Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Caspase 9: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Caspase Inhibitors: Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.Caspase 8: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Caspase 7: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 3 and CASPASE 10. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Caspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.Caspase 10: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 10 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones: Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Caspase 12: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 12 is activated by pro-apoptotic factors that are released during cell stress and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Caspase 14: A short pro-domain caspase that is almost exclusively expressed in the EPIDERMIS and may play a role in the differentiation of epidermal KERATINOCYTES.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein: An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that is translated by a rare cap-independent mechanism. It blocks caspase-mediated cellular destruction by inhibiting CASPASE 3; CASPASE 7; and CASPASE 9.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1: A CARD signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in the mitochondria-stimulated apoptosis (APOPTOSIS, INTRINSIC PATHWAY). It binds to CYTOCHROME C in the CYTOSOL to form an APOPTOSOMAL PROTEIN COMPLEX and activates INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins: A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Caspases, Initiator: A subtype of caspases that contain long pro-domain regions that regulate the activation of the enzyme. The pro-domain regions contain protein-protein interaction motifs that can interact with specific signaling adaptor proteins such as DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS; DED SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS; and CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Once activated, the initiator caspases can activate other caspases such as the EFFECTOR CASPASES.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein: A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.bcl-X Protein: A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.Apoptosis Inducing Factor: A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein: An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Annexin A5: A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Caspases, Effector: A subclass of caspases that contain short pro-domain regions. They are activated by the proteolytic action of INITIATOR CASPASES. Once activated they cleave a variety of substrates that cause APOPTOSIS.Apoptosomes: Multimeric protein complexes formed in the CYTOSOL that play a role in the activation of APOPTOSIS. They can occur when MITOCHONDRIA become damaged due to cell stress and release CYTOCHROME C. Cytosolic cytochrome C associates with APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1 to form the apoptosomal protein complex. The apoptosome signals apoptosis by binding to and activating specific INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.CRADD Signaling Adaptor Protein: A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins: Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein: A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.Calpain: Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.Granzymes: A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by interacting with a variety of signaling adaptor proteins such as CRADD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEIN; TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2; and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Although they were initially described as death domain-binding adaptor proteins, members of this family may contain other protein-binding domains such as those involving caspase activation and recruitment.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.bcl-Associated Death Protein: A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Serpins: A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.U937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Genes, bcl-2: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesMitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mice, Inbred C57BLCeramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinase 2: A RIP serine-theonine kinase that contains a C-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain. It can signal by associating with other CARD-signaling adaptor proteins and INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein: A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Propidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.Receptors, Death Domain: A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Lamins: Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.FlavoproteinsCathepsin B: A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Bongkrekic Acid: An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.Pentanoic AcidsHepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Lamin Type B: A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.Isatin: An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.Keratin-18: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Leupeptins: A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
... which resembles that of the animal caspases. Similarly to the animal caspases, the phytaspase is a cell death promoting ... Following the programmed cell death triggers, the phytaspase "re-enters" the cell and acts in the water-soluble fraction, where ... a relocalisable cell death promoting plant protease with caspase specificity". The EMBO Journal. 29 (6): 1149-1161. doi:10.1038 ... "A plant alternative to animal caspases: subtilisin-like proteases". Cell Death and Differentiation. 18 (8): 1289-1297. doi: ...
Cell Biol. 9 (8): 961-9. doi:10.1038/ncb1622. PMID 17643115. Mouneimne G, Brugge JS (2007). "Tensins: a new switch in cell ... Lo SS, Lo SH, Lo SH (2005). "Cleavage of cten by caspase-3 during apoptosis". Oncogene. 24 (26): 4311-4. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ... Cell. Proteomics. 4 (6): 785-95. doi:10.1074/mcp.M500021-MCP200. PMID 15778465. ... Cell Biol. 176 (1): 43-9. doi:10.1083/jcb.200608015. PMC 2063623 . PMID 17190795. Katz M, Amit I, Citri A, et al. (2007). "A ...
... induces apoptosis and caspase-dependent degradation of haematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein 1 (HS1) in Jurkat cells". ... induces apoptosis and caspase-dependent degradation of haematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein 1 (HS1) in Jurkat cells". ... Hematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HCLS1 gene. HCLS1 has been shown to ... Chen, Y R; Kori R; John B; Tan T H (Nov 2001). "Caspase-mediated cleavage of actin-binding and SH3-domain-containing proteins ...
Caspases are the enzymes primarily responsible for cell death. XIAP binds to and inhibits caspase 3, 7 and 9. The BIR2 domain ... XIAP stops apoptotic cell death that is induced either by viral infection or by overproduction of caspases. ... This allows normal caspase activity to proceed. The binding process of Smac/DIABLO to XIAP and caspase release requires a ... and caspase 9-interacting sites". The Journal of Cell Biology. 157 (1): 115-24. doi:10.1083/jcb.200108085. PMC 2173256 . PMID ...
This has been observed in a number of different cells and tissues. Inhibition of ceramide synthase is not responsible for this ... The main factors could be DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. FB1 has also immunotoxic effects, but much more research ... As a response to this there could be continuous regeneration of cells, causing cancer. It seems to be that disrupted ... Bioavailability of FB1 can be reduced by treating fumonisin-contaminated corn with glucomannans extracted from the cell wall of ...
Clostridium difficile toxin A
Apoptosis is the most likely mechanism accounting for death of cells exposed to TcdA. Rho inactivation can activate caspase-3 ... Distinct changes in the microfilament system lead to cell rounding and cell death. These changes result from the inactivation ... Receptor binding is the first step required for entry into the cell via endocytosis in an acidic endosome. Low pH in the ... Toxin damage to the colonic mucosa promotes accumulations of fibrin, mucin, and dead cells to form a layer of debris in the ...
However among the four WNK family members, only WNK3 has been shown to regulate and increase cell survival in a caspase-3- ... Veríssimo F, Silva E, Morris JD, Pepperkok R, Jordan P (Jul 2006). "Protein kinase WNK3 increases cell survival in a caspase-3- ... These precursor cells are called oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). It is known that in early stages of MS re-myelination ... Since the tetramer has a very large surface area into the cell membrane, it is thought that this may serve as an efficient and ...
Cell. 49 (1): 35-43. doi:10.1111/j.1768-322x.1984.tb00220.x. PMID 6199062. Dent AL, Yewdell J, Puvion-Dutilleul F, Koken MH, de ... Quignon F, De Bels F, Koken M, Feunteun J, Ameisen JC, de Thé H (1998). "PML induces a novel caspase-independent death process ... Cell. Biol. 13 (10): 6170-9. PMC 364676 . PMID 8413218. Chelbi-Alix MK, Quignon F, Pelicano L, Koken MH, de Thé H (1998). " ... Cell Res. 202 (2): 211-23. doi:10.1016/0014-4827(92)90068-J. PMID 1397076. Sternsdorf T, Grötzinger T, Jensen K, Will H (1997 ...
Protein kinase N1
Cell Res. 241 (2): 363-72. doi:10.1006/excr.1998.4060. PMID 9637778. Takahashi M, Mukai H, Toshimori M, Miyamoto M, Ono Y (1998 ... The proteolytic activation of this kinase by caspase-3 or related proteases during apoptosis suggests its role in signal ... Cell Genet. 79 (1-2): 125-31. doi:10.1159/000134699. PMID 9533029. Zheng-Fischhöfer Q, Biernat J, Mandelkow EM, Illenberger S, ... Cell. Biol. 23 (12): 4219-29. doi:10.1128/mcb.23.12.4219-4229.2003. PMC 156133 . PMID 12773565. Alberts AS, Bouquin N, Johnston ...
2006). "Protein kinase WNK3 increases cell survival in a caspase-3-dependent pathway". Oncogene. 25 (30): 4172-82. doi:10.1038/ ... and it plays a role in the increase of cell survival in a caspase 3 dependent pathway. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Moniz S, Jordan P (2010). "Emerging roles for WNK kinases in cancer". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 67 (8): 1265-76. doi:10.1007/s00018- ... 33 (10): 2250-3. doi:10.2337/dc10-0452. PMC 2945168 . PMID 20628086. This article incorporates text from the United States ...
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase
This is integral in a programmed cell death model based on caspase cleavage inhibition of PARP. The auto-modification domain is ... ATP depletion in a cell leads to lysis and cell death (necrosis). PARP also has the ability to induce programmed cell death, ... While in vitro cleavage by caspase occurs throughout the caspase family, preliminary data suggest that caspase-3 and caspase-7 ... PARP can be activated in cells experiencing stress and/or DNA damage. Activated PARP can deplete the ATP of a cell in an ...
3C proteinase activity in coxsackievirus causes apoptosis in host cells. Both 2A(pro) and 3C(pro) induce caspase-8-mediated by ... Caspase stands for cysteine-aspartic acid protease and play an essential role in the apoptotic pathway of the cell. Protease 2A ... Rhinovirus uses protease 3C and 3D to induce cytopathetic effects in the host cell. 3C and 3D act similarly in rhinovirus as ... For most of these viruses, 3C is necessary for cytopathetic effects on the host cell. So far, 3C protease inhibitors have been ...
... egg extracts have provided numerous insights into the basic biology of cells with particular impact on cell division ... Recently, oocytes were used recently to study the biochemical mechanisms of caspase-2 activation; importantly, this mechanism ... For example, expression of seven transcription factors in pluripotent Xenopus cells rendered those cells able to develop into ... Cell. 131 (5): 980-993. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.09.027. ISSN 0092-8674. PMC 2200633 . PMID 18045539. Kim, Nam-Gyun; Xu, Chong; ...
In cells, the executioner protein, caspase-3, is stored in its inactive form, procaspase-3. This way, the cell can quickly ... Cancer cell 'executioner' found. BBC News 27 August 2006. Cancer cells 'can live forever'. BBC News 29 April 2004. Vanquish ... This molecule, when delivered to cancer cells, signals the cells to self-destruct by activating an "executioner" protein, ... PAC-1 facilitates this process and causes the cell to undergo apoptosis quickly. This direct procaspase-3 activation mode-of- ...
Bcl-x is a dominant regulator of programmed cell death in mammalian cells. The long form (Bcl-x(L), displays cell death ... Rho inhibition induces caspase-9 and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis of cultured human endothelial cells. These proteins are ... activates caspase-9 and caspase-3, leading to apoptosis. Although Zamzami et al. suggest that the release of cytochrome c is ... a bcl-2-related gene that functions as a dominant regulator of apoptotic cell death". Cell. 74 (4): 597-608. doi:10.1016/0092- ...
After depolarization of the cell in which Na+ flows into the cell, the Na+ cannot be transported back into the extracellular ... Oleandrin increases caspase 3 activity in radiodamaged tumor cells and, therefore, increases radiation-induced apoptosis. It is ... "Cardiac Glycosides Initiate Apo2L/TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells by Up-regulation of Death ... "Autophagic cell death of human pancreatic tumor cells mediated by oleandrin, a lipid-soluble cardiac glycoside". Integrative ...
... and is targeted to specific parts of the cell such as the Golgi where it may play a role in transport or proteins in cells. ... Kwon KB, Park EK, Ryu DG, Park BH (2003). "D4-GDI is cleaved by caspase-3 during daunorubicin-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells ... Cell Res. 209 (2): 165-74. doi:10.1006/excr.1993.1298. PMID 8262133. Adra CN, Manor D, Ko JL, Zhu S, Horiuchi T, Van Aelst L, ... Cell. Biol. 14 (5): 3459-68. doi:10.1128/mcb.14.5.3459. PMC 358710 . PMID 7513052. Adra CN, Kobayashi H, Rowley JD, Lim B (1995 ...
Cell Biol. 3 (4): 346-52. doi:10.1038/35070019. PMID 11283607. Murányi A, Zhang R, Liu F, et al. (2001). "Myotonic dystrophy ... 2001). "Caspase-3-mediated cleavage of ROCK I induces MLC phosphorylation and apoptotic membrane blebbing". Nat. ... Overexpression of RhoA or activated RhoA in NIH 3T3 cells increased phosphorylation of MBS and MLC. Thus, Rho appears to ... PPP1R12A Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway. ... muscle and interaction of actin and myosin in nonmuscle cells. ...
Translationally-controlled tumor protein
Telerman A, Amson R. "TCTP/tpt1 - Remodeling Signaling from Stem Cell to Disease". Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation ... TCTP overexpression inhibited caspase-3-like activity as assessed by the cleavage of fluorogenic substrate. Expression levels ... Expressing TCTP in U2OS (Human Bone Osteosarcoma Epithelial Cells) protected them from cell death induced by etoposide over ... Reducing TCTP (dTCTP) levels in Drosophila reduces cell size, cell number and organ size, which mimicsDrosophila Rheb (dRheb) ...
It is required for the activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1, and may link the T cell receptor (TCR) ... Datta R, Kojima H, Yoshida K, Kufe D (1997). "Caspase-3-mediated cleavage of protein kinase C theta in induction of apoptosis ... Ruegg CL, Strand M (1990). "Inhibition of protein kinase C and anti-CD3-induced Ca2+ influx in Jurkat T cells by a synthetic ... Cell. Biol. 16 (10): 5782-91. PMC 231579 . PMID 8816492. Holmes AM (1996). "In vitro phosphorylation of human immunodeficiency ...
Cell 123: 192-193 Scott FL, Denault JB, Riedl SJ, Shin H, Renatus M, Salvesen GS. (2005) XIAP inhibits caspase-3 and -7 using ... 2006) The apoptosome activates caspase-9 by dimerization. Mol Cell 22: 269-275 Eckelman BP, Salvesen GS. (2006) The human anti- ... with particular emphasis on the caspases of the apoptotic cell death pathway. His PhD in biochemistry is from the University of ... Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 5, 405-413 Mikolajczyk, J., Drag, M., Bekes, M., Cao, J. T., Ronai, Z. and Salvesen, G. S. (2007) Small ...
Ceramide mediates many cell-stress responses, including the regulation of programmed cell death (apoptosis) and cell aging ( ... 2005). "Caspase-dependent and independent activation of acid sphingomyelinase signaling". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (28): 26425-26434 ... whereby the cells differentiated into white blood cells called macrophages. Treatment of the same cells by exogenous Sph caused ... Treatment of HL60 cells (a type of leukemia cell line) by a plant-derived organic compound called phorbol ester increased Sph ...
Cell. Biol. 17 (4): 2247-56. PMC 232074 . PMID 9121475. Cryns VL, Byun Y, Rana A, Mellor H, Lustig KD, Ghanem L, Parker PJ, ... "Specific proteolysis of the kinase protein kinase C-related kinase 2 by caspase-3 during apoptosis. Identification by a novel, ... Cell. Proteomics. 3 (4): 311-326. doi:10.1074/mcp.M300127-MCP200. PMID 14718574. Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, ... Yarrow JC, Totsukawa G, Charras GT, Mitchison TJ (2005). "Screening for cell migration inhibitors via automated microscopy ...
Lauber, K; Bohn, E; Kröber, SM; Xiao, Y (2003). "Apoptotic Cells Induce Migration of Phagocytes via Caspase-3-Mediated Release ... to cause host cell (macrophage) apoptosis through cytochrome C release. LPCs are present as minor phospholipids in the cell ... Invading T cells are also thought to mediate this process. Bacteria such as Legionella pneumophila utilize phospholipase A2 end ... Therefore, their effects are independent of the proliferation state of the tumor cell. Lysolecithin is a name used prior to the ...
KX blood-group antigen family
Thus, there is a link between caspase activation and PS externalization, which triggers phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Ho, ... Mouse Xkr8(-/-) cells or human cancer cells in which Xkr8 expression was repressed by hypermethylation failed to expose PtdSer ... A classic feature of apoptotic cells is the cell-surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) as an 'eat me' signal for ... Consistent with its role in promoting PS externalization in apoptotic cells, ced-8 is important for cell corpse engulfment in C ...
Apoptosis is a cell death process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during mammalian development. The apoptotic process ... 2000). "Frequent nuclear localization of ICAD and cytoplasmic co-expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 in human lymphomas". J. ... Cell Genet. 79 (3-4): 212-3. doi:10.1159/000134725. PMID 9605855. Liu X, Zou H, Slaughter C, Wang X (May 1997). "DFF, a ... 1998). "A caspase-activated DNase that degrades DNA during apoptosis, and its inhibitor ICAD". Nature. 391 (6662): 43-50. doi: ...
Mir-624 microRNA precursor family
miR-624 has been found to be upregulated in the WI-38 cell line of human fibroblasts in growth arrest states; there was a 1.9 ... It has additionally been found to target the (CASP3) gene responsible for encoding the protein caspase 3. MicroRNA Maes OC, ... siRNAs have been linked through some members to the regulation of cancer cell growth, specifically in prostate adenocarcinoma. ... J Cell Physiol. 221 (1): 109-19. doi:10.1002/jcp.21834. PMID 19475566. Page for mir-624 microRNA precursor family at Rfam. ...
Hyperplasia (uncontrolled cell growth) is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Because cyclin B is necessary for cells to enter ... A decrease in survivin levels and the associated mitotic disarray triggers apoptosis via caspase 3 mediated pathway. Cyclin B ... On the other hand, if cyclin B levels are depleted the cyclin B/CDK1 complex cannot form, cells cannot enter M phase and cell ... When cyclin B levels are elevated, cells can enter M phase prematurely and strict control over cell division is lost, which is ...
Rho-associated protein kinase
ROCKs regulate cell-cell adhesion: Loss of ROCK activity seems to lead to loss of tight junction integrity in endothelial cells ... The pro-apoptotic protease, caspase 3, activates ROCK kinase activity by cleaving the C-terminal PH domain. As a result, the ... Active ROCK in these cells seems to stimulate the disruption of E-Cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts by activating actomyosin ... PTEN is important to prevent uncontrolled cell division as is exhibited in cancer cells. ROCK plays an important role in cell ...
Casein kinase 2
Having roles in cell cycle regulation may also indicate CK2's role in allowing cell cycle progression when normally it should ... An example is that Caspase 3 is preferentially phosphorylated by α' based tetramers over α based tetramers. CK2 is a protein ... An increased concentration of substrates in cancerous cells infers a likely survival benefit to the cell, and activation of ... As well the anti-apoptotic function of CK2 allows the cancerous cell to escapes cell death and continue proliferating. ...
cell nucleus. • kinetochore. • centrosome. • rough endoplasmic reticulum. • dendritic shaft. • aggresome. • cell surface. • ... of the presenilin 1/beta-catenin interaction and preservation of the heterodimeric presenilin 1 complex following caspase ... cell cortex. • integral component of membrane. • azurophil granule membrane. • Z disc. • neuronal cell body. • perinuclear ... cell-cell adhesion. • cellular response to amyloid-beta. • negative regulation of core promoter binding. • negative regulation ...
... of the total DNA in cells. ... CASP16P: encoding protein Caspase 16, pseudogene. *CCDC113: ... ISBN 978-3-318-02253-7.. *^ Sethakulvichai, W.; Manitpornsut, S.; Wiboonrat, M.; Lilakiatsakun, W.; Assawamakin, A.; Tongsima, ... 3 (2): 243-54. PMID 10464676.. *. Martin J, et al. (2004). "The sequence and analysis of duplication-rich human chromosome 16 ... ACSF3: encoding enzyme Acyl-CoA synthetase family member 3. *ACSM2B: encoding enzyme Acyl-coenzyme A synthetase ACSM2B, ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • collateral ... condensed apoptotic nuclei and a 2-4 fold increase in cortical precursors that stained immunopositive for cleaved caspase-3.[30 ... regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor activity. • activation of phospholipase C activity ... BDNF binds at least two receptors on the surface of cells that are capable of responding to this growth factor, TrkB ( ...
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, ... the Smac mimetic promotes formation of a RIPK1-dependent caspase-8-activating complex, leading to apoptosis. Recent studies ... These T cells can then go on to perform effector functions such as macrophage activation, B cell activation, and cell-mediated ... When interleukin-1 is produced in response to external stimuli, it can bind to cell-surface receptors on the same cell that ...
"Cell. 137 (1): 133-45. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.041. PMC 2668214. PMID 19345192.. ... The resulting deconstruction of cellular components is primarily carried out by specialized proteases known as caspases, but ... Cell cycle controlEdit. Cell cycle progression is controlled by ordered action of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), activated by ... Apoptosis is mediated through disrupting the regulated degradation of pro-growth cell cycle proteins. However, some cell ...
Innate immune system
Rather, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells, recognizing such cells by a ... HR has some similarities to animal pyroptosis, such as a requirement of caspase-1-like proteolytic activity of VPEγ, a cysteine ... Mast cells. Main article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell that reside in connective tissue and in ... Natural killer cells. Main article: Natural killer cell. Natural killer cells (NK cells) are a component of the innate ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle. • endothelial cell ... Nevertheless, TRADD binds FADD, which then recruits the cysteine protease caspase-8. A high concentration of caspase-8 induces ... but it is produced also by a broad variety of cell types including lymphoid cells, mast cells, endothelial cells, cardiac ... NK cells, neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and neurons. TNFα is a member of the TNF superfamily, consisting of various ...
Epigenetics of neurodegenerative diseases
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.033. PMID 17320505.. *^ a b c Faghihi MA, Modarresi F, Khalil AM, Wood DE, Sahagan BG, Morgan TE, ... "Critical loss of CBP/p300 histone acetylase activity by caspase-6 during neurodegeneration". primary. The EMBO Journal. 22 (24 ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 191 (2): 367-81. doi:10.1083/jcb.201008051. PMC 2958468. PMID 20937701.. ... Tested on: mouse (M), only mouse cells (MC), human (H), Drosophila (D), rat (R). Successful treatment: yes (y), yes but with ...
Development of analogs of thalidomide
... to upregulate the activity of caspase-8. This causes cross talking of apoptotic signaling between caspase-8 and caspase-9 ... They have also been shown to cause dose dependent G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in leukemia cell lines where the analogs showed 100 ... Orphan indications include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma. Lenalidomide ... is induced in the presence of TNF-α and the adhesion of MM cells to BMSC. In vitro proliferation of MM cell lines and ...
This release of cytochrome c in turn activates caspase 9, a cysteine protease. Caspase 9 can then go on to activate caspase 3 ... Cytochrome c also has an intermediate role in apoptosis, a controlled form of cell death used to kill cells in the process of ... Waterhouse NJ, Trapani JA (Jul 2003). "A new quantitative assay for cytochrome c release in apoptotic cells". Cell Death and ... Caspase 3. Pro-apoptotic:. BAX. BAK1/Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer. Bcl-2-associated death promoter. Anti-apoptotic:. Bcl- ...
regulation of mitotic cell cycle. • intestinal epithelial cell maturation. • cellular response to ionizing radiation. • cell ... This protein was reported to be specifically cleaved by CASP3-like caspases, which thus leads to a dramatic activation of CDK2 ... G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle. • positive regulation of B cell proliferation. • negative regulation of cell growth. • ... "Cell. 155 (2): 369-383. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.08.062. PMC 4001917. PMID 24075009.. ...
Cell studies. Crocin and crocetin may provide neuroprotection in rats by reducing the production of various neurotoxic ... "Crocetin prevents retinal degeneration induced by oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses via inhibition of caspase ... "Anti-inflammatory effects of crocin and crocetin in rat brain microglial cells". European Journal of Pharmacology. 648 (1-3): ... is an experimental drug that increases the movement of oxygen from red blood cells into hypoxic (oxygen-starved) tissues. ...
"A novel form of DAP5 protein accumulates in apoptotic cells as a result of caspase cleavage and internal ribosome entry site- ... cell nucleus. • membrane. • microtubule. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • multi-eIF complex. • eukaryotic translation initiation ... Cell. Biol. 20 (2): 496-506. doi:10.1128/mcb.20.2.496-506.2000. PMC 85113. PMID 10611228.. ... Cell. Biol. 16 (10): 5328-34. doi:10.1128/MCB.16.10.5328. PMC 231531. PMID 8816444.. ...
Factor de necrose tumoral alfa, a enciclopedia libre
Non obstante, a TRADD únese a FADD, o cal despois recruta a cisteína protease caspase-8. Unha alta concentración de caspase-8 ... Cell Biol. 6 (2): 97-105. PMID 14743216. doi:10.1038/ncb1086.. *↑ Micheau O, Tschopp J (July 2003). "Induction of TNF receptor ... Wajant H, Pfizenmaier K, Scheurich P (2003). "Tumor necrosis factor signaling". Cell Death Differ. 10 (1): 45-65. PMID 12655295 ... Kriegler M, Perez C, DeFay K, Albert I, Lu SD (1988). "A novel form of TNF/cachectin is a cell surface cytotoxic transmembrane ...
Programmed cell death
to cells (such as feedback from neighbors, stress or DNA damage), mitochondria release caspase activators that trigger the cell ... Kuida, K (1998). "Reduced apoptosis and cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation in mice lacking caspase 9". Cell. 94: 325-337 ... Cell death in arthropods occurs first in the nervous system when ectoderm cells differentiate and one daughter cell becomes a ... Called "non-apoptotic programmed cell-death" (or "caspase-independent programmed cell-death" or "necroptosis"), these ...
망막색소상피세포 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
"DICER1/Alu RNA dysmetabolism induces Caspase-8-mediated cell death in age-related macular degeneration". 》PNAS》 111 (45): 16082 ... 망막색소상피세포(Retinal Pigment Epithelium cells, RPE cells)는 망막 감각신경 부분의 바깥에 존재하며, 색소가 있는 세포들을 지칭한다.  ... J Cell Sci Suppl 17: 189-195, 1993. *↑ Tanihara H, Inatani M, and Honda Y. Growth factors and their receptors in the retina and ... J Cell Physiol 197: 453-462, 2003. *↑ Kojima S, Rahner C, Peng S, and Rizzolo LJ. Claudin 5 is transiently expressed during the ...
It is an energy dependent process mediated by proteolytic enzymes called caspases, which trigger cell death through the ... Stromal cells are the cells that support the parenchymal cells in any organ. Fibroblasts, immune cells, pericytes, and ... Cell damage (also known as cell injury) is a variety of changes of stress that a cell suffers due to external as well internal ... When a cell is damaged the body will try to repair or replace the cell to continue normal functions. If a cell dies the body ...
... -1, Caspase-4 and Caspase-5 in humans, and Caspase-1 and Caspase-11 in mice play important roles in inducing cell death ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4, Caspase-5 and Caspase-11 are considered 'Inflammatory Caspases'. ... Kumar, S (2006). "Caspase function in programmed cell death". Cell Death and Differentiation. 14 (1): 32-43. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd ... Functional classification of caspasesEdit. Most caspases play a role in programmed cell death. These are summarized in the ...
Interferencia de ARN, a enciclopedia libre
Lian S, Jakymiw A, Eystathioy T, Hamel J, Fritzler M, Chan E (2006). "GW bodies, microRNAs and the cell cycle". Cell Cycle 5 (3 ... "Caspase 8 small interfering RNA prevents acute liver failure in mice". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100 (13): 7797-802. PMC 164667 ... Cullen L, Arndt G (2005). "Genome-wide screening for gene function using RNAi in mammalian cells". Immunol Cell Biol 83 (3): ... Molecular Cell Biology (5th ed.). ISBN 978-0716743668..  *↑ Matranga C, Tomari Y, Shin C, Bartel D, Zamore P (2005). " ...
"Cell. 151 (6): 1308-18. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.10.051. PMC 3778871. PMID 23217712.. ... This complex then cleaves procaspase-9, activating caspase-9 and eventually inducing apoptosis via caspase-3 activation. Hsp70 ... The Hsp70s are an important part of the cell's machinery for protein folding, and help to protect cells from stress. ... "Cell Stress & Chaperones. 1 (1): 23-8. doi:10.1379/1466-1268(1996)001,0023:AHSGTT,2.3.CO;2. PMC 313013. PMID 9222585.. ...
Sevier CS, Kaiser CA (November 2002). "Formation and transfer of disulphide bonds in living cells". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 3 ... Ubiquitin ligases transfer ubiquitin to its pendant, proteins, and caspases, which engage in proteolysis in the apoptotic cycle ... Cell Dev. Biol. 22: 457-86. doi:10.1146/annurev.cellbio.22.010305.104538. PMID 16824008.. ... Protein disulfide isomerases catalyze the proper formation of disulfide bonds; the cell transfers dehydroascorbic acid to the ...
Farnesoid X receptor
"Inactivation of caspase-8 on mitochondria of Bcl-xL-expressing MCF7-Fas cells: role for the bifunctional apoptosis regulator ... cell-cell junction assembly. • toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway. • negative regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 ... cell nucleus. Biological process. • Notch signaling pathway. • cellular triglyceride homeostasis. • cellular response to ... Similar to other nuclear receptors, when activated, FXR translocates to the cell nucleus, forms a dimer (in this case a ...
1998). "Lymphopain, a cytotoxic T and natural killer cell-associated cysteine proteinase". Leukemia. 12 (11): 1771-81. doi: ... 2001). "Human cathepsin W, a cysteine protease predominantly expressed in NK cells, is mainly localized in the endoplasmic ... is a cysteine proteinase that may have a specific function in the mechanism or regulation of T-cell cytolytic activity. The ... doi:10.1007/0-306-46826-3_29. PMID 10849754.. *. Brinkworth RI, Tort JF, Brindley PJ, Dalton JP (2000). "Phylogenetic ...
Cell Cycle 5:1940-1945, PMID 16940754. *^ MacPhail SH, Banáth JP, Yu Y, Chu E, Olive PL.Cell cycle-dependent expression of ... Also, it is extensively used in research for the detection of DNA damage, caspase cleavage and apoptosis. In ... automated quantification of specified optical parameters on a cell-by-cell basis. To analyze solid tissues, a single-cell ... The flow cell has a liquid stream (sheath fluid), which carries and aligns the cells so that they pass single file through the ...
"Reduced apoptosis and cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation in mice lacking caspase 9". Cell. 94 (3): 325-37. doi:10.1016/ ... Cell biological determinants. Cortical stem cells, known as radial glial cells (RGC)s, reside in the ventricular zone and ... "Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 587-590. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2016.02.016. ISSN 1934-5909. PMC 5299540. PMID 26952870.. ... "Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 591-6. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2016.03.012. PMC 4860115. PMID 27038591.. ...
Ugonjwa wa Alzheimer, kamusi elezo huru
Hernández F, Avila J (Septemba 2007). "Tauopathies". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 64 (17): 2219-33. doi:10.1007/s00018-007-7220-x . ... "N-APP binds DR6 to cause axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases". Nature 457 (7232): 981-989. doi:10.1038/ ... Chun W, Johnson GV (2007). "The role of tau phosphorylation and cleavage in neuronal cell death". Front Biosci 12: 733-56. doi: ... Ohnishi S, Takano K (Machi 2004). "Amyloid fibrils from the viewpoint of protein folding". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 61 (5): 511-24 ...
Virulent Newcastle disease
"Newcastle disease virus exerts oncolysis by both intrinsic and extrinsic caspase-dependent pathways of cell death". Journal of ... harming normal cells. It binds, fuses into and replicates within the infected cells' cytoplasm independent of cell ... in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In addition, an increase of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells occurs within the tumor cells when ... NDV-induced mechanisms leading to tumor cell death. The precise way in which the presence of NDV induces tumor cell death ...
ITPR2 - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
... receptor subtypes by caspases and calpain during TNF alpha -induced apoptosis of human T-lymphoma cells.». Cell Calcium. 27 (6 ... J. Cell Biol. 183 (2): 297-311. PMC 2568025. . PMID 18936250. doi:10.1083/jcb.200803172. !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et al. ( ... cell cortex. •membrane. •integral component of membrane. •platelet dense tubular network membrane. •sarcoplasmic reticulum ... Cell. Signal. 20 (4): 737-47. PMID 18249094. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2007.12.010. soft hyphen character character in ,autor=. at ...
cell-cell signaling. • cell surface receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity ... TRAIL binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase ... may allow selective targeting of cancer cells by controlling activation of Type 1/Type 2 pathways of cell death and single cell ... TRAIL is a cytokine that is produced and secreted by most normal tissue cells. It causes apoptosis primarily in tumor cells, ...
Morwa indyjska, wolna encyklopedia
Scopoletin induces apoptosis in human promyeloleukemic cells, accompanied by activations of nuclear factor kappaB and caspase-3 ... inhibit AP-1 transactivation and cell transformation in the mouse epidermal JB6 cell line.. „Cancer Research". 61 (15), s. 5749 ... Scopoletin suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 from LPS-stimulated cell line, RAW 264.7 cells.. „Fitoterapia". 75 (3 ... The clastogen-suppressing effects of Tochu tea in CHO cells and mice. „Mutation research". 388 (1), s. 7-20, 1997. DOI: 10.1016 ...
Caspase-3 Signaling | Cell Signaling Technology
... comparison tables and educational resources for apoptosis signaling from Cell Signaling Technology. ... Caspases, a family of cysteine proteases, are the central regulators of apoptosis. Initiator caspases (including caspase-2, -8 ... Once activated, initiation caspases cleave and activate downstream effector caspases (including caspase-3, -6, and -7), which ... Samples: Jurkat cells were treated with Etoposide, an anti-cancer agent that is commonly used to induce apoptosis. C2C12 cells ...
Promega Caspase-Glo 3/7 Assay Kit:Life Sciences:Cell Analysis | Fisher Scientific
Shop a large selection of Apoptosis Reagents and Kits products and learn more about Promega Caspase-Glo 3/7 Assay Kit:Life ... Cell Culture & Analysis Cell Culture & Analysis * Cell Culture Dishes, Plates and Flasks ... Caspase-Glo 3/7 Assay is a homogeneous luminescent assay that measures caspase-3/7 activities ... 96- or 384-well plates using either purified Enzyme or cells in culture as sample. ...
Pfaffosidic Fraction from Hebanthe paniculata Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Caspase-3-Induced Apoptosis in HepG2 Cells
are responsible for negatively regulated cell cycle, so in quiescent cells p. levels are high, but once cells enter the cycle, ... Indeed, we observed that pfaffosidic fraction reduced cell viability and induced cell cycle changes in HepG2 cells such as S ... positive cells/1000 cells) × 100]. Quantification of caspase-3 positive cells was performed with the same method and expressed ... 105 cells/well were plated on 4-well cell culture slides (BD Falcon). With exception of caspase-3 staining, cells were first ...
α-Santalol, a derivative of sandalwood oil, induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells by causing caspase-3 activation. ...
α-Santalol, a derivative of sandalwood oil, induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells by causing caspase-3 activation.. ... The α-santalol-induced apoptotic cell death and activation of caspase-3 was significantly attenuated in the presence of ... α-Santalol at 25-75 μM decreased cell viability in both cell lines in a concentration and time dependent manner. Treatment of ... Caspase-3 activity was determined using caspase-3 (active) ELISA kit. PARP cleavage was analyzed using immunoblotting. ...
Fluoride Action Network | Fluoride induces apoptosis by caspase-3 activation in human leukemia HL-60 cells.
The results clearly suggest that fluoride causes cell death in HL-60 cells by causing the activation of caspase-3 which in turn ... In the present study, the toxicity of fluoride on human leukemia (HL-60) cells was investigated and the involvement of caspase- ... Fluoride-induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and DNA damage in TM3 mouse leydig cells. This study was designed to evaluate ... and DNA damage in TM3 mouse Leydig cells in vitro by the methods of flow cytometry (FCM) and single cell gel electrophoresis ( ...
IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Mercury-Induced Externalization of Phosphatidylserine and Caspase 3 Activation in Human Liver...
... cells. The Annexin-V and Caspase 3 assays were performed by flow cytometric analysis to determine the extent of ... indicating a gradual increase in apoptotic cells with increasing doses of mercury. The percentages of Caspase 3 positive cells ... also indicating a gradual increase in Caspase positive cells with increasing doses of mercury. ... Cells were exposed to mercury for 10 and 48 hours respectively at doses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 μg/mL based on previous cytotoxicity ...
Human GM3 Synthase Attenuates Taxol-Triggered Apoptosis Associated with Downregulation of Caspase-3 in Ovarian Cancer Cells
... cell survival, clonogenic ability, and caspase-3 activation. Results: In this report, we demonstrated that Taxol treatment ... Conclusions: GM3 synthase overexpression inhibited Taxol-triggered caspase-3 activation, revealing that upregulation of GM3 ... time that forced expression of GM3 synthase attenuated Taxol-induced apoptosis and increased resistance to Taxol in SKOV3 cells ... and triggering drug resistance were determined by cloning and overexpressing this enzyme in SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cell ...
Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) induces caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma ASTC-a-1 cells. | Sigma-Aldrich
In this study, cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay was employed to evaluate the survival of DHA-treated ASTC-a-1 cells. The ... a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor) pretreatment by FRET techniques, caspase-3 activity measurement, and western blotting ... Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) induces caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma ASTC-a-1 cells.. [Ying-Ying Lu, ... Our results indicated that DHA induced apoptotic cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was accompanied by ...
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Apigenin Protects Endothelial Cells from Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Inflammation by Decreasing...
... induced apoptosis by decreasing ROS production and the activity of caspase-3 in endothelial cells. Apigenin conferred ... in endothelial cells during inflammation. Here, we show that apigenin reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- ... suggesting its ability to modulate endothelial cell metabolic function during inflammation. Collectively, these findings ... indicate that the dietary compound apigenin stabilizes mitochondrial function during inflammation preventing endothelial cell ...
Figure 4 | Wushenziye Formula Inhibits Pancreatic β Cell Apoptosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus via MEK-ERK-Caspase-3 Signaling...
Neural Cell Apoptosis Induced by Microwave Exposure Through Mitochondria-dependent Caspase-3 Pathway
Nerve Growth Factor Determines Survival and Death of PC12 Cells by Regulation of the bcl-x, bax, and caspase-3 Genes. J ... induces Egr-1 gene expression and affects cell-cycle control in human neuroblastoma cells. J Cell Physiol. 2007;213:759-67 ... or lymphoblastoid cell , whereas in Jurkat cells and proliferating human peripheral blood lymphocytes, the caspase-3 ... DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in C6 glioma and primary glial cells exposed to a 836.55 MHz modulated radiofrequency ...
Apoptosis of human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells by epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate via induction of p53 and caspases as well as...
... cell cycle progression, and apoptosis in human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. The involvement of p53, Bcl-2, Bax, caspases, and ... cell cycle arrest at the G(0)/G(1) phase, and DNA fragmentation suggesting the induction of apoptosis in HT-1080 cells. ... Immunoblot analysis revealed that the expression of p53, caspase-7 and -9 as well as the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein increased ... Taken together, our data indicate that HT-1080 apoptosis may be mediated through the induction of p53 and caspases by the pro- ...
Kinetin Riboside Preferentially Induces Apoptosis by Modulating Bcl-2 Family Proteins and caspase-3 in Cancer Cells
KR disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential and induced the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. Bad were ... induces apoptosis in HeLa and mouse melanoma B16F-10 cells. ... induces apoptosis in HeLa and mouse melanoma B16F-10 cells. KR ... Kinetin Riboside Preferentially Induces Apoptosis by Modulating Bcl-2 Family Proteins and caspase-3 in Cancer Cells Cancer Lett ... In contrast, human skin fibroblast CCL-116 and bovine primary fibroblast cells show resistances to KR and no significant ...
Levofloxacin increases the effect of serum deprivation on anoikis of rat nucleus pulposus cells via Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-3 pathway...
Levofloxacin increases the effect of serum deprivation on anoikis of rat nucleus pulposus cells via Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-3 pathway ... At last, western blot was used to find that levofloxacin increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and active caspase-3 in a dose- ... The purpose of this study was to further explore the effects of levofloxacin on rat nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs). Inverted ... Simultaneously, levofloxacin decreased cell binding to type II collagen (COL2). Thus, levofloxacin-induced apoptosis exhibits ...
Presence of a pre-apoptotic complex of pro-caspase-3, Hsp60 and Hsp10 in the mitochondrial fraction of jurkat cells.
Activation of pro-caspase-3 is a central event in the execution phase of apoptosis and appears to serve as the convergence ... Presence of a pre-apoptotic complex of pro-caspase-3, Hsp60 and Hsp10 in the mitochondrial fraction of jurkat cells.. Samali A. ... In the present study, we demonstrate that pro-caspase-3 is present in the mitochondrial fraction of Jurkat T cells in a complex ... In in vitro systems, recombinant Hsp60 and Hsp10 accelerated the activation of pro-caspase-3 by cytochrome c and dATP in an ATP ...
Nifedipine prevents etoposide-induced caspase-3 activation, prenyl transferase degradation and loss in cell viability in...
Caspase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Etoposide / antagonists & inhibitors*, ... Further, nifedipine significantly restored etoposide-induced loss in metabolic cell viability in INS 832/13 cells. Based on ... treatment of cell lysates with recombinant caspase-3 also caused FTase/GGTase α-subunit degradation. Moreover, nifedipine, a ... Insulin-Secreting Cells / drug effects, metabolism*. Male. Nifedipine / pharmacology*. Oligopeptides / pharmacology. Protein ...
Caspase-8 Interacts with the p85 Subunit of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase to Regulate Cell Adhesion and Motility | Cancer...
Bottom, EGF stimulates caspase-8 phosphorylation. A cell line that expresses S-tagged caspase-8 at a total caspase-8 level of ∼ ... Herein, we report that pro-caspase-8 is capable of restoring cell migration/adhesion to caspase-8-null cells, establishing the ... Tyrosine-380 was required for the restoration of cell motility and cell adhesion in caspase-8-null cells, demonstrating the ... we reported that caspase-8 promotes cell migration, cell adhesion, and Rac activation in normal and tumor cell lines ( 2). ...
Caspase-3-Dependent β-Cell Apoptosis in the Initiation of Autoimmune Diabetes Mellitus | Molecular and Cellular Biology
T-cell activation of adoptively transferred T cells after MLDS. CD69 profiles of T cells from PDLNs (left) and NDLNs (right) ... In vivo T-cell activation and proliferation. (A) T-cell activation after MLDS. CD69 profiles of lymphocytes from PDLNs (left) ... gated cells. (C) In vivo proliferation after MLDS. Four days after adoptive transfer of CFSE-labeled T cells into MLDS-treated ... Caspase-3-Dependent β-Cell Apoptosis in the Initiation of Autoimmune Diabetes Mellitus. Nicole Liadis, Kiichi Murakami, Mohamed ...
Berberine, a natural product, induces G1-phase cell cycle arrest and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma...
Pan-caspase Inhibitor Blocks Berberine-Induced Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells. As the addition of the pan-caspase inhibitor ... In vitro treatment of DU145 cells with berberine increases the cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly(ADP-ribose) ... A, cell cycle distribution in DU145 cells after treatment with different doses of berberine. B, a summary of cell cycle ... ModFit LT cell cycle analysis software was used to determine the percentage of cells in the different phases of the cell cycle. ...
Abstract 124: Cellular context in epigenetics: Per-cell quantitation of miR-let-7d and its putative target in caspase-3 in...
Abstract SY19-01: Cell to cell variability in the responses of tumor cells to death ligands ... Abstract 124: Cellular context in epigenetics: Per-cell quantitation of miR-let-7d and its putative target in caspase-3 in ... Abstract 124: Cellular context in epigenetics: Per-cell quantitation of miR-let-7d and its putative target in caspase-3 in ... Abstract 124: Cellular context in epigenetics: Per-cell quantitation of miR-let-7d and its putative target in caspase-3 in ...
AID 1122420 - Induction of apoptosis in human HeLa cells under high glucose condition assessed as caspase-3 degradation at 1 to...
Cnidium officinale Makino extract induces apoptosis through activation of caspase-3 and p53 in human liver cancer HepG2 cells
The cell cycle was monitored using fluorescence‑activated cell sorting analysis with propidium iodide staining. Furthermore, ... Therefore, the present study investigated the ability of CO to reduce cell viability through apoptotic pathways. Cell viability ... the data suggest that CO extract has the potential to induce apoptosis of HepG2 cells and may act by suppressing the cell cycle ... Cleaved caspase‑3 expression was upregulated following treatment with CO extract in a dose‑dependent manner. Collectively, ...
Tetramethylpyrazine regulates breast cancer cell viability, migration, invasion and apoptosis by affecting the activity of Akt...
4970; Cell Signaling Technology, Inc., Danvers, MA, USA), and SDS-PAGE (15% gel) was used to separate cleaved-caspase-3 ( ... Cell apoptosis analysis. A total of 2×105 MDA-MB-231 cells/well were seeded onto each film and placed in 6-well plates. Cells ... Cell culture. The breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was purchased from the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology at the ... Cell migration and invasion analysis. A total of 2×105 MDA-MB-231 cells/well were seeded into the upper chamber of an 8.0-µm ...
Propofol Inhibits Caspase-3 in Astroglial Cells: Role of Heme Oxygenase-1 | Bentham Science
Propofol Inhibits Caspase-3 in Astroglial Cells: Role of Heme Oxygenase-1. Author(s): Rosaria Acquaviva, Agata Campisi, ... Primary cultured astroglial cells were incubated for 18 h with a known peroxynitrite donor (SIN-1,3 μM) in the presence or ... Primary cultured astroglial cells were incubated for 18 h with a known peroxynitrite donor (SIN-1,3 μM) in the presence or ... Keywords:heme oxygenase, peroxynitrite, astrocytes, apoptosis, propofol, caspase-3. Abstract: Several lines of evidence have ...
AID 411957 - Induction of apoptosis in human CaSki cells assessed as proteolytic activation of caspase 3 at 1 mM by SDS-PAGE -...
Localization of activated caspase-3-positive and apoptotic cells in the developing tooth germ of the mouse lower first molar
The distribution of cells positive for caspase-3 closely corresponded with the localization of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl tr ... This study examined the immunohistochemical detection of activated caspase-3, and its association with apoptosis, during tooth ... The distribution of cells positive for caspase-3 closely corresponded with the localization of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl ... and these apoptotic cells were phagocytized by neighbouring odontogenic epithelial cells, thus indicating the prompt disposal ...
Apoptotic Retinal Ganglion Cell Death Triggered Through Immunization With an Ocular Antigen via Caspase-3 Mediated Pathway |...
Apoptotic Retinal Ganglion Cell Death Triggered Through Immunization With an Ocular Antigen via Caspase-3 Mediated Pathway ... Apoptotic Retinal Ganglion Cell Death Triggered Through Immunization With an Ocular Antigen via Caspase-3 Mediated Pathway ... Purpose: : Glaucoma is characterized by apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Caspase-3, a key player involved in ... Keywords: apoptosis/cell death • pathology: experimental • inner retina dysfunction: biochemistry and cell biology ...
Effect of recombinant caspase-3 gene transfection on CNE2 cell apoptosis--《Journal of Southern Medical University》2009年01期
... which exhibited obvious morphological changes typical of apoptotic cells.Conclusion The recombinant caspase-3 gene can inhibit ... and the cell survival rate after the transfection was assessed by MTT assay.Results Transfection with the recombinant caspase-3 ... cells were transfected with the recombinant caspase-3 gene via lipofectamine 2000 and the expression of caspase-3 mRNA was ... Methods Recombinant caspase-3 was subcloned into the eukaryotic expression vector PEGFP-C1 containing the reporter gene using ...
Cell Technology | Apo Active 3PE - Antibody Specific Active Caspase 3 Detection Kit
No need to make cell lysates or run western blots. Cells can be fixed and analyzed later. Works with human, mouse and rat cell ... reagents that tend to cross-react with caspase 7 and other caspases. Applications - Flow Cytometery, Fluorescent Microscopy, or ... Highly specific for active human and murine caspase 3. Other assays require the utilization of peptide based (DEVD) ... Jurkat Cells were stimulated with DMSO for 2 hours. The cells were washed and fixed for 15 minutes. The cells were then ...
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces calpain-dependent cell death and ubiquitination of caspase 3 in HMEC-1 endothelial...
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces calpain-dependent cell death and ubiquitination of caspase 3 in HMEC-1 endothelial ... Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces calpain-dependent cell death and ubiquitination of caspase 3 in HMEC-1 endothelial ... Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces calpain-dependent cell death and ubiquitination of caspase 3 in HMEC-1 endothelial ... Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces calpain-dependent cell death and ubiquitination of caspase 3 in HMEC-1 endothelial ...
EffectorProteinCysteineRecombinantProgrammed cellMitochondriaCleavesSubunitFragmentationFluorescenceAntibodyProteolyticMammalianAssaysAbstractCorresponding to Human Caspase-3 aaInhibitFluorescentMitochondrial membrane potentialIntracellularImmunohistochemistryMechanismAntibodiesInhibitsHuman and murineMorphologicalPeptideDetectionApoptosis InducedEndoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosisEpithelialReagents
- Once activated, initiation caspases cleave and activate downstream effector caspases (including caspase-3, -6, and -7), which in turn execute apoptosis by cleaving targeted cellular proteins. (cellsignal.com)
- glycolytic effector T cells are highly sensitive to RICD, whereas non-glycolytic T cells are resistant. (cam.ac.uk)
- Finally, we observe that effector T cells during influenza infection manifest higher levels of active caspase-3 than naive T cells. (cam.ac.uk)
- Collectively, our findings demonstrate that glycolysis drives caspase-3 activity and susceptibility to cell death in effector T cells independently of upstream caspases. (cam.ac.uk)
- Linking metabolism, caspase-3 activity, and cell death provides an intrinsic mechanism for T cells to limit the duration of effector function. (cam.ac.uk)
- In apoptosis, caspases are responsible for proteolytic cleavages that lead to cell disassembly (effector caspases), and are involved in upstream regulatory events (initiator caspases). (celltechnology.com)
- Macrophages are the primary effector cells responsible for killing Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( MTB ) through various mechanisms, including apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Based on their structure and order in cell death pathways, caspases can be divided into initiator and effector caspases. (rupress.org)
- During apoptosis in humans, initiator caspases integrate molecular signals into proteolytic activity ( 11 ) and subsequently activate the downstream effector caspases, thus transmitting and amplifying the apoptotic signal ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Caspase-8 is a cysteine protease, which cleaves downstream substrates such as effector caspases, to initiate the apoptotic cascade and transmit apoptotic signals downstream of death receptors ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- This apoptosome then activates a cascade of cellular destruction events, beginning with the activation of death-execution effector caspases, such as caspase 3, followed by the activation of downstream caspases, ultimately resulting in the hallmark of apoptosis including condensation of nuclear and cytoplasmic contents, fragmentation of nuclear DNA, and membrane blebbing. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
- Caspase-3, a member of the caspase family of cysteine proteases, is highly expressed in CD4 effector T cells downstream of anti-CD3 mediated T cell receptor (TCR) activation and has been shown to regulate T cell activation, cell cycle entry, proliferation and apoptosis. (confex.com)
- One downstream effector that caspase 3 regulates is prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2), which can potently stimulate growth of surviving tumor cells. (elsevier.com)
- The ROS signal further activated caspase-3, an important effector caspase, which could be inhibited by antioxidants (Trolox or N -acetyl cysteine). (aspetjournals.org)
- A hierarchy of caspase activation exists whereby initiator caspases become activated to cleave and activate effector caspases. (els.net)
- The prodomain of the initiator (also known as apical) caspases (2, 8, 9 and 10) is much longer than that of effector caspases 3, 6 and 7. (els.net)
- Once active, initiator caspases proteolytically cleave effector caspases at distinct aspartate residues, to release the prodomain, large and small subunits. (els.net)
- Once active, caspase 9 functions to proteolytically cleave and activate the effector caspases 3 and 7, which then go on to cleave numerous intracellular proteins to dismantle the cell. (els.net)
- Immunoblot analysis revealed that the expression of p53, caspase-7 and -9 as well as the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein increased significantly with higher EGCG concentrations and longer incubation times. (nih.gov)
- Potential significance of these findings in the context of protein prenylation and β-cell survival are discussed. (biomedsearch.com)
- It has been shown to inhibit activator protein 1, a key transcription factor in inflammation and carcinogenesis, in human cell lines ( 13 ) and has been shown to possess antitumor properties and effectively inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 transcriptional activity in human colon cancer cells ( 14 , 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Furthermore, the present study explored whether various signaling molecules associated with HepG2 cell death were affected by CO treatment, including caspase‑3, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), tumor protein p53 (p53), cyclin‑dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and cyclin D. The expression levels of these genes were examined by reverse‑transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. (spandidos-publications.com)
- The Bcl-2 protein Bid was also cleaved during oxLDL-elicited cell death, and this was prevented by calpain inhibitors, but not by inhibitors of cathepsin B and caspases. (biochemj.org)
- Procaspase-3 protein was constitutively expressed in the rat retina and was apparently upregulated after exposure to light, with expression peaking at 8 to 16 hours and subsiding at 24 hours. (arvojournals.org)
- Procaspase-3 protein is temporally upregulated in the retina after in vivo exposure to blue light, and the upregulation is coupled to activation of caspase-3 and concomitant induction of apoptosis in the photoreceptor cells. (arvojournals.org)
- Once inside apoptotic cells, the caspase 3/7 protein recognizes and cleaves the DEVD sequence and releases the DNA probe. (nexcelom.com)
- Chen YC, Shen SC, Lee WR, Lin HY, Ko CH, Shih CM, Yang LL (2002) Wogonin and fisetin induction of apoptosis through activation of caspase 3 cascade and alternative expression of p21 protein in hepatocellular carcinoma cells SK-HEP-1. (springer.com)
- EGCG-induced downregulation of IAP family member X chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) might be helpful to facilitate cytochrome c mediated downstream caspase activation. (oup.com)
- Successful use of the fuse protein TagRFP-23-KFP to register the caspase-3 activation based on average life-time measurements is demonstrated. (thno.org)
- The responses were temporally correlated with downregulation of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1, suggesting suppressive roles for this and likely other inhibitor of apoptosis proteins on the stability and/or proteolytic activity of the caspase-8 platforms. (jimmunol.org)
- Caspase-3 is a caspase protein that interacts with caspase-8 and caspase-9. (wikipedia.org)
- The CASP3 protein is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. (wikipedia.org)
- and the protein itself is processed and activated by caspases 8, 9, and 10. (wikipedia.org)
- Ligands of the TNF superfamily initiate death signaling by inducing receptor oligomerization, recruitment of distinct adapter molecules such as Fas-associated death domain protein for Fas, DR4, and DR5 ( 33 , 34 ) and both Fas-associated death domain protein and TNFR-associated death domain protein for TNFRI/p55 ( 35 ) to the death domain of the receptors and subsequent activation of caspases ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
- In this study, we report that the exposure of postnatal day 7 (P7) mice to ethanol activates caspase-3 via cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1R) in neonatal mice and causes a reduction in methylated DNA binding protein (MeCP2) levels. (frontiersin.org)
- Collectively, these results reveal that the ethanol-induced CB1R-mediated activation of caspase-3 degrades the MeCP2 protein in the P7 mouse brain and causes long-lasting neurobehavioral deficits in adult mice. (frontiersin.org)
- Treatment of human colon cancer cell lines with apoptotic concentrations of sulindac metabolites (sulindac sulfide, sulindac sulfone) induced a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of β-catenin protein expression. (aacrjournals.org)
- These results indicate that loss of β-catenin protein induced by sulindac metabolites is COX independent and at least partially due to reactivation of β-catenin proteasome degradation and partially a result of caspase activation during the process of apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Normally, β-catenin serves as a component of the cytoskeleton in differentiated epithelial cells, participating in a multi-protein complex at the plasma membrane where it binds E-cadherin to the actin cytoskeleton ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- In normal cells, free cytosolic β-catenin is rapidly phosphorylated at multiple serine and threonine sites near the NH 2 -terminal region of the protein by a multi-protein complex including adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK-3β), and axin/conductin ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Accumulation of β-catenin protein is thought to occur via mutation of the β-catenin binding site of APC ( 6 ), or by mutation of the GSK-3β phosphorylation site of β-catenin ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The observations that accumulation of β-catenin protein is a nearly ubiquitous event during CRC development ( 5 ), and that the Tcf/Lef transcriptional activation that results from β-catenin accumulation may drive cells toward cancer development, make prevention of β-catenin accumulation an attractive target for chemopreventive agents. (aacrjournals.org)
- in addition, MTB was quantified by culture as well as by the percentage of THP-1 cells that were infected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled MTB as determined by microscopy. (biomedcentral.com)
- Activation of Akt also promotes tumor metastasis and invasion, antagonizes cell-cycle arrest, angiogenesis, and phosphorylates mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) protein kinase. (springer.com)
- Caspase-7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase, also known as CASP7, is a human protein encoded by the CASP7 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Caspase-7 is a member of the caspase (cysteine aspartate protease) family of proteins, and has been shown to be an executioner protein of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
- Furthermore, α-toxin-induced caspase activation in CD95-resistant Jurkat sublines lacking CD95, Fas-activated death domain, or caspase-8 but not in cells stably expressing the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. (rupress.org)
- Recombinant full length protein corresponding to Human Caspase-3 aa 1-277. (abcam.com)
- human caspase-3 recombinant protein. (abcam.com)
- Here, we show that the induction of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) expression upon microglia activation prevents the conversion of caspase-3 p19 subunit to p17 subunit and is responsible for restraining caspase-3 in terms of activity and subcellular localization. (qmul.ac.uk)
- Tumor sections were also analyzed for vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 protein expression, and a slightly decreased and a moderately increased cytoplasmic immunostaining in silibinin-fed groups were observed as compared with the control group, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
- The present study was carried out using caspase 3, which is a human cervical cancer cell line protein. (ijddr.in)
- The current molecular docking shall stand useful for designing and development of future novel compound with higher inhibitory activity against caspase 3-HeLa protein. (ijddr.in)
- Providing our customers with innovative bioanalytical solutions for protein and cell biology for over 30 years. (moleculardevices.com)
- The retinoblastoma protein pRb is required for cell-cycle exit of embryonic mammalian hair cells but not for their early differentiation. (pnas.org)
- 0 to 24 hours) exhibited a significant temporal and force-dependent reduction in Notch 3 receptor expression, concomitant with a significant reduction in Epstein Barr virus latency C promoter-binding factor-1/recombination signal-binding protein of the Jκ immunoglobulin gene-dependent Notch target gene promoter activity and mRNA levels when compared with unstrained controls. (ahajournals.org)
- Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, but not cAMP/protein kinase A or Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase inhibitors, neutralised the effects of exendin-4. (bmj.com)
- Low expression of Caspase-3 protein might promote the tumorigenesis and progression by reducing the apoptosis of tumor cells, and detection to its protein can be considered as an important index for judging the differentiation, clinical staging, infiltration and metastasis of laryngeal carcinoma. (jitm.hk)
- Loss of caspase-1 and caspase-3 protein expression in human prostate cancer. (jitm.hk)
- Caspase-activated DNase (CAD) or DNA fragmentation factor subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DFFB gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Caspase 3 is responsible for cellular differentiation, although it is unclear how this kind of protein can promote the cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
- One of the most well studied members of this cysteine protease family includes executioner caspase-3, which plays a central role in cell apoptosis and differentiation. (rcsb.org)
- Caspase-3 (CPP32/Yama/apopain ) is a 32 kDa cysteine protease that is activated during the early stages of apoptosis. (fluidigm.com)
- In in vitro systems, recombinant Hsp60 and Hsp10 accelerated the activation of pro-caspase-3 by cytochrome c and dATP in an ATP-dependent manner, consistent with their function as chaperones. (uniprot.org)
- In addition, treatment of cell lysates with recombinant caspase-3 also caused FTase/GGTase α-subunit degradation. (biomedsearch.com)
- In an effort to determine the role of caspase-3 in colon cancer cell survival and proliferation, we generated caspase-3 knockout HCT-116 colon cancer cells using recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene targeting. (pitt.edu)
- Various tumor cells are highly responsive to recombinant soluble Apo-2 ligand or TRAIL ( 28 , 29 ), possibly as a consequence of down-regulated expression of TRAIL decoy receptors ( 1 , 17 , 18 , 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Recombinant caspase-3 cleaved the in vitro-translated NHE1 cytoplasmic domain into five distinct peptides, identical in molecular weight to NHE1 degradation products derived from staurosporine-stimulated RTC lysates. (physiology.org)
- and recombinant caspase-8 was from Biomol. (ahajournals.org)
- 2. However, both the recombinant NC and the synthetic octapeptide (YL DESDFG) were scarcely cleaved in vitro by caspase-3 or -7. (springer.com)
- Apoptosis is programmed cell death characterized by nuclear condensation, cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and DNA fragmentation. (cellsignal.com)
- Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is an important biological phenomenon, because it provides protection in response to injury to minimize further damage initiated by the injury itself [ 19 ]. (medsci.org)
- Caspase-3 gene knockout defines cell lineage specificity for programmed cell death signaling in the ovary. (semanticscholar.org)
- A new mAb to these CD99 epitopes, Ad20, induces programmed cell death of transformed T cells as determined by morphological changes, phosphatidylserine exposure on the cell surface, and uptake of propidium iodide. (jimmunol.org)
- Ad20-induced programmed cell death was observed with seven of eight T cell lines examined, and notably, only two of these were distinctly responsive to anti-Fas and TRAIL. (jimmunol.org)
- TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or Apo-2 ligand has recently been cloned ( 14 , 15 ) and shown to mediate programmed cell death (PCD) following ligation of the death receptors DR4/TRAIL-R1 and DR5/TRAIL-R2 ( 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
- For better understanding of the mechanisms of programmed cell death, dynamic simultaneous registration of several parameters is required. (ndsl.kr)
- Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a genetically well-defined intrinsic suicide program that enables an organism to remove mutated or infected cells without causing an inflammatory reaction. (rupress.org)
- Identification of programmed cell death in situ via specific labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation. (springer.com)
- Moreover, the mitochondria membrane potential decreased, DNA fragmentation increased, leading to an increase in the apoptotic cell percentage. (medsci.org)
- Recently, mitochondria were found to play a central role in apoptosis through release of cytochrome c and activation of caspases. (uniprot.org)
- Induction of apoptosis with staurosporine led to the activation of mitochondrial pro-caspase-3 and its dissociation from the Hsps which were released from mitochondria. (uniprot.org)
- Mitochondria modify exercise-induced development of stem cell-derived neurons in the adult brain. (semanticscholar.org)
- In healthy cells the cationic dye is accumulated by the mitochondria in proportion to the DeltaPsi (membrane potential). (celltechnology.com)
- In most cell lines, accumulation of the cationic dye in the mitochondria results in a higher fluorescence intensity. (celltechnology.com)
- In apoptotic cells, where the mitochondrial membrane potential is compromised, the cationic dye does not accumulated in the mitochondria and these cells exhibit a lower fluorescence signal. (celltechnology.com)
- To summarize, our studies suggest that EGCG induces stress signals by damaging mitochondria and ROS-mediated JNK activation in MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic carcinoma cells. (oup.com)
- In intrinsic activation, cytochrome c from the mitochondria works in combination with caspase-9, apoptosis-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1), and ATP to process procaspase-3. (wikipedia.org)
- Tait, S. W. & Green, D. R. Mitochondria and cell death: outer membrane permeabilization and beyond. (nature.com)
- Consequently, the mitochondria release cytochrome c and other key molecules that facilitate apoptosome formation to activate caspase 9. (asm.org)
- The mitochondria also release apoptosis-inducing factor and endonuclease G to facilitate caspase-independent apoptosis. (asm.org)
- The results demonstrated that, while the mitochondrial function gradually declined to insignificant levels, caspase 3 null cells did not undergo apoptosis, which suggested that green tea polyphenol-induced apoptosis is a mitochondria-targeted, caspase 3-executed mechanism. (uab.edu)
- Fluoride led to the activation of caspase-3 which was evident by the loss of the 32 kDa precursor and appearance of the 17 kDa subunit. (fluoridealert.org)
- We report herein that exposure of insulin-secreting INS 832/13 cells or normal rat islets to etoposide leads to significant activation of caspase-3 and subsequent degradation of the common α-subunit of farnesyl/geranylgeranyl transferases (FTase/GGTase). (biomedsearch.com)
- Moreover, nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, markedly attenuated etoposide-induced caspase-3 activation, FTase/GGTase α-subunit degradation in INS 832/13 cells and normal rat islets. (biomedsearch.com)
- Based on these findings, we conclude that etoposide induces loss in cell viability by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, caspase-3 activation and degradation of FTase/GGTase α-subunit. (biomedsearch.com)
- Stimulation of motility with epidermal growth factor induced the phosphorylation of caspase-8 on tyrosine-380 and the interaction of caspase-8 with the p85α subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. (aacrjournals.org)
- In this report, we show that Y380-phosphorylated pro-caspase-8 interacts with the p85 subunit of PI3K, promoting cell adhesion and motility. (aacrjournals.org)
- This neo epitope is present on the p18 subunit of cleaved caspase 3 (9). (celltechnology.com)
- Caspases are synthesized as catalytically dormant tripartite proenzymes, containing prodomain, large subunit, and small subunit. (arvojournals.org)
- Active heterodimers between the small subunit of caspase-7 protease and the large subunit of caspase-3 also occur and vice versa. (abcam.com)
- All caspases are produced as catalytically inactive zymogens or proenzymes containing a prodomain, a large (p20) and a small subunit (p10). (els.net)
- Active/cleaved Caspase-3 (large subunit) is detected at ~14-21 kDa as one or more bands. (antikoerper-online.de)
- It remains inactive in growing cells while it is associated with its inhibitor (ICAD, DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa subunit, DFFA or DFF45) resulting into a complex ICAD-CAD. (wikipedia.org)
- Treatment of prostate cancer cells with α-santalol resulted in induction of apoptosis as evidenced by DNA fragmentation and nuclear staining of apoptotic cells by DAPI. (nih.gov)
- Our data show that EGCG treatment caused dose-dependent cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest at the G(0)/G(1) phase, and DNA fragmentation suggesting the induction of apoptosis in HT-1080 cells. (nih.gov)
- Apoptotic cells induced by cardamonin were illustrated by change in cellular morphology, increase in G2/M phase population and DNA fragmentation. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Surprisingly, caspase-3 processing and activity have been observed in the absence of apoptosis after polyclonal activation of PBMCs, and in the absence of DNA fragmentation ( 17 )( 18 ). (rupress.org)
- We show that caspase activation and DNA fragmentation were induced not only when Jurkat T cells were infected with intact bacteria, but also after treatment with supernatants of various S. aureus strains. (rupress.org)
- Caspase-3 is required for DNA fragmentation and morphological changes associated with apoptosis. (springer.com)
- The results showed that EG induced morphological changes and DNA fragmentation and reduced HL-60 cell viability in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. (mdpi.com)
- Bcl-2-overexpressing cells were significantly refractory to MMT-induced ROS generation, caspase-3 activation, and loss of ΔΨm and were completely resistant to MMT-induced DNA fragmentation. (aspetjournals.org)
- The apoptotic process is accompanied by shrinkage and fragmentation of the cells and nuclei and degradation of the chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal units. (wikipedia.org)
- It is also known as caspase activated nuclease (CPAN), dna fragmentation factor 40 (DFF-40), DFF2 and DFFB. (wikipedia.org)
- Per usual in non-apoptotic growing cells caspase activated dnase is held in check inactivated in the cytoplasm thanks to the association with its inhibitor, inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) also known as DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa (DFF45). (wikipedia.org)
- Four days after adoptive transfer of CFSE-labeled T cells into MLDS-treated mice, fluorescence was measured by gating on Vα2 + lymphocytes. (asm.org)
- The cell cycle was monitored using fluorescence‑activated cell sorting analysis with propidium iodide staining. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Cells that contain bound inhibitor can be analyzed by flow cytometry or fluorescence microscopy. (celltechnology.com)
- Specifically, we use the FLIM FRET of living cells via the confocal fluorescence microscopy. (thno.org)
- In this paper we used multiparameter fluorescence microscopy to analyze energy metabolism, intracellular pH and caspase-3 activation in living cancer cells in vitro during staurosporine-induced apoptosis. (ndsl.kr)
- We performed metabolic imaging of two co-factors, NAD(P)H and FAD, and used the genetically encoded pH-indicator SypHer1 and the FRET-based sensor for caspase-3 activity, mKate2-DEVD-iRFP, to visualize these parameters by confocal fluorescence microscopy and two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. (ndsl.kr)
- These findings suggest that the increased NADH fluorescence lifetime in STS-induced cell death occurred before the depletion of ΔΨ and ATP and activation of caspase 3, and was not simply caused by cellular metabolic change. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
- Upon activation of caspase-3/7 in apoptotic cells, the DEVD peptide is cleaved and the free dye can bind DNA, generating a bright green fluorescence. (thermofisher.com)
- Immunohistochemical analysis of frozen H1650 xenograft section, using Cleaved Caspase-3 (Asp175) Antibody #9661 . (cellsignal.com)
- Company 1 cleaved caspase-3 rabbit polyclonal antibody shows high background and does not detect distinct bands in the expected 19/17 kDa range. (cellsignal.com)
- Company 2 active caspase-3 rabbit polyclonal antibody detects multiple non-specific bands at various molecular weights but weakly detects the bands of interest in the 19/17 kDa and 12 kDa range. (cellsignal.com)
- Company 1 active caspase-3 rabbit monoclonal antibody detects multiple non specific bands at various molecular weights. (cellsignal.com)
- The antibody recognizes only the 17 kDa band corresponding to one form of the large fragment of cleaved caspase-3. (cellsignal.com)
- Western blotting using polyclonal anti-caspase-3 antibody and mouse anti-human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) monoclonal antibody was performed to investigate caspase-3 and PARP activity. (fluoridealert.org)
- To gain further knowledge about the mechanism of RGC loss time-course of cell death and possible antibody appearance were evaluated. (arvojournals.org)
- We stained retina cross-sections from the 3 time-points using anti-caspase-3 antibody to investigate apoptosis rate. (arvojournals.org)
- Cell Technology's APO-ACTIVE 3 PE Kit utilizes a rabbit affinity purified polyclonal antibody raised against amino acid 163-175 of murine caspase 3 (9). (celltechnology.com)
- Cells undergoing apoptosis are fixed and permeablized prior to the addition of the antibody. (celltechnology.com)
- A secondary PE labeled goat anti rabbit antibody is used to visualize the bound rabbit anti caspase 3 polyclonal. (celltechnology.com)
- The cells were then permeabilized with saponin and stained with Rabbit anti active caspase 3 antibody for 1 hour. (celltechnology.com)
- The 5A1E antibody reacts with the active cleaved form of caspase-3. (fluidigm.com)
- The antibody detected both pro (full-length) and active (cleaved) Caspase-3, depending on the treatment time points. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Simple Western: Caspase-3 Antibody (31A1067) - (Pro and Active) [ABIN- Simple Western lane view shows a specific band for Caspase 3 in 0.1 mg/ml of HeLa lysate. (antikoerper-online.de)
- This antibody works really well to detect cells in apoptosis during development. (biocompare.com)
- The central component of this process is a cascade of proteolytic enzymes called caspases. (celltechnology.com)
- Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes that undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
- Activation of caspase-3 requires proteolytic processing of its inactive zymogen into activated p17 and p12 fragments. (cellsignal.com)
- These findings indicate the presence of proteolytic activities that are distinguishable from caspase-3. (springer.com)
- Activation of caspase-3 requires proteolytic processing of its inactive zymogen into activated p17 and p12 fragments, which associate to form the active enzyme. (fluidigm.com)
- Apoptosis-related proteolysis is largely achieved by a gene family of cysteinyl aspartate- specific proteinases (caspases), containing at least 14 mammalian members. (arvojournals.org)
- The mammalian caspases play distinct roles in apoptosis and inflammation. (celltechnology.com)
- Caspase-3 and caspase-7 have been identified as key executors of apoptosis in mammalian cells and play a central role in the execution phase of apoptosis ( 14 , 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Caspase-3 also plays an important role in morphogenetic cell death during development of the mammalian brain. (fluidigm.com)
- Hair cells of mammalian inner ears, unlike those in lower vertebrates, do not undergo spontaneous regeneration, even though vestibular supporting cells retain a limited capacity to divide ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
- Studies using constitutively activated Notch receptors missing their extracellular domains (Notch intracellular [IC]) have shown that Notch signaling determines proliferation, differentiation, and, more recently, apoptosis in several mammalian cell types. (ahajournals.org)
- These include the "Hairy Enhancer of Split" ( hes ) gene and HES-related transcription factors (Hrts) that are critically involved in mammalian cell differentiation. (ahajournals.org)
- Apoptosis is a cell death process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during mammalian development. (wikipedia.org)
- The Annexin-V and Caspase 3 assays were performed by flow cytometric analysis to determine the extent of phosphatidylserine externalization and Caspase 3 activation in mercury-treated HepG 2 cells. (mdpi.com)
- Other assays require the utilization of peptide based (DEVD) reagents that tend to cross-react with caspase 7 and other caspases. (celltechnology.com)
Corresponding to Human Caspase-3 aa1
- The cationic dye is cell permeable and has a strong fluorescent signal in the red region and exhibits low membrane potential independent (non specific) binding and toxicity. (celltechnology.com)
- Through this study, we identify fluorescent and biotinylated probes capable of selective detection of caspase-3 using key unnatural amino acids. (rcsb.org)
- CellEvent® Caspase-3/7 Green reagent is a four amino acid peptide (DEVD) conjugated to a nucleic acid-binding dye that is non-fluorescent when not bound to DNA. (thermofisher.com)
- The CellEvent® Caspase-3/7 Green reagent is intrinsically non-fluorescent, as the DEVD peptide inhibits binding of the dye to DNA. (thermofisher.com)
- Initially non-fluorescent, it permeates the cell membrane. (moleculardevices.com)
Mitochondrial membrane potential2
- Cell Technology utilizes a cationic dye to visualize mitochondrial membrane potential (15-17). (celltechnology.com)
- Cardamonin leads to a decrease in overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), disruption in mitochondrial membrane potential and drop in intracellular ATP level in HK-1 cells. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- On the other end, EGCG elicited the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as the c-Jun N -terminal kinase (JNK) activation in pancreatic carcinoma cells. (oup.com)
- The correlation between energy metabolism, intracellular pH and caspase-3 activation and their dynamic changes were studied in CT26 cancer cells during apoptosis. (ndsl.kr)
- The neurons expressing caspase‑3, Bax and Bcl‑2 in the cortical area, CA3, CA1, stratum lucidum (Slu) and molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (MoDG) of the hippocampus were detected using immunohistochemistry or the TUNEL method. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Human peripheral blood PBMCs, For immunohistochemistry (IHC) Cell Chip with Human Peripheral Blood PBMC and T Cells. (bio-medicine.org)
- Umbilical cord blood CD14+ Monocytes, For immunohistochemistry (IHC) Cell Chip with Human Umbilical Cord Blood Monocytes, B Cells and NK Cells. (bio-medicine.org)
- The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulatory effect of TMP on breast cancer cells and its underlying molecular mechanism of action. (spandidos-publications.com)
- 1 2 3 4 5 6 It has been established that the retina can be injured by a photochemical mechanism. (arvojournals.org)
- Adult neurogenesis continuously contributes new neurons to hippocampal circuits and the programmed death of a subset of immature cells provides a primary mechanism controlling this contribution. (semanticscholar.org)
- Divergence from a dedicated cellular suicide mechanism: exploring the evolution of cell death. (semanticscholar.org)
- In the present study we have examined the molecular mechanism by which p53 evokes neuronal cell death. (jneurosci.org)
- We investigated whether the dynamic temporal and spatial evolution of apoptosis in response to cytotoxic and mechanism-based therapeutics could be detected noninvasively by the caspase-3 radiotracer [ 18 F]ICMT-11 and positron emission tomography (PET). (aacrjournals.org)
- Likewise, we determined the X-ray crystal structures of caspases-3, -7, and -8 in complex with our lead peptide inhibitor to elucidate the binding mechanism and active site interactions that promote the selective recognition of caspase-3 over other highly homologous caspase family members. (rcsb.org)
- We have previously shown that renal tubular epithelial cell (RTC) apoptosis is a mechanism of tubular atrophy ( 20 , 43 ). (physiology.org)
- These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of caspase-3 regulation by Grx in tumor necrosis factor-α-induced apoptosis. (ahajournals.org)
- In the present study, we identify a novel regulatory mechanism for caspase-3 activation. (ahajournals.org)
- Apoptosis is an important mechanism signaling programmed death of cells in normal processes such as embryonic development, as well as in diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative conditions. (moleculardevices.com)
- Notch receptor-ligand interactions are a highly conserved mechanism, originally described in developmental studies using Drosophila , that regulate intercellular communication and direct individual vascular cell fate decisions. (ahajournals.org)
- We also demonstrate that S. aureus -induced cell death and caspase activation were mediated by α-toxin, a major cytotoxin of S. aureus , since both events were abrogated by two different anti-α-toxin antibodies and could not be induced with supernatants of an α-toxin-deficient S. aureus strain. (rupress.org)
- Rosaria Acquaviva, Agata Campisi, Giuseppina Raciti, Roberto Avola, Maria Luisa Barcellona, Luca Vanella and Giovanni Li Volti, " Propofol Inhibits Caspase-3 in Astroglial Cells: Role of Heme Oxygenase-1", Current Neurovascular Research (2005) 2: 141. (eurekaselect.com)
- Interestingly, Caspase-8 inhibits autophagy and necrosis, whereas caspase-3 promotes survival of cancer cells following radiation therapy. (pitt.edu)
- Kahweol inhibits colorectal tumor cell growth by promoting apoptosis and suppressing HSP70 expression. (greenmedinfo.com)
Human and murine2
- B) T-cell activation after immunization with peptide. (asm.org)
- Under normal circumstances, caspases recognize tetra-peptide sequences on their substrates and hydrolyze peptide bonds after aspartic acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
- NHE1 expression was markedly decreased in apoptotic RTC due to degradation, and preincubation with peptide caspase antagonists restored NHE1 expression, indicating that NHE1 is degraded by caspases. (physiology.org)
- NucView® Caspase-3 Substrates are novel, fluorogenic peptide caspase 3 & 7 substrates invented by Biotium. (biotium.com)
- This study examined the immunohistochemical detection of activated caspase-3, and its association with apoptosis, during tooth morphogenesis of the mouse lower first molar. (nih.gov)
- Immunofluorescence detection of caspase-3 revealed scattered nuclei with positive staining in the RGC layer of immunized animals. (arvojournals.org)
- SignalStain® Apoptosis (Cleaved Caspase-3) IHC Detection Kit allows the detection of activated caspase-3 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human and mouse tissue samples. (cellsignal.com)
- Cleaved Caspase-3 (Asp175) (D3E9) Rabbit mAb is detected by the polymer based, HRP-conjugated SignalStain® Boost IHC Detection Reagent in combination with SignalStain® DAB Diluent and Chromogen Concentrate. (cellsignal.com)
- Activation of caspase-3 is an early indicator of apoptosis and CellEvent® Caspase-3/7 Green reagent allows rapid and sensitive detection of cells destined for cell death. (thermofisher.com)
Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis1
- The effectiveness of berberine in checking the growth of androgen-insensitive, as well as androgen-sensitive, prostate cancer cells without affecting the growth of normal prostate epithelial cells indicates that it may be a promising candidate for prostate cancer therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
- Worldwide, breast cancer occurs in the epithelial cells of the mammary gland and is the most common type of invasive malignancy in females ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- The specific distribution pattern of apoptotic cells in the developing odontogenic epithelial tissue from the initiation (E12) of tooth germ to the completion of tooth crown morphology (E19) also suggests that apoptotic events are related not only to a deletion of functionally suspended cells, but also participate in initiation and the completion of tooth morphogenesis. (nih.gov)
- Electron microscopic examination revealed that apoptotic cells were present in the primary enamel knot, and these apoptotic cells were phagocytized by neighbouring odontogenic epithelial cells, thus indicating the prompt disposal of any dead cells by epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
- Each crude extract was tested against nasopharyngeal carcinoma (HK-1) and normal nasopharyngeal epithelial (NP-69) cell lines. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Renal tubular epithelial cell (RTC) apoptosis causes tubular atrophy, a hallmark of renal disease progression. (physiology.org)
- Apoptosis is generally characterized by reduced cell volume and cytosolic pH, but epithelial cells are relatively resistant to shrinkage due to regulatory volume increase, which is mediated by Na + /H + exchanger (NHE) 1. (physiology.org)
- 1 Despite the different aetiology, cholangiopathies share the common feature of primarily targeting cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining the intrahepatic biliary tree. (bmj.com)
- Cell Permeable Reagents. (celltechnology.com)
- With regard to the Etoposide experiment,please let me know if there are any updates on incubation time and concentrations for Etoposide stimulation of HEK293 cells.Also would be great to know if you have tested other reagents to induce p53 mediated apoptosis in HEK293 cells. (protocol-online.org)
- We found that human caspase-4, a member of caspase-1 subfamily that includes caspase-12, is localized to the ER membrane, and is cleaved when cells are treated with ER stress-inducing reagents, but not with other apoptotic reagents. (rupress.org)