Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.
The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.
Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.
Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.
Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.
The interactions between physician and patient.
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
The transmission of messages to staff and patients within a hospital.
Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.
Utilization of all available receptive and expressive modes for the purpose of achieving communication with the hearing impaired, such as gestures, postures, facial expression, types of voice, formal speech and non-speech systems, and simultaneous communication.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.
Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Its mission is to improve health by leading the development and accelerating the application of biomedical technologies, and integrating the physical and engineering sciences with the life sciences to advance basic research and medical care. It was established in 2000.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
Antibiotic pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (1/8670)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

oko meduzy mutations affect neuronal patterning in the zebrafish retina and reveal cell-cell interactions of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. (2/8670)

Mutations of the oko meduzy (ome) locus cause drastic neuronal patterning defect in the zebrafish retina. The precise, stratified appearance of the wild-type retina is absent in the mutants. Despite the lack of lamination, at least seven retinal cell types differentiate in oko meduzy. The ome phenotype is already expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium affecting morphology of the neuroepithelial cells. Our experiments indicate that previously unknown cell-cell interactions are involved in development of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. In genetically mosaic animals, cell-cell interactions are sufficient to rescue the phenotype of oko meduzy retinal neuroepithelial cells. These cell-cell interactions may play a critical role in the patterning events that lead to differentiation of distinct neuronal laminae in the vertebrate retina.  (+info)

The Gab1 PH domain is required for localization of Gab1 at sites of cell-cell contact and epithelial morphogenesis downstream from the met receptor tyrosine kinase. (3/8670)

Stimulation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor tyrosine kinase, Met, induces mitogenesis, motility, invasion, and branching tubulogenesis of epithelial and endothelial cell lines in culture. We have previously shown that Gab1 is the major phosphorylated protein following stimulation of the Met receptor in epithelial cells that undergo a morphogenic program in response to HGF. Gab1 is a member of the family of IRS-1-like multisubstrate docking proteins and, like IRS-1, contains an amino-terminal pleckstrin homology domain, in addition to multiple tyrosine residues that are potential binding sites for proteins that contain SH2 or PTB domains. Following stimulation of epithelial cells with HGF, Gab1 associates with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. Met receptor mutants that are impaired in their association with Gab1 fail to induce branching tubulogenesis. Overexpression of Gab1 rescues the Met-dependent tubulogenic response in these cell lines. The ability of Gab1 to promote tubulogenesis is dependent on its pleckstrin homology domain. Whereas the wild-type Gab1 protein is localized to areas of cell-cell contact, a Gab1 protein lacking the pleckstrin homology domain is localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. Localization of Gab1 to areas of cell-cell contact is inhibited by LY294002, demonstrating that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity is required. These data show that Gab1 is an important mediator of branching tubulogenesis downstream from the Met receptor and identify phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the Gab1 pleckstrin homology domain as crucial for subcellular localization of Gab1 and biological responses.  (+info)

p27 is involved in N-cadherin-mediated contact inhibition of cell growth and S-phase entry. (4/8670)

In this study the direct involvement of cadherins in adhesion-mediated growth inhibition was investigated. It is shown here that overexpression of N-cadherin in CHO cells significantly suppresses their growth rate. Interaction of these cells and two additional fibroblastic lines with synthetic beads coated with N-cadherin ligands (recombinant N-cadherin ectodomain or specific antibodies) leads to growth arrest at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The cadherin-reactive beads inhibit the entry into S phase and the reduction in the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors p21 and p27, following serum-stimulation of starved cells. In exponentially growing cells these beads induce G1 arrest accompanied by elevation in p27 only. We propose that cadherin-mediated signaling is involved in contact inhibition of growth by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and elevation of p27 levels.  (+info)

Endothelial cells modulate the proliferation of mural cell precursors via platelet-derived growth factor-BB and heterotypic cell contact. (5/8670)

Embryological data suggest that endothelial cells (ECs) direct the recruitment and differentiation of mural cell precursors. We have developed in vitro coculture systems to model some of these events and have shown that ECs direct the migration of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells (10T1/2 cells) and induce their differentiation toward a smooth muscle cell/pericyte lineage. The present study was undertaken to investigate cell proliferation in these cocultures. ECs and 10T1/2 cells were cocultured in an underagarose assay in the absence of contact. There was a 2-fold increase in bromodeoxyuridine labeling of 10T1/2 cells in response to ECs, which was completely inhibited by the inclusion of neutralizing antiserum against platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B. Antisera against PDGF-A, basic fibroblast growth factor, or transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta had no effect on EC-stimulated 10T1/2 cell proliferation. EC proliferation was not influenced by coculture with 10T1/2 cells in the absence of contact. The cells were then cocultured so that contact was permitted. Double labeling and fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis revealed that ECs and 10T1/2 cells were growth-inhibited by 43% and 47%, respectively. Conditioned media from contacting EC-10T1/2 cell cocultures inhibited the growth of both cell types by 61% and 48%, respectively. Although we have previously shown a role for TGF-beta in coculture-induced mural cell differentiation, growth inhibition resulting from contacting cocultures or conditioned media was not suppressed by the presence of neutralizing antiserum against TGF-beta. Furthermore, the decreased proliferation of 10T1/2 cells in the direct cocultures could not be attributed to downregulation of the PDGF-B in ECs or the PDGF receptor-beta in the 10T1/2 cells. Our data suggest that modulation of proliferation occurs during EC recruitment of mesenchymal cells and that heterotypic cell-cell contact and soluble factors play a role in growth control during vessel assembly.  (+info)

Cell surface sialic acid and the regulation of immune cell interactions: the neuraminidase effect reconsidered. (6/8670)

It has been known for over a decade that sialidase (neuraminidase) treatment could substantially enhance the capacity of resting B cells to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic and antigen specific, syngeneic T cells. Thus, cell-surface sialic acid was implicated as a potential modulator of immune cell interaction. However, little progress has been made in either identifying explicit roles for sialic acid in this system or in hypothesizing mechanisms to explain the "neuraminidase effect." Here we show for the first time that cell surface sialic acid on medium incubated B cells blocks access to costimulatory molecules on the B cell surface, and that this is the most likely explanation for the neuraminidase effect. Further, we show that it is likely to be upregulation of ICAM-1 and its subsequent engagement of LFA-1 rather than loss of cell surface sialic acid that in part regulates access to CD86 and other costimulatory molecules. However, we cannot exclude a role for CD86-bound sialic acid on the B cell in modulating binding to T cell CD28. Because sialidase treatment of resting B cells but not resting T cells enables T cell activation, we suggest that sialidase treatment may still be an analogue for an authentic step in B cell activation, and show that for highly activated B cells (activated with polyclonal anti-IgM plus INF-gamma) there is specific loss 2, 6-linked sialic acid. Potential roles for sialic acid in modulating B cell/T cell collaboration are discussed.  (+info)

Glucocorticoid down-regulation of fascin protein expression is required for the steroid-induced formation of tight junctions and cell-cell interactions in rat mammary epithelial tumor cells. (7/8670)

Glucocorticoid hormones, which are physiological regulators of mammary epithelium development, induce the formation of tight junctions in rat Con8 mammary epithelial tumor cells. We have discovered that, as part of this process, the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone strongly and reversibly down-regulated the expression of fascin, an actin-bundling protein that also interacts with the adherens junction component beta-catenin. Ectopic constitutive expression of full-length mouse fascin containing a Myc epitope tag (Myc-fascin) in Con8 cells inhibited the dexamethasone stimulation of transepithelial electrical resistance, disrupted the induced localization of the tight junction protein occludin and the adherens junction protein beta-catenin to the cell periphery, and prevented the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Ectopic expression of either the carboxyl-terminal 213 amino acids of fascin, which includes the actin and beta-catenin-binding sites, or the amino-terminal 313 amino acids of fascin failed to disrupt the glucocorticoid induction of tight junction formation. Mammary tumor cells expressing the full-length Myc-fascin remained generally glucocorticoid responsive and displayed no changes in the levels or protein-protein interactions of junctional proteins or the amount of cytoskeletal associated actin filaments. However, a cell aggregation assay demonstrated that the expression of Myc-fascin abrogated the dexamethasone induction of cell-cell adhesion. Our results implicate the down-regulation of fascin as a key intermediate step that directly links glucocorticoid receptor signaling to the coordinate control of junctional complex formation and cell-cell interactions in mammary tumor epithelial cells.  (+info)

Novel insights into human endometrial paracrinology and embryo-maternal communication by intrauterine microdialysis. (8/8670)

The regulation of human implantation is still unknown. Evidence from mice suggests an essential role for several paracrine mediators but species differences with implantation in the human preclude the extrapolation of these concepts to humans. An intrauterine microdialysis device (IUMD), consisting of microdialysis tubing glued into a balloon catheter on one side and into a polypropylene tube on the other, allows a dynamic and accurate in-vivo measurement of uterine paracrine interactions in humans. Inserted into the uterine cavity in the form of a loop, it can be continuously perfused with saline to reveal a number of relevant cytokines and growth factors in uterine effluents of non-pregnant women in both follicular and luteal phases. These included interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), prolactin, and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG). The source of intrauterine HCG is unclear since endometrial mRNA for the HCG beta-subunit is not revealed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Applying urinary HCG locally via the IUMD profoundly alters endometrial secretory parameters. Prolactin, IGFBP-1, and M-CSF are significantly inhibited and VEGF is regulated in a biphasic manner involving early stimulation followed by inhibition of intrauterine levels. Use of the IUMD has thus shown that the urinary HCG preparations routinely used for ovulation induction and luteal support may directly alter endometrial function.  (+info)

A cellular communications system is provided have both satellite nodes and surface nodes for providing mobile cellular communications services for a plurality of mobile user units. The surface and satellite nodes are fully integrated by a network controller for providing service over large areas. Multiple beam, relatively high gain antennas are disposed in the satellite nodes to establish satellite cells having enough gain in the satellite part of the system such that a user unit need only comprise a small, mobile handset with a non-directional antenna for communications with both ground nodes and satellite nodes.
The development of multicellular organisms relies heavily on cell communication. Cells send and receive complex sets of signals, harmonising their growth and differentiation with that of other, often distant, cell populations. In animals, the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is an important mediator of cell communication. EGFR activation regulates various developmental events in nematodes, insects and vertebrates. In addition, mutations in human EGFRs have been associated with a number of cancers. In Drosophila, a key event triggering EGFR signalling is the regulated release of the extracellular portion of EGFR ligands. Rhomboid (Rho), an unusual polytopic protease, cleaves the transmembrane, inactive ligand precursor into an active, soluble form. Both the target sequence and Rho s catalytic site are embedded within the membrane bilayer and for this reason the reaction has been described as regulated intramembrane proteolysis. The work presented in this thesis begins with the ...
ITEM 01003721 AiE10 Helps To Support Immune Cell Communication Ai/E10 supports healthy immune cell communication by providing a concentrate of immune system messengers. BENEFITS OF AiE10 Provides additional low molecular weight molecules including cytokines, lactoferrin, lysozymes, defensins, and disaccharides* Provid
View Notes - ENGR213_lecture3 from ENGR 213 at Cal Poly. Cell Signaling and Cellular Communication Lecture 3 What is Cell Signaling ? Cell signaling is part of a complex system of communication
View Notes - Chapter 11 from BIOL 211 at Bellevue College. Chapter 11 Cell Communication Overview: The Cellular Internet Cell-to-cell communication is essential for multicellular organisms Biologists
Effect of radiation from cellular communications equipment on vital bodily fUnctions when shielded with shungite S. P. KUROTCHENKO*, T. I. SUBB...
The Cellular Communication Routers market report offers a granular evaluation of this industry landscape. According to the document, the market is estimated to generate substantial revenues as well as register a robust growth rate during the projected timeframe.
describes what glyconutritionals are and how they are used to increase cellular communication, which in turn provides optimal health.
Applying biological molecules from cell membranes to the surfaces of artificial materials is opening peepholes on the very basics of cell-to-cell interaction.
Cellular Communication in YeastsThe first life on our planet consisted of single-celled prokaryotic organisms that had limited interaction with each other. While some external signaling occurs between different species of single-celled organisms, the majority of signaling within bacteria and yeasts concerns only other members of the same species. The evolution of cellular communication is an absolute necessity for the development of multicellular organisms, and this innovation is thought to have required approximately 2.5 billion years to appear in early life forms.. Yeasts are single-celled eukaryotes, and therefore have a nucleus and organelles characteristic of more complex life forms. Comparisons of the genomes of yeasts, nematode worms, fruit flies, and humans illustrate the evolution of increasingly complex signaling systems that allow for the efficient inner workings that keep humans and other complex life forms functioning correctly.. Kinases are a major component of cellular ...
Sudoc Catalogue :: - Livre / BookAnalysis of HIV-1 cell-to-cell transfer to macrophages / Lucie Bracq ; sous la direction de Serge Bénichou et de Paul Zhou
Bidirectional Interactions between Antigen-bearing Respiratory Tract Dendritic Cells (DCs) and T Cells Precede the Late Phase Reaction in Experimental Asthma: DC Activation Occurs in the Airway Mucosa but Not in the Lung ...
Mechanism-based model characterizing bidirectional interaction between PEGylated liposomal CKD-602 (S-CKD602) and monocytes in cancer patients Huali Wu,1 Ramesh K Ramanathan,2 Beth A Zamboni,3 Sandra Strychor,4 Suresh Ramalingam,5 Robert P Edwards,4 David M Friedland,4 Ronald G Stoller,4 Chandra P Belani,4 Lauren J Maruca,4 Yung-Jue Bang,6 William C Zamboni11UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2Translational Research Division, The Translational Genomics Research Institute, Scottsdale, AZ, USA; 3Department of Mathematics, Carlow University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 4School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 5Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 6College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, KoreaAbstract: S-CKD602 is a PEGylated liposomal formulation of CKD-602, a potent topoisomerase I inhibitor. The objective of this study was to characterize the bidirectional pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD)
Study Flashcards On Biology Chapter 11 Cell Communication at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Purchase Gap Junctions: Molecular Basis of Cell Communication in Health and Disease, Volume 49 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780125506458, 9780080925240
The regulatory mechanisms of the inflammatory process in the atherosclerotic plaque are still not clearly understood. Stimulated T cells may have a key role in enhancing and perpetuating inflammation at the atherosclerotic site. They activate endothelial cells, macrophages and smooth muscle cells in the atherosclerotic plaque, not only via the production of soluble mediators, but also through cell-cell contact-mediated interactions (via membrane receptors and their ligands). Cell/cell contact between stimulated T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages and endothelial cells induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6) and chemokines (interleukin-8, monocyte chemotactic factor-1). Thus, these interactions could play a relevant role in the disregulation of the inflammatory process in the atherosclerotic plaque, representing a novel mechanism of progression and complication of the atherosclerotic disease. Understanding the key ligands and receptors
How it works: Rebuilding cell theory. Garcias early research disproved a long-standing hypothesis concerning this cellular feature.. Mammals nervous systems are uniquely equipped with myelination, which has been shown to increase conduction velocity, or the speed at which nerve cells pass signals. Low velocity is often associated with neurodegenerative diseases, so research exploring why could later have application in therapeutic technology.. In addition to myelination, cell size makes a big difference in conduction velocity - the bigger the nerve cells, the faster they can pass and receive signals. Garcias findings disproved a hypothesis that related myelination to this phenomenon.. The hypothesis, published in a 1992 edition of Cell, claimed that myelination causes a cellular process called phosphorylation which then causes an increase in the axonal diameter (width of the communicating part of a nerve cell), leading to faster nerve cell communication. Garcia found that myelination did ...
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Welcoming basic and translational aspects of cell communication and signaling research that influence cellular morphology, structure, and function in both ...
Welcoming basic and translational aspects of cell communication and signaling research that influence cellular morphology, structure, and function in both ...
Citation Machine™ helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. Cite your raw rata in Cell Communication and Signaling format for free.
HIV-1 is believed to spread by two mechanisms in an infected host: by cell-free virions and by cell-associated transmission. The mechanisms of HIV-1 cell-to-cell transmission were not well understood until the recent description of the virological synapse (VS). The VS is a specialised supramolecular structure, formed between an infected effector cell and a permissive target cell, to facilitate direct virus infection of the permissive cell. Direct cell-to-cell spread is probably an important mechanism in tissues densely populated with target cells, such as CD4+ T cells in lymph nodes and the GALT. Moreover, VS-mediated viral transfer may help the virus to hide from elements of the immune system, such as neutralising antibodies and complement. Many areas relating to HIV-1 cell-to-cell spread and VS function remain to be explored. Therefore, the aim of the project behind this thesis was to extend our initial molecular characterisation of the supramolecular structure of VS in T cells and to ...
These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain. These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above. ...
Join VIB at its first conference on Structural dynamics in cellular communication that will take place in an architecturally significant venue in the heart of Europe (Brussels, Belgium) from 9-10 February, 2015.. The conference will cover the latest advances in protein science, focusing on systems structural biology, the functional role of structural dynamics, the organization of complexes and key technological advances. During four plenary sessions this first edition will handle the following topics: macromolecular machines and assemblages; protein network dynamics; protein fluctuations and function; and membrane proteins and complexes ...
Its safe to say that cilia, the hairlike appendages jutting out from the smooth surfaces of most mammalian cells, have long been misunderstood - underestimated, even.
Read Direct cell-cell communications and social behavior of cells in mammals, protists, and bacteria. Possible causes of multicellularity, Russian Journal of Developmental Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The book comprises ten chapters written by experts in the field on cell-cell interactions and their role in biology and medicine. Cell-cell interactions are the means by which cells are able to communicate, transfer information, develop spatial awareness and coordinate their differentiation. The ten areas have been selected for their breadth and relevance to modern research scientists where cell-cell interactions have been shown to play a critical role in biological processes.
E1A oncogene expression increases mammalian cell susceptibility to lysis by cytolytic lymphocytes (CLs) at a stage in this intercellular interaction that is independent of cell surface recognition events. Since CLs can induce either apoptotic or necrotic cell death, we asked whether E1A sensitizatio …
lectrical stimulation and allow calcium to flow into dendritic spines.... In their study Sabatini and Svoboda could detect if single calcium... Visually examining calcium fluctuations in a single dendritic spin... But nothing is that simple in the brain. Which type of channel is c... The local influx of calcium we have observed in spines is a fundam...,Scientists,reveal,details,of,brain,cell,communication:,implications,for,learning,&,memory,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Researchers at The University of Queenslands Queensland Brain Institute (QBI) have taken a significant step towards unravelling the mechanism by which communication between brain cells occurs.
Animals and plants need to know what is happening throughout their organism. For that an organised communication system is needed, so that the body or the plant knows what is happening all the way out in the...
Surface receptors are integral membrane proteins to which certain signal molecules bind. They generally span the cell membrane, connecting the outside of the cell with the inside, enabling the inner workings of the cell to sense and respond to signals outside of the cell. Each surface receptor is specific with respect to the compound or compounds it will bind; a molecule that can bind to a given receptor is called a ligand for that receptor. When a ligand binds to its surface receptor, the internal portion of the receptor becomes modified in some manner, effectively communicating to the cell that the ligand is present. This then elicits some type of response, such as chemotaxis. ■ chemotaxis, p. 65. Cells can alter the types of surface molecules they make, enabling them to respond only to signals that are relevant when the cell is in a certain location or developmental stage. For example, a dendritic cell in the tissues would respond differently to certain stimuli than one that has migrated to ...
Signal transduction is a way that cells talk to one another. Cells communicate to coordinate what they do. They might be a group of cells al...
Biology Animations includes selected, high quality biological animations; about cell biology, microbiology, genetics, immunology, cancer treatments and diagnosis.... ...
involves the G-linked receptor protein; when ligand binds, the GDP is dropped from the G protein and the GTP binds. The G protein then diffuses through the membrane to activating adenylate cyclase which converts ATP to cAMP. Protein kinase is then instructed to respond, resulting in celluar response. ...
Conjugation, the transfer of DNA by direct cell-to-cell contact, depends on the presence of a conjugative plasmid(is small, double-stranded DNA molecules
A senior investigator and former director of the SLRI, Dr. Pawsons work has had a profound impact on biomedical research. His ground-breaking studies have focused on the signals that are transmitted between cells in the human body and how this forms a pattern of communication. By understanding cellular communication, scientists can track how the patterns of communication can break down in conditions such as heart disease and immune system deficiencies ...
SUAREZ, Jorge E. y BRAVO, Alicia I.. Conexins and the Cardiovascular System. Rev. argent. cardiol. [online]. 2006, vol.74, n.3, pp. 149-156. ISSN 1850-3748.. Intercellular communication is an essential biologic event of multicellular organisms and is associated with cell growth and differentiation control, apoptosis, adaptive responses of differentiated cells and the synchronization of cellular functions. A kind of intercellular junctions known as gap junctions, actively participate in these processes and are structurally made of conexins. From a cardiovascular viewpoint, cell to cell communication, under normal conditions, is essential in cardiac embryogenesis, electrical impulse transmission, synchronization of cardiac contractile activity, transmission of vascular reflex signals and other biological functions. Under pathological conditions, either by inherited or acquired genetic mutation, intercellular communications participate in the development of congenital cardiopathies, ...
O-Glycosylation in general has impact on a diversity of biological processes covering cellular aspects (targeted transport of glycoproteins), molecular aspects (protein conformation, resistance to proteolysis), and aspects involved in cellular communication (cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction ...
Regenerative Medicine, Cell Bilology. With the recent progress in organ transplantation technology and stem-cell research, the practical application of regenerative therapy using stem cell-derivatives has come to public attention. To increase the feasibility of this new concept, however, kinetics and the functional expression of engrafted cells should be strictly controlled in well- organized 3-D tissues. So far, many researches have elucidated part of molecular mechanisms underlying the tissue morphogenesis to accumulate background information for successful cell transplantation. They include: 1) how nascent cells differentiate into functional ones;2) how they establish the proper polarity and the cell-cell junctional apparatus that enable cellular communications,;3) how they arrange functional multicellular structures; and 4) how they determine the overall size and control the shape of the tissue. All such dynamic cellular behaviors are known to be directed by the concerted action of many ...
Most are aware that neurons send neurotransmitter signals to each other in circuits within the brain. My new book, The Secret Language of Cells, shows that similar conversations occur among all the cells in the body and these wide ranging conversations determine all physiological functions. While there are numerous examples of this cellular communication in the book - such as capillary cells sending directional signals for white blood cells to find an infection and capillaries instructing stem cells how to produce particular cells for the brain, this article will focus on a few ways that cellular conversations among immune cells and brain cells affect mental health. Two-way cellular conversations between traveling immune cells and stationary brain cells use signals that are sent as molecules, or molecules inside sacs, that are secreted into tissues, blood vessels, and cerebrospinal fluid. The signals can profoundly affect general cognition and memory, and are highly related to depression and ...
Antigen based immunotherapeutics aim to rehabilitate the immune system and prepare the human body to concur disease. Key factor in this biological process is the immune response via dendritic cells (DCs) that either turn on the immune response or actively dampen unwanted immune inflammation. Current antigen based therapies however still lack an effective response which is potent, antigen specific and durable, and can also rely on a favorable safety profile. Therefore, there is a clear need for improvements in this therapeutic class. GlycoDCTM dendritic cell targeting technology. The core of DC4Us proprietary GlycoDCTM technology is glycation of antigens to which we direct the immune response. Glycans are complex carbohydrate structures that form recognition elements for glycan-specific receptors that, upon recognition, mediate cellular communication. The immuno-therapeutics that can be developed using the GlycoDCTM technology, are exceptional because they are potent, specific, durable, ...
In a mobile cellular communication system, adjacent basestations BS1-BS4 are assigned different selections of different frequency channels to communicate with mobiles in their cells (10, etc.). To improve system quality and capacity, a basestation selects a frequency channel which is not assigned to it or any neighbour station, and makes test communications on that frequency channel with mobiles (e.g. MS1) in its cell. The basestation assesses the potential performance of that frequency channel, and neighbour basestations can monitor for potential interference on that frequency channel. The information so gathered can be analysed by an operations maintenance station OMC.
Membrane proteins play critical roles in cellular communications and are the most popular drug targets, accounting for over a half of the FDA approved drugs. One particularly important example of membrane proteins is G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which constitute the largest and most diverse protein family in the human genome with over 800 members identified to date.[1] GPCRs are responsible for numerous cellular and physiological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, neurotransmission, development and apoptosis, and cancer growth and development. [2] Unsurprisingly, GPCRs are the largest family of membrane protein drug targets. A key task in studying the physiological functions of GPCRs and developing drugs targeting GPCRs is to measure the binding kinetics of ligands with GPCRs.. GPR39 receptor was studied against 3,4-bis-(2-imidazol-1-ylethoxy)-benzonitrile (AZ1395) [3] using SPRm 200. The GPR39 receptor is expressed in metabolic tissues including pancreatic ...
Evolution brings us incredible diversity in animal size and shape, but remarkably, our organs and limbs remain proportional to our body size. This entails an extraordinary level of coordination across different scales. How do organs measure and control their size? This is a crucial question that has remained long unresolved in Biology. We aim to answer it by looking at cells. We are focused on studying biophysical modes of cellular communication: Electrical Flows, Chemical Signalling and Mechanical Forces, with the goal of understanding how organ growth information is encoded. We use the zebrafish larva as an in vivo model, as it allows for optimal quantitative live imaging and amenable genetics. Importantly, zebrafish regenerate their organs! This allows us to search for common rules of growth: not only in Development, but also in Regeneration. Because of this, we can choose to perform our experiments with Fast or Slow growth rates - at Steady state or Out of Equilibrium scenarios - achieving ...
Cusabio offers CD8B related Antibodies, Proteins, cDNA and ELISA Kits. We also illustrate the related signaling pathways covering most research areas so that you can know the internal cellular communication. Some free antibody samples are given away in times.
A Networking Paradigm Inspired by Cell Communication Mechanisms: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5125-8.ch002: This chapter provides a brief review of molecular communication, a networking paradigm inspired by cell communication mechanisms. In molecular communication
Using an in vitro model in which a confluent monolayer of capillary endothelial cells is mechanically wounded, gap junction-mediated intercellular communication has been studied by loading the cells with the fluorescent dye, Lucifer Yellow. Approximately 40-50% of the cells in a nonwounded confluent monolayer were coupled in groups of four to five cells (basal level). Basal levels of communication were also observed in sparse and preconfluent cultures, but were reduced in postconfluent monolayers. 30 min after wounding, coupling was markedly reduced between cells lining the wound. Communication at the wound was partially reestablished by 2 h, exceeded basal levels after 6 h and reached a maximum after 24 h, at which stage approximately 90% of the cells were coupled in groups of six to seven cells. When the wound had closed (after 8 d), the increase in communication was no longer observed. Induction of wound-associated communication was unaffected by exposure of the cells to the DNA synthesis ...
In the 1980s, exosomes were described as vesicles of endosomal origin secreted from reticulocytes. Interest increased around these extracellular vesicles, as they appeared to participate in several cellular processes. Exosomes bear proteins, lipids, and RNAs, mediating intercellular communication be …
Antibodies for proteins involved in SA node cell to atrial cardiac muscle cell communication pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
The researchers believe targeting the mechanism may lead to new therapies for the symptoms of motor neurone disease.. Otago neurobiologist Associate Professor Ian McLennan and his Aberdeen colleagues have discovered that a protein known as transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2) appears to regulate how motor neurons send signals to neighbouring brain cells.. Their findings are newly published in the prestigious US journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).. Associate Professor McLennan says the discovery of the TGF-β2proteins previously invisible role in regulating brain cell communication surprised the team.. We did not predict this, and the finding fundamentally alters our understanding of how communication between cells in the brains motor system is controlled. It is also likely that this mechanism plays a role in other brain signalling systems.. Historically it was thought that the information flow from cell to cell was controlled by the number of quanta, or ...
Model of the role of FGF in establishing regional differences in gap junction-mediated intercellular communication in the lens. (A) The concentration of FGF i
One of the possible applications of single-cell sequencing data is to map potential communication between cell (sub-)types, which can be depicted as intercellular communication networks. These networks can yield detailed insight into the role of different cell types and processes within the complex system of cellular communication during various biological states such as development or disease.
1. Segments of mouse pancreatic or exorbital lacrimal gland were superfused with saline solutions. Under visual control two micro-electrodes were inserted into neighbouring cells within the same acinus or into neighbouring acini. Cell to cell electrical coupling was assessed by injecting rectangular current pulses through one electrode and measuring the electrotonic potential change in the same cell (V(1)) and in the neighbouring cell (V(2)). Acetylcholine (ACh) was added locally to impaled acini by micro-ionophoresis from an extracellular micropipette.2. Exposure of the tissues to a Krebs solution equilibrated with 100% CO(2) caused a rapid increase in the size of electrotonic potential changes in the current injection cell and disappearance of the electrotonic potential changes in a neighbouring acinus or cell. This electrical uncoupling of previously coupled cells was rapidly reversible upon return to a solution equilibrated with 95% O(2) and 5% CO(2).3. Reduction of electrical intercellular ...
16.07.2013 Researchers at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) have discovered a new form of communication between different cell types in the brain. Nerve cells interact with neighboring glial cells, which results in a transfer of protein and genetic information. Nerve cells are thus protected against stressful growth conditions. The study undertaken by the Mainz-based cell biologists shows how reciprocal communication between the different cell types contributes to neuronal integrity. Their results have been recently published in the journal PLOS Biology. Brain function is determined by the communication between electrically excitable neurons and the surrounding glial cells, which perform many tasks in the brain. Oligodendrocytes are a type of glial cell and these form an insulating myelin sheath around the axons of neurons. In addition to providing this protective insulation, oligodendrocytes also help sustain neurons in other ways that are not yet fully understood. If this support ...
Abstract :. The development and function of multicellular organisms relies on the ordered communication of cells that function in networks and circuits. Our understanding of cellular communication and its physiological consequences hinges on the ability to modulate specific signals while monitoring effects in intact tissues and behaving animals. In our laboratory, we combine synthetic biology and cell biology to modulate the communication between cells and ultimately intervene with physiology. To achieve this goal, we re-engineer molecular components of the mammalian cellular communication machinery, currently in particular those components that control cell survival, to be responsive to new synthetic stimuli. These stimuli are novel ligands or, more recently, light in optogenetics, which offers control in space and time. For instance, we have recently developed receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the receptors for neurotrophic factors or EGF, that are activated by blue or red light in the ...
The strained relationship between Bradenton Beach and the Center for Municipal Solutions came to an end Feb. 8 with notification the city will repeal its cellular communications tower ordinance.. CMSs Lawrence Rusty Monroe and the city have been feuding for months over language in the ordinance drafted by Monroe and adopted May 5, 2011, under former Mayor Bob Bartelts administration.. As the city moved forward with discussions on installing a cellular communications tower near the public works facility last year, Commissioner Ric Gatehouse observed several issues in the ordinance he found objectionable.. The relationship between the city and Monroe became brittle and shattered at one point, with Monroe withdrawing - saying he would take his ordinance with him.. Monroe said the city had no rights to use his ordinance without agreeing to pay exclusive application review fees to his company, as per the original agreement outlined in his ordinance.. Gatehouse initially wanted the ordinance ...
Recent findings indicate that specific microRNAs (miRNAs), such as those of the miR-17-92 cluster, may be responsible for regulating endothelial gene expression during tumor angiogenesis. Secreted miRNAs enclosed in exosomes also have an important role in cell-cell communication. To elucidate whether miRNAs secreted from neoplastic cells transfer into endothelial cells and are functionally active in the recipient cells, we investigated the effect of exosomal miRNAs derived from leukemia cells (K562) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). As K562 cells released the miR-17-92 cluster, especially miR-92a, into the extracellular environment, K562 cells, transfected with Cy3-labeled pre-miR-92a, were co-cultured with HUVECs. Cy3-miR-92a derived from K562 cells was detected in the cytoplasm of HUVECs, and the Cy3-miR-92a co-localized with the signals of an exosomal marker, CD63. The expression of integrin α5, a target gene for miR-92a, was significantly reduced in HUVECs by exosomal ...
We have identified the liver-regulating protein (LRP), a cell surface protein involved in the maintenance of hepatocyte differentiation when cocultured with rat liver epithelial cells (RLEC). LRP was defined by immunoreactivity to a monoclonal antibody (mAb L8) prepared from RLEC. mAb L8 specifically detected two polypeptides of 85 and 73 kD in immunoprecipitation of both hepatocyte- and RLEC-iodinated plasma membranes. The involvement of these polypeptides, which are integral membrane proteins, in cell interaction-mediated regulation of hepatocytes was assessed by evaluating the perturbing effects of the antibody on cocultures with RLEC. Several parameters characteristic of differentiated hepatocytes were studied, such as liver-specific and house-keeping gene expression, cytoskeletal organization and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). An early cytoskeletal disturbance was evidenced and a marked alteration of hepatocyte functional capacity was observed in the presence of the antibody, ...
The review describes the role of cells of extracellular matrix (ECM) as a source of neoplastic outgrowths additional to the original tumour. The cells undergo a spontaneous transformation or stimulation by the original tumour through intercellular signals, e.g. through Shh protein (sonic hedgehog). Additionally, cells of an inflammatory infiltrate, which frequently accompany malignant tumours and particularly carcinomas, may regulate tumour cell behaviour. This is either by restricting tumour proliferation or, inversely, by induction and stimulation of the proliferation of another tumour cell type, e.g. mesenchymal cells. The latter type of tumour may involve formation of histologically differentiated stromal tumours (GIST), which probably originate from interstitial cells of Cajal in the alimentary tract. Occasionally, e.g. in gastric carcinoma, proliferation involves lymphoid follicles and lymphocytes of GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue), which gives rise to lymphoma. The process is ...
Clone REA718 recognizes the human integrin β5 antigen, a 95 kDa glycoprotein single-pass type I membrane protein. Integrins are a family of transmembrane receptors that mediate adhesion of cells to extracellular matrices, as well as intercellular interactions. These interactions transduce signals that control complex cell functions such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival, and require the regulation of gene expression. Integrins are heterodimeric glycoprotein receptors and exist as non-covalently bound α and β subunits. The integrin αV/β5 heterodimer is found on many types of tissue cells, such as epithelial cells, endothelial cells, keratinocytes, and osteoblastic cells. It is a receptor for fibronectin and vitronectin and acts as a receptor for adenovirus type C. Additional information: Clone REA718 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Lëtzebuerg
Clone REA718 recognizes the human integrin β5 antigen, a 95 kDa glycoprotein single-pass type I membrane protein. Integrins are a family of transmembrane receptors that mediate adhesion of cells to extracellular matrices, as well as intercellular interactions. These interactions transduce signals that control complex cell functions such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival, and require the regulation of gene expression. Integrins are heterodimeric glycoprotein receptors and exist as non-covalently bound α and β subunits. The integrin αV/β5 heterodimer is found on many types of tissue cells, such as epithelial cells, endothelial cells, keratinocytes, and osteoblastic cells. It is a receptor for fibronectin and vitronectin and acts as a receptor for adenovirus type C. Additional information: Clone REA718 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Nederland
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated cytotoxicity constitutes an important component of specific effector mechanisms in immuno-surveillance against virus-infected or transformed cells. Two mechanisms appear to account for this activity, one of which is the perforin-based process. Independently, a FAS-based mechanism involves the transducing molecule FAS (also designated APO-1) and its ligand (FAS-L). The human FAS protein is a cell surface glycoprotein that belongs to a family of receptors that includes CD40, nerve growth factor receptors and tumor necrosis factor receptors. The FAS antigen is expressed on a broad range of lymphoid cell lines, certain of which undergo apoptosis in response to treatment with antibody to FAS. These findings strongly imply that targeted cell death is potentially mediated by the intercellular interactions of FAS with its ligand or effectors, and that FAS may be critically involved in CTL-mediated cytotoxicity.. ...
The global 3D cell culture market is anticipated to reach USD 1.69 billion by 2024, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Potential of this technology to replace and reduce the usage of animal models for histological analysis and biochemical assays is expected to fuel demand for 3D cell culture products thus driving growth in the coming years.. Advent of technology with respect to spheroid formation and matured assay methods is expected to boost the emergence of 3D optimized assays, kits, and protocols, in turn, expediting the entire research process. In addition, the scope of three-dimensional (3D) cell culturing experiments for evaluation of drug moiety is anticipated to grow owing to advantages associated with its usage. These advantages include increased cell to extra cellular matrix (ECM) as well as intercellular interactions, variation in the proliferation zones, ease for analyzing impact of site-specific stromal tissue components in the tumor microenvironment.. Research ...
Hypoxia is a key factor that accompanies most brain pathologies, including ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases. Reduced oxygen concentration results in irreversible changes in nerve cell metabolism that entails cell death and destruction of intercellular interactions. Since neural networks are responsible for the processing, storage and transmission of information in the brain, the loss of network elements can lead to dysfunction of the central nervous system and, consequently, the development of neurological deficiency and the patients severe disability.. This is the reason why the worlds neurobiological community is currently involved in an active search for compounds that can prevent the death of nerve cells and support their functional activity under stress.. According to Maria Vedunova, Director of the Institute of Biology and Biomedicine at Lobachevsky University (UNN), the Institutes researchers propose to use the bodys own potential to combat hypoxia and its consequences.. Our ...
The purpose of this study was to examine student influence upon the teacher within the context of a bidirectional model of interaction. The possibility of using the teachers motivational structure as a means of explaining and predicting the occurence of student influence was also considered. -- The theoretical framework for the study was developed from a review of the literature. The key components of the model were: the teachers predispositions, including their motivational structure, the objective situation, and the definition of the situation. Presumably, the teachers behavior would be controlled by their definition of the situation, which would be a function of the predispositional structure and the objective situation. -- The interaction between the teacher and the students in three elementary classrooms was studied. These teachers were chosen from a sample of 54 teachers, who had first been categorized into three groups, on the basis of a Q-Sort. Thus, there was one teacher to represent ...
Preface xi About the Authors xiii. 1 THE CELLULAR ORIGIN OF VERTEBRATES 1. The Origins of Unicellular Life on Earth 1. Prokaryotes versus Eukaryotes 4. Coevolution of traits 5. Cholesterol Facilitates Lipid Rafts for Cell-Cell Communication 7. The Endomembrane System 9. The Cellular Mechanism of Evolution 10. Why Evolve? 11. Cell-Cell Communication and Aging 12. 2 REDUCING LUNG PHYSIOLOGY TO ITS MOLECULAR PHENOTYPES 17. Hormonal Acceleration of Lung Development 17. Neutral Lipid Traffi cking and Lung Evolution 19. Other Examples of Cellular Cooperativity 23. Summary 24. 3 A CELL-MOLECULAR STRATEGY FOR SOLVING THE EVOLUTIONARY PUZZLE 25. Rationale for Cell-Molecular Evolution 25. Mechanism of Mammalian Lung Development 28. Avian Lung Structure-Function Relationship: The Exception that Proves the Rule 32. Does Ontogeny Recapitulate Phylogeny? The Role of PTHrP in Lung Development 32. Interrelationship between PTHrP, Development, Physiology, and Repair: Is Repair a Recapitulation of Ontogeny and ...
There are two pages in this section to help you and your learners: Project Based Learning (Page 1 of 2): An essay. Start studying cell reproduction worksheet. Students can toggle between two different views of the cell cycle by pressing the text in the center of the graphic. Animal Systems I. 3 Stoichiometry Webquest Answer Key. Helens School District. Background: The endocrine system is a complex network of glands, hormones and receptors. Click DNA to Protein and try the interactive activities Build a DNA Molecule & Transcribe and Translate a Gene 5. 2 Introduction to Signal Transduction4. Tkt Is Taken As A Series Of Multiple-Choice Tests. To give you an idea about size, the length of a key on the keyboard is about 1 cm. The diagram below is of a nerve cell or neurone. is able to correctly answer word problems, but is unable to explain how he/she got the answer. •Movement of gases, liquids, and solids. For the years , Monsanto was Steins office. Key Indicators 1) What is carbon dioxide ...
Researchers at The University of Queensland, working to gain a better understanding of how brain cells work, have discovered the underlying mechanism of a rare genetic mutation that can cause epilepsy.. Dr Victor Anggono from UQs Queensland Brain Institute said his team made the ground-breaking findings while researching nerve cell communications, which are an important process in normal brain function.. Were both excited and astounded to make such an important contribution to the field of cellular and molecular neuroscience, Dr Anggono said.. He stressed that the mutation was extremely rare, with only one reported case in the world to date.. Dr Anggonos team studied protein structures, called receptors, that are attached to cell surfaces to make the discovery.. It turns out that this particular mutation causes receptors in brain cells to behave differently, resulting in an imbalance in brain cell communication - and that can lead to disorders, he said.. For example, cells that talk ...
Bacterial mating or conjugation is the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another via direct cell-to-cell contact through a mating pore. My current research uses the genetically-tractable bacterium Bacillus subtilis as a model system to explore the function and subcellular localization of a putative component of the bacterial mating pore apparatus. I have been characterizing the protein ConE (formerly YddE) which is encoded on the B. subtilis conjugal element ICEBs1. ConE is related to proteins encoded on conjugal elements in numerous bacteria, including the Gram-positive pathogens S. aureus, C. difficile, and L. monocytogenes. ConE belongs to a large superfamily of ATP-dependent pumps involved in the extrusion of proteins and DNA through membrane pores. I have shown that ConE and its ATPase domain are essential for mating of ICEBs1. In addition, ConE-GFP localizes at the cell poles, in close association with the membrane (see Figure). Given ConEs localization, ATPase domain, and ...
Bacterial mating or conjugation is the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another via direct cell-to-cell contact through a mating pore. My current research uses the genetically-tractable bacterium Bacillus subtilis as a model system to explore the function and subcellular localization of a putative component of the bacterial mating pore apparatus. I have been characterizing the protein ConE (formerly YddE) which is encoded on the B. subtilis conjugal element ICEBs1. ConE is related to proteins encoded on conjugal elements in numerous bacteria, including the Gram-positive pathogens S. aureus, C. difficile, and L. monocytogenes. ConE belongs to a large superfamily of ATP-dependent pumps involved in the extrusion of proteins and DNA through membrane pores. I have shown that ConE and its ATPase domain are essential for mating of ICEBs1. In addition, ConE-GFP localizes at the cell poles, in close association with the membrane (see Figure). Given ConEs localization, ATPase domain, and ...
PPT - Bacterial Transformation PowerPoint presentation , free to view - id: 14d701-NGYwZ. Conjugation (bacterial sex) involves the exchange of DNA through direct cell-to-cell contact or through a bridge-like connection between two cells called a sex pilus. preparation for the pglo lab. After transformation, the cells may express the acquired genetic information, which may serve as a source of genetic diversity and potentially provide … chapter 3. content. partnership for health and wholeness benjamin v. lozare, ph.d johns hopkins, BACTERIAL MENINGITIS - . Bacteria are used to copy DNA and make desired proteins . abe lab sequence. What if nothing grows on either LB plate? Transformation is a key process in molecular cloning, by which multiple copies of recombinant DNA molecules are produced. • Changing the genes and phenotype of a bacteria by uptake of foreign/new DNA • a natural process that bacteria have evolved in order to obtain DNA from their environment. • If so, did the gene of ...
Most immune cell communication takes place by intercellular transfer of cytokines or the contact-dependent interaction of surface receptors in immunological synapses. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Gardell and Parker (Eur. J. Immunol. 2017, 47, 41-50) point to a new, hybrid mechanism for Th1-cell delivery of help to B cells, based on contact-dependent CD40L transfer. The transfer process and its specificity are both cell contact dependent and antigen dependent. CD40 expression is also required on the B-cell surface to capture the CD40L presented by the Th1 cell. While further studies are needed to confirm the phenomenon in vivo and to test the role of transferred CD40L in other aspects of T-cell help, this study provides an exceptional take-off point and makes excellent use of mouse genetics to work out some possible rules for B cells being able to order help to go.
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Figures S1, S2 and S3 41598_2018_31569_MOESM1_ESM. lymphocyte proliferation and activation in response to Concanavalin A. Transwell experiments demonstrated that this was predominantly due to direct cell-cell contact in addition to soluble mediators whereby CDCs produced high levels of PGE2 under inflammatory conditions. This led to down-regulation of CD25 expression on lymphocytes via the EP4 receptor. Blocking prostaglandin synthesis restored both, proliferation and activation (measured via CD25 expression) of stimulated lymphocytes. We demonstrated for the first time in a large animal model that CDCs inhibit proliferation in allo-reactive lymphocytes and have potent immunosuppressive activity mediated via PGE2. Introduction Cardiac disease is a significant cause of death in humans, accounting for around 25% of all causes of mortality1. Recognition that the heart is capable of regeneration2, has raised considerable interest over BSF 208075 inhibition the ...
The members of the IgLON superfamily of cell adhesion molecules facilitate fundamental cellular communication during brain development, maintain functional brain circuitry, and are associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders. Usage of alternative promoter-specific 1a and 1b mRNA isoforms in Lsamp, Opcml, Ntm and the single promoter of Negr1 in the mouse and human brain has been previously described. To determine the precise spatiotemporal expression dynamics of Lsamp, Opcml, Ntm isoforms and Negr1, in the developing brain, we generated isoform-specific RNA probes and carried out in situ hybridization in the developing (embryonic, E10.5, 13.5, 17; post natal, P0) and adult mouse brains. We show that promoter-specific expression of IgLONs is established early during pallial development (at E10.5), where it remains throughout its differentiation through adulthood. In the diencephalon, midbrain and hindbrain, strong expression patterns are initiated a few days later and begin fading after birth,
In the present work, we report evidence that in addition to its role on the proliferation of pancreatic progenitor cells, the mesenchyme is crucial in controlling the timing of pancreatic β-cell differentiation. When we cultured rat embryonic pancreatic epithelium in the absence of its surrounding mesenchyme, we found that Ngn3 expression was turned on rapidly and then turned off a few days later, in keeping with the reported in vivo pattern (15,25). Our filter-separation experiments indicate that the mesenchyme-induced delay in Ngn3 induction requires direct contact between the epithelium and the mesenchyme. This result fits in with recent data indicating that direct cell-cell contact between epithelial and mesenchymal cells suppresses β-cell formation (26). We also found that Ngn3 expression occurred far earlier without mesenchyme, within a few hours compared with 3 days with mesenchyme either in vitro or in vivo. This acceleration in Ngn3 induction resembles the pancreatic phenotype of mice ...
This network will characterize the single nucleus transcriptomes and intercellular communication networks of human adipose tissue cells (adipocytes and stroma-vascular cells) across fat depots, sex, and ethnicity.
The waves are said to be produced in direct response to the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF), and last approximately 10 - 20 minutes before vanishing. Wave cells have become a hot topic of late, as researchers suspect that they play an important role in the transmission and regulation of normal cellular communication.. Under normal circumstances, waves are responsible for selectively collecting growth-promoting proteins and directing them into the inner structure of the cell. This process results in a reorganization of the cells outer infrastructure, where it forms a flexible foot-like structure (lamellipodia) which then allows the cell to move and dock with corresponding epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR). Usually, the wave neutralizes or moderates the internalized growth protein, but in cancer cells, where the wave is either malfunctioning or not present, metastatic cancer occurs as a result of unregulated EGF and EGFR interaction.. These findings have broad implications ...
Signal transduction is the molecular basis for cellular communication. Complex networks of intracellular molecules enable cells to receive signals from their environment and to modify their behavior in response to these signals. Signaling molecules are interconnected, and depending on how they are linked together they can form different types of networks. We have recently described a novel network of proteins that becomes activated by increases in cell sodium permeability and that regulates active sodium transport. Because each component of this sodium-sensing network so far described have been independently associated with multiple and essential cell functions, our work on the network topology and modeling is of importance because it will help us to understand the networks role and complexity when transforming the sodium signal into transcription activation and gene expression leding to changes in myocardial- and/or renal cells growth.. Also, understanding the function and relevance of the ...
Cell phone is a protracted-vary, transportable electronic machine used for cellular communication. Dad and mom use the GPS system to keep track of their youngsters. Theyll set up digital boundaries on the app so it alerts them when their little one crosses that line. Cell phone firms offer the service for an extra charge as a solution to make extra revenue. Lately a mobile phone can give place to various applications coming from numerous genres. These embrace social networking purposes (Fb, Twitter, hi5, MySpace and so on.), gaming purposes, cell office applications, all chatting purposes (yahoo, gtalk, msn and so forth.) and plenty of such others as effectively. These applications carry loads of significance too as these had opened a brand new dimension of communication.. Judd Heape, a Qualcomm vp for product management, says the cell chip chief couldnt embody AV1 technology within the new chip due to schedule and value considerations. Qualcomm chips will finally support AV1, he mentioned, ...
Dr. John D. Scott, professor and chair of pharmacology at the University of Washington School of Medicine and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator, along with Dr. F. Donelson Smith of the UW and HHMI, led this study, which also involved Drs. Claire and Patrick Eyers and their group at the University of Liverpool.. The researchers explained that key cellular communication machinery is more regionally constrained inside the cell than was previously thought. Communication via this vital system is akin to social networking on your Snapchat account.. Within a cell, the precise positioning of such messaging components allows hormones, the bodys chief chemical communicators, to transmit information to exact places inside the cell. Accurate and very local activation of the enzyme that Scott and his group study helps assure a correct response occurs in the right place and at the right time. The inside of a cell is like a crowded city, said Scott, It is a place of construction and tearing ...
The platelet-derived growth factor-ß (PDGF-ß) intracellular signaling pathway has an established role in mediating cellular communication between endothelial and mural cells, which is essential for the normal formation of blood vessels. Dr. Weiss and colleagues have discovered that MT1-MMP, whose traditional role in endothelial and mural cells is to break down the proteins that reside in the spaces between cells, has an additional role in the regulation of PDGF-ß signaling ...
Cell Communication and Adhesion provides a central forum for the rapid publication of full-length manuscripts, short communications, reviews and conference reports of high quality, covering all aspects of receptor-based cell recognition and signaling. This includes research directed toward an understanding of the molecular basis of cell behavior as influenced by the interaction of cells with one another and with the extracellular environment, including extracellular matrix, cytokines and chemotactic factors. This journal provides a single source of information concerning all forms of intercellular communication, intercellular junctions and families of adhesion receptors and counter receptors from diverse biological systems. Manuscripts will be accepted describing the role of intercellular signaling, junctions and adhesion pathways in pathological and normal processes, ranging from fundamental interactions in developing systems to immune- based recognition events and neuronal targeting. Research ...
At the Redenti Lab, we are exploring cellular communication involved in the development and regeneration of retinal and other central nervous system tissue. We are particularly interested in how cells respond to morphogenetic fields of discrete, localized biochemical and electrical signals leading to the development of organized neural tissue. Read More ...
Mannatechs Ambrotose complex is the worlds first dietary supplement to combine a scientifically proven and standardized blend of plant sourced glyconutrients.. What are Glyconutrients?. Good question glad you asked. Glyconutrient saccharides make up what is called a Glycoprotein. These attach themselves to cell membranes massively increasing the cells abilities to talk to each other. Improving the efficiency of all the bodies systems.. O.K. thats the sciencey stuff out of the way so what does that actually mean for you and your familys health?. A lot. Third party clinical trials have shown that due to improved cellular communication, you get improved cognitive function. This means better memory and concentration. Improved moods and less irritability. Boosts to the immune system, and support for proper organ function. And a more efficient digestive system. Ambrotose complex helps you build a strong foundation for better wellbeing, at the cellular level.. Where does Mannatechs Ambrotose ...
New research from Kings College London has revealed a previously undiscovered mechanism of cellular communication, between neurons and immune cells, in neuropathic pain.
Cusabio offers RXRA related Antibodies, Proteins, cDNA and ELISA Kits. We also illustrate the related signaling pathways covering most research areas so that you can know the internal cellular communication. Some free antibody samples are given away in times.
Senior care service provider Cerna Home Care launched Onhand Assistance - a smartwatch especially designed for seniors. The stylish wearable device provides fall detection, fall notification, vitals monitoring, cellular communication, and medication reminders - in addition to life-saving calls and care. Every second an older adult fall, making falls the number one cause of injuries and deaths from injury among older Americans. In 2014 alone, 29 million falls among elderly Americans resulted in seven million injuries and costing an estimated $31 billion in annual Medicare costs, according to a new report published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in this weeks Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).. Onhand Assistance helps lessen the need for expensive personal caregivers and avoids time consuming ambulance trips to the hospital due to false alarms. Family members monitor their loved one through the Onhand Assistance smartphone app. Seniors, their friends and their ...
Dear Colleague,. As I write these words, the Mobile World Congress show is underway in Barcelona, Spain. At this yearly event, one of the most important cellular communications conferences, mobile handset and tablet manufacturers and their service provider partners reveal their latest and greatest offerings. And alongside them are the silicon and software providers, unveiling next-generation system building blocks which they hope will show up in handsets and tablets at next years MWC.. One of the biggest announcements coming out of this years show, at least so far, is Nokias model 808 PureView phone. Ive written many times in recent months about the potential for cameraphones to render standalone cameras obsolete, as well as about the notable embedded vision development potential implied in the burgeoning still and video image capture capabilities of mobile electronics devices. Although the Nokia 808 will probably not sell in large quantities, due both to its fairly high price point (450 ...
Cell Adhesion and Communication. 2 (1): 15-26. doi:10.3109/15419069409014199. PMID 7982033.. ... cell-cell junction assembly. • calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • cell-cell ... cell-cell adherens junction. • cell surface. • catenin complex. Biological process. • response to cold. • cell adhesion. • ... integral membrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Mature cadherin proteins are composed of a large ...
"Cell Communication and Signaling. 9 (30): 30. doi:10.1186/1478-811X-9-30. PMC 3215633 . PMID 22053760.. ... Before a cell divides through mitosis, the DNA is copied, so that each of the resulting two cells will inherit the DNA sequence ... Developmental biologists suggest that complex interactions in genetic networks and communication among cells can lead to ... "Mol Cell. 49 (1): 145-57. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2012.10.027. PMC 3753666 . PMID 23201126.. ...
Cell Communication & Adhesion. 10 (1): 27-36. doi:10.1080/15419060302063. PMID 12881038. S2CID 225894. Wang WH, Yang JJ, Lin YC ... However, Cx29, which is highly expressed in myelin-forming glial cells of the CNS and PNS, has not been documented to form gap ... "Identification of novel variants in the Cx29 gene of nonsyndromic hearing loss patients using buccal cells and restriction ... "Connexin29 is uniquely distributed within myelinating glial cells of the central and peripheral nervous systems". The Journal ...
Civitelli, R (2008). "Cell-cell communication in the osteoblast/osteocyte lineage". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. ... Adams, Dany S; Levin, Michael (2012). "Endogenous voltage gradients as mediators of cell-cell communication: Strategies for ... In non-excitable cells, the resting potential across the plasma membrane (Vmem) of individual cells propagate across distances ... Robinson, K. R (1985). "The responses of cells to electrical fields: A review". The Journal of Cell Biology. 101 (6): 2023-7. ...
Cell Communication & Adhesion. 16 (1-3): 15-27. doi:10.1080/15419060903009329. PMID 19533476. S2CID 19077857. Kirchner F, ... Plakophilin-2 over time has shown to be more than components of cell-cell junctions; rather the plakophilins are emerging as ... Cell. Proteomics. 4 (6): 785-95. doi:10.1074/mcp.M500021-MCP200. PMID 15778465. Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, ... Cell Genet. 88 (3-4): 286-7. doi:10.1159/000015540. PMID 10828611. S2CID 35411706. Hofmann I, Mertens C, Brettel M, Nimmrich V ...
Gafken PR, Lampe PD (2006). "Methodologies for characterizing phosphoproteins by mass spectrometry". Cell Communication & ... Tandem mass spectrometry cannot be applied for single-cell analyses as it is insensitive to analyze such small amounts of a ... TMT reagents can be used to simultaneously analyze 2 to 11 different peptide samples prepared from cells, tissues or biological ... Fragments observed by EISA have higher signal intensity than traditional fragments which suffer losses in the collision cells ...
... which allow for gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) between cells to regulate cell death, proliferation, and ... Furthermore, GJA1 is expressed in many immune cells, such as eosinophils and T cells, where its gap junction function promotes ... In addition, GJA1 can be found in the Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules between Sertoli cells and spermatogonia or primary ... Cell Communication & Adhesion. 10 (4-6): 201-205. doi:10.1080/cac.10.4-6.201.205. PMID 14681016. Andrew L Harris and Darren ...
Pioneer of Cell-Matrix Interactions". Cell Communication & Adhesion. 20 (6): 139. doi:10.3109/15419061.2013.857662. "Richard O ... His research focuses on cell adhesion and the interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix, with a particular ... Hynes served as the president of the American Society for Cell Biology in 2000. He has been a member of the Board of Governors ... In 2007, the American Society for Cell Biology awarded Hynes and Zena Werb their most prestigious award, the E.B. Wilson Medal ...
Cell Communication & Adhesion. 13 (3): 171-83. doi:10.1080/15419060600726183. PMID 16798616. Konshina AG, Boldyrev IA, Utkin YN ... though some members may cause physical damage to the cell by establishing pores in the cell membrane. Another class, called the ... Many members of the family are neurotoxins that bind to receptor proteins in the cell membrane, particularly nicotinic ... as well as possible functionally significant interactions with other cell-surface molecules such as glycosaminoglycans. A ...
Kučera O, Cifra M (2013). "Cell-to-cell signaling through light: just a ghost of chance?". Cell Communication and Signaling. 11 ... The hypothesis of cellular communication by biophotons was highly criticised for failing to explain how could cells detect ... In healthy cells, the concentration of ROS is minimized by a system of biological antioxidants. However, heat shock and other ... "Are there optical communication channels in our brains?". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 9 September 2017. Beloussov, LV; ...
Cell Communication and Signaling. 9 (18): 18. doi:10.1186/1478-811X-9-18. PMC 3180438. PMID 21914164. Mantovani A (June 2010 ... In order for a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, the genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation must be ... such as giant cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma and small-cell carcinoma. An invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (pale ... Germ cell tumor: Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle or the ovary (seminoma and ...
Cell Communication and Signaling. 7 (22): 22. doi:10.1186/1478-811X-7-22. PMC 2747914. PMID 19737390. Simister PC, Feller SM ( ... GC-GAP is responsible for the proliferation of astroglioma cells. The interaction between GAB2 and Grb2 at the cell membrane ... It is a member of the GAB/DOS family localized on the internal membrane of the cell. It mediates the interaction between ... PI3K activation by GAB2 promotes cell growth. The effects of all the pathways activated by GAB proteins are not known, but it ...
Heldin CH (2013). "Targeting the PDGF signaling pathway in tumor treatment". Cell Communication and Signaling. 11: 97. doi: ... In vitro studies using cultured cells indicate that endothelial cells secrete PDGF, which recruits PDGFRβ-expressing pericytes ... Olson LE, Soriano P (2011). "PDGFRβ signaling regulates mural cell plasticity and inhibits fat development". Developmental Cell ... Cell. Biol. 12 (12): 5824-33. doi:10.1128/MCB.12.12.5824. PMC 360522. PMID 1333047. Chen M, She H, Davis EM, Spicer CM, Kim L, ...
Cell Communication and Signaling. 10 (1): 34. doi:10.1186/1478-811X-10-34. PMC 3515343. PMID 23176204. Priolo, M.; Laganà, C ( ... The DLHP cells function in a similar fashion as MHP cells regarding their wedge like shape, however, the DLHP cells result in ... These special cells are called medial hinge cells (MHPs). Now, as the ectoderm continues to elongate, the ectodermal cells of ... The neural crest cells eventually pull the adjacent ectodermal cells together, which leaves neural crest cells between the ...
... is a Src family kinase target in colorectal cancer cells". Cell Communication and Signaling. 6: 7. doi:10.1186/1478-811X-6-7. ... is a Src family kinase target in colorectal cancer cells". Cell Communication and Signaling. 6: 7. doi:10.1186/1478-811X-6-7. ... ODIN may be involved in cancer cell signaling mechanisms. In a study, 64 colorectal cancer cell lines were tested for their ... The coding sequences of 80 new genes (KIAA0201-KIAA0280) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from cell line KG-1 and brain". DNA ...
Cell Communication and Signaling. 7: 9. doi:10.1186/1478-811X-7-9. PMC 2685135. PMID 19389260. Nygaard G, Di Paolo JA, Hammaker ... Zou X, Tsutsui T, Ray D, Blomquist JF, Ichijo H, Ucker DS, Kiyokawa H (July 2001). "The cell cycle-regulatory CDC25A ... Chen J, Fujii K, Zhang L, Roberts T, Fu H (July 2001). "Raf-1 promotes cell survival by antagonizing apoptosis signal- ... Zhang L, Chen J, Fu H (July 1999). "Suppression of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1-induced cell death by 14-3-3 proteins ...
As such, succinate links TCA cycle dysfunction or metabolic changes to cell-cell communication and to oxidative stress-related ... Succinate may enhance adaptive immunity by triggering the activity of antigen-presenting cells that, in turn, activate T-cells ... Enzymes required for the GABA shunt are expressed in neurons, glial cells, macrophages and pancreatic cells. Succinate is ... Cell Communication and Signaling. 14: 3. doi:10.1186/s12964-016-0126-1. PMC 4709936. PMID 26759054. Bardella, Chiara; Pollard, ...
Developmental biologists suggest that complex interactions in genetic networks and communication among cells can lead to ... Before a cell divides through mitosis, the DNA is copied, so that each of the resulting two cells will inherit the DNA sequence ... Cell Communication and Signaling. 9 (30): 30. doi:10.1186/1478-811X-9-30. PMC 3215633. PMID 22053760. "Francis Galton (1822- ... However, this was disputed by the creation of the cell theory in the 19th century, where the fundamental unit of life is the ...
Lee, H-J; Zheng JJ (2010). "PDZ Domains and their binding Partners: Structure Specificity and Modification". Cell Communication ... thereby preventing bacterial cells from multiplying. Nests are defined by the conformation of the main chain atoms, namely the ... in the antibiotic peptide vancomycin which binds a key carboxylate group utilized during the final stages of bacterial cell ...
Cell Communication and Signaling. 10 (1): 43. doi:10.1186/1478-811X-10-43. PMC 3566944. PMID 23253402. Asghari M, Abazari MF, ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.01.029. PMC 4882190. PMID 26871637. Zhong Q, Pevzner SJ, Hao T, Wang Y, Mosca R, Menche J, et al. ( ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.04.013. PMC 4441215. PMID 25910212. Yang X, Coulombe-Huntington J, Kang S, Sheynkman GM, Hao T, ... A fusion of FAM208b and PLEKHB1 has been validated as candidate for fusion of chromosomes 10 and 11 in Donor Cell Leukemia. ...
Cell Adhesion and Communication. 2 (2): 101-13. doi:10.3109/15419069409004430. PMID 8081887. Yokosaki Y, Monis H, Chen J, ... Integrin αvβ6 is found exclusively on epithelial cells. In most resting normal cells, little ITGB6 is produced, however the ... May 2018). "Epigenetic regulation of integrin β6 transcription induced by TGF-β1 in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells". ... Integrins are αβ heterodimeric glycoproteins which span the cell's membrane, integrating the outside and inside of the cell. ...
Cell Adhesion and Communication. 2 (3): 185-93. doi:10.3109/15419069409004436. PMID 7827955. Ständer M, Naumann U, Wick W, ... It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. COL4A1 is a subunit of the type IV collagen and plays a role in ... In a normal wall of arteries, collagen type IV acts to inhibit smooth muscle cell proliferation. Accordingly, it was ... NC1 binds to the α1β1 integrin and inhibits specific integrin signaling pathways in vascular epithelial cells. It also ...
Cell Adhesion and Communication. 2 (1): 15-26. doi:10.3109/15419069409014199. PMID 7982033. Kido M, Obata S, Tanihara H, ... integral membrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Mature cadherin proteins are composed of a large ... Type II (atypical) cadherins are defined based on their lack of a HAV cell adhesion recognition sequence specific to type I ... Cell Regulation. 2 (4): 261-70. doi:10.1091/mbc.2.4.261. PMC 361775. PMID 2059658. "Entrez Gene: CDH8 cadherin 8, type 2". ...
Cell Communication and Signaling. 8: 8. doi:10.1186/1478-811X-8-8. PMC 2891790. PMID 20509869. Li J, Callaway DJ, Bu Z ( ... Cell. 131 (1): 80-92. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.07.037. PMID 17923089. S2CID 14008319. van den Berk LC, Landi E, Walma T, Vuister ... both play an important role at cell junctions and in cell signaling complexes. Since the discovery of PDZ domains more than 20 ... For cells to function properly it is important for components-proteins and other molecules- to be in the right place at the ...
Cell Communication and Signaling. 12: 76. doi:10.1186/s12964-014-0076-4. PMC 4261244. PMID 25433496. Yoshikawa T, Piao Y, Zhong ... and HIF-1α expression in breast cancer cells". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 467 (4): 1083-9. doi: ... Common in Germ Cell Tumors and Small Cell Carcinomas, and Rare in Other Carcinomas and Sarcomas: An Immunohistochemical Study ... germ cell tumors, hemangioblastoma, GIST, lung cancer, small cell carcinoma of the lung, breast cancer, colon cancer, ...
Cell Communication and Signaling. 9 (18). doi:10.1186/1478-811X-9-18. PMC 3180438. PMID 21914164. Coussens, L. M.; Werb, Z. ( ... "Cell-to-Cell Transmission of HIV-1 Is Required to Trigger Pyroptotic Death of Lymphoid-Tissue-Derived CD4 T Cells". Cell ... dendritic cells, histiocytes, Kupffer cells and mast cells. These cells possess surface receptors known as pattern recognition ... A normal cell may undergo carcinogenesis to become a cancer cell if it is frequently subjected to DNA damage during long ...
Cell Communication and Signaling. 8 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1478-811x-8-11. PMC 2912314. PMID 20540792. Ny A, Autiero M, Carmeliet ... In addition to cells, Xenopus or zebrafish embryos can also be screened in 96 well format where compounds are dissolved in the ... These screens can be done in a high-throughput mode, using 96 well-plates, where each well contains cells treated with a unique ... Chemical genetics is the investigation of the function of proteins and signal transduction pathways in cells by the screening ...
Cell Communication and Signaling. 13 (1): 43. doi:10.1186/s12964-015-0120-z. PMC 4654906. PMID 26589632. Ren S, Yang G, He Y, ... E. Coli injects a protein, EspF(U), that mimics an autoinhibitory element of N-WASP into the host cell to activate actin- ... The KDEL motif of the bacteria encoded cholera toxin mediates cell entry of the cholera toxin. Linear motif mediated protein- ... Davey NE, Travé G, Gibson TJ (March 2011). "How viruses hijack cell regulation". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 36 (3): 159-69 ...
Cell Adhesion and Communication. 2 (1): 1-6. doi:10.3109/15419069409014197. PMID 7982032. Weeks BS, Desai K, Loewenstein PM, ... Integrins mediate cell-matrix or cell-cell adhesion, and transduced signals that regulate gene expression and cell growth. This ... "Identification of a novel cell attachment domain in the HIV-1 Tat protein and its 90-kDa cell surface binding protein". The ... Kajiji S, Tamura RN, Quaranta V (Mar 1989). "A novel integrin (alpha E beta 4) from human epithelial cells suggests a fourth ...
Cell Communication and Signaling. 7 (7239): 7. Bibcode:2009Natur.458..718F. doi:10.1186/1478-811X-7-7. PMC 2673226. PMID ...
T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ... 细胞毒性T细胞(CTLs, killer T cells)负责杀伤被病毒感染的细胞和癌细胞,在对器官移植的免疫排斥中也有参与。其特点在于细胞表面的CD8蛋白质。它通过识别所有有核细胞表面的MHC-I分子上的短肽抗原,来分辨正常细胞和应杀伤的异常细胞。细胞 ... T细胞(英語:T cell、T
Hamming codes are only suitable for more reliable single-level cell (SLC) NAND. Denser multi-level cell (MLC) NAND requires ... "Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC).. *^ IEEE Standard, section "802.11n ... Clark, George C., Jr.; Cain, J. Bibb (1981). Error-Correction Coding for Digital Communications. New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 0 ... Wicker, Stephen B. (1995). Error Control Systems for Digital Communication and Storage. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall. ...
"Nature Communications. 6: 8285. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6E8285S. doi:10.1038/ncomms9285. PMC 4595633 . PMID 26393325.. ... The brain detects insulin in the blood, which indicates that nutrients are being absorbed by cells and a person is getting full ... When the glucose levels of cells drop (glucoprivation), the body starts to produce the feeling of hunger. The body also ...
The cells met to read Marxist texts and hold self-criticism sessions.[51] Sâr joined a cell that met on the rue Lacepède; his ... There he met with Mao and then Deng.[221] Although communication with Mao was hindered by the reliance on translators, Mao ... As communication across Cambodia was slow, each Zone would have to operate independently much of the time.[145] ... underground communications; all correspondence between the Democratic Party and the Pracheachon went through him.[102] Sihanouk ...
The moonlit sky is not perceived as blue, however, because at low light levels human vision comes mainly from rod cells that do ... For the wireless communication effect, see Rayleigh fading.. Rayleigh scattering causes the blue color of the daytime sky and ...
It also contains pacemaker cells and nonpacemaker cells that initiate spontaneous breathing. Research is being conducted on the ... synchronized bursts in inspiratory neurons was affected as well as communication with hypoglossal motor pools that help ... It is one of the four cell groups of the Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG). It is hypothesized that the pre-Bötzinger complex is ... which helps cell regenerate its bursts. The ratio between inward and outward currents helps determine the activity of pacemaker ...
Low operating voltages compatible with batteries of only a few cells.. *Circuits with greater energy efficiency are usually ... to communications technology such as smartphones.[62] The MOSFET has been considered to be the most important transistor,[63] ... Solaristor (from solar cell transistor), a two-terminal gate-less self-powered phototransistor. ...
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 2002, 16 (7): 670-5. Bibcode:2002RCMS...16..670M. PMID 11921245. doi:10.1002/rcm.623 ... 細胞損傷(英語:Cell damage). *傷口癒合 ...
The German Type 214 submarine employs advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells that assist in delivering it comparable ... gather intelligence through the interception of electronic communications by foreign nations, and assist in the deployment and ... ...
"Republic of Slovenia Government Communication Office. Retrieved November 8, 2016.. *^ Kramer, Samuel Noah (1963). The Sumerians ... In medicine, this era brought innovations such as open-heart surgery and later stem cell therapy along with new medications and ... Communication was also greatly improved with the invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio and television. The late 19th and ... A modern example is the rise of communication technology, which has lessened barriers to human interaction and as a result has ...
In his speech he used words such as "cell" and "metabolism" in relation to urban design. The Metabolist movement grew out of ... In his design of a high tech version of Kofu Communications Centre, Tange equipped all three buildings with state-of-the-art ...
Several cells may live together, forming filaments (or colonies). Andres 09:28, 11 Aug 2004 (UTC). *If someone knows more (or ... Laser-Raman spectroscopy (Communication arising): Images of the Earth's earliest fossils? Pasteris JD, Wopenka B NATURE 420 ( ... Laser-Raman spectroscopy (Communication arising): Images of the Earth's earliest fossils? Reply Schopf JW, Kudryavtsev AB, ... In a colony, a term quite loosely defined, the cells are stuck together due to the extracellular polysacharides, whereas in ...
One study, however, did make use of human neural stem cells grown into a network to control a robotic actuator. These cells ... The communication can be, and usually is, bidirectional; researchers can both record electrophysiological data from a live ... Harvesting neural stem cells requires sacrificing the developing fetus, a process considered too costly to perform on many ... Like most cell cultures, neuron cultures are highly susceptible to infection. They are also susceptible to hyperosmolality from ...
Office of Communications. Department of Health Services. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2013.. ... USC Medical Center provides care for half of HIV/AIDS and sickle cell anemia patients in Southern California.[26] ...
The Lantern is the school's daily newspaper and has operated as a laboratory newspaper in the School of Communication (formerly ... engineering students and engineers from the Ford Motor Company and will seek to break the land speed record for hydrogen cell ... ", "Media, Marketing, and Communications Scholars", "Biological Sciences Scholars", "International Affairs Scholars", "Business ...
At the same time, Michael confronts Leila over the call made using the stolen cell phone. He then kills Leila's handler as he ... The missile turns out to be a communications satellite that is transmitting a message into space from Thomas and Isabel to the ... At the end, Leila manages to contact Sean using a stolen cell phone and informs him of Sophia's plan. ...
Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells,[223] while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... 2006). The ACS Style Guide: Effective Communication of Scientific Information (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Chemical ... The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane.[231] The cell membrane ... Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride.[118] On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but ...
... and antireflective coatings on solar cells.[1] ... "Southwest Museum of Engineering, Communications and Computation ...
Lied, Finn (1967). High Frequency Radio Communications with Emphasis on Polar Problems. The Advisory Group for Aerospace ... A differential interference contrast microscopy image of yeast cells. Unstained biological structures appear mostly transparent ... "Forensic Science Communications, Glass Refractive Index Determination". FBI Laboratory Services. Archived from the original on ... thus enabling long-distance radio communications. See also Radio Propagation and Skywave.[22] ...
cell nucleus. • cytosol. Biological process. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 143 (2): 740-8. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(87)91416-1. PMID 3551956.. ... epithelial cell maturation. • mammary gland development. • paracrine signaling. • lung alveolus development. • regulation of ... epithelial cell proliferation both in response to estrogen alone and in the presence of progesterone and estrogen. These ...
... to higher temperatures and either combusted to do work or in the case of hydrogen gas extracted for use in a hydrogen fuel cell ... Catalysis Communications. 27: 33-37. doi:10.1016/j.catcom.2012.06.018.. ...
Electrolysis cells can be either open cell or closed cell. In open cell systems, the electrolysis products, which are gaseous, ... Between cold fusion and respectable science there is virtually no communication at all. Cold fusion papers are almost never ... the power input to the cell was equal to the calculated power leaving the cell within measurement accuracy, and the cell ... Groups that did report successes found that some of their cells were producing the effect, while other cells that were built ...
Odontocetes, such as the sperm whale, possess teeth with cementum cells overlying dentine cells. Unlike human teeth, which are ... Some believe this is a means of communication.[66] Whales are also known to produce bubble-nets for the purpose of foraging.[67 ... they contain both rod and cone cells, meaning they can see in both dim and bright light, but they have far more rod cells than ... Whales do, however, lack short wavelength sensitive visual pigments in their cone cells indicating a more limited capacity for ...
"sickle cell disease". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ MD, Kenneth R. Bridges. "How Does Sickle Cell Cause ... In mating, for many animals the signals and receptors of sexual communication may have evolved simultaneously as the expression ... Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease that causes deformed red blood cells with a rigid, crescent shape instead of the normal ... "Complications and Treatments , Sickle Cell Disease". CDC. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ a b c d "Marfan Syndrome". National ...
Nature Communications. 5 (5211): 5211. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5E5211L. doi:10.1038/ncomms6211. PMID 25376734.. ... Cell. 25 (4): 326-328. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2013.05.011. PMID 23725759.. ...
1967). The Ear As A Communication Receiver. Melville, NY: Acoustical Society of America.. ... such as the coding of speech for digital transmission in cell phone networks). In such applications, the data must be ... Claude Elwood Shannon (1948), Alcatel-Lucent, ed., "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" (in German), Bell System Technical ... US patent 2605361, C. Chapin Cutler, "Differential Quantization of Communication Signals", issued 1952-07-29 ...
Cell * sw:Cell. Central processing unit * sw:Central processing unit. Cereal * sw:Cereal. Chanakya * sw:Chanakya. Charlemagne ... Communication * sw:Communication. Communism * sw:Communism. Complex number * sw:Complex number. Components * sw:Components. ...
... audio and video communication, and web conferencing, and with Release 8.5, IBM Connections. ...
When the bladder is fully distended the superficial cells become squamous (flat) and the stratification of the cuboidal cells ... Wyatt, Tristram D. (27 February 2003). Pheromones and Animal Behaviour: Communication by Smell and Taste. Cambridge University ... Peters, Roger (1980). Mammalian Communication: A Behavioral Analysis of Meaning. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0- ... transitional epithelium which contains a superficial layer of dome-like cells and multiple layers of stratified cuboidal cells ...
Wu J, Zern MA (2000). "Hepatic stellate cells: a target for the treatment of liver fibrosis". Journal of Gastroenterology. 35 ( ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 291 (4): 1109-12. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2002.6557. PMID 11866479.. ... Vitamin K prevents hypoprothrombinemia in rats and can sometimes control the increase in plasma/cell ratios of vitamin A.[49] ... Levine PH, Delgado Y, Theise ND, West AB (February 2003). "Stellate-cell lipidosis in liver biopsy specimens. Recognition and ...
Block-Cell-Printing for live single-cell printing Kai Zhang, Chao-Kai Chou, Xiaofeng Xia, Mien-Chie Hung, and Lidong Qin ... Requirement of Fra proteins for communication channels between cells in the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena ... Data-driven modeling reveals cell behaviors controlling self-organization during Myxococcus xanthus development Christopher R. ... Differential fates of biomolecules delivered to target cells via extracellular vesicles *From the Cover ...
One important function of cell cell communication is to guide the path for cell migration. Cells transmit and receive signals ... Cell communication is the ability of cells to communicate with adjacent cells within an organism. The term is mostly applicable ... Multiple breakdowns in cell communication result in the uncontrolled growth of cells. When one breakdown occurs, the cell gains ... "Cell communication I". Retrieved 2018-11-12. Cell Junctions, retrieved 2018-11-12 Cell Biology by Pollard et ...
Cell Communication & Adhesion (formerly Cell Adhesion & Communication) is an academic journal that publishes review articles on ... Intercelluar communication Intercellular junctions Receptor-based cell recognition & signaling Cell Communication & Adhesion is ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Cell Communication & Adhesion homepage of Cell Communication & Adhesion. ... FRACP are the regional editors of Cell Communication & Adhesion. Cell Communication & Adhesion publishes six issues per year in ...
... * The sound of tumor cell-microenvironment communication - composed by the Cancer ... Understanding cell signaling in cancer stem cells for targeted therapy - can phosphoproteomics help to reveal the secrets? ... genetically and phenotypically distinct cells with a common clonal origin. Cancer stem cells (CSC) make up a rare su... ... T cell exhaustion: from pathophysiological basics to tumor immunotherapy The immune system is capable of distinguishing between ...
... that provided the cells), cell type, number of cell line, and batch of cells. ... Cell lines. If human cells are used, authors must declare in the manuscript: what cell lines were used by describing the source ... whether the cell line has recently been authenticated and by what method. If cells were bought from a life science company the ... Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a ...
... animal cells use gap junctions which are symplasmic connections through which molecules can diffuse from one cell to another. ... Cell-Cell Communication During Development. Type and Complexity of Pores. Variations in cell-cell communication can be ... Cell-to-Cell Communication in Fungi. News-Medical. ... Cell-to-Cell Communication in Fungi. News-Medical. 19 September 2019. , ...
7: Mural cell organotypicity. , Nature Communications. Fig. 7: Mural cell organotypicity.. From: Single-cell analysis uncovers ... a UMAP visualization of the mural cell dataset, color coded and annotated for pagoda2 clustering (left) or color coded for ... fibroblast heterogeneity and criteria for fibroblast and mural cell identification and discrimination ...
... an evolution-communication model for tissue P systems where communication rules are inspired by the general mechanism of cell ... communication based on signals and receptors: a multiset can... ... Cell communication in tissue P systems and cell division in ... The universality for all these variants of tissue P systems is then proved by using two cells (three cells in the case of ... an evolution-communication model for tissue P systems where communication rules are inspired by the general mechanism of cell ...
The discovery is important because it adds essential information to the understanding of how cells relay molecular messages, a ... University of Wisconsin-Madison scientists have found a critical step in communication between cells that promotes such things ... Communication -- or miscommunication -- between cells is the basis for many diseases. For example, in humans it is believed ... A critical step in communication between cells that promotes such things as bone formation, limb growth, and the development of ...
Cell-cell communication in carcinogenesis.. Trosko JE1, Ruch RJ.. Author information. 1. Department of Pediatrics and Human ... Normal homeostatic control of these three forms of cell communication determines whether: (a) the cell remains quiescent (Go ... Interestingly, cancer cells have been characterized as cells: (a) having been derived from a stem-like cell; (b) without their ... exceptions are free-standing cells such as red blood cells, neutrophils, and several, if not all, the stem cells). On the other ...
The presented conceptual advances in the MuSC field impact on our general understanding of stem cells and their therapeutic use ... Skeletal muscle has a remarkable regenerative capacity, which can largely be attributed to resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs). ... how these processes are regulated by the stem cell niche, and the role of MuSCs in neuromuscular diseases. ... mainly due to its resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs). In this review, we introduce recently developed technologies and the ...
Cell-cell communication in bacteria: united we stand.. von Bodman SB1, Willey JM, Diggle SP. ... In panel b, the thick contour line separates the noninduced cells from the induced cells. The three-dimensional domain is ... Images are of 4-day-old biofilms in flow cells. (A) P. aeruginosa PAO1; (B) S. maltophilia K279a; (C) mixed culture of P. ... At low cell density, in the absence of autoinducers, hapR expression is repressed, thereby permitting the expression of ...
Underestimated communication channel in cell exposed. A specimen of Escherichia coli, the type of bacteria that was the subject ... Communication and signalling within cells is controlled by minute changes to the proteins involved. Scientists have already ... The four above-mentioned communication channels are used to react to changes in the environment through actions within the cell ... The other three communication channels, using phosphorylation of serine, threonine or tyrosine, were thought to be more ...
... lack of neuronal protein BIN1 leads to a defect in the transmission of chemical messages that activate brain cell communication ... BIN1 deficit impairs brain cell communication, memory consolidation Preclinical study by a University of South Florida Health- ... BIN1 deficit impairs brain cell communication, memory consolidation. University of South Florida (USF Health) ... Among the Cell Reports study highlights:. *Loss of BIN1 expression in neurons leads to impaired spatial learning and memory. ...
This scenario disrupts communication between nerve cells, and thus memory and cognitive ability in Alzheimers disease," said ... Study Finds Enzyme Disrupting Nerve Cell Communication In Alzheimers Disease. by Sam Savage ... "the connections that mediate communication between nerve cells""is driven by a chemical modification to an enzyme called Cdk5. ... the part of a nerve cell that transmits electrochemical signals to other nerve cells. Loss of synapses is known to correlate ...
Cell-cell communication by Endocannabinoids during Immune Surveillance of the Central Nervous System ... Cell Communication in Nervous and Immune System. Editors: Gundelfinger, Eckart D., Seidenbecher, Constanze, Schraven, Burkhart ... Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation. Series Volume. 43. Copyright. 2006. Publisher. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg ... puts side by side cellular communication devices and signaling mechanisms in the immune and nervous systems and discusses ...
New research suggests evidence for a novel type of communication between nerve cells in the brain. The findings may have ... This is the "classic" means of communication between nerve cells, and lies at the base of most of current understanding of how ... Furthermore, gap junctions between excitatory cells were predicted to occur at an unexpected place: the axons of the cells (the ... what nerve cells have them, where on the cells are they located, and how are they controlled (i.e. can the gap junctions be ...
Unlocking a cell phone allows consumers to move their cell phone from one network to another compatible network. Some cell ... What is Cell Phone Unlocking?. Unlocking a cell phone allows consumers to move their cell phone from one network to another ... Q1: What does it mean to "unlock" a cell phone? A: Unlocking a device allows consumers to move their device from one network to ... Q4: Is my cell phone locked? A: With many providers, unless you purchased a phone or device specifically sold as "unlocked" at ...
... Breakdown of a link between immune response and autophagy may ... An immune-related protein deployed between neighboring cells in Drosophila plays an essential role in the cell-degradation ... Autophagy is the process cells use to degrade used or damaged components inside the cell for recycling. Normally autophagy acts ... Our studies revealed an unexpected finding where one cell triggers autophagy in neighboring cells." ...
The internet has revolutionized global communications and now researchers at Stanford University are looking to provide a ... New Cell-To-Cell Communication Process Could Revolutionize Bioengineering 49 Posted by samzenpus on Monday October 01, 2012 @12 ... New Cell-To-Cell Communication Process Could Revolutionize Bioengineering. Archived Discussion. Load All Comments ... Submission: Bi-Fi: New Cell-to-Cell Communication Process Could Revolutionize Bioengineering. ...
pumps the Ca out of cell and into Endoplasmic Reticulum causing cell to respond (usually in the form of muscle contraction) ... Means of cell communication; two types .. Paracrine (organ) and Synaptic (nerve) Signaling ... A receptor protein inside the target cell detects and responds to signaling molecule (LIGAND) ... Both use ligands and respective receptor proteins found on the target cell ...
... two topics that are now inexorably linked as science strives to understand the stem cell niche and its function. Gathering a ... This volume examines cell-cell interactions and stem cell renewal, ... Cardiomyocytes Cell to cell communications Pluripotent stem cells Stem cell niche Stem cell self-renewal ... Practical and reliable, Stem Cell Renewal and Cell-Cell Communication: Methods and Protocols will aid researchers in using ...
The effectiveness of new drugs depends crucially on a fundamental understanding of the complex processes within the cells of ... Communication in the cell: important step of signal transmission elucidated. Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin ... The functioning of GPCRs in the cell depends on how the receptors interact with different proteins in the cell. One of these ... These molecules bind to specific docking sites on the surface of the target cell and initiate a series of sequential reactions ...
Quinolone signaling in the cell-to-cell communication system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Everett C. Pesci, Jared B. J. Milbank, ... In the case of cell density, many species are able to react to the achievement of a critical density through a cell-to-cell ... Quinolone signaling in the cell-to-cell communication system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ... Quinolone signaling in the cell-to-cell communication system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ...
Cells communicate to coordinate what they do. They might be a group of cells al... ... Signal transduction is a way that cells talk to one another. ... Signal Transduction: cell to cell communication (thing). See ... Either way, the receiving cell gets a signal molecule from the sending cell.. Cell membranes are made of lipid molecules. Cells ... They might be a group of cells all specialized to do something specific, mating cells, or cells all about to divide. Just like ...
... which could come in handy after disasters that knock out communication networks. ... A Wireless Communications System That Works When Cell Phones, Internet Are Down. LifeNet lets computers and phones talk to each ... One of the first things to disappear in the wake of a major disaster is reliable communication. Without access to cell phone ... be used in any region that lacks a reliable communications infrastructure. "The next thing is to get real users. We plan to ...
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Berlins neuroscientists decode important mechanism of nerve cell communication. 21.12.2011. By researching fruit flies, ... which enables the sensible communication between nerve cells.. There are more and more indications that genetic defects in the ... Cluster of Excellence »Excellence »NeuroCure »RBP-protein »degenerative Erkrankung »fruit fly »nerve cell »neurological disease ... When our brain is at work, for example when we are looking at a picture or planning a movement, its nerve cells communicate ...
Cell-to-cell communication was investigated in epidermal cells cut from stem internodal tissue of Nicotiana tabacum and Torenia ... peptides and dextrans were microinjected using iontophoresis into the cytoplasm andcortical endomembrane network of these cells ... Cell-to-cell communication via plant endomembranes Cell Biol Int. 1999;23(10):653-61. doi: 10.1006/cbir.1999.0431. ... Cell-to-cell communication was investigated in epidermal cells cut from stem internodal tissue of Nicotiana tabacum and Torenia ...
A cell site (114) provides a communication unit (128) within its cell (112) with communication and a neighbor cell list. The ... the cell site (114) sends the communication unit the neighbor cell list related to the new cell. With a new neighbor cell list ... has entered another cell and/or needs to hand-off its communication to another cell site but has been denied, ... 300), the communication unit (128) can now attempt to maintain its communication by handing-off to cells unknown before. In ...
  • Cell junction can happen in many forms, but the three main forms of cell junction are gap junctions, tight junctions, and desmosomes. (
  • Gap junctions have a very crucial job that cause a tube to form between the 2 cells allowing in the transport of ions and water. (
  • Desmosome cell junctions physically hold the cells together, but do not allow the cells to pass materials between each other like in gap junction. (
  • Desmosome junctions connect the cell with a thread like substance that also connect to the cytoskeleton aiding in the structural support of the cell. (
  • Cell Communication & Adhesion (formerly Cell Adhesion & Communication) is an academic journal that publishes review articles on intercellular communication, intercellular junctions and families of adhesion receptors and counter receptors from diverse biological systems. (
  • Intercelluar communication Intercellular junctions Receptor-based cell recognition & signaling Cell Communication & Adhesion is owned by Informa plc Pamela Cowin, PhD and Carien Niessen, PhD and Alpha Yap, MBBS, PhD, FRACP are the regional editors of Cell Communication & Adhesion. (
  • To communicate with its neighbors, animal cells use gap junctions which are symplasmic connections through which molecules can diffuse from one cell to another. (
  • There is, however, another means for nerve cells to communicate with one another, called gap junctions. (
  • Gap junctions allow electric current to flow directly from one cell to another, without involving the release and diffusion of transmitter chemicals, and may be thought of as "short circuits" linking or cutting across the pathways through which cells normally communicate. (
  • additionally, gap junctions in mammals have been studied that exist between nerve cells that produce inhibition - that is, between cells that are not primarily involved in epileptic seizures. (
  • Gap junctions between excitatory cells in the mammalian brain have not traditionally been part of the thinking of neuroscientists. (
  • that is, gap junctions are not confined to the cells that produce inhibition. (
  • Furthermore, gap junctions between excitatory cells were predicted to occur at an unexpected place: the axons of the cells (the axon is the part of the cell that allows propagation of a signal over long distances). (
  • Animal cells are able to pass information cell-to-cell though flexible openings in cell walls called gap junctions. (
  • 22 Cardiac myocytes are communicated by hydrophilic channels (gap junctions) that permit the electrical synchronization and flow of chemical messages between cardiac cells. (
  • Another important focus of this study was to investigate the role of "gap junctions," small protein pores which connect adjacent cells. (
  • In addition, areas in which two cells formed gap junctions were found. (
  • Electric signalling occurs in the central nervous system and direct cell-cell contacts are formed by so-called gap junctions, small protein tunnels [ 1 ], which consist of different connexin isoforms providing the exchange of ions, small molecules, or potentials [ 2 - 4 ]. (
  • Tunneling nanotubes (TNT) represent a novel type of intercellular communication machinery, which differs from the secretion of signaling molecules and the signal transmission through gap or synaptic junctions between adjacent cells. (
  • Cells also signal through gap junctions. (
  • Historically it was thought that the information flow from cell to cell was controlled by the number of quanta, or packets, of neurotransmitter chemicals released at any one time across specialised cell junctions known as synapses, he says. (
  • Thus, glucocorticoids through development of gap junctions enabled establishment of intercellular communication that could be stimulated by insulin and glucagon in cultured fetal hepatocytes. (
  • When cells cease to communicate via 'gap junctions' (GJs), stem cell characteristics and autonomous behavior are created. (
  • Although in vascular endothelial cells adhesive junctions account for the integrity of the vessel wall, they are not to be considered as static molecular structures that function as intercellular glue. (
  • In the past years, a large effort was made by several groups to decipher the molecular organization of intercellular junctions in endothelial cells. (
  • Requirement of Fra proteins for communication channels between cells in the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. (
  • The signal can cross the membrane itself, or it can interact with receptor proteins that contact both the interior and exterior of a cell. (
  • When these signals are transmitted between proteins, the proteins are modified creating a signaling pathway that can lead to a specific part of the cell or branch out sending the signal to multiple parts of the cell. (
  • A proteins direct cellular response when it reaches its destination is to begin to alter the behavior of the cell. (
  • Inhibitors of DNA binding and cell differentiation (Id) proteins are members of the large family of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors, but they lack any DNA-binding motif. (
  • Identifying the messengers -- a large family of proteins that carry genetic signals and switch genes on and off -- and their roles in communicating at a distance has implications for the development of new strategies to treat diseases caused by malfunctioning genes or disrupted pathways of communication. (
  • Communication and signalling within cells is controlled by minute changes to the proteins involved. (
  • The phosphorylation of one or more types of proteins then starts a chain reaction, which leads to changes in the cell's activities, such as cell division, migration or death. (
  • The researchers therefore decided to first develop a method for studying the histidine communication channel in bacteria (the Escherichia coli, see image), because they have fewer proteins and enzymes. (
  • The neurotransmitters diffuse across a tiny space between the nerve cells, and then bind to proteins (called "receptors") on other nerve cells. (
  • But the proteins that control this process are largely thought to function autonomously, inside individual cells. (
  • The discovery came after Desiderio and his team used biochemical "bait" to fish for candidate proteins that physically bind to TFII-I. The fishing expedition returned one protein known to control when and how much calcium a cell takes in. (
  • The functioning of GPCRs in the cell depends on how the receptors interact with different proteins in the cell. (
  • A cell might change its shape (the cellular skeleton does this), move, make new proteins, or change some part of its metabolism or cycle (such as entering into the next part of its mitotic or meiotic-cell multiplication -cycle). (
  • Plant cells share a strange and surprising kinship with animal neurons: many plant cells have proteins that closely resemble glutamate receptors, which help to relay nerve signals from one neuron to another. (
  • Their findings also suggest that GLRs rely on another group of proteins, called "cornichon" proteins, to shuttle GLRs to different locations and regulate GLR activity within each cell. (
  • With the help of cornichon proteins, GLRs act as valves that carefully manage the concentration of calcium ions--a vital aspect of many cell communication pathways--within various structures inside the cell, the study found. (
  • In their experiments with Arabidopsis pollen cells, Feijó's team found that cornichon proteins actively shuttled GLRs from one location to another within the cell, enabling various compartments inside the cell to maintain different calcium ion concentrations. (
  • Proteins act as regulators to the flow of molecules between plant cells. (
  • More is being learned about the these proteins, which ones are available to the plant cell and exactly how they work to prohibit some molecules from passing through plasmodesmata while allowing access to others. (
  • According to Professor Maule, "We are sure that plasmodesmata will contain many important proteins but our identification of this new class already means that we know now how we might regulate molecular flow from cell to cell. (
  • Signaling pathways can get very complicated very quickly because most cellular proteins can affect different downstream events, depending on the conditions within the cell. (
  • It could be shown that connexins, the gap junction proteins, were located around cell nuclei, where they await their transport to the cell membrane. (
  • When mating factor binds to cell-surface receptors in other yeast cells that are nearby, they stop their normal growth cycles and initiate a cell signaling cascade that includes protein kinases and GTP-binding proteins that are similar to G-proteins. (
  • Exosomes, membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released by all cells (both healthy and diseased), ranging in size from 30 to 150 nm, transport all the main biomolecules, including lipids, proteins, DNAs, messenger RNAs and microRNA, and perform intercellular transfer of components, locally and systemically. (
  • At left, in a normal Arabidopsis thaliana pollen grain (inside the dashed line), glutamate receptor-like proteins (green) are located in the sperm cells (arrow). (
  • Endothelial cells are maintained in contact to one another by a complex network of transmembrane adhesion proteins anchored to the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Using an antipeptide serum that recognizes connexin43, we demonstrate that this protein is phosphorylated on serine and tyrosine residues in avian and mammalian cells expressing activated src proteins. (
  • Cells transmit and receive signals acquired from fellow cells or by the environment surrounding the cell. (
  • The signals are transmitted across the cell membrane to prompt a response. (
  • Signals pass from protein to protein when the signal travels through the cell membrane entering the cell. (
  • Cells can assimilate multiple signals and every cell collects a multifaceted combination of signals that all require the cell to respond simultaneously transmitting different signals though different signaling pathways. (
  • Gap junction tubes help the cells to spread electrochemical signals from cell to cell. (
  • Electrochemical signals are the product of action potentials that occur in neurons and cardiac cells. (
  • In MS the nerve cells protective wrapping found in the brain and spinal cord, get destroyed affecting the nerve cells where they can no longer send signals from one part of the brain to another resulting in the loss of functions such as movement. (
  • We introduce an evolution-communication model for tissue P systems where communication rules are inspired by the general mechanism of cell communication based on signals and receptors: a multiset can enter a cell only in the presence of another multiset. (
  • All cancers have been generally viewed as the result of a disruption of the homeostatic regulation of a cell's ability to respond appropriately to extra-cellular signals of the body which trigger intra-cellular signal transducting mechanisms which modulate gap junctional intercellular communication between the cells within a tissue. (
  • Most notably, the transfer of NO from SNO-Cdk5 to Drp1 triggers the loss of synapses, the part of a nerve cell that transmits electrochemical signals to other nerve cells. (
  • A breakdown in autophagy is associated with diseases such as cancer, immune disorders and neurodegeneration, but little is known about the system-wide signals between cells that control autophagy in complex, multicellular animals. (
  • Cells store calcium until still other signals occur to release it again. (
  • In this manner, intercellular signals enable a bacterial population to control the expression of specific genes in response to cell density. (
  • Subsequently, the expression of lasB also was shown to be controlled by C 4 -HSL and RhlR, indicating that both known P. aeruginosa cell-to-cell signals were involved in the regulation of this major virulence factor ( 4 , 10 - 12 ). (
  • Genes in the chloroplasts made it possible for these cells to decipher protein signals and know when to react to adverse conditions. (
  • Some examples of nanomachines found in nature are biological cells, molecular motors that produce mechanical work (e.g. myosin), and biochemical molecules, complexes, and circuits that are capable of processing chemical signals. (
  • Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic Amp . (
  • A) Not only do bacteria recognize their own secreted signals (gray circles) to coordinate a response (black diamonds), but eukaryotic cells in the vicinity may also recognize these signals and produce a response. (
  • A single pathway can branch off toward different endpoints based on the interplay between two or more signaling pathways, and the same ligands are often used to initiate different signals in different cell types. (
  • Another complicating element is signal integration of the pathways, in which signals from two or more different cell-surface receptors merge to activate the same response in the cell. (
  • Yeasts are eukaryotes (fungi), and the components and processes found in yeast signals are similar to those of cell-surface receptor signals in multicellular organisms. (
  • These molecules act as diffusible chemical communication signals (bacterial pheromones) which regulate diverse physiological processes including bioluminescence, antibiotic production, piasmid conjugal transfer and synthesis of exoenzyme virulence factors in plant and animal pathogens. (
  • Communication between distant cells depends on the release of signals in the intercellular space. (
  • These signals (first messengers) are collected by receptors located in the external cell membrane of a target cell a and then transduced in the cell interior through a perturbation of the second messenger system. (
  • Harris Communications' new line of innovative cell phone repeaters dramatically boost cell phone signals. (
  • Cell phone repeaters (or cellular repeaters) amplify cellular signals anywhere, making missed connections (and dropped calls) a thing of the past. (
  • The main signals that guide immune cells are chemokines, small polypeptides that modulate the migratory behavior of cells. (
  • These longer-lived signals molecules, which may affect cells very distant from the releasing cell, are called hormones, and this type of intercellular communication is known as endocrine signaling. (
  • Many cell signals are lipid-soluble or very small molecules that can readily pass through the plasma membrane of the target cell and into the cell, where they interact with an intracellular receptor. (
  • Her group has identified the genes that allow signal production, detection and response in both Vibrio species, and they have shown that the signals are relayed within cells through phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cascades. (
  • Otago neurobiologist Associate Professor Ian McLennan and his Aberdeen colleagues have discovered that a protein known as transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2) appears to regulate how motor neurons send signals to neighbouring brain cells. (
  • The aim of our current study is therefore to investigate the role of miRNA signals in the regulation of Cx43 expression and GJIC in normal, low malignant and highly malignant pancreatic cells. (
  • Moreover, it has recently become evident that, besides their structural functions, adhesion molecules involved in endothelial cell-cell interaction play an important role in inducing and integrating intracellular signals that, in turn, impact on several aspects of vascular cell physiology. (
  • Nanowerk News ) Scientists at A*STAR s Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS) and the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics (MPIMG) in Berlin (Germany) have discovered a molecular network in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) that integrates cell communication signals to keep the cell in its stem cell state. (
  • For example, the coordinated development of tissues in the embryo to become any specific organ requires that cells receive signals and respond accordingly. (
  • If there are errors in the signals, the cell will respond differently, possibly leading to diseases such as cancer. (
  • The communication signals which are used in hESCs activate a chain of reactions (called the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway) within each cell, causing the cell to respond by activating genetic information. (
  • In studying how cells signal each other and how they interpret the signals they receive, biologists have discovered some universal mechanisms of cellular regulation, additional evidence for the evolutionary relatedness of all life. (
  • The signals received by cells, whether originating from other cells or from changes in the physical environment, take various forms, including light and touch. (
  • However, cells most often communicate with each other by chemical signals. (
  • In this chapter, we focus on the main mechanisms by which cells receive, process, and respond to chemical signals sent from other cells. (
  • The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, better known as DARPA or ARPA, is embarking on a new program, called RadioBio, to determine whether cells are able to exchange information with EM signals and, if so, what the cells are saying and how they do it. (
  • Cell-cell communication in bacteria: united we stand. (
  • Numerous species of bacteria use an elegant regulatory mechanism known as quorum sensing to control the expression of specific genes in a cell-density dependent manner. (
  • In Gram-negative bacteria, quorum sensing systems function through a cell-to-cell signal molecule (autoinducer) that consists of a homoserine lactone with a fatty acid side chain. (
  • Bacteria at a low cell density produce a basal level of autoinducer, and, as a population grows, autoinducer concentration increases concomitantly with cell density. (
  • Region 2 is the site of colonization inside, where the bacteria multiply to high cell density and induce developmental changes, such as the AHL-dependent LuxA activity that is required for host epithelial cell swelling. (
  • One solution may be interfering with quorum sensing, a sophisticated network of cell-to-cell communication in bacteria that may cause foodborne illness, according to a Scientific Status Summary published by the Institute of Food Technologists. (
  • Within-cell signaling allows bacteria to respond to environmental cues, such as nutrient levels, some single-celled organisms also release molecules to signal to each other. (
  • Quorum sensing (QS) is a type of cell-to-cell communication that allows the bacteria to communicate via small molecules to coordinate activities such as growth, biofilm formation, virulence, and stress response as a population. (
  • We show unequivocally that fish skin epithelial cells can internalize bacteria, thus keeping the skin clear from pathogens. (
  • Bacterial communication, called quorum sensing, is a census-taking process that allows bacteria to wait until they have achieved a critical cell number before embarking on processes such as virulence, biofilm formation, sporulation and mating. (
  • She and her coworkers have shown that bacteria are multi-lingual: They have unique languages for communicating within their own species, and they also possess a common language for communication between species. (
  • Bassler believes that insights gleaned from bacteria about chemical communication will ultimately shed light on how cells evolved to interact and carry out group behaviors in higher organisms, including humans. (
  • Quorum sensing is the mechanism bacteria use for cell-to-cell signaling. (
  • This communication system allows bacteria to react to environmental changes in order to survive and thrive. (
  • Some basic variants of this model are also considered where communication is restricted either to be unidirectional or to use special multisets of objects called receptors. (
  • Regarding the importance of this research in basic medicine, Dr. Martha Sommer from the Charité Institute of Medical Physics and Biophysics says, „The better we understand how these receptors interact with binding partners inside the cell, the better we are able to develop drugs that have the desired therapeutic effect but avoid unwanted and harmful side effects. (
  • Also, while glutamate receptors are known to sit on the outer surface of animal neurons, some of Feijo's earlier experiments suggested that GLRs might instead be located on various structures inside plant cells. (
  • Hypertrophied myocytes show several abnormalities of ion pumps, calcium reuptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum, hormone receptors, etc. 17 In CM hamsters, a calcium overload of the heart cells has been considered an important etiologic factor. (
  • Signal transduction only occurs with cell-surface receptors because internal receptors are able to interact directly with DNA in the nucleus to initiate protein synthesis. (
  • Direct contact: When cells are very close to one another, some of the molecules on the plasma membrane of one cell can be recognized by receptors on the plasma membrane of an adjacent cell. (
  • Describe the mechanisms of cell signaling that uses intracellular receptors. (
  • A signal can also direct a vesicle to fuse with the plasma membrane and releases its content on the exterior of the cell. (
  • This protein shuttles from the inner surface of the cell membrane right to the DNA, in one fell swoop. (
  • One of these new genes was the gene coding for a membrane associated protein channel (the gap junction) which between coupled cells, allowed the passive transfer on ions and small molecular weight molecules. (
  • it enhances (or complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's plasma membrane. (
  • Molecular structure of arrestin (purple/cyan) bound to a GPCR (red) in the cell membrane (horizontal black lines). (
  • Cell membrane s are made of lipid molecules. (
  • A consistent feature of this network in vertebrates is the expression of connexin (Cx)-36-made cell-to-cell channels, which cluster at gap junction domains of the cell membrane, and which adjacent beta cells use to share cytoplasmic ions and small metabolites within individual islets. (
  • Rather than fusing completely with the cell membrane and disgorging their dye contents all at once, brain vesicles more often remained intact, secreting only part of the tracer cargo in each of several repeated, fleeting contacts with the membrane, report Richard Tsien, D.Phil. (
  • Likened to soap bubbles merging, or bubbles bursting at the surface of boiling water, this process of membrane fusion (*RealPlayer format) may hold clues about what goes wrong in disorders of thinking, learning and memory, including schizophrenia and other mental illnesses thought to involve disturbances in neuronal communication. (
  • In "classical" membrane fusion, the vesicle totally collapses and mixes with the cell membrane, requiring a complex and time-consuming and retrieval and recycling process. (
  • 1973) and Gordesky and Marinetti (1973), many studies have confirmed that this hidden position is the preferred distribution of PtdSer in the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. (
  • These two phospholipids, either as components of a damaged membrane (Ptd Ser) or as free monomers in solution (lysoPtdSer) may reach responsive cells signalling that adjustment or repair is requested. (
  • When a receptor is a transmembrane protein, the ligand binds to the receptor outside of the cell and never actually crosses the plasma membrane. (
  • We found that the lipid phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate orchestrates the mobilization and movement of secretory vesicles towards the plasma membrane of neurosecretory cells. (
  • GJs are channels in the outer membrane through which small molecules and ions are passively transported, and which thus enable direct communication of adjacent cells. (
  • Cell-to-cell communication is achieved by passage of small molecules through gap junction membrane channels. (
  • The cell can respond in an array of ways, depending on the molecules involved in the signaling. (
  • Another response that the cell may have is the signal directs actin molecules to assemble into filament allowing the cell to change shape. (
  • The fungal cell walls - septa - are often perforated by pores through which molecules and even larger organelles such as mitochondria can pass. (
  • These molecules bind to specific docking sites on the surface of the target cell and initiate a series of sequential reactions inside the cell. (
  • The molecules they transmit are called neurotransmitter s and the small space between the two cells is a synapse . (
  • Sometimes when the communication is local signaling, cells just have molecules stuck on their surface s that connect to each other, or they have tunnel s between them through which signaling molecules can move. (
  • When they change shape, they affect other molecules inside the cell, and that's called transduction. (
  • At the end of a chain of changing molecules, some molecule affects what the cell does, making a response. (
  • Cornichons also act as gatekeepers for GLRs, switching the receptor molecules off and on like a valve in response to changing conditions inside the cell. (
  • Plasmodesmata enable information-encoded molecules to pass between cells. (
  • In molecular communication, information is encoded to and decoded from molecules, rather than electrons or electromagnetic waves. (
  • Examples of artificially synthesized nanomachines include synthetic molecules, genetically engineered cells, artificial cells, and bio-silicon hybrid devices that are programmed to produce intended biochemical reactions. (
  • Since nanomachines are made of biological materials and not amenable to traditional communication means (i.e., electrons or electromagnetic waves), molecular communication provides mechanisms for nanomachines to communicate by propagating molecules that represent information. (
  • Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate certain growth factors and cell communication molecules that are important during bone repair processes. (
  • With these bridges cells are able to exchange signal molecules, growth factors, and other important mediators. (
  • Cells can communicate with each other with the help of signalling molecules, but how do they do it? (
  • When looking at the tightly packed cells, the microbiologists' research shows that channels are actually formed in the cell membranes, so that the one cell can send direct messages via signalling molecules to the other cell. (
  • The biophysicists Mogens Høgh Jensen, Sandeep Krishna and Simone Pigolotti constructed a mathematical model for, how the signalling molecules spread and how the cells react to it. (
  • Their model shows that a very well ordered network pattern forms for how the signalling molecules move in a tightly packed cell culture. (
  • It is always such that the cells 'talk' with their nearest neighbour and it starts with the signalling molecules spreading outward. (
  • The model calculations for environments with dispersed cells show that here the cells send signalling molecules out into the environment where they move around until they reach a cell, which the signalling molecule then enters, after which the cell sends the message further out in the surrounding environment. (
  • In addition, due to their property of carrying molecules from their cell of origin to the peripheral circulation, exosomes have been increasingly studied as sources of tumor biomarkers in liquid biopsies. (
  • Paracrine signaling: Signal molecules released by cells can diffuse through the extra-cellular fluid to other cells. (
  • If those molecules are taken up by neighboring cells, destroyed by extracellular enzymes, or quickly removed from the extracellular fluid in some other way, their influence is restricted to cells in the immediate vicinity of the releasing cell. (
  • Their signal molecules, neurotransmitters, do not travel to the distant cells through the circulatory system as hormones do. (
  • In lysates from v-src-transformed cells, all phosphorylated connexin43 molecules were cleared from the lysate by sequential immunoprecipitations using the phosphotyrosine antibodies, suggesting that each molecule of phosphorylated connexin43 contains both phosphoserine and phosphotyrosine. (
  • Recent evidence suggests that the septum in the fruiting bodies helps in the differentiation of cell types. (
  • Thus, the pore structure leads to selective transport, which helps drive cell differentiation during development. (
  • During the evolution from single cell organisms to multicellular organisms, new cellular/biological functions appeared, namely, the control of cell proliferation ("contact inhibition"), the appearance of the process of differentiation from committed stem cells of the various tissues and the need for programmed cell death or apoptosis. (
  • It also uses the gap junction as the biological structure to facilitate cellular/tissue homeostasis to be the integrator for the "stem cell" theory, "disease of differentiation theory", "initiation/promotion/progression" concepts, nature and nurture concept of carcinogenesis, the mutation/ epigenetic theories of carcinogenesis, and the oncogene/ tumor suppressor gene theories of carcinogenesis. (
  • In myeloid cells (e.g., macrophages, dendritic cells, and osteoclasts), intercellular communication via TNT contributes to their differentiation and immune functions. (
  • The mapping of the communication pathways between cells is a fundamental quest in modern biology. (
  • In particular, they used advanced cell and molecular biology techniques to investigate the role of BIN1 in regulating synapses associated with learning and memory. (
  • Put another way, calcium is the lingua franca of cell communication," said José Feijó, a professor of cell biology and molecular genetics at UMD and the senior author of the study, noting that calcium is also vital to the function of animal neurons. (
  • Feijó and Michael Wudick, a postdoctoral researcher in cell biology and molecular genetics at UMD and lead author of the paper, suspected that plant cells use a specific mechanism to control the locations of GLRs throughout the cell. (
  • William Snell, Ph.D., a professor of cell biology at UT Southwestern -ed. (
  • I started participating in extracurricular biology and ecology programs in elementary school, and I ultimately became fascinated with genomics, cells and how so many fantastically small and delicate mechanisms combine to create us," she adds. (
  • While much is already known about the mechanics of communications, "not much is known about the signaling pathways," according to Joanne Chory, Ph.D., director of the Plant Biology Laboratory. (
  • Evolutionary Biology, Cell-Cell Communication, and Complex Disease challenges current wisdom by using physiology to present an integrative view of the nature, origins, and evolution of fundamental biological systems. (
  • Providing a deeper understanding of the way genes relate to the traits of living organisms, this book offers useful information applying evolutionary biology, functional genomics, and cell communication studies to complex disease. (
  • Examining the 4.5 billion-year evolution process from environment adaptations to cell-cell communication to communication of genetic information for reproduction, Evolutionary Biology hones in on the ""why and how"" of evolution by uniquely focusing on the cell as the smallest unit of biologic structure and function. (
  • Ambitious and game-changing Evolutionary Biology suggests that biology began as a mechanism for reducing energy within the cell, defying the Second Law of Thermodynamics. (
  • A great deal is known about cell communication in biology, says Mogens Høgh Jensen and explains that the new biophysics models are a start in the systemisation of the communication system of cells. (
  • First author Dr Jonathan G ke from Stem Cell and Developmental Biology at the GIS said, The ERK signaling pathway has been known for many years, but this is the first time we are able to see the full spectrum of the response in the genome of stem cells. (
  • Understanding the biology of embryonic stem cells is a first step to understanding the capabilities and caveats of stem cells in future medical applications. (
  • The association of a neuron and its target cell is called a chemical synapse, and this type of intercellular communication is called synaptic signaling. (
  • Studying a well-known signaling protein called MAD, UW-Madison geneticist Allen Laughon and colleagues determined that the protein is responsible for switching genes on or off by binding directly to DNA, in effect telling the cell to start or stop a specified task. (
  • For example, in humans it is believed that there are many layers of genes which act as a group to prevent cancer by blocking the inappropriate proliferation of cells. (
  • But if these "tumor suppression genes" are defective, cells become blind to messages meant to ward off runaway cell proliferation. (
  • During that evolutionary transition from the single cell organism to the multicellular organism, many new genes appeared to accompany these new cellular functions. (
  • Comparing the same clustered pattern with (b) and without (c) positive feedback demonstrates that this characteristic of autoinducer production is critical for reaching sufficient autoinducer concentrations for cells to induce autoinducer production and autoinducer-dependent genes. (
  • Called TFII-I, or TF "two eye," the protein long known to help control a cell's genes also controls how much calcium a cell takes in, a function critical for all cells, including nerves in the brain. (
  • OHHL is thought to bind to the LuxR protein, allowing it to act as a positive transcriptional activator in an autoinduction process that physiologically couples cell density (and growth phase) to the expression of the bioluminescence genes. (
  • Researchers map learning-induced chromatin alterations in mouse brain cells, and find that many affect autism-associated genes. (
  • By now it is well known how the genes within the cells are regulated and a number of genetic cycles have been mapped including how characteristics are switched on and off and how the feedback reactions function. (
  • PAI provides P. aeruginosa with a means of cell-to-cell communication that is required for the expression of virulence genes and may provide a target for therapeutic approaches. (
  • Here, we describe the development of a Pprm1-luciferase reporter system that differentiates whether genes function upstream or downstream of a conserved MAP kinase (MAPK) signaling complex, by using a set of mutants required for communication and cell fusion. (
  • Gene profiles of sparse and confluent cells also show that several genes are regulated by cell-cell contacts of which many are implicated in cell growth, apoptosis, matrix, and cytoskeletal remodeling. (
  • They mapped the kinase interactions across the entire genome, and discovered that ERK2, a protein that belongs to the ERK signaling family, targets important sites such as non-coding genes and histones, cell cycle, metabolism and also stem cell-specific genes. (
  • The fuel cell projects are part of the nationwide Cox Conserves program that is designed to reduce the company's carbon footprint by 20 percent by 2017 and promote eco-friendly behavior among its employees, communities and other corporations. (
  • After NO is attached to Cdk5, it then jumps like a 'hot potato' to another protein called Drp1, disrupting its function and fragmenting mitochondria, the energy powerhouse of nerve cells. (
  • An immune-related protein deployed between neighboring cells in Drosophila plays an essential role in the cell-degradation process known as autophagy, according to new research by Eric H. Baehrecke, PhD, at UMass Medical School. (
  • Using the development of the salivary gland in Drosophila, which degrades as flies mature, to isolate and study the components of autophagy, Baehrecke theorized that a rise in a protein called Mcr in the glands prior to cell death was somehow connected to its degradation. (
  • The partner we found in the fishing experiment and the abundance of TFII-I outside the cell nucleus led us to suspect that this protein must be doing more than regulate gene expression," says Desiderio. (
  • Cells have protein s embedded in their membranes. (
  • phosphates are what carries all this energy in cells) it energizes the next protein. (
  • They demonstrated the importance of a specific protein for signal transmission between nerve cells. (
  • The initial functional description of the fruit fly's RBP-protein therefore does not only extend our comprehension of neuronal communication, it also provides a reference point to help understand brain malfunctions that occur with autism. (
  • This variation in response is due to differences in protein expression in different cell types. (
  • We have found that a lacking connexin 43 (Cx43) protein is a mediator of defective GJs and a broken 'Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication' (GJIC) in advanced pancreatic cancer. (
  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of a gap junction protein correlates with inhibition of cell-to-cell communication. (
  • To determine whether connexin43, a major gap junction protein expressed in fibroblasts, is a target for the v-src protein tyrosine kinase activity, we examined the phosphorylation state of connexin43 in cells expressing variants of src. (
  • Connexin43 from control cells and cells expressing nonactivated variants of the src protein was phosphorylated solely on serine residues. (
  • In the case of cell density, many species are able to react to the achievement of a critical density through a cell-to-cell signaling mechanism known as quorum sensing. (
  • By researching fruit flies, neuroscientists of the NeuroCure Cluster of Excellence in Berlin were able to gain a better understanding of a meaningful mechanism of neuronal communication. (
  • Our results suggest that GLRs play a role in this basic communication system in plants, and we also propose a mechanism for how the system works in plant cells. (
  • A research team led by researchers at the University of Gothenburg has now used a unique combination of methods to map the mechanism behind cellular communication. (
  • In the study, they successfully mapped the mechanism behind cellular communication in the metabolic process, using small culture chambers that allow the control of the environment around the cells. (
  • The study can contribute to understanding how pancreatic cells are regulated and how they secrete insulin, which can help us understand the underlying mechanism behind type 2 diabetes. (
  • This chapter reviews what is known about Cx36, and the mechanism whereby this beta-cell connexin significantly regulates insulin secretion. (
  • A mechanism for buffering communication cells in a communication controller, wherein a cell queuing circuit provides a cell loss priority mechanism, and wherein the cell queuing circuit determines service states for queue channels according to bandwidth allocation parameters. (
  • Researchers at The University of Queensland's Queensland Brain Institute (QBI) have taken a significant step towards unravelling the mechanism by which communication between brain cells occurs. (
  • According to Associate Professor Meunier, a better understanding of the mechanism underpinning neurotransmitter release will aid scientists' ongoing fight against the plethora of diseases affecting neuronal communication in the brain. (
  • This collection of reviews, contributed by internationally recognized immunologists and molecular and cellular neurobiologists, puts side by side cellular communication devices and signaling mechanisms in the immune and nervous systems and discusses mechanisms of interaction between the two systems, the significance of which has only recently been fully appreciated. (
  • Intercellular Calcium Wave Communication via Gap Junction-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms, E. Scemes, S.O. Suadicani, and D.C. Spray . (
  • A Networking Paradigm Inspired by Cell Communication Mechanisms. (
  • This chapter provides a brief review of molecular communication, a networking paradigm inspired by cell communication mechanisms. (
  • Based on the nascent literature on TNT in these cells, we will discuss the definition of TNT, their mechanisms of formation, and their role in physiological and pathological contexts. (
  • Cells rarely exist alone, which drives the evolution of diverse mechanisms for identifying and responding appropriately to the presence of other nearby cells. (
  • The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is a model for investigating the mechanisms of somatic cell-to-cell communication and fusion. (
  • We report here on experiments testing the compatibility of mechanisms specifying cell fate among six different Drosophila species. (
  • Clones comprised cells of epidermal and/or neural histotypes, indicating that mechanisms mediating the epidermal/neural dichotomy in the ectoderm are conserved between the species. (
  • The same small set of cell-signaling mechanisms shows up again and again in diverse species, in biological processes ranging from hormone embryonic development to cancer. (
  • Stephen Elledge has built a career studying how eukaryotic cells maintain genomic integrity. (
  • Abstract The influence of heart failure on the process of cell communication was investigated in cell pairs isolated from the ventricle of cardiomyopathic hamsters (11 months old) and the results compared with age-matched normal hamsters. (
  • Scientists have already studied three of these communication channels in detail, but a fourth, using phosphorylation of histidine, could as yet not be monitored experimentally. (
  • The first, unexpected insight gained from the technique is that histidine phosphorylation seems to be just as important as the other three communication channels. (
  • The other three communication channels, using phosphorylation of serine, threonine or tyrosine, were thought to be more important in higher organisms. (
  • We have also examined junctional permeability in cells expressing src variants and find that loss of cell-to-cell communication correlates with tyrosine phosphorylation of connexin43. (
  • MuSCs typically exist in a quiescent state but may enter the cell cycle following injury in order to regenerate the skeletal muscle tissue and replenish the stem cell pool for future needs. (
  • Moreover, recent studies show that MuSCs are a heterogeneous stem cell population, with different abilities to support tissue regeneration. (
  • This scenario disrupts communication between nerve cells, and thus memory and cognitive ability in Alzheimer's disease," said Dr. Lipton, professor and director of Sanford-Burnham's Del E. Webb Neuroscience, Aging and Stem Cell Research Center. (
  • This volume examines cell-cell interactions and stem cell renewal, two topics that are now inexorably linked as science strives to understand the stem cell niche and its function. (
  • Practical and reliable, Stem Cell Renewal and Cell-Cell Communication: Methods and Protocols will aid researchers in using these methods to advance their own studies. (
  • The trial is the first neural stem cell trial in the United States designed to treat a disease resulting from a lack of "myelin," a substance that insulates nerve cells' communications fibers. (
  • The study is the second neural stem cell clinical trial for neurodegenerative diseases to be conducted in the United States. (
  • Rowitch also is professor of pediatrics and neurological surgery, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and a member of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCSF. (
  • The authors propose a model that integrates this bi-directional control to keep the cell in the stem cell state. (
  • These findings are particularly relevant for stem cell research, but they might also help research in other related fields. (
  • A hexameric unit of these connexins in one cell (a connexon) couples with a corresponding connexon in a contiguous cell to join the cytoplasms. (
  • In vascular cells, connexins 43, 40, and 37 are the most abundant isoforms [ 7 - 10 ], whereas connexin isoform 43 clearly dominates bone cells [ 11 - 15 ]. (
  • TNT form among several cell types, including neuronal cells, epithelial cells, and almost all immune cells. (
  • In turn, V. anguillarum utilized the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen to evade internalization by the fish skin epithelial cells. (
  • Although AJs and TJs in the endothelium are comparable to those of epithelial cells, there are some cell-specific features. (
  • For example, VE-cadherin, claudin-5, or PECAM-1 have only been found in endothelial but not in epithelial cells. (
  • They used a dye to track the behavior of such synaptic vesicles in real time, in rat brain cells. (
  • There, electrical impulses propel vesicles into the cell wall to spray the neurotransmitter into the synapse. (
  • By contrast, they find that the comparatively tiny nerve terminals of the mammalian brain must make do with only about 30 functional vesicles - hardly enough to keep up with the split-second demands of synaptic communication if vesicles can only be replenished via the, one-shot classical process, they argue. (
  • Of these, extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are emerging as novel cell-cell communication mediators in physiological and pathological scenarios. (
  • Findings from a study just published in Nature Communications reveals that the lipid (fat) from the membranes of brain cells controls the movement of vesicles containing chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. (
  • To explain the complex carcinogenic process by which a single normal cell in human beings can be converted to an invasive and metastatic cancer cell, a number of experimental findings, epidemiological observations and their associated hypothesis/theories have been integrated in this review. (
  • Our findings that BIN1 localizes right at the point of presynaptic communication and may be precisely regulating neurotransmitter vesicle release brings us much closer to understanding how BIN1 could exert its function as a common risk factor for Alzheimer's disease," Dr. Thinakaran said. (
  • Our findings explain how minute changes in the lipid composition of our neurons can have a dramatic effect on the way these cells communicate with each other in the brain,' he says. (
  • These findings were reported in the June 2013 issue of Molecular Cell ( 'Genome-wide Kinase-Chromatin Interactions Reveal the Regulatory Network of ERK Signaling in Human Embryonic Stem Cells' ). (
  • The 2 cells are squished up against each other, directly connecting the 2 cells membranes, but the contents of the cell are not connected since there is no tube running between the cells. (
  • The starting point was two completely different cell environments - where the cells lie tightly packed next to each other so the cell membranes touch each other directly, and a fluid, where the cells float scattered around. (
  • Twenty-five years ago, Ross Adey described how cells "can whisper together across the barrier of cell membranes. (
  • This is the "classic" means of communication between nerve cells, and lies at the base of most of current understanding of how the brain processes information and controls muscles in the body. (
  • The effectiveness of new drugs depends crucially on a fundamental understanding of the complex processes within the cells of the body. (
  • The processes where cells synchronize and coordinate their behaviour is required for an organism to function and for human organs to be able to perform their functions. (
  • Receipt of the external signal is transduced to target processes within the cell. (
  • In order to develop a construct for implant purposes in bone tissue engineering, a proper understanding of the complex dependencies between different cells and cell types would provide further insight into the highly regulated processes during bone repair, namely, angiogenesis and osteogenesis, and might result in sufficiently equipped constructs to be beneficial to patients and thereby accomplish their task. (
  • This study is based on an in vitro coculture model consisting of outgrowth endothelial cells and primary osteoblasts and is currently being used in different studies of bone repair processes with special regard to angiogenesis and osteogenesis. (
  • Herein, we addressed the complexity of the definition and in vitro characterization of TNT in innate immune cells, the different processes involved in their formation, and their relevance in vivo . (
  • The general physiological function of these simple chemical signalling systems appears to be the modulation of discrete and diverse metabolic processes in concert with cell density. (
  • Together, our data support a model of integrated self and non-self recognition processes that modulate somatic cell-to-cell communication in N. crassa . (
  • Quorum sensing processes are typically ones that are not effective if undertaken by a single bacterium acting alone but become successful when a group of cells acts in concert. (
  • In this Review , Rodrigo G. Arzate-Mejía, Félix Recillas-Targa and Victor G. Corces discuss evidence linking CTCF to the control of developmental processes in various cell and tissue types through 3D organization of the genome. (
  • To overcome this problem doctoral students Adrian Chirilã and Patrick Bloesch developed novel processes for optimizing the solar cell performance. (
  • Such high-efficiency CIGS solar cells up to now were developed only on glass substrates with processes where CIGS layers are grown at temperatures of 600 °C or above. (
  • The low-temperature process now developed by Tiwari and Co. not only yielded an 18.7%-efficiency cell on polymer foils but also another record efficiency of 17.7% on steel foil without any diffusion oxide or nitride barrier layer commonly used in high-temperature processes. (
  • To frame the study results, it helps to know that a healthy human brain contains tens of billions of brain cells (neurons) that process and transmit chemical messages (neurotransmitters) across a tiny gap between neurons called a synapse. (
  • In the Alzheimer's disease brain, this synaptic communication is destroyed, progressively killing neurons and ultimately causing a steep decline in memory as well as other signs of dementia. (
  • Neurons derived from stem cells. (
  • In order to find another haploid yeast cell that is prepared to mate, budding yeasts secrete a signaling molecule called mating factor . (
  • Budding Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells can communicate by releasing a signaling molecule called mating factor. (
  • Cell communication is the ability of cells to communicate with adjacent cells within an organism. (
  • In higher plants, the communication occurs in part through plasmodesmata, which are bridge-like structures linking the cytoplasm of adjacent cells. (
  • Binding of a neurotransmitter to a receptor in turn causes excitation or inhibition in the other nerve cells. (
  • It is necessary for effectively connecting the release of the neurotransmitter to the electric command, which enables the sensible communication between nerve cells. (
  • Brain cells communicate in a process that begins with an electrical signal and ends with a neurotransmitter binding to a receptor on the receiving neuron. (
  • By revealing the terminus of the pathway by which cells send and receive messages, the find promises a rational basis for the future treatment of some diseases and, more immediately, gives science a new grasp of a process that triggers decisive events in cells. (
  • Now, having revealed the last leg of the communications pathway, the Wisconsin scientists have opened a window on the very root of genetically-mediated diseases like some cancers. (
  • It also reveals that the pathway from cell surface to the gene is remarkably direct. (
  • It is proposed that the ER acts as a pathway for intercellular communication via the desmotubule through plasmodesmata. (
  • They found that communications between cells converged into one pathway that led to a central "switch" of sorts that determined whether to shut down food production. (
  • Various host cells may alter cytokine production (open triangles), mucus production (shaded gray), or other developmental events, such as apoptosis, in response to either the signal itself or the bacterial product of the signal transduction pathway. (
  • After the ligand binds to the cell-surface receptor, the activation of the receptor's intracellular components sets off a chain of events that is called a signaling pathway or a signaling cascade. (
  • He is the author of over 130 peer-reviewed articles, Dr. Torday specializes in pre and neo-natal lung development, particularly regarding cell-cell communication within this pathway. (
  • In favor of their outgrowth, cancer cells must resist immune surveillance and edit the immune response. (
  • TFII-I may be a universal player in communication between cells, in the brain, the immune system and elsewhere. (
  • Researchers find that about a quarter of the immune cells are replaced every year. (
  • Immune cells constantly circulate in the body in search of pathogens or tissue damage. (
  • Because they move autonomously, immune cell trafficking must be tightly controlled and coordinated by extracellular cues. (
  • Remarkably, most chemokines are not only sensed but also secreted by immune cells, indicating that immune cells might either attract more of their own kind or trigger complex patterns of feedbacks between different cell populations. (
  • Such cascades might allow different immune cell types to orchestrate their sequential arrival at a site of infection ( 1 ). (
  • The figure shows bacterial cells that are not induced in cyan and those that are induced in purple. (
  • The locations at which bacterial cell-cell signaling likely occurs are labeled as 1 and 2. (
  • The first evidence of bacterial communication was observed in a bacterium that has a symbiotic relationship with Hawaiian bobtail squid. (
  • Because the number of cells present in the environment (cell density) is the determining factor for signaling, bacterial signaling was named quorum sensing . (
  • The receptor stays in the bacterial cell, but the autoinducer diffuses out. (
  • Filamentous fungi depend on somatic cell-to-cell communication and fusion for the development and maintenance of a multicellular, interconnected colony that is characteristic of this group of organisms. (
  • Cell communication is of key importance in multicellular organisms. (
  • Hormonal signaling and the subsequent response by cells and tissues throughout the gazelle's body illustrate how cell-to-cell communication allows the trillions of cells in a multicellular organism to "talk" to each other, coordinating their activities. (
  • Communication between cells is essential not only for multicellular organisms such as gazelles and oak trees but for many unicellular organisms as well. (
  • We have shown that activating the cells' communication system, also known as quorum sensing, in established biofilms causes the biofilms to disperse rapidly,' said Alexander Horswill, Ph.D., UI assistant professor of microbiology and senior study author. (
  • The universality for all these variants of tissue P systems is then proved by using two cells (three cells in the case of unidirectional communication) and rules of a minimal size. (
  • Bernardini F, Gheorghe M (2004) Cell communication in tissue P systems and cell division in population P systems. (
  • This serves to synchronize either the metabolic or electrotonic functions of cells within a tissue. (
  • Representing 30-40% of our body mass, skeletal muscle is a highly organized tissue made up of a large number of syncytial cells, known as myofibers, which are formed by the fusion of myogenic progenitor cells. (
  • The dynamic changes in MuSC behavior are regulated by the microenvironment and by distinct tissue resident cells of the niche that provide molecular cues to regulate MuSC fate. (
  • Cell-to-cell communication was investigated in epidermal cells cut from stem internodal tissue of Nicotiana tabacum and Torenia fournieri. (
  • Molecular communication allows networking of nanomachines and potentially enables new applications in various domains including health (e.g., nanomedicine and tissue engineering), the environment (e.g., monitoring and quality control), ICT (Information Communication Technology)(e.g., implantable biological sensors and actuator networks), and military situations (e.g., biochemical sensing). (
  • The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the regulation of cell growth, wound healing, and tissue repair. (
  • Therefore, bone tissue engineered constructs should afford the key elements of functional and long-lasting bone constructs: mechanical strength, substrates for osteoid formation, sufficient porosity to permit angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, proper vascular network, bone cell migration, controlled degradation to nontoxic products to accommodate the expanding tissue, and controlled inflammation due to high biocompatibility [ 17 - 19 ]. (
  • The long-term goal of both studies is to see if the cells - while used differently in each disease - promote function in damaged nerve tissue. (
  • Cells from fatty tissue which are tightly packed. (
  • By acting not only in tumor cells, but also in tumor-associated cells such as fibroblasts, endothelium, leukocytes and progenitor cells, tumor- and non-tumor cells-derived exosomes have emerged as new players in tumor growth and invasion, tumor-associated angiogenesis, tissue inflammation and immunologic remodeling. (
  • Despite considerable differences in cell size and length of cell cycle among some of the species, the transplants gave rise to fully differentiated clones that were integrated into the host tissue. (
  • Regulation of cell cycle Get 3 of 4 questions to level up! (
  • When Baehrecke and colleagues turned off the Mcr gene in Drosophila salivary gland cells, fragments consistent with a breakdown in autophagy appeared, indicating that Mcr played a role in the clearance of cellular debris by activating autophagy. (
  • Goodwill Industries of Forth Worth and RMS Communications Group Inc. of Ocala, Fla., a recycler of old cellular telephones, announced today that they will partner to collect old cell phones and turn them into cash. (
  • She is responsible for the study now published in the scientific journal PNAS , in which the researchers established a method for studying cellular communication. (
  • These cells can move at tremendous speeds, generating g-forces several times those astronauts experience in rocket launches," said Richard Cyr, a program officer in NSF's Division of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences , which co-funded the work with NSF's Division of Biological Infrastructure . (
  • Importantly, TNT enable myeloid cells to communicate with a targeted neighboring or distant cell, as well as with other cell types, therefore creating a complex variety of cellular exchanges. (
  • This FDA-authorized Phase I trial will help us to judge whether this new approach-cellular replacement of defective cells in the brain-is safe for patients with PMD. (
  • The cell phone repeater generally uses an external, directional antenna to capture the outside cellular signal, which is then transmitted to an amplifier unit which amplifies the signal, and retransmits it locally, providing significantly improved cellular and wireless coverage. (
  • A critical step in communication between cells that promotes such things as bone formation, limb growth, and the development of other critical tissues, has been found by a team of researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. (
  • The researchers realized that when they depleted the cells of TFII-I, the cell responded by installing more calcium channels in their surfaces that allow calcium and only calcium to enter the cell. (
  • The researchers also recently partnered with the Tata Institute of Social Sciences in India, which will help deploy the service in communications-poor areas that have been hit hard by recent cyclones. (
  • A study led by University of Maryland researchers suggests a new model for how GLRs function in plant cells. (
  • Working with Arabidopsis thaliana pollen cells, the researchers found that GLRs form the basis of a complex communication network inside individual plant cells. (
  • LOS ALAMOS, N.M., March 20, 2020-Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory are reinventing the mirror, at least for microwaves, potentially replacing the familiar 3-D dishes and microwave horns we see on rooftops and cell towers with flat panels that are compact, versatile, and better adapted for modern communication technologies. (
  • By studying yeast cells, researchers have successfully mapped how cells communicate and synchronize their behaviour. (
  • The researchers chose to study yeast cells, since they are similar to human cells, and their focus is on glycolytic oscillations - a series of chemical reactions during metabolism where the concentration of substances can pulse or oscillate. (
  • The study is a collaboration between eight researchers at Swedish and international universities, and Caroline Beck Adiels emphasizes that this interdisciplinary collaboration has been fundamental in studying the complex behaviour of cells from multiple perspectives. (
  • The tiny spheres inside brain cells that ferry chemical messengers into the synapse make their rounds much more expeditiously than once assumed, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) - funded researchers have discovered. (
  • Dubbed "kiss-and-run" recycling, this allows for more efficient communication between brain cells, suggest the researchers. (
  • UCSF researchers are set to begin a Phase I clinical trial in collaboration with StemCells, Inc. to test the safety and preliminary effectiveness of using neural stem cells to treat children with a rare, fatal form of a brain disorder known as Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). (
  • Allen Institute researchers have developed a new computerized model of human cell division. (
  • Researchers at the Allen Institute have developed a visualization of human cell division suitable for professional scientists and inquisitive amateurs. (
  • Cadherin plays role in contact inhibition The breakdown of cell communication result in many forms of diseases and the different types of communication breakdown produce different diseases. (
  • One of the way the cells can communicate with each other through a process called cell junction. (
  • Cells communicate to coordinate what they do. (
  • Just like people, cells can communicate when they're close together, which is called local signaling, or when they're far apart, which is done by hormones , but both kinds of communicating use chemical molecule s that the cell secretes and other cells receive. (
  • LifeNet , a piece of software that allows people to communicate after disasters, even if landlines, cell phone networks, and the Internet are all down. (
  • When our brain is at work, for example when we are looking at a picture or planning a movement, its nerve cells communicate with each other. (
  • Basic science research from the investigators at UT Southwestern Medical Center might explain how human cells communicate. (
  • I love studying how cells communicate with one another, especially in the visual system," explains the California native. (
  • Dr. Chory worked with a team of scientists that made strides toward discovering how chloroplasts, the plant cells responsible for photosynthesis, communicate with the plant structure in times of distress. (
  • Knowledge on how cells communicate is an important key to understanding many biological systems and diseases. (
  • It's possible this [signaling between cells] is more universal than we've described and is a way that many different kinds of organisms communicate," said Arnold Mathijssen of Stanford, a lead author of the paper. (
  • They are membranous structures displaying a remarkable capacity to communicate with selected neighbor or distant cells. (
  • Nerve cells communicate through axons that function much like electrical wires. (
  • In addition to cell-cell contact, cells communicate through secreted factors via a highly complex system involving characteristics such as ligand concentration, receptor expression and integration of diverse signaling pathways. (
  • Due to a partnership between global telecommunications services platform provider NMS Communications and Malaysian mobile services provider NGC Systems, cell users in Malaysia now have a new way to communicate. (
  • A cell phone with touch communication allows a person to communicate nonverbally. (
  • Therefore, among the many differences between a cancer cell and its normal parental cell, the carcinogenic process involves the transition from a normal, GJIC-competent cell to one that is defective in GJIC. (
  • The results allow unprecedented detailed insight into the molecular interactions of GPCR and arrestin during signal transduction in the cell. (
  • These interactions can arrange 'lattice' and the communication often happens through wave propagation. (
  • Interactions amongst neighboring cells in the primary tumor are essential for tumor growth and development, and besides direct cell-cell contact, intercellular communication also happens through a complex system involving secreted factors. (
  • However, the Δ ham-11 mutant is unique in that it fails to undergo self-fusion, but chemotropic interactions and cell fusion are restored in Δ ham-11 + wild-type interactions. (
  • Many of the important interactions between cells in early development occur by means of direct contact between cell surfaces. (
  • Some of these patients are now more than two years post transplant and by imaging show no sign of abnormal cell reaction or tumor formation, according to the company. (
  • The milieu created by tumor-associated cells may either support or halt tumor progression. (
  • Here we review the current literature on the participation of exosomes in the communication between tumor and tumor-associated cells, highlighting the role of this process in the setup of tumor microenvironments that modulate tumor initiation and metastasis. (
  • While the former consists of tumor cells and diverse non-transformed cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts, macrophages, and endothelial cells, the latter is formed by secreted factors and components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). (
  • This observation led to the discovery and identification of a P. aeruginosa cell-to-cell signal molecule. (
  • Either way, the receiving cell gets a signal molecule from the sending cell. (
  • One other kind of receptor is a ligand-gated ion-channel receptor, which is like a closed tunnel that opens when a signal molecule binds to it, letting ions from outside the cell go into the cell to make changes. (
  • Now a new preclinical study has discovered that a lack of BIN1 leads to a defect in the transmission of neurotransmitters that activate the brain cell communication allowing us to think, remember and behave. (
  • An article published today, July 16, 2007, in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences provides strong evidence for a novel type of communication between nerve cells in the brain. (
  • Brain cells have a special thing that reaches out to other nerve cells. (
  • Damage to the cells in the brain that make myelin, called "oligodendrocytes," is the hallmark of multiple sclerosis and is involved in certain forms of cerebral palsy. (
  • A Phase I trial using the same type of neural stem cells was completed in January, with reported positive safety results and evidence that the cells engrafted into the brain. (
  • Severe PMD is a devastating illness that is fatal and globally affects brain function, yet we know that it is caused solely by defects in a single type of brain cell, the oligodendrocyte," says the principal investigator, David Rowitch, MD, PhD, a pediatric specialist and chief of neonatology at UCSF Children's Hospital. (
  • Associate Professor McLennan says the discovery of the TGF-β2protein's previously invisible role in regulating brain cell communication surprised the team. (
  • Japanese neurosurgeons have implanted 'reprogrammed' stem cells into the brain of a patient with Parkinson's disease for the first time. (
  • At low cell density, in the absence of autoinducers, hapR expression is repressed, thereby permitting the expression of virulence factors and biofilm formation. (
  • It was found that this unique cell-to-cell signal controlled the expression of lasB , which encodes for the major virulence factor, LasB elastase. (
  • At low cell density (low signal concentrations), LuxN and LuxQ autophosphorylate and transfer the phosphate to LuxU, which in turn phosphorylates the LuxO transcriptional activator. (
  • At high cell density and in the presence of autoinducers, LuxO is inactive, permitting HapR production. (
  • Cell culture studies have revealed that metabolic functions of the adult hepatocyte are related to cell density. (
  • Werner N, Nickenig G. Influence of cardiovascular risk factors on endothelial progenitor cells: limitations for therapy? (
  • No cell-to-cell movement of dextrans was observed following cytoplasmic injections but injection of dextrans into the endomembrane network resulted in rapid diffusion of the probes to neighbouring cells. (
  • Variations in cell-cell communication can be introduced by type and complexity of pores which can differ within one organism. (
  • Franson R, Patriarca P, Elsbach P (1974) Phospholipid metabolism by phagocytic cells. (
  • Our results suggest that GLRs are indeed redistributed to other compartments inside plant cells, forming a complex network that cooperates to regulate calcium concentrations and enable calcium signaling. (
  • With evolution, this system has evolved into a complex regulatory network of partially cross-talking pathways, whereby individual cells sense the state of activity of their neighbours and, accordingly, regulate their own level of functioning. (
  • Mostly, the cell makes the signaling chemical, then lets these chemicals out to diffuse through the fluid outside the cell to other cells nearby. (
  • Also gemcitabine, and other chemotherapeutic agents diffuse from cell to cell through GJs. (
  • We have been able to map their behaviour both temporally and spatially, that is to say, when something occurs and in which cell," says Beck Adiels. (
  • Cell communication is important for metabolic homeostasis as well as development. (
  • Along with exosomes, TNT mediate long-range communication, independent of soluble factors. (
  • Most normal cells within solid tissues have functional gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) (exceptions are free-standing cells such as red blood cells, neutrophils, and several, if not all, the stem cells). (
  • Gap Junctional Communication in the Failing Heart, W.C. De Mello . (
  • 1-5 In general, signal transduction by junctional components is sustained and directed to establish homeostasis of the cells. (
  • Coculture systems of OECs and pOBs positively influence the angiogenic potential of endothelial cells by inducing the formation of angiogenic structures in long-term cultures. (
  • 1 Growing evidence indicates that endothelial cell-to-cell adhesion is accompanied by intracellular signaling. (
  • Under normal conditions, calcium does not flow freely into and out of cells until a demand for it - such as a muscle contraction or nerve function -- triggers cells to take up the free floating element from their surroundings. (
  • The finding was stunning to us because calcium is one of the most important messengers in cells," says Desiderio, "and both it and TFII-I are in every cell. (
  • In one experiment, the Hopkins team knocked down the amount of TFII-I in lab-grown cells and looked for changes in calcium flow under a high-power microscope using a dye that glows when it comes in contact with calcium. (
  • Knocking down TFII-I and separately assaulting the cells with chemicals caused the cells to take up more calcium than usual. (
  • We think TFII-I must control calcium entry into the cell by somehow limiting the number of calcium channels at the cell's surface," says Desiderio. (
  • Calcium concentration is one of the most important parameters inside all cells. (
  • The correct receptor needs to be present on the cells surface to be able to respond to the signal. (
  • Cadherin of one cell works as the receptor for cadherin in neighbouring cell. (
  • Baehrecke and colleagues also showed that Mcr interacts with the receptor named Draper that resides on the outside of neighboring cells. (
  • Such receptor transmits information from the extracellular environment to the inside of the cell by changing shape or aggregating when a specific ligand binds to it. (
  • TTPCom Limited, a subsidiary of TTP Communications, has completed a reference design that can create a fully functional cell phone for less than $20. (
  • To establish a first messenger effect of serine phospholipids at least three criteria must be fulfilled: (a) the generation of lysoPtdSer upon cell damage, (b) the existence of binding sites for serine phospholipids in sensitive cells and (c) the functional response following the interaction of these compounds with the target cell. (
  • It is well known that sparse and confluent cells present a different functional phenotype. (