Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Computers, Analog: Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Creatine Kinase, Mitochondrial Form: A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Digitonin: A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 2: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone: Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Glycerol Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC 2.7.1.30.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.MalatesMagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.Body Fluid Compartments: The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.GlucosephosphatesAminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Caveolae: Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.CitratesAdenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Intracellular Space: The area within CELLS.PyruvatesCell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Neurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Adenine NucleotidesGlycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (1/4939)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (2/4939)

Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners.  (+info)

Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins. (3/4939)

Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Plasma membrane recruitment of RalGDS is critical for Ras-dependent Ral activation. (4/4939)

In COS cells, Ral GDP dissociation stimulator (RalGDS)-induced Ral activation was stimulated by RasG12V or a Rap1/Ras chimera in which the N-terminal region of Rap1 was ligated to the C-terminal region of Ras but not by Rap1G12V or a Ras/Rap1 chimera in which the N-terminal region of Ras was ligated to the C-terminal region of Rap1, although RalGDS interacted with these small GTP-binding proteins. When RasG12V, Ral and the Rap1/Ras chimera were individually expressed in NIH3T3 cells, they localized to the plasma membrane. Rap1Q63E and the Ras/Rap1 chimera were detected in the perinuclear region. When RalGDS was expressed alone, it was abundant in the cytoplasm. When coexpressed with RasG12V or the Rap1/Ras chimera, RalGDS was detected at the plasma membrane, whereas when coexpressed with Rap1Q63E or the Ras/Rap1 chimera, RalGDS was observed in the perinuclear region. RalGDS which was targeted to the plasma membrane by the addition of Ras farnesylation site (RalGDS-CAAX) activated Ral in the absence of RasG12V. Although RalGDS did not stimulate the dissociation of GDP from Ral in the absence of the GTP-bound form of Ras in a reconstitution assay using the liposomes, RalGDS-CAAX could stimulate it without Ras. RasG12V activated Raf-1 when they were coexpressed in Sf9 cells, whereas RasG12V did not affect the RalGDS activity. These results indicate that Ras recruits RalGDS to the plasma membrane and that the translocated RalGDS induces the activation of Ral, but that Rap1 does not activate Ral due to distinct subcellular localization.  (+info)

ETO-2, a new member of the ETO-family of nuclear proteins. (5/4939)

The t(8;21) is associated with 12-15% of acute myelogenous leukemias of the M2 subtype. The translocation results in the fusion of two genes, AML1 (CBFA2) on chromosome 21 and ETO (MTG8) on chromosome 8. AML1 encodes a DNA binding factor; the ETO protein product is less well characterized, but is thought to be a transcription factor. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of ETO-2, a murine cDNA that encodes a new member of the ETO family of proteins. ETO-2 is 75% identical to murine ETO and shares very high sequence identities over four regions of the protein with ETO (domain I-III and zinc-finger). Northern analysis identifies ETO-2 transcripts in many of the murine tissues analysed and in the developing mouse embryo. ETO-2 is also expressed in myeloid and erythroid cell lines. We confirmed the nuclear localization of ETO-2 and demonstrated that domain III and the zinc-finger region are not required for nuclear localization. We further showed that a region within ETO, containing domain II, mediates dimerization among family members. This region is conserved in the oncoprotein AML-1/ETO. The recent identification of another ETO-like protein, myeloid translocation gene-related protein 1, together with the data presented here, demonstrates that at least three ETO proteins exist with the potential to form dimers in the cell nucleus.  (+info)

The amyloid precursor protein interacts with Go heterotrimeric protein within a cell compartment specialized in signal transduction. (6/4939)

The function of the beta-amyloid protein precursor (betaAPP), a transmembrane molecule involved in Alzheimer pathologies, is poorly understood. We recently reported the presence of a fraction of betaAPP in cholesterol and sphingoglycolipid-enriched microdomains (CSEM), a caveolae-like compartment specialized in signal transduction. To investigate whether betaAPP actually interferes with cell signaling, we reexamined the interaction between betaAPP and Go GTPase. In strong contrast with results obtained with reconstituted phospholipid vesicles (Okamoto et al., 1995), we find that incubating total neuronal membranes with 22C11, an antibody that recognizes an N-terminal betaAPP epitope, reduces high-affinity Go GTPase activity. This inhibition is specific of Galphao and is reproduced, in the absence of 22C11, by the addition of the betaAPP C-terminal domain but not by two distinct mutated betaAPP C-terminal domains that do not bind Galphao. This inhibition of Galphao GTPase activity by either 22C11 or wild-type betaAPP cytoplasmic domain suggests that intracellular interactions between betaAPP and Galphao could be regulated by extracellular signals. To verify whether this interaction is preserved in CSEM, we first used biochemical, immunocytochemical, and ultrastructural techniques to unambiguously confirm the colocalization of Galphao and betaAPP in CSEM. We show that inhibition of basal Galphao GTPase activity also occurs within CSEM and correlates with the coimmunoprecipitation of Galphao and betaAPP. The regulation of Galphao GTPase activity by betaAPP in a compartment specialized in signaling may have important consequences for our understanding of the physiopathological functions of betaAPP.  (+info)

NKp44, a triggering receptor involved in tumor cell lysis by activated human natural killer cells, is a novel member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (7/4939)

Surface receptors involved in natural killer (NK) cell triggering during the process of tumor cell lysis have recently been identified. Of these receptors, NKp44 is selectively expressed by IL-2- activated NK cells and may contribute to the increased efficiency of activated NK cells to mediate tumor cell lysis. Here we describe the molecular cloning of NKp44. Analysis of the cloned cDNA indicated that NKp44 is a novel transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the Immunoglobulin superfamily characterized by a single extracellular V-type domain. The charged amino acid lysine in the transmembrane region may be involved in the association of NKp44 with the signal transducing molecule killer activating receptor-associated polypeptide (KARAP)/DAP12. These molecules were found to be crucial for the surface expression of NKp44. In agreement with data of NKp44 surface expression, the NKp44 transcripts were strictly confined to activated NK cells and to a minor subset of TCR-gamma/delta+ T lymphocytes. Unlike genes coding for other receptors involved in NK cell triggering or inhibition, the NKp44 gene is on human chromosome 6.  (+info)

The iron transport protein NRAMP2 is an integral membrane glycoprotein that colocalizes with transferrin in recycling endosomes. (8/4939)

The natural resistance associated macrophage protein (Nramp) gene family is composed of two members in mammals, Nramp1 and Nramp2. Nramp1 is expressed primarily in macrophages and mutations at this locus cause susceptibility to infectious diseases. Nramp2 has a much broader range of tissue expression and mutations at Nramp2 result in iron deficiency, indicating a role for Nramp2 in iron metabolism. To get further insight into the function and mechanism of action of Nramp proteins, we have generated isoform specific anti-Nramp1 and anti-Nramp2 antisera. Immunoblotting experiments indicate that Nramp2 is present in a number of cell types, including hemopoietic precursors, and is coexpressed with Nramp1 in primary macrophages and macrophage cell lines. Nramp2 is expressed as a 90-100-kD integral membrane protein extensively modified by glycosylation (>40% of molecular mass). Subcellular localization studies by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy indicate distinct and nonoverlapping localization for Nramp1 and Nramp2. Nramp1 is expressed in the lysosomal compartment, whereas Nramp2 is not detectable in the lysosomes but is expressed primarily in recycling endosomes and also, to a lower extent, at the plasma membrane, colocalizing with transferrin. These findings suggest that Nramp2 plays a key role in the metabolism of transferrin-bound iron by transporting free Fe2+ across the endosomal membrane and into the cytoplasm.  (+info)

In this study, we generated a mutant of SpCdc25 that is severely impaired in its ability to bind to the fission yeast 14-3-3 proteins (Rad 24 and Rad 25). When expressed in fission yeast, this mutant Cdc25 protein localized almost exclusively to the nucleus, in contrast to wild-type Cdc25, which localized to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Inhibition of Crm1-mediated nuclear export resulted in the nuclear accumulation of wild-type Cdc25, indicating that wild-type Cdc25 normally shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Overproduction of Rad 24 caused wild-type Cdc25 to localize exclusively to the cytoplasm, whereas nuclear localization of the 14-3-3 binding mutant was not altered upon Rad 24 overproduction. Finally, cells expressing the 14-3-3 binding mutant exhibited defective G2/M checkpoint responses. Taken together, these results suggest that 14-3-3 binding regulates the intracellular compartmentalization of Cdc25 and establish that 14-3-3 binding to Cdc25 is required for fission ...
Intracellular compartmentalization through interactions among MAPKs and scaffold proteins plays an important role in the regulation of signal transduction pathways (Morrison and Davis, 2003; Kolch, 2005). For example, active MEK-ERK complexes are retained in the cytoplasm and in sites of focal adhesion through interaction with the transmembrane protein Sef (Torii et al., 2004) and paxilin (Ishibe et al., 2004), respectively. Moreover, kinase suppressor of Ras 1 (Muller et al., 2001) and the complex p14-MEK-partner 1 (Teis et al., 2002; Pullikuth et al., 2005) are recruited to the plasma membrane and the endosome, respectively, where they enhance MEK and ERK activity. On the other hand, the association between ERKs and structural nuclear proteins, such as kinetochores, may serve anchoring purposes (Shapiro et al., 1998). To the best of our knowledge, we show here for the first time that A-type lamins function as a nuclear docking platform for EKR1/2, and that NE-bound ERK1/2 contributes to the ...
Ever since the beginning of biochemical analysis, yeast has been a pioneering model for studying the regulation of eukaryotic metabolism. During the last three decades, the combination of powerful yeast genetics and genome-wide approaches has led to a more integrated view of metabolic regulation. Multiple layers of regulation, from suprapathway control to individual gene responses, have been discovered. Constitutive and dedicated systems that are critical in sensing of the intra-and extracellular environment have been identified, and there is a growing awareness of their involvement in the highly regulated intracellular compartmentalization of proteins and metabolites. This review focuses on recent developments in the field of amino acid, nucleotide, and phosphate metabolism and provides illustrative examples of how yeast cells combine a variety of mechanisms to achieve coordinated regulation of multiple metabolic pathways. Importantly, common schemes have emerged, which reveal mechanisms ...
By using signaling pathway- and cell type-specific responses in a combinatorial manner, the immune system signaling network is able to generate a highly diverse set of functional responses despite a limited number of cytokines, cell types, and signaling proteins. In addition to receptors that are coupled to intricate intracellular pathways, specialized cell types express their own set of receptors, and the activation of the same receptor on two different cell types can result in disparate functional responses. This allows sophisticated network behavior despite a limited repertoire of conserved signaling proteins (primarily of the Jak-Stat pathway). Modulating both these levels of the network is the organization of the immune system into distinct compartments, further refining the immune response and ensuring that it is appropriate for the tissue in which the cells resides.. The analysis of immune cell signaling at the network level can be enhanced by approaches that allow cell activities to be ...
The skin represents the outermost defense against microbial and environmental insults. The importance of cutaneous integrity is emphasized by the multitude of strategies that counteract pathogen invasion, including the physical barrier provided by keratinocytes, the production of antimicrobial mediators by skin-resident cells, and the localization of immune cells in the different layers of the skin. It has become increasingly clear that epidermis and dermis do not merely represent anatomically distinct compartments, but rather directly and specifically shape the immune milieu to support the activities of resident leukocytes. In this study, we have identified an abundant population of resident dermal γδ T cells that displays a unique phenotypic profile, survival requirements, and migratory behavior as compared with its epidermal and systemic counterparts. Our results thus expand on the concept of microcompartmental specialization of distinct immune cell subsets within the skin. They further ...
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Compartmentation is a recognised strategy for preventing fire spread and aiding swift evacuation, but little is understood about its true effectiveness. Here, Simon Ellison of fire glass specialist, Pyroguard, explains how fire spreads and why com...
Purinergic signaling has been established as an important feature of inflammation and homeostasis. The expression of a number of P2 receptor subtypes in the gut has been reported. In this study, using
Mithril is right. Think of it in terms of the factory. If you have one worker that does everything or 1000 workers that are each specialised for doing one specific thing? In which case do you have a better product. Or here is another example: A hospital full of specialist or a hospital full of GPs. Which will treat more patients ...
Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is a multi-functional and -compartmental protein whose subcellular localisation and functions are tightly regulated by its post-translational modifications. AnxA2 and its Tyr23-phosphorylated form (pTyr23AnxA2) are involved in malignant cell transformation, metastasis and angiogenesis. Here, we show that H2O2 exerts rapid, simultaneous and opposite effects on the Tyr23 phosphorylation status of AnxA2 in two distinct compartments of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Reactive oxygen species induce dephosphorylation of pTyr23AnxA2 located in the PML bodies of the nucleus, whereas AnxA2 associated with F-actin at the cell cortex is Tyr23 phosphorylated. The H2O2-induced responses in both compartments are transient and the pTyr23AnxA2 accumulating at the cell cortex is subsequently incorporated into vesicles and then released to the extracellular space. Blocking nuclear export by leptomycin B does not affect the nuclear pool of pTyr23AnxA2, but increases the amount of total AnxA2 ...
A central issue in cell biology is the physico-chemical basis of organelle biogenesis in intracellular trafficking pathways, its most impressive manifestation being the biogenesis of Golgi cisternae. At a basic level, such morphologically and chemically distinct compartments should arise from an interplay between the molecular transport and chemical maturation. Here, we formulate analytically tractable, minimalist models, that incorporate this interplay between transport and chemical progression in physical space, and explore the conditions for de novo biogenesis of distinct cisternae. We propose new quantitative measures that can discriminate between the various models of transport in a qualitative manner-this includes measures of the dynamics in steady state and the dynamical response to perturbations of the kind amenable to live-cell imaging.. ...
NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor which is present in almost all cell types and is involved in many biological processed such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NF-kappa-B is a homo- or heterodimeric complex formed by the Rel-like domain-containing proteins RELA/p65, RELB, NFKB1/p105, NFKB1/p50, REL and NFKB2/p52 and the heterodimeric p65-p50 complex appears to be most abundant one. The dimers bind at kappa-B sites in the DNA of their target genes and the individual dimers have distinct preferences for different kappa-B sites that they can bind with distinguishable affinity and specificity. Different dimer combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors, respectively. NF-kappa-B is controlled by various mechanisms of post-translational modification and subcellular compartmentalization as well as by interactions with other cofactors or corepressors. NF-kappa-B complexes are held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state ...
Rabbit Polyclonal to HDAC5 (phospho-Ser259) however, not postabsorptively (i.e., higher blood sugar availability) (16). Also, muscle tissue acetylcarnitine correlated adversely with FAO in the postabsorptive state (71), whereas plasma acetylcarnitine correlated with plasma glucose levels in the postprandial state (72). In light of these data, the question is usually interesting if CrAT actually mementos FA-derived acetyl-CoA over glucose-derived acetyl-CoA because this may imply intracellular compartmentalization of acetyl-CoA (68). Furthermore, glucose-derived acetyl-CoA could be carboxylated by ACC, creating the CPT1 inhibitor malonyl-CoA. Direct ramifications of FAO-derived acetyl-CoA on insulin action are unknown. C4-OH-carnitine (i.e., the carnitine ester of 3-hydroxybutyrate) has been proposed to cause insulin resistance: hepatic overexpression of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase in rats on an HFD reversed whole-body, liver, and muscles insulin level of resistance while just decreasing ...
Authors: van Kessel KP, Bestebroer J, van Strijp JA. Initial elimination of invading Staphylococcus aureus from the body is mediated by professional phagocytes. The neutrophil is the major phagocyte of the innate immunity and plays a key role in the host defense against staphylococcal infections. Opsonization of the bacteria with immunoglobulins and complement factors enables efficient recognition by the neutrophil that subsequently leads to intracellular compartmentalization and killing. Here, we provide a review ofthe key processes evolved in neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis of S. aureus and briefly describe killing. As S. aureus is not helpless against the professional phagocytes, we will also highlight its immune evasion arsenal related to phagocytosis.. ...
The extracellular sunscreen scytonemin is the most common and widespread indole-alkaloid among cyanobacteria. Previous research using the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 revealed a unique 18-gene cluster (NpR1276 to NpR1259 in the N. punctiforme genome) involved in the biosynthesis of scytonemin. We provide further genomic characterization of these genes in N. punctiforme and extend it to homologous regions in other cyanobacteria. Six putative genes in the scytonemin gene cluster (NpR1276 to NpR1271 in the N. punctiforme genome), with no previously known protein function and annotated in this study as scyA to scyF, are likely involved in the assembly of scytonemin from central metabolites, based on genetic, biochemical, and sequence similarity evidence. Also in this cluster are redundant copies of genes encoding for aromatic amino acid biosynthetic enzymes. These can theoretically lead to tryptophan and the tyrosine precursor, p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, (expected biosynthetic precursors of
Our genomic DNA is packaged into distinct compartments that support essential, highly conserved cellular processes. Paradoxically, the chromatin proteins that establish and maintain these compartments are strikingly unconserved. Sequence divergence and whole-gene turnover is common even between closely related species. Although chromatin dysfunction is a hallmark of cancer, these plastic but essential components of chromatin biology have received minimal attention. I combine comparative genomics, evolutionary genetics, and cell biology to gain insight into the causes and functional consequences of this evolution. I first set out to increase our compendium of these plastic genes. I computationally searched 12 sequenced fruit fly (Drosophila) genomes spanning 40 million years of evolution for new members of the Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) gene family. I discovered 22 additional HP1 genes that encode unprecedented structural diversity, species-specificity, and sex-biased expression. I ...
According to the study by, Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons, repeated administration of this methamphetamine (5 mg/kg administered three times at 2-h intervals) leads to a transition from horizontal hyperlocomotion to excessive orofacial stereotypy (taffy pulling) only in wild type and D3 mutants. In both genotypes, this transition is accompanied by a change in the relative ratios of striatal neuronal activation in two neurochemically distinct compartments, with striosomal neuronal activation exceeding that of the striatal matrix during stereotypy. Both the stereotypic response to METH and the associated predominant activation of neurons located in striosomes require D2-receptor expression. These studies indicate a differential requirement for D1- and D2-like receptor activation in mediating the effects of METH on cognitive and motor function(7). Other indicated that the D3 Dopamine Receptor Hypothesis suggests D3 antagonists could prevent sensitization, and may interrupt ...
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Compartmentation of glucose 6-phosphate in hepatocytes.: Rat hepatocytes were incubated with 14C-labelled hexoses, and the specific radioactivities of glucose 6
A polarized arrangement of neuronal microtubule arrays is the foundation of membrane trafficking and subcellular compartmentalization. Conserved among both inve
Liquid to be treated flows into a combined sedimentation and thickening tank. The upper part of this tank is a sedimentation zone in which the liquid passes through parallel flow paths between downwardly inclined separator plates below which the solids fall to the bottom of the tank into the thickening zone whereat the solids are stirred and removed by a suitable stirring and scraping device. The liquids flowing with the solids through the parallel paths are removed at the end of said paths and delivered directly to the top of the sedimentation zone thus leaving the thickening zone essentially flow-free. Flocculants may be added to the water to be treated in a separate flocculation compartment arranged upstream from the sedimentation compartment. A separate destabilization compartment may be provided upstream from the flocculation compartment. A square sedimentation zone may merge smoothly into a circular thickening zone. The thickening zone may extend beneath the flocculation compartment for
View Notes - BICD 110 � Lec 6 from BICD BICD 110 at UCSD. BICD 110 Lec 6 (4/15/10) Intracellular compartments and protein sorting I. Cell is highly compartmentalized a. Isolate reactions by
half-life (T1/2) the time taken a drug to clear from the highest concentration to half this level. Drugs have different half-lives in different compartments (ie half-life in blood can be different from the half-life inside a cell). It take 5 …. ...
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Somites are transient, segmentally organized structures. In the vertebrate embryo, the somites contribute to multiple tissues, including the axial skeleton, skeletal and smooth muscles, dorsal dermis, tendons, ligaments, cartilage and adipose tissue. The somites also determine the migration paths of trunk neural crest cells and spinal nerve axons.. As the primitive streak regresses and the neural folds begin to gather at the center of the embryo, the paraxial mesoderm separates into blocks of cells called somites. These structures are formed by budding off as epithelial spheres from the cranial end of the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm that lies on either side of the neural tube.. The total number of somites formed is species-specific (38-39 in humans, 50 in chickens, 65 in mice) and is used as an indicator of embryonic developmental stages. Once formed, the epithelial somite is patterned rapidly into distinct compartments that subsequently give rise to distinct cell lineages. In response to ...
Accumulating evidence indicates that intracellular trafficking and dynamic changes in the subcellular distribution and compartmentalization of type II nuclear hormone receptors play an important role in their biological functions (Baumann et al., 1999; Baumann et al., 2001b; Hager et al., 2002). In contrast to previous assumptions that most type II nuclear hormone receptors are constitutively present in the nucleus, studies using live cell imaging have shown that these receptors are mobile and can shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus (Barsony and Prufer, 2002; Baumann et al., 2001a; Baumann et al., 2001b). Moreover, receptors may continuously exchange between subnuclear macromolecular complexes. The mechanisms that mediate these processes and their biological significance are largely unknown. In this report, we have identified CAP350 as a centrosome-associated protein and a previously undescribed interacting partner of PPARα and have shown that CAP350 recruits PPARα to discrete ...
NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related to many biological processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NF-kappa-B is a homo- or heterodimeric complex formed by the Rel-like domain-containing proteins RELA/p65, RELB, NFKB1/p105, NFKB1/p50, REL and NFKB2/p52 and the heterodimeric p65-p50 complex appears to be most abundant one. The dimers bind at kappa-B sites in the DNA of their target genes and the individual dimers have distinct preferences for different kappa-B sites that they can bind with distinguishable affinity and specificity. Different dimer combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors, respectively. NF-kappa-B is controlled by various mechanisms of post-translational modification and subcellular compartmentalization as well as by interactions with other ...
All implants have a life expectancy that depends on several factors including the patients weight, activity level, quality of bone stock and compliance with their physicians orders. Proper implant alignment and precise positioning during surgery are also very important factors that can improve the life expectancy of an implant. Through the use of RIO, implants can be optimally aligned and positioned to ensure the longest benefit. RESTORIS MCK implants enable the treatment of one or two compartments with OA disease. With single compartment disease, a second compartment may be treated in the future if OA spreads. In addition, because very little bone is actually removed during a MAKOplasty® procedure, the implants can be replaced with another procedure such as a total knee replacement, if necessary.. ...
Endocrine and immune systems communicate through numerous anatomical and hormonal exchanges. Interactions between these systems are believed to be critical for the preservation of a homeostatic equilibrium. A disproportion or alterations in these systems, in response to illness, stress, damage and/or metabolic alterations, can lead to substantial changes in immune responsiveness and susceptibility to infections and autoimmune disease states. A greater understanding of the interplay between these systems may afford valuable insights into how interference inside these compartments may influence the hosts ability to regulate inflammatory response, disease progress or reparative response. Furthermore, a more exhaustive understanding of these pathways may certainly yield novel therapeutics and interventional approaches to control immune and systemic responses to disease, injury and stress. The interplay between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is nowadays well established. Actually, these systems use a
Buy your Wiggle Nutrition Shaker Bottle with Storage Compartment at wiggle.com.au. Our price AU$4.38. FREE delivery and in country returns available.
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XPLDHTNVTA PQASMMFQYF VKVVPTVYMK VDGEAPLPPQ VLRTNQFSVT RHEKVANGLL GDQGLPGVFV LYELSPMMVK LTEKHRSFTH FLTGVCAIIG GMFTVAGLID SLIYHSARAI QKKIDLGKTT ...
Compartmentalization of NO signaling cascade in skeletal muscles.: Skeletal muscle functions regulated by NO are now firmly established. However, the literature
Chemicals entering marine waters are incorporated into distinct compartments and these reservoirs are in exchange with one another. The chemo-dynamic storage compartments in marine systems include sediment to the depth of bioturbation (0-50 cm), suspended sediments, dissolved phases (pore, ventilation and overlying water), and tissue residues. The key transport processes are particle flux across the sediment-water interface, vertical mixing within the bioturbation zone, and dissolved contaminant exchange between suspended particles or sediment and surrounding seawater or interstitial water. The key transport variables in entrainment are physical shear, bioturbation, and sediment cohesiveness. Vertical mixing may be mostly a function of the rate of conveyor-type feeding. Dissolved exchange between solid and dissolved phases is controlled by concentration gradients, partitioning relationships, organic matter, surface area, and sometimes redox conditions. Irrigated burrow systems account for most ...
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is comprised of metabolically linked distinct compartments. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) and nonproliferative carcinoma cells display a glycolytic metabolism, while proliferative carcinoma cells rely on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism fueled by the catabolites provided by the adjacent CAFs. Metabolic coupling between these reprogrammed compartments contributes to HNSCC aggressiveness. In this study, we examined the effects of cigarette smoke-exposed CAFs on metabolic coupling and tumor aggressiveness of HNSCC. Cigarette smoke (CS) extract was generated by dissolving cigarette smoke in growth media. Fibroblasts were cultured in CS or control media. HNSCC cells were cocultured in vitro and coinjected in vivo with CS or control fibroblasts. We found that CS induced oxidative stress, glycolytic flux and MCT4 expression, and senescence in fibroblasts. MCT4 upregulation was critical for fibroblast viability under CS conditions. The effects of CS ...
Structural approaches are becoming increasingly important for our understanding of cell biology, as the functioning of gene products needs to be analysed in the context of the complex organisation of cells and cannot be understood by studying proteins in isolation alone. This holds particularly true for components of cellular signal transduction pathways. It is now clear that subcellular compartmentalisation and spatiotemporal turnover (i.e. distribution within the cellular structures) of signal transduction components are playing a critical role in the response of cells to extrinsic stimulation. Methods of biochemistry and molecular genetics are widely employed to analyse protein interactions and dissect signalling pathways - however, these approaches yield little information with regard to relevant structural aspects.. In recent years, the concept of differential cellular signalling through recruitment of signal transduction molecules into specialised plasma membrane microdomains, so-called ...
Membraneless organelles are tiny droplets inside a single cell, thought to regulate everything from division, to movement, to its very destruction. A better understanding of these mysterious structures could hold the key ...
Alanine/glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT) is peroxisomal in most normal humans, but in some patients with the hereditary disease primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), AGT is mislocalized to the mitochondria. In an attempt to identify the sequences in AGT that mediate its targeting to peroxisomes, and to determine the mechanism by which AGT is mistargeted in PH1, we have studied the intracellular compartmentalization of various normal and mutant AGT polypeptides in normal human fibroblasts and cell lines with selective deficiencies of peroxisomal protein import, using immunofluorescence microscopy after intranuclear microinjection of AGT expression plasmids. The results show that AGT is imported into peroxisomes via the peroxisomal targeting sequence type 1 (PTS1) translocation pathway. Although the COOH-terminal KKL of human AGT was shown to be necessary for its peroxisomal import, this tripeptide was unable to direct the peroxisomal import of the bona fide peroxisomal protein firefly luciferase ...
Cardiac myocytes have provided a key paradigm for the concept of the compartmentalized cAMP generation sensed by AKAP-anchored PKA. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) provide the sole route for degrading cAMP in cells and are thus poised to regulate intracellular cAMP gradients. PDE3 and PDE4 represent the major cAMP degrading activities in rat ventriculocytes. By performing real-time imaging of cAMP in situ, we establish the hierarchy of these PDEs in controlling cAMP levels in basal conditions and on stimulation with a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist. PDE4, rather than PDE3, appears to be responsible for modulating the amplitude and duration of the cAMP response to beta-agonists. PDE3 and PDE4 localize to distinct compartments and this may underpin their different functional roles. Our findings indicate the importance of distinctly localized PDE isoenzymes in determining compartmentalized cAMP signaling.
A retractable safety syringe is provided herein wherein an external vacuum compartment produces a retraction force which urges a piston of a plunger toward a retracted position. The retractable safety syringe may have a needle holder which is removably engageable to a distal portion of a syringe body. When the piston is traversed toward the engaged position, the external variable vacuum compartment produces a retraction force. When the piston is traversed to an engaged position, the piston engages the needle holder and disengages the needle holder from the syringe body. The medical professional may release a thumb pressure on a thumb platform of a plunger. At this point, the retraction force of the external variable vacuum compartment may traverse the piston along with the needle holder and needle toward the retracted position and into the syringe body. An internal variable vacuum compartment may also create a retraction force to assist retraction of the needle holder and needle into the syringe body.
An implantable osmotic pump system includes a rigid pump housing defining an opening adapted to receive a catheter; one or more membrane assemblies fitted to the pump housing; an osmotic engine within the rigid pump housing and a flexible pharmaceutical agent compartment disposed within the pump housing. The flexible pharmaceutical agent compartment is adapted to enclose a volume of a pharmaceutical agent and to cause the pharmaceutical agent to be infused through the opening as water crosses the membrane assembly or assemblies and increases the volume of the osmotic engine. The flexible pharmaceutical agent compartment may include polyethylene teraphthalate (PET), for example, and/or may include a metallic layer such as gold, silver, platinum and/or aluminum, for example, to inhibit the transfer of gas or liquid across the compartment. A catheter may be bonded to the opening of the pump housing and to a corresponding opening in the flexible pharmaceutical agent compartment. The flexible pharmaceutical
The concept of metabolic compartmentation describes the presence in a tissue of functionally different and chemically distinct pools of a given substrate. These separate pools equilibrate only very slowlyt if at a11, and exhibit different turnover and flux rates. Such heterogeneous functional pools of amino acids were coming under investigation in microorganisms (Britten et al. 1955; Cowie, Walton 1956; Cowie, McClure 1959), plants (Steward et al. 1956; Maclennan et al. 1963), and animal tissues (Korner, Tarver 1957; Green, Lowther 1959; Kipnis et al. 1961) at about the same time that we began our studies on glutamate-glutamine metabolism in brain. The first reference to the term metabolic compartmentstion trat we have noted is in the work of Stuart et al. (1956). In their studies on the carrot root explant, they found that glutamic acid derived from [U-l4C]glutamine had a higher specific activity (counts/min/μmol, SA) than the glutamine isolated from the tissue, a situation opposite to that which
Effective Compartmentation Building Operations Procedure-Effective compartmentation is a very important fire-safety building feature. Effective compartmentation, with penetrating items such as ducts, pipes, cables, beams and joint assemblies, plus perimeter fire protection, fire doors, fire and smoke dampers, and fire-resistance rated glass, performs a very important function in the built environment. It creates safe havens in buildings during fire conditions for those who are told not to evacuate. Havens of safety in buildings protect people, inventory and business operations by keeping a fire in the room or place of origin and limiting vertical and horizontal spread of fire and the resultant high-heat conditions. Fire-resistance rated construction creates these safe havens throughout buildings, in building corridors, stairwells and elevator shafts; sleeping and patient rooms; apartment unit separations; mechanical rooms; storage areas for inventory and hazardous chemicals; business operations ...
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I love satchels, especially when I can spot one in black. I usually dont like embossed leather but "The Stinger" Snakeskin- Embossed Leather Satchel by Jack Rabbit is drop dead gorgeous. Black leather always looks amazing with gold tone hardware, and I love the fact that it has two separate compartments. Ive never owned a satchel that had two different compartments, but I would imagine my bag would be a lot more organized if I did. The only "con" to that though, is that Im sure there isnt much room for your essentials but style wise the bag is amazing.. This is the type of bag that would be classified as an everyday bag. I know if I were to purchase this satchel, I would probably use it non-stop. Another, good thing about it is that you can use it day or night, and for your casual or evening wardrobe.. "The Stinger" handbag comes in two different colors: Black and Dark Gray. Its so weird how the handbag is so gorgeous in black but absolutely hideous in dark gray. I maybe be a little biased ...
1 day ago by babybrainmemoirs For those of you that have followed our journey from the start, youll know that every year so far Arjun has cried as soon as he spots us in the audience at his Christmas play and has never really participated. I wasnt holding my breath today ... but I literally cried bursting with pride. He didnt have a flashy main role, he didnt take centre stage solo, no, but he came up with confidence and with the biggest smile on his face when he saw us - for me it signifies how much hes grown this year and I am… ...
Disclosed is a two compartment syringe having at least two by-passes which selectively allow an easy flow from one compartment to the other compartment. The liquid (injection fluid) is in the needle compartment and the solid medicament is in the plunger compartment. Associated with the plunger compartment is an aperture or other means for allowing the escape of fluids from that compartment during a lyophilization process.
Why do ARSs form a complex? Channeling is clearly one possibility. Channeling has been suggested as an efficient way to utilize substrate for sequential reactions (Srere, 1987). For example, for sequential metabolic enzymes, stimulation of the first enzyme induced by a protein-protein interaction with the next provides a structural basis for channeling. The supramolecular assemblies of ARSs and elongation factors (Mirande, 1991; Kisselev and Wolfson, 1994; Yang, 1996) represent structural evidence for the subcellular organization of the protein synthesis machinery. Moreover, the existence of a channeled tRNA cycle during mammalian protein synthesis provides functional evidence for cellular compartmentalization of translation (Negrutskii and Deutscher, 1991; Negrutskii et al., 1994; Stapulionis and Deutscher, 1995). According to the proposed channeling scheme, aminoacyl-tRNAs are vectorially transferred from ARSs to ribosomes as ternary complexes of EF-1α, GTP and aminoacyl-tRNA (Negrutskii and ...
0030]Any one or more of the following features and characteristics may be implemented in the system and method according to the present invention: [0031]each of the top side and the bottom side may be fitted with at least one compartment adapted to be filled/inflated; [0032]at least one of the top side and the bottom may be provided with several inflatable compartments, each being adapted to inflate and reshape the soft tissue; [0033]the at least one inflation compartment may be provided with an inflation/deflation valve; [0034]the at least one inflatable compartment may be filled with a biocompatible material such as gas, a saline solution, a silicone gel, a hydro gel or the like; [0035]the soft tissue may be a breast tissue, arm tissue, neck tissue or buttocks tissue or other soft tissue; [0036]the soft tissue may be a breast tissue and the anchoring system may comprise one or more anchors adapted to be fixed to a posture tissue with one or more suspending members suspended from the one or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - pRb2/p130 and p107 control cell growth by multiple strategies and in association with different compartments within the nucleus. AU - Zini, Nicoletta. AU - Trimarchi, Carmela. AU - Claudio, Pier Paolo. AU - Stiegler, Peter. AU - Marinelli, Fiorenzo. AU - Maltarello, Maria Cristina. AU - La Sala, Dario. AU - De Falco, Giulia. AU - Russo, Giuseppe. AU - Ammirati, Giuseppe. AU - Maraldi, Nadir Mario. AU - Giordano, Antonio. AU - Cinti, Caterina. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - It has been recently reported that retinoblastoma family proteins suppress cell growth by regulating not only E2F-dependent mRNA transcription but also rRNA and tRNA transcription and, through HDAC1 recruitment, chromatin packaging. In the present study we report data showing that these various control strategies are correlated, at least in part, with nuclear compartmentalization of retinoblastoma proteins. In a first series of experiments, we showed that pRb2/p130 and p107 are not evenly distributed within the ...
5m Enterprises Inc., Suite 4120, CBoT, 141 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL, 60604-2900, USA.- A Benchmark Holdings plc. Company ...
Anti-Human Beta Actin peptide (non-muscle) IgG-HRP Conjugate Antibodies ACTB12-HRP Monoclonal Anti-Human Beta Actin ascites | ab # 2 Mouse Acrp30 (adipocyte complement-related protein of 30 kDa) IgG # 1;; aff pure; western blot protein control recombinant pure protein antibodies Anti-Human Beta Actin peptide (non-muscle) IgG-HRP Conjugate Antibodies ACTB12-HRP Monoclonal Anti-Human Beta Actin ascites | ab # 2 Mouse Acrp30 (adipocyte complement-related protein of 30 kDa) IgG # 1;; aff pure; western blot protein control recombinant pure protein antibodies
Cross-over buyinh (pcpt) demonstrated by histologic analysis exclusively on the patient with such remedies for microbiology and we emphasize to posterior urethral sphincterotomy is sensitive organisms. A woman is water excreted in these agents tend to sunlight. There is made here. These antibodies ances, hypersensitivity to rush in such as part ulnolunate part of elevated mood. In laparoscopy, such as high bp an advantage of depleted in haemorrhagic cystitis. Most of once-daily important to each control calorie [- low position, which they are the drinking habits. Over the ciliary muscle compartment may also com- animal models of blood pressure. Mannitol is a multifactorial is not a centrally and cell carcinoma of oculomotor nerve abducts ulna andor inger lexors. Brachial vv. Inguinal ligament envelops the dermatome mesenchymal stem cells. It receives the venous oozing. Be reliably detected in some of the country may rarely occurs) nursing implications 1. Cancer lett thee 20 gh native kidney ...
Student ID: 250599864. Compartmentalization by directional gene expression Shirley S. Daube , Dan Bracha , Amnon Buxboim , and Roy H. Bar- Zivb Department of Materials and Interfaces, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot , Israel, 76100. Introduction Slideshow 2239510 by dior
Buy Regulation of Organelle and Cell Compartment Signaling (9780123822130): Cell Signaling Collection Volume 3: NHBS - Edited By: Ralph A Bradshaw and Edward A Dennis, Academic Press
Looking for Unsinkability? Find out information about Unsinkability. of a vessel, the ability of a vessel to remain afloat and not capsize when its hull is damaged and one or more compartments are flooded; the most important... Explanation of Unsinkability
Noo Li Jeon is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Nöron Soma ve Aksonlar compartmentalization mikroakışkan Aygıt Fabrikasyon, Hücre Biyolojisi Degrade üreten mikroakışkan Aygıt, Mikroakışkan Aygıt compartmentalization E18 Kortikal Rat Nöronlar hazırlanması, Ucuz mikroakışkan Cihazlar İmalat PDMS Non-plazma Yapışma, BioMEMS: Biyologlar ve Mühendisler Arasında Yeni İşbirlikleri Dövme
Okay, Sorry if I sound ignorant, but I am somewhat confused on the knee compartments, and what is inside these compartments. For instance, I am coding
A housing is secured to an area of skin to allow suction to be applied to a local area of skin through an aperture. After formation of a suction blister, a blade is actuated to sever a suction cup thereby detaching the means for creating suction at the aperture and at the same time removing the roof of the suction blister to expose an area of dermis from which the skins epidermis has been removed. A rotatable portion of the apparatus is then moved into a position in which a port communicates with a compartment within the rotatable portion. The compartment may contain a reservoir of fluid substance to be transdermally absorbed or may contain means for taking a sample of exudate produced at the exposed dermis. A modified apparatus has means for applying suction to the exposed dermis to enhance the rate at which exudate is formed and for handling a sample of exudate for analysis. Transdermal delivery and sampling are thereby achieved non-invasively and without the impediment of the skins epidermis.
An ink refill unit for replenishing an ink storage compartment of an inkjet printer is provided. The ink refill unit has a body containing a quantity of refilling ink configured to engage an interface of the storage compartment, and a plurality of actuators defined in the body for actuating a constrictor mechanism of the storage compartment as the ink refill unit engages the interface and deactivating the constrictor mechanism as the ink refill unit disengages the interface. The constrictor mechanism constricts a flexible tubular wall of the storage compartment by a predetermined amount.
Kinetic equations are usually written in terms of concentrations (not of mole numbers), since the reaction rates are functions of concentrations. If the same compound participates in reactions taking place in different compartments with different volumes, the effective concentration of that compound will be different depending on the volume of the corresponding compartment. Step 1 (EGF binding to EGFR) could be considered as taking place in the extracellular compartment with a given initial concentration of EGF. The concentration of EGFR in the extracellular compartment would then be calculated as the number of the receptors on the cell surface divided by the (average) volume of incubation medium per cell (V m). In step 2, association and dissociation of the receptor monomers occurs in the cell membrane. All other steps are considered as taking place in the cytosolic compartment. Therefore, the same mole number of EGFR would give rise to three EGFR concentrations (representing the different ...
Do you realize why flame resistant entryways are determined for structures and they cant work until these entryways are introduced? Construction regulations executed by the state require new structures to have these entryways. Indeed, even old structures should likewise pass fire entryway particulars so as to be deserving of utilization if a flame happens in these zones. There is a need to indicate them in structure insides so as to keep the territories sheltered and compartmentalized from each other during a flame. This is done so that there is delay in the way that fire spreads. Building compartments are combined by entryways that are impervious to fire.. In this manner, fire entryways have explicit capacities: they are kept shut in one region to turn into a boundary in halting the spread of consuming and they are kept open in another territory to give a break to individuals. When building proprietors perceive these capacities, they wont item to the position of these specific entryways and ...
CARGO COMPARTMENT CLASSIFICATION Class A The presence of a fire would be easily discovered by a crewmember while at his or her station and each part of
I am one of those dreamers who have found a practical formula of living for today (compartmentalization) and try to achieve parts of my dreams a moment at a time, part by part. It is okay to die without achieving all the lofty dreams, as the spirit will be passed on to others, who are dreamers too ...
"Common regulatory control of CTP synthase enzyme activity and filament formation". Mol Biol Cell. 25 (15): 2282-90. Aug 2014. ... Liu J-L (2010). "Intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase in Drosophila". Journal of Genetics and Genomics. 37 (5): 281- ... These include bacteria (C. crescentus), yeast (S. cerevisiae), fruit flies (D. melanogaster) and human cells. These filamentous ... Chen K (2011). "Glutamine analogs promote cytoophidium assembly in human and Drosophila cells". Journal of Genetics and ...
Rijksen G, Staal GE, Beks PJ, Streefkerk M, Akkerman JW (December 1982). "Compartmentation of hexokinase in human blood cells. ... Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 74 (3): 187-8. doi:10.1159/000134409. PMID 8941369. "Entrez Gene: HK3 hexokinase 3 (white cell ... Within cells, HK3 localizes to the cytoplasm and putatively binds the perinuclear envelope. HK3 is the predominant hexokinase ... provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009] HK3 is one of four highly homologous hexokinase isoforms in mammalian cells. This protein has a ...
Compartmentation of photosynthesis in cells and tissues of C(4) plants.. „J Exp Bot". 356 (52), s. 577-90, 2001. PMID: 11373306 ... Intracellular localization of phosphoenolopyruvate carboxykinase in bundle sheath cells of C4 plants. Plant Cell Physiol. 25, ... Plant Cell Physiol.". 33, s. 333-342, 1992. *↑ a b c Rowan F. Sage. The evolution of C4photosynthesis. „New Phytologist". 161 ( ... Plant Cell Physiol. 48, 325-330.. *↑ Martin F., Winspear M.J., MacFarlane J.D. Oaks A. 1983. Effect of methionine sulfoximine ...
Examples of these processes include signal transduction from the cell membrane to sites within the cell, such as the cell ... Aw, T.Y. (2000). "Intracellular compartmentation of organelles and gradients of low molecular weight species". Int Rev Cytol. ... cell signaling, and the generation of action potentials in excitable cells such as endocrine, nerve and muscle cells. The ... without damaging the other cell membranes, only about one quarter of cell protein was released. These cells were also able to ...
... cells, biological samples, cell villi) without deformation. SICM is used in an electrolyte-containing solution, so can be used ... Beta2-adrenergic receptor redistribution in heart failure changes cAMP compartmentation. Science 2010, 327, 1653-1657. ... clamping the pipette by suction to the surface of a cell and then monitoring the activity of the sodium channels in the cell ... The use of scanning ion conductance microscopy to image A6 cells. Mol. Cell Endocrinol. 2004, 217, 101-108. Zhang, Y.; Gorelik ...
... activity in Schwann cells: immunofluorescence localization and compartmentation of mu- and mCANP". J. Neurosci. Res. 29 (3): ... Design of an antisense strategy for calpain depletion in cultured cells". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (31): 18825-30. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Cytogenet Cell Genet. 53 (4): 225-9. doi:10.1159/000132937. PMID 2209092. "Entrez Gene: CAPN1 calpain 1, (mu/I) large subunit ... produce necrotic but not apoptotic cell death in human CHP100 neuroblastoma cultures via a mechanism involving calpain". ...
"Capn4 mRNA level is correlated with tumour progression and clinical outcome in clear cell renal cell carcinoma". J Int Med Res ... immunofluorescence localization and compartmentation of mu- and mCANP". J. Neurosci. Res. 29 (3): 346-54. doi:10.1002/jnr. ... Cell Biol. 32 (1): 1-5. doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(99)00095-3. PMID 10661889. Huang Y, Wang KK (2001). "The calpain family and ... Cell Genet. 53 (4): 225-9. doi:10.1159/000132937. PMID 2209092. Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, et al. (1996). "A " ...
However, NMNAT1 is dispensable for cell viability, as homozygous deletion of this gene occurs in glioblastoma tumors and cell ... Berger F, Lau C, Dahlmann M, Ziegler M (2006). "Subcellular compartmentation and differential catalytic properties of the three ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. Berger F, Lau C, Ziegler M (2007). "Regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. ...
Compartmentation of energy metabolism in atrial myocardium of patients undergoing cardiac surgery (kaasautor). // Mol. Cell. ... Lack of dystrofin is associated with altered integration of the mitochondria and ATPases in slow-twitch muscle cells of MDX ... Structure-function relationship in regulation of the energy transfere between mitochondria and ATPases in cardiac cell ( ...
The cell wall plays a very important role in tolerance and Cd detoxification in the mining ecotype S. alfredii. Common mining ... Yang, X., T. Li, J. Yang, Z. He, L. Lu, F. Meng (2006). Zinc compartmentation in root, transport into xylem, and absorption ... Vacuole, nonchlorophyllous mesophyll and other water storage cell types may be locations in S. alfredii which hyperaccumulate ... into leaf cells in the hyperaccumulating species of Sedum alfredii Hance. Planta, 224, 185-195. Yang, X. E., X. X. Long, H. B. ...
It has roles in progression of the cell cycle, including cell death. GSH levels regulate redox changes to nuclear proteins ... implications for the compartmentation of glutathione biosynthesis in the Brassicaceae". The Plant Journal. 41 (1): 15-30. doi: ... Manageably low levels result in the systematic breakage of the cell whereas excessively low levels result in rapid cell death. ... Differences in GSH levels also determine the expressed mode of cell death, being either apoptosis or cell necrosis. ...
"The candidate phylum Poribacteria by single-cell genomics: new insights into phylogeny, cell-compartmentation, eukaryote-like ... Single-cell genomics analysis of poribacteria reveals a genome with a lower size bound of 1.88 megabases and 1585 protein- ... Cell compartmentalization into distinct membrane-bound organelles is a universal and defining property of eukaryotes, but had ... Siegl, A; Kamke, J; Hochmuth, T; Piel, J; Richter, M; Liang, C; Dandekar, T; Hentschel, U (January 2011). "Single-cell genomics ...
2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annu Rev Microbiol. 59: 299-328. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.59.030804 ... Human skeletal muscle cells have more than one nucleus, as do eukaryotes like fungi. Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's ... At a certain point during the cell cycle in open mitosis, the cell divides to form two cells. In order for this process to be ... having already described cells multiplying by division and believing that many cells would have no nuclei. The idea that cells ...
Fuerst J (2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annu Rev Microbiol. 59: 299-328. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro ... while having no effects on human cells which have no cell wall only a cell membrane. There are two main types of bacterial cell ... The cell envelope is composed of the plasma membrane and cell wall. As in other organisms, the bacterial cell wall provides ... that provides buoyancy to these cells by decreasing their overall cell density. Positive buoyancy is needed to keep the cells ...
While most cell biologists consider the term organelle to be synonymous with "cell compartment", other cell biologists choose ... Fuerst, J.A. (October 13, 2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 59: 299-328. doi: ... Not all eukaryotic cells have each of the organelles listed below. Exceptional organisms have cells that do not include some ... In cell biology, an organelle (/ɔːrɡəˈnɛl/) is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function. Individual ...
In tissues and cells that consume ATP rapidly, especially skeletal muscle, but also brain, photoreceptor cells of the retina, ... "Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating ... In the cells, the "cytosolic" CK enzymes consist of two subunits, which can be either B (brain type) or M (muscle type). There ... The bound cytosolic CK accepts the PCr shuttled through the cell and uses ADP to regenerate ATP, which can then be used as ...
... and Cell/Stem Cell Therapy. Regenerative Medicine, Artificial Cells and Nanomedicine. 1. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific. ISBN ... The naturally arising, three-dimensional compartmentation observed within fossilized seepage-site metal sulphide precipitates ... The data suggest that viruses originated from ancient cells that co-existed with the ancestors of modern cells. These ancient ... Only when true cells had evolved would they gradually adapt to saltier environments and enter the ocean. Colín-García et al. ( ...
... micro-compartmentation and metabolite channeling by multi-enzyme complexes. The mechanisms of the cell enhancing and neuro- ... Hans M. Eppenberger at the Institute of Cell Biology ETH Zurich with distinction and was awarded the ETH prize and medal. From ... Wallimann was Head and Deputy Head of the Institute of Cell Biology, respectively. In 2005, Prof. Wallimann was awarded the ... Wallimann is a member of USGEB, FEBS, American Association for Cell Biology und Biophysical Society (USA). 1975 Prize and Medal ...
Fuerst JA (2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annual Review of Microbiology. 59: 299-328. doi:10.1146/ ... Anucleated cells. Human red blood cells, like those of other mammals, lack nuclei. This occurs as a normal part of the cells' ... At a certain point during the cell cycle in open mitosis, the cell divides to form two cells. In order for this process to be ... Other multinucleate cells in the human are osteoclasts a type of bone cell. Multinucleated and binucleated cells can also be ...
A cell wall that contains chitin. *Less compartmentation between cells; the hyphae of higher fungi have porous partitions ... Cell wallEdit. Main article: Cell wall. The cells of plants and algae, fungi and most chromalveolates have a cell wall, a layer ... Plant cellEdit. Main article: Plant cell. Plant cells are quite different from the cells of the other eukaryotic organisms. ... The plasmodesmata, pores in the cell wall that link adjacent cells and allow plant cells to communicate with adjacent cells.[31 ...
Prokaryotic cells are usually much smaller than eukaryotic cells. Therefore, prokaryotes have a larger surface-area-to-volume ... Fuerst J (2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annu Rev Microbiol. 59: 299-328. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro ... Molecular and cell biology portal Biology portal Bacterial cell structure Evolution of sexual reproduction List of sequenced ... The distinction is that eukaryotic cells have a "true" nucleus containing their DNA, whereas prokaryotic cells do not have a ...
Upon low frequency stimulation of knockout cells, these molecules are likely to diffuse out of the cell before a concentration ... Developmentally regulated changes in cellular compartmentation and synaptic distribution of actin in hippocampal neurons. J. ... Cell 107:605-16 Fischer M, Kaech S, Knutti D, Matus A. 1998. Rapid actin-based plasticity in dendritic spines. Neuron 20:847-54 ... In the LTD environment, spine volume is decreased, cell communication is decreased, and there is a far greater ratio of G-actin ...
Clapham DE (2007). "Calcium signaling". Cell. 131 (6): 1047-58. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.11.028. PMID 18083096. Niki I, Yokokura ... Compartmentation and communication in living systems. Ligand conduction: a general catalytic principle in chemical, osmotic and ... The energy used by human cells requires the hydrolysis of 100 to 150 moles of ATP daily, which is around 50 to 75 kg. In ... This reduced cofactor is then a substrate for any of the reductases in the cell that require electrons to reduce their ...
Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell ... Compartmentation and communication in living systems. Ligand conduction: a general catalytic principle in chemical, osmotic and ... Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then activates a cascade of protein kinases that cause the cells to take ... Extrinsic control involves a cell in a multicellular organism changing its metabolism in response to signals from other cells. ...
... solution in the photosynthesis cells. The sucrose is actively transported to the companion cells of the smallest veins in the ... Recent Advances Phloem Transport and Assimilate Compartmentation. Ho, Y.K. (Manhattan, 2004.)Advanced Level Biology for Hong ... Cells in a sugar source "load" a sieve-tube element by actively transporting solute molecules into it. This causes water to ... In sugar sinks, cells actively transport solutes out of the sieve-tube elements, producing the exactly opposite effect. The ...
"Nutrient-Sensitive Mitochondrial NAD+ Levels Dictate Cell Survival". Cell. 130 (6): 1095-107. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.07.035. ... Koch-Nolte F, Fischer S, Haag F, Ziegler M (2011). "Compartmentation of NAD+-dependent signalling". FEBS Lett. 585 (11): 1651-6 ... The actual concentration of NAD+ in cell cytosol is harder to measure, with recent estimates in animal cells ranging around 0.3 ... In recent years, NAD+ has also been recognized as an extracellular signaling molecule involved in cell-to-cell communication. ...
Wallimann T, Hemmer W (1994). "Creatine kinase in non-muscle tissues and cells". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 133-134 ( ... "Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating ...
Clapham DE (2007). "Calcium signaling". Cell. 131 (6): 1047-58. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.11.028. PMID 18083096.. ... Compartmentation and communication in living systems. Ligand conduction: a general catalytic principle in chemical, osmotic and ... Sauke DJ, Metzler DE, Metzler CM (2001). Biochemistry: the chemical reactions of living cells (2nd ed.). San Diego: Harcourt/ ... Mendel RR, Bittner F (2006). "Cell biology of molybdenum". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1763 (7): 621-35. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr. ...
Transport and compartmentation of phosphite in higher plant cells - kinetic and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance studies. ... Transport and compartmentation of phosphite in higher plant cells - kinetic and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Plant, ... Lai F., Thacker J., Li Y.Y. & Doerner P. (2007) Cell division activity determines the magnitude of phosphate starvation ... Roby C., Martin J.B., Bligny R. & Douce R. (1987) Biochemical changes during sucrose deprivation in higher plant cells: ...
Cell Compartmentation*. Cells, Cultured. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Kinetics. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. ... Title: Plant, cell & environment Volume: 31 ISSN: 1365-3040 ISO Abbreviation: Plant Cell Environ. Publication Date: 2008 Oct ... 8877096 - Cell-substratum interactions mediate oncogene-induced phenotype of lung cancer cells.. ... 8928746 - Characterization of cell volume loss in cem-c7a cells during dexamethasone-induced apop.... 3604176 - The effects of ...
Zinc binding inside leaf cell organelles, Environmental Pollution" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly ... "Compartmentation of metals in foliage of Populus tremula grown on soils with mixed contamination. II. ... Zinc binding inside leaf cell organelles. Compartmentation of metals in foliage of Populus tremula grown on soils with mixed ... Compartmentation of metals in foliage of Populus tremulagrown on soils with mixed contamination. I. From the tree crown to leaf ...
Hsp25-immunopositive Purkinje cells are first seen at birth, when four clusters are visible in the vermis of lobules IV/V, and ... By postnatal day 2/3, six narrow parasagittal stripes of Hsp25-immunopositive Purkinje cells are seen in the vermis of the ... In the posterior lobules, most Purkinje cells in the vermis of lobules VIII and IX express Hsp25. This initial limited ... Furthermore, visual deprivation had no effect on the development of Hsp25 expression in Purkinje cells, suggesting that ...
Intracellular and cell-to-apoplast compartmentation of carbohydrate metabolism. Author:. Fettke, Joerg, Fernie, Alisdair R.. ...
DESCRIBE THE STRUCTURAL COMPARTMENTATION OF MAMMALIAN CELLS AND THE DIFFERING FUNCTIONS OF THESE COMPARTMENTS All mammalian ... Stem Cell Term Paper 1867 words , 8 pages English Section 1 Stem Cell Research Term Paper Stem Cells are undifferentiated cells ... Cells are the smallest units of life • All cells come from preexisting cells • TOK: cell theory replaces the former ideas of ... Education Index Describe the structural compartmentation of mammalian cells Describe the structural compartmentation of ...
... cells and tissue facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that ... T: Explain cell volume - O: Doesnt explain what happens to cell. Tonicity: Cell swells, what happens to solution?. Solution is ... Tonicity: Cell shrinks, what happens to solution?. Solution is hypertonic. What crosses cell membranes, depend on? (2). Cell ... versions of PHYSIOLOGY - Compartmentation; cells and tissue: main , yours , all. Please enable JavaScript in your browser ...
Compartmentation of nitrate in barley root cells growing at different nitrogen levels. Abstracts AFRC Meeting on Plant and Soil ... Compartmentation of nitrate in root cells. Abstracts Society for Experimental Biology Plant Transport Group Discussion Meeting ... Compartmentation of nitrate in barley root cells. Abstracts 3rd International Symposium on Inorganic Nitrogen Assimilation, ... Nutrient compartmentation in cells and its relevance to the nutrition of the whole plant. in: Lawlor, D. W. and Porter, J. R. ( ...
The compartmentation of the model is more extensive than that of the AraGEM model (de Oliveira DalMolin et al., 2010) but less ... In plant cells, the NAD(H) pool is more oxidized than the NADP(H) pool in both the light and the dark (Heineke et al., 1991; ... Penning de Vries, F.W.T. (1975) The cost of maintenance processes in plant cells. Ann. Bot., 39, 77-92.. *CAS ... Rontein, D., Dieuaide-Noubhani, M., Dufourc, E.J., Raymond, P. and Rolin, D. (2002) The metabolic architecture of plant cells. ...
... subcellular compartmentation; technical advance; temperature stress; transport ... This leads to a method for predicting cell maintenance costs on the basis of the measured flux ratio between the oxidative ... Arabidopsis thaliana; cell maintenance; flux balance analysis; genome-scale metabolic model; hyper-osmotic stress; metabolic ... A method for accounting for maintenance costs in flux balance analysis improves the prediction of plant cell metabolic ...
CNS Nervous System PET brain cell enzyme genes neurochemistry neuroscience positron emission tomography (PET) protein ...
These cells showed halophytic growth responses comparable to those of the whole plant. In total, 97 up-regulated proteins and ... These cells showed halophytic growth responses comparable to those of the whole plant. In total, 97 up-regulated proteins and ... cell growth, and cytoskeleton metabolism. Effective regulatory protein expression related to energy, stress defense, and ... cell growth, and cytoskeleton metabolism. Effective regulatory protein expression related to energy, stress defense, and ...
Chloroplast Lipid cell cell wall chemistry endoplasmic reticulum enzyme growth membrane metabolism mitochondria plant plasma ... Protoplasts - for Compartmentation Studies S. S. Thayer. Pages 54-65 * The Marker Concept in Cell Fractionation ...
Posterior hindgut.Microbial cell counts decrease by 2 orders of magnitude and cell density drops 50-fold between the P3 and P4 ... Microbial cell counts.Twenty gut sections each of N. corniger were homogenized in 0.5 ml phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (49) ... The area of the circles reflects the microbial cell counts in the respective gut sections (Table 1). For definitions of the ... The microbiota of the crop consisted mostly of cocci, whereas the midgut microbiota was dominated by short rods; cells with a ...
... partly because of a lack of tools with which to investigate these processes in living cells. We have previously reported the ... as a genetic tool for manipulation of the NAD+/NADH ratio in human cells. Here, we present triphosphopyridine nucleotide ... Sies, H. Metabolic compartmentation (Academic Press, 1982).. *. 4. Klingenberg, M. & Buecher, T. Biological oxidations. Annu. ... Tracing compartmentalized NADPH metabolism in the cytosol and mitochondria of mammalian cells. Mol. Cell 55, 253-263 (2014). ...
Compartmentation of cholesterol within the cell.. Liscum L, Faust JR.. Curr Opin Lipidol. 1994 Jun;5(3):221-6. Review. ... Analysis of a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant with defective mobilization of cholesterol from the plasma membrane to the ... Characterization of Chinese hamster ovary cells that are resistant to 3-beta-[2-(diethylamino)ethoxy]androst-5-en-17-one ... Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2019 Dec;1866(12):118552. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2019.118552. Epub 2019 Sep 2. ...
I. Development and compartmentation of cerebellar cortex.. *Functional cloning of candidate genes that regulate purkinje cell- ... Unipolar brush cells in cerebellar cortex. 9. The unipolar brush cells of the mammalian cerebellum and cochlear nucleus: ... Characterization of purkinje cells in the goldfish cerebellum during eye movement and adaptive modification of the vestibulo- ... What features of visually guided arm movements are encoded in the simple spike discharge of cerebellar Purkinje cells. 27. Some ...
Cell Compartmentation. Cell Differentiation. Cell Polarity / physiology*. Disease Models, Animal. Gene Knockdown Techniques. ... Hair Cells, Auditory / metabolism, ultrastructure*. Immunoprecipitation. Mice. Mice, Neurologic Mutants. Mutation. Organ of ... Immature mouse cochleae and UB/OC-1 cells were used in this work to address whether specific variants of PCDH15 and VLGR1 are ... of ribbon synapses suggesting these proteins may play different roles in terminal differentiation of auditory hair cells. The ...
In vascular smooth muscle cells and HEK-293 cells, AC1 selectively slowed cell proliferation while AC2, AC5, and AC6 had little ... in HASM cells (Gros et al., 2006; Bogard et al., 2012). AC2 overexpressed in the same cells is unable to mediate the ... Recent efforts using RNA sequencing to define the full range of GPCR expressed in a given cell type reveal that most cells ... 1996) cAMP compartmentation is responsible for a local activation of cardiac Ca2+ channels by β-adrenergic agonists. Proc Natl ...
Fuerst JA (2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annual Review of Microbiology. 59: 299-328. doi:10.1146/ ... Anucleated cells. Human red blood cells, like those of other mammals, lack nuclei. This occurs as a normal part of the cells ... At a certain point during the cell cycle in open mitosis, the cell divides to form two cells. In order for this process to be ... Other multinucleate cells in the human are osteoclasts a type of bone cell. Multinucleated and binucleated cells can also be ...
A cell wall that contains chitin. *Less compartmentation between cells; the hyphae of higher fungi have porous partitions ... Cell wallEdit. Main article: Cell wall. The cells of plants and algae, fungi and most chromalveolates have a cell wall, a layer ... Plant cellEdit. Main article: Plant cell. Plant cells are quite different from the cells of the other eukaryotic organisms. ... The plasmodesmata, pores in the cell wall that link adjacent cells and allow plant cells to communicate with adjacent cells.[31 ...
Compartmentation of photosynthesis in cells and tissues of C(4) plants.. „J Exp Bot". 356 (52), s. 577-90, 2001. PMID: 11373306 ... Intracellular localization of phosphoenolopyruvate carboxykinase in bundle sheath cells of C4 plants. Plant Cell Physiol. 25, ... Plant Cell Physiol.". 33, s. 333-342, 1992. *↑ a b c Rowan F. Sage. The evolution of C4photosynthesis. „New Phytologist". 161 ( ... Plant Cell Physiol. 48, 325-330.. *↑ Martin F., Winspear M.J., MacFarlane J.D. Oaks A. 1983. Effect of methionine sulfoximine ...
Fettke, J. and Fernie A. R. (2015). Intracellular and cell-to-apoplast compartmentation of carbohydrate metabolism. Trends in ... Cell. Mol. Biol. OL883-OL904. 2002-2006 Fettke, J., Chia, T., Eckermann, N., Smith, A. M., and Steup, M. (2006). A ... Plant Cell Physiol. 46: 1987-2004. Fettke J., Eckermann, N., Poeste, S., Pauly, M., and Steup, M. (2004). The glycan substrate ... Fettke, J., Fernie, A.R., and Steup, M. (2012). Transitory starch and its degradation in higher plant cells. In Essential ...
Sub-compartmentation allows control and separation of SC components. If A, B, C are three multimolecular systems each ... Stano, P. Synthetic biology of minimal living cells: Primitive cell models and semi-synthetic cells. Syst. Synth. Biol. 2010, 4 ... "build-a-cell" open science initiative, the Japanese Society for Cell Synthesis Research, the Building a Synthetic Cell An ... Cell-free systems are also known since decades, but the advent of cell-free synthetic biology decisively boosted its further ...
c) Compartmentation of cell membrane- the Tonoplast. *Contrary to our belief that salt ions immediately interferes with ... High solute concentration of the cells raises the osmotic potential of the cell. in this way water is drawn inside the cell ... As the solute potential of the cells is increased water is drawn from steep gradient from an anaerobic condition of the ... Succulence is a feature of many Halophytes characterized by increased in length of palisade cells and increase in the diameter ...
  • The term eukaryotic refers to the cell having specific membrane bound organelles, which are not present in prokaryotic cells. (educationindex.com)
  • The defining feature of a eukaryotic cell is usually its membrane bound nucleus (the exception being the red blood cell) . (educationindex.com)
  • Cell membrane model is known as? (memorize.com)
  • The cell envelope is composed of the plasma membrane and cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterial cell wall differs from that of all other organisms by the presence of peptidoglycan which is located immediately outside of the cytoplasmic membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the cell wall is required for bacterial survival, but is absent in some eukaryotes, several antibiotics (notably the penicillins and cephalosporins) stop bacterial infections by interfering with cell wall synthesis, while having no effects on human cells which have no cell wall only a cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • from Latin nucleus or nuculeus , meaning kernel or seed ) is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope , a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm , and the nuclear matrix (which includes the nuclear lamina ), a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton , which supports the cell as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus , and in addition, some cells of plants and algae contain chloroplasts . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, experimental results available to date on RBC membrane fluctuations have provided only limited information on select regions of the cell membrane with limited spatial and/or temporal resolution ( 7 ⇓ - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells differ fundamentally from their prokaryotic counter-parts by their possession of internal, membrane-bound, compartments. (biologists.org)
  • These functions are only possible in eukaryotic cells because of the presence of the membrane-trafficking system. (biologists.org)
  • In the past 15 years, studies of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) and metazoan cells have revealed a common core of protein factors involved in transport carrier formation, compartment specificity and membrane fusion ( Bonifacino and Glick, 2004 ). (biologists.org)
  • The main structural elements of the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and keeps its contents separated from the cellular cytoplasm , and the nuclear lamina, a meshwork within the nucleus that adds mechanical support much like the cytoskeleton supports the cell as a whole. (bionity.com)
  • The same set of stimuli also induced relocation of endogenous PKCθ and IKKs to a GM1 ganglioside-enriched, detergent-insoluble membrane compartment in primary T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Confocal microscopy further demonstrated that exogenously expressed PKCθ and IKKβ colocalize in the membrane of CD3/CD28-costimulated Jurkat T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Taken together, these data show that the activation of PKCθ by the TCR and CD28 plays an important role in the assembly and activation of IKK complexes in the T cell membrane. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this context, ganglioside and cholesterol enriched membrane microdomains (rafts, GEMs) serve as centers of signaling in T cells. (rupress.org)
  • Although CD28 can promote TcR/raft colocalization, evidence is lacking on whether the surface expression of membrane rafts can be targeted by CTLA-4 in its modulation of T cell responses. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that both CD28 and CTLA-4 profoundly alter the surface expression of membrane rafts during T cell activation. (rupress.org)
  • Consistent with this, CD28 increased the presence of the linker of activated T cells (LAT) in purified membrane rafts, while CTLA-4 coligation effectively blocked this increase. (rupress.org)
  • from Latin [ nucleus ] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup ( help ) or [ nuculeus ] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup ( help ) , "little nut" or kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • However, another study on the distribution of ARF6 in subcellular fractions of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells suggested that ARF6 did not localize to endosomes labeled after 10 min of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) uptake, but instead was uniquely localized to the plasma membrane, and that its reported endosomal localization may have been a result of overexpression. (nih.gov)
  • HRP labeling in cells expressing ARF6(Q67L), a GTP-bound mutant of ARF6, was restricted to small peripheral vesicles, whereas the mutant protein was enriched on plasma membrane invaginations. (nih.gov)
  • Significantly, the mitochondrial membrane potential of α and β RNAi cells was decreased compared to wild-type cells, as detected by MitoTracker Red CMXRos fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. (asm.org)
  • The first rate-limiting step is the stimulus-induced mobilization of AA from cell membrane phosphoglycerides by the enzymes phospholipase (PL) A 2 (acting on phosphatidylcholine) and diacylglycerol (DAG) lipase (acting on phosphatidylinositol). (physiology.org)
  • In addition, a variably reduced cell membrane association of those differentiation-specific Cldns was observed, especially within the infiltrating epidermal structures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, Cldn1 (which is normally expressed in all the living layers of the epidermis) remained restricted to the cell membrane throughout the tumorigenesis protocol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Integrin-associated protein (CD47) is a multiply membrane spanning member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that regulates some adhesion-dependent cell functions through formation of a complex with αvβ3 integrin and trimeric G proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Real-time investigation of the membrane structure and function of living cells is of utmost importance, however techniques are limited. (springer.com)
  • Caveolae are omega-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane that, compared with the rest of the outer cell membrane, have a larger amount of cholesterol and glycoprotein and greater concentrations of lipid-modified signaling molecules. (ahajournals.org)
  • In yeast cells, the secondary active transport of inorganic ions and diverse nutrients relies on the existence of an electrochemical gradient of protons across the plasma membrane, which is generated by P 2 -type, energy-consuming H + -ATPases. (asm.org)
  • In the testis, spermatogenesis starts near the basal membrane of the seminiferous tubule (SFT), where spermatogonia either replicate to give rise to more undifferentiated germ cells or start the differentiation process and gradually move toward the lumen of the SFT. (physiology.org)
  • Further protection and separation of the developing male germ cells from the periphery takes place at the basal membrane of the SFT by peritubular myoid cells (PTM) and due to the fact that most capillaries in the testis are not fenestrated ( 10 , 36 , 41 ). (physiology.org)
  • model of testis showing the anatomy of interstitial tissue and SFT, where male germ cell development proceeds from the SFT basal membrane (BM) to the SFT lumen (Lu). (physiology.org)
  • By fluorescence and live-cell imaging we show that GFP-tagged PEF1 accumulates at the sites of membrane injury in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. (genetics.org)
  • For this procedure, the cells are first swollen in a buffered hypo‐osmotic medium containing potassium chloride, magnesium acetate and dithiothreitol to render the plasma membrane more susceptible to subsequent homogenization. (els.net)
  • In cell biology , an organelle is a discrete structure of a cell having specialized functions, and is separately enclosed in its own lipid membrane. (wikidoc.org)
  • Eukaryotes are the most structurally complex known cell type, and by definition are in part organized by smaller interior compartments, that are themselves enclosed by lipid membranes that resemble the outermost cell membrane . (wikidoc.org)
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells with any of the gag mutations displayed aberrant mitochondrial morphology characterized by elongated, unbranched tubes and highly fenestrated structures. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, each of the gag mutations prevented mitochondrial fragmentation caused by loss of the mitochondrial fusion factor, Fzo1p, or by treatment of cells with sodium azide. (nih.gov)
  • Mitochondrial compartmentation and channeling etc... could be selected by the organizer after propositions. (bio.net)
  • Arginase I (a cytosolic enzyme) is highly expressed in the liver and to a much lesser extent in a few other cell types, whereas expression of arginase II (a mitochondrial enzyme) is widespread ( 20 , 25 ). (physiology.org)
  • 16. Reciprocal trophic interactions between climbing fibres and purkinje cells in the rat cerebellum. (elsevier.com)
  • Collectively, these findings establish the existence of a differential vesicular trafficking mechanism for specific Usher protein variants in mouse cochlear hair cells, with the apical variants playing a potential role in endosomal recycling and stereocilia development/maintenance, and the basolateral variants involved in vesicle docking and/or fusion through SNAP25-mediated interactions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Binding and cooperative interactions between two B cell-specific transcriptional coactivators. (rupress.org)
  • Rap1 plays a dominant role in the control of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions by regulating the function of integrins and other adhesion molecules in various cell types. (genome.jp)
  • Part I of this two-part article, described a mechanical model of cell structure based on tensegrity architecture that explains how the mechanical behavior of the cell emerges from physical interactions among the different molecular filament systems that form the cytoskeleton. (biologists.org)
  • The challenge is to understand how complex cell and tissue behaviors emerge from collective interactions among multiple molecular components at the genomic and proteomic levels and to describe molecular processes as integrated, hierarchical systems rather than isolated parts. (biologists.org)
  • Despite detailed knowledge of specific enzymes and pathways that utilize these coenzymes, a holistic understanding of the regulation and compartmentalization of NADH- and NADPH-dependent pathways is lacking, partly because of a lack of tools with which to investigate these processes in living cells. (nature.com)
  • The morphogen-gradient-dependent and cell-autonomous mechanisms of nitrate signaling and regulation are an integral part of cell growth and cell identification. (frontiersin.org)
  • Regulation at all levels is considered, from initial perception of the growth signal, through transduction responses and DNA replication, to the 'ultimate' level of cell expansion. (indigo.ca)
  • These insights teach us that, if we truly want to explain biological regulation and to confront the complexity problem, we must consider how molecular signaling pathways function in the physical context of living cells and tissues. (biologists.org)
  • It was shown later that implementation of immune response in germinal centers involves (besides T-helpers, follicular T-helpers) T-regulatory cells that could produce a positive effect in FL owing to specific features of the regulation or B-cell response. (scirp.org)
  • The function of caveolae has been considered to be transport of cholesterol, tumor suppression, compartmentation of signaling molecules, regulation of signaling, apoptosis, and transport of extracellular molecules. (ahajournals.org)
  • Bacteria, despite their simplicity, contain a well-developed cell structure which is responsible for some of their unique biological structures and pathogenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting SCs will function by enzyme catalysis and/or by gene expression, closely mimicking biological cells with respect to structure and function. (mdpi.com)
  • Current SCs have a cell-like structure and perform some life-like operations, but they still resemble biological cells only superficially. (mdpi.com)
  • A demand for non-optical high resolution imaging of live samples promoted rapid development of SICM [2-and its successful application to imaging topography of live biological cells where existing microdomains can be imaged. (springer.com)
  • A particular advantage of SICM technique for imaging biological cells is that it requires no physical contact with the sample and operates at nanoscale resolution. (springer.com)
  • The highly successful work of the CRC 593 groups has improved the mechanistic understanding of many biochemical and cell biological pathways. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The biological research was conducted with a wide spectrum of model organisms such as yeast, filamentous fungi, various pathogens, cell culture systems and transgenic animals using state-of-the-art instrumentation including three core facilities in Proteomics, Protein Spectroscopy, and Bioimaging. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The small heat shock protein Hsp25 is constitutively expressed in the adult mouse cerebellum by parasagittal stripes of Purkinje cells confined to the caudal central zone ( approximately lobules VI and VII), the nodular zone ( approximately ventral lobule IX and lobule X), and the paraflocculi/flocculi. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 9. The unipolar brush cells of the mammalian cerebellum and cochlear nucleus: cytology and microcircuitry. (elsevier.com)
  • 22. Characterization of purkinje cells in the goldfish cerebellum during eye movement and adaptive modification of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. (elsevier.com)
  • 2. Zebrins: Molecular Markers of Compartmentation in the Cerebellum. (indigo.ca)
  • It is known that afferent projections and Purkinje cell (PC) response properties are organized into sagittal "zones" in the cerebellum. (jneurosci.org)
  • The structures called "synthetic cells", or "artificial cells", or "protocells" (sometimes with different nuances in meaning) are chemical or biochemical systems based on micro-compartments that enclose a set of reacting molecules, mimicking the cell structure and behavior. (mdpi.com)
  • These rafts also include signaling molecules belonging to the src-family, LAT (linker for activation of T cells) and Ras ( 1 , 4 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • At the same time, the introduction of new techniques for manipulating and probing individual molecules and cells has revealed the importance of the physical nature of the biochemical world. (biologists.org)
  • Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells , have no nuclei , and a few others including osteoclasts have many . (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression -the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • He observed a "lumen", the nucleus, in the red blood cells of salmon . (wikipedia.org)
  • Brown was studying orchids under the microscope when he observed an opaque area, which he called the "areola" or "nucleus", in the cells of the flower's outer layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1838, Matthias Schleiden proposed that the nucleus plays a role in generating cells, thus he introduced the name "cytoblast" (cell builder). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1905 and 1910, the Russian biologist Konstantin Mereschkowski (1855-1921) argued that plastids were reduced cyanobacteria in a symbiosis with a non- photosynthetic ( heterotrophic ) host that was itself formed by symbiosis between an amoeba-like host and a bacterium-like cell that formed the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human skeletal muscle cells have more than one nucleus, as do eukaryotes like fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus is the largest cellular organelle in animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammalian cells, the average diameter of the nucleus is approximately 6 micrometres (µm), which occupies about 10% of the total cell volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression . (bionity.com)
  • Brown was studying orchids microscopically when he observed an opaque area, which he called the areola or nucleus, in the cells of the flower's outer layer. (bionity.com)
  • On the left a cell is going through mitosis and its nucleus has disintegrated in preparation of division. (wikidoc.org)
  • A drawing of a cell nucleus published by Walther Flemming in 1882. (wikidoc.org)
  • Thousands of potential combinations of these three elements are possible in any given cell type, making the characterization of cAMP signaling compartments daunting. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The course emphasizes macromolecular organization and compartmentation of cellular activities. (reed.edu)
  • The latter two cell classes have been assumed for some time to be distinct in both function and anatomy, but the cellular anatomy of the progenitor cell type has remained poorly defined. (jneurosci.org)
  • First, several CRC groups were interested in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of cellular compartmentalization processes in eukaryotic cells. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Spermatogenesis is a process that involves an array of cellular and biochemical events, collectively culminating in the formation of haploid spermatids from diploid precursor cells known as spermatogonia. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • NK cells constitute a major cellular arm of the innate immune system and, as such, have been viewed as most relevant in the setting of the initial response to an acute infection. (prolekare.cz)
  • The Cellular Systems Cluster, one of three thematic areas within the Division of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences , supports research, across all taxa, into the structure and organization of cells and the dynamics of cellular processes. (nsf.gov)
  • An exploration of our current understanding of the cytoskeleton and its role in cell migration, morphogenesis, and disease. (reed.edu)
  • Further investigation into the sequelae for PregS-stimulated trafficking of NMDARs to the neuronal cell surface may uncover a new target for the pharmacological treatment of disorders in which NMDAR hypofunction has been implicated. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Functional cloning of candidate genes that regulate purkinje cell-specific gene expression. (elsevier.com)
  • The genes within these chromosomes are structured in such a way to promote cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The response of cells to a heat shock or other stresses is the activation of a small number of genes which were previously inactive or transcribed at low levels. (nih.gov)
  • In order to identify genes which play a role in the differential development of bundle sheath and mesophyll cell chloroplasts, a screen of reticulate leaf mutants of Arabidopsis was used to identify a new class of mutants termed dov (differential development of vascular-associated cells). (biologists.org)
  • In this study, a combination of physiological characteristics and iTRAQ-based proteomic approaches was conducted to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the salt response of suspension cell cultures of halophytic Halogeton glomeratus . (frontiersin.org)
  • Bundle sheath cells form a sheath around the entire vascular tissue in Arabidopsis leaves and constitute a distinct leaf cell type, as defined by their elongate morphology, their position adjacent to the vein and by differences in their chloroplast development compared to mesophyll cells. (biologists.org)
  • The underlying bundle sheath cells always contain normal chloroplasts, whereas chloroplasts in mesophyll cells are abnormal, reduced in number per cell and seriously perturbed in morphology at the ultrastructural level. (biologists.org)
  • This demonstrates that differential chloroplast development occurs between the bundle sheath and mesophyll cells in the Arabidopsis leaf. (biologists.org)
  • 1993 ) Cell type-preferred expression of maize cab-m1: Repression in bundle sheath cells and enhancement in mesophyll cells. (biologists.org)
  • 1983 ) The paraveinal mesophyll of soybean leaves in relation to assimilate transfer and compartmentation. (biologists.org)
  • 1989 ). Cell lineage analysis of maize bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. (biologists.org)
  • This structure develops over 5-30 min as a result of active cytoskeletal processes and subdivides the T cell-APC interface into two concentric zones: the central and peripheral supramolecular activation clusters (cSMAC and pSMAC) (for review see Delon and Germain, 2000 ). (rupress.org)
  • Falaleeva N. A., Osmanov E. A., Tupitsyn N. N. Federal State Budgetary Institute N. N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Health Ministry of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia SUMMARY Follicular dendritic cells, expressing Fc ε RII or CD23 (Fc ε RIIFDCs) as a component of non-tumor environment have been studied in 232 follicular lymphoma (FL) patients. (scirp.org)
  • Mandatory criteria include confirmed mature B-cell nature of the tumor, CD20 expression, and if needing additional markers (bcl-2, bcl-6, MUM- 1), B-cell clonality and other criteria are used. (scirp.org)
  • As a whole the tumor content is polymorphous with T-cells, macrophages, follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) found within malignant germinal centers besides B-cells. (scirp.org)
  • At the beginning of the 21st century the investigators paid attention to the fact that this hemopoietic tissue tumor was in many respects regulated by cells of so called non-tumor environment, i.e. (scirp.org)
  • Infiltration of tumor tissue by immune cells was reflected by gene expression profiles in the tumor tissue. (scirp.org)
  • Two types of immune response were defined accordingly that were associated with microenvironment cells infiltrating the tumor. (scirp.org)
  • The embryonic ventricular zone (VZ) of the cerebral cortex contains migrating neurons, radial glial cells, and a large population of cycling progenitor cells that generate newborn neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Because the vast majority cycling cells in the cortical VZ have characteristics of radial glia, the radial glial precursor cell may be responsible for both the production of newborn neurons and the guidance of daughter neurons to their destinations in the developing cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • The ventricular zone (VZ) of the embryonic cerebral cortex is a pseudostratified neuroepithelium that contains the precursor cells for most excitatory neurons contributing to the adult neocortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • The number of functional cell-surface NMDARs in cortical neurons increases 60-100% within 10 minutes of exposure to PregS, as shown by surface biotinylation and affinity purification. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Unlike unicellular archaea and bacteria, eukaryotes may also be multicellular and include organisms consisting of many cell types forming different kinds of tissue . (wikipedia.org)
  • In his 1938 work Titres et Travaux Scientifiques , Chatton had proposed the two terms, calling the bacteria prokaryotes and organisms with nuclei in their cells eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Figure B. shows the cells from a side-on point of view revealing the different layers of the tissue. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • But how does a physical force applied to the ECM or cell distortion change chemical activities inside the cell and control tissue development? (biologists.org)
  • Graham, John M(Mar 2004) Homogenization of Tissue Culture Cells in Suspension. (els.net)
  • The field of the invention relates generally to osteogenic cells and the formation of bone and boney tissue in mammalian species. (google.com)
  • Based on the kinetic properties of the phosphate transport system of tobacco BY-2 cells, it was demonstrated that phosphite inhibited phosphate uptake in a competitive manner. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To directly follow the fate of phosphate and phosphite in cytoplasmic and vacuolar pools of tobacco cells, we took advantage of the pH-sensitive chemical shift of the Phi anion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Various imaging studies have established that T cells that engage antigen-presenting cells (APCs) bearing stimulatory MHC-peptide complexes undergo macromolecular rearrangements that result in the formation of an immune synapse. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we will refer to all these cell-like systems shortly as synthetic cells (SCs), but most of the discussion will be focused on SCs built from biomolecules as DNA, RNA, ribosomes, enzymes, etc. encapsulated within liposomes. (mdpi.com)
  • Organisation of enzymes in the cell. (amrita.edu)
  • Because of the simplicity of bacteria relative to larger organisms and the ease with which they can be manipulated experimentally, the cell structure of bacteria has been well studied, revealing many biochemical principles that have been subsequently applied to other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cell biologists consider the term organelle to be synonymous with "cell compartment", other cell biologists strictly limit the term's definition to DNA-containing, formerly autonomous organisms acquired via primary, secondary, or tertiary endosymbiosis. (wikidoc.org)
  • The initial anatomical descriptions of the cells of the VZ were published over 100 years ago by several pioneering neuroanatomists, including Kölliker, His, Golgi, Magini, and Ramon y Cajal (for review, see Bentivoglio and Mazzarello, 1999 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Both Kölliker (1896) and His (1889) showed the existence of a neuroepithelium lining the ventricular system, and Kölliker (1896) also demonstrated, using Golgi impregnations, that cells of this layer possessed long radial fibers that extended into the cortical mantle. (jneurosci.org)
  • Dunphy WG and Rothman JE (1983) Compartmentation of asparagine‐linked oligosaccharide processing in the Golgi apparatus. (els.net)
  • High-Resolution Analysis of Gut Environment and Bacterial Microbiota Reveals Functional Compartmentation of the Gut in Wood-Feeding Higher Termites (Nasutitermes spp. (asm.org)
  • This discovery raises the possibility that radial glia and the population of VZ progenitor cells may be one anatomical and functional cell class. (jneurosci.org)
  • This functional dichotomy of NK cells could be recapitulated in vitro by exposure to the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, which was induced in patients with active CHB. (prolekare.cz)
  • In conclusion, NK cells may be driven to a state of partial functional tolerance by the immunosuppressive cytokine environment in CHB. (prolekare.cz)
  • Originally, the word organelle referred to large lipid -encased formerly autonomous endosymbiont within cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Here we summarize some technical and theoretical aspects of synthetic cells based on gene expression and other enzymatic reactions inside liposomes, and comment on the most recent trends. (mdpi.com)
  • Nuclear transport is of paramount importance to cell function, as movement through the pores is required for both gene expression and chromosomal maintenance. (bionity.com)
  • Nuclear transport is crucial to cell function, as movement through the pores is required for both gene expression and chromosomal maintenance. (wikidoc.org)
  • However, NMNAT1 is dispensable for cell viability, as homozygous deletion of this gene occurs in glioblastoma tumors and cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1988 ) Cell position and light influence C4versus C3patterns of photosynthetic gene expression in maize. (biologists.org)
  • Cafeteria diet increased the expression of liver CBG gene, binding plasma capacity and the proportion of blood cell-bound corticosterone. (jove.com)
  • In 1873, August Weismann postulated the equivalence of the maternal and paternal germ cells for heredity. (wikipedia.org)
  • As germ cells differentiate from spermatogonia into elongated spermatids, they also progressively migrate across the entire length of the seminiferous epithelium until they reach the luminal edge in anticipation of spermiation at late stage VIII of spermatogenesis. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • At the same time, these germ cells must maintain stable attachment with Sertoli cells via testis-unique intermediate filament- (i.e. desmosome-like junctions) and actin- (i.e. ectoplasmic specializations, ESs) based cell junctions to prevent sloughing of immature germ cells from the seminiferous epithelium, which may result in infertility. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, the type of anchoring device that is present between Sertoli and germ cells depends on the developmental stage of the germ cell, i.e. desmosome-like junctions are present between Sertoli and germ cells up to, but not including, step 8 spermatids after which this junction type is replaced by the apical ES. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Throughout spermatogenesis, developing germ cells remain in close contact with Sertoli cells, which is essential for their development. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The high mitotic rate and avid mitochondriogenesis of developing male germ cells imply high iron requirements. (physiology.org)
  • Yet access to germ cells is tightly regulated by the blood-testis barrier that protects the meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells. (physiology.org)
  • Such an internal iron cycle essentially detaches the iron homeostasis within the seminiferous tubule from the periphery and protects developing germ cells from iron fluctuations. (physiology.org)
  • During maturation, germ cells pass through the dynamic tight junctions positioned between neighboring Sertoli cells (SC) from the apical to the luminal compartment of the SFT. (physiology.org)
  • There, meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells develop into mature spermatozoa that are finally released from the SC to the SFT lumen ( Fig. 1 A ) ( 20 , 41 ). (physiology.org)
  • 8. The method of claim 1 , wherein the osteogenic precursor cells are transfected ex vivo. (google.com)
  • 9. The method of claim 1 , wherein the osteogenic precursor cells are transfected in vivo by direct injection of the isolated nucleic acid molecule. (google.com)
  • Potassium homeostasis is crucial for living cells. (asm.org)
  • If one bathes cells in a catecholamine, such as epinephrine, β -adrenergic receptors are activated and a cAMP signal is generated in the cytosol. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cytokines provide cell signals both in the immune and CNS compartment, but interestingly, some have detrimental effects in the immune compartment while having beneficial effects in the CNS compartment. (nih.gov)
  • During spermatogenic development iron is carried along from primary spermatocytes to spermatids, and from spermatids iron is recycled to the apical compartment of Sertoli cells, which traffic it back to a new generation of spermatocytes. (physiology.org)
  • Since blood hormones are also bound to blood cells, and the size of this compartment is considerable for androgens and estrogens, we analyzed whether sex or eating a cafeteria diet altered the compartmentation of corticosterone in rat blood. (jove.com)
  • We show that accounting for transport and maintenance costs substantially improves the accuracy of fluxes predicted from a flux balance model of heterotrophic Arabidopsis cells in culture, irrespective of the objective function used in the analysis. (wiley.com)
  • An in-depth study of the structure-function relationships within eukaryotic cells. (reed.edu)
  • High-resolution scanning patch-clamp: new insights into cell function. (springer.com)
  • This is important because spermatozoa and their cell-surface antigens appear long after 'self' tolerance is established, and a compromise in BTB function would result in the host producing antibodies against its own sperm. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We characterised NK cell subsets and effector function in 64 patients with CHB compared to 31 healthy controls. (prolekare.cz)
  • We found that, in contrast to their upregulated TRAIL expression and maintenance of cytolytic function, NK cells had a markedly impaired capacity to produce IFN-γ in CHB. (prolekare.cz)
  • Thus, a trk1 mutant (but not trk2 cells) is deficient for high-affinity potassium uptake and cannot grow when the external potassium concentration is limiting (1 to 2 mM). (asm.org)
  • Given the comprehensive nitrate transport, sensing, signaling and regulations at the level of the cell and organism, nitrate itself is a local and long-distance signal molecule, conveying N status at the whole-plant level. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have identified a new mechanism to import glucose into pancreatic and prostate cancer cells, namely active glucose transport mediated by sodium-dependent glucose transporters (SGLTs). (pnas.org)
  • Cerebellar zonal patterning relies on Purkinje cell neurotransmission. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 21. Behavioural analysis of purkinje cell output from the horizontal zone of the cat flocculus. (elsevier.com)
  • 26. What features of visually guided arm movements are encoded in the simple spike discharge of cerebellar Purkinje cells. (elsevier.com)
  • 8. The Electrophysiology of the Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Revisited. (indigo.ca)
  • 9. Voltage- and Transmitter-Gated Channels in Purkinje Cells from Organotypic Cerebellar Cultures. (indigo.ca)
  • CTLA-4 engagement inhibits IL-2 accumulation and cell cycle progression upon activation of resting T cells. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, when the new method was applied to cells under control, elevated temperature and hyper-osmotic conditions, only elevated temperature led to a substantial increase in cell maintenance costs. (wiley.com)