Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Vitiligo: A disorder consisting of areas of macular depigmentation, commonly on extensor aspects of extremities, on the face or neck, and in skin folds. Age of onset is often in young adulthood and the condition tends to progress gradually with lesions enlarging and extending until a quiescent state is reached.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, Inbred C57BLAntigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Cell SeparationProliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Lymphocytes, Null: A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Hinge Exons: Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene exons coding for the hinge region of the heavy chains between the first constant region (on the FAB FRAGMENTS) and the second constant region (on the FC FRAGMENTS).Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mice, Inbred AKRAntigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Monophenol Monooxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC 1.14.18.1.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Peanut Agglutinin: Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Melanoma-Specific Antigens: Cellular antigens that are specific for MELANOMA cells.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

*CD15

... (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ... The presence of these cells is diagnostic of Hodgkin's lymphoma. Reed-Sternberg cells display a characteristic pattern of CD15 ... but does stain almost all other lymphoid cells. CD15 is also present in about 50% of adenocarcinoma cells and can be used to ... CD15 mediates phagocytosis and chemotaxis, found on neutrophils;[2] expressed in patients with Hodgkin disease, some B-cell ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.050.285.050.115 --- ca-15-3 antigen MeSH D23.050.285.050.119 --- ca-19-9 antigen MeSH D23.050.285.050. ... vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 MeSH D23.101.100.129 --- antigens, cd29 MeSH D23.101.100.150 --- antigens, differentiation, b ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.050.550.325.115 --- ca-15-3 antigen MeSH D23.050.550.325.119 --- ca-19-9 antigen MeSH D23.050.550.325. ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.840.075.115 --- ca-15-3 antigen MeSH D23.101.840.075.119 --- ca-19-9 antigen MeSH D23.101.840.075. ...

*CD24

2009). "CD15, CD24, and CD29 define a surface biomarker code for neural lineage differentiation of stem cells". Stem Cells. 27 ... CD24 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... 2010). "CD24 Ala57Val gene polymorphism and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus". Tissue Antigens. 75 (6): HASH( ... Signal transducer CD24 also known as cluster of differentiation 24 or heat stable antigen CD24 (HSA) is a protein that in ...

*Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma

... a leukocyte common antigen, and CD15, a monocyte common antigen. Because of the debate and difficulty of staining, pathologic ... "A primary lymph node malignancy with features suggestive of dendritic reticulum cell differentiation. A report of 4 cases". The ... of lymphoid follicles and have an integral role in regulation of the germinal center reaction and present antigens to B cells. ... Cyclophosphamide slows or stops cell growth cells. It targets cells that are rapidly dividing which include cancer cells that ...

*Dipeptidyl peptidase-4

"Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26". Science. 261 (5120): 466-9. doi:10.1126/ ... Proteins: clusters of differentiation (see also list of human clusters of differentiation) ... endothelial cell migration. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • T cell activation. • cell adhesion. • Viral entry. • ... cell projection. • cell junction. • lamellipodium. • apical plasma membrane. • membrane. • focal adhesion. • cell surface. • ...

*CD4

induction by virus of host cell-cell fusion. • adaptive immune response. • response to vitamin D. • T cell differentiation. • ... CD4 is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ... They are often referred to as CD4 cells, T-helper cells or T4 cells. They are called helper cells because one of their main ...

*CD64 (biology)

Cluster of differentiation by lineage. Lymphoid. B cell. *Pre-B cell: CD10/CALLA ... CD64+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Proteins: clusters of differentiation (see also list of human clusters of differentiation) ... Structurally CD64 is composed of a signal peptide that allows its transport to the surface of a cell, three extracellular ...

*CD30

I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Proteins: clusters of differentiation (see also list of human clusters of differentiation) ... CD30 and CD15 are also expressed on Reed-Sternberg cells typical for Hodgkin's lymphoma.[7] ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...

*CD44

The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. In humans, the ... CD44 is a multistructural and multifunctional cell surface molecule involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell ... "The Ina and Inb blood group antigens are located on a glycoprotein of 80,000 MW (the CDw44 glycoprotein) whose expression is ... wound healing, spreading of cells. • regulation of lamellipodium morphogenesis. • cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of ...

*CD154

B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... as well as their differentiation to plasma cells and memory B cells. The end-result is a B cell that is able to mass-produce ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... B cells[edit]. T cell-dependent B cell activation, showing a TH2-cell (left), B cell (right), and several interaction molecules ...

*CD97

"Cell Death and Differentiation. 21 (8): 1325-39. doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.65. PMC 4085538. PMID 24832468.. ... Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... cell-cell signaling. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • cell surface receptor signaling pathway. • movement of ... immune cells, epithelial cells, muscle cells as well as their malignant counterparts.[12][13][14][15][16][17] In the case of ...

*C-C chemokine receptor type 6

This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ... T cell migration. • thymocyte migration. • DN2 thymocyte differentiation. • DN3 thymocyte differentiation. • regulation of T ... 1997). "A somatic cell hybrid panel for distal 17q: GDIA1 maps to 17q25.3". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 76 (3-4): 172-5. doi:10.1159 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 attenuates acute lung injury in mice after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion. AU - Cui, Tianpen. AU - Miksa, Michael. AU - Wu, Rongqian. AU - Komura, Hidefumi. AU - Zhou, Mian. AU - Dong, Weifeng. AU - Wang, Zhimin. AU - Higuchi, Shinya. AU - Chaung, Wayne. AU - Blau, Steven A.. AU - Marini, Corrado P.. AU - Ravikumar, Thanjavur S.. AU - Wang, Ping. PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - Rationale: Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a potent opsonin for the clearance of apoptotic cells and is produced by mononuclear cells of immune competent organs including the spleen and lungs. It attenuates chronic and acute inflammation such as autoimmune glomerulonephritis and bacterial sepsis by enhancing apoptotic cell clearance. Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury of the gut results in severe inflammation, apoptosis, and remote organ damage, including acute lung injury (ALI). Objectives: To ...
Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to numerous stimuli like neurohumoral stress, pressure overload, infection, and injury, and leads to heart failure. Mfge8 (milk fat globule-EGF factor 8) is a secreted protein involved in various human diseases, but its regulation and function during cardiac hypertrophy remain unexplored. Here, we found that circulating MFGE8 levels declined significantly in failing hearts from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Correlation analyses revealed that circulating MFGE8 levels were negatively correlated with the severity of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in affected patients. Deleting Mfge8 in mice maintained normal heart function at basal level but substantially exacerbated the hypertrophic enlargement of cardiomyocytes, reprogramming of pathological genes, contractile dysfunction, and myocardial fibrosis after aortic banding surgery. In contrast, cardiac-specific Mfge8 overexpression in transgenic mice significantly blunted aortic banding-induced cardiac ...
VlsE, the variable surface antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi, consists of two invariable domains at the amino and carboxyl termini and one central variable domain. The latter contains six invariable regions, IR(1) to IR(6), and six variable regions. In the present study, the antigenicity of all of the invariable regions in B. burgdorferi-infected monkeys, humans, and mice was assessed by peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Only one invariable region, IR(6), was antigenic in all animals of the three host species. IR(2) and IR(4) were also antigenic in mice ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of Naturally Processed Helper T-Cell Epitopes from Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Using Peptide-Based in Vitro Stimulation. AU - Kobayashi, Hiroya. AU - Omiya, Ryusuke. AU - Sodey, Benjamin. AU - Yanai, Mitsuru. AU - Oikawa, Kensuke. AU - Sato, Keisuke. AU - Kimura, Shoji. AU - Senju, Satoru. AU - Nishimura, Yasuharu. AU - Tateno, Masatoshi. AU - Celis, Esteban. PY - 2003/11/1. Y1 - 2003/11/1. N2 - Purpose: There is growing evidence that CD4+ helper T lymphocytes (HTLs) play an essential role in the induction and long-term maintenance of antitumor CTL responses. Thus, approaches to develop effective T-cell-based immunotherapy should focus in the stimulation of both CTLs and HTLs reactive against tumor-associated antigens. The present studies were performed with the purpose of identifying HTL epitopes for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) for the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Platelets and Factor VIII in von Willebrands Disease. AU - Green, D.. AU - Potter, E. V.. PY - 1977/6/9. Y1 - 1977/6/9. N2 - To the Editor: In his excellent review, Jaffe1 asks, "What happens to the factor VIII antigen content of the two platelet pools when patients with von Willebrands disease of severe degree are given transfusions of plasma factor VIII?" We have performed in vitro and in vivo studies to answer his question. Immunofluorescent staining of platelets of patients with von Willebrands disease incubated with normal plasma indicated that factor VIII antigen did not become platelet bound unless aggregation was induced by ristocetin.2 Likewise, platelets obtained from such patients after cryoprecipitate infusion showed minimal or no staining before but intense staining. No extract is available for articles shorter than 400 words.. AB - To the Editor: In his excellent review, Jaffe1 asks, "What happens to the factor ...
A 16-year-old boy had IIB von Willebrands disease. The disorder is characterized by prolonged bleeding times; normal plasma levels of factor VIII-coagulant activity, factor VIII-ristocetin cofactor activity, and factor VIII-related antigen; abnormal (anodal) mobility of plasma factor VIII-related antigen on two-dimensional crossed Immunoelectrophoresis; and enhanced binding of plasma factor VIII-related antigen to normal platelets in the presence of ristocetin. These variables were measured at time periods after an infusion of normal cryoprecipitate into the patient. The electrophoretic mobility of his plasma factor VIII-related antigen was normal 15 minutes after the infusion but became abnormal (anodal) by 4 hours. His bleeding times were normal after 24 hours and did not correlate with plasma levels of factor VIII-coagulant activity, factor VIII-ristocetin cofactor, factor VIII-related antigen, or the electrophoretic ...
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The Kidd antigen system (also known as Jk antigen) is present on the membranes of red blood cells and the kidney and helps determine a persons blood type. The Jk antigen is found on a protein responsible for urea transport in the red blood cells and the kidney. The gene encoding this protein is found on chromosome 18. Three Jk alleles are Jk (a), Jk (b)and Jk3. Jk (a) was discovered by Allen et al. in 1951 and is named after a patient (Mrs Kidd delivered a baby with a haemolytic disease of the newborn associated with an antibody directed against a new antigen Jk (a). Whereas Jk (b) was discovered by Plant et al. in 1953, individuals who lack the Jk antigen (Jk null) are unable to maximally concentrate their urine. The Jk antigen is important in transfusion medicine. People with two Jk(a) antigens, for instance, may form antibodies against donated blood ...
Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Transplantation, Urology & Nephrology, TRANSPLANTATION, UROLOGY & NEPHROLOGY, chronic renal disease, dyslipidaemia, factor VII genotype, factor VII coagulant activity (VIIc), interleukin 6, prothrombin fragment F1+2, TRIGLYCERIDE-RICH LIPOPROTEINS, CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS, ISCHEMIC-HEART-DISEASE, ACTIVATED FACTOR-VII, UREMIC PATIENTS, GEMFIBROZIL, FAILURE, POLYMORPHISM, THROMBOSIS, STATE ...
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is overexpressed in prostate cancer. Radiolabeled small molecules that bind with high affinity to its active extracellular center have emerged as a potential new diagnostic standard of reference for prostate cancer, resulting in images with extraordinary tumor-to-background contrast.
Journal: EJNMMI - European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging ArticleTitle: Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET imaging and immunohistochemistry in adenoid cystic carcinoma-a preliminary analysis
The Kell antigen system (also known as Kell-Cellano system) is a group of antigens on the human red blood cell surface which are important determinants of blood type and are targets for autoimmune or alloimmune diseases which destroy red blood cells. Kell can be noted as K, k, or Kp. The Kell antigens are peptides found within the Kell protein, a 93-kilodalton transmembrane zinc-dependent endopeptidase which is responsible for cleaving endothelin-3. The KEL gene encodes a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that is the highly polymorphic Kell blood group antigen. The Kell glycoprotein links via a single disulfide bond to the XK membrane protein that carries the Kx antigen. The encoded protein contains sequence and structural similarity to members of the neprilysin (M13) family of zinc endopeptidases. There are several alleles of the gene which creates Kell protein. Two such ...
CD26 and CD31 surface antigen expression on human colostral T cells.: The expression levels of CD26 and CD31 surface antigens, two adhesion/activation molecules
TY - JOUR. T1 - Integrin-associated protein. T2 - A 50-kD plasma membrane antigen physically and functionally associated with integrins. AU - Brown, Eric. AU - Hooper, Lora. AU - Ho, Thang. AU - Gresham, Hattie. PY - 1990/12. Y1 - 1990/12. N2 - Phagocytosis by monocytes or neutrophils can be enhanced by interaction with several proteins or synthetic peptides containing the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence. Recently we showed that an mAb, B6H12, specifically inhibited this enhancement of neutrophil phagocytosis by inhibiting Arg-Gly-Asp binding to the leukocyte response integrin (Gresham, H. D., J. L. Goodwin, P. M. Allen, D. C. Anderson, and E. J. Brown. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:1935-1943). Now, we have purified the antigen recognized by B6H12 to homogeneity. Surprisingly, it is a 50-kD molecule that is expressed on the plasma membranes of all hematopoietic cells, including erythrocytes, which express no known integrins. On platelets and placenta, but ...
Complete information for MFGE8 gene (Protein Coding), Milk Fat Globule-EGF Factor 8 Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
There are many outside agents that could become antigens. Among the agents that are potentially antigenic are egg whites, pollen, transplanted tissue proteins and plenty of other agents that could cause a reaction of the immune system in order to take care of the invasion.. These outside antigens are also known as non-microbal or non-self antigens. One outside source of imunogenic antigens are vaccines. They are often given to people in order to prepare themselves for a potential illness.. Outside antigens are known as exogenous antigens. The common way that these antigens enter the body is through inhalation, injection, or ingestion. Often times, the immune system reacts to the antigens in a less than clinical fashion.. The process of the antibodies taking on the antigens are either endocytosis or phagocytosis. These ...
What is vaccination?. Vaccination provides immunity to specific diseases. A person who had been vaccinated has artificial immunity. This is created by deliberate exposure to antigenic material that has been rendered harmless. The immune system treats the antigenic material, as a real disease. As a result, the immune system manufactures antibodies and memory cells. The memory cells provide the long-term immunity.. The antigenic material used in vaccinations can take a variety of forms:. · Whole, live microorganisms - usually ones that are not as harmful as those that cause the real disease. But they must have similar antigens so that the antibodies produced will be effective against the real pathogen (e.g. the smallpox vaccine).. · A harmless or attenuated version of the pathogenic organism (e.g. measles and TB vaccines). · A dead pathogen (e.g. typhoid and cholera vaccines).. · A preparation of the ...
Human gamma globulin when administered intraperitoneally to mice challenged by a lethal intracerebral staphylococcal infection, enhanced the protective action of penicillin and oxytetracycline. This fact, added to the previously described antistaphylococcal action of human gamma globulin used in experimental and human infections suggest that human gamma globulin could be tried with some success as a preventive agent in human groups particularly exposed to staphylococcal infection, such as the prematurely born babies.. ...
AIMS: To evaluate the prevalence of pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia of mammary stroma in gynaecomastia and its immunohistochemical profile in this setting. METHODS: Eighty eight cases of gynaecomastia recovered from the files of the department of pathology, Botucatu School of Medicine from 1976 to 1996 were studied. In the cases associated with pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia of mammary stroma, immunoreactivity for cytokeratins (CAM 5.2), vimentin, CD34, factor VIII related antigen, and the oestrogen and progesterone receptors were studied. RESULTS: Pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia of mammary stroma was found in 21 of 88 cases of gynaecomastia (23.8%). In all cases, the cells lining the spaces were positive for vimentin, whereas CAM 5.2 and factor VIII related antigen were consistently negative. Nineteen of the 21 cases showed immunoreactivity for CD34. Ductal epithelial cells were ...
05 considered statistically significant. An EV71 antigen standard preparation H07-0812-022 was produced. from a C4 subtype EV71 virus strain isolated in 2008 from Fuyang in Chinas Anhui Province. The virus was cultured in Vero cells and then inactivated by formalin (1:2000) and purified using column chromatography. A total of 500 g vaccine bulk was produced. HPLC results showed that EV71 virus particles appeared at the 12.5-min peak with an EV71 antigen purity of 98.68% (Supplementary Fig. 1) and this bulk material was used to prepare lyophilized EV71 antigen reference standards. A collaborative calibration of EV71 antigen content in lyophilized EV71 antigen standards was performed in four different www.selleckchem.com/products/Decitabine.html labs using the EL-4 kits (Table 1). The means of EV71 antigen content was 1441.4 KU/ml which is close to the theoretical antigen ...
Lubaroff, D M., "Antigenic markers on rat lymphocytes. I. Characterization of a.r.t., An alloantigenic marker on rat thymus and thymus-derived cells." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2102 ...
Several factors may determine whether encounter of antigen in a primary response will lead to the clonal expansion of specific antigen receptor-expressing lymphocytes and their differentiation into specific memory effector cells (for review see references (1) and (2)). Soluble foreign antigen usually leads to a transient clonal expansion of antigen-specific T cells, followed by the deletion and/or functional inactivation of the cells (for review see references 1 and 2). In some cases, soluble antigen can lead to subsequent unresponsiveness to an immunizing regimen of antigen in adjuvant (for review see references 1 and 2). It has been suggested that the dose and form of antigen, the route of administration of antigen, the delivery of appropriate costimulatory signals, and the genetic background of the host ...
Definition of THYMUS-DEPENDENT ANTIGEN: T-deyendent antigen. An antigen which fails to stimulate an antibody response if T-lymphocytes are absent. Co-operation between B- lymphocytes and helper T
Define antihemophilic factor C. antihemophilic factor C synonyms, antihemophilic factor C pronunciation, antihemophilic factor C translation, English dictionary definition of antihemophilic factor C. maker, doer Examples of words with the root factor-: benefactor n. 1. One that actively contributes to an accomplishment, result, or process: Surprise is...
Tumor cells were treated with rabbit antibody to tumor-associated cell surface antigens and tested with erythrocytes coated with antibody specific for the sensitizing rabbit immunoglobulin. The sensitized tumor cells formed rosettes with the indicator cells. By this method, we confirmed that line 1 and line 10 hepatoma cells (from two tumors independently induced by diethylnitrosamine in strain 2 guinea pigs) bear antigens not present on normal liver cells. We also confirmed that line 1 and line 10 cells bear antigenically different tumor-associated cell surface antigens. This method appears simpler than other serological methods for detecting tumor-associated cell surface antigens on tumor cells. Also, this method may be a general one for detecting and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Determination of the immunoreactive fraction of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies directed against intracellular antigens. AU - Haisma, Hidde J.. AU - Pinedo, H. M.. AU - Silva, Carlos A.. AU - Boven, Epie. PY - 1992/9/18. Y1 - 1992/9/18. N2 - For investigations involving monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against cellular antigens cell binding assays are routinely used to determine the immunoreactive fraction after radiolabeling. In general, surface antigens are targets for radioimmunodetection, but recent studies indicate that intracellular determinants may also prove useful for this purpose. Thus, there is a need to adapt the regular cell binding assay for use with antibodies directed against cytoplasmic antigens. Here we describ a fixation method which permits such mAbs to bind to cell surfaces as well as to ...
Red blood cells contain various antigens in its surface. RBC containing antigen A, B, and AB in its surface are designated as blood group A, B and AB respectively. Blood group O do not contain both antigen A and antigen B in its surface. These blood group antigens are carbohydrate molecule. Our immune system usually makes IgM class of antibodies against carbohydrate antigen (as it gets no sufficient signals for class switching). These IgM antibodies (which are pentameric in nature) can bind specific antigens present in the surface of RBCs and can agglutinate RBC. So antibodies against ABO blood group antigens are called complete antibodies. RBC also contains another antigen in its surface, which is called Rh antigen. Rh antigens are protein in nature. When a person lacking Rh antigen (e.g. ...
We established previously that BXD2 mice spontaneously develop high levels of circulating high-affinity nephritogenic and arthrogenic pathogenic autoantibodies and that the spontaneous formation of GCs in the spleen is critical to the production of these high-affinity pathogenic autoantibodies (16-18). In the current study, we showed that there are increased counts of pDCs in the spleens of BXD2 mice. These pDCs exhibit significantly elevated expression of IFN-α and are the primary producers of this cytokine. We further showed that type I IFNs play a role in the development of lupus in the BXD2 mice by demonstrating that a deficiency of the IFN-αR in these mice leads to a reduction in the spontaneous formation of GCs. Strikingly, although the type I IFN signature and the expanded development of Th-17 cells were reported to be associated with lupus in humans (45-47), IFN-α by itself was found to suppress Th-17 development (48). Because IFN-α is mainly produced by pDCs that are located in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of antigen-specific B cells. T2 - role of T cells, cytokines, and antigen in induction of growth and differentiation. AU - Noelle, R. J.. AU - Snow, E. C.. AU - Uhr, J. W.. AU - Vitetta, E. S.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - T cells and cytokines were used to activate highly enriched populations of 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl (TNP)-binding B cells (TNP-ABC). TNP-ABC did not proliferate or differentiate when they were cultured with thymus-dependent (TD) antigen, even in the presence of supernatants known to contain B-cell growth and differentiation factors. However, purified TNP-ABC did proliferate and differentiate when they were cultured with TD antigen in the presence of carrier-primed T cells and antigen (TNP-keyhole limpet hemocyanin) i.e., linked recognition. TNP-ABC ...
i. Reaction of identity: Antigens in two wells are identical (Agl and Ag2). So the reaction with the antibody results in a precisely similar precipitin lines. The precipitin lines dont cross, but form a continuous line. Fusion of the two precipitin lines indicates that the antibody is reacting with epitopes commonly present on the two antigens. ii. Reaction of non-identity: Two non-identical antigens (Agl and Ag3) are in the antigen wells while the antibody well has antibodies to both the antigens. The two antigen-antibody precipitin lines formed differ from each other. Hence the two precipitin lines completely cross (intersect) each other. iii. Reaction of partial identity: The antigenic determinants in the antigens of two wells are partially shared (Agl and Agla). Hence the antibody reacts with both the antigens and forms lines that do not form a complete ...
A 17-amino acid tryptic peptide of chicken ovalbumin, designated P323-339, that substituted for processed antigen when presented by glutaraldehyde prefixed accessory cells to specific I-restricted T hybridomas was characterized. The peptide antigen could not be demonstrated to have any specific or stable interactions with accessory cell Ia antigens by either direct binding or functional assays for inhibition of specific T cell activation. In addition, the T cell receptor for I-restricted antigen had no affinity for free antigen alone. A rabbit antibody specific for the antigenic peptide inhibited presentation when introduced before but not after binding of the peptide to accessory cells. These results extend our earlier finding that accessory cell-mediated processing of chicken ovalbumin can be completely ...
In order to achieve batch-to-batch consistency of whole-cell pertussis vaccines, properties relevant for protection and safety should be characterised. Therefore, ELISAs to quantify pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), 92 kD outer membrane protein (92 kD-OMP) and pertactin (PRN) in Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) suspensions were developed. In this paper the influence of the bacterial growth stage on antigen production and antigen release into the supernatant was studied for pertussis strains 134, 509 and CS. The levels of cell-associated and free antigens during growth were strongly strain and antigen dependent. Because of this, the proportion of cell-associated antigens changed during cultivation for all three strains. Substantial amounts of PT and PRN were released into the supernatant, while little free FHA and 92 kD-OMP were found. The amount of ...
Cross-priming is a critical component of T cell responses to cancers and viruses, and involves transfer of antigen from antigen donor cells to the antigen presenting cells. In spite of the centrality of antigen in this process, the influence of the quantity of antigen expressed by the antigen donor cell on the efficiency of cross-priming remains unexamined. Here, I describe the creation of a novel system where the model antigen ovalbumin is expressed in P815 (d haplotype) cells under the control of an inducible promoter, producing a large amount of antigen synthesis upon induction. However, even in the un-induced condition, a very low level of ovalbumin can be detected using sensitive methods to amplify the weak signal. I have used titrated quantities of uninduced and induced ...
Abstract(#br)Protein-coated microcrystals (PCMCs) were investigated as potential vaccine formulations for a range of model antigens. Presentation of antigens as PCMCs increased the antigen-specific IgG responses for all antigens tested, compared to soluble antigens. When compared to conventional aluminium-adjuvanted formulations, PCMCs modified with calcium phosphate (CaP) showed enhanced antigen-specific IgG responses and a decreased antigen-specific IgG1:IgG2a ratio, indicating the induction of a more balanced Th1/Th2 response. The rate of antigen release from CaP PCMCs, in vitro , decreased strongly with increasing CaP loading but their immunogenicity in vivo was not significantly different, suggesting the adjuvanticity was not due to a depot effect. Notably, it was found that CaP... modification enhanced the phagocytosis of fluorescent antigen-PCMC ...
Intake of shea butter high in steanic acid favorably affects blood lipids and factor VII coagulant activity in young men. Three experimental diets: shea butter (42% steamic acid), palm oil (43% palmitic acid), and palm-kernel oil with high-oleic sunflower oil (10% mymistic acid, 30% launic acid) were served to a group of healthy young men for 3-week period each. The shea butter diet compared with palm oil diet resulted in significant reduction in plasma cholesterol (22%) LDL cholesterol (26%), apolipoprotein B (18%), HDL cholesterol (12%), apolipoprotein A-I (13%), and a 13% lower factor VII coagulant activity with high statistical significance. Similar differences were observed between shea butter diet and palm kernal sunflower oil diet. Click To Show More ...
0062] Parasital pathogens may also be detected by the kit and the methods disclosed. In one example, the antigen is a protozoan parasite and the antigen is from Babesia. In one example, the antigen is a protozoan parasite and the antigen is from Balantidium. In one example, the antigen is a protozoan parasite and the antigen is from Balantidium. In one example, the antigen is a protozoan parasite and the antigen is from Besnoitia. In one example, the antigen is a protozoan parasite and the antigen is from Cryptosporidium. In one example, the antigen is a protozoan parasite and the antigen is from Eimeria. In one example, the antigen is a protozoan parasite and the antigen is from Encephalitozoon. In one example, the antigen is a protozoan parasite and the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antigen-pulsed neutrophils bearing Ia antigens can induce T lymphocyte proliferative response to the syngeneic or semisyngeneic antigen-primed T lymphocytes. AU - Okuda, K.. AU - Tani, K.. AU - Ishigatsubo, Y.. AU - Yokota, S.. AU - David, C. S.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - Antigen-pulsed neutrophils from mouse peritoneal cavities displayed a remarkable level of lymphocyte proliferative activities to antigen-primed T lymphocytes. Genetic mapping studies demonstrated that compatibility at the I-A, as well as I-E/C, subregions of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) was essential for effective presentation of the lysozyme antigen. These antigen-presenting activities were remarkably inhibited by anti-Ia sera. Inhibition tests revealed that neutrophil immune-associated (Ia) antigens seem to be essential for antigen presentation during the ...
We determined that, as compared with human naïve B cells, human GC B cells have a higher intrinsic affinity threshold for antigen. We observed that independently of other extrinsic factors, such as competition among B cells for antigen, the intrinsic affinity of GC B cells for an antigen dictated each subsequent step in B cell activation from the magnitude of BCR signaling to the receptivity of BCR-stimulated GC B cells to Tfh cell signals that drive IRF-4 expression and PC differentiation. We provided evidence that BCRs on LZ GC B cells are concentrated in distinct, highly dynamic, ezrin- and actin-rich pod-like structures through which the BCRs engage antigen, signal, exert pulling forces, and extract antigen from membranes. In contrast, the BCRs on naïve B ...
As a leading supplier of innovative life science research tools, Creative Diagnostics continues to expand its products portfolio by offering of unique antigens for researchers globally, which is supported by extensive research, development, and validation for superior quality. The addition of antigen products and services will enable scientists to work on more specific projects, and also provide leading researchers and diagnostic manufacturers with a more diverse antigen selection, which facilitates the development of assays with greater specificity and sensitivity.. These newly released antigens are rigorously tested to meet the demand in research and development and are featured with excellent quality, including Viral Antigens, Bacterial Antigens, Fungal Antigens, Parasitic Antigens, Immunoglobulin, Hapten, Cardiac Biomarkers and so on. With this expanded ...
As a leading supplier of innovative life science research tools, Creative Diagnostics continues to expand its products portfolio by offering of unique antigens for researchers globally, which is supported by extensive research, development, and validation for superior quality. The addition of antigen products and services will enable scientists to work on more specific projects, and also provide leading researchers and diagnostic manufacturers with a more diverse antigen selection, which facilitates the development of assays with greater specificity and sensitivity.. These newly released antigens are rigorously tested to meet the demand in research and development and are featured with excellent quality, including Viral Antigens, Bacterial Antigens, Fungal Antigens, Parasitic Antigens, Immunoglobulin, Hapten, Cardiac Biomarkers and so on. With this expanded ...
Protective antigen component of B. anthracis toxin was produced and purified to the |99% level. Toxin was purified from culture supernatant utilizing concentration and liquid chromatography techniques. Purity was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified protective antigen retained biological and antigenic activity as evidenced respectively by lethality in Fischer 344 rats when injected in combination with lethal factor, and by positive results on the Ouchterlony double diffussion assay. Radioiodinated protective antigen was used both in the in vivo and the in vitro experiments. In vivo distribution of labelled protective antigen was determined in Fischer 344 rats. Assay of organ tissues for labelled protective antigen aided in the decision to use Maden-Darby bovine kidney cells for the cell cultures in the protective ...
Antigens were identified from Nematospiroides dubius recovered from outbred Quackenbush mice between 4 and 10 days postinoculation (PI). Parasite surface proteins were radioiodinated and extracts of the whole worms were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred to nitrocellulose, and reacted with normal and immune mouse sera followed by an avidin-biotin-peroxidase assay. Antigens ranged between 250,000 and 20,000 molecular weight (MW). A major surface antigen, 60,000 MW, which appeared to be a complex of different antigens, and a 250,000-MW internal antigen were found on fourth-stage (L4) and fifth-stage (L5) larvae 5-10 days PI but not earlier. A group of minor surface antigens (24,000-30,000 MW) were also expressed as larvae molted from L4 to L5, 6 and 7 days PI, but they differed from antigens of similar MW expressed by adult ...
Forwarded message follows ------- Date sent: Fri, 22 Oct 1999 08:26:11 +0100 From: Scott Whittaker ,[email protected], Subject: Glycerin Antigen Retrieval Forwarded to: [email protected] To: [email protected] ,Date: (No, or invalid, date.) ,From: BB racing ,[email protected], ,Subject: Glycerin Antigen Retrieval ,To: Histonet ,[email protected], , ,Histotechnologists ,This is a new technique for Antigen Retrieval, and is for all of you out there, with open minds, that like to try new ideas. ,Briefly: ,Current antigen retrival techniques revolve around the use of water, raised to approximately 120C, by various means such as autoclaving, pressure cooking, or microwaving. There are several problems associate with this technique that I thought need to be addressed. First, is the partial distruction or even complete loss of the sections from the slides due to the formation of steam bubbles between the glass and the ...
The effect of specific antigen on the development of physical interactions between lymph node lymphocytes (LNL) obtained from animals which had been immunized to that antigen and macrophages was examined. We found that the presence of antigen, either limited to the macrophage () or free in the medium, profoundly increased the degree of ) or free in the medium, profoundly increased the degree of Mphi-LNL interaction observed. This enhanced interaction was dependent on the coincidence in the cultures of Mphi bearing antigen and LNL from animals specifically immunized to that antigen. Although antigen-independent interactions developed equally well between syngeneic and allogeneic combinations of lymphocytes and macrophages, antigen mediated interactions required that macrophages and lymphocytes be syngeneic. Prolongation of antigen-mediated Mphi-LNL interactions resulted in ...
The pathogen. · Has antigens which identify it as foreign. Infected cells. · May damage attacking pathogens with organelles such as lysosomes and display them on their surface membrane (antigen presentation). Macrophages. · Act like phagocytes, engulfing and digesting any pathogens. · Separate out antigens from digested pathogens and display them in antigen presentation. · Release monokines which attract neutrophils and stimulate B and T cell division and differentiation. T cells. · Matching T cells detect the antigen using receptors on their cell membranes- this…. ...
We have transfected the mouse CD4 gene into a beef insulin (BI)-specific murine T helper hybridoma that lacks CD4 surface expression. The CD4-expressing transfectants have acquired an additional reactivity for pork insulin (PI), which was not detectable in the original recipient cell. The transfectants response to PI can be completely abrogated by anti-CD4 antibodies. The transfected clone showed a 50-fold increased sensitivity towards BI in comparison to the same CD4- hybridoma. These experiments suggest that CD4 may be important in determining the antigen fine specificity and, therefore, may also play a role in altering the T cell repertoire. ...
Flow cytometry is conventionally used to measure cell-surface antigen expression. However, many antigens are found within the cytoplasm, and it is necessary to fix and permeabilize cells to enable antibodies to gain access to them. In this study we have established the conditions for studying intracellular antigens in human trophoblast cells by flow cytometry using an antibody to TAP1 (a key molecule in the process of Class I MHC assembly). We have previously shown by immunocytochemistry that TAP1 expression is apparently greater on Class 1 positive extravillous cytotrophoblast than on any other fetal or maternal tissue. However, as immunohistochemistry is not quantitative we have used three-colour flow cytometry to measure the expression of TAP1 in different trophoblast populations. Villous and extravillous cytotrophoblast were identified in first trimester and term placental and decidual ...
A humoral immune response against blood-borne protein antigens is initiated in the white pulp of the spleen and requires activation of both B cells and helper T cells. Before a humoral immune response can be initiated, the antigen has to be transported to splenic follicles, because antigens have not access to the follicles by themselves. It has been shown that CD23+ B cells in vivo can transport IgE-antigen complexes into the follicles. CD23 is the low affinity receptor for IgE and is primarily expressed on B cells and follicular dendritic cells in mice. When mice are immunized with IgE-antigen complexes, an enhanced immune response can be seen. In the current study the transport function of CD23 on B cells was used to ...
Target AntigenRetinal S antigen Quantity50ulClonePDS1HostMouse ImmunogenPorcine retinal S-antigen (arrestin)Myeloma/fusion partnersBalb/c Ag 8.653 myeloma cellsSpecies ReactivityRat, Cow, Human, PigPurificationProtein GFormatPurified antibody (from supernatant) containing PBS 0.1% sodium azideApplicationsWB, IHC-Fr, IC
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical profile of a new monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay for tissue polypeptide antigen. AU - Correale, M.. AU - Arnberg, H.. AU - Blockx, P.. AU - Bombardier, E.. AU - Castelli, M.. AU - Encabo, G.. AU - Gion, M.. AU - Klapdor, R.. AU - Martin, M.. AU - Nilsson, S.. AU - Reutgen, H.. AU - Ruggeri, G.. AU - Safi, F.. AU - Stegmuller, M.. AU - Vering, A.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Our preliminary evaluation of a new monoclonal antibody-based assay for tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) has shown it to be clinically equivalent to the polyclonal antibody-based assay for TPA. The new assay (TPA-M) employs three monoclonal antibodies to epitopes on cytokeratins 8, 18 and 19. This multicenter, multinational study included 266 patients with newly diagnosed carcinomas of the lung, breast, large bowel and urinary bladder. TPA values from the two assays were compared with three other cytokeratin markers (TPS, CYFRA 21-1 and TPA(Cyk)) and with the established ...
Cancer immunotherapy by therapeutic activation of T cells has demonstrated clinical potential. Approaches include checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor T cells. Here, we report the development of an alternative strategy for cellular immunotherapy that combines induction of a tumor-directed T-cell response and antibody secretion without the need for genetic engineering. CD40 ligand stimulation of murine tumor antigen-specific B cells, isolated by antigen-biotin tetramers, resulted in the development of an antigen-presenting phenotype and the induction of a tumor antigen-specific T-cell response. Differentiation of antigen-specific B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells was achieved by stimulation with ...
Subcapsular sinus (SCS) macrophages capture antigens from lymph and present them intact for B cell encounter and follicular delivery. However, the properties of SCS macrophages are poorly defined. Here we show SCS macrophage development depended on lymphotoxin-alpha1beta2, and the cells had low lysosomal enzyme expression and retained opsonized antigens on their surface. Intravital imaging revealed immune complexes moving along macrophage processes into the follicle. Moreover, noncognate B cells relayed antigen opsonized by newly produced antibodies from the subcapsular region to the germinal center, and affinity maturation was impaired when this transport process was disrupted. Thus, we characterize SCS macrophages as specialized antigen-presenting cells functioning at the apex of an antigen transport chain that promotes humoral immunity.
Daniel, It might be worth your while to attempt antigen retrieval at a pH of 10 or 11 in an electric pressure cooker. You could also try the double whammy (antigen retrieval and enzyme digestion(protease or trypsin)). If this fails then the tissue is problably beyond resuscitation. Susie Smith, HT/HTL(ASCP), B.S. Research Associate Cytologix Corporation -----Original Message----- From: Daniel Martinez [mailto:[email protected]] Sent: Tuesday, November 07, 2000 9:45 AM To: [email protected] Subject: Antigen Retrieval Methods I currently have a rare Parkinsons case that I am having trouble staining. This tissue has been fixing in formalin for 13yrs. I am attempting to stain this tissue with several alpha-synuclein antibodies that we produce. To date, I have tried formic acid, proteinase-K, microwave, and boiling treatments. Any advice on other methods that might be worth trying would be appreciated. Thanks for your help Dan Martinez ...
Capsular antigens of "Staphylococcus aureus" Smith and 2-8 strains were evaluated for immunogenicity in mice. Cultural conditions necessary for maximum expression of the antigens were also defined. Actively growing "S. aureus" Smith strain culture was used to challenge lactating GF-1 strain mice which had been vaccinated with various capsule antigen preparations. Capsule antigen production was evaluated using shaker flask and fermenter cultures. Immunogenicity evaluations using single vaccinations showed that semi-purified capsule preparations elicited a protective response against challenge. Mice vaccinated twice showed that oil and aluminum hydroxide adjuvanted capsule antigens protected against challenge, but DDA (dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide) adjuvanted capsule antigens resulted in more mastitis than non-vaccinated controls. Cultural evaluations showed that media high in nitrogen and carbohydrate ...
Protein antigens are no able to induce an immune response without being previously processed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Following their processing that comprises their splitting to smaller fragments - peptides, APs subsequently present them to T cells; moreover, they activate them and polarise to a specific biological functions. Depending of antigen origin, there are two presentation pathways, exogenous and endogenous. Antigens originated from outside of APC, e.g. bacterial toxins, enzymes, etc., are presented by exogenous pathway and presented molecules are class II HLA molecules. T cell, that recognise presented peptides belong to helper subset of T cells. Antigens originated in the cytosol, such as antigens that appear in the cytoplasm of virus infected cells, are presented by endogenous pathway and presented ...
Looking for online definition of specific antigens in the Medical Dictionary? specific antigens explanation free. What is specific antigens? Meaning of specific antigens medical term. What does specific antigens mean?
To optimize antigen specific immune responses, immunologists have been focusing on strategies based on targeting antigenic determinants to specific receptors expressed by defined subsets of professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs). For instance, the most efficient delivery systems rely on co-administration of both antigens and adjuvants to activate pAPCs cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) and to improve their efficacy. Co-delivery of both antigen and adjuvant into the same cell allows for only cells which have internalised the antigen to receive the activation signal, avoiding induction of T cell anergy in the absence of co-stimuli and non-specific activation of APCs which have not seen the antigen. pAPCs, like DCs, also regulate innate immune responses through the expression and ...
Sialyl Lewis X-i antigen has been used as a tool for the clinical assessment of lung cancers, especially lung adenocarcinoma. However, the carbohydrate antigens including sialyl Lewis X-i antigen are also increased in some patients with non-malignant lung diseases such as IPF without coexistent malignancy.8-12 There is as yet no test to make a specific diagnosis in patients with raised levels of the antigen. When increased serum levels of the antigen are found in patients with IPF without a suspicious mass on the chest CT scan, further invasive and costly tests are often considered to rule out adenocarcinoma originating from other organs. If the core proteins of the antigen in patients with lung adenocarcinoma are not the same as those in patients with IPF, it is expected that the pattern of expression would differ on Western blotting analysis. In order to establish the specific test for a differential ...
Abstract A 2-site enzyme immunoassay was developed for the detection of Fasciola hepatica antigen in the serum of fascioliasis infected mice. The assay utilizes high titer rabbit immunoglobulins to parasite excretory/secretory antigens (FhES) as capture antibody, and also as detection antibody when linked to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or to biotin for reaction with avidin-peroxidase. The assays were compared with a conventional (antibody detection) ELISA to determine diagnostic utility. Using mean rates of detection of fascioliasis, the HRP-based antigen capture assay diagnosed the infection at 1 week postinfection and showed that circulating antigen levels are maximal 3 weeks after infection. The earliest mean diagnosis for the antibody detection and the biotin-based antigen capture ELISAs were 2 and 3 weeks postinfection, respectively. The addition of known quantities of FhES antigens to normal mouse ...
Define Proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen synonyms, Proliferating cell nuclear antigen pronunciation, Proliferating cell nuclear antigen translation, English dictionary definition of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen. also an·ti·gene n. A molecule that is capable of binding to an antibody or to an antigen receptor on a T cell, especially one that induces an immune...
Much has been learned in recent years concerning the nature of tumor antigens recognized by T cells. To apply this knowledge clinically, the nature of the host response to individual and multiple tumor antigens has to be characterized. This will help to define the efficacy of immune surveillance and the immune status of the host following exposure to tumor antigens expressed on pre-neoplastic tissue. To approach these questions, we have developed a transgenic mouse which expresses the tumor-specific antigen P91A. The single amino acid substitution in P91A results in the expression of a new MHC class I (H-2Ld)-binding peptide. In transgenic tissue, the H-2Ld/P91A complex is expressed in isolation from other tumor-associated antigens, allowing definition of the immune response to a single defined tumor antigen, a situation closely analogous to events during tumorigenesis. We show that ...
Two mouse monoclonal anti-anti-idiotopic antibodies (anti-anti-Id, Ab3), AF14 and AF52, were prepared by immunizing BALByc mice with rabbit polyclonal antiidiotypic antibodies (anti-Id, Ab2) raised against antibody D1.3 (Ab1) specific for the antigen hen egg lysozyme. AF14 and AF52 react with an internal image monoclonal mouse anti-Id antibody E5.2 (Ab2), previously raised against D1.3, with affinity constants (1.0 3 109 M21 and 2.4 3 107 M21, respectively) usually observed in secondary responses against protein antigens. They also react with the antigen but with lower affinity (1.8 3 106 M21 and 3.8 3 106 M21). This pattern of affinities for the anti-Id and for the antigen also was displayed by the sera of the immunized mice. The amino acid sequences of AF14 and AF52 are very close to that of D1.3. In particular, the amino acid side chains that contribute to contacts with both antigen and anti-Id are largely conserved in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heterogeneity of antigen expression and lectin labeling on microglial cells in the olfactory bulb of adult rats. AU - Wu, C. H.. AU - Chien, H. F.. AU - Chang, C. Y.. AU - Ling, E. A.. PY - 1997/5. Y1 - 1997/5. N2 - Microglia in different layers of the rat olfactory bulb expressed a variety of membrane antigens except for CD4 (OX-35). Bulb microglial cells bearing complement receptor type 3 (OX-42) were ubiquitous and their immunoreactivity varied considerably in different bulb layers. Although very few in number, labeled microglia in all layers also expressed major histocompatibility complex class I antigen (OX-18), leukocyte common antigen (OX-1) and unknown macrophage antigen (ED-2). The latter was localized in cells distributed almost exclusively in the perivascular spaces. The immunoreactivity of ED-1, an unknown ...
Because tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) recognize tumor antigen associated with MHC class I molecules expressed on the tumor surface, any alteration in the tumor antigen processing and presentation will greatly affect CTL immunity. In fact, downregulation or complete loss of MHC I molecules have been demonstrated in a wide array of tumors, particularly prostate, colon, lung, and breast cancers (5-12). Disruption or downregulation of antigen processing components, such as TAP (transporters associated with antigen processing) and LMP (components of the proteasome complex) genes have also been observed in several tumor types, including breast, prostate, and renal cancers (13-15). Another tactic tumors exploit is downregulation or alteration of tumor antigens. Several independent research groups described the loss of melanoma-associated antigen either during treatment by adoptive transfer of ex vivo ...
often used as a critical component of a non-animal laboratory test; for example, in immunoserology tests used to diagnose many diseases.. The response of animals to an injection of an antigen is the same as that of humans to a vaccine; that is, they produce antibodies. Virtually any laboratory animal species can be used to produce antibodies. The choice of species often relates to the properties of the antigen. Animals are given a series of injections of an antigen preparation, usually after a pre-immunization blood sample has been collected to be sure the animal does not already have antibodies that may complicate the study. About three weeks after the series of injections, blood is again collected, and the serum is evaluated for the presence of antibody. If the level of antibody is not adequate for research purposes, additional antigen injections, or boosters, are given. The serum antibody can be stored in a freezer for years, thus ...
In ATT, a human autoimmune serum, we found anti-nucleolar antibodies that recognized nucleolar antigens confined to a single nucleolar compartment, the dense fibrillar component (DFC). We localized these antigens by immunoelectron microscopy in DFC of HeLa cell nucleoli both on Lowicryl sections and cryoultrathin sections without embedding. The antigens were solubilized by incubation with 2M NaCl but not by RNase or DNase treatment. The ATT serum crossreacted with rat liver nucleoli and PtK1 cell nucleoli in which immunofluorescence labelling displayed a clumpy pattern. During mitosis, the antigens dispersed in the cytoplasm until late telophase, when they gathered in the prenucleolar bodies. In human peripheral lymphocytes, or HeLa cells treated with actinomycin D, the antigens were still present but the fluorescence intensity decreased. By immunoblotting using human ...
The various antigen complexes of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are broadly classified as the viral capsid antigen (VCA), diffuse early antigen (EA-D), restricted early antigen (EA-R), membrane antigen (MA) and the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA). The different EBV-related diseases may be differentiated according to the reactivity of these different classes of antibodies towards the various classes of antigen complexes. However, with the recent development of molecular biology, it is now known that the individual polypeptides of the different EBV antigen complexes can be used as serological markers for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Among the useful serological markers which have been used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of NPC are the gp125 from the VCA complex (IgA), pp58 from the EA-D complex (IgG), ribonucleotide ...
Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with ...
Abstract. "The intestinal epithelium, the largest interface between the host and environment, regulates fluxes of ions and nutrients and limits host contact with the massive load of luminal antigens. Local protective and tolerogenic immune responses toward luminal content depend on antigen sampling by the gut epithelial layer. Whether, and how exaggerated, the entrance of antigenic macromolecules across the gut epithelium might initiate and/or perpetuate chronic inflammation as well as the respective contribution of paracellular and transcellular permeability remains a matter of debate. To this extent, experimental studies involving the in vivo assessment of intestinal permeability using small inert molecules do not necessarily correlate with the uptake of larger dietary antigens. This review analyzes both the structural and functional aspects of intestinal permeability with special emphasis on ...
Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route; where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules; and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments; exogenous antigens must compete with ...
Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route; where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules; and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments; exogenous antigens must compete with ...
An apparatus for collecting antigen, including an allergen exemplified by a dust-mite, dispersed in a motile fluid in a given environment that can be inserted in a section of a pipe of a standard vacuum cleaner hose. The apparatus includes a receptacle whose body is formed of nylon, typically with a pore size of from 15 to 60 μm. The receptacle is coated with an antibody that retains the antigen in a contacting relationship. The apparatus is provided with a removable holder, which assists in locating the apparatus in the pipe of the vacuum cleaner. The apparatus can be used directly in an immunoassay for confirming the presence of, or quantifying, the antigen.
... antigen expressed by neuroblastoma tumor cells and treated patients with this disease. extended, low-level persistence in patients, and such persistence was associated with longer survival. This study is registered at www.clinialtrials.gov as #"type":"clinical-trial","attrs":"text":"NCT00085930″,"term_id":"NCT00085930″NCT00085930. Introduction Adoptively transferred T cells Rabbit Polyclonal to ZADH2 can recognize tumor-associated antigens presented in association with MHC molecules on the cell surface. However, many cancer cells and solid tumors have defects in antigen processing and presentation,1,2 including down-regulation of and/or failure to express MHC molecules.3,4 Introducing tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) into adoptively transferred T cells allows them to recognize tumor-associated antigens in an Resminostat ...
Shared and unique antigens were identified and partially characterized for two morphologically and antigenically distinct isolates of Anaplasma, A. marginale (Florida) (FAM) and A. caudatum (Illinois) (IAC). Crude CA-like antigens were prepared from the parasitemic blood of each calf, separated by SDS-PAGE, electroblotted onto nitrocellulose, and detected using immune bovine sera and an avidin-biotin-peroxidase assay with biotinylated rabbit anti-goat IgG (cross-reacted with cattle, sheep and deer antibodies). IAC antigens were 200 kilodalton (kd), 100 kd, 96 kd, 75 kd, 47 kd, 43 to 38 kd, and 27 kd, detected using anti-IAC and anti-FAM sera. FAM antigens were 108 kd, 100 kd, 96 kd, 91 kd, 75 kd, 47 kd, 43 to 38 kd, and 27 kd, detected using anti-FAM sera and, except for the 91 kd, with anti-IAC sera. The 91 kd is an FAM isolate-specific antigen. The 108 kd, 100 kd, and 96 kd are ...
[A]lthough erythrocytes have traditionally been considered relatively inert cellular containers of hemoglobin, they are in fact active in a variety of physiologic processes. L. Calhoun and L. D. Petz(p1843) | Blood groups are characterized by erythrocyte (red blood cell) antigens with common immunologic properties (eg, group A). Blood group systems are series of such antigens encoded by a single gene or by a cluster of 2 or 3 closely linked homologous genes (eg, ABO system). There are about 600 recognized erythrocyte antigens. The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) designates around 270 blood group antigens. Of these, around 250 belong to
[A]lthough erythrocytes have traditionally been considered relatively inert cellular containers of hemoglobin, they are in fact active in a variety of physiologic processes. L. Calhoun and L. D. Petz(p1843) | Blood groups are characterized by erythrocyte (red blood cell) antigens with common immunologic properties (eg, group A). Blood group systems are series of such antigens encoded by a single gene or by a cluster of 2 or 3 closely linked homologous genes (eg, ABO system). There are about 600 recognized erythrocyte antigens. The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) designates around 270 blood group antigens. Of these, around 250 belong to
The invention relates to a set of novel immunological adjuvants based upon so called polyladder proteins of nematode worms. These proteins are typified by repeating units separated by a protease cleavage motif of RX(K/R)R or RXFR where R is arginine, X is any amino acid, K is lysine and F is phenylalanine. These motifs are preceded by a cysteine residue at around 7, 8 or 9 residues upstream. Polyladder proteins or fragments of polyladder proteins may be used as immunological adjuvants either mixed with, or conjugated to a vaccine antigen, and will strongly enhance the immune response against the antigen. Conjugation may take the form of a genetic fusion between adjuvant and antigen. Antigens may be derived from pathogens, or may be tumour antigens, autoantigens, or antigens of other kinds. Vaccines may be used for prophylaxis or therapy ...
In a study reported in Clinical Cancer Research, Bartlett and colleagues found that melanoma metastases exhibit site-specific antigen heterogeneity that correlates with T-cell infiltration.. A total of 3,086 metastatic tumors involving various anatomic sites were assessed for a panel of melanocyte differentiation antigens, which revealed a site-specific pattern of antigen expression that was highest in the brain, intermediate in soft tissues/lymph nodes, and lowest in visceral metastases. Hierarchical clustering analysis supported the finding of a phylogenetically determined pattern of antigen expression varying by anatomic site of the metastases. Expression of the melanocyte differentiation antigen tyrosinase was more frequently lost in metastatic sites other than the brain and was correlated with endogenous CD8-positive and ...
View Notes - Immunogenes or Antigens from STEP 1 at Montgomery College. ‫بسم اللة الرحمن‬ ‫الرحيم‬ Immunogens Or Antigens Immunogens Or Antigens Immunogens or
The Native Antigen Company was formed as a spin out from PsiOxus (formerly Hybrid BioSystems). Headquartered in Birmingham, with research offices in Oxford, The Native Antigen Company has expertise in the isolation and purification of both viral and bacterial native antigens. These antigens serve as key components for infectious disease testing kits - their function being to accurately detect pathogenic infection by capturing antibodies in patient samples. The company also offers adenovirus purification and production capabilities and a screening service for anticancer and antiviral drug compounds. The company has achieved ISO 9001:2008 accreditation for the development, manufacture, and sale of native antigens as of November 2010. The company will specialise in manufacturing of native antigens but also offers a range of products and purities, from cell lysates to gradient purified ...
SUMMARY: Fourteen strains of Streptococcus mutans serotype c were examined for their cell-surface protein antigens in terms of hydrophobicity, M r and immunochemical specificities. Thirteen strains were hydrophobic, while strain GS-5 was markedly hydrophilic as compared to the other strains tested. Cell-surface protein antigens were then analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western immunoblotting. A protein antigen of M r 190000 (PAc) was found in cell extracts and culture supernatants of all the hydrophobic strains. Neither culture supernatant nor cell extract of strain GS-5 contained PAc. Strain GS-5, however, produced extracellularly a large amount of a protein of M r 155000 (PAGS-5) which reacted with rabbit anti-PAc serum. Immunodiffusion analysis showed that PAGS-5 lacked a part of the antigenic moieties ...
Looking for online definition of CD49b antigen in the Medical Dictionary? CD49b antigen explanation free. What is CD49b antigen? Meaning of CD49b antigen medical term. What does CD49b antigen mean?
The TandAb technology enables the development of innovative antibody therapeutics for improved treatment of various diseases. This platform has been primarily applied to oncology and comprises of CD3 RECRUIT- and CD16A RECRUIT-TandAbs for activation of T and NK effector cells, respectively, and lysis of target cells expressing specific surface antigens. The CD3 RECRUIT-TandAb AFM11 is a human bispecific tetravalent antibody with two binding sites for the α-chain of CD3 and two binding sites for CD19. CD19 is expressed at early stages of B cell development and persists until the final differentiation into plasma cells. Thus, CD19 represents an attractive target for the ...
Fenyo, E M. and Grundner, G, "Expression of virus-controlled cell surface antigen(s) in hybrids between mouse l cells (a9 subline) and various mouse and human cells derived from tumours and normal tissues. Abstr." (1971). Subject Strain Bibliography 1971. 647 ...
Antisera prepared in syngeneic mice by hyperimmunization with intact SV40-transformed mouse cells or with somatic cell hybrids between SV40-transformed human and normal mouse cells exhibit anti-SV40 tumor (T) antigen reactivity. Athymic mice bearing tumors formed by SV40-transformed mouse, human or mouse-human hybrids were not reactive with SV40 T antigen. Anti-thymocyte serum (ATS)-treated mice also lacked T antigen reactivity during suppressive treatment but developed antibody to T antigen after discontinuing ATS treatment and tumor regression. We conclude that that presence of growing tumors in the mouse is not necessary for the production of anti-SV40 T antigen antibodies but that helper thymus-derived cells are essential for the humoral response.
TY - JOUR. T1 - HLA antigens in japanese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. AU - Hashimoto, H.. AU - Nishimura, Y.. AU - Dong, R. P.. AU - Kimura, A.. AU - Sasazuki, Takehiko. AU - Yamanaka, K.. AU - Tokano, Y.. AU - Murashima, A.. AU - Kabasawa, K.. AU - Hirose, S.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - To determine the association of HLA antigens with SLE and the clinical findings of the disease, HLA antigens were tested in 58 Japanese patients with SLE, who fulfilled the ARA diagnostic criteria, along with 97 normal controls. HLA class I and II antigens were typed serologically using the antisera provided by the 11th HLA Workshop. Among the HLA class II antigens, further DRB, DQ and DP alleles were defined by DNA typing using the PCR/SSOP method. There were significantly more SLE patients with HLA-B39, DRB1*1501, DRB5*0101 and DQB1*0602 than normal controls. This result suggested that the haplotype of ...
AIMS--To record the histopathological findings associated with intra-arterial injection of Temazepam gel by nine drug misusers. METHODS--Standard histological examination and immunocytochemistry for endothelial markers (factor VIII related antigen, Ulex europaeus lectin) were carried out. RESULTS--Intra-arterial injection of Temazepam gel may cause severe vascular injury and lead to amputation of fingers or limbs. Histological changes include myocyte necrosis, interstitial oedema, extensive arterial, venous, and capillary thrombosis, and sometimes vasculitis, endothelial swelling, and denudation. CONCLUSIONS--Inadvertent injection of Temazepam gel into arteries may cause catastrophic ischaemic damage, possibly as a result of toxic effects on endothelial cells.. ...
Antigen Skin Test Market Segmentation By Test Type - Bacterial Infections, (Tuberculin Test, Lepromin Test, Freis, Others), Fungal Infection, (Candida test, Trichophyton, Coccidioidin test, Histoplasmin test), Parasitic Infection, (Montenegro test, Onchocerciasis Skin test, Others); By End Use - Hospitals, Clinics, Ambulatory Surgical Centers. Global Antigen Skin Test market has witnessed a robust growth due to increasing adaptation among different segments of end users. The Companies focus is shifting towards innovation to acquire market by the uniqueness of services. Increasing government support for improvement and rising concerns of healthcare issues are driving the growth of the antigen skin test market. The future of Antigen Skin Test market anticipated with double CAGR during forecasting period.. Global Antigen Skin Test market segmented into following regions North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Eastern ...
Previous reports have described antigens that are recognized on human melanoma cells by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL). The genes coding for a number of these antigens have been identified. Here we report the cloning of a gene that codes for an antigen recognized by autologous CTL on a human renal carcinoma cell line. This antigen is presented by HLA-B7 and is encoded by a new gene that we have named RAGE1. No expression of RAGE1 was found in normal tissues other than retina. RAGE1 expression was found in only one of 57 renal cell carcinoma samples, and also in some sarcomas, infiltrating bladder carcinomas, and melanomas. This represents the first identification of an antigen recognized by autologous CTL on a renal tumor. ...
A device for determining the presence of antigens which comprises a first zone containing antigens and enzyme-linked antibodies which are capable of immunologically reacting with said antigens, said antibodies being positioned in said first zone such that they will be removed from said first zone when reacted with antigens passing through said first zone but not removed from said first zone in the absence of such antigens, and a second zone containing material capable of reacting with said enzyme-linked antibodies to produce a color forming reaction which indicates the presence of said antibodies.
Both complement and Fc regions of IgA 1 have been shown to enhance the uptake of antigens by antigen presenting cells (Fang, et. aI., 1998, Foged, et. aI., 2005, Perrin-Cocon, et. aI., 2004). However, the utilization of complement and IgA1 antibodies in enhancing the uptake of antigens by dendritic cells has not been examined to date. The aims of this research included attaching complement to antidansyl IgA 1 antibodies followed by induction, activation, and examination of dendritic cells incubated with the antigen-antibody immune complexes to determine potential interactive relationships. Complement was linked to the Fc region of anti-dansyl IgA 1 antibodies using a procedure to activate complement while the IgA 1 was bound to a dansylated Sepharose 4B affinity column. The eluted complement-coated IgA 1 antibodies were mixed with dansylated albumin to form the complement-coated IgA1-immune ...
Viruses that naturally infect cells expressing both MHC I and MHC II molecules render themselves potentially visible to both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells through the de novo expression of viral antigens. Here we use one such pathogen, the B-lymphotropic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), to examine the kinetics of these processes in the virally-infected cell, comparing newly synthesised polypeptides versus the mature protein pool as viral antigen sources for MHC I- and MHC II-restricted presentation. EBV-transformed B cell lines were established in which the expression of two cognate EBV antigens, EBNA1 and EBNA3B, could be induced and then completely suppressed by doxycycline-regulation. These cells were used as targets for CD8+ and CD4+ T ...
Abstract A longitudinal study was conducted in the Yaounde area of Cameroon that involved 211 individuals in June 1990, and 70 individuals for the follow-up study in December 1990. Sera from these subjects were tested against the recombinant 96-thermoresistant antigen of Plasmodium falciparum and the kinetics of antibody production to this protein show that titers tend to increase with age and are also related to antigen exposure. The increase in antibody titers with age correlates positively with the ability of the individual to prevent development of a high parasitemia. Adults who maintained stable high titers generally did not experience clinical attacks during the study period. The data suggest that antibodies against the 96-kD antigen participate in conferring some immunity to falciparum malaria.
Mowat, A M. and Ferguson, A, "Migration inhibition of lymph node lymphocytes as an assay for regional cell-mediated immunity in the intestinal lymphoid tissues of mice immunized orally with ovalbumin." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3434 ...
In all the excitement around T-cell therapies for cancer, one aspect often gets overlooked: Normal tissue can be damaged by treatment, leaving patients sicker than they were before.. In a proof-of-principle study published in December in Science Translational Medicine, researchers at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, NY, propose a solution (Sci Transl Med 2013;5:215ra172). They have engineered molecules called inhibitory chimeric antigen receptors (iCAR) that can protect normal tissue from the off-target effects of T-cell therapy.. The T-cell therapies do exactly what theyre designed to do-attack tumor cells that express specific antigens on their surface. Unfortunately, there are very few antigens on cancer cells that arent also on the surface of normal cells, so T-cell therapies attack them, too.. To stop that attack, the ...
Monoclonal antibodies to human T lymphocyte surface structures have essentially contributed to a better understanding of cellular mechanisms and interactions involved in the generation of human T...
1. (Science: immunology) a state of hypersensitivity induced by exposure to a particular antigen (allergen) resulting in harmful immunologic reactions on subsequent exposures, the term is usually used to refer to hypersensitivity to an environmental antigen (atopic allergy or contact dermatitis) or to drug allergy. The original meaning, now obsolete, included all states of altered immunologic reactivity, immunity as well as hypersensitivity. Gell and Coombs used the term allergic reaction to mean any harmful immunologic reaction causing tissue injury. 2. (Science: study) The medical specialty dealing with diagnosis and treatment of allergic disorders. Hypersensitivity reaction to a particular allergen; symptoms can vary greatly in intensity.An allergy is an antigen that causes an allergic reaction as the result of foreign agents present inside the body which antibodies attempt to break down and destroy. ...

KG-1 nuclear extract lysate (ab14854) | AbcamKG-1 nuclear extract lysate (ab14854) | Abcam

These cells posses numerous tumor markers and other antigens (DR, Ia-like antigens) and are used in studies of tumorigenicity, ... differentiation. They are CD3 negative, CD4 negative, CD13 positive , CD14 negative, CD15 positive, CD19 negative, CD33 ... Myeloid dendritic cells (DC) are representatives of a rare and phenotypically diverse population of professional antigen ... KG-1 cells are used as an erythroleukemia model cell line, which shares morphological and physiological similarities with ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/kg-1-nuclear-extract-lysate-ab14854.html

Expression of cell adhesion molecules in oesophageal carcinoma and its prognostic value | Journal of Clinical PathologyExpression of cell adhesion molecules in oesophageal carcinoma and its prognostic value | Journal of Clinical Pathology

Sanders D, Kerr M, Hopwood D, et al. Expression of the CD 15 antigen is a marker of cellular differentiation in cervical intra- ... "The correlation between lymph node metastases and deficient expression of HLA class I antigens indicates that tumour cell ... particularly in proliferating cells as the epithelia mature, where the protein may participate in cell-cell or cell-substratum ... Apart from regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, CAMs also influence cell motility, migration, signalling, and ...
more infohttp://jcp.bmj.com/content/58/4/343

Internet Scientific PublicationsInternet Scientific Publications

Histiocytes were positive for CD68 (Figure 4). Rare cells were positive for CD30 and appeared negative for CD15. The ... was prepared and incubated with a panel of antibodies that identified lymphocyte maturation and differentiation antigens and ... TB antigen were all negative. Repeat blood and urine cultures remained negative. CT scan of neck showed persistent ... Lymphocytes consisted of a mixture of CD3-positive T-cells (Figure 3 A) and CD20-positive B-cells (Figure 3 B). B-cells were ...
more infohttp://ispub.com/IJIM/9/1/12042

A white man with Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease mimicking lymphoma, preceded by frequent episodes of tonsillitis: a case report |...A white man with Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease mimicking lymphoma, preceded by frequent episodes of tonsillitis: a case report |...

Cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8) and CD4 antigens were positive in the lymphocytes located in the clusters. CD138 was ... CD15 was positive in a few cells, and CD30 was negative. On the basis of the histopathological findings, a diagnosis of KFD was ... anti-HB core antigen antibodies, anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies, EBV antibody to viral capsid antigen (IgG, IgM), anti-human ... Leukopenia (2.2-3.32 × 103 cells/μl), moderate anemia (hemoglobin 12.0 g/dl), and thrombocytopenia (127 × 103 cells/μl) were ...
more infohttps://www.springermedizin.de/a-white-man-with-kikuchi-fujimoto-disease-mimicking-lymphoma-pre/12062116?fulltextView=true

Pathobiology of Anaplastic Large Cell LymphomaPathobiology of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

... lack of CD15 and B-cell activator protein (BSAP), possible T-cell antigen expression, and variable positivity for the leukocyte ... it usually occurs at the cytoplasmic level as expected in activated cells [13, 31]. All T-cell associated antigens should be ... its search represents a very useful tool for the differentiation of ALCL from common HL and DLBCL, which are both BSAP-positive ... "Cytotoxic cell antigen expression in anaplastic large cell lymphomas of T- and null-cell type and Hodgkins disease: evidence ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ah/2010/345053/

CD15/Lewis X Antibody (BRA4F1) [DyLight 488] (NBP1-42198G): Novus BiologicalsCD15/Lewis X Antibody (BRA4F1) [DyLight 488] (NBP1-42198G): Novus Biologicals

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD15/Lewis X Antibody (BRA4F1) [DyLight 488]. Validated: ELISA, Flow, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: ... This CD15 (BRA4F1) was clustered at the IVth International Workshop on Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens. Source: A BALB/c ... CD15/Lewis X Antibody (BRA4F1) [DyLight 488] Summary. Immunogen. The antibody reacts with the CD15 antigen. ... fucopentatose III and is particularly expressed on granulocytes and mature neutrophils and on a wide variety of tumor cells ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/cd15-lewis-x-antibody-bra4f1_nbp1-42198g

hodgkin lymphoma ptld drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search enginehodgkin lymphoma ptld drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Antigens, CD79. Antigens, CD95 / analysis. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Differentiation. Chromosome Deletion. ... Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, CD15 / analysis. Antigens, CD20 / analysis. Antigens, CD30 / analysis. Antigens, CD45 / ... Antigens, CD79; 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CD79A protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell; ... RS like cells have been reported in the setting of PTLD, but these cells possess an activated B cell phenotype, are EBV ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=hodgkin+lymphoma+ptld+drug+therapy+2000:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b1

Pathobiology of Hodgkin LymphomaPathobiology of Hodgkin Lymphoma

Antibodies against the nuclear-associated antigens Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) stain most H&RS cells, ... CD15 is another valuable marker for H&RS cells (Figure 1) and is detected in about 80% of patients with cHL [51, 59]. CD15 is ... "Mast cells enhance proliferation of B lymphocytes and drive their differentiation toward IgA-secreting plasma cells," Blood, ... the B cells within the HL cell lines expressed immunoglobulin light chain, the memory B-cell antigen CD27, and the stem cell ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ah/2011/920898/

Frontiers | Neutrophil Heterogeneity in Cancer: From Biology to Therapies | ImmunologyFrontiers | Neutrophil Heterogeneity in Cancer: From Biology to Therapies | Immunology

The origin of pro- or anti-tumor neutrophils is generally believed to arise following a change in cell state, from resting to ... Moreover, the fate of neutrophils may also involve distinct differentiation programs yielding various subsets of pro or anti- ... The origin of pro- or anti-tumor neutrophils is generally believed to arise following a change in cell state, from resting to ... Moreover, the fate of neutrophils may also involve distinct differentiation programs yielding various subsets of pro or anti- ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02155/full

CD15, CD24, and CD29 define a surface biomarker code for neural lineage differentiation of stem cells.CD15, CD24, and CD29 define a surface biomarker code for neural lineage differentiation of stem cells.

CD15(+)/CD29(HI)/CD24(LO) surface antigen expression defined neural stem cells; (2) CD15(-)/CD29(HI)/CD24(LO) revealed neural ... for the CD15(-)/CD29(LO)/CD24(HI) profile reduced proliferative cell types in human embryonic stem cell differentiation. This ... CD15, CD24, and CD29 define a surface biomarker code for neural lineage differentiation of stem cells. Academic Article * ... In conclusion, combinatorial CD15/CD24/CD29 marker profiles define neural lineage development of neural stem cell, neural crest ...
more infohttp://vivo.mblwhoilibrary.org/display/publication206307

JCI -
Delta-1 enhances marrow and thymus repopulating ability of human CD34+CD38- cord blood cellsJCI - Delta-1 enhances marrow and thymus repopulating ability of human CD34+CD38- cord blood cells

... cells in six wells (b) and expression of myeloid antigens CD15 and CD14 in cultured cells (c) are shown. Data are ... cells with CH-296 (Figure 1a). Further, the proportion of cells expressing the myeloid differentiation antigen CD14 (5.2%) was ... This is consistent with studies demonstrating promotion of T cell differentiation and inhibition of B cell differentiation by ... few cells expressed CD34 or antigens associated with T cell differentiation in the presence or absence of IL-7 (Figure 3, a and ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/16167

CD antigens / Cluster of DifferentiationCD antigens / Cluster of Differentiation

CD antigens found in various immune cell populations like B cells, T cells, Dendritic cells and NK cells.CD antigens can act in ... Some CD proteins do not play a role in cell signaling, but have other functions, such as cell adhesion. CD antibodies are used ... lot of ways, like as recepters or ligands in terms of physiology.As a siganl, CD antigens is usually initiated, altering the ... What are CD antigens or clusters of differentiation ? ... CD79a antigens. MB1, IGA, Ig-alpha. Subunit of B-cell antigen ...
more infohttps://www.sinobiological.com/research/cd-antigens/cluster-of-differentiation

Primary Burkitt lymphoma of the supraglottic larynx: a case report and review of the literature | Journal of Medical Case...Primary Burkitt lymphoma of the supraglottic larynx: a case report and review of the literature | Journal of Medical Case...

A histopathological examination confirmed non-Hodgkin, B cell lymphoma of Burkitt type. Given her age and poor functional ... Burkitt lymphoma is a high-grade B cell lymphoma which accounts for less than 1% of all adult cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. ... performed on a paraffin block demonstrated positive staining of the large atypical cells with cluster of differentiation (CD) ... Most Burkitt lymphomas are immunoreactive for surface immunoglobulin M (IgM), as well as pan-B cell antigens including CD19, ...
more infohttps://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13256-017-1209-3

Anaplastic large T/null cell lymphoma - Renal and Urology NewsAnaplastic large T/null cell lymphoma - Renal and Urology News

... phenotype and express no T cell antigens. B cell antigens like CD20 are not expressed, which can be useful in differentiating ... Hodgkin lymphoma frequently expresses CD15 which is almost universally absent in ALCL and mediastinal diffuse large B-cell ... Epithelial membrane antigen-1 (EMA) is commonly expressed on ALCL but not expressed in PMLBCL or Hodgkin lymphoma. ... However, morphologically, ALK+ DLBCL usually has plasmacytic differentiation and is CD138+ by immunophenotyping. Neither of ...
more infohttp://www.renalandurologynews.com/oncology/anaplastic-large-tnull-cell-lymphoma/article/619022/

The 2|sup|nd|/sup| Step by Step International Spinal Cord Repair-Combining research Step by Step into multi-pronged approaches...The 2|sup|nd|/sup| Step by Step International Spinal Cord Repair-Combining research Step by Step into multi-pronged approaches...

Unexpectedly, for all antigens tested, and for all cases studied, the proportion of cells expressing each antigen rapidly ... Here we highlight the current stage in differentiation of iPS cells towards cells to treat spinal cord injury. For more ... To further study the functional relevance of these markers, we have used some of them-i.e. CD15, CD133, CD29, A2B5 and PSA-NCAM ... Connexins (Cx) that typically form cell-to-cell channels mediating direct intercellular communication allow cells to exchange ...
more infohttps://file.scirp.org/Html/3-9101750_34822.htm

CD15 - WikipediaCD15 - Wikipedia

CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ... The presence of these cells is diagnostic of Hodgkins lymphoma. Reed-Sternberg cells display a characteristic pattern of CD15 ... but does stain almost all other lymphoid cells. CD15 is also present in about 50% of adenocarcinoma cells and can be used to ... CD15 mediates phagocytosis and chemotaxis, found on neutrophils;[2] expressed in patients with Hodgkin disease, some B-cell ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewis_x

Anaplastic large T/null cell lymphoma - ONAAnaplastic large T/null cell lymphoma - ONA

... phenotype and express no T cell antigens. B cell antigens like CD20 are not expressed, which can be useful in differentiating ... Hodgkin lymphoma frequently expresses CD15 which is almost universally absent in ALCL and mediastinal diffuse large B-cell ... Epithelial membrane antigen-1 (EMA) is commonly expressed on ALCL but not expressed in PMLBCL or Hodgkin lymphoma. ... However, morphologically, ALK+ DLBCL usually has plasmacytic differentiation and is CD138+ by immunophenotyping. Neither of ...
more infohttps://www.oncologynurseadvisor.com/hematology/anaplastic-large-tnull-cell-lymphoma/article/597496/

Anaplastic large T/null cell lymphoma - The Clinical AdvisorAnaplastic large T/null cell lymphoma - The Clinical Advisor

... phenotype and express no T cell antigens. B cell antigens like CD20 are not expressed, which can be useful in differentiating ... Hodgkin lymphoma frequently expresses CD15 which is almost universally absent in ALCL and mediastinal diffuse large B-cell ... Epithelial membrane antigen-1 (EMA) is commonly expressed on ALCL but not expressed in PMLBCL or Hodgkin lymphoma. ... However, morphologically, ALK+ DLBCL usually has plasmacytic differentiation and is CD138+ by immunophenotyping. Neither of ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaladvisor.com/oncology/anaplastic-large-tnull-cell-lymphoma/article/619021/

CD antigens / Cluster of DifferentiationCD antigens / Cluster of Differentiation

CD antigens found in various immune cell populations like B cells, T cells, Dendritic cells and NK cells.CD antigens can act in ... Some CD proteins do not play a role in cell signaling, but have other functions, such as cell adhesion. CD antibodies are used ... lot of ways, like as recepters or ligands in terms of physiology.As a siganl, CD antigens is usually initiated, altering the ... What are CD antigens or clusters of differentiation ? ... CD79a antigens. MB1, IGA, Ig-alpha. Subunit of B-cell antigen ...
more infohttps://kr.sinobiological.com/cd-antigens-cluster-of-differentiation.html

Myeloid antigens in childhood lymphoblastic leukemia:clinical data point to regulation of CD66c distinct from other myeloid...Myeloid antigens in childhood lymphoblastic leukemia:clinical data point to regulation of CD66c distinct from other myeloid...

Granulocytic marker CD66c - Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) is aberrantly expressed on ALL ... MyAgs in ALL are interpreted e.g. as hallmarks of early differentiation stage and/or lineage indecisiveness. ... CD15, CD33, CD65 and CD66c. The most frequent MyAg (CD66c) is studied further regarding its stability from diagnosis to relapse ... by quantitative RT-PCR on sorted cells) and that malignant cells containing CD66c in cytoplasm without surface expression are ...
more infohttps://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-5-38

Plus itPlus it

Cell Culture and Differentiation. The HL-60 cell line, obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (CCL 240), was ... we used monoclonal antibodies to the following antigens, according to Trayner et al. (16): CD13, CD15, CD33, CD63, and CD71. ... Changes in antigen expression on differentiating HL60 cells treated with dimethylsulfoxide, all-trans retinoic acid, α 1,25- ... In lower panel: lane 1, HL-60 PT cells; lane 2, HL-60 AR cells; lane 3, HL-60 AR cells treated with 0.1 μm wortmannin; lane 4, ...
more infohttps://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/1/3/234

Anaplastic large T/null cell lymphomaAnaplastic large T/null cell lymphoma

... phenotype and express no T cell antigens. B cell antigens like CD20 are not expressed, which can be useful in differentiating ... Hodgkin lymphoma frequently expresses CD15 which is almost universally absent in ALCL and mediastinal diffuse large B-cell ... Epithelial membrane antigen-1 (EMA) is commonly expressed on ALCL but not expressed in PMLBCL or Hodgkin lymphoma. ... However, morphologically, ALK+ DLBCL usually has plasmacytic differentiation and is CD138+ by immunophenotyping. Neither of ...
more infohttp://www.neurologyadvisor.com/oncology/anaplastic-large-tnull-cell-lymphoma/article/619026/

Monoclonal antibodies that block ligand binding to the CD22 receptor in mature B cells - Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Inc.Monoclonal antibodies that block ligand binding to the CD22 receptor in mature B cells - Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Inc.

CDw75 mAb were from the Fourth International Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen Workshop (Dorken et al , . "B-cell antigens: ... and the adherent cells (.about.98% CD15+) were harvested by scraping. Blood neutrophils (.about.98% CD15+) were isolated by ... Adhesion of blood cells and cell lines to COS-CD22 cells Cell attachment to:a Cell expression of:b COS COS-CD22 CD45RO CDw75 ... "B-cell antigens: CD22." In Leukocyte Typing IV. White Cell Differentiation Antigens, Knapp et al., eds., Oxford University ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/5484892.html

List of MeSH codes (D23) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D23) - Wikipedia

... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.050.285.050.115 --- ca-15-3 antigen MeSH D23.050.285.050.119 --- ca-19-9 antigen MeSH D23.050.285.050. ... vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 MeSH D23.101.100.129 --- antigens, cd29 MeSH D23.101.100.150 --- antigens, differentiation, b ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.050.550.325.115 --- ca-15-3 antigen MeSH D23.050.550.325.119 --- ca-19-9 antigen MeSH D23.050.550.325. ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.840.075.115 --- ca-15-3 antigen MeSH D23.101.840.075.119 --- ca-19-9 antigen MeSH D23.101.840.075. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D23)

basal cell carcinoma with adnexal differentiation 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search enginebasal cell carcinoma with adnexal differentiation 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

In this study, we compare the expression of cytokeratin (CK) 15, CK7, CK20, CK903, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CD10, CD15 ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin ... basal cell carcinomas, or squamous cell carcinomas, including cases that had focal clear cell differentiation. ... Cell Differentiation. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. *[MeSH-minor] Cell Shape. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=basal+cell+carcinoma+with+adnexal+differentiation+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0
  • In a cohort of 365 consecutively diagnosed Czech B-precursor ALL patients, we analyze distribution of MyAg+ cases and mutual relationship among CD13, CD15, CD33, CD65 and CD66c. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neural stem cells (NSCs) possess the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into the three major cell types found in the central nervous system (CNS): neurons, astrocyte and oligodendrocytes. (scirp.org)
  • The authors revise the concept of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) in the light of the recently updated WHO classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues both on biological and clinical grounds. (hindawi.com)
  • Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a peripheral T-cell-derived malignancy, representing around 2%-3% of all lymphoid neoplasms, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, although HRS cells are B lymphoid cells, they are unlike any normal B cell. (hindawi.com)
  • Immobilized Delta-1 also induced a multifold expansion of cells with the phenotype of common lymphoid precursors (CD34 + CD7 + CD45RA + ) and promoted the development of cytoplasmic CD3 + T/NK cell precursors. (jci.org)
  • the latter does not stain Reed-Sternberg cells, but does stain almost all other lymphoid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grippingly, CD27 + /ALDH ++ B-cells, clonally related to lymph node HRS cells, were also detected in the blood of HL patients. (hindawi.com)
  • According to the WHO classification, ALCL is not sustained by a unique histotype but actually includes five morphologic variants (common, giant cell-rich, lympho-histiocytic, small-cell type, and Hodgkin-like) [ 1 , 2 , 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • All morphological variants are characterized by a variable proportion of large hallmark cells with eccentric horse-shoe or kidney-shaped nuclei, often with eosinophilic region near the nucleus (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • The small and lympho-histiocytic variants display a marked variability of the neoplastic cell size that ranges from small to large. (hindawi.com)
  • The tumoral population also includes a variable number of mononuclear elements-Hodgkin's cells (HCs)-showing similar cytological features to RS cells and neoplastic cell variants, each corresponding to a specific subtype of HL. (hindawi.com)
  • Molecular studies have only recently shown that in most if not all cases RS cells, Hodgkin's cells, and cell variants belong to the same clonal population, which is derived from peripheral B cell [ 1 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • There are two variants of anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma (ALCL), a systemic variant and a primary cutaneous variant. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • CD15 is present on almost all Reed-Sternberg cells , including their rare mononuclear variants, and, as such, can be used in immunohistochemistry to identify the presence of such cells in biopsies. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of these translocations, ALCL will often express the ALK protein and will frequently, though not always, have T cell markers such as CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, or CD 7 which are not expressed on either Hodgkin lymphoma or DLBCL. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Although in the past most of the research on drug resistance focused on the expression of MDR-1/170-kDa P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP-1 1 ), it is now beginning to emerge that drug resistance is the consequence of failure of leukemic cells to undergo apoptosis in the presence of cytotoxic drugs ( 2 , 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several lines of evidence suggest that PI3K regulates AKT1 activation through the binding of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5) trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 ] to the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1, resulting in the recruitment of AKT1 to the cell membrane ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Availability of blood cell counts from retrospective analyses has led to numerous reviews and meta-analyses investigating the prognostic value of the neutrophil count (or preferably neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, also called NLR) in both localized or metastatic contexts ( 9 - 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Regulates lymphocyte proliferation and cell death. (sinobiological.com)
  • Its diagnosis is based on the identification of characteristic multinucleated giant cells within an inflammatory milieu. (hindawi.com)
  • Reed-Sternberg cells display a characteristic pattern of CD15 positivity, with membranous staining combined with staining of the Golgi apparatus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially described in Japan, KFD was first reported almost simultaneously by Kikuchi and by Fujimoto and associates in 1972 as a lymphadenitis with focal proliferation of reticular cells accompanied by numerous histiocytes and extensive nuclear debris. (ispub.com)
  • We investigated the effect of Notch signaling, a known regulator of cell fate in numerous developmental systems, on human hematopoietic precursors. (jci.org)
  • The Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/AKT1 Pathway Involvement in Drug and All- Trans -Retinoic Acid Resistance of Leukemia Cells 1 1 Italian Miur Cofin 2001 and FIRB 2001 (S.C. and A.M.M. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The resistant clone displayed an activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT1 pathway, with levels of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5) trisphosphate higher than the parental cells and increased levels of both Thr 308 and Ser 473 phosphorylated AKT1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anti-apoptotic signaling in hematopoietic cells has been associated with a pathway which requires phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, their characteristics definitely contrast with a possible "stem cell" potential. (hindawi.com)
  • This review provides a brief description of five families of CAMs (cadherins, integrins, CD44, immunoglobulin superfamily, and selectins) and highlights their altered expression in relation both to prognosis and tumour behaviour in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus. (bmj.com)
  • Although opposite has previously been suggested, we show that CEACAM6 transcription is invariably followed by surface expression (by quantitative RT-PCR on sorted cells) and that malignant cells containing CD66c in cytoplasm without surface expression are not found by flow cytometry nor by Western blot in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, by controlling differentiation it may eventually be possible to treat SCI with the appropriate neuronal and glial cell types: e.g. generation of new neuronal relays to recuperate connectivity, oligodendrocytes to combat demyelination, or differentiated (nonreactive) astrocytes to help to control glial scars. (scirp.org)
  • It has been established that the initial step in the metastatic cascade is the detachment of tumour cells from the primary tumour via dysregulation of normal cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. (bmj.com)
  • CD15 is also present in about 50% of adenocarcinoma cells and can be used to distinguish such conditions from mesothelioma , which is typically negative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, clonal T cell populations (as well as clonal B cell populations) are sometimes present in the lymph nodes or peripheral blood of patients with rheumatologic or infectious conditions. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Otherwise healthy patients over the age of 60 can also sometimes have benign clonal T cell populations in the peripheral blood. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Several downstream targets of AKT1 have been identified, pointing to the possible mechanisms by which AKT1 promotes cell survival and blocks apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Conversely, if parental HL-60 cells were forced to overexpress an activated AKT1, they became resistant to apoptotic inducers and ATRA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Remarkable advances in understanding the molecular machinery of apoptosis and the factors initiating the cascade of events leading to apoptotic cell death have been developed in recent years ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Regulates B-cell development, activation and differentiation. (sinobiological.com)
  • Activation of the PI3K/AKT1 axis in resistant cells was dependent on enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K, conceivably due to an autocrine insulin-like growth factor-I production. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Indeed, most commonly employed anticancer drugs kill the cells primarily through the induction of apoptosis ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We believe this set of biomarkers enables analysis and selection of neural cell types for developmental studies and pharmacological and therapeutic applications. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Animal models have been used to test several possible therapies for this condition, including pharmacological, gene and cell therapies. (scirp.org)