awareness of their involvement in the highly regulated intracellular compartmentalization of proteins and metabolites. This review focuses on recent developments in the field of amino acid, nucleotide, and phosphate metabolism and provides illustrative examples of how yeast cells combine a variety of mechanisms to achieve coordinated regulation of multiple metabolic pathways. Importantly, common schemes have emerged, which reveal mechanisms ...
Publications related to biomolecular condensates, phase separation, llps and more. Intracellular compartmentalization through liquid-liquid phase separation is an emerging organizing principle of cell biology. These compartments, such as the nucleolus and stress granules, are collectively known as membraneless organelles or biomolecular condensates. In vitro studies of many protein components of biomolecular condensates, such as the intrinsically disordered regions of Ddx4, FUS, and Laf-1 proteins, have revealed much about the driving forces of the phase separation process. A common approach is to investigate how the temperature at which a protein solution forms condensates-the transition temperature-responds to changes in the solution composition. We describe a method to measure the in vitro transition temperature of a sub-10 μL sample of a phase-separating solution using transmitted light microscopy. Through monitoring changes in transition temperature with solution conditions, this approach allows
By using signaling pathway- and cell type-specific responses in a combinatorial manner, the immune system signaling network is able to generate a highly diverse set of functional responses despite a limited number of cytokines, cell types, and signaling proteins. In addition to receptors that are coupled to intricate intracellular pathways, specialized cell types express their own set of receptors, and the activation of the same receptor on two different cell types can result in disparate functional responses. This allows sophisticated network behavior despite a limited repertoire of conserved signaling proteins (primarily of the Jak-Stat pathway). Modulating both these levels of the network is the organization of the immune system into distinct compartments, further refining the immune response and ensuring that it is appropriate for the tissue in which the cells resides.. The analysis of immune cell signaling at the network level can be enhanced by approaches that allow cell activities to be ...
The skin represents the outermost defense against microbial and environmental insults. The importance of cutaneous integrity is emphasized by the multitude of strategies that counteract pathogen invasion, including the physical barrier provided by keratinocytes, the production of antimicrobial mediators by skin-resident cells, and the localization of immune cells in the different layers of the skin. It has become increasingly clear that epidermis and dermis do not merely represent anatomically distinct compartments, but rather directly and specifically shape the immune milieu to support the activities of resident leukocytes. In this study, we have identified an abundant population of resident dermal γδ T cells that displays a unique phenotypic profile, survival requirements, and migratory behavior as compared with its epidermal and systemic counterparts. Our results thus expand on the concept of microcompartmental specialization of distinct immune cell subsets within the skin. They further ...
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Compartmentation is a recognised strategy for preventing fire spread and aiding swift evacuation, but little is understood about its true effectiveness. Here, Simon Ellison of fire glass specialist, Pyroguard, explains how fire spreads and why com...
Purinergic signaling has been established as an important feature of inflammation and homeostasis. The expression of a number of P2 receptor subtypes in the gut has been reported. In this study, using
A modern and stylish unisex backpack that will fit everything you need and more. For mum and dad. The bag includes: A changing mat 9 different compartments for organising your essentials and for easy access including 2 zipped pockets and 4 insulated pockets for your babys milk Clips for attaching the bag to your pram
Mithril is right. Think of it in terms of the factory. If you have one worker that does everything or 1000 workers that are each specialised for doing one specific thing? In which case do you have a better product. Or here is another example: A hospital full of specialist or a hospital full of GPs. Which will treat more patients ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The subcellular compartmentalization of arginine metabolizing enzymes and their role in endothelial dysfunction. AU - Chen, Feng. AU - Lucas, Rudolf. AU - Fulton, David. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - The endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) mediates endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and restrains vascular inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and platelet aggregation. Impaired production of NO is a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction and promotes the development of cardiovascular disease. In endothelial cells, NO is generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through the conversion of its substrate, L-arginine to L-citrulline. Reduced access to L-arginine has been proposed as a major mechanism underlying reduced eNOS activity and NO production in cardiovascular disease. The arginases (Arg1 and Arg2) metabolize L-arginine to generate L-ornithine and urea and increased expression of ...
Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is a multi-functional and -compartmental protein whose subcellular localisation and functions are tightly regulated by its post-translational modifications. AnxA2 and its Tyr23-phosphorylated form (pTyr23AnxA2) are involved in malignant cell transformation, metastasis and angiogenesis. Here, we show that H2O2 exerts rapid, simultaneous and opposite effects on the Tyr23 phosphorylation status of AnxA2 in two distinct compartments of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Reactive oxygen species induce dephosphorylation of pTyr23AnxA2 located in the PML bodies of the nucleus, whereas AnxA2 associated with F-actin at the cell cortex is Tyr23 phosphorylated. The H2O2-induced responses in both compartments are transient and the pTyr23AnxA2 accumulating at the cell cortex is subsequently incorporated into vesicles and then released to the extracellular space. Blocking nuclear export by leptomycin B does not affect the nuclear pool of pTyr23AnxA2, but increases the amount of total AnxA2 ...
The biogenesis maintenance and function of primary cilia are controlled through intraflagellar transport (IFT) driven by two kinesin-2 family members the heterotrimeric KIF3A/KIF3B/KAP complex and the homodimeric KIF17 engine1 2 How these motors and their cargoes gain access to the ciliary compartment is poorly understood. Consistent with this cytoplasmic manifestation of GTP-locked Ran(G19V) disrupts the gradient and abolishes ciliary access of KIF17. Furthermore KIF17 interacts with importin-β2 in a manner dependent on the CLS and inhibited by Ran-GTP. We propose that Ran plays a global part in regulating cellular compartmentalization by controlling the shuttling of cytoplasmic proteins into nuclear and ciliary compartments. The development of the primary cilium a Fructose microtubule-based organelle projecting from the surface of nearly all cells has been proposed to be a result of evolved engine protein-based trafficking unique to eukaryotic cells3. Main cilia play important tasks in ...
A central issue in cell biology is the physico-chemical basis of organelle biogenesis in intracellular trafficking pathways, its most impressive manifestation being the biogenesis of Golgi cisternae. At a basic level, such morphologically and chemically distinct compartments should arise from an interplay between the molecular transport and chemical maturation. Here, we formulate analytically tractable, minimalist models, that incorporate this interplay between transport and chemical progression in physical space, and explore the conditions for de novo biogenesis of distinct cisternae. We propose new quantitative measures that can discriminate between the various models of transport in a qualitative manner-this includes measures of the dynamics in steady state and the dynamical response to perturbations of the kind amenable to live-cell imaging.. ...
Contains nuclear envelope, nucleoli, chromatin, and distinct compartments rich in specific protein sets. Gene-containing control center of the cell. COntains the genetic library with blueprints for nearly all cellular proteins. Dictates the kinds and amounts of proteins to be synthesized. ...
NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor which is present in almost all cell types and is involved in many biological processed such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NF-kappa-B is a homo- or heterodimeric complex formed by the Rel-like domain-containing proteins RELA/p65, RELB, NFKB1/p105, NFKB1/p50, REL and NFKB2/p52 and the heterodimeric p65-p50 complex appears to be most abundant one. The dimers bind at kappa-B sites in the DNA of their target genes and the individual dimers have distinct preferences for different kappa-B sites that they can bind with distinguishable affinity and specificity. Different dimer combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors, respectively. NF-kappa-B is controlled by various mechanisms of post-translational modification and subcellular compartmentalization as well as by interactions with other cofactors or corepressors. NF-kappa-B complexes are held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state ...
Bento boxes are meals packed in boxes, that have s number of different parts. It is reflective of Japanese meals - they often have a number of dishes on offer at a meal. The bento box is like a Japanese lunchbox with different compartments to hold the different dishes. Continue reading. ...
海词词典,最权威的学习词典,专业出版pre-lysosome compartment是什么意思,pre-lysosome compartment的用法,pre-lysosome compartment翻译和读音等详细讲解。海词词典:学习变容易,记忆很深刻。
Intracellular fluid is the fluid that exists within the cells of multi-celled organisms. The intracellular fluid is therefore stored within the intracellular compartments of the body
Loss of intracellular compartmentalization of potassium is a biochemical feature of Alzheimers disease indicating a loss of membrane integrity and mitochondrial dysfunction. We examined potassium and rubidium (a biological proxy for potassium) in brain tissue, blood fractions and cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimers disease and healthy control subjects to investigate the diagnostic potential of these two metal ions. We found that both potassium and rubidium levels were significantly decreased across all intracellular compartments in the Alzheimers disease brain. Serum from over 1000 participants in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing (AIBL), showed minor changes according to disease state. Potassium and rubidium levels in erythrocytes and cerebrospinal fluid were not significantly different according to disease state, and rubidium was slightly decreased in Alzheimers disease patients compared to healthy controls. Our data provides evidence that contrasts the
Rabbit Polyclonal to HDAC5 (phospho-Ser259) however, not postabsorptively (i.e., higher blood sugar availability) (16). Also, muscle tissue acetylcarnitine correlated adversely with FAO in the postabsorptive state (71), whereas plasma acetylcarnitine correlated with plasma glucose levels in the postprandial state (72). In light of these data, the question is usually interesting if CrAT actually mementos FA-derived acetyl-CoA over glucose-derived acetyl-CoA because this may imply intracellular compartmentalization of acetyl-CoA (68). Furthermore, glucose-derived acetyl-CoA could be carboxylated by ACC, creating the CPT1 inhibitor malonyl-CoA. Direct ramifications of FAO-derived acetyl-CoA on insulin action are unknown. C4-OH-carnitine (i.e., the carnitine ester of 3-hydroxybutyrate) has been proposed to cause insulin resistance: hepatic overexpression of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase in rats on an HFD reversed whole-body, liver, and muscles insulin level of resistance while just decreasing ...
Authors: van Kessel KP, Bestebroer J, van Strijp JA. Initial elimination of invading Staphylococcus aureus from the body is mediated by professional phagocytes. The neutrophil is the major phagocyte of the innate immunity and plays a key role in the host defense against staphylococcal infections. Opsonization of the bacteria with immunoglobulins and complement factors enables efficient recognition by the neutrophil that subsequently leads to intracellular compartmentalization and killing. Here, we provide a review ofthe key processes evolved in neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis of S. aureus and briefly describe killing. As S. aureus is not helpless against the professional phagocytes, we will also highlight its immune evasion arsenal related to phagocytosis.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lack of association between autism and four heavy metal regulatory genes. AU - Owens, Sarah E.. AU - Summar, Marshall L.. AU - Ryckman, Kelli K.. AU - Haines, Jonathan L.. AU - Reiss, Sara. AU - Summar, Samantha R.. AU - Aschner, Michael. PY - 2011/12/1. Y1 - 2011/12/1. N2 - Autism is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic and environmental components. Though unproven, genetic susceptibility to high mercury (Hg) body burden has been suggested as an autism risk factor in a subset of children. We hypothesized that exposure to safe Hg levels could be implicated in the etiology of autism if genetic susceptibility altered Hgs metabolism or intracellular compartmentalization. Genetic sequences of four genes implicated in the transport and response to Hg were screened for variation and association with autism. LAT1 and DMT1 function in Hg transport, and Hg exposure induces MTF1 and MT1a. We identified and characterized 74 variants in MT1a, DMT1, LAT1 and MTF1. ...
The extracellular sunscreen scytonemin is the most common and widespread indole-alkaloid among cyanobacteria. Previous research using the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 revealed a unique 18-gene cluster (NpR1276 to NpR1259 in the N. punctiforme genome) involved in the biosynthesis of scytonemin. We provide further genomic characterization of these genes in N. punctiforme and extend it to homologous regions in other cyanobacteria. Six putative genes in the scytonemin gene cluster (NpR1276 to NpR1271 in the N. punctiforme genome), with no previously known protein function and annotated in this study as scyA to scyF, are likely involved in the assembly of scytonemin from central metabolites, based on genetic, biochemical, and sequence similarity evidence. Also in this cluster are redundant copies of genes encoding for aromatic amino acid biosynthetic enzymes. These can theoretically lead to tryptophan and the tyrosine precursor, p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, (expected biosynthetic precursors of
Our genomic DNA is packaged into distinct compartments that support essential, highly conserved cellular processes. Paradoxically, the chromatin proteins that establish and maintain these compartments are strikingly unconserved. Sequence divergence and whole-gene turnover is common even between closely related species. Although chromatin dysfunction is a hallmark of cancer, these plastic but essential components of chromatin biology have received minimal attention. I combine comparative genomics, evolutionary genetics, and cell biology to gain insight into the causes and functional consequences of this evolution. I first set out to increase our compendium of these plastic genes. I computationally searched 12 sequenced fruit fly (Drosophila) genomes spanning 40 million years of evolution for new members of the Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) gene family. I discovered 22 additional HP1 genes that encode unprecedented structural diversity, species-specificity, and sex-biased expression. I ...
The tried-and-true Campus 33L gets a passing grade as the ultimate back-to-school backpack. This roomy 33-litre backpack features four distinct compartments including a large top compartment with a padded laptop sleeve and room for books and binders, a top fleece lined sunglass pocket, a slim organizer pocket, and a handy insulated cooler pocket for lunch and snacks.. ...
According to the study by, Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons, repeated administration of this methamphetamine (5 mg/kg administered three times at 2-h intervals) leads to a transition from horizontal hyperlocomotion to excessive orofacial stereotypy (taffy pulling) only in wild type and D3 mutants. In both genotypes, this transition is accompanied by a change in the relative ratios of striatal neuronal activation in two neurochemically distinct compartments, with striosomal neuronal activation exceeding that of the striatal matrix during stereotypy. Both the stereotypic response to METH and the associated predominant activation of neurons located in striosomes require D2-receptor expression. These studies indicate a differential requirement for D1- and D2-like receptor activation in mediating the effects of METH on cognitive and motor function(7). Other indicated that the D3 Dopamine Receptor Hypothesis suggests D3 antagonists could prevent sensitization, and may interrupt ...
ePIC (electronic Publication Information Center) is the official repository for publications and presentations of Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI)
Compartmentation of glucose 6-phosphate in hepatocytes.: Rat hepatocytes were incubated with 14C-labelled hexoses, and the specific radioactivities of glucose 6
A polarized arrangement of neuronal microtubule arrays is the foundation of membrane trafficking and subcellular compartmentalization. Conserved among both inve
Liquid to be treated flows into a combined sedimentation and thickening tank. The upper part of this tank is a sedimentation zone in which the liquid passes through parallel flow paths between downwardly inclined separator plates below which the solids fall to the bottom of the tank into the thickening zone whereat the solids are stirred and removed by a suitable stirring and scraping device. The liquids flowing with the solids through the parallel paths are removed at the end of said paths and delivered directly to the top of the sedimentation zone thus leaving the thickening zone essentially flow-free. Flocculants may be added to the water to be treated in a separate flocculation compartment arranged upstream from the sedimentation compartment. A separate destabilization compartment may be provided upstream from the flocculation compartment. A square sedimentation zone may merge smoothly into a circular thickening zone. The thickening zone may extend beneath the flocculation compartment for
View Notes - BICD 110 � Lec 6 from BICD BICD 110 at UCSD. BICD 110 Lec 6 (4/15/10) Intracellular compartments and protein sorting I. Cell is highly compartmentalized a. Isolate reactions by
half-life (T1/2) the time taken a drug to clear from the highest concentration to half this level. Drugs have different half-lives in different compartments (ie half-life in blood can be different from the half-life inside a cell). It take 5 …. ...
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Somites are transient, segmentally organized structures. In the vertebrate embryo, the somites contribute to multiple tissues, including the axial skeleton, skeletal and smooth muscles, dorsal dermis, tendons, ligaments, cartilage and adipose tissue. The somites also determine the migration paths of trunk neural crest cells and spinal nerve axons.. As the primitive streak regresses and the neural folds begin to gather at the center of the embryo, the paraxial mesoderm separates into blocks of cells called somites. These structures are formed by budding off as epithelial spheres from the cranial end of the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm that lies on either side of the neural tube.. The total number of somites formed is species-specific (38-39 in humans, 50 in chickens, 65 in mice) and is used as an indicator of embryonic developmental stages. Once formed, the epithelial somite is patterned rapidly into distinct compartments that subsequently give rise to distinct cell lineages. In response to ...
Accumulating evidence indicates that intracellular trafficking and dynamic changes in the subcellular distribution and compartmentalization of type II nuclear hormone receptors play an important role in their biological functions (Baumann et al., 1999; Baumann et al., 2001b; Hager et al., 2002). In contrast to previous assumptions that most type II nuclear hormone receptors are constitutively present in the nucleus, studies using live cell imaging have shown that these receptors are mobile and can shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus (Barsony and Prufer, 2002; Baumann et al., 2001a; Baumann et al., 2001b). Moreover, receptors may continuously exchange between subnuclear macromolecular complexes. The mechanisms that mediate these processes and their biological significance are largely unknown. In this report, we have identified CAP350 as a centrosome-associated protein and a previously undescribed interacting partner of PPARα and have shown that CAP350 recruits PPARα to discrete ...
NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related to many biological processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NF-kappa-B is a homo- or heterodimeric complex formed by the Rel-like domain-containing proteins RELA/p65, RELB, NFKB1/p105, NFKB1/p50, REL and NFKB2/p52 and the heterodimeric p65-p50 complex appears to be most abundant one. The dimers bind at kappa-B sites in the DNA of their target genes and the individual dimers have distinct preferences for different kappa-B sites that they can bind with distinguishable affinity and specificity. Different dimer combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors, respectively. NF-kappa-B is controlled by various mechanisms of post-translational modification and subcellular compartmentalization as well as by interactions with other ...
How is it our brains-tangible entities-are able to store memories of intangible sights, sounds, emotions and ideas? What draws you toward one person, but repels you from another? My lab tries to answer these questions. Specifically, we explore how cyclic nucleotide signaling controls the formation of social memories and social interactions, and how alterations in this cascade might contribute to social deficits that are seen in patients with neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, and age-related disease. To do this, we identify molecular changes in tissue from patients and then mimic those changes in rodents in order to determine their behavioral, biochemical, and molecular consequences. We also use in vitro approaches to determine how mutations may change enzymatic activity or the subcellular compartmentalization of enzymes. Studies are conducted during development, early adulthood, and late adulthood in order to understand factors that modulate resiliency of the brain as well as those that trigger ...
Both Mg2+ and Ca2+ regularly stabilize membranes by the cross-linking of carboxylated and phosphorylated head groups of lipids. This allows for cohesive architecture of cells but also allows for optimal cellular communication. When Mg levels are low it can cause bad signaling between cells and allow the cellular terroir to be more prone to cancer. After all, cancer is a disease of genetic chaos and bad signaling. To make this clear…..Mg is the major co factor in most key critical enzymatic steps activating proteins in our cells. The transport of Mg2+ between intracellular compartments may be a major part of regulating enzyme activity. The interaction of Mg2+ with proteins must also be considered for the transport of the ion across biological membranes as well. So if magnesium concentration or transport are altered you can bet your ass bad things are going to follow.. Speaking of bad things lets talk about the disease where intracellular magnesium is totally disordered. Lets talk diabetes. ...
All implants have a life expectancy that depends on several factors including the patients weight, activity level, quality of bone stock and compliance with their physicians orders. Proper implant alignment and precise positioning during surgery are also very important factors that can improve the life expectancy of an implant. Through the use of RIO, implants can be optimally aligned and positioned to ensure the longest benefit. RESTORIS MCK implants enable the treatment of one or two compartments with OA disease. With single compartment disease, a second compartment may be treated in the future if OA spreads. In addition, because very little bone is actually removed during a MAKOplasty® procedure, the implants can be replaced with another procedure such as a total knee replacement, if necessary.. ...
Endocrine and immune systems communicate through numerous anatomical and hormonal exchanges. Interactions between these systems are believed to be critical for the preservation of a homeostatic equilibrium. A disproportion or alterations in these systems, in response to illness, stress, damage and/or metabolic alterations, can lead to substantial changes in immune responsiveness and susceptibility to infections and autoimmune disease states. A greater understanding of the interplay between these systems may afford valuable insights into how interference inside these compartments may influence the hosts ability to regulate inflammatory response, disease progress or reparative response. Furthermore, a more exhaustive understanding of these pathways may certainly yield novel therapeutics and interventional approaches to control immune and systemic responses to disease, injury and stress. The interplay between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is nowadays well established. Actually, these systems use a
Anyone else having this problem? I get water almost every time it rains or wash the car dripping inside the drivers side rear storage compartment. At first I thought it was the rear window. Its not as I water tested it with a garden hose and it wouldnt leak. Finally I brought it into the dealersh...
Buy your Wiggle Nutrition Shaker Bottle with Storage Compartment at wiggle.com.au. Our price AU$4.38. FREE delivery and in country returns available.
Proteins are co-translationally transferred into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and then either retained or transported to different intracellular compartments or to the extracellular space. Various molecular signals necessary for retention in the ER or targeting to different compartments have been …
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This how the bag looks when it is opened up and you can clearly see the different compartments to the bag and how spacious it is. At the top there is a little zip compartment which is where I actually put my bits of jewellery which I want to wear whilst at home. The bag then has 2 large compartments which are clear which is great so you can see exactly what you have packed and what you have missed without having to root through. It looks a little messy as everything has fallen to the bottom of the bag as it is hung up. The hook is really useful as you can just hang it on your door like I have, and pack whilst it is hanging there ...
Flawlessly balancing vintage design and modern utility, perfectly organized with its different compartments. Its refined and functional style easily transitions from life in the city to last. Taupe suede with an embossed mock croc finish Featuring two handles and detachable shoulder strap One central zip compartment a
[randpic]Continuous Ball Mill, Manufacturer, IndiaMay 15, 2021 Continuous Ball Mill. It is a cylindrical grinder having three different compartments and screen. Replaceable liners or balls are fixed inside entire mill. Balls are made of stainless s
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Creative Biostructure has developed a comprehensive protein enginereeing platform to provide custom selection services via in vitro compartments method.
Probably a very easy question, but before I take it off to see and attempt to clean it, Id like to know. Im tying to track down the 35 MPG cause. We...
Fuerst JA (2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Review. Annual Review of Microbiology. 59: 299-328. doi: ... Eukaryotic cells usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a ... Other multinucleate cells in the human are osteoclasts a type of bone cell. Multinucleated and binucleated cells can also be ... the cell divides to form two cells. In order for this process to be possible, each of the new daughter cells must have a full ...
Fuerst J (2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annu Rev Microbiol. 59: 299-328. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro ... Comparison of a typical bacterial cell and a typical human cell (assuming both cells are spheres) : The cell envelope is ... while having no effects on human cells which have no cell wall, only a cell membrane. There are two main types of bacterial ... the bacterial cell wall provides structural integrity to the cell. In prokaryotes, the primary function of the cell wall is to ...
Liu JL (May 2010). "Intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase in Drosophila". Journal of Genetics and Genomics = Yi Chuan ... These include bacteria (C. crescentus), yeast (S. cerevisiae), fruit flies (D. melanogaster) and human cells. These filamentous ... cell model of leukemia though such mutations were not found in human patients with ara-C resistance. Pyrimidine biosynthesis ... Nature Cell Biology. 12 (8): 739-46. doi:10.1038/ncb2087. PMC 3210567. PMID 20639870. Noree C, Sato BK, Broyer RM, Wilhelm JE ( ...
Rijksen G, Staal GE, Beks PJ, Streefkerk M, Akkerman JW (December 1982). "Compartmentation of hexokinase in human blood cells. ... Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 74 (3): 187-8. doi:10.1159/000134409. PMID 8941369. "Entrez Gene: HK3 hexokinase 3 (white cell ... Within cells, HK3 localizes to the cytoplasm and putatively binds the perinuclear envelope. HK3 is the predominant hexokinase ... provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009] HK3 is one of four highly homologous hexokinase isoforms in mammalian cells. This protein has a ...
Spatial compartmentation of transcriptional regulation and cell-cell signaling are examples. The vertebrate embryo is organized ... An example of compartmentation is found in the developing spine: all vertebrae contain bone-forming cells, but those in the ... cell-cell signaling pathways, cell adhesion processes, anteroposterior axis formation Additional core processes, such as ... Other forms of regulatory compartmentation include different cell types, developmental stages, and sexes. Gerhart and Kirschner ...
... activity in Schwann cells: immunofluorescence localization and compartmentation of mu- and mCANP". J. Neurosci. Res. 29 (3): ... Design of an antisense strategy for calpain depletion in cultured cells". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (31): 18825-30. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Cytogenet Cell Genet. 53 (4): 225-9. doi:10.1159/000132937. PMID 2209092. "Entrez Gene: CAPN1 calpain 1, (mu/I) large subunit ... produce necrotic but not apoptotic cell death in human CHP100 neuroblastoma cultures via a mechanism involving calpain". ...
... activity in Schwann cells: immunofluorescence localization and compartmentation of mu- and mCANP". Journal of Neuroscience ... "Capn4 mRNA level is correlated with tumour progression and clinical outcome in clear cell renal cell carcinoma". The Journal of ... Design of an antisense strategy for calpain depletion in cultured cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (31): 18825- ... Tidball JG, Spencer MJ (January 2000). "Calpains and muscular dystrophies". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell ...
When this is higher than the osmolarity outside of the cell, water flows into the cell through osmosis. This can cause the cell ... Lynch RM, Paul RJ (March 1987). "Compartmentation of carbohydrate metabolism in vascular smooth muscle". The American Journal ... In fact, all cells expend a large fraction of the ATP they produce (typically 30% and up to 70% in nerve cells) to maintain ... Failure of the Na⁺-K⁺ pumps can result in swelling of the cell. A cell's osmolarity is the sum of the concentrations of the ...
However, NMNAT1 is dispensable for cell viability, as homozygous deletion of this gene occurs in glioblastoma tumors and cell ... Berger F, Lau C, Dahlmann M, Ziegler M (2006). "Subcellular compartmentation and differential catalytic properties of the three ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. Berger F, Lau C, Ziegler M (2007). "Regulation of poly(ADP-ribose ... This latter effect involves lowered nuclear NAD levels in NMNAT1 knockout cells and impaired DNA damage sensing by the NAD- ...
"The candidate phylum Poribacteria by single-cell genomics: new insights into phylogeny, cell-compartmentation, eukaryote-like ... "Shedding light on cell compartmentation in the candidate phylum Poribacteria by high resolution visualisation and ... Single-cell genomics and metagenomic shotgun sequencing approaches reveal a poribacterial genome size range between about 4.2 ... Cell compartmentalization into distinct membrane-bound organelles is a universal and defining property of eukaryotes, but had ...
... cells, biological samples, cell villi) without deformation. SICM is used in an electrolyte-containing solution, so can be used ... "Beta2-adrenergic receptor redistribution in heart failure changes cAMP compartmentation". Science. 327 (5973): 1653-1657. doi: ... clamping the pipette by suction to the surface of a cell and then monitoring the activity of the sodium channels in the cell ... "The use of scanning ion conductance microscopy to image A6 cells". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 217 (1-2): 101-108. doi:10.1016/j.mce ...
Damage in the skin tissue of potato tuber causes a disruption of cell compartmentation, resulting in browning. The brown or ... Sap burn is therefore the initiating event of PPO in mango skin, as it breaks down cell compartments. PPO is located in mango ... Because the substrates of these PPO reactions are located in the vacuoles of plant cells damaged mainly by improper harvesting ... A monomeric catechol oxidase from Populus nigra converts caffeic acid to quinone and melanine at injured cells. ...
The cell wall plays a very important role in tolerance and Cd detoxification in the mining ecotype S. alfredii. Common mining ... Yang, X., T. Li, J. Yang, Z. He, L. Lu, F. Meng (2006). Zinc compartmentation in root, transport into xylem, and absorption ... Vacuole, nonchlorophyllous mesophyll and other water storage cell types may be locations in S. alfredii which hyperaccumulate ... into leaf cells in the hyperaccumulating species of Sedum alfredii Hance. Planta, 224, 185-195. Yang, X. E., X. X. Long, H. B. ...
... other cell types have followed suit, as exemplified by the pancreas (acinar and beta cells), T-cells, and smooth muscle. Levels ... The NAADP/TPC axis has been reported to exhibit such signal compartmentation, such local Ca2+ signalling, in different ... "Cell-permeant NAADP: a novel chemical tool enabling the study of Ca2+ signalling in intact cells". Cell Calcium. 43 (6): 531-8 ... For example, NAADP/TPCs are unique drivers of cell killing by Cytotoxic T cells. Similarly, phagocytosis via the Fc receptor in ...
Prokaryotic cells are usually much smaller than eukaryotic cells. Therefore, prokaryotes have a larger surface-area-to-volume ... Fuerst JA (2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annual Review of Microbiology. 59 (1): 299-328. doi: ... The distinction is that eukaryotic cells have a "true" nucleus containing their DNA, whereas prokaryotic cells do not have a ... Also, as with multicellular eukaryotes, these changes in expression often appear to result from cell-to-cell signaling, a ...
... is critical to cell survival. Nearly every eukaryotic cell, from plants to yeast to humans, expresses a form of the GCL protein ... implications for the compartmentation of glutathione biosynthesis in the Brassicaceae". The Plant Journal. 41 (1): 15-30. doi: ... In the majority of cells and tissues, the expression of GCLM protein is lower than GCLC and GCLM is therefore limiting in the ... However, in cancer, GCL expression and activity is enhanced, which serves to both support the high level of cell proliferation ...
Examples of these processes include signal transduction from the cell membrane to sites within the cell, such as the cell ... Aw, T.Y. (2000). "Intracellular compartmentation of organelles and gradients of low molecular weight species". Int Rev Cytol. ... cell signaling, and the generation of action potentials in excitable cells such as endocrine, nerve and muscle cells. The ... without damaging the other cell membranes, only about one quarter of cell protein was released. These cells were also able to ...
A cell wall that contains chitin Less compartmentation between cells; the hyphae of higher fungi have porous partitions called ... pores in the cell wall that link adjacent cells and allow plant cells to communicate with adjacent cells. Animals have a ... The cells of plants and algae, fungi and most chromalveolates have a cell wall, a layer outside the cell membrane, providing ... A phagocytic cell can even engulf other structures. Plant cells have a number of features that distinguish them from the cells ...
Springer International Publishing Media related to Cell compartmentation at Wikimedia Commons (Articles with short description ... Cellular compartments in cell biology comprise all of the closed parts within the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell, usually ... The eukaryotic cell is thought to have arisen when an ancestral archaeal cell internalized an aerobic bacterium (the proto- ... Cell Cycle. 2004 Dec;3(12):1612-37. doi: 10.4161/cc.3.12.1345. Epub 2004 Dec 20. PMID 15611647 Bernstein H, Bernstein C. Sexual ...
... and Cell/Stem Cell Therapy. Regenerative Medicine, Artificial Cells and Nanomedicine. Vol. 1. Hackensack, New Jersey: World ... The naturally arising, three-dimensional compartmentation observed within fossilized seepage-site metal sulphide precipitates ... of the first cells combining geochemical analysis with phylogenomic scrutiny of the inorganic ion requirements of modern cells ... For example, a cell, whether the LUCA or in a modern organism, copies its DNA with the DNA polymerase enzyme, which is in turn ...
... micro-compartmentation and metabolite channeling by multi-enzyme complexes. The mechanisms of the cell enhancing and neuro- ... Hans M. Eppenberger at the Institute of Cell Biology at ETH Zurich with distinction and received the ETH prize and medal. From ... Wallimann was awarded the title of Professor and in the next two years he became Head and Deputy Head of the Institute of Cell ... is a Swiss biologist who was research group leader and Adjunct-Professor at the Institute of Cell Biology ETH Zurich and later ...
In tissues and cells that consume ATP rapidly, especially skeletal muscle, but also brain, photoreceptor cells of the retina, ... Wallimann T, Wyss M, Brdiczka D, Nicolay K, Eppenberger HM (January 1992). "Intracellular compartmentation, structure and ... In the cells, the cytosolic CK enzymes consist of two subunits, which can be either B (brain type) or M (muscle type). There ... The bound cytosolic CK accepts the PCr shuttled through the cell and uses ADP to regenerate ATP, which can then be used as an ...
While most cell biologists consider the term organelle to be synonymous with cell compartment, a space often bound by one or ... Fuerst JA (October 13, 2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annual Review of Microbiology. 59: 299-328. ... In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit, usually within a cell, that has a specific function. The name organelle ... Not all eukaryotic cells have each of the organelles listed below. Exceptional organisms have cells that do not include some ...
Upon low frequency stimulation of knockout cells, these molecules are likely to diffuse out of the cell before a concentration ... Developmentally regulated changes in cellular compartmentation and synaptic distribution of actin in hippocampal neurons. J. ... Cell 107:605-16 Fischer M, Kaech S, Knutti D, Matus A. 1998. Rapid actin-based plasticity in dendritic spines. Neuron 20:847-54 ... In the LTD environment, spine volume is decreased, cell communication is decreased, and there is a far greater ratio of G-actin ...
"Planar polarization of node cells determines the rotational axis of node cilia". Nature Cell Biology. 12 (2): 170-6. doi: ... but simply ensures the correct compartmentation of the left-determining molecules. In the absence of the lefty-1 barrier, lefty ... Cell. 94 (3): 287-97. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81472-5. PMID 9708731. S2CID 5666974. Meno C, Saijoh Y, Fujii H, Ikeda M, ... Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms. 7 (4): 401-12. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2443.2002.00528.x. PMID 11952836 ...
The sessile mother cell produces a free-swimming daughter cell. The daughter cell must then attach to a surface before starting ... Fuerst JA (October 2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annual Review of Microbiology. 59 (1): 299-328. ... and axially symmetric cells. During cell division in members of P. limnophila, the daughter cells originate from the region ... During cell division in Fuerstia marisgermanicae, a tubular structure is connected from the bud to the mother cell. The species ...
Clapham DE (2007). "Calcium signaling". Cell. 131 (6): 1047-58. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.11.028. PMID 18083096. S2CID 15087548. ... Compartmentation and communication in living systems. Ligand conduction: a general catalytic principle in chemical, osmotic and ... The energy used by human cells requires the hydrolysis of 100 to 150 moles of ATP daily, which is around 50 to 75 kg. In ... This reduced cofactor is then a substrate for any of the reductases in the cell that require electrons to reduce their ...
Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. ... on acetylcholine release and compartmentation in synaptosomes from electric organ of Torpedo marmorata". Toxicon. 28 (9): 1039- ... Cell. 154 (2): 452-64. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.022. PMC 3717207. PMID 23870131. "Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping ( ... It is a cell membrane transporter and carries choline into acetylcholine-synthesizing neurons. Hemicholinium-3 is an inhibitor ...
Gilley J, Ribchester RR, Coleman MP (October 2017). "S, Confers Lifelong Rescue in a Mouse Model of Severe Axonopathy". Cell ... Berger F, Lau C, Dahlmann M, Ziegler M (2006). "Subcellular compartmentation and differential catalytic properties of the three ... Rajman L, Chwalek K, Sinclair DA (2018). "Therapeutic Potential of NAD-Boosting Molecules: The In Vivo Evidence". Cell ... Synthesis and Functions in Mammalian Cells". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 45 (10): 858-873. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2020.05.010. ...
... solution in the photosynthesis cells. The sucrose is actively transported to the companion cells of the smallest veins in the ... Recent Advances Phloem Transport and Assimilate Compartmentation. Ho, Y.K. (Manhattan, 2004.)Advanced Level Biology for Hong ... Cells in a sugar source "load" a sieve-tube element by actively transporting solute molecules into it. This causes water to ... In sugar sinks, cells actively transport solutes out of the sieve-tube elements, producing the exactly opposite effect. The ...
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.039. PMC 5329766. PMID 28187287. Cooper GM (2000). "The Molecular Composition of Cells". The Cell: A ... Compartmentation and communication in living systems. Ligand conduction: a general catalytic principle in chemical, osmotic and ... Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell ... Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then activates a cascade of protein kinases that cause the cells to take ...
... termination of the operational cells is rather obvious. If there are support cells in the operational area, they may be ... Suvorov emphasizes that the process of forming new illegal residencies was the Soviet doctrine for imposing compartmentation. ... Cell systems are evolving to more decentralized models, sometimes because they are enabled by new forms of electronic ... Agents also may operate in networks, for which the classic security structure is the cell system. The agent may join a ...
Once the molecule is ingested it accumulates in muscle cells where it can be phosphorylated, increasing the pool of ... Compartmentation of Creatine Phosphokinase in Muscle". Regulation of Phosphate and Mineral Metabolism. Advances in Experimental ... it will convert ATP into PCr which will then move back out into the cells cytoplasm to be converted into ATP (by cytoplasmic ... Compartmentation of Creatine Phosphokinase in Muscle", Regulation of Phosphate and Mineral Metabolism, Advances in Experimental ...
Studies carried out in his laboratory show that these sterols are structuring agents of plant cell membranes and in particular ... Regulation of sterol content in membranes by subcellular compartmentation of steryl esters accumulating in a sterol- ... cell division, auxin transport, membrane flux and reflux, secretion of suberin, a major constituent of epidermis, and leaf ...
... in small amounts in certain rat lung cells, in pancreatic islet cells, and in periventricular neurons of the hypothalamus in ... "Dual role of phosphofructokinase-2/fructose bisphosphatase-2 in regulating the compartmentation and expression of glucokinase ... "Cell biology assessment of glucokinase mutations V62M and G72R in pancreatic beta-cells: evidence for cellular instability of ... liver cells). GKRP binds and moves glucokinase (GK), thereby controlling both activity and intracellular location of this key ...
Hanna-El-Daher L, Braissant O (August 2016). "Creatine synthesis and exchanges between brain cells: What can be learned from ... Wallimann T, Wyss M, Brdiczka D, Nicolay K, Eppenberger HM (January 1992). "Intracellular compartmentation, structure and ... Creatine supplementation appears to increase the number of myonuclei that satellite cells will 'donate' to damaged muscle ... which is used to regenerate ATP within the cell. 95% of the human body's total creatine and phosphocreatine stores are found in ...
In 2005, the NSA worked closely with the CIA to deploy airborne cameras and intercept cell phone signals around Iraq. This gave ... Internal instability and security issues do not require compartmentation and secrecy at national level. The "war on terrorism" ...
... photovoltaic cells and a biomass boiler. The house sits within 150 acres (61 ha) of parkland, which the Trust gained from the ... mainly through the design of a suitable compartmentation system was designed and implemented. Interior scaffolding was ...
Fuerst, John A. (23 May 2005). "Intracelluar Compartmentation in Planctomycetes". Annual Review of Microbiology. 59: 299-328. ... as well as reduce the catabolic efficiency of the cell. A naturally occurring [5]-ladderane lipid, named pentacycloanammoxic ...
Evidence suggests that the mechanism for this detoxification involves the cadmium binding to the fungal cell walls, as well as ... Blaudez, Damien; Botton, Bernard; Chalot, Michel (2000). "Cadmium uptake and subcellular compartmentation in the ... An antigen in the mushroom triggers the immune system to attack red blood cells. Serious and commonly fatal complications ... The use of corticosteroids may be a useful adjunct in treatment, as they protect blood cells against hemolysis, thereby ...
... in Drosophila cells. I find that cytoophidia are present in all major cell types in the ovary and exist in a wide range of ... The observation of compartmentation of CTP synthase now permits a broad range of questions to be addressed concerning not only ... Compartmentation is essential for the localization of biological processes within a eukaryotic cell. ATP synthase localizes to ... Compartmentation is essential for the localization of biological processes within a eukaryotic cell. ATP synthase localizes to ...
Cell Compartmentation * Cell Nucleus / chemistry * Chemotaxis * Chromosome Mapping * Cloning, Molecular * Diacetyl / ...
Categories: Cell Compartmentation Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Cell Compartmentation. Shay KPetersen, Michels AJ, Li W, Kong A-NTony, Hagen TM. 2012. Cap-independent Nrf2 translation is part ... Hep G2 Cells. Shay KPetersen, Michels AJ, Li W, Kong A-NTony, Hagen TM. 2012. Cap-independent Nrf2 translation is part of a ... Cell Nucleus. Shay KPetersen, Michels AJ, Li W, Kong A-NTony, Hagen TM. 2012. Cap-independent Nrf2 translation is part of a ...
Both diseases are neurodegenerative in their pathology of the retina and as such many of the events that trigger cell ... cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion and the acquisition of migratory and invasive properties as mesenchymal stem cells. This ... Felicitas Berger, C.L.; Dahlmann, M.; Ziegler, M. Subcellular Compartmentation and Differential Catalytic Properties of the ... Axons of retinal ganglion cells are insulted in the optic nerve early in DBA/2J glaucoma. J. Cell Biol. 2007, 179, 1523-1537. [ ...
... hijack the host mitochondrial proteins to function fully inside the host cell. All these processes involve the participation of ... mitochondria might have prevented the entry of invading microorganisms thus establishing them as an integral part of the cell. ... Role of Ca2+, ATP, and compartmentation," Circulation Research, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1119-1128, 1981. ... It protects the cells against CD95 ligation [211] and oxidative stress-induced cell death [214, 215] and prevents mitochondrial ...
Mutant frequency was then determined in a meiotic cell type (pachytene spermatocyte), a post-meiotic cell type (round spermatid ... spermatogenic cells from mice treated before puberty were more susceptible to B[a]P-associated mutagenesis compared to adult ... had significantly increased mutant frequencies in all spermatogenic cell types tested when they were 60 days old; 2) ... mice; and 3) unexpectedly, epididymal spermatozoa had the highest mutant frequency among the spermatogenic cell types tested. ...
The formation of biomolecular condensates has emerged as a critical mechanism for compartmentation in living cells. Despite ... In germ cells, small RNA silencing factors are enriched in germ granule condensates, where distinct factors are organized into ... 1Cell Architecture Research Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji ... 1Cell Architecture Research Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji ...
Remppis A, Scheffold T, Greten J, et al. Intracellular compartmentation of troponin T: release kinetics after global ischemia ... J Mol Cell Cardiol 1995;27:793-803.. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb of Science ...
Dynamics of Cell Compartmentation in Plant. Responsable déquipe:. Béatrice Satiat-Jeunemaitre ... Normal and Leukemic hematopoietic stem cells: autorenewal, signaling and targets. Responsable déquipe:. Dr PASQUET Jean-MAX et ...
Cavalieri is investigating cAMP signaling compartmentation in airway smooth muscle and epithelial cells in the laboratory of Dr ... Furthermore, he got hands-on experience of in-vitro assays on mammalian and bacterial cells as well as various microbiology and ... Rudy then shifted his focus to antibody-drug conjugates in vivo drug studies for Alzheimers Disease, and immune cell ... I found that glucocorticoids stimulate cAMP production through a Gs-coupled GPCR in mammalians cells and this non-genomic ...
Cell Compartmentation. *Cloning, Molecular. *Hair Cells, Auditory/metabolism*. *Hair Cells, Auditory/pathology* ... The hair cells of the inner ear are polarized epithelial cells with a specialized structure at the apical surface, the ... Mutations in ap1b1 Cause Mistargeting of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase Pump in Sensory Hair Cells. Authors. Grisham, R.C., Kindt, K., ... Accordingly, intracellular Na+ levels were increased in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. Our results suggest that Ap1b1 is essential ...
Ong, S.-E. & Mann, M. A practical recipe for stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Nat. Protoc. 1, ... Lipps, S.H. & Beevers, H. Compartmentation of organic acids in corn roots I. differential labeling of 2 malate pools. Plant ... Koroleva, O.A., Farrar, J.F., Tomos, A.D. & Pollock, C.J. Carbohydrates in individual cells of epidermis, mesophyll, and bundle ... Stitt, M., Lilley, R.M., Gerhardt, R. & Heldt, H.W. Metabolite levels in specific cells and subcellular compartments of plant ...
Cell Growth and Cell Division. The Cell Cycle. Cellular Ontogeny. Growing Regions. Chapter 3. History and Modern Concepts of ... Cellular Compartmentation and Integration. Specific Approaches. The Role of Adenyl Compounds. Chapter 9. Concepts and ... Chapter 4. The Induction of Growth in Quiescent Cells. The Onset of Growth in Mature Cells. Bioassays. Natural Sources of ... Responses of Cells in Their Milieu: "Biochemical Ecology". Chapter 6. Growth-Regulating Effects in Free Cell Systems: ...
C3H/10T1/2 mouse cells. Abernethy et al. [1982]. * SCE: Sister chromatid exchange. [ return to table]. **CHO: Chinese hamster ... Parrilla R, Ohkawa K, Lindros KO, Zimmerman U-JP, Ashi KK, Williamson JR [1974]. Functional compartmentation of acetaldehyde ... DNA-damaging activity of biotic and xenobiotic aldehydes in chinese hamster ovary cells. Cell Biochem Function 2:243-248. ... Human bronchial epithelial cells. Saladino et al. [1985]. Inhibited DNA synthesis. Reuber rat hepatoma (H35)and (Hep 10C). ...
Cell Compartmentation G4.299.125 G4.128 Cell Count G4.170 G4.140 Cell Cycle G4.299.134 G4.144 Cell Cycle Checkpoints G4.299. ... Cell Adhesion G4.299.117 G4.22 Cell Aggregation G4.299.283.251 G4.198.251 Cell Aging G4.299.119 G4.43 Cell Communication G4.299 ... Cell Transdifferentiation G4.299.335 G4.356 Cell Transformation, Viral G6.590.875.210 G6.920.143 G6.920.875.210 Cell-in-Cell ... Cell Physiological Processes G4.299 Cell Plasticity G4.299.335.250 G4.356.250 Cell Polarity G4.310 G4.250 Cell Proliferation ...
... feasible due to the release of toxic Zn concentrations into the extracellular space as a consequence of cell compartmentation ... This is equivalent to 10 mM Zn in the cell sap, a concentration 20 times higher than the EC50 for A. brassicicola in vitro ( ... For example, in the host cells, the withholding of Zn by CP could be expected to decrease the activity of SOD5 in Candida ... Cakmak, I. M. (2000). Possible roles of zinc in protecting plant cells from damage by reactive oxygen species. New Phytol. 146 ...
The role of compartmentation in the detoxification of xenobiotics by plant cells. Abstracts NATO Advanced Workshop on ... The role of compartmentation in the detoxification of xenobiotics by plant cells. C2 - Non-edited contributions to conferences ... Compartmentation of detoxified xenobiotics in plant cells. in: Hatzios, K. K. (ed.) Regulation of enzymatic systems detoxifying ... Compartmentation of detoxified xenobiotics in plant cells. B - Book chapters etc edited externally ...
Cell Biology. Keywords. *Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. *Glycolysis compartmentation. *Polyribosome association. * ... Association of such a kind may be used for compartmentation of glycolysis near polyribosomes. ... Association of such a kind may be used for compartmentation of glycolysis near polyribosomes.", ... Association of such a kind may be used for compartmentation of glycolysis near polyribosomes. ...
Cells, Cultured; Cell Compartmentation; DNA Primers; Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1; Molecular Sequence Data; Fluorescent ... Endogenous interleukin 1 alpha must be transported to the nucleus to exert its activity in human endothelial cells. J.A. Maier ... Endogenous interleukin 1 alpha must be transported to the nucleus to exert its activity in human endothelial cells / J. A. ... Moreover, nuclear localization of IL-1 alpha correlates with impaired cell growth and expression of some IL-1 alpha-inducible ...
Proposed biosynthetic pathway for rosmarinic acid in cell cultures of Coleus blumei Benth. *M. Petersen, E. Häusler, B. ... ornamental plant Catharanthus roseus suggests that intercellular transport may play an important role in the compartmentation ... Induction and characterization of a microsomal flavonoid 3-hydroxylase from parsley cell cultures.. *M. Hagmann, W. Heller, H ... The cell-type specific expression of the P450 dependent flavonoid hydroxylase from the ...
Compartmentation of aluminium in leaves of an Al-accumulator, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. Shen, R., Ma, J.F., Kyo, M., ... Changes in the extracellular matrix surface network during cyclic reproduction of proembryonic cell complexes in the Fagopyrum ... Compartmentation of aluminium in leaves of an Al-accumulator, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench [1]. ... Changes in the extracellular matrix surface network during cyclic reproduction of proembryonic cell complexes in the Fagopyrum ...
The successful design of a prototype phosphatase activity sensor lays a foundation for studying targeting and compartmentation ... Newman RH, Zhang J. Visualization of phosphatase activity in living cells with a FRET-based calcineurin activity sensor. ... Visualization of phosphatase activity in living cells with a FRET-based calcineurin activity sensor. In: Molecular BioSystems. ... Visualization of phosphatase activity in living cells with a FRET-based calcineurin activity sensor. / Newman, Robert H.; Zhang ...
... principle of cell compartmentation and membrane transport.Has knowledge on proteosynthesis including processes replication, ... The aim of the course is to obtain knowledge on essential metabolic processes on the cell level. Understanding of these ... and proteins and their consequences.Understands the principles of cell bioenegetics.Become familiar with the funcion of cell ... the following lectures are focused on biochemichal pathways in cells. The graduate is acquainted with principles of acid-base, ...
The role of mitochondria in cell metabolism and survival is controlled by calcium signals that are commonly transmitted at the ... The internal compartmentation of rat-liver mitochondria: tomographic study using the high-voltage transmission electron ... Cells RBL-2H3 cells were cultured as described previously (Csordas et al., 1999). Cells were transfected with cDNA by means of ... Fractionation of RBL-2H3 cells Cells grown overconfluent in tissue culture flasks (∼7 × 107 cells) were loaded with fura2FF/AM ...
Maintaining strict compartmentation of the mind is stressful, the sharded individual will be a sum less than the total of the ... If they are part of a cell, a group of operatives in communal isolation, they will tend to self reinforce their ideology. ... How can you be on the Internet and isolated? Well, compartmentation is the only answer, but it is expensive and fragile, even a ...
Cell wall malformations were found in some cells from two of the R-biotypes and in one of the S-biotypes. Malformations ... or compartmentation of the herbicides is probably not operative. ... Primary root cells from five dinitroaniline-resistant (R) and ... Some of the affected cells also had abnormal, lobed nuclei and malformed mitochondria. There seems to be little or no ... Compounds of class III (caffeine and structually related alkaloids) cause imcomplete cell walls to form at telophase. Each of ...
... compartmentation in the extracellular matrix, cytosol and the ER and pathways for Ca,superscript,2+,/superscript, ion movement ... dc:title, ,cmeta:bio_entity,pancreatic acinar cell,/cmeta:bio_entity, ,cmeta:bio_entity,parotid acinar cell,/cmeta:bio_entity ... pancreatic acinar cell,/rdf:li, ,rdf:li,parotid acinar cell,/rdf:li, ,rdf:li,calcium dynamics,/rdf:li, ,/rdf:Bag, ,rdf:Seq rdf: ... In response to a whole-cell, homogeneous application of inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)), the model predicts that 1), at lower ...
Cell Compartmentation - Preferred Concept UI. M0003743. Scope note. A partitioning within cells due to the selectively ... A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., ... Cell Compartmentations. Compartmentation, Cell. Compartmentations, Cell. Tree number(s):. G04.128. RDF Unique Identifier:. ...
... being devoid of the Holliday junction resolvase activity that is readily detected in fractionated extracts from wild-type cells ... Cell Compartmentation, DNA, Mitochondrial, Endodeoxyribonucleases, Holliday Junction Resolvases, Mitochondria, Mutagenesis, ... being devoid of the Holliday junction resolvase activity that is readily detected in fractionated extracts from wild-type cells ...
  • These results suggest that transport of endogenous IL-1(1-271) into the nucleus is required for it to modulate endothelial cell function. (unimi.it)
  • The sperm of the western house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus , has a complex, flattened, hook-shaped head containing the cell nucleus [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To gain insight into the cellular and molecular defects in ap1b1 mutants, we examined the localization of basolateral membrane proteins in hair cells. (zfin.org)
  • We observed that the Na + /K + -ATPase pump (NKA) was less abundant in the basolateral membrane and was mislocalized to apical bundles in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. (zfin.org)
  • Combining results from both treatments, we found that genes associated with photosynthesis, cell cycle and membrane/cellular trafficking were downregulated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that galectin-1 binding resulted in a dramatic redistribution of these glycoproteins into segregated membrane microdomains on the cell surface. (aai.org)
  • This genesis occurs through a series of steps, beginning with the attachment of basal bodies to the cortex, attaching to membrane vesicles along the way, and fusing with the plasma membrane of the cell. (worldofbacteria.com)
  • Intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase in Drosophila. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here I describe the identification of a novel intracellular structure containing CTP synthase, termed the cytoophidium, in Drosophila cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Accordingly, intracellular Na + levels were increased in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. (zfin.org)
  • We have previously shown that the signal peptideless cytokine interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) may play a role as an intracellular regulator of human endothelial cell senescence (J. A. M. Maier, P. Voulalas, D. Roeder, and T. Maciag, Science 249:1570-1574, 1990). (unimi.it)
  • To investigate the potential intracellular function of IL-1 alpha, transformed endothelial cells were transfected with the human cDNAs that code for the two forms of IL-1 alpha, the precursor molecule IL-1(1-271) and the mature protein IL-1(113-271). (unimi.it)
  • Viruses like Herpes simplex virus 1 deplete the host mitochondrial DNA and some, like human immunodeficiency virus, hijack the host mitochondrial proteins to function fully inside the host cell. (hindawi.com)
  • Mitochondria-mediated immune responses might be an evolutionary adaptation by which mitochondria might have prevented the entry of invading microorganisms thus establishing them as an integral part of the cell. (hindawi.com)
  • Mitochondria are cellular organelles found in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells. (hindawi.com)
  • The role of mitochondria in cell metabolism and survival is controlled by calcium signals that are commonly transmitted at the close associations between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (rupress.org)
  • However, the physical linkage of the ER-mitochondria interface and its relevance for cell function remains elusive. (rupress.org)
  • A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dr. Cavalieri is investigating cAMP signaling compartmentation in airway smooth muscle and epithelial cells in the laboratory of Dr. Rennolds Ostrom. (chapman.edu)
  • The hair cells of the inner ear are polarized epithelial cells with a specialized structure at the apical surface, the mechanosensitive hair bundle. (zfin.org)
  • In the thymus, galectin-1 is produced by thymic epithelial cells ( 5 ). (aai.org)
  • Given that the decision to initiate flowering is made in a small number of cells in the leaf vasculature and the shoot meristem, any results obtained from complex tissues can be misleading as they likely mask tissue-specific regulatory processes. (upsc.se)
  • The cell-type specific expression of the P450 dependent flavonoid hydroxylase from the ornamental plant Catharanthus roseus suggests that intercellular transport may play an important role in the compartmentation of the pathways to the different flavonoids. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the introductory lessons are summarized basic terms from chemistry needed for understanding of body structure a physico-chemical processes occuring in it ((chemical composition of the body, survay of biologically important elements,water, elektrolytes, non-elektrolytes, osmotic pressure, acid-base, redox and precipitation reactions), the following lectures are focused on biochemichal pathways in cells. (muni.cz)
  • The structural heterogeneity of the cytoskeleton is responsible for the modular organization of the sperm head shape, corroborating the role that this structure has in maintaining the cell shape. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However even small fluorescent proteins can be large enough to affect protein folding and localization, therefore the ability to use a smaller tag but still be able to detect a fluorescent signal in live cell imaging experiments is extremely valuable. (bvsalud.org)
  • CAT proteins are subject to many types of post-translational modification (PTM), which modify activity, ligand binding, stability, compartmentation and function. (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, the major portions of Cd in the cells were combined with organic acids, proteins and polysaccharide, and were consequently detoxified. (agronomy-journal.org)
  • In addition to resolving paradoxes and controversies, the proposed re-conceptualization of the cell and biological organization reveals hitherto unappreciated connections among many seemingly disparate phenomena and observations, and provides new and powerful insights into the universal principles governing the emergence and organizational dynamics of living systems on each and every scale of biological organizational hierarchy, from proteins and cells to economies and ecologies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We examined the dynamics and kinetics of uptake and subcellular compartmentation of [14C]trifluralin in comparison with [3H]vinblastine. (tudublin.ie)
  • It explores the problems of growth and growth regulation by looking at the roles of chemical substances, natural and synthetic, which affect the behavior of the cells of flowering plants. (elsevier.com)
  • The present work is intended to demonstrate that most of the paradoxes, controversies, and contradictions accumulated in molecular and cell biology over many years of research can be readily resolved if the cell and living systems in general are re-interpreted within an alternative paradigm of biological organization that is based on the concepts and empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • What makes such a deterministic perception of the cell untenable today is the massive onslaught of paradoxical observations and surprising discoveries being generated with the help of advanced technologies in practically every specialized field of molecular and cell biology [ 12 - 17 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compartmentation is essential for the localization of biological processes within a eukaryotic cell. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, nuclear localization of IL-1 alpha correlates with impaired cell growth and expression of some IL-1 alpha-inducible genes. (unimi.it)
  • Taken together, proteomics studies appear to suggest that protein localization in the cell may be inherently uncertain or, at least, significantly more flexible and dynamic than is commonly believed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cell is commonly perceived and traditionally presented in textbooks and research publications as a pre-defined molecular system organized and functioning in accord with the mechanisms and programs perfected by billions years of biological evolution, where every part has its role, structure, and localization, which are specified by the evolutionary design that researchers aim to crack by reverse engineering. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To determine whether these specific glycoproteins interact cooperatively or independently to deliver the galectin-1 death signal, we examined the cell surface localization of CD45, CD43, CD7, and CD3 after galectin-1 binding to human T cell lines and human thymocytes. (aai.org)
  • Therefore, it is concluded that the dynamic ADP compartmentation is of biological importance for intact heart cells. (oroboros.at)
  • M, most of the Cd in the plants was localized in cell walls and vacuoles in both cultivars, whereas small portions of Cd were distributed in the cytoplasm, suggesting that the important metabolic and physiological processes were not impaired under Cd stress. (agronomy-journal.org)
  • It can be concluded that the retention of Cd in root cell walls, compartmentation of Cd into vacuoles and the suppressed transportation of Cd from roots to shoots are the most important mechanisms involved in the detoxification of Cd in rice plants. (agronomy-journal.org)
  • It discusses the totipotency and exogenous regulation of cells, history and modern concepts of plant growth regulators, the ways chemicals induce growth in quiescent cells, and growth-regulating effects in free cell systems. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we discuss recent findings that have been pivotal in generating a step change in our understanding of CAT functions in plant cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • On the other hand, there was up-regulation of genes related to ABA, ethylene biosynthesis and signaling, cell wall degradation and programmed cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mammalian spermatozoon constitutes one of the most complex and specialized cell types found in organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While these inhibitors are useful tools, their potential as anti-malarial drugs is limited by their high toxicity to mammalian cells. (tudublin.ie)
  • The formation of biomolecular condensates has emerged as a critical mechanism for compartmentation in living cells. (biorxiv.org)
  • TAp73alpha induces tau phosphorylation in HEK293a cells via a transcription-dependent mechanism. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Galectin-1 induces apoptosis of human thymocytes and activated T cells by an unknown mechanism. (aai.org)
  • The molecular basis of the development and maintenance of the apical and basal compartments in sensory hair cells is poorly understood. (zfin.org)
  • and 5), at higher [IP(3)], the apical and basal regions of the cell act as coupled Ca(2+) oscillators, with the basal region partially entrained to the apical region. (cellml.org)
  • One of their important functions is to produce and provide energy to the cell in the form of ATP, which help in proper maintenance of the cellular processes, thus making them indispensable for the cell. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of the course is to obtain knowledge on essential metabolic processes on the cell level. (muni.cz)
  • Malonaldehyde administered to rats produced an increased incidence of adenomas and carcinomas of the thyroid gland and pancreatic islet cell adenomas. (cdc.gov)
  • ABSTRACT: We construct a mathematical model of Ca(2+) wave propagation in pancreatic and parotid acinar cells. (cellml.org)
  • The observation of compartmentation of CTP synthase now permits a broad range of questions to be addressed concerning not only the structure and function of cytoophidia but also the organization and regulation of CTP synthesis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Together, our results uncover the function of P body factors in small RNA-mediated transgenerational gene silencing and highlight how the formation and function of one condensate can be regulated by an adjacent, interacting condensate in cells. (biorxiv.org)
  • Due to the importance of this function, the transition zone is a commonly found component within the cells of most living organisms, including certain vertebrates such as nematodes, certain flies, and some forms of alga. (worldofbacteria.com)
  • While at the cellular level the modular organization of molecular interactions has been analyzed in detail, the phenotypic modularity (or variational modularity) of cell shape remains unexplored. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The basal body of a cell forms the foundation for the cilium, and is formed of a barrel of nine triplet microtubules, subdistal appendages, and an additional nine structures, resembling struts. (worldofbacteria.com)
  • Our reporter design utilizes a phosphatase activity-dependent molecular switch based on the N-terminal regulatory domain of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells as a specific substrate of calcineurin, sandwiched between cyan fluorescent protein and yellow fluorescent protein. (elsevier.com)
  • Mutant frequency was then determined in a meiotic cell type (pachytene spermatocyte), a post-meiotic cell type (round spermatid) and epididymal spermatozoa after at least one cycle of spermatogenesis. (plos.org)
  • We wished to determine whether the relatively modest activity of trifluralin was the consequence of poor uptake into parasite cells. (tudublin.ie)
  • A functional consequence of this diffusion limitation is the dynamic compartmentation of ADP in the intermembrane space. (oroboros.at)
  • In this pilot study we show by Western blotting that TAp73alpha induces phosphorylation of human 2N4R tau at threonine-205 and at the PHF-1 epitope (serine366/serine404) in HEK293a cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Galectin-1, a homodimeric member of a family of conserved lectins, induces apoptosis of human thymocytes, activated T cells, and T lymphoblastoid cell lines ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ). (aai.org)
  • We have determined that galectin-1 binds to a restricted set of T cell surface glycoproteins, and that only CD45, CD43, and CD7 appear to directly participate in galectin-1-induced apoptosis. (aai.org)
  • Receptor segregation was not seen on cells that did not die in response to galectin-1, including mature thymocytes, suggesting that spatial redistribution of receptors into specific microdomains is required for triggering apoptosis. (aai.org)
  • Apoptosis is a critical process regulating T cell development in the thymus and in controlling the immune response in the periphery. (aai.org)
  • Our results suggest that Ap1b1 is essential for maintaining integrity and ion homeostasis in hair cells. (zfin.org)
  • Certain cilia are categorized under this term, most notably the kinocilia, which are the small cilia found on hair cells in the inner ear. (worldofbacteria.com)
  • The introduction of proteomics technologies has opened unprecedented opportunities to compile comprehensive "parts lists" for various macromolecular complexes, organelles, and whole cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In germ cells, small RNA silencing factors are enriched in germ granule condensates, where distinct factors are organized into sub-compartments with specific functions linked to genome surveillance or transgenerational gene silencing. (biorxiv.org)
  • I find that cytoophidia are present in all major cell types in the ovary and exist in a wide range of tissues such as brain, gut, trachea, testis, accessory gland, salivary gland and lymph gland. (ox.ac.uk)
  • and 3) unexpectedly, epididymal spermatozoa had the highest mutant frequency among the spermatogenic cell types tested. (plos.org)
  • Flavonoid hydroxylase from Catharanthus roseus: cDNA, heterologous expression, enzyme properties and cell-type specific expression in plants. (semanticscholar.org)
  • But what exactly are they, and what are their benefits to cell movement and growth? (worldofbacteria.com)
  • Induction and characterization of a microsomal flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase from parsley cell cultures. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Besides acting as a powerhouse for the cell, they act as a common platform for the execution of a variety of cellular functions in normal or microorganism infected cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Mechanically-evoked calcium transients were reduced in mutant hair cells, indicating that mechanotransduction was also compromised. (zfin.org)
  • The successful design of a prototype phosphatase activity sensor lays a foundation for studying targeting and compartmentation of phosphatases. (elsevier.com)
  • Newman, RH & Zhang, J 2008, ' Visualization of phosphatase activity in living cells with a FRET-based calcineurin activity sensor ', Molecular BioSystems , vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 496-501. (elsevier.com)
  • This strain is viable and, despite being devoid of the Holliday junction resolvase activity that is readily detected in fractionated extracts from wild-type cells, exhibits normal levels of UV sensitivity and spontaneous or UV-induced mitotic recombination. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Ong, S.-E. & Mann, M. A practical recipe for stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). (nature.com)
  • The male gametes of certain mammals may represent an ideal model for testing the connections between different kinds of modularity, as they are highly polarized cells with structurally and functionally differentiated regions that are morphologically recognizable [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)