Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Computers, Analog: Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gene Rearrangement, delta-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the delta-chain of antigen receptors.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Digitonin: A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 2: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC, members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone: Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Glycerol Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.MalatesMagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC, some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.Body Fluid Compartments: The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.GlucosephosphatesAminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Caveolae: Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.CitratesAdenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC Space: The area within CELLS.PyruvatesCell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Neurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Duplicate PublicationArabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Adenine NucleotidesGlycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Chorioamnionitis: INFLAMMATION of the placental membranes (CHORION; AMNION) and connected tissues such as fetal BLOOD VESSELS and UMBILICAL CORD. It is often associated with intrauterine ascending infections during PREGNANCY.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (1/4939)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (2/4939)

Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners.  (+info)

Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins. (3/4939)

Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Plasma membrane recruitment of RalGDS is critical for Ras-dependent Ral activation. (4/4939)

In COS cells, Ral GDP dissociation stimulator (RalGDS)-induced Ral activation was stimulated by RasG12V or a Rap1/Ras chimera in which the N-terminal region of Rap1 was ligated to the C-terminal region of Ras but not by Rap1G12V or a Ras/Rap1 chimera in which the N-terminal region of Ras was ligated to the C-terminal region of Rap1, although RalGDS interacted with these small GTP-binding proteins. When RasG12V, Ral and the Rap1/Ras chimera were individually expressed in NIH3T3 cells, they localized to the plasma membrane. Rap1Q63E and the Ras/Rap1 chimera were detected in the perinuclear region. When RalGDS was expressed alone, it was abundant in the cytoplasm. When coexpressed with RasG12V or the Rap1/Ras chimera, RalGDS was detected at the plasma membrane, whereas when coexpressed with Rap1Q63E or the Ras/Rap1 chimera, RalGDS was observed in the perinuclear region. RalGDS which was targeted to the plasma membrane by the addition of Ras farnesylation site (RalGDS-CAAX) activated Ral in the absence of RasG12V. Although RalGDS did not stimulate the dissociation of GDP from Ral in the absence of the GTP-bound form of Ras in a reconstitution assay using the liposomes, RalGDS-CAAX could stimulate it without Ras. RasG12V activated Raf-1 when they were coexpressed in Sf9 cells, whereas RasG12V did not affect the RalGDS activity. These results indicate that Ras recruits RalGDS to the plasma membrane and that the translocated RalGDS induces the activation of Ral, but that Rap1 does not activate Ral due to distinct subcellular localization.  (+info)

ETO-2, a new member of the ETO-family of nuclear proteins. (5/4939)

The t(8;21) is associated with 12-15% of acute myelogenous leukemias of the M2 subtype. The translocation results in the fusion of two genes, AML1 (CBFA2) on chromosome 21 and ETO (MTG8) on chromosome 8. AML1 encodes a DNA binding factor; the ETO protein product is less well characterized, but is thought to be a transcription factor. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of ETO-2, a murine cDNA that encodes a new member of the ETO family of proteins. ETO-2 is 75% identical to murine ETO and shares very high sequence identities over four regions of the protein with ETO (domain I-III and zinc-finger). Northern analysis identifies ETO-2 transcripts in many of the murine tissues analysed and in the developing mouse embryo. ETO-2 is also expressed in myeloid and erythroid cell lines. We confirmed the nuclear localization of ETO-2 and demonstrated that domain III and the zinc-finger region are not required for nuclear localization. We further showed that a region within ETO, containing domain II, mediates dimerization among family members. This region is conserved in the oncoprotein AML-1/ETO. The recent identification of another ETO-like protein, myeloid translocation gene-related protein 1, together with the data presented here, demonstrates that at least three ETO proteins exist with the potential to form dimers in the cell nucleus.  (+info)

The amyloid precursor protein interacts with Go heterotrimeric protein within a cell compartment specialized in signal transduction. (6/4939)

The function of the beta-amyloid protein precursor (betaAPP), a transmembrane molecule involved in Alzheimer pathologies, is poorly understood. We recently reported the presence of a fraction of betaAPP in cholesterol and sphingoglycolipid-enriched microdomains (CSEM), a caveolae-like compartment specialized in signal transduction. To investigate whether betaAPP actually interferes with cell signaling, we reexamined the interaction between betaAPP and Go GTPase. In strong contrast with results obtained with reconstituted phospholipid vesicles (Okamoto et al., 1995), we find that incubating total neuronal membranes with 22C11, an antibody that recognizes an N-terminal betaAPP epitope, reduces high-affinity Go GTPase activity. This inhibition is specific of Galphao and is reproduced, in the absence of 22C11, by the addition of the betaAPP C-terminal domain but not by two distinct mutated betaAPP C-terminal domains that do not bind Galphao. This inhibition of Galphao GTPase activity by either 22C11 or wild-type betaAPP cytoplasmic domain suggests that intracellular interactions between betaAPP and Galphao could be regulated by extracellular signals. To verify whether this interaction is preserved in CSEM, we first used biochemical, immunocytochemical, and ultrastructural techniques to unambiguously confirm the colocalization of Galphao and betaAPP in CSEM. We show that inhibition of basal Galphao GTPase activity also occurs within CSEM and correlates with the coimmunoprecipitation of Galphao and betaAPP. The regulation of Galphao GTPase activity by betaAPP in a compartment specialized in signaling may have important consequences for our understanding of the physiopathological functions of betaAPP.  (+info)

NKp44, a triggering receptor involved in tumor cell lysis by activated human natural killer cells, is a novel member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (7/4939)

Surface receptors involved in natural killer (NK) cell triggering during the process of tumor cell lysis have recently been identified. Of these receptors, NKp44 is selectively expressed by IL-2- activated NK cells and may contribute to the increased efficiency of activated NK cells to mediate tumor cell lysis. Here we describe the molecular cloning of NKp44. Analysis of the cloned cDNA indicated that NKp44 is a novel transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the Immunoglobulin superfamily characterized by a single extracellular V-type domain. The charged amino acid lysine in the transmembrane region may be involved in the association of NKp44 with the signal transducing molecule killer activating receptor-associated polypeptide (KARAP)/DAP12. These molecules were found to be crucial for the surface expression of NKp44. In agreement with data of NKp44 surface expression, the NKp44 transcripts were strictly confined to activated NK cells and to a minor subset of TCR-gamma/delta+ T lymphocytes. Unlike genes coding for other receptors involved in NK cell triggering or inhibition, the NKp44 gene is on human chromosome 6.  (+info)

The iron transport protein NRAMP2 is an integral membrane glycoprotein that colocalizes with transferrin in recycling endosomes. (8/4939)

The natural resistance associated macrophage protein (Nramp) gene family is composed of two members in mammals, Nramp1 and Nramp2. Nramp1 is expressed primarily in macrophages and mutations at this locus cause susceptibility to infectious diseases. Nramp2 has a much broader range of tissue expression and mutations at Nramp2 result in iron deficiency, indicating a role for Nramp2 in iron metabolism. To get further insight into the function and mechanism of action of Nramp proteins, we have generated isoform specific anti-Nramp1 and anti-Nramp2 antisera. Immunoblotting experiments indicate that Nramp2 is present in a number of cell types, including hemopoietic precursors, and is coexpressed with Nramp1 in primary macrophages and macrophage cell lines. Nramp2 is expressed as a 90-100-kD integral membrane protein extensively modified by glycosylation (>40% of molecular mass). Subcellular localization studies by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy indicate distinct and nonoverlapping localization for Nramp1 and Nramp2. Nramp1 is expressed in the lysosomal compartment, whereas Nramp2 is not detectable in the lysosomes but is expressed primarily in recycling endosomes and also, to a lower extent, at the plasma membrane, colocalizing with transferrin. These findings suggest that Nramp2 plays a key role in the metabolism of transferrin-bound iron by transporting free Fe2+ across the endosomal membrane and into the cytoplasm.  (+info)

  • The crude mitochondrial fraction contained 20.1% of the total folate pool and included 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate, 10-formyltetrahydrofolate and tetrahydrofolate in proportions similar to intact cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Exposure of cells to 10 μM trimetrexate for 30 min produced ∼45% interconversion of tetrahydrofolate cofactors to dihydrofolate in the cytosolic fraction, a level much greater than that observed in whole cell extracts (25-30%), but had no effect on folate pools in the crude mitochondrial fraction. (elsevier.com)
  • Cells with any of the gag mutations displayed aberrant mitochondrial morphology characterized by elongated, unbranched tubes and highly fenestrated structures. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, each of the gag mutations prevented mitochondrial fragmentation caused by loss of the mitochondrial fusion factor, Fzo1p, or by treatment of cells with sodium azide. (nih.gov)
  • Cells lacking Fzo1p display fragmented mitochondria that readily lose mitochondrial DNA (Hermann et al. (nih.gov)
  • Mitochondrial compartmentation and channeling etc... could be selected by the organizer after propositions. (bio.net)
  • Arginase I (a cytosolic enzyme) is highly expressed in the liver and to a much lesser extent in a few other cell types, whereas expression of arginase II (a mitochondrial enzyme) is widespread ( 20 , 25 ). (physiology.org)
  • Chapter 2 IB Biology 2.1 Cell Theory 2.1.1 Outline the cell theory (2). (educationindex.com)
  • Among topics considered are structure and function of plants and animals, relations of organisms to each other and to their environment, energy relations of organisms, integrative and coordinating mechanisms of organisms, cell biology principles, genetics, molecular biology, reproduction, development and growth, and the evidence for organic evolution. (reed.edu)
  • The major challenge in biology today is biocomplexity: the need to explain how cell and tissue behaviors emerge from collective interactions within complex molecular networks. (biologists.org)
  • Brief summaries of the results of the individual groups are found in a special issue of European Journal of Cell Biology published in 2015 ( https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/european-journal-of-cell-biology/vol/94/issue/7 ). (uni-marburg.de)
  • PKGI has been detected in the perinuclear region of cells, and recent data indicate that proprotein convertases (PCs) typically resident in the Golgi apparatus (GA) can stimulate PKGI proteolysis and generate a kinase fragment that localizes to the nucleus and regulates gene expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 9. The unipolar brush cells of the mammalian cerebellum and cochlear nucleus: cytology and microcircuitry. (elsevier.com)
  • Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a few others have many. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human skeletal muscle cells have more than one nucleus, as do eukaryotes like fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression-the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • He observed a "lumen", the nucleus, in the red blood cells of salmon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brown was studying orchids under microscope when he observed an opaque area, which he called the "areola" or "nucleus", in the cells of the flower's outer layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1838, Matthias Schleiden proposed that the nucleus plays a role in generating cells, thus he introduced the name "cytoblast" (cell builder). (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus is the largest cellular organelle in animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammalian cells, the average diameter of the nucleus is approximately 6 micrometres (µm), which occupies about 10% of the total cell volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1905 and 1910, the Russian biologist Konstantin Mereschkowski (1855-1921) argued that plastids were reduced cyanobacteria in a symbiosis with a non- photosynthetic ( heterotrophic ) host that was itself formed by symbiosis between an amoeba-like host and a bacterium-like cell that formed the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression . (bionity.com)
  • Brown was studying orchids microscopically when he observed an opaque area, which he called the areola or nucleus, in the cells of the flower's outer layer. (bionity.com)
  • On the left a cell is going through mitosis and its nucleus has disintegrated in preparation of division. (wikidoc.org)
  • A drawing of a cell nucleus published by Walther Flemming in 1882. (wikidoc.org)
  • These data indicate that subcellular compartmentation accounts, in part, for the failure to oxidize tetrahydrofolate cofactors to dihydrofolate in the presence of antifolate levels that abolish dihydrofolate reductase activity. (elsevier.com)
  • The number of mitochondrion in a cell differs dependent of independent cell function, for example a goblet cell will use lots of ATP in the secretion of mucus, and will there for have a large amount of mitochondria in the cell. (educationindex.com)
  • B, Cells with the fzo1 mutation (MYY2005) or the double mutants dnm1 fzo1 (MYY2007), gag2 fzo1 (MYY2009), or gag3 fzo1 (MYY2011) were plated on glycerol-medium and cultured for 3 d at 30°C. C, Wild-type (MYY1200), dnm1/gag1 (MYY2013), gag2 (MYY2029), and gag3 (MYY2031) cells with GFP-labeled mitochondria were treated with 0.5 mM sodium azide and examined immediately (top) or after 30 min (bottom) by fluorescence microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • Mitochondria in cell death 2. (bio.net)
  • The immunosuppressant 15-deoxyspergualin [correction of 1,5-deoxyspergualin] reveals commonality between preT and preB cell differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • In particular, gradual variations in this single physical control parameter (cell shape distortion) can switch cells between distinct gene programs (e.g. growth, differentiation and apoptosis), and this process can be viewed as a biological phase transition. (biologists.org)
  • Our data indicate that along with the changes in epidermal cell morphology and differentiation that occur during tumor formation, there is a dramatic change in Cldn distribution consistent with cell polarity and barrier selectivity changes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacteria, despite their simplicity, contain a well-developed cell structure which is responsible for some of their unique biological structures and pathogenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting SCs will function by enzyme catalysis and/or by gene expression, closely mimicking biological cells with respect to structure and function. (mdpi.com)
  • Current SCs have a cell-like structure and perform some life-like operations, but they still resemble biological cells only superficially. (mdpi.com)
  • These insights teach us that, if we truly want to explain biological regulation and to confront the complexity problem, we must consider how molecular signaling pathways function in the physical context of living cells and tissues. (biologists.org)
  • A demand for non-optical high resolution imaging of live samples promoted rapid development of SICM [2-and its successful application to imaging topography of live biological cells where existing microdomains can be imaged. (springer.com)
  • A particular advantage of SICM technique for imaging biological cells is that it requires no physical contact with the sample and operates at nanoscale resolution. (springer.com)
  • The highly successful work of the CRC 593 groups has improved the mechanistic understanding of many biochemical and cell biological pathways. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The biological research was conducted with a wide spectrum of model organisms such as yeast, filamentous fungi, various pathogens, cell culture systems and transgenic animals using state-of-the-art instrumentation including three core facilities in Proteomics, Protein Spectroscopy, and Bioimaging. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Despite detailed knowledge of specific enzymes and pathways that utilize these coenzymes, a holistic understanding of the regulation and compartmentalization of NADH- and NADPH-dependent pathways is lacking, partly because of a lack of tools with which to investigate these processes in living cells. (nature.com)
  • Regulation at all levels is considered, from initial perception of the growth signal, through transduction responses and DNA replication, to the 'ultimate' level of cell expansion. (indigo.ca)
  • The morphogen-gradient-dependent and cell-autonomous mechanisms of nitrate signaling and regulation are an integral part of cell growth and cell identification. (frontiersin.org)
  • It was shown later that implementation of immune response in germinal centers involves (besides T-helpers, follicular T-helpers) T-regulatory cells that could produce a positive effect in FL owing to specific features of the regulation or B-cell response. (scirp.org)
  • The function of caveolae has been considered to be transport of cholesterol, tumor suppression, compartmentation of signaling molecules, regulation of signaling, apoptosis, and transport of extracellular molecules. (ahajournals.org)
  • Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structures called "synthetic cells", or "artificial cells", or "protocells" (sometimes with different nuances in meaning) are chemical or biochemical systems based on micro-compartments that enclose a set of reacting molecules, mimicking the cell structure and behavior. (mdpi.com)
  • Conversely, Ly49A molecules were overall more constrained and diffused more slowly on educated cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Educated natural killer (NK) cells have inhibitory receptors specific for self major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and kill cancer cells more efficiently than do NK cells that do not have such receptors (hyporesponsive NK cells). (sciencemag.org)
  • however, individual NKp46 molecules resided in these domains for shorter periods and diffused faster on the surface of educated, compared to hyporesponsive, NK cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • These rafts also include signaling molecules belonging to the src-family, LAT (linker for activation of T cells) and Ras ( 1 , 4 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • At the same time, the introduction of new techniques for manipulating and probing individual molecules and cells has revealed the importance of the physical nature of the biochemical world. (biologists.org)
  • ROS overproduction is a feature of cancer cells and plays several roles during the natural history of malignant tumor. (hindawi.com)
  • A transformed cell is identified by the loss of control of proliferation and deregulation of apoptosis producing an excess of cell number and forming a mass (tumor). (hindawi.com)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are essential for the control of infections and for tumor immunosurveillance ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Falaleeva N. A., Osmanov E. A., Tupitsyn N. N. Federal State Budgetary Institute N. N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Health Ministry of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia SUMMARY Follicular dendritic cells, expressing Fc ε RII or CD23 (Fc ε RIIFDCs) as a component of non-tumor environment have been studied in 232 follicular lymphoma (FL) patients. (scirp.org)
  • Mandatory criteria include confirmed mature B-cell nature of the tumor, CD20 expression, and if needing additional markers (bcl-2, bcl-6, MUM- 1), B-cell clonality and other criteria are used. (scirp.org)
  • As a whole the tumor content is polymorphous with T-cells, macrophages, follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) found within malignant germinal centers besides B-cells. (scirp.org)
  • At the beginning of the 21st century the investigators paid attention to the fact that this hemopoietic tissue tumor was in many respects regulated by cells of so called non-tumor environment, i.e. (scirp.org)
  • Infiltration of tumor tissue by immune cells was reflected by gene expression profiles in the tumor tissue. (scirp.org)
  • Two types of immune response were defined accordingly that were associated with microenvironment cells infiltrating the tumor. (scirp.org)
  • Zebrin II, a polypeptide antigen identified as aldolase C, is one such marker which, in several species of mammals, is restricted to a subset of Purkinje cells that are clustered together to form a symmetrical and reproducible array of zones and stripes. (nih.gov)
  • Antigen compartmentation and T helper cell tolerance induction. (rupress.org)
  • Coreceptors CD28 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 have opposing effects on TcR/CD3 activation of T cells. (rupress.org)
  • T cell activation is mediated by the antigen-receptor complex (TcRζ/CD3) and coreceptors CD28, inducible costimulator (ICOS), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 (CD152) ( 1 , 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • Various imaging studies have established that T cells that engage antigen-presenting cells (APCs) bearing stimulatory MHC-peptide complexes undergo macromolecular rearrangements that result in the formation of an immune synapse. (rupress.org)
  • abstract = "Following exposure of L1210 leukemia cells to antifolates, tetrahydrofolate-dependent purine and pyrimidine biosyntheses are blocked despite the presence of the major portion of tetrahydrofolate cofactors. (elsevier.com)
  • Expression of heat-shock protein Hsp25 in mouse Purkinje cells during development reveals novel features of cerebellar compartmentation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Golgi apparatus regulates cGMP-dependent protein kinase I compartmentation and proteolysis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (PKGI) is an important effector of cGMP signaling that regulates vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype and proliferation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A direct molecular link between nitrate signaling and cell cycle progression was revealed with TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1-20 (TCP20) - NIN-LIKE PROTEIN 6/7 (NLP6/7) regulatory nexus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Differential targeting and retention of G protein-coupled receptors in polarized epithelial cells. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, each En gene has unique as well as overlapping functions in patterning the ML molecular code and each En protein has dominant functions in different AP domains (subsets of lobules). (jneurosci.org)
  • 26. What features of visually guided arm movements are encoded in the simple spike discharge of cerebellar Purkinje cells. (elsevier.com)
  • 9. Voltage- and Transmitter-Gated Channels in Purkinje Cells from Organotypic Cerebellar Cultures. (indigo.ca)
  • Functional cloning of candidate genes that regulate purkinje cell-specific gene expression. (elsevier.com)
  • The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome and are structured in such a way to promote cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given that En2 might regulate ML molecular code patterning, and because the En transcription factors are known to have extensive functional overlap in regulating foliation, we analyzed an allelic series of viable En1/2 mutants to test whether the two genes together play a broad role in regulating ML molecular coding throughout the vermis. (jneurosci.org)
  • Histamine is synthesized from l -histidine by histidine decarboxylation in specific cell types, such as mast cells, basophils, enterochromaffin-like cells, and neurons. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The embryonic ventricular zone (VZ) of the cerebral cortex contains migrating neurons, radial glial cells, and a large population of cycling progenitor cells that generate newborn neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Because the vast majority cycling cells in the cortical VZ have characteristics of radial glia, the radial glial precursor cell may be responsible for both the production of newborn neurons and the guidance of daughter neurons to their destinations in the developing cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • The ventricular zone (VZ) of the embryonic cerebral cortex is a pseudostratified neuroepithelium that contains the precursor cells for most excitatory neurons contributing to the adult neocortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • The number of functional cell-surface NMDARs in cortical neurons increases 60-100% within 10 minutes of exposure to PregS, as shown by surface biotinylation and affinity purification. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Further investigation into the sequelae for PregS-stimulated trafficking of NMDARs to the neuronal cell surface may uncover a new target for the pharmacological treatment of disorders in which NMDAR hypofunction has been implicated. (aspetjournals.org)
  • An exploration of our current understanding of the cytoskeleton and its role in cell migration, morphogenesis, and disease. (reed.edu)
  • Therefore, we concluded that the elaboration of the major leaf alkaloids involves the participation of at least two cell types and requires the intercellular translocation of a pathway intermediate. (plantcell.org)
  • Thousands of potential combinations of these three elements are possible in any given cell type, making the characterization of cAMP signaling compartments daunting. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Molecular Markers for Ion Compartmentation in Cells of Higher Plants 1. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • In this study, a combination of physiological characteristics and iTRAQ-based proteomic approaches was conducted to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the salt response of suspension cell cultures of halophytic Halogeton glomeratus . (frontiersin.org)
  • The remarkable deformability of the human red blood cell (RBC) results from the coupled dynamic response of the phospholipid bilayer and the spectrin molecular network. (pnas.org)
  • Microalgae, including diatoms, apply physiological and molecular strategies such as phosphorus scavenging or recycling as well as adjusting cell growth in order to adapt to limiting phosphorus concentrations. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Gene expression analysis of an allelic series of En1/2 mutant mice that have an intact Purkinje cell layer revealed severe patterning defects using three known components of the ML molecular code and a new marker of Hsp25 negative stripes (Neurofilament heavy chain, Nfh). (jneurosci.org)
  • First, several CRC groups were interested in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of cellular compartmentalization processes in eukaryotic cells. (uni-marburg.de)
  • If one bathes cells in a catecholamine, such as epinephrine, β -adrenergic receptors are activated and a cAMP signal is generated in the cytosol. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Based on the kinetic properties of the phosphate transport system of tobacco BY-2 cells, it was demonstrated that phosphite inhibited phosphate uptake in a competitive manner. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To directly follow the fate of phosphate and phosphite in cytoplasmic and vacuolar pools of tobacco cells, we took advantage of the pH-sensitive chemical shift of the Phi anion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Previous studies from this laboratory demonstrated that this cannot be due to direct inhibition of thymidylate synthase by dihydrofolate polyglutamates or other endogenous folates and suggested that this phenomenon is due to compartmentation of tetrahydrofolate cofactors unavailable for interconversion and/or oxidation when dihydrofolate reductase activity is abolished by antifolates. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we will refer to all these cell-like systems shortly as synthetic cells (SCs), but most of the discussion will be focused on SCs built from biomolecules as DNA, RNA, ribosomes, enzymes, etc. encapsulated within liposomes. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we provide an overview of the role of spatially arranged enzymatic networks, catalyzed by creatine kinase, adenylate kinase, carbonic anhydrase and glycolytic enzymes, in efficient high-energy phosphoryl transfer and signal communication in the cell. (biologists.org)
  • Organisation of enzymes in the cell. (amrita.edu)
  • The initial anatomical descriptions of the cells of the VZ were published over 100 years ago by several pioneering neuroanatomists, including Kölliker, His, Golgi, Magini, and Ramon y Cajal (for review, see Bentivoglio and Mazzarello, 1999 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Both Kölliker (1896) and His (1889) showed the existence of a neuroepithelium lining the ventricular system, and Kölliker (1896) also demonstrated, using Golgi impregnations, that cells of this layer possessed long radial fibers that extended into the cortical mantle. (jneurosci.org)
  • In 1873, August Weismann postulated the equivalence of the maternal and paternal germ cells for heredity. (wikipedia.org)
  • As germ cells differentiate from spermatogonia into elongated spermatids, they also progressively migrate across the entire length of the seminiferous epithelium until they reach the luminal edge in anticipation of spermiation at late stage VIII of spermatogenesis. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • At the same time, these germ cells must maintain stable attachment with Sertoli cells via testis-unique intermediate filament- (i.e. desmosome-like junctions) and actin- (i.e. ectoplasmic specializations, ESs) based cell junctions to prevent sloughing of immature germ cells from the seminiferous epithelium, which may result in infertility. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, the type of anchoring device that is present between Sertoli and germ cells depends on the developmental stage of the germ cell, i.e. desmosome-like junctions are present between Sertoli and germ cells up to, but not including, step 8 spermatids after which this junction type is replaced by the apical ES. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Throughout spermatogenesis, developing germ cells remain in close contact with Sertoli cells, which is essential for their development. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The high mitotic rate and avid mitochondriogenesis of developing male germ cells imply high iron requirements. (physiology.org)
  • Yet access to germ cells is tightly regulated by the blood-testis barrier that protects the meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells. (physiology.org)
  • Such an internal iron cycle essentially detaches the iron homeostasis within the seminiferous tubule from the periphery and protects developing germ cells from iron fluctuations. (physiology.org)
  • During maturation, germ cells pass through the dynamic tight junctions positioned between neighboring Sertoli cells (SC) from the apical to the luminal compartment of the SFT. (physiology.org)
  • There, meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells develop into mature spermatozoa that are finally released from the SC to the SFT lumen ( Fig. 1 A ) ( 20 , 41 ). (physiology.org)
  • This leads to a method for predicting cell maintenance costs on the basis of the measured flux ratio between the oxidative steps of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis. (wiley.com)
  • The role of compartmentation in the control of glycolysis, Curr. (ximicat.com)
  • Cytotoxicity of high doses of vitamin C in cancer cells appears to be related to excessive reactive oxygen species generation and the resulting suppression of the energy production via glycolysis. (mdpi.com)
  • A hallmark of cancer cells is a strongly upregulated aerobic glycolysis, which elevates its relative importance as a source of ATP (Adenosine 5′-triphosphate). (mdpi.com)
  • Unlike mammalian red blood cells, those of other vertebrates still contain nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Franz Meyen was a strong opponent of this view, having already described cells multiplying by division and believing that many cells would have no nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central and rightmost cell are in interphase , thus their entire nuclei are labeled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Konstantin Mereschkowski proposed a symbiotic origin for cells with nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • In his 1938 work Titres et Travaux Scientifiques , Chatton had proposed the two terms, calling the bacteria prokaryotes and organisms with nuclei in their cells eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-Resolution Analysis of Gut Environment and Bacterial Microbiota Reveals Functional Compartmentation of the Gut in Wood-Feeding Higher Termites (Nasutitermes spp. (asm.org)
  • This discovery raises the possibility that radial glia and the population of VZ progenitor cells may be one anatomical and functional cell class. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, a trk1 mutant (but not trk2 cells) is deficient for high-affinity potassium uptake and cannot grow when the external potassium concentration is limiting (1 to 2 mM). (asm.org)
  • Cell Processes: Photosynthesis Part 1: Pigments in Plant Leaves Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to visualize the pigments present in plant leaves by using paper chromatography. (educationindex.com)
  • Ramon y Cajal's (1911) illustrations of embryonic cortex clearly show radial processes extending from the cells of the periventricular neuroepithelium and terminating in branches at the pial surface of the cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • This structure develops over 5-30 min as a result of active cytoskeletal processes and subdivides the T cell-APC interface into two concentric zones: the central and peripheral supramolecular activation clusters (cSMAC and pSMAC) (for review see Delon and Germain, 2000 ). (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, when the new method was applied to cells under control, elevated temperature and hyper-osmotic conditions, only elevated temperature led to a substantial increase in cell maintenance costs. (wiley.com)
  • It is concluded that the hyper-osmotic conditions tested did not impose a metabolic stress, in as much as the metabolic network is not forced to devote more resources to cell maintenance. (wiley.com)
  • The commitment to differentiate into specialized structures involves the perception by cells in the meristem of a complex array of signals, which communicate cellular age, position in relation to other cells, and hormonal balance. (plantcell.org)
  • The latter two cell classes have been assumed for some time to be distinct in both function and anatomy, but the cellular anatomy of the progenitor cell type has remained poorly defined. (jneurosci.org)
  • Spermatogenesis is a process that involves an array of cellular and biochemical events, collectively culminating in the formation of haploid spermatids from diploid precursor cells known as spermatogonia. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • SC form a highly polarized epithelial monolayer that functions as a habitat for the developing sperm, supplying it with nutrients and other factors and removing waste such as apoptotic cells and residual bodies that bud off the maturing spermatids during their elongation ( 44 ). (physiology.org)
  • Because of the simplicity of bacteria relative to larger organisms and the ease with which they can be manipulated experimentally, the cell structure of bacteria has been well studied, revealing many biochemical principles that have been subsequently applied to other organisms. (wikipedia.org)