Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Connexins: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Communication Disorders: Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Communication Aids for Disabled: Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.Communication Barriers: Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Connexin 43: A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.Hospital Communication Systems: The transmission of messages to staff and patients within a hospital.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Communication Methods, Total: Utilization of all available receptive and expressive modes for the purpose of achieving communication with the hearing impaired, such as gestures, postures, facial expression, types of voice, formal speech and non-speech systems, and simultaneous communication.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Cell Engineering: Methods and techniques used to modify or select cells and develop conditions for growing cells for biosynthetic production of molecules (METABOLIC ENGINEERING), for generation of tissue structures and organs in vitro (TISSUE ENGINEERING), or for other BIOENGINEERING research objectives.Single-Cell Analysis: Assaying the products of or monitoring various biochemical processes and reactions in an individual cell.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Nuclear Reprogramming: The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Bioengineering: The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.CaliforniaQuorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Its mission is to improve health by leading the development and accelerating the application of biomedical technologies, and integrating the physical and engineering sciences with the life sciences to advance basic research and medical care. It was established in 2000.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Pyocyanine: Antibiotic pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (1/8670)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

oko meduzy mutations affect neuronal patterning in the zebrafish retina and reveal cell-cell interactions of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. (2/8670)

Mutations of the oko meduzy (ome) locus cause drastic neuronal patterning defect in the zebrafish retina. The precise, stratified appearance of the wild-type retina is absent in the mutants. Despite the lack of lamination, at least seven retinal cell types differentiate in oko meduzy. The ome phenotype is already expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium affecting morphology of the neuroepithelial cells. Our experiments indicate that previously unknown cell-cell interactions are involved in development of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. In genetically mosaic animals, cell-cell interactions are sufficient to rescue the phenotype of oko meduzy retinal neuroepithelial cells. These cell-cell interactions may play a critical role in the patterning events that lead to differentiation of distinct neuronal laminae in the vertebrate retina.  (+info)

The Gab1 PH domain is required for localization of Gab1 at sites of cell-cell contact and epithelial morphogenesis downstream from the met receptor tyrosine kinase. (3/8670)

Stimulation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor tyrosine kinase, Met, induces mitogenesis, motility, invasion, and branching tubulogenesis of epithelial and endothelial cell lines in culture. We have previously shown that Gab1 is the major phosphorylated protein following stimulation of the Met receptor in epithelial cells that undergo a morphogenic program in response to HGF. Gab1 is a member of the family of IRS-1-like multisubstrate docking proteins and, like IRS-1, contains an amino-terminal pleckstrin homology domain, in addition to multiple tyrosine residues that are potential binding sites for proteins that contain SH2 or PTB domains. Following stimulation of epithelial cells with HGF, Gab1 associates with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. Met receptor mutants that are impaired in their association with Gab1 fail to induce branching tubulogenesis. Overexpression of Gab1 rescues the Met-dependent tubulogenic response in these cell lines. The ability of Gab1 to promote tubulogenesis is dependent on its pleckstrin homology domain. Whereas the wild-type Gab1 protein is localized to areas of cell-cell contact, a Gab1 protein lacking the pleckstrin homology domain is localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. Localization of Gab1 to areas of cell-cell contact is inhibited by LY294002, demonstrating that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity is required. These data show that Gab1 is an important mediator of branching tubulogenesis downstream from the Met receptor and identify phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the Gab1 pleckstrin homology domain as crucial for subcellular localization of Gab1 and biological responses.  (+info)

p27 is involved in N-cadherin-mediated contact inhibition of cell growth and S-phase entry. (4/8670)

In this study the direct involvement of cadherins in adhesion-mediated growth inhibition was investigated. It is shown here that overexpression of N-cadherin in CHO cells significantly suppresses their growth rate. Interaction of these cells and two additional fibroblastic lines with synthetic beads coated with N-cadherin ligands (recombinant N-cadherin ectodomain or specific antibodies) leads to growth arrest at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The cadherin-reactive beads inhibit the entry into S phase and the reduction in the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors p21 and p27, following serum-stimulation of starved cells. In exponentially growing cells these beads induce G1 arrest accompanied by elevation in p27 only. We propose that cadherin-mediated signaling is involved in contact inhibition of growth by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and elevation of p27 levels.  (+info)

Endothelial cells modulate the proliferation of mural cell precursors via platelet-derived growth factor-BB and heterotypic cell contact. (5/8670)

Embryological data suggest that endothelial cells (ECs) direct the recruitment and differentiation of mural cell precursors. We have developed in vitro coculture systems to model some of these events and have shown that ECs direct the migration of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells (10T1/2 cells) and induce their differentiation toward a smooth muscle cell/pericyte lineage. The present study was undertaken to investigate cell proliferation in these cocultures. ECs and 10T1/2 cells were cocultured in an underagarose assay in the absence of contact. There was a 2-fold increase in bromodeoxyuridine labeling of 10T1/2 cells in response to ECs, which was completely inhibited by the inclusion of neutralizing antiserum against platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B. Antisera against PDGF-A, basic fibroblast growth factor, or transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta had no effect on EC-stimulated 10T1/2 cell proliferation. EC proliferation was not influenced by coculture with 10T1/2 cells in the absence of contact. The cells were then cocultured so that contact was permitted. Double labeling and fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis revealed that ECs and 10T1/2 cells were growth-inhibited by 43% and 47%, respectively. Conditioned media from contacting EC-10T1/2 cell cocultures inhibited the growth of both cell types by 61% and 48%, respectively. Although we have previously shown a role for TGF-beta in coculture-induced mural cell differentiation, growth inhibition resulting from contacting cocultures or conditioned media was not suppressed by the presence of neutralizing antiserum against TGF-beta. Furthermore, the decreased proliferation of 10T1/2 cells in the direct cocultures could not be attributed to downregulation of the PDGF-B in ECs or the PDGF receptor-beta in the 10T1/2 cells. Our data suggest that modulation of proliferation occurs during EC recruitment of mesenchymal cells and that heterotypic cell-cell contact and soluble factors play a role in growth control during vessel assembly.  (+info)

Cell surface sialic acid and the regulation of immune cell interactions: the neuraminidase effect reconsidered. (6/8670)

It has been known for over a decade that sialidase (neuraminidase) treatment could substantially enhance the capacity of resting B cells to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic and antigen specific, syngeneic T cells. Thus, cell-surface sialic acid was implicated as a potential modulator of immune cell interaction. However, little progress has been made in either identifying explicit roles for sialic acid in this system or in hypothesizing mechanisms to explain the "neuraminidase effect." Here we show for the first time that cell surface sialic acid on medium incubated B cells blocks access to costimulatory molecules on the B cell surface, and that this is the most likely explanation for the neuraminidase effect. Further, we show that it is likely to be upregulation of ICAM-1 and its subsequent engagement of LFA-1 rather than loss of cell surface sialic acid that in part regulates access to CD86 and other costimulatory molecules. However, we cannot exclude a role for CD86-bound sialic acid on the B cell in modulating binding to T cell CD28. Because sialidase treatment of resting B cells but not resting T cells enables T cell activation, we suggest that sialidase treatment may still be an analogue for an authentic step in B cell activation, and show that for highly activated B cells (activated with polyclonal anti-IgM plus INF-gamma) there is specific loss 2, 6-linked sialic acid. Potential roles for sialic acid in modulating B cell/T cell collaboration are discussed.  (+info)

Glucocorticoid down-regulation of fascin protein expression is required for the steroid-induced formation of tight junctions and cell-cell interactions in rat mammary epithelial tumor cells. (7/8670)

Glucocorticoid hormones, which are physiological regulators of mammary epithelium development, induce the formation of tight junctions in rat Con8 mammary epithelial tumor cells. We have discovered that, as part of this process, the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone strongly and reversibly down-regulated the expression of fascin, an actin-bundling protein that also interacts with the adherens junction component beta-catenin. Ectopic constitutive expression of full-length mouse fascin containing a Myc epitope tag (Myc-fascin) in Con8 cells inhibited the dexamethasone stimulation of transepithelial electrical resistance, disrupted the induced localization of the tight junction protein occludin and the adherens junction protein beta-catenin to the cell periphery, and prevented the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Ectopic expression of either the carboxyl-terminal 213 amino acids of fascin, which includes the actin and beta-catenin-binding sites, or the amino-terminal 313 amino acids of fascin failed to disrupt the glucocorticoid induction of tight junction formation. Mammary tumor cells expressing the full-length Myc-fascin remained generally glucocorticoid responsive and displayed no changes in the levels or protein-protein interactions of junctional proteins or the amount of cytoskeletal associated actin filaments. However, a cell aggregation assay demonstrated that the expression of Myc-fascin abrogated the dexamethasone induction of cell-cell adhesion. Our results implicate the down-regulation of fascin as a key intermediate step that directly links glucocorticoid receptor signaling to the coordinate control of junctional complex formation and cell-cell interactions in mammary tumor epithelial cells.  (+info)

Novel insights into human endometrial paracrinology and embryo-maternal communication by intrauterine microdialysis. (8/8670)

The regulation of human implantation is still unknown. Evidence from mice suggests an essential role for several paracrine mediators but species differences with implantation in the human preclude the extrapolation of these concepts to humans. An intrauterine microdialysis device (IUMD), consisting of microdialysis tubing glued into a balloon catheter on one side and into a polypropylene tube on the other, allows a dynamic and accurate in-vivo measurement of uterine paracrine interactions in humans. Inserted into the uterine cavity in the form of a loop, it can be continuously perfused with saline to reveal a number of relevant cytokines and growth factors in uterine effluents of non-pregnant women in both follicular and luteal phases. These included interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), prolactin, and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG). The source of intrauterine HCG is unclear since endometrial mRNA for the HCG beta-subunit is not revealed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Applying urinary HCG locally via the IUMD profoundly alters endometrial secretory parameters. Prolactin, IGFBP-1, and M-CSF are significantly inhibited and VEGF is regulated in a biphasic manner involving early stimulation followed by inhibition of intrauterine levels. Use of the IUMD has thus shown that the urinary HCG preparations routinely used for ovulation induction and luteal support may directly alter endometrial function.  (+info)

  • Requirement of Fra proteins for communication channels between cells in the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. (pnas.org)
  • Inhibitors of DNA binding and cell differentiation (Id) proteins are members of the large family of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors, but they lack any DNA-binding motif. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identifying the messengers -- a large family of proteins that carry genetic signals and switch genes on and off -- and their roles in communicating at a distance has implications for the development of new strategies to treat diseases caused by malfunctioning genes or disrupted pathways of communication. (eurekalert.org)
  • Communication and signalling within cells is controlled by minute changes to the proteins involved. (uu.nl)
  • The phosphorylation of one or more types of proteins then starts a chain reaction, which leads to changes in the cell's activities, such as cell division, migration or death. (uu.nl)
  • The researchers therefore decided to first develop a method for studying the histidine communication channel in bacteria (the Escherichia coli, see image), because they have fewer proteins and enzymes. (uu.nl)
  • Upstream cells signaling pathways control the proteins and genes that are expressed, which can both create a means for cancer to develop without stopping or a means for treatment for these diseases by targeting these specific upstream signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cells will communicate via gap junctions most of the time, and the proteins that form these gap junctions are known as connexins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurotransmitters diffuse across a tiny space between the nerve cells, and then bind to proteins (called "receptors") on other nerve cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • But the proteins that control this process are largely thought to function autonomously, inside individual cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • The discovery came after Desiderio and his team used biochemical "bait" to fish for candidate proteins that physically bind to TFII-I. The fishing expedition returned one protein known to control when and how much calcium a cell takes in. (medindia.net)
  • The functioning of GPCRs in the cell depends on how the receptors interact with different proteins in the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • A cell might change its shape (the cellular skeleton does this), move, make new proteins, or change some part of its metabolism or cycle (such as entering into the next part of its mitotic or meiotic-cell multiplication -cycle). (everything2.com)
  • Plant cells share a strange and surprising kinship with animal neurons: many plant cells have proteins that closely resemble glutamate receptors, which help to relay nerve signals from one neuron to another. (eurekalert.org)
  • Their findings also suggest that GLRs rely on another group of proteins, called "cornichon" proteins, to shuttle GLRs to different locations and regulate GLR activity within each cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • With the help of cornichon proteins, GLRs act as valves that carefully manage the concentration of calcium ions--a vital aspect of many cell communication pathways--within various structures inside the cell, the study found. (eurekalert.org)
  • In their experiments with Arabidopsis pollen cells, Feijó's team found that cornichon proteins actively shuttled GLRs from one location to another within the cell, enabling various compartments inside the cell to maintain different calcium ion concentrations. (eurekalert.org)
  • Proteins act as regulators to the flow of molecules between plant cells. (gardenguides.com)
  • More is being learned about the these proteins, which ones are available to the plant cell and exactly how they work to prohibit some molecules from passing through plasmodesmata while allowing access to others. (gardenguides.com)
  • According to Professor Maule, "We are sure that plasmodesmata will contain many important proteins but our identification of this new class already means that we know now how we might regulate molecular flow from cell to cell. (gardenguides.com)
  • It could be shown that connexins, the gap junction proteins, were located around cell nuclei, where they await their transport to the cell membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • Exosomes, membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released by all cells (both healthy and diseased), ranging in size from 30 to 150 nm, transport all the main biomolecules, including lipids, proteins, DNAs, messenger RNAs and microRNA, and perform intercellular transfer of components, locally and systemically. (frontiersin.org)
  • At left, in a normal Arabidopsis thaliana pollen grain (inside the dashed line), glutamate receptor-like proteins (green) are located in the sperm cells (arrow). (phys.org)
  • Endothelial cells are maintained in contact to one another by a complex network of transmembrane adhesion proteins anchored to the actin cytoskeleton. (ahajournals.org)
  • Using an antipeptide serum that recognizes connexin43, we demonstrate that this protein is phosphorylated on serine and tyrosine residues in avian and mammalian cells expressing activated src proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • They contain functional proteins and genetic materials and serve as a vehicle for communication between cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • In combination with synthetic nanoparticles that my laboratory is developing, we may ultimately be able to use these identified miRNAs or proteins to make synthetic exosomes, thereby avoiding the need to use any kind of neural progenitor cell line to induce neuron growth," said the paper's senior and corresponding author Qiaobing Xu, assistant professor of biomedical engineering at Tufts School of Engineering. (nanowerk.com)
  • When B cells encounter viruses or bacteria, they absorb them and display pieces of viral or bacterial proteins (known as antigens) on their cell surfaces. (mit.edu)
  • Recent evidence suggests that the septum in the fruiting bodies helps in the differentiation of cell types. (news-medical.net)
  • Thus, the pore structure leads to selective transport, which helps drive cell differentiation during development. (news-medical.net)
  • During the evolution from single cell organisms to multicellular organisms, new cellular/biological functions appeared, namely, the control of cell proliferation ("contact inhibition"), the appearance of the process of differentiation from committed stem cells of the various tissues and the need for programmed cell death or apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • It also uses the gap junction as the biological structure to facilitate cellular/tissue homeostasis to be the integrator for the "stem cell" theory, "disease of differentiation theory", "initiation/promotion/progression" concepts, nature and nurture concept of carcinogenesis, the mutation/ epigenetic theories of carcinogenesis, and the oncogene/ tumor suppressor gene theories of carcinogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrate its versatility by applying CellRouter to single-cell RNA sequencing data sets to reconstruct cell-state transition trajectories during hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) differentiation to the erythroid, myeloid and lymphoid lineages, as well as during re-specification of cell identity by cellular reprogramming of monocytes and B-cells to HSPCs. (nature.com)
  • The eventual emergence of an ordered series of coherent differentiation steps requires the reaggregation of the induced cells, implying that secondary interactions occur. (nih.gov)
  • In myeloid cells (e.g., macrophages, dendritic cells, and osteoclasts), intercellular communication via TNT contributes to their differentiation and immune functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tufts University biomedical engineers recently published ( 'Neuronal Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using Exosomes Derived from Differentiating Neuronal Cells' ) the first report of a promising new way to induce human mesenchymal stem cells (or hMSCs, which are derived from bone marrow) to differentiate into neuron-like cells: treating them with exosomes. (nanowerk.com)
  • In a series of experiments reported in PLOS ONE in August, the Tufts researchers showed that exosomes from PC12 cells (neuron-like progenitor cells derived from rats) at various stages of their own differentiation could, in turn, cause hMSCs to become neuron-like cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • Exosomes had not previously been studied as a way to induce human stem cell differentiation. (nanowerk.com)
  • The biomedical engineers also showed that the exosomes contain miRNAs--tiny pieces of RNA that regulate cell behavior and are known to play a role in neuronal differentiation. (nanowerk.com)
  • We introduce an evolution-communication model for tissue P systems where communication rules are inspired by the general mechanism of cell communication based on signals and receptors: a multiset can enter a cell only in the presence of another multiset. (springer.com)
  • All cancers have been generally viewed as the result of a disruption of the homeostatic regulation of a cell's ability to respond appropriately to extra-cellular signals of the body which trigger intra-cellular signal transducting mechanisms which modulate gap junctional intercellular communication between the cells within a tissue. (nih.gov)
  • There are three different types of basic cell communication and they are: surface membrane to surface membrane, exterior, which is between receptors on the cell, and direct communication, which means signals pass inside the cell itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most notably, the transfer of NO from SNO-Cdk5 to Drp1 triggers the loss of synapses, the part of a nerve cell that transmits electrochemical signals to other nerve cells. (redorbit.com)
  • A breakdown in autophagy is associated with diseases such as cancer, immune disorders and neurodegeneration, but little is known about the system-wide signals between cells that control autophagy in complex, multicellular animals. (umassmed.edu)
  • Cells store calcium until still other signals occur to release it again. (medindia.net)
  • In this manner, intercellular signals enable a bacterial population to control the expression of specific genes in response to cell density. (pnas.org)
  • Subsequently, the expression of lasB also was shown to be controlled by C 4 -HSL and RhlR, indicating that both known P. aeruginosa cell-to-cell signals were involved in the regulation of this major virulence factor ( 4 , 10 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Genes in the chloroplasts made it possible for these cells to decipher protein signals and know when to react to adverse conditions. (gardenguides.com)
  • Some examples of nanomachines found in nature are biological cells, molecular motors that produce mechanical work (e.g. myosin), and biochemical molecules, complexes, and circuits that are capable of processing chemical signals. (igi-global.com)
  • Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic Amp . (jove.com)
  • A) Not only do bacteria recognize their own secreted signals (gray circles) to coordinate a response (black diamonds), but eukaryotic cells in the vicinity may also recognize these signals and produce a response. (asm.org)
  • These molecules act as diffusible chemical communication signals (bacterial pheromones) which regulate diverse physiological processes including bioluminescence, antibiotic production, piasmid conjugal transfer and synthesis of exoenzyme virulence factors in plant and animal pathogens. (wiley.com)
  • Communication between distant cells depends on the release of signals in the intercellular space. (springer.com)
  • These signals (first messengers) are collected by receptors located in the external cell membrane of a target cell a and then transduced in the cell interior through a perturbation of the second messenger system. (springer.com)
  • Harris Communications' new line of innovative cell phone repeaters dramatically boost cell phone signals. (prweb.com)
  • Cell phone repeaters (or cellular repeaters) amplify cellular signals anywhere, making missed connections (and dropped calls) a thing of the past. (prweb.com)
  • The main signals that guide immune cells are chemokines, small polypeptides that modulate the migratory behavior of cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • These longer-lived signals molecules, which may affect cells very distant from the releasing cell, are called hormones, and this type of intercellular communication is known as endocrine signaling. (ukessays.com)
  • Many cell signals are lipid-soluble or very small molecules that can readily pass through the plasma membrane of the target cell and into the cell, where they interact with an intracellular receptor. (ukessays.com)
  • Her group has identified the genes that allow signal production, detection and response in both Vibrio species, and they have shown that the signals are relayed within cells through phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cascades. (nih.gov)
  • Otago neurobiologist Associate Professor Ian McLennan and his Aberdeen colleagues have discovered that a protein known as transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2) appears to regulate how motor neurons send signals to neighbouring brain cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • Moreover, it has recently become evident that, besides their structural functions, adhesion molecules involved in endothelial cell-cell interaction play an important role in inducing and integrating intracellular signals that, in turn, impact on several aspects of vascular cell physiology. (ahajournals.org)
  • Nanowerk News ) Scientists at A*STAR s Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS) and the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics (MPIMG) in Berlin (Germany) have discovered a molecular network in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) that integrates cell communication signals to keep the cell in its stem cell state. (nanowerk.com)
  • For example, the coordinated development of tissues in the embryo to become any specific organ requires that cells receive signals and respond accordingly. (nanowerk.com)
  • If there are errors in the signals, the cell will respond differently, possibly leading to diseases such as cancer. (nanowerk.com)
  • The communication signals which are used in hESCs activate a chain of reactions (called the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway) within each cell, causing the cell to respond by activating genetic information. (nanowerk.com)
  • In studying how cells signal each other and how they interpret the signals they receive, biologists have discovered some universal mechanisms of cellular regulation, additional evidence for the evolutionary relatedness of all life. (majortests.com)
  • The signals received by cells, whether originating from other cells or from changes in the physical environment, take various forms, including light and touch. (majortests.com)
  • However, cells most often communicate with each other by chemical signals. (majortests.com)
  • In this chapter, we focus on the main mechanisms by which cells receive, process, and respond to chemical signals sent from other cells. (majortests.com)
  • The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, better known as DARPA or ARPA, is embarking on a new program, called RadioBio, to determine whether cells are able to exchange information with EM signals and, if so, what the cells are saying and how they do it. (stopumts.nl)
  • The fuel cell projects are part of the nationwide Cox Conserves program that is designed to reduce the company's carbon footprint by 20 percent by 2017 and promote eco-friendly behavior among its employees, communities and other corporations. (ecmag.com)
  • Some basic variants of this model are also considered where communication is restricted either to be unidirectional or to use special multisets of objects called receptors. (springer.com)
  • Much of cell communication happens when ligands bind to the receptors of the cell membrane and control the actions of the cell through this binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regarding the importance of this research in basic medicine, Dr. Martha Sommer from the Charité Institute of Medical Physics and Biophysics says, „The better we understand how these receptors interact with binding partners inside the cell, the better we are able to develop drugs that have the desired therapeutic effect but avoid unwanted and harmful side effects. (eurekalert.org)
  • Also, while glutamate receptors are known to sit on the outer surface of animal neurons, some of Feijo's earlier experiments suggested that GLRs might instead be located on various structures inside plant cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Hypertrophied myocytes show several abnormalities of ion pumps, calcium reuptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum, hormone receptors, etc. 17 In CM hamsters, a calcium overload of the heart cells has been considered an important etiologic factor. (ahajournals.org)
  • Direct contact: When cells are very close to one another, some of the molecules on the plasma membrane of one cell can be recognized by receptors on the plasma membrane of an adjacent cell. (ukessays.com)
  • When these B cells encounter T cells with receptors that recognize the antigen, the T cells become activated, provoking them to release cytokines - inflammatory chemicals that control the immune response - or to seek out and destroy infected cells. (mit.edu)
  • The fungal cell walls - septa - are often perforated by pores through which molecules and even larger organelles such as mitochondria can pass. (news-medical.net)
  • One of these new genes was the gene coding for a membrane associated protein channel (the gap junction) which between coupled cells, allowed the passive transfer on ions and small molecular weight molecules. (nih.gov)
  • These molecules bind to specific docking sites on the surface of the target cell and initiate a series of sequential reactions inside the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • The molecules they transmit are called neurotransmitter s and the small space between the two cells is a synapse . (everything2.com)
  • Cell membrane s are made of lipid molecules. (everything2.com)
  • When they change shape, they affect other molecules inside the cell, and that's called transduction. (everything2.com)
  • At the end of a chain of changing molecules, some molecule affects what the cell does, making a response. (everything2.com)
  • Cornichons also act as gatekeepers for GLRs, switching the receptor molecules off and on like a valve in response to changing conditions inside the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • Plasmodesmata enable information-encoded molecules to pass between cells. (gardenguides.com)
  • In molecular communication, information is encoded to and decoded from molecules, rather than electrons or electromagnetic waves. (igi-global.com)
  • Examples of artificially synthesized nanomachines include synthetic molecules, genetically engineered cells, artificial cells, and bio-silicon hybrid devices that are programmed to produce intended biochemical reactions. (igi-global.com)
  • Since nanomachines are made of biological materials and not amenable to traditional communication means (i.e., electrons or electromagnetic waves), molecular communication provides mechanisms for nanomachines to communicate by propagating molecules that represent information. (igi-global.com)
  • Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate certain growth factors and cell communication molecules that are important during bone repair processes. (hindawi.com)
  • With these bridges cells are able to exchange signal molecules, growth factors, and other important mediators. (hindawi.com)
  • Cells can communicate with each other with the help of signalling molecules, but how do they do it? (ku.dk)
  • When looking at the tightly packed cells, the microbiologists' research shows that channels are actually formed in the cell membranes, so that the one cell can send direct messages via signalling molecules to the other cell. (ku.dk)
  • The biophysicists Mogens Høgh Jensen, Sandeep Krishna and Simone Pigolotti constructed a mathematical model for, how the signalling molecules spread and how the cells react to it. (ku.dk)
  • Their model shows that a very well ordered network pattern forms for how the signalling molecules move in a tightly packed cell culture. (ku.dk)
  • It is always such that the cells 'talk' with their nearest neighbour and it starts with the signalling molecules spreading outward. (ku.dk)
  • The model calculations for environments with dispersed cells show that here the cells send signalling molecules out into the environment where they move around until they reach a cell, which the signalling molecule then enters, after which the cell sends the message further out in the surrounding environment. (ku.dk)
  • In addition, due to their property of carrying molecules from their cell of origin to the peripheral circulation, exosomes have been increasingly studied as sources of tumor biomarkers in liquid biopsies. (frontiersin.org)
  • If those molecules are taken up by neighboring cells, destroyed by extracellular enzymes, or quickly removed from the extracellular fluid in some other way, their influence is restricted to cells in the immediate vicinity of the releasing cell. (ukessays.com)
  • Their signal molecules, neurotransmitters, do not travel to the distant cells through the circulatory system as hormones do. (ukessays.com)
  • Cell-to-cell communication is achieved by passage of small molecules through gap junction membrane channels. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In lysates from v-src-transformed cells, all phosphorylated connexin43 molecules were cleared from the lysate by sequential immunoprecipitations using the phosphotyrosine antibodies, suggesting that each molecule of phosphorylated connexin43 contains both phosphoserine and phosphotyrosine. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For example, in humans it is believed that there are many layers of genes which act as a group to prevent cancer by blocking the inappropriate proliferation of cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • But if these "tumor suppression genes" are defective, cells become blind to messages meant to ward off runaway cell proliferation. (eurekalert.org)
  • During that evolutionary transition from the single cell organism to the multicellular organism, many new genes appeared to accompany these new cellular functions. (nih.gov)
  • Comparing the same clustered pattern with (b) and without (c) positive feedback demonstrates that this characteristic of autoinducer production is critical for reaching sufficient autoinducer concentrations for cells to induce autoinducer production and autoinducer-dependent genes. (nih.gov)
  • Some research has found that when gap junction genes were transfected into tumor cells that did not have the gap junction genes, the tumor cells became stable and points to the ability of gap junction genes to inhibit tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Called TFII-I, or TF "two eye," the protein long known to help control a cell's genes also controls how much calcium a cell takes in, a function critical for all cells, including nerves in the brain. (medindia.net)
  • OHHL is thought to bind to the LuxR protein, allowing it to act as a positive transcriptional activator in an autoinduction process that physiologically couples cell density (and growth phase) to the expression of the bioluminescence genes. (wiley.com)
  • Providing a deeper understanding of the way genes relate to the traits of living organisms, this book offers useful information applying evolutionary biology, functional genomics, and cell communication studies to complex disease. (wiley.com)
  • Researchers map learning-induced chromatin alterations in mouse brain cells, and find that many affect autism-associated genes. (the-scientist.com)
  • By now it is well known how the genes within the cells are regulated and a number of genetic cycles have been mapped including how characteristics are switched on and off and how the feedback reactions function. (ku.dk)
  • PAI provides P. aeruginosa with a means of cell-to-cell communication that is required for the expression of virulence genes and may provide a target for therapeutic approaches. (sciencemag.org)
  • Gene profiles of sparse and confluent cells also show that several genes are regulated by cell-cell contacts of which many are implicated in cell growth, apoptosis, matrix, and cytoskeletal remodeling. (ahajournals.org)
  • This protein shuttles from the inner surface of the cell membrane right to the DNA, in one fell swoop. (eurekalert.org)
  • it enhances (or complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's plasma membrane. (umassmed.edu)
  • Molecular structure of arrestin (purple/cyan) bound to a GPCR (red) in the cell membrane (horizontal black lines). (eurekalert.org)
  • Rather than fusing completely with the cell membrane and disgorging their dye contents all at once, brain vesicles more often remained intact, secreting only part of the tracer cargo in each of several repeated, fleeting contacts with the membrane, report Richard Tsien, D.Phil. (innovations-report.com)
  • Likened to soap bubbles merging, or bubbles bursting at the surface of boiling water, this process of membrane fusion (*RealPlayer format) may hold clues about what goes wrong in disorders of thinking, learning and memory, including schizophrenia and other mental illnesses thought to involve disturbances in neuronal communication. (innovations-report.com)
  • In "classical" membrane fusion, the vesicle totally collapses and mixes with the cell membrane, requiring a complex and time-consuming and retrieval and recycling process. (innovations-report.com)
  • 1973) and Gordesky and Marinetti (1973), many studies have confirmed that this hidden position is the preferred distribution of PtdSer in the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. (springer.com)
  • These two phospholipids, either as components of a damaged membrane (Ptd Ser) or as free monomers in solution (lysoPtdSer) may reach responsive cells signalling that adjustment or repair is requested. (springer.com)
  • When a receptor is a transmembrane protein, the ligand binds to the receptor outside of the cell and never actually crosses the plasma membrane. (ukessays.com)
  • We found that the lipid phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate orchestrates the mobilization and movement of secretory vesicles towards the plasma membrane of neurosecretory cells. (medicalsearch.com.au)
  • In particular, they used advanced cell and molecular biology techniques to investigate the role of BIN1 in regulating synapses associated with learning and memory. (eurekalert.org)
  • Put another way, calcium is the lingua franca of cell communication," said José Feijó, a professor of cell biology and molecular genetics at UMD and the senior author of the study, noting that calcium is also vital to the function of animal neurons. (eurekalert.org)
  • Feijó and Michael Wudick, a postdoctoral researcher in cell biology and molecular genetics at UMD and lead author of the paper, suspected that plant cells use a specific mechanism to control the locations of GLRs throughout the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • William Snell, Ph.D., a professor of cell biology at UT Southwestern -ed. (medgadget.com)
  • I started participating in extracurricular biology and ecology programs in elementary school, and I ultimately became fascinated with genomics, cells and how so many fantastically small and delicate mechanisms combine to create us," she adds. (susqu.edu)
  • Evolutionary Biology, Cell-Cell Communication, and Complex Disease challenges current wisdom by using physiology to present an integrative view of the nature, origins, and evolution of fundamental biological systems. (wiley.com)
  • Examining the 4.5 billion-year evolution process from environment adaptations to cell-cell communication to communication of genetic information for reproduction, Evolutionary Biology hones in on the ""why and how"" of evolution by uniquely focusing on the cell as the smallest unit of biologic structure and function. (wiley.com)
  • Ambitious and game-changing Evolutionary Biology suggests that biology began as a mechanism for reducing energy within the cell, defying the Second Law of Thermodynamics. (wiley.com)
  • A great deal is known about cell communication in biology, says Mogens Høgh Jensen and explains that the new biophysics models are a start in the systemisation of the communication system of cells. (ku.dk)
  • Understanding the biology of embryonic stem cells is a first step to understanding the capabilities and caveats of stem cells in future medical applications. (nanowerk.com)
  • Abstract The influence of heart failure on the process of cell communication was investigated in cell pairs isolated from the ventricle of cardiomyopathic hamsters (11 months old) and the results compared with age-matched normal hamsters. (ahajournals.org)
  • To frame the study results, it helps to know that a healthy human brain contains tens of billions of brain cells (neurons) that process and transmit chemical messages (neurotransmitters) across a tiny gap between neurons called a synapse. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the Alzheimer's disease brain, this synaptic communication is destroyed, progressively killing neurons and ultimately causing a steep decline in memory as well as other signs of dementia. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our findings explain how minute changes in the lipid composition of our neurons can have a dramatic effect on the way these cells communicate with each other in the brain,' he says. (medicalsearch.com.au)
  • Neurons derived from stem cells. (acm.org)
  • Astrocytes help coordinate communication between neurons. (rochester.edu)
  • Glia are an important family of support cells found in the brain and play a critical role in the development and maintenance of the brain's complex interconnected network of neurons. (rochester.edu)
  • The astrocytes help facilitate the communication between neurons at the synapses by regulating the flow of glutamate and potassium, which enable neurons to "fire" when they are communicating with each other. (rochester.edu)
  • These cells out-competed the animal's own native glia, resulting in mice with brains comprised of animal neurons and human GPCs, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. (rochester.edu)
  • The development of oligodendrocytes was delayed and the cells did not create enough myelin-producing cells, meaning signal transmission between the neurons was impaired. (rochester.edu)
  • The development of astrocytes was similarly tardy so that the cells were not present when needed and were thus ineffective in guiding the formation of connections between neurons. (rochester.edu)
  • Transplanted stem cells can differentiate into just about any other kind of cell, including neurons to potentially reconnect a severed spinal cord and repair paralysis. (nanowerk.com)
  • A variety of agents have been shown to induce transplanted stem cells to differentiate into neurons. (nanowerk.com)
  • At low cell density, in the absence of autoinducers, hapR expression is repressed, thereby permitting the expression of virulence factors and biofilm formation. (nih.gov)
  • It was found that this unique cell-to-cell signal controlled the expression of lasB , which encodes for the major virulence factor, LasB elastase. (pnas.org)
  • The figure shows bacterial cells that are not induced in cyan and those that are induced in purple. (nih.gov)
  • Various host cells may alter cytokine production (open triangles), mucus production (shaded gray), or other developmental events, such as apoptosis, in response to either the signal itself or the bacterial product of the signal transduction pathway. (asm.org)
  • A hexameric unit of these connexins in one cell (a connexon) couples with a corresponding connexon in a contiguous cell to join the cytoplasms. (nih.gov)
  • These connexins have been shown to suppress cancer cells, but this suppression is not the only thing that connexins facilitates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The idea that increasing cell communication, or more specifically, connexins, to suppress tumors has been a long, ongoing debate that is supported by the fact that so many types of cancer, including liver cancer, lack the cell communication that characterizes normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vascular cells, connexins 43, 40, and 37 are the most abundant isoforms [ 7 - 10 ], whereas connexin isoform 43 clearly dominates bone cells [ 11 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • To explain the complex carcinogenic process by which a single normal cell in human beings can be converted to an invasive and metastatic cancer cell, a number of experimental findings, epidemiological observations and their associated hypothesis/theories have been integrated in this review. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings that BIN1 localizes right at the point of presynaptic communication and may be precisely regulating neurotransmitter vesicle release brings us much closer to understanding how BIN1 could exert its function as a common risk factor for Alzheimer's disease," Dr. Thinakaran said. (eurekalert.org)
  • These findings are particularly relevant for stem cell research, but they might also help research in other related fields. (nanowerk.com)
  • The findings of this study argue that glial cell dysfunction may be the basis of childhood-onset schizophrenia," said University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) neurologist Steve Goldman, M.D., Ph.D., co-director of the Center for Translational Neuromedicine and lead author of the study which appears today in the journal Cell . (rochester.edu)
  • A critical step in communication between cells that promotes such things as bone formation, limb growth, and the development of other critical tissues, has been found by a team of researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers realized that when they depleted the cells of TFII-I, the cell responded by installing more calcium channels in their surfaces that allow calcium and only calcium to enter the cell. (medindia.net)
  • Practical and reliable, Stem Cell Renewal and Cell-Cell Communication: Methods and Protocols will aid researchers in using these methods to advance their own studies. (springer.com)
  • The researchers also recently partnered with the Tata Institute of Social Sciences in India, which will help deploy the service in communications-poor areas that have been hit hard by recent cyclones. (fastcompany.com)
  • A study led by University of Maryland researchers suggests a new model for how GLRs function in plant cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Working with Arabidopsis thaliana pollen cells, the researchers found that GLRs form the basis of a complex communication network inside individual plant cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • LOS ALAMOS, N.M., March 20, 2020-Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory are reinventing the mirror, at least for microwaves, potentially replacing the familiar 3-D dishes and microwave horns we see on rooftops and cell towers with flat panels that are compact, versatile, and better adapted for modern communication technologies. (lanl.gov)
  • The tiny spheres inside brain cells that ferry chemical messengers into the synapse make their rounds much more expeditiously than once assumed, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) - funded researchers have discovered. (innovations-report.com)
  • Dubbed "kiss-and-run" recycling, this allows for more efficient communication between brain cells, suggest the researchers. (innovations-report.com)
  • UCSF researchers are set to begin a Phase I clinical trial in collaboration with StemCells, Inc. to test the safety and preliminary effectiveness of using neural stem cells to treat children with a rare, fatal form of a brain disorder known as Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). (ucsf.edu)
  • Researchers find that about a quarter of the immune cells are replaced every year. (the-scientist.com)
  • Allen Institute researchers have developed a new computerized model of human cell division. (acm.org)
  • Researchers at the Allen Institute have developed a visualization of human cell division suitable for professional scientists and inquisitive amateurs. (acm.org)
  • When researchers transplanted human brain cells generated from individuals diagnosed with childhood-onset schizophrenia into mice, the animal's nerve cell networks did not mature properly and the mice exhibited the same anti-social and anxious behaviors seen in people with the disease. (rochester.edu)
  • In the new study, the researchers obtained skin cells from individuals with childhood-onset schizophrenia and reprogrammed the cells to create induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) which, like embryonic stem cells, are capable of giving rise to any cell type found in the body. (rochester.edu)
  • The researchers observed that human glial cells derived from schizophrenic patients were highly dysfunctional. (rochester.edu)
  • The researchers hypothesize that the exosomes caused the hMSCs to differentiate by delivering miRNA into the stem cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • Using this device, which captures pairs of cells and collects data on each as they interact with each other, the researchers have already learned more about how T cells - major players in the immune response - become activated during infection. (mit.edu)
  • His team used that earlier version to fuse adult cells with embryonic stem cells, allowing the researchers to observe the genetic reprogramming that occurred in these hybrids. (mit.edu)
  • This technique allows the researchers to follow hundreds of cell pairs over time and monitor what is happening in each cell, which has not been possible previously. (mit.edu)
  • This is the "classic" means of communication between nerve cells, and lies at the base of most of current understanding of how the brain processes information and controls muscles in the body. (scienceblog.com)
  • The effectiveness of new drugs depends crucially on a fundamental understanding of the complex processes within the cells of the body. (eurekalert.org)
  • Receipt of the external signal is transduced to target processes within the cell. (asm.org)
  • In order to develop a construct for implant purposes in bone tissue engineering, a proper understanding of the complex dependencies between different cells and cell types would provide further insight into the highly regulated processes during bone repair, namely, angiogenesis and osteogenesis, and might result in sufficiently equipped constructs to be beneficial to patients and thereby accomplish their task. (hindawi.com)
  • This study is based on an in vitro coculture model consisting of outgrowth endothelial cells and primary osteoblasts and is currently being used in different studies of bone repair processes with special regard to angiogenesis and osteogenesis. (hindawi.com)
  • Herein, we addressed the complexity of the definition and in vitro characterization of TNT in innate immune cells, the different processes involved in their formation, and their relevance in vivo . (frontiersin.org)
  • The general physiological function of these simple chemical signalling systems appears to be the modulation of discrete and diverse metabolic processes in concert with cell density. (wiley.com)
  • Together, our data support a model of integrated self and non-self recognition processes that modulate somatic cell-to-cell communication in N. crassa . (genetics.org)
  • Quorum sensing processes are typically ones that are not effective if undertaken by a single bacterium acting alone but become successful when a group of cells acts in concert. (nih.gov)
  • In this Review , Rodrigo G. Arzate-Mejía, Félix Recillas-Targa and Victor G. Corces discuss evidence linking CTCF to the control of developmental processes in various cell and tissue types through 3D organization of the genome. (biologists.org)
  • To overcome this problem doctoral students Adrian Chirilã and Patrick Bloesch developed novel processes for optimizing the solar cell performance. (empa.ch)
  • Such high-efficiency CIGS solar cells up to now were developed only on glass substrates with processes where CIGS layers are grown at temperatures of 600 °C or above. (empa.ch)
  • The low-temperature process now developed by Tiwari and Co. not only yielded an 18.7%-efficiency cell on polymer foils but also another record efficiency of 17.7% on steel foil without any diffusion oxide or nitride barrier layer commonly used in high-temperature processes. (empa.ch)
  • The cellular-level biological processes that underlie osseointegration are visualized based on the cell types and messengers implicated, representing the current state of our knowledge. (quintessenz.de)
  • After NO is attached to Cdk5, it then jumps like a 'hot potato' to another protein called Drp1, disrupting its function and fragmenting mitochondria, the energy powerhouse of nerve cells. (redorbit.com)
  • An immune-related protein deployed between neighboring cells in Drosophila plays an essential role in the cell-degradation process known as autophagy, according to new research by Eric H. Baehrecke, PhD, at UMass Medical School. (umassmed.edu)
  • Using the development of the salivary gland in Drosophila, which degrades as flies mature, to isolate and study the components of autophagy, Baehrecke theorized that a rise in a protein called Mcr in the glands prior to cell death was somehow connected to its degradation. (umassmed.edu)
  • The partner we found in the fishing experiment and the abundance of TFII-I outside the cell nucleus led us to suspect that this protein must be doing more than regulate gene expression," says Desiderio. (medindia.net)
  • Cells have protein s embedded in their membranes. (everything2.com)
  • phosphates are what carries all this energy in cells) it energizes the next protein. (everything2.com)
  • They demonstrated the importance of a specific protein for signal transmission between nerve cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • The initial functional description of the fruit fly's RBP-protein therefore does not only extend our comprehension of neuronal communication, it also provides a reference point to help understand brain malfunctions that occur with autism. (innovations-report.com)
  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of a gap junction protein correlates with inhibition of cell-to-cell communication. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To determine whether connexin43, a major gap junction protein expressed in fibroblasts, is a target for the v-src protein tyrosine kinase activity, we examined the phosphorylation state of connexin43 in cells expressing variants of src. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Connexin43 from control cells and cells expressing nonactivated variants of the src protein was phosphorylated solely on serine residues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In 2015, he received a Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) award from the National Science Foundation (NSF), funding research into a new way to deliver protein-based cancer-fighting drugs and other therapeutics directly into cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • Induction of wound-associated communication was unaffected by exposure of the cells to the DNA synthesis inhibitor mitomycin C, but was prevented by the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. (rupress.org)
  • Scientists have already studied three of these communication channels in detail, but a fourth, using phosphorylation of histidine, could as yet not be monitored experimentally. (uu.nl)
  • The first, unexpected insight gained from the technique is that histidine phosphorylation seems to be just as important as the other three communication channels. (uu.nl)
  • The other three communication channels, using phosphorylation of serine, threonine or tyrosine, were thought to be more important in higher organisms. (uu.nl)
  • We have also examined junctional permeability in cells expressing src variants and find that loss of cell-to-cell communication correlates with tyrosine phosphorylation of connexin43. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have shown that activating the cells' communication system, also known as quorum sensing, in established biofilms causes the biofilms to disperse rapidly,' said Alexander Horswill, Ph.D., UI assistant professor of microbiology and senior study author. (uiowa.edu)
  • Along with exosomes, TNT mediate long-range communication, independent of soluble factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • By acting not only in tumor cells, but also in tumor-associated cells such as fibroblasts, endothelium, leukocytes and progenitor cells, tumor- and non-tumor cells-derived exosomes have emerged as new players in tumor growth and invasion, tumor-associated angiogenesis, tissue inflammation and immunologic remodeling. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we review the current literature on the participation of exosomes in the communication between tumor and tumor-associated cells, highlighting the role of this process in the setup of tumor microenvironments that modulate tumor initiation and metastasis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Exosomes are very small, hollow particles that are secreted from many types of cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • The discovery, reported today (July 17) in the British scientific journal Nature, while fundamental in nature, is important because it adds an essential strand of information to scientists' understanding of how cells relay molecular messages, a process that, if disrupted, can result in cancer and defects in embryonic development. (eurekalert.org)
  • Human embryonic stem cells have the remarkable property that they can form all human cell types. (nanowerk.com)
  • The starting point was two completely different cell environments - where the cells lie tightly packed next to each other so the cell membranes touch each other directly, and a fluid, where the cells float scattered around. (ku.dk)
  • Twenty-five years ago, Ross Adey described how cells "can whisper together across the barrier of cell membranes. (stopumts.nl)
  • Now a new preclinical study has discovered that a lack of BIN1 leads to a defect in the transmission of neurotransmitters that activate the brain cell communication allowing us to think, remember and behave. (eurekalert.org)
  • An article published today, July 16, 2007, in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences provides strong evidence for a novel type of communication between nerve cells in the brain. (scienceblog.com)
  • TFII-I may be a universal player in communication between cells, in the brain, the immune system and elsewhere. (medindia.net)
  • Brain cells have a special thing that reaches out to other nerve cells. (everything2.com)
  • When our brain is at work, for example when we are looking at a picture or planning a movement, its nerve cells communicate with each other. (innovations-report.com)
  • Damage to the cells in the brain that make myelin, called "oligodendrocytes," is the hallmark of multiple sclerosis and is involved in certain forms of cerebral palsy. (ucsf.edu)
  • A Phase I trial using the same type of neural stem cells was completed in January, with reported positive safety results and evidence that the cells engrafted into the brain. (ucsf.edu)
  • Severe PMD is a devastating illness that is fatal and globally affects brain function, yet we know that it is caused solely by defects in a single type of brain cell, the oligodendrocyte," says the principal investigator, David Rowitch, MD, PhD, a pediatric specialist and chief of neonatology at UCSF Children's Hospital. (ucsf.edu)
  • This FDA-authorized Phase I trial will help us to judge whether this new approach-cellular replacement of defective cells in the brain-is safe for patients with PMD. (ucsf.edu)
  • Associate Professor McLennan says the discovery of the TGF-β2protein's previously invisible role in regulating brain cell communication surprised the team. (healthcanal.com)
  • Japanese neurosurgeons have implanted 'reprogrammed' stem cells into the brain of a patient with Parkinson's disease for the first time. (acm.org)
  • During development, astrocytes colonize areas of the brain and establish domains in which these cells help direct and organize the network of connections between nerve cells. (rochester.edu)
  • Most normal cells within solid tissues have functional gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) (exceptions are free-standing cells such as red blood cells, neutrophils, and several, if not all, the stem cells). (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, bone tissue engineered constructs should afford the key elements of functional and long-lasting bone constructs: mechanical strength, substrates for osteoid formation, sufficient porosity to permit angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, proper vascular network, bone cell migration, controlled degradation to nontoxic products to accommodate the expanding tissue, and controlled inflammation due to high biocompatibility [ 17 - 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • TTPCom Limited, a subsidiary of TTP Communications, has completed a reference design that can create a fully functional cell phone for less than $20. (mobilemag.com)
  • To establish a first messenger effect of serine phospholipids at least three criteria must be fulfilled: (a) the generation of lysoPtdSer upon cell damage, (b) the existence of binding sites for serine phospholipids in sensitive cells and (c) the functional response following the interaction of these compounds with the target cell. (springer.com)
  • It is well known that sparse and confluent cells present a different functional phenotype. (ahajournals.org)
  • No cell-to-cell movement of dextrans was observed following cytoplasmic injections but injection of dextrans into the endomembrane network resulted in rapid diffusion of the probes to neighbouring cells. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, among the many differences between a cancer cell and its normal parental cell, the carcinogenic process involves the transition from a normal, GJIC-competent cell to one that is defective in GJIC. (nih.gov)
  • This scenario disrupts communication between nerve cells, and thus memory and cognitive ability in Alzheimer's disease," said Dr. Lipton, professor and director of Sanford-Burnham's Del E. Webb Neuroscience, Aging and Stem Cell Research Center. (redorbit.com)
  • The trial is the first neural stem cell trial in the United States designed to treat a disease resulting from a lack of "myelin," a substance that insulates nerve cells' communications fibers. (ucsf.edu)
  • The study is the second neural stem cell clinical trial for neurodegenerative diseases to be conducted in the United States. (ucsf.edu)
  • Rowitch also is professor of pediatrics and neurological surgery, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and a member of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCSF. (ucsf.edu)
  • The authors propose a model that integrates this bi-directional control to keep the cell in the stem cell state. (nanowerk.com)
  • To this end, a research team led by Stuart A. Lipton, M.D., Ph.D. at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (Sanford-Burnham) found that beta-amyloid-induced destruction of synapses""the connections that mediate communication between nerve cells""is driven by a chemical modification to an enzyme called Cdk5. (redorbit.com)
  • Franson R, Patriarca P, Elsbach P (1974) Phospholipid metabolism by phagocytic cells. (springer.com)
  • Some of these patients are now more than two years post transplant and by imaging show no sign of abnormal cell reaction or tumor formation, according to the company. (ucsf.edu)
  • The milieu created by tumor-associated cells may either support or halt tumor progression. (frontiersin.org)
  • The universality for all these variants of tissue P systems is then proved by using two cells (three cells in the case of unidirectional communication) and rules of a minimal size. (springer.com)
  • Bernardini F, Gheorghe M (2004) Cell communication in tissue P systems and cell division in population P systems. (springer.com)
  • This serves to synchronize either the metabolic or electrotonic functions of cells within a tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Cell-to-cell communication was investigated in epidermal cells cut from stem internodal tissue of Nicotiana tabacum and Torenia fournieri. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular communication allows networking of nanomachines and potentially enables new applications in various domains including health (e.g., nanomedicine and tissue engineering), the environment (e.g., monitoring and quality control), ICT (Information Communication Technology)(e.g., implantable biological sensors and actuator networks), and military situations (e.g., biochemical sensing). (igi-global.com)
  • The long-term goal of both studies is to see if the cells - while used differently in each disease - promote function in damaged nerve tissue. (ucsf.edu)
  • Cells from fatty tissue which are tightly packed. (ku.dk)
  • Immune cells constantly circulate in the body in search of pathogens or tissue damage. (sciencemag.org)
  • Despite considerable differences in cell size and length of cell cycle among some of the species, the transplants gave rise to fully differentiated clones that were integrated into the host tissue. (biologists.org)
  • Scientists are continuing to study the process of communications between plant cells. (gardenguides.com)
  • A group of scientists led by Professor Andy Maule at the John Innes Centre discovered that plants create complex and highly regulated structures called plasmodesmata that act as tunnels from one plant cell to another. (gardenguides.com)
  • Scientists around the world study these cells to be able to use them for medical applications in the future. (nanowerk.com)
  • Scientists at the GIS and MPIMG studied which genetic information is activated in the cell, and thereby discovered a network for molecular communication in hESCs. (nanowerk.com)
  • Professor J oel Voldman , working with EECS graduate student Burak Dura and others from Whitehead Institute and Georgia Institute of Technology have developed a new device that allows scientists to follow communication between immune cells. (mit.edu)
  • Read more in the January 13, 2015 MIT News Office article by Anne Trafton titled "Watching how cells interact - New device allows scientists to glimpse communication between immune cells," also posted below. (mit.edu)