A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain ABRIN.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of two polypeptide chains, the toxic A subunit and a lectin B subunit, linked by disulfide bridges. The lectin portion binds to cell surfaces and facilitates transport into the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. The seed of Ricinus communis L. is the CASTOR BEAN which is the source of CASTOR OIL; RICIN; and other lectins.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A toxic lectin from the seeds of jequirity, Abrus precatorius L. Very active poison. Five different proteins have so far been isolated: Abrus agglutinin, the component responsible for: hemagglutinating activity, & abrins a-d, the toxic principals each consisting of two peptide chains are held together by disulfide bonds.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
Plant-derived ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) purified from the Chinese medicinal herb tian-hua-fen which is obtained from the root tubers of Trichosanthes kirilowii. It has been used as an abortifacient and in the treatment of trophoblastic tumors. GLQ223 (Compound Q), a highly purified form of trichosanthin, has been proposed as antiviral treatment for AIDS.
Parasitic plants that form a bushy growth on branches of host trees which are in the order Santalales. It includes the Christmas mistletoe family (VISCACEAE), the showy mistletoe family (LORANTHACEAE) and the catkin mistletoe family (Eremolepidaceae). The composition of toxins, lectins, tyramine, phenethylamines, and other compounds may be affected by the host.
Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of only the toxic A subunit, which is a polypeptide of around 30 kDa.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION, when an amino acid is transferred from its cognate TRANSFER RNA to the lengthening chain of PEPTIDES.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Shih SF, Wu YH, Hung CH, Yang HY, Lin JY (2001). "Abrin triggers cell death by inactivating a thiol-specific antioxidant ... it has been shown that peroxiredoxin 3 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and promotes cancer cell survival by defending cells ... "Peroxiredoxin-3 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and promotes cancer cell survival by protecting cells from oxidative stress ... "Nonredundant antioxidant defense by multiple two-cysteine peroxiredoxins in human prostate cancer cells". Mol. Med. 8 (2): 95- ...
The B chain facilitates abrin's entry into a cell by bonding to certain transport proteins on cell membranes, which then ... One molecule of abrin will inactivate up to 1,500 ribosomes per second. Symptoms are identical to those of ricin, except abrin ... Once inside the cell, the A chain prevents protein synthesis by inactivating the 26S subunit of the ribosome. ... The toxin abrin is a dimer consisting of two protein subunits, termed A and B. ...
The structure of this protein is very similar to other RIPs, showing the most resemblance to ricin and abrin. Some birds have ... Stirpe F, Sandvig K, Olsnes S, Pihl A (November 1982). "Action of viscumin, a toxic lectin from mistletoe, on cells in culture ... Viscumin is a cytotoxic protein (ribosome inactivating protein, or RIP) that binds to galactose residues of cell surface ... experiments have suggested that mistletoe extract may affect the immune system and be able to kill some kinds of cancer cells, ...
... requires a low pH for entry into the cell. Below pH of 6.0, Modeccin can't enter the cell via endocytosis. It is also ... ISBN 978-0-8247-8374-7. Lin JY, Chen CC, Lin LT, Tung TC (June 1969). "Studies on the toxic action of abrin". Taiwan Yi Xue Hui ... Reduced, dissociated toxin subunits inhibit ribosomal activity in cell-free systems, but they have no effect on intact cells. ... When the toxin binds to the cell, the A-chain enters through either active transport or endocytosis. Once inside the cell the A ...
These daughter cells either become plasma cells or memory cells. The memory B cells remain inactive here; later, when these ... In 1897, Paul Ehrlich showed that antibodies form against the plant toxins ricin and abrin, and proposed that these antibodies ... The B cell waits for a helper T cell (TH) to bind to the complex. This binding will activate the TH cell, which then releases ... the B cells first mature in the bone marrow and gain B-cell receptors (BCR's) which are displayed in large numbers on the cell ...
Abrin from the jequirity pea is similar: One domain is a lectin that binds cell surface galactosyl residues and enables the ... "Cell-to-Cell Binding Induced by Different Lectins". Journal of Cell Biology. 65 (2): 247-257. doi:10.1083/jcb.65.2.247. PMC ... Some hepatitis C viral glycoproteins may attach to C-type lectins on the host cell surface (liver cells) to initiate infection ... A lectin from Dolichos biflorus is used to identify cells that belong to the A1 blood group. A lectin from Ulex europaeus is ...
Attachment of saporin to something that enters the cell will convert it into a toxin for that cell. If the agent is specific ... Among the RIPs are some of the most toxic molecules known, including ricin and abrin (the latter is the poison preferred by the ... Saporin has no chain capable of inserting it into the cell. Thus it and the soapwort plant are safe to handle. This has aided ... If given a method of entry into the cell, saporin becomes a very potent toxin, since its enzymatic activity is among the ...
The B domain is able to bind galactosyl moieties on the cell surface which facilitates entry into the cell, thus making Type II ... Examples include: Abrin Beetin Ricin Saporin Shiga toxin A Spiroplasma toxin Trichosanthin Viscumin (European mistletoe) ... Further, trichosanthin has been shown to have potent activity against HIV-1-infected T cells and macrophages. Elucidation of ... and abrin) ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs). All these toxins are structurally related. RIPs have been of considerable ...
... has been shown to act as an immunoadjuvant in the treatment of cancer in mice. Abrin works by penetrating the cells of ... By attaching to a carbohydrate chain on the cell surface, the abrin molecule anchors itself to the cell, is subsequently ... "Induction of antitumor immunity by tumor cells treated with abrin". Cancer Research. 42 (7): 2872-6. PMID 7083176. Abrin at the ... The later signs and symptoms of exposure are caused by abrin's cytotoxic effects, killing cells in the kidney, liver, adrenal ...
... part which binds to the cell membrane and enables the toxin part to gain access to the cell contents. Toxalbumins are similar ... Typical toxalbumins are abrin and ricin. Ingestion of seed containing toxalbumins is not necessarily fatal as the hard seed ... cell metabolism stops. In this respect, their metabolic effect is similar to that of toxalbumins. 'Plant toxins and acute ...
RTB has been shown to bind to the cell surface on the order of 106-108 ricin molecules per cell surface. The profuse binding of ... In terms of structure, ricin closely resembles abrin-a, an isotoxin of abrin. The quaternary structure of ricin is a globular, ... to destroy targeted cells. Because ricin is a protein, it can be linked to a monoclonal antibody to target cancerous cells ... untargeted non-tumorous cells as well as targeted cancerous cells. Modifying ricin may sufficiently lessen the likelihood that ...
He thought this granulate was a sign of good nourishment, and accordingly named these cells mast cells, (from the German word ... He accustomed mice to the poisons ricin and abrin. After feeding them with small but increasing dosages of ricin he ascertained ... Starting in 1880, Ehrlich also studied red blood cells. He demonstrated the existence of nucleated red blood cells, which he ... If the cell produces a surplus of side chains, these might also be released into the blood as antibodies. In the following ...
B cell proliferationEdit. The B cell waits for the TH cell to bind to the complex. This binding will activate TH cell and it ... Paul Ehrlich showed that antibodies form against the plant toxins ricin and abrin, and proposed that these antibodies are ... Step 4: The activated T helper cell binds to a B cell in order to activate the B cell. Step 5: When the B cells are activated, ... These daughter cells either become plasma cells or memory cells. The memory B cells remain inactive here; later when these ...
"On the mechanism of protein-synthesis inhibition by abrin and ricin. Inhibition of the GTP-hydrolysis site on the 60-S ... "Myristicin-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells". Toxicol. Lett. 157 (1): 49-56. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet. ...
Recent evidence has shown that CTX III may induce apoptosis in K562 cells via the release of cytochrome c.[2] ... "Cardiotoxin III induces apoptosis in K562 cells through a mitochondrial-mediated pathway". Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 32 ...
Abrin toxin from Abrus precatorius (Rosary peas) Staphylococcal enterotoxin B Typhus (Rickettsia prowazekii) Viral encephalitis ... Tiny electronic chips that would contain living nerve cells to warn of the presence of bacterial toxins (identification of ...
"Cell Stem Cell. 21 (2): 225-240.e5. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2017.06.013. ISSN 1875-9777. PMID 28736216.. ... the bacterial cell and released only after destruction of the bacterial cell wall.[1]:84 Subsequent work showed that release of ... dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells, which promotes the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and ... "Cell Host & Microbe. 2 (6): 371-382. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2007.10.010. PMC 2730374. PMID 18078689.. ...
Tetanus toxin is an extremely potent neurotoxin produced by the vegetative cell of Clostridium tetani[1] in anaerobic ... Journal of Cell Science. 116 (22): 4639-50. doi:10.1242/jcs.00727. PMID 14576357.. ... "High sensitivity of mouse neuronal cells to tetanus toxin requires a GPI-anchored protein". Biochemical and Biophysical ...
"Allergan Receives FDA Approval for First-of-Its-Kind, Fully in vitro, Cell-Based Assay for BOTOX® and BOTOX® Cosmetic ( ... Abrin (from rosary pea) mice, intravenously human, inhalation human, oral 0.7 µg/kg 3.3 µg/kg ... and morphological cell abnormalities. Int Rev Neurobiol. International Review of Neurobiology. 88. pp. 65-100. doi:10.1016/ ...
The B subunit can also bind to cells lacking GM1. The toxin then most likely binds to other types of glycans, such as Lewis Y ... Because the B subunit appears to be relatively non-toxic, researchers have found a number of applications for it in cell and ... GM1 gangliosides are found in lipid rafts on the cell surface. B subunit complexes labelled with fluorescent tags or ... Treatment of cultured rodent neural stem cells with cholera toxin induces changes in the localization of the transcription ...
... coli cells and A-type blood antigens.[3] The importance of these binding events is not yet known. ...
A toxin is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms;[1][2] synthetic toxicants created by artificial ... Necrotoxins cause necrosis (i.e., death) in the cells they encounter.[10] Necrotoxins spread through the bloodstream.[citation ... Cytotoxins are toxic at the level of individual cells, either in a non-specific fashion or only in certain types of living ... Poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms. This article is about the class of poisonous substances. For ...
A toxin (from Ancient Greek: τοξικόν, translit. toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms;[1] ... Necrotoxins cause necrosis (i.e., death) in the cells they encounter and destroy all types of tissue[citation needed]. ... Cytotoxins are toxic at the level of individual cells, either in a non-specific fashion or only in certain types of living ...
Tetrodotoxin blocks action potentials in nerves by binding to the voltage-gated, fast sodium channels in nerve cell membranes, ... essentially preventing any affected nerve cells from firing by blocking the channels used in the process. ...
It is translocated into the host cell cytoplasm where it cleaves the host protein SNAP-25, a member of the SNARE protein family ... As the vesicle moves farther into the cell, it acidifies, activating a portion of the toxin which triggers it to push across ... The cleaved SNAP-25 is unable to mediate fusion of vesicles with the host cell membrane, thus preventing the release of the ... "Allergan Receives FDA Approval for First-of-Its-Kind, Fully in vitro, Cell-Based Assay for BOTOX and BOTOX Cosmetic ( ...
"The diaphragm cell process". Euro Chlor. Archived from the original on 2011-11-11. Retrieved 2007-08-15.. ... "The membrane cell process". Euro Chlor. Archived from the original on 2011-11-11. Retrieved 2007-08-15.. ... In diaphragm cell electrolysis, an asbestos (or polymer-fiber) diaphragm separates a cathode and an anode, preventing the ... Membrane cell electrolysis employs permeable membrane as an ion exchanger. Saturated sodium (or potassium) chloride solution is ...
... meaning that the acetylcholine vesicles can't bind to the intracellular cell membrane,[50] preventing the cell from releasing ... It is translocated into the host cell cytoplasm where it cleaves the host protein SNAP-25, a member of the SNARE protein family ... The cleaved SNAP-25 is unable to mediate fusion of vesicles with the host cell membrane, thus preventing the release of the ... "Allergan Receives FDA Approval for First-of-Its-Kind, Fully in vitro, Cell-Based Assay for Botox and Botox Cosmetic ( ...
This is thought to cause mutations in the p53 gene, an important gene in preventing cell cycle progression when there are DNA ... mutations, or signaling apoptosis (programmed cell death). These mutations seem to affect some base pair locations more than ...
... abrin toxicity is similar in its mechanism of action. In the body, these toxins inhibit protein synthesis leading to cell death ... Ricin and abrin are potent biological toxins that are derived from plant sources (castor beans and rosary peas, respectively). ... For example, the inhalation of ricin or abrin would be expected to lead to a quicker onset of poisoning and to cause a more ... The amount and route of the exposure to ricin or abrin and the premorbid condition of the person exposed will contribute to the ...
The Binding of Abrin and Ricin by Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Abrin Medicine & ... The Binding of Abrin and Ricin by Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells. / Lin, Jung Yaw; Ju, Shyr Te; Wu, Hua Lin; Tung, Ta Cheng. ... Lin, J. Y., Ju, S. T., Wu, H. L., & Tung, T. C. (1973). The Binding of Abrin and Ricin by Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells. Cancer ... Lin, JY, Ju, ST, Wu, HL & Tung, TC 1973, The Binding of Abrin and Ricin by Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells, Cancer Research, vol ...
Abrin is highly toxic, with an estimated human fatal... ... Abrin is a toxic protein obtained from the seeds of Abrus ... thereby causing cell death. Many of the features observed in abrin poisoning can be explained by abrin-induced endothelial cell ... Morphology of ricin and abrin exposed endothelial cells is consistent with apoptotic cell death. Hum Exp Toxicol 1996; 15: 443- ... Sandvig K, Olsnes S, Pihl A. Kinetics of binding of the toxic lectins abrin and ricin to surface receptors of human cells. J ...
Abrin poisons the cells of the body by blocking (inhibiting) the formation (synthesis) of essential components of cells ( ... and other protein toxins in vero cell. Exp Cell Res 219(2):671-678.Olsnes S [1976].Abrin and ricin: structure and mechanism of ... Abrin, like the similar plant toxin ricin, causes toxicity by inhibiting the formation (synthesis) of proteins in the cells of ... However, based on its similarity to ricin, it is expected that late phase complications are related to abrins cell-killing ( ...
Biological activities of the lectin abrin-a, against human lymphocytes and cultured leukemic cell lines ... Biological activities of the lectin abrin-a against human lymphocytes and cultured leukemic cell lines. ... Biological activities of the lectin abrin-a, against human lymphocytes and cultured leukemic cell lines. [Publication] ...
... _DAAT List Homeland SecurityThe DHS Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms (DAAT) list ... Ablative liners, thrust or combustion chambers . 9A106.a, 9A619.c, .e . Abrin . 1C351.d.1 ...
Abrin has been shown to act as an immunoadjuvant in the treatment of cancer in mice. Abrin works by penetrating the cells of ... By attaching to a carbohydrate chain on the cell surface, the abrin molecule anchors itself to the cell, is subsequently ... "Induction of antitumor immunity by tumor cells treated with abrin". Cancer Research. 42 (7): 2872-6. PMID 7083176. Abrin at the ... The later signs and symptoms of exposure are caused by abrins cytotoxic effects, killing cells in the kidney, liver, adrenal ...
Abrin works by penetrating the cells of the body and inhibiting cell protein synthesis. By attaching to a carbohydrate chain on ... the abrin molecule anchors itself to the cell, is subsequently engulfed and enters the inner parts of the cell where it reacts ... Abrin is not known to have been weaponised.[2] The rosary pea, which is the source of abrin, is common to many tropical areas ... Abrin is a natural poison that is found in the seeds of a plant called the rosary pea or jequirity pea. Abrin is similar to ...
Shih SF, Wu YH, Hung CH, Yang HY, Lin JY (2001). "Abrin triggers cell death by inactivating a thiol-specific antioxidant ... it has been shown that peroxiredoxin 3 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and promotes cancer cell survival by defending cells ... "Peroxiredoxin-3 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and promotes cancer cell survival by protecting cells from oxidative stress ... "Nonredundant antioxidant defense by multiple two-cysteine peroxiredoxins in human prostate cancer cells". Mol. Med. 8 (2): 95- ...
... and increasing the permeability of the cell membrane. Western blot analysis confirmed that the necrosis occurred molecularly by ... Whole-Cell Multiparameter Assay for Ricin and Abrin Activity-Based Digital Holographic Microscopy ...
... and increasing the permeability of the cell membrane. Western blot analysis confirmed that the necrosis occurred molecularly by ... Whole-Cell Multiparameter Assay for Ricin and Abrin Activity-Based Digital Holographic Microscopy ... L-02 cells were cultured at the density of 1 × 105 cells/well in 24-well cell culture plates and then treated with EAE and BUE ... L-02 cells were seeded into 6-well plates with a cell density of 1 × 106 per well. After 24 h for adherence, cells were treated ...
The B chain facilitates abrins entry into a cell by bonding to certain transport proteins on cell membranes, which then ... One molecule of abrin will inactivate up to 1,500 ribosomes per second. Symptoms are identical to those of ricin, except abrin ... Once inside the cell, the A chain prevents protein synthesis by inactivating the 26S subunit of the ribosome. ... The toxin abrin is a dimer consisting of two protein subunits, termed A and B. ...
Abrin: A toxic lectin from the seeds of jequirity, Abrus precatorius L. Very active poison. Five different proteins have so far ... cell lysis). ". 01/01/2006 - "Natural killer cell activity was enhanced significantly by abrin in both the normal (49.8% cell ... 05/18/1988 - "In the melanoma and Rael cells, the indirect method gave a higher cell kill than even native abrin. ". 12/01/1987 ... 07/01/1982 - "Studies on the mechanisms of the immunizing effect with the abrin-treated tumor cells demonstrated that abrin ...
Representative examples of pathogenic agents include tumor cells, autoreactive imnuune cells, hormone secreting cells, cells ... 148:265-270, 1985), abrin (Wood et al., Eur. J. Biochem. 198:723-732, 1991; Evensen, et al., J. of Biol. Chem. 266:6848-6852, ... Palmiter et al., "Cell Lineage Ablation In Transgenic Mice By Cell-Specific Expression Of A Toxin Gene," Cell, 80:435-443 (1987 ... CRL1593) cells. Subsequently, these cells are infected with tathis or anti-tat vectors, selected in histidinol, and cell ...
... proteomics and metabolomics data to reveal the biological mechanisms of abrin injury in human lung epithelial cells ... Screening Small Metabolites from Cells as Multifunctional Coatings Simultaneously Improves Nanomaterial Biocompatibility and ... and metabolomics data analysis exploring the injury mechanism of ricin on human lung epithelial cells ...
Eiklid K, Olsens S, Pihl A (1980) Entry of lethal doses of abrin, ricin modeccin into the cytosol of HeLa cells. Exp Cell Res ... Cell-free DNA is released from tumor cells upon cell death: a study of tissue cultures of tumor cell lines. J Clin Lab Anal 17: ... Exosome-mediated transfer of nRNAs and microRNAs is a novel mechanism of genetic exchange between cells. Nat Cell Biol 9:654- ... For the detection of depurinated 28S rRNA in the serum, cell-free RNAs were isolated from the sera of mice and pigs at ...
The B chain facilitates abrins entry into a cell by bonding to certain transport proteins on cell membranes, which then ... One molecule of abrin will inactivate up to 1,500 ribosomes per second. Symptoms are identical to those of ricin, except abrin ... the fatal dose of ricin is approximately 75 times greater than the fatal dose of abrin. Abrin can kill with a circulating ... The toxin present in Abrus precatorius is a close relative to ricin called abrin. It is a dimer consisting of two protein ...
... or other cells, comprising a GN1-binding protein and a polynucleotide in association with the binding protein; and a method for ... Such cells include dendrites and other nervous tissue, blood cells, and smooth and striated muscle cells. ... Plant lectins with mucosa-binding subunits include concanavalin A, wheat-germ agglutinin, phytohemagglutiniπ, abrin and ricin. ... GM1 is not limited to mucosal cells alone. In fact, GM1 is present at some level in many different cell types of the body, but ...
A new method for lysing cells while preserving RNA is described. RT-PCR is carried out (i) by rapidly freezing cells in the ... Aldolase mRNA, extracted by freeze-thawing cells in the presence of RNase inhibitor, was found to be stable at 42 degrees C for ... conditions for each parameter of the procedure are described that permit amplification of mRNA from as few as four cells. ... presence of ribonuclease inhibitor (RNase inhibitor) plus dithiothreitol and (ii) by using extracts of 250 or fewer cells ...
By contrast, over-expression of PHB exacerbated cell death in the hydrogen peroxide and L-glutamic acid injury models. These ... Liu, Y.H., Peck, K. and Lin, J.Y. (2012) Involvement of Prohibitin Upregulation in Abrin-Triggered Apoptosis. Evidence-Based ... 2009) Prohibitin Protects against Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Injury in Cultured Neonatal Cardiomyocyte. Cell Stress and ... Zhang, L., Ji, Q., Ni, Z.H. and Sun, J. (2012) Prohibitin Induces Apoptosis in BGC823 Gastric Cancer Cells through the ...
How abrin works *Abrin causes illness by getting inside the cells of a persons body and preventing the cells from making the ... How abrin poisoning is treated Because no antidote exists for abrin, the most important factor is avoiding abrin exposure in ... What abrin is *Abrin is a natural poison that is found in the seeds of a plant called the rosary pea or jequirity pea. These ... Where abrin is found and how it is used *Abrin is not known to have been used in any wars or terrorist attacks. ...
Abrin and agglutinin, lectins from the seeds of Abrus precatorius are type II ribosome-inactivating proteins that inhibit ... protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells.. In vitro immunostimulatory properties of Abrus lectins derived peptides in tumor ... It has been reported that Abrus abrin, isolated from the seeds of Abrus precatorius, showed in vitro and in vivo antitumor ... Inhibitory effect of Abrus abrin-derived peptide fraction against Daltons lymphoma ascites model ...
... the cell strains derived from the T cell line were strongly agglutinated by abrin-b compared with those derived from the B cell ... Upon addition of abrin-b, the turbidity at 600 nm of cell suspension decreased and this change could be recorded as the ... The cytoagglutinating activity of abrin-b, a toxic lectin isolated from Abrus precatorius seeds, against cultured cell strains ... The contents of PAF precursor in G1 and M phases cells of AKU4103 were higher than those in S phase cells, and the ratio of ...
... precatoris also caused cells to clump together. This new agglutinin was called abrin. This immediately caught the attention of ... cells and normal cells lay on their surfaces; and that alterations in the properties of the cell surface enabled cancer cells ... Studies of chromosomal constitution of cells.. Agglutination of malignant cells. Investigation of architecture of cell surfaces ... Normal cells did not seem to be affected, but malignant cells were agglutinated. When he replace the wheat germ lipase with a ...
Sequestration of the abrin A chain to the nucleus by BASP1 increases the resistance of cells to abrin toxicity Biochem J ( ... Wortmannin-sensitive trafficking steps in the endocytic pathway in rat liver endothelial cells Biochem J (July,2001) ...
... excretion and degradation of abrin and ricin by HeLa cells. Exp. Cell Res. 121, 15-25. ... The cells were lysed by passage through a 27-gauge needle attached to a 1 ml syringe five times at 4°C, and nuclei and cell ... In d the cells were first incubated with 0.1 μM TPA for 10 minutes to localize Rac 1 to the cell periphery, followed by a 5 ... Cells were seeded onto 10 cm petri dishes (5×105 cells per dish) 2 days in advance. They were then washed twice with DMEM ...
Dissertation: Interactions of the toxic lectins abrin, ricin and modeccin with mammalian cells. Kinetics of binding to surface ... 37), J. Cell Biol. (15), J.Cell Sci. (10), Mol. Biol. Cell (9), Traffic (8), EMBO J. (5), Cancer Res. (5), Nature (2), Proc. ... Cell Dev. Biol., Curr. Opin. Cell Biol., Trends Cell Biol. (3), Trends Biochem. Sci. og Immunol. Today. The articles are highly ... Referee for Nature, Science, Cell, J.Cell.Biol., EMBO J., Mol.Biol.Cell ,Molecular Microbiology and other journals. ...
Importantly, administration of Meth-A tumor cells which had been treated in vitro with abrin, induced strong antitumor immunity ... Immunotherapy can make use of adoptive cell transfer involving the infusion of engineered autologous or allogeneic T cells into ... this mechanistic feature of abrin presents the opportunity of inhibiting the proliferation of cancerous cells which ... and adhesion of a variety of cancer cell types and endothelial cells in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay [93]. And ...
Here, we have discovered peptide affinity reagents against abrax, a derivative of abrin with reduced toxicity. Using on-cell ... On-cell screening analysis of affinity and specificity were measured by flow cytometry and directly compared to the synthetic ... The Kd measured by peptide-ELISA off-cell was 2.4 nM for R418 and 3.0 nM for R445. The bacterial peptide display methodology ... Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) assays, we show that the peptides are highly selective for abrax over RiVax, a ...
A number of bacterial and plant toxins act by inhibiting protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. The toxins of the shiga and ... agglutinin and abrin) ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs). All these toxins are structurally related. RIPs have been of ... Further, trichosanthin has been shown to have potent activity against HIV-1-infected T cells and macrophages [PMID: 8066085]. ...
  • Abrin, like the similar plant toxin ricin, causes toxicity by inhibiting the formation (synthesis) of proteins in the cells of the exposed individual. (cdc.gov)
  • Abrin can also be transmitted through the skin via small pellets or projectiles designed to carry toxin. (cdc.gov)
  • Abrin is a ribosome inhibiting protein like ricin, a toxin which can be found in the seeds of the castor oil plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abrin is similar to ricin , a toxin that is found in the seeds of the castor oil plant . (thefullwiki.org)
  • The toxin abrin is a dimer consisting of two protein subunits, termed A and B. The B chain facilitates abrin's entry into a cell by bonding to certain transport proteins on cell membranes, which then transport the toxin into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxin present in Abrus precatorius is a close relative to ricin called abrin . (thefullwiki.org)
  • In the first part of this article, we will refer to the roles of cell membranes in the pore formation by α-toxin as well as the molecular dissection of α-toxin for understanding its pore-forming nature. (go.jp)
  • In addition, polysomes isolated from mutant cells were resistant to cleavage of the adenine-ribose N-glycosidic bond by ricin A chain or abrin, as assayed by the release of an ~470-nucleotide fragment following analine treatment of ribosomal RNA extracted from toxin-treated polysomes. (elsevier.com)
  • The present invention relates to a toxin conjugate in which a residue derived from a compound having an affinity for a target cell is bound to a toxin through a spacer comprising polyalkylene glycol and dipeptide. (google.co.uk)
  • The present invention relates to toxin conjugates in which a toxin is bound through a spacer to a residue derived from a compound which has an affinity for a target cell, for example, a residue derived from an antibody or antibody fragment which is specific to a cancer. (google.co.uk)
  • The toxin conjugate obtained by the present invention inhibits the growth of a target cell selectively and efficiently, and is useful as an active ingredient of an antitumor agent. (google.co.uk)
  • Further, antibody conjugates (toxin conjugates) having a specificity to a cancer cell have been studied. (google.co.uk)
  • it acts as toxin by attaching itself to the cell membrane. (blogspot.com)
  • The B subunits of Stx1, and most Stx2 type toxin molecules bind to specific glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) receptors in eukaryotic cell membranes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Stx2e B subunits preferentially bind to globotetraosylceramide (Gb4) [ 20 ], which allows the toxin to target different cell types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To determine whether extracellular Bad can be delivered into cells via cell surface receptor binding and induce apoptosis, we genetically fused the mouse Bad gene to the gene for the translocation and receptor-binding domains of diphtheria toxin (DTTR). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We conclude that extracellular Bad can be delivered into cells via the transport domain of a bacterial toxin and may be used to induce apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We showed previously that Bcl-X L fused to DT (22) or anthrax toxin (23) domains could be delivered into cells to inhibit apoptosis in vitro and in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • We demonstrated that extracellular Bad could be delivered into cells via the transport domain of a bacterial toxin and induced apoptosis in tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell lines derived from human small cell carcinoma of the lung express high levels of a surface polypeptide termed the cluster-w4 antigen, which was previously identified as a potential target for toxin-based immunotherapy of lung cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Abrus precatorius, known commonly as jequirity, Crab's eye, rosary pea, precatory pea or bean,The toxin abrin is a dimer consisting of two protein subunits, termed A and B. The B chain facilitates abrin's entry into a cell by bonding to certain transport proteins on cell membranes, which then transport the toxin into the cell. (amazingplanetnews.com)
  • 7] Sandvig K, van Deurs B. [http://www.nature.com/emboj/journal/v19/n22/abs/7593408a.html Entry of ricin and Shiga toxin into cells: molecular mechanisms and medical perspectives. (kmu.edu.tw)
  • Abrus contains a potent toxin, abrin, along with smaller concentrations of glycyrrhizin, aric acid, and N-methyltryptophal. (westjem.com)
  • Abrin, a toxin isolated from the seeds of Abrus precatorius (jequirity pea) is considered a biological threat agent by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (jpt.com)
  • Drug, bio-affecting and body treating compositions conjugate or complex of monoclonal or polyclonal antibody, immunoglobulin, or fragment thereof with nonimmunoglobulin material conjugated to proteinaceous toxin or fragment thereof (e.g., conjugated to diphtheria toxin, pseudomonas exotoxin, ricin, gelonin, abrin, etc. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 1. A method for synergistically inducing apoptosis in cancer cells in a patient in need thereof comprising administering an effective amount of a PI3K inhibitor and a toxin molecule, in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, said PI3K inhibitor and toxin molecule acting synergistically to rapidly induce apoptosis in said cancer cell, said method optionally comprising administration of a chemotherapeutic agent. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 1, wherein said cancer is prostate cancer, said PI3K inhibitor is a prodrug of LY294002 or ZSTK474 comprising a PSA cleavable linker and said toxin is Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) A or PE40 operably linked to an antibody thereby forming an immunotoxin which has binding specificity for an antigen present on a prostate cancer cell, said immunotoxin optionally comprising a PSA cleavable linker. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 5, wherein each of said inhibitor and said toxin are operably linked to said antibody thereby enhancing prostate cancer cell targeting. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Although it is widely held that the protein synthesis inhibition caused by the toxin leads to cell death, it has not been directly shown that catalytically inactive mutants of α-sarcin are non-toxic when expressed directly within the cytoplasm of cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this report, we assayed α-sarcin cytotoxicity and its ability to inhibit protein synthesis by direct cytoplasmic expression of the toxin in mammalian cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • K28 is somewhat unique as it represents an α/β heterodimeric protein of the A/B toxin family which, after having bound to the surface of sensitive target cells, is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis and transported through the secretory pathway in a retrograde manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While the current knowledge on yeast killer toxins is largely based on genetic screens for yeast mutants with altered toxin sensitivity, in vivo imaging of cell surface binding and intracellular toxin transport is still largely hampered by a lack of fluorescently labelled and biologically active killer toxin variants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In cell binding studies the resulting K28 variants caused strong fluorescence signals at the cell periphery due to toxin binding to primary K28 receptors within the yeast cell wall. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Successful production of fluorescent killer toxin variants of S. cerevisiae by high cell density fermentation of recombinant, K28 expressing strains of P. pastoris now opens the possibility to study and monitor killer toxin cell surface binding, in particular in toxin resistant yeast mutants in which toxin resistance is caused by defects in toxin binding due to alterations in cell wall structure and composition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rapid Detection of Abrin Toxin and Its Isoforms in Complex Matrices by Immuno-Extraction and Quantitative High Resolution Targeted Mass Spectrometry. (nih.gov)
  • Abrin is a toxic protein obtained from the seeds of Abrus precatorius (jequirity bean), which is similar in structure and properties to ricin. (springer.com)
  • Abrin is an extremely toxic plant protein derived from the seeds of the plant Abrus precatorius . (cdc.gov)
  • Abrin is a highly toxic toxalbumin found in the seeds of the rosary pea (or jequirity pea), Abrus precatorius. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abrin and agglutinin, lectins from the seeds of Abrus precatorius are type II ribosome-inactivating proteins that inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It has been reported that Abrus abrin, isolated from the seeds of Abrus precatorius , showed in vitro and in vivo antitumor properties by the induction of apoptosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Shortly afterward at the same university Helfin discovered that the toxic extract of the seed Abrus precatoris also caused cells to clump together. (dadamo.com)
  • Abrin, which consists of abrus agglutinin, and toxic lectins abrins [a] to [d] are the five toxic glycoproteins found in the seeds (Budavari, 1989). (intox.org)
  • A biophysical elucidation for less toxicity of agglutinin than abrin-a from the seeds of Abrus precatorius in consequence of crystal structure. (qxmd.com)
  • A chimeric protein of abrin and Abrus precatorius agglutinin that neutralizes abrin mediated lethality in mice. (qxmd.com)
  • Isolation of antitumor proteins abrin-A and abrin-B from Abrus precatorius. (qxmd.com)
  • A characterization of abrin A from the seeds of the Abrus precatorius plant. (qxmd.com)
  • Binding of 13 I-toxic proteins on the tumor cells was shown to be specific, pH dependent, and concentration dependent. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • The toxic plant proteins ricin and abrin induce apoptotic changes in mammalian lymphoid tissues and intestine. (springer.com)
  • Without these proteins, cells cannot survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been demonstrated that serum peroxiredoxin 3 can be a valuable biomarker for the diagnosis and assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma It has been shown that peroxiredoxin proteins protect MCF-7 breast cancer cells against doxorubicin-mediated toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abrin causes illness by getting inside the cells of a person's body and preventing the cells from making the proteins they need. (cdc.gov)
  • Without the proteins, cells die. (cdc.gov)
  • Members of the family include shiga and shiga-like toxins, and type I (e.g. trichosanthin and luffin) and type II (e.g. ricin, agglutinin and abrin) ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The RNase A-ricin B complex had to retain the functional activity of both the proteins, so that its effect on Daudi cells in culture could be examined. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The question of the internalisation of the chimeric protein was not answered, although it is known that hybrid proteins formed between abrin A-ricin B or gelonin-ricin B are toxic to cells which could reflect a synergistic mode of action of the toxic molecule and the lectin molecule from plants. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The cell damage/death was induced by non-cytotoxic type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins: Sambucus Sieboldiana lectin (SSA) and Sambucus Nigra lectin (SNA). (alliedacademies.org)
  • Designed recombinant proteins comprising functional domains offer selective targeting of cancer cells for the efficient delivery of therapeutic agents. (usda.gov)
  • Abrin (ABR), a proteins purified through the seed products of using Sepharose 6B affinity column chromatography and purified as described within a previous research [30]. (rectalcancersite.com)
  • To determine whether PHB upregulation because of ABR is due to elevated transcription or elevated RNA balance, the RNA synthesis inhibitor actinomycin D or the proteins synthesis inhibitor cyclohexamide was preincubated with cells for 1?h just before ABR was added. (rectalcancersite.com)
  • Pools of overlapping peptides from antigenic proteins for T-cell stimulation, T-cell expansion in T-cell assays such as ELISPOT, ICS or Flow Cytometry, e.g. for immune monitoring. (jpt.com)
  • The total cell proteins were determined by the well-known procedure with fluorescamine , using BSA as the standard. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Crosslinking reagents are used in a variety of techniques to assist in determining partners and domains of protein interactions, three-dimensional structures of proteins, and molecular associations in cell membranes. (thermofisher.com)
  • Exposure to even a small amount of abrin may be fatal. (cdc.gov)
  • Swallowing any amount of abrin can lead to severe symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • If someone swallows a significant amount of abrin, he or she would develop vomiting and diarrhea that may become bloody. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Sandvig K, Olsnes S, Pihl A. Kinetics of binding of the toxic lectins abrin and ricin to surface receptors of human cells. (springer.com)
  • Olsnes S, Refsnes K, Pihl A. Mechanism of action of the toxic lectins abrin and ricin. (springer.com)
  • Olsnes S, Fernandez-Puentes C, Carrasco L, Vazquez D (1975) Ribosome inactivation by the toxic lectins abrin and ricin. (springer.com)
  • Dissertation: 'Interactions of the toxic lectins abrin, ricin and modeccin with mammalian cells. (ae-info.org)
  • Using the newly discovered lectins abrin and ricin, recently isolated by Stillmark, he was able to describe classically what has still remained the major blood group of clinical interest. (dadamo.com)
  • Rates of different steps involved in the inhibition of protein synthesis by the toxic lectins abrin and ricin. (qxmd.com)
  • Phyllanthus amarus inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in Dalton's lymphoma ascites cells through activation of caspase-3 and downregulation of Bcl-2. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this study, the role of apoptosis in verocytotoxin (VT)-mediated endothelial cell death in human glomerular microvascular endothelial cells (GMVEC), human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and foreskin microvascular endothelial cells (FMVEC) was investigated. (asnjournals.org)
  • VT induced apoptosis in GMVEC and human umbilical vein endothelial cells when the cells were prestimulated with the inflammatory mediator tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). (asnjournals.org)
  • This suggests that additional pathways, independent of protein synthesis inhibition, may be involved in VT-mediated apoptosis in microvascular endothelial cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • These data indicate that VT can induce apoptosis in human microvascular endothelial cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • Induction of apoptosis has also been reported for a variety of cell types ( 7 , 8 , 9 ), including renal tubule-derived epithelial cells ( 10 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • However, whether VT can directly induce apoptosis in endothelial cells has not been studied. (asnjournals.org)
  • Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is a highly regulated process characterized by morphologic, functional, and molecular features ( 12 , 13 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Apoptosis occurs not only under physiologic conditions, such as embryogenesis, morphogenesis, and other processes of tissue formation and cell renewal, but also under pathologic conditions. (asnjournals.org)
  • Because these mediators may themselves induce both stimulators and inhibitors of apoptosis in endothelial cells ( 19 , 20 , 21 ), it would be extremely difficult to discriminate between direct and indirect effects of VT on apoptosis in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated GMVEC. (asnjournals.org)
  • These findings imply that cell death of neurosphere cells caused by SSA or SNA is caspase-independent apoptosis via an exogenous pathway. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The Bad (S112A S136A)-DTTR protein altered the subcellular distribution of Bcl-X L , indicating that it enters the cell cytoplasm and binds Bcl-X L . Bad (S112D S136A)-DTTR, mutated to mimic phosphorylation of Bad, showed lower toxicity than either Bad (wild-type)-DTTR or Bad (S112A S136A)-DTTR, additionally indicating that Bad-DTTR must bind Bcl-X L to stimulate apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, Bad regulates apoptosis from the cell cytoplasm and must be expressed in or delivered into the cytosol to be used as a death promoter. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The fusion protein was effective at inducing apoptosis in human glioma cells and prostate cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD24 enhances DNA damage-induced apoptosis by modulating NF-κB signaling in CD44-expressing breast cancer cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Like abrin, agglutinin-I also induced apoptosis in the cells by triggering the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, although at higher concentrations as compared with abrin. (qxmd.com)
  • Plant-derived abrin-a induces apoptosis in cultured leukemic cell lines by different mechanisms. (qxmd.com)
  • Ribosome-inactivating protein and apoptosis: abrin causes cell death via mitochondrial pathway in Jurkat cells. (qxmd.com)
  • Open up in another window Physique 3 Downregulation of prohibitin (PHB) delays abrin (ABR)-brought on cell apoptosis. (rectalcancersite.com)
  • a) Downregulation of PHB manifestation with siRNA delays ABR-triggered cell apoptosis in Jurkat T cells. (rectalcancersite.com)
  • These outcomes indicated that ABR may induce a physical conversation between PHB and p53 in the first stage of ABR-induced cell apoptosis. (rectalcancersite.com)
  • CHOP knockdown, however, failed to suppress the GGA-induced decrease in LX2 cell density, suggesting the involvement of additional molecules in ER stress-associated apoptosis. (beds.ac.uk)
  • however, abrin toxicity is similar in its mechanism of action. (cdc.gov)
  • Examination of the toxicity of several protein toxins of plant origin using bovine pulmonary endothelial cells. (springer.com)
  • The mechanical study suggested that BUE-induced liver toxicity was closely associated with necrosis detected by MTT and propidium iodide (PI) staining, via releasing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reducing the fluidity, and increasing the permeability of the cell membrane. (mdpi.com)
  • Specifically, in recent years, research on drug delivery systems has been pursued aiming at alleviation of toxicity, maintenance of concentration in blood and improvement of affinity for a cancer cell. (google.co.uk)
  • The reason for the decreased toxicity of agglutinin-I became apparent on the analysis of the crystal structure of agglutinin-I obtained by us in comparison with that of the reported structure of abrin. (qxmd.com)
  • The substitution of Asn-200 in abrin-a with Pro-199 in agglutinin-I seems to be a major cause for the decreased toxicity of agglutinin-I. This perhaps is not a consequence of any kink formation by a proline residue in the helical segment, as reported by others earlier, but due to fewer interactions that proline can possibly have with the bound substrate. (qxmd.com)
  • Genetic modification of ricin is believed to be possible to lessen its toxicity to humans, but not to the cancer cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • The fluorescent K28 derivatives were obtained in high yield and possessed in vivo toxicity and specificity against sensitive yeast cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Abrin is a water-soluble lectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abrin is a lectin Proteopedia 1abr and can be made in the form of a powder, a mist, a pellet, or it can be dissolved in water. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In 1908 Landsteiner reported that small amounts of lentil lectin would agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes, even high concentrations of the lectin had no effect on pigeon red cells. (dadamo.com)
  • In 1936 Sumner and Howell noted that the addition of Con-A to a solution of glycogen caused the sugar to precipitate, and that the agglutination of red cells by this lectin was inhibited by cane sugar. (dadamo.com)
  • He discovered that lima bean lectin would agglutinate red cells of human blood type A but not those of O or B. The seeds of Lotus tetragonobolus can agglutinate group O specifically, and Bandairaea simplicofolia is specific to group B. The specificity of lectins is so sharply defined that they can differentiate among blood subgroups. (dadamo.com)
  • Three of the mutant phenotypes, Lec26, Lec27, and Lec28, were recessive in somatic cell hybrids and define at least two new lectin-resistant complementation groups. (elsevier.com)
  • The protein consists of two functionally distinct polypeptides, ricin A chain which will inhibit protein synthesis in eucaryotic cells, and the ricin B chain which acts as a lectin binding to galactose-containing cell surface macromolecules. (gla.ac.uk)
  • During the exploration, we found an unexpected phenomenon: neither proliferation of neurosphere cells nor formation of neurospheres was observed under the presence of two types of lectins, Sambucus Sieboldiana lectin (SSA) and Sambucus Nigra lectin (SNA). (alliedacademies.org)
  • The overall protein folding of agglutinin-I is similar to that of abrin-a with a single disulfide bond holding the toxic A subunit and the lectin-like B-subunit together, constituting a heterodimer. (qxmd.com)
  • Ricin B is a lectin that binds galactosyl residues and is important in assisting ricin A's entry into a cell by binding with a cell surface component. (wikidoc.org)
  • Eiklid K, Olsens S, Pihl A (1980) Entry of lethal doses of abrin, ricin modeccin into the cytosol of HeLa cells. (springer.com)
  • This new agglutinin was called abrin. (dadamo.com)
  • We compared the kinetics of protein synthesis inhibition by abrin and agglutinin-I in two different cell lines and found that approximately 200-2000-fold higher concentration of agglutinin-I is needed for the same degree of inhibition. (qxmd.com)
  • By attaching to a carbohydrate chain on the cell surface, the abrin molecule anchors itself to the cell, is subsequently engulfed and enters the inner parts of the cell where it reacts with a ribosomal subunit and interferes with the normal protein synthesis process of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once inside the cell, the A chain prevents protein synthesis by inactivating the 26S subunit of the ribosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dimer abrin, is composed of two protein subunits, A and B. Working as a chemical team, B enables the molecule ingress into the cell, while once inside, the A subunit inhibits the process of protein synthesis. (cdc.gov)
  • A promising approach is also to use the non-toxic B subunit as a vehicle for delivering antigens into cells thus greatly increasing their immunogenicity . (wikidoc.org)
  • Thereby, the β-subunit of K28 was confirmed to be the sole component required and sufficient for K28 cell wall binding. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within a few hours of inhaling significant amounts of abrin, the likely symptoms would be respiratory distress , fever, cough, nausea, and tightness in the chest. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Even though these beans are toxic, containing a toxic plant protein known as abrin, a toxalbumin, they are still widely used as jewelry ornaments, and in percussive musical instruments. (cdc.gov)
  • Abrin is a toxalbumin, composed of two subunits, an A and B chain covalently linked through a disulfide bridge. (westjem.com)
  • The plant is best known for its seeds, which are used as beads and in percussion instruments, and which are toxic because of the presence of abrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single seed chewed and ingested can be fatal due to the presence of abrin, which stops the protein synthesis of cells. (newsoptimist.ca)
  • Post-mitochondrial supernatants from each of the four mutants were resistant to inhibition of cell-free protein synthesis by ricin, ricin A chain, and abrin. (elsevier.com)
  • Following ingestion of abrin, initial symptoms usually occur rapidly, but can take up to 5 days to appear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following ingestion of abrin, initial symptoms may occur in less than 6 hours but usually are delayed for 1 to 3 days. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In vitro studies using HUVEC and glomerular microvascular endothelial cells (GMVEC) have indicated that VT susceptibility requires additional stimulation by inflammatory mediators for induction of a sufficiently large number of specific VT receptors on these cells ( 5 , 18 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The results therefore confirmed earlier work which showed that insulin-ricin B conjugate, bound to galactose containing receptors present on the cell surface. (gla.ac.uk)
  • 1 The B chain facilitates binding to cell surface receptors, allowing the entry of the A chain into cells. (westjem.com)
  • Abrin can be extracted from jequirity beans using a relatively simple and cheap procedure. (springer.com)
  • This satisfies one criterion of a potential chemical warfare agent, although the lack of large scale production of jequirity seeds means that quantity is unavailable for ready mass production of abrin for weapons. (springer.com)
  • Abrin is a natural poison that is found in the seeds of a plant called the rosary pea or jequirity pea. (thefullwiki.org)
  • abrin or jequirity hasbeen used as an irritant to the eye in cases of granular lids and of corneal opaci-ties. (jennykanevsky.com)
  • Abrin naturally occurs in the seeds of the rosary pea, a plant common to tropical regions that is occasionally employed as an herbal remedy for certain conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 2 ] The rosary pea , which is the source of abrin, is common to many tropical areas throughout the world and is sometimes used as a herbal remedy. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The seeds of the rosary pea have been used to make beaded jewelry, which can lead to abrin poisoning if the seeds are chewed and swallowed. (thefullwiki.org)
  • It would take a deliberate act to obtain abrin from rosary pea seeds and use it to poison people. (cdc.gov)
  • what are the CSs of Castor bean (ricin)/ rosary pea (abrin) (both lectins) ingestion? (memorize.com)
  • The inhibitory effect of all the lectins except abrin could be reversed by changing to the normal, serum-containing medium. (rupress.org)
  • Ricin and abrin are potent biological toxins that are derived from plant sources (castor beans and rosary peas, respectively). (cdc.gov)
  • In the body, these toxins inhibit protein synthesis leading to cell death. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, the inhalation of ricin or abrin would be expected to lead to a quicker onset of poisoning and to cause a more rapid progression of poisoning compared with the ingestion of either of these toxins, given the same exposure amount. (cdc.gov)
  • Evidence for a structural motif in toxins and interleukin-2 that may be responsible for binding to endothelial cells and initiating vascular leak syndrome. (springer.com)
  • In the second part of this article, we will refer to the current status of knowledge of molecular cloning of the genes coding for γ-hemolysin and leukocidin, molecular domains of the toxins which decide the cell specificities, and mode of action of these bi-component toxins. (go.jp)
  • A number of bacterial and plant toxins act by inhibiting protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, the research may lay the groundwork for similar biosensors that could detect and identify E. coli, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and food toxins such as Ricin, Abrin and Clostridium Botulinum. (meatpoultry.com)
  • Molecular structure of abrin [online]. (springer.com)
  • Cloning of the Complete Gene for Carcinoembryonic Antigen: Analysis of Its Promotor Indicates a Region Conveying Cell Type-Specific Expression," Molecular and Cellular Biology 10(6): 2738-2748, 1990. (patentgenius.com)
  • On the basis of functional (flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy using FITC-conjugated annexin V and propidium iodide), morphologic (transmission electron microscopy), and molecular (agarose gel electrophoresis of cellular DNA fragments) criteria, it was documented that VT induced programmed cell death in microvascular endothelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. (asnjournals.org)
  • Molecular and biological properties of an abrin A chain immunotoxin designed for therapy of human small cell lung cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Bimodal fluorescence/ 129 Xe NMR probe for molecular imaging and biological inhibition of EGFR in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. (nih.gov)
  • http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1975.tb02484.x/abstract On the Mechanism of Protein-Synthesis Inhibition by Abrin and Rich. (kmu.edu.tw)
  • One molecule of abrin will inactivate up to 1,500 ribosomes per second. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD24, a signal-transducing molecule expressed on human B cells, is a major surface antigen on small cell lung carcinomas. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A novel surface molecule expressed by long-term cultured T and natural killer cells is involved in cell activation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Furthermore, cholesterol depletion inhibited the phorbol ester-induced reorganization of filamentous actin at the cell periphery, a prerequisite for the formation of membrane ruffles that close into macropinosomes. (biologists.org)
  • The first proof that sugars could serve as specificity determinants came from the discovery that influenza virus could agglutinate red cells only In the presence of the membrane bound sialic acids. (dadamo.com)
  • Therefore, it is assumed that domain 3 is responsible for formation of cell membrane pores, after binding to cell-surface carbohydrates, leading to hemolysis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These membrane glyco conjugates are typically rich in sialic acids whose high degree of hydrophilicity and negative ionic charge results in their projection outward from the cell membrane. (dadamo.com)
  • Granulysin, a T Cell Product, Kills Bacteria by Altering Membrane Permeability, The Journal of Immunology (2000), 165:7102-7108. (patentgenius.com)
  • It was found that Siaα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc or Siaα2-6Gal on the membrane of neurosphere cells play an important role in the induction of cell damage of neurosphere cells. (alliedacademies.org)
  • SSA and SNA recognition molecules were detected as 39 and 42 kDa glycoproteins on the membrane of neurosphere cells. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The phenomenon mentioned above offered us the possibility that SSA and SNA might have a cell-damaging effect on neurosphere cells via an exogenous pathway because mitogenicity and cytotoxicity of lectins are generally activated by the bind to sugar chains of glycoproteins or glycolipids expressed on the membrane of living mammalian cells [ 12 - 15 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Morphology of ricin and abrin exposed endothelial cells is consistent with apoptotic cell death. (springer.com)
  • This invention concerns novel compositions and methods for for the protection of organs and cells from damage caused by activated lymphocytes, NK-cells and NK-like cells, more particularly compositions and methods for the protection of vascular endothelial cells from immune system-mediated damage. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The presence of apoptotic endothelial cells in the glomeruli of kidney biopsy specimens from three patients with the epidemic form of HUS was recently reported ( 11 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The presence of caspase 1-like activity and caspase 3 has been demonstrated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) ( 17 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • An antagonistic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) variant inhibits VEGF-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation and proliferation of human endothelial cells. (sumobrain.com)
  • The amount and route of the exposure to ricin or abrin and the premorbid condition of the person exposed will contribute to the time of onset and the severity of illness. (cdc.gov)
  • Diverse profiles of ricin-cell interactions in the lung following intranasal exposure to ricin. (nih.gov)
  • 77: 1247-1253, 1986) that the sensitivities of different melanoma cell lines to a conjugate of abrin with the anti-melanoma antibody 9.2.27 was correlated with their sensitivities to native abrin. (curehunter.com)
  • When cells were treated with a weakly toxic dose of an antibody - ricin A conjugate, the cytotoxicity was less than that of an antibody-ricin conjugate. (gla.ac.uk)
  • exhibited a noticeable increase in antibody-forming cells, bone marrow cellularity and alpha-esterase-positive bone marrow cells. (indianmedicinalplants.info)
  • Ricin could be linked to a monoclonal antibody to target malignant cells recognized by the antibody. (wikidoc.org)
  • Antibody treatment against pulmonary exposure to abrin confers significantly higher levels of protection than treatment against ricin intoxication. (nih.gov)
  • Antibody and other cell surface ligands have been widely used for cell separation via either magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) where ligands are immobilized to magnetic nanoparticles or flow cytometry in fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) where antibodies are labeled with fluorescent dyes. (justia.com)
  • Since flurorophore staining of antibody and immobilization of antibody to magnetic nanoparticles are expensive and time consuming, particularly for multiplexed cell separation, the parallelism and miniaturization inherent in microarray-based cell sorting methods were developed in recent years because they allow a wide variety of cell surface antigen groups to be screened simultaneously in a small area with low ligand and cell needs. (justia.com)
  • In another aspect, disclosed herein are Tethered immunolipoplex Nanoparticle (iTLN) or cationic Lipoplex Nanoparticle (cTLN) chips or arrays where intracellular ligands such as MB and cell surface ligands such as antibody are encapsulated and post-inserted respectively in liposomal nanoparticles tethered on a flat surface or nano/micro-scale particle. (justia.com)
  • Since cell binding is enhanced and optimized by utilizing the combined antibody and lipid interactions, the iTLN/cTLN chips/arrays disclosed herein outperform conventional spotted arrays in higher cell binding strength, better separation efficacy and lower antibody consumption. (justia.com)
  • There have been no reports that SSA or SNA has cytotoxicity against mammalian cells, including neurosphere cells. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The crystal packing reveals one way to pack a sheet of granulysin molecules at the cell surface for a concerted lysis effort. (patentgenius.com)
  • Iodination of RNase A then linkage of this to the ricin B polypeptide showed that the ricin B chain was binding to galactose-containing molecules on the cell surface. (gla.ac.uk)
  • More especially, molecules that induce cell aggregation in neurosphere formation are not fully determined. (alliedacademies.org)
  • On this hypothesis, we have been using lectins as detection probes in the exploration for molecules that induce cell-aggregation because they bind to sugar chains. (alliedacademies.org)
  • When cells were pretreated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin to extract cholesterol, the phorbol ester was unable to induce the increased endocytosis of ricin otherwise seen, although PKC could still be activated. (biologists.org)
  • Abrin is highly toxic, with an estimated human fatal dose of 0.1-1 µg/kg, and has caused death after accidental and intentional poisoning. (springer.com)
  • The major symptoms of abrin poisoning depend on the route of exposure and the dose received, though many organs may be affected in severe cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Death from abrin poisoning could take place within 36 to 72 hours of exposure, depending on the route of exposure (inhalation, ingestion, or injection) and the dose received. (thefullwiki.org)
  • the fatal dose of abrin is approximately 1/75 that of the fatal dose of ricin (though the abrin in ingested seeds may be absorbed much more slowly than the ricin in Ricinus communis even if the seeds are chewed and the coat penetrated, allowing time for successful rescue efforts in at least some cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abrin has an LD50 of only 0.56 μg/kg in mice, and Kingsbury lists a toxic dose in humans at 0.00015% body weight, or approximately 0.1 mg for a 150 lb human. (wikipedia.org)
  • the fatal dose of ricin is approximately 75 times greater than the fatal dose of abrin. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The major signs and symptoms of abrin poisoning depend on how someone was exposed (route of exposure) how much they were exposed to (dose). (cdc.gov)
  • Abrin is far more poisonous than ricin, its fatal dose is 75 times smaller than ricin. (blogspot.com)
  • The purified Bad (wild-type)-DTTR protein showed cytotoxicity to human glioma cells in a dose-dependent manner. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A non- toxic dose of abrin (1.25 mcg/kg body weight), isolated from the seeds of red var. (indianmedicinalplants.info)
  • Abrin and ricin cause 50% agglutination of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (5*10 6 /ml) at a concentration of 8 and 4 μg/ml, respectively. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • The biological events fundamental to the development of cancer involve the transformation of normal cells to a precancerous lesion which subsequently progresses to a malignant tumor in a multistage process [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • A comparative study of brain tumor cells from different age and anatomical locations using 3D biomimetic hydrogels. (jenkemusa.com)
  • The PDTX model was established in mice using tumor samples obtained from 4 cancer patients, including one small cell carcinoma sample, two adenocarcinoma samples, and one squamous cell carcinoma sample. (bvsalud.org)
  • METHODS: Sixty-two female Wistar rats weighing 208 ± 20 g were anesthetized intraperitoneally with 2.5 percent tribromoethanol (1 ml/100 g live weight), tracheotomized and intubated with an ultrafine catheter for inoculation with Walker's tumor cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the first step of the experiment, a technique was established for intrabronchial implantation of 10(5) to 5×10(5) tumor cells, and the tumor take rate was determined. (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, LYR71 inhibited tumor migration/invasion in RANTES-treated breast cancer cells and consequently blocked tumor progression in tumor-bearing mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • [0004] A neoplasm, or tumor, is a neoplastic mass resulting from abnormal uncontrolled cell growth, which can be benign or malignant. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Capturing and identifying circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in human blood or body fluid samples, i.e. 'liquid biopsy' has gained a great deal of interest in recent years because of its potential for early and patient friendly cancer detection and monitoring. (justia.com)
  • I. Preparation of antihuman chorionic gonadotropin-carboxypeptidase G.sub.2 and cytotoxicity of the conjugate against JAR choriocarcinoma cells invitro," British Journal of Cancer 53: 377-384, 1986. (patentgenius.com)
  • Cholestane 3β, 5α, 6β-triol decreased SH groups (glutathione and protein SH) in the cell, and showed cytotoxicity in a time-dependent manner. (go.jp)
  • Although the concentration of cholestane 3β, 5α, 6β-triol used in this study (100 μM) was very high compared with that in plasma of experimental animals, cholestane 3β, 5α, 6β-triol did not show any cytotoxicity on IEC-6 cells without fetal calf serum (FCS). (go.jp)
  • At the cellular level, abrin inhibits protein synthesis, thereby causing cell death. (springer.com)
  • A cytoplasmic zinc finger protein (790 aa) that inhibits *NFκB activity and TNF-mediated programmed cell death. (oxfordreference.com)
  • Aiming to identify the immunodominant epitopes of abrin, several neutralizing antiabrin polyclonal antibodies were screened using a set of 15-mer peptides spanning the amino acid sequence of either the A or B subunits of abrin. (jpt.com)
  • Macropinocytosis in A431 cells was induced by the phorbol ester 12- O -tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, a potent activator of protein kinase C (PKC). (biologists.org)
  • Further, trichosanthin has been shown to have potent activity against HIV-1-infected T cells and macrophages [ PMID: 8066085 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • It is non-toxic to animal cells and a potent haemagglutinator. (intox.org)
  • We conclude that although protein synthesis inhibition likely contributes to cell death, it is not required. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Abrin can kill with a circulating amount of less than 3 μg ( micrograms ). (thefullwiki.org)
  • This report demonstrates that one can completely avoid the RNA extraction step in RT-PCR by basing the comparison of samples on cell number rather than micrograms of total RNA. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 3 micrograms of abrin in the circulation is already lethal. (blogspot.com)
  • Furthermore, whereas partial inhibition of protein synthesis by VT was associated with a considerable number of apoptotic cells, comparable inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide was not. (asnjournals.org)
  • Abrin can be absorbed into the body through ingestion, inhalation, or eye contact. (cdc.gov)
  • If an exposure to abrin by inhalation is not fatal, the airway can become sensitized or irritated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial symptoms of abrin poisoning by inhalation may occur within 8 hours of exposure. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Experimental studies have shown that vaccination with abrin toxoid may offer some protection against a subsequent abrin challenge, although such an approach is unlikely to be of benefit in a civilian population that in all probability would be unprotected. (springer.com)
  • Abrin has been shown to act as an immunoadjuvant in the treatment of cancer in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the detection of depurinated 28S rRNA in the serum, cell-free RNAs were isolated from the sera of mice and pigs at different time points following ricin intoxication by different exposure routes and analyzed for the presence of depurinated 28S rRNA. (springer.com)
  • He accustomed mice to the poisons ricin and abrin. (eskapology.com)
  • We have explored the immunomodulatory property of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in our cell transplantation studies, and found that large quantities of human and porcine MSCs can be implanted in immunocompetent pigs, mice, and hamsters without inducing inflammatory immune responses in the host. (buffalo.edu)
  • Reconstitution of RAG2(-/-) mice with Galphai2(-/-) bone marrow induced an IBD-like colitis and a deficiency in absolute numbers of MZ, T2, and B-1 B cells. (pianolarge.ga)
  • Hormonal Regulation of Chimeric Genes Containing the Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Promoter Regulatory Region in Hepatoma Cells Infected by Murine Retroviruses," Journal of Biological Chemistry 263(33): 17798-17808, 1988. (patentgenius.com)
  • Gelonin, a New Inhibitor of Protein Synthesis, Nontoxic to Intact Cells," Journal of Biological Chemistry 255(14): 6947-6953, 1980. (patentgenius.com)
  • Like human beings, plants share numerous regulatory mechanisms and homologous genes, cell biological processes and biochemical pathways. (omicsonline.org)
  • With symptoms identical to those produced by ricin, though many times more toxic, abrin symptoms include nausea and vomiting, convulsions, followed by liver failure and death, which will take place after several days. (cdc.gov)
  • While investigating the toxic effects on blood of castor bean extract ( Ricinus communis ) he noticed that the red cells were being agglutinated. (dadamo.com)
  • Care could include such measures as helping victims breathe, giving them intravenous fluids, giving them medications to treat conditions such as seizure and low blood pressure, flushing their stomachs with activated charcoal (if the abrin has been very recently ingested), or washing out their eyes with water if their eyes are irritated. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Care could include helping victims breathe, giving them intravenous fluids (fluids given through a needle inserted into a vein), giving them medications to treat conditions such as seizure and low blood pressure, administering activated charcoal (if the abrin was very recently swallowed), or washing out their eyes with water if their eyes are irritated. (cdc.gov)
  • The invention relates to murine/human chimeric monoclonal antibodies with high specificity to and affinity for human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), derivatives thereof, processes for the preparation of these antibodies and their derivatives, DNAs coding for heavy and light chains of these antibodies, processes for the preparation of said DNAs, mammalian cell lines that produce and secrete the antibodies and processes for the preparation of said cell lines. (google.com)
  • We have cloned a complementary DNA encoding the cluster-w4 antigen from COS-1 fibroblasts transfected with a SW2 small cell carcinoma library, by panning with a mixture of the cluster-w4-specific monoclonal antibodies SWA11, SWA21, and SWA22. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Furthermore, the cloned cluster-w4 antigen expressed on COS cells was shown to react with a comprehensive panel of CD24-specific monoclonal antibodies, as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence staining. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Anti-B-cell monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of severe B-cell lymphoproliferative syndrome following bone marrow and organ transplantation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These findings provide useful information and suggest a possible strategy for the development and design of an improved abrin-based vaccine and therapeutic antibodies. (jpt.com)