Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Diphenylhexatriene: A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Laurates: Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.2-Naphthylamine: A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Stearates: Salts and esters of the 18-carbon saturated, monocarboxylic acid--stearic acid.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Norisoprenoids: Thirteen-carbon butene cyclohexene degradation products formed by the cleavage of CAROTENOIDS. They contribute to the flavor of some FRUIT. Ionone should not be confused with the similarly named ionol.Receptors, Concanavalin A: Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tenuazonic Acid: 3-Acetyl-5-sec-butyl-4-hydroxy-3-pyrrolin-2-one. A metabolite found in a strain of the fungus Alternaria tenuis Auct. which functions as an antibiotic with antiviral and antineoplastic properties, and may also act as a mycotoxin.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Ergosterol: A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Anisotropy: A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.Nisin: A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Pyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Fatty Acid Desaturases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Abetalipoproteinemia: An autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of lipids (TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; PHOSPHOLIPIDS) and is required in the secretion of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include defective intestinal lipid absorption, very low serum cholesterol level, and near absent LDL.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Cells: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Lysophosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.G(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Ketocholesterols: Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPaseStem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Semen Preservation: The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Lipids, Membranes and Vesicle Trafficking - The Virtual Library of Biochemistry and Cell Biology Cell membrane protein ... increasing the fluidity) of the membrane. The ability of some organisms to regulate the fluidity of their cell membranes by ... damage to cell membrane Cell theory Cytoneme Elasticity of cell membranes Gram-positive bacteria Membrane models Membrane ... plasmatic membrane (Pfeffer, 1900), plasma membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, cell envelope and cell membrane. Some authors that ...
In biology, membrane fluidity refers to the viscosity of the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane or a synthetic lipid membrane. ... Membrane fluidity can be affected by a number of factors. One way to increase membrane fluidity is to heat up the membrane. ... such as phagocytosis and cell signalling, can be regulated by the fluidity of the cell-membrane. Annular lipid shell ... This is one way they can adjust the fluidity of their membrane in response to their environment. Membrane fluidity is known to ...
... of the membrane.[21][22] The ability of some organisms to regulate the fluidity of their cell membranes by altering lipid ... "Once upon a time the cell membranes: 175 years of cell boundary research". Biology Direct. 9: 32. doi:10.1186/s13062-014-0032-7 ... plasmatic membrane (Pfeffer, 1900),[14] plasma membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, cell envelope and cell membrane.[15][16] Some ... Intracellular membranes. The content of the cell, inside the cell membrane, is composed of numerous membrane-bound organelles, ...
Cholesterol is bio-synthesised from mevalonate via a squalene cyclisation of terpenoids. Cell membranes require high levels of ... fluidity. Plant thylakoid membranes maintain high fluidity, even at relatively cold environmental temperatures, due the ... Both these cells synthesized iodolipids, as novel words of the chemical lipid language developed among cell membranes during ... The bilayer formed by membrane lipids serves as a containment unit of a living cell. Membrane lipids also form a matrix in ...
For all cells, membrane fluidity is important for many reasons. It enables membrane proteins to diffuse rapidly in the plane of ... it is hard to imagine how cells could live, grow, and reproduce. Osmosis Membrane biology Murate, Motohide; Kobayashi, ... The cell membranes are different from the isolating tissues formed by layers of cells, such as mucous membranes, basement ... and the cell membrane separates a cell from its surrounding medium. Peroxisomes are one form of vacuole found in the cell that ...
"The fluid mosaic model of the structure of cell membranes" in 1972,[5] which is now regarded as a classic paper in cell biology ... Majority of the membrane is composed of phospholipids, which exhibit fluidity like oil. The phospholids are not just stationary ... It was the first model in cell biology to be based on thermodynamics properties. Earlier descriptions of the cell membrane had ... mainly cell membrane and organelle membranes (especially those of mitochondria), and this is important for maintaining stable ...
Membrane Structure". Molecular biology of the cell (Online at NIH). IV. Internal Organization of the Cell. New York: Garland ... For example, cholesterol forms part of the cellular membrane in animals, where it affects the cell membrane's fluidity and ... Ergosterol is a sterol present in the cell membrane of fungi, where it serves a role similar to cholesterol in animal cells. ... which is vital to cell membrane structure, and functions as a precursor to fat-soluble vitamins and steroid hormones. Sterols ...
Also, the cortical NMDA receptor influences membrane fluidity, and is altered in Alzheimer's disease. When the cell is infected ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 111 (6): 2931-2938. doi:10.1083/jcb.111.6.2931. PMC 2116385 . PMID 2148564. Jacobson C.; Côté P.D ... Many membrane receptors include transmembrane proteins. Each cell membrane can have several kinds of membrane receptor, in ... Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the membranes of cells ...
Cell biology Cell theory History of cell membrane theory Membrane protein "Membrane - An Introduction" (PDF). Wiley-VCH. ... Also, the fluidity of the lipid bi-layers and the intermingling of their components within the membrane make it easy to ... By the 1950s, cell biologists verified the existence of plasma membranes through the use of electron microscopy (which ... Before the emergence of electron microscopy in the 1950s, scientists did not know the structure of a cell membrane or what its ...
... structural component of all animal cell membranes-essential to maintain both membrane structural integrity and fluidity. ... cell membrane The semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell. cell nucleus The "control room" for the cell. The ... cell plate Grown in the cell's center, it fuses with the parental plasma membrane, creating a new cell wall that enables cell ... effector cell Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells ...
"Rapid Cold-Hardening Increases Membrane Fluidity and Cold Tolerance of Insect Cells". Cryobiology. 52 (3): 459-463. doi:10.1016 ... BMC Plant Biology. 8: 105. doi:10.1186/1471-2229-8-105. ISSN 1471-2229. PMC 2579297 . PMID 18922165. Forbes, James C.; Watson, ... and without cold hardening the cell would rupture. To protect the cell membrane from expansion induced damage, the plant cell ... Cold increases cell membrane permeability and makes the cell shrink, as water is drawn out when ice is formed in the ...
Stabilizes biomembranes, i.e. membrane structures of blood cells - erythrocytes and thrombocytes during their haemolysis or ... that is provokes the reduction of membrane viscosity and the increase of its fluidity, increases lipid-protein ratio. Modulates ... Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. 158 (6): 756-761. doi:10.1007/s10517-015-2855-3. S. A. Rumyantseva A.; I. Fedin ... Modulates the receptor complexes of the brain membranes, i.e. benzodiazepine, GABA, acetylcholine receptors by increasing their ...
Membrane fluidity Monitoring electropermeabilization of cells Nuclear antigens Oxidative burst pH, intracellular ionized ... including molecular biology, pathology, immunology, plant biology and marine biology. It has broad application in medicine ... Cell adherence (for instance, pathogen-host cell adherence) Cell pigments such as chlorophyll or phycoerythrin Cell surface ... automated quantification of specified optical parameters on a cell-by-cell basis. To analyze solid tissues, a single-cell ...
This calcium influx is dependent upon mechanical changes in the actin cytoskeleton that alter the fluidity of the cell membrane ... Stern, Kingsley R. (2004). Introductory Plant Biology (9 ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill. p. G1. ISBN 0072909412. Hooker, Jr., H. D ... From this information, a hypothesis has formed that the plant cell plasma membrane is an important site of plant temperature ... Slower thawing minimizes damage caused to leaf cell membranes by ice crystal formation. The roots of some plants, including Zea ...
Cell membranes on the surface of the gills are major contributors to ionoregulation. Changes in membrane composition influence ... as they affect the fluidity of the membrane, and higher levels of SFA lead to a decrease in permeability compared to PUFA. ... Journal of Fish Biology. doi:10.1111/jfb.12100 Silva, S.; Araújo, M. J.; Bao, M.; Mucientes, G.; Cobo, F. (2014). "The ... ATPase activity of gill cells ' basolateral membranes during saltwater acclimation in sea lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus, L .) ...
In other eukaryotes, DNA is arranged in the cell nucleus with the help of histones. In this case, the basic level of DNA ... Strey H. H.; Podgornik R.; Rau D. C.; Parsegian V. A. (1998). "DNA-DNA interactions". Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 8 ... because it lacks fluidity. On the other hand, DNA condensed in vitro, e.g., with the help of polyamines also present in viruses ... sometimes further enveloped by a lipid membrane. Double-stranded DNA is stored inside the capsid in the form of a spool, which ...
These microdomains ('rafts') were shown to exist also in cell membranes. Later, Kai Simons at the European Molecular Biology ... "Luteolysis-Induced Changes in Phase Composition and Fluidity of Bovine Luteal Cell Membranes". Proceedings of the National ... At a crossroad between cell biology and physics". Nature Cell Biology. 9 (1): 7-14. doi:10.1038/ncb0107-7. PMID 17199125. ... Caveolae Cell membrane Cholesterol Lipid microdomain Membrane proteins Sphingomyelin Thomas, Sunil; Preda-Pais, Anca; Casares, ...
One proposed mechanism is that an increase in cell membrane fluidity, consisting largely of lipid, activates the insulin ... Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... oleic acid has been implicated in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation through effects on cell membrane fluidity ... Oleate is a major constituent of membrane phospholipids and membrane fluidity is influenced by the ratio of saturated to ...
Membrane biology Membrane channel Membrane contact site Membrane curvature Membrane fluidity Membrane lipids Membrane nanotube ... CatSper2 CatSper3 CatSper4 Cation channels of sperm Cav1.1 Cav1.2 Cav1.3 Cav1.4 Cav2.1 Cell adhesion molecule Cell membrane ... Membrane potential Membrane protein Membrane topology Membrane transport Membranome Mesaxon Mesosome Metachronal rhythm ... IgSF CAM Inner membrane Inner mitochondrial membrane Insect wing Integral membrane protein Interbilayer forces in membrane ...
Sterols contribute to membrane fluidity by hindering the packing together of phospholipids. However, this model has now been ... 2007). Molecular Cell Biology (6th ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-7601-4. Zheng, Lei (2016). "Biogenesis, transport and ... Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes. They can form lipid bilayers because of ... in a bilayer such as a cell membrane. Lipid bilayers occur when hydrophobic tails line up against one another, forming a ...
"Influence of increased membrane cholesterol on membrane fluidity and cell function in human red blood cells". Journal of ... Molecular Biology. 11 (8): 697-705. doi:10.1038/nsmb793. PMID 15235590. Alberts, Bruce. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 5th ed. ... The phospholipid composition of a cell membrane affects the arrangement of cholesterol within the membrane and the ability for ... once bound to the target cell membrane forming a β-barrel structure which will be inserted into the target cell membrane. The ...
"Salt-induced changes in lipid composition and membrane fluidity of halophilic yeast-like melanized fungi". Extremophiles. 8 (1 ... melanin accumulation of the cell wall aids in retention of at least glycerol inside of the cell. Several components of the high ... Fungal Genetics and Biology. 48 (5): 475-484. doi:10.1016/j.fgb.2011.01.011. PMID 21281727. Turk, M.; Méjanelle, L.; Sentjurc, ... The cells appear brown because of melanin production. Whole genome sequencing of H. werneckii revealed a recent whole genome ...
... binds cell membranes, and inhibits complement-mediated lysis"] Check ,url= value (help). J. Exp. Med. 177 (5): 1409-1420. doi: ... Effects on Membrane Fluidity"] Check ,url= value (help). Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 343 (1): 6-12. doi:10.1006/ ... Journal of Membrane Biology. 155 (1): 89-94. doi:10.1007/s002329900160. PMID 9002427. Renneberg, Heiner; Konrad, Lutz; ... Investigations have shown that cancerous prostate cells and prostate cells with low differentiation continue to produce and ...
... of unsaturated lipids is regulated in response to function of growth temperature by controlling membrane fluidity in cells. ... Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 49: 611-641. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.49.1.611. PMID 15012248 ... This family of enzymes is found only in the plastids of higher plant cells, unlike other desaturases such as acyl-lipid ... In particular, this can then be inserted into model cells (such as Escherichia coli) and up-regulated through metabolic ...
Schroeder F (November 1978). "Differences in fluidity between bilayer halves of tumour cell plasma membranes". Nature. 276 ( ... by which α-parinaric acid is formed in the plant Impatiens balsamina was elaborated using techniques of molecular biology. The ... across the membrane bilayer of some tumor cells ― the inner monolayer of the membrane is less fluid than the outer monolayer. α ... by sensitizing the tumor cells to lipid peroxidation, the process where free radicals react with electrons from cell membrane ...
"Chapter 14: Sphingolipids: Metabolism and Cell Signaling". Biochemistry of Lipids, Lipoproteins and Membranes (4th ). Amsterdam ... fluidity) இதன் காரணமாகவே கொண்டுள்ளது.[9] மேலும், பசுங்கணிகங்களின் உயர் பிரிகை 13-C NMR நிறமாலையில் லினோலெனிக அமிலத்திற்கு ... "Bioinformatics and Systems Biology of the Lipidome". Chemical Reviews 111 (10): 6452-6490. doi:10.1021/cr200295k. பப்மெட் ... "Inositol phosphates and cell signalling". Nature 341 (6239): 197-205. September 1989. doi:10.1038/341197a0. பப்மெட்:2550825. ...
Membrane Components, Membrane Fluidity, Membrane Function, Membrane Structure, Peripheral Protein, Plasma Membrane, S. J. ... The plasma membrane must be very flexible to allow certain cells, such as red blood cells and white blood cells, to change ... The fluid characteristic of the cell membrane allows greater flexibility to the cell than it would if the membrane were rigid. ... phospholipids form an excellent two-layer cell membrane that separates fluid within the cell from the fluid outside of the cell ...
Cell - Membrane lipids: Membrane lipids are principally of two types, phospholipids and sterols (generally cholesterol). Both ... Membrane fluidity. One of the triumphs of cell biology during the decade from 1965 to 1975 was the recognition of the cell ... Some glycoproteins are involved in cell-to-cell recognition (see below The cell matrix and cell-to-cell communication). ... The cell matrix and cell-to-cell communication*The extracellular matrix*Matrix polysaccharides ...
Biology Forum Online - Discuss Microbiology, Biological science, microscopic forms of life, including Bacteria, Archea, ... Carbohydrates mainly function in cell-cell recognition and aid in adhesion. Proteins on the other hand have diverse functions ... Proteins do show lateral movement in the membrane, but i am not sure if that actually affects the fluidity... But this pdf file ... What are 4 factors that affect membrane fluidity? Ive looked in a textbook and havent been able to find 4. However, so far ...
Cell Biology * Microbiology and Infectious Disease Flotillin-mediated membrane fluidity controls peptidoglycan synthesis and ... There is much detail here that bridges cell biology and pattern formation and the work has the potential to inspire and guide ... The cells were washed 3 times in 1X PBS to remove excess of free biotin. The cells were resuspended in lysis buffer (0.5 ml/10 ... S2-DGRC cells (RRID: CVCL_Z992) were transfected with the calcium phosphate precipitation method. The cell line was obtained ...
Membrane fluidity and temperature sensing .... POSTER. Cell Biology: Signal Transduction. 168C. Friday, August 1. HUB, Grand ... Cell Biology: Cell Cycle/Growth Control/Metabolism. 84C. Friday, August 1. HUB, Grand Ballroom. Friday, August 1. 7:30-8:30 pm ... Cell Biology: Other. 207C. Friday, August 1. HUB, Grand Ballroom. Friday, August 1. 8:30-9:30 pm. Open Viewing 9:30 pm-11:00 pm ... Cell Biology: Other. 206B. Thursday, July 31. HUB, Grand Ballroom. Thursday, July 31. 7:30-8:30 pm. Open Viewing 9:30 pm-11:00 ...
eLife publishes research spanning vesicle transport and signal transduction to cell cycle and cell polarity and fate. Learn ... Cell Biology Evolutionarily conserved long-chain Acyl-CoA synthetases regulate membrane composition and fluidity Mario Ruiz et ... Browse our latest Cell Biology articles. Page 2 of 146. *. * ... Cell Biology Profilin and formin constitute a pacemaker system ... Developmental Biology Myofibril diameter is set by a finely tuned mechanism of protein oligomerization in Drosophila Nicanor ...
... decrease of nuclear membranes induced by low calcium magnesium modulation of nuclear membrane lipid fluidity by the membrane ... Modulation of nuclear membrane lipid fluidity by the membrane-associated nuclear matrix proteins?. Journal of Cell Biology 79(2 ... Cell Motility 2(4): 355-368, 1982. Effect of lipid composition on rat liver nuclear membrane fluidity. Cell Biochemistry and ... Journal of Cell Biology 79((2 PART 1)): 479-490. Expansion and apparent fluidity decrease of nuclear membranes induced by low ...
... cell: Membrane fluidity: One of the triumphs of cell biology during the decade from 1965 to 1975 was the recognition of the ... cell membrane as a fluid collection of amphiphilic molecules. This array of proteins, sterols, and phospholipids is organized ... In cell: Membrane fluidity. One of the triumphs of cell biology during the decade from 1965 to 1975 was the recognition of the ... cell membrane as a fluid collection of amphiphilic molecules. This array of proteins, sterols, and phospholipids is organized ...
Lipids, Membranes and Vesicle Trafficking - The Virtual Library of Biochemistry and Cell Biology Cell membrane protein ... increasing the fluidity) of the membrane. The ability of some organisms to regulate the fluidity of their cell membranes by ... damage to cell membrane Cell theory Cytoneme Elasticity of cell membranes Gram-positive bacteria Membrane models Membrane ... plasmatic membrane (Pfeffer, 1900), plasma membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, cell envelope and cell membrane. Some authors that ...
... of the membrane.[20][21] The ability of some organisms to regulate the fluidity of their cell membranes by altering lipid ... "Once upon a time the cell membranes: 175 years of cell boundary research". Biology Direct. 9: 32. doi:10.1186/s13062-014-0032-7 ... plasmatic membrane (Pfeffer, 1900),[13] plasma membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, cell envelope and cell membrane.[14][15] Some ... Intracellular membranes. The content of the cell, inside the cell membrane, is composed of numerous membrane-bound organelles, ...
To investigate this phenomenon, changes in membrane lipids which affect fluidity were examined. Membrane cholesterol gradually ... However, differentiating C2 cells can be induced to fuse by HVJ, suggesting that the rigid membrane of C2 cells changes during ... The membranes of differentiating C2 cells contained more unsaturated fatty acids than those of proliferating cells. Thus, when ... probably at the same time as they increase the unsaturated fatty acid content of the cell membrane. ...
Membrane interaction is crucial for normal cellular function, but lipids also induce the aggregation of α-syn, causing cell ... causing cell toxicity. Also, disease-causing or risk-factor mutations in genes related to lipid metabolism like PLA2G6, SCARB2 ... in which initial α-syn aggregation is determined by shifts in lipid/α-syn ratio as well as by dyshomeostasis of membrane bound/ ... in which initial α-syn aggregation is determined by shifts in lipid/α-syn ratio as well as by dyshomeostasis of membrane bound/ ...
... which constitutes the fundamental structure of the biological cell membrane. Lipid membranes have peculiar characteristics, are ... Understanding the interactions of lipid films with solid interfaces is of high importance in areas like cell biology, ... highly dynamic, feature two-dimensional fluidity, and can accommodate functional molecules. ... wetting of planar surfaces occurs in an aqueous environment by means of self-spreading of phospholipid membranes from ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Biology of Cells Chapter 7 Notecards. Other activities to help include hangman, ... inserted between tails of phospholipids, can alter membrane fluidity, serves as buffer for temperature, prevents solidification ... Biology of Cells 7. Biology of Cells Chapter 7 Notecards. Term. Definition. ... Flaccid cell. happens in an isotonic solution with a cell with a cell wall, no water movement causes cell to become flaccid. ...
First to look at cells (dead cork) Leevwenhoek: first to look at living cells (pond water) Determined organisms... ... How a membrane maintains fluidity. -A membrane needs to be fluid in order to allow substances to cross it. -If the membrane is ... CELL THEORY AND MEMBRANES. Cell Theory. Hooke: First to look at cells (dead cork). Leevwenhoek: first to look at living cells ( ... Schwann: all animals are made of cells. Virchow: all cells come from previous living cells Cell Theory: 1. A cell is the ...
Shaping Membranes into Autophagosomes Nature Cell Biology. Oct, 2007 , Pubmed ID: 17909525 ... For example, in many organisms trehalose has a critical function in preserving membrane structure and fluidity during ... Autophagy Regulation Through Atg9 Traffic The Journal of Cell Biology. Jul, 2012 , Pubmed ID: 22826119 Rapid membrane expansion ... A Transmembrane Ubiquitin Ligase Required to Sort Membrane Proteins into Multivesicular Bodies Nature Cell Biology. Feb, 2002 ...
A great change in our picture of membranes has occurred in the last few years, and there is... ... An area of intense current interest in molecular and cell biology is the structure of biological membranes. ... An area of intense current interest in molecular and cell biology is the structure of biological membranes. A great change in ... Membrane Fluidity Membrane Fusion Molecular Mobility Integral Protein Cytoplasmic Surface These keywords were added by machine ...
Upon mitochondrial permeability, apoptogenic factors are released from the mitochondrial inter-membrane space and leak into the ... allowing for cell survival. Alternatively, Akt activates IKK-α that ultimately leads to NF-κB activation and cell survival. ... and a variety of other cell surface receptors. Fas Ligand (Fas L) transmits signals to Fas on a target cell by inducing ... Akt functions to promote cell survival through two distinct pathways. Akt inhibits apoptosis by phosphorylating the Bcl-2 ...
... selected stromal cells (i.e., pretheca cells) associated with developing primordial follicles, and the basement membrane of ... Trehalose-Enhanced Fluidity of the Goat Sperm Membrane and Its Protection During Freezing ... The microdialysis system maintains cell-to-cell integrity and cell-to-cell communication, and it enables real-time observation ... Embryos were recovered from both systems at approximately 30 hpi (2-cell), 2 (4-cell), 3 (8-cell), 4 (16-cell), 5 (early morula ...
In the present review, we describe how the use of a systems biology approach in cultured hepatoblastoma cells (HepG2) allowed ... Al has been shown to exert its effects by disrupting lipid membrane fluidity, perturbing iron (Fe), magnesium, and calcium ... In Al-exposed cells, KG is preferentially used to quench ROS leading to succinate accumulation and HIF-1α stabilization. ... The fluidity and interaction of these metabolic modules and the implications of these findings in liver-related disorders are ...
... the membrane is the inner layer of protection surrounded by a rigid cell wall. Eukaryotic animal cells have only the membrane ... These membranes also regulate the passage of molecules in and out of the cells. ... All living cells have a plasma membrane that encloses their contents. In prokaryotes, ... Cells are able to regulate the fluidity of their plasma membranes to meet their particular needs by synthesizing more of ...
Or maybe its because humans suck at converting the plant form of omega-3 fats, required for cell membrane fluidity, to the bio ... And healthy intestinal cells prevent leaky gut, which is often at the root of many food intolerances, allergies, inflammatory ... in the early spring when the Hive is intent on increasing numerically the number of empty cells for the queen to lay eggs in. ... K2 are found in bio-available form only from animals. Or maybe its for the fats that transport these vitamins to their ...
Increased fluidity in cell membranes could have a major impact on an ovarian cancer cells sensitivity to treatment using the ... Working across a wide range of themes including cancer biology, radioecology, molecular and in vitro toxicology, ecotoxicology ... Increased fluidity in cell membranes could have a major impact on an ovarian cancer cells sensitivity to treatment using the ... Membrane fluidity influences sensitivity of ovarian cancer cell lines to auranofin. New research has shown that increased ...
The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of ... "Influence of the Use of Statin on the Stability of Erythrocyte Membranes in Multiple Sclerosis, ... Influence of cholesterol content on red cell membrane viscoelasticity and fluidity. Chabanel, A; Flamm, M; Sung, KL; Lee, MM; ... Rheological properties and membrane fluidity of red blood cells and platelets in primary hyperlipoproteinemia ...
... increased membrane fluidity, changes in intracellular ion concentrations, hyperpolarisation of the sperm plasma membrane, ... At the cell biology level, capacitation induces changes in the sperm motility pattern known as hyperactivated movement and ... early apoptotic cells (AnV+/PI-), late apoptotic cells (AnV+/PI+), and necrotic cells (AnV−/PI+). The sum of apoptotic cells ... Cells were then centrifuged, incubated for 1 h in PBS/BSA containing 2.5 μg/106 cells of anti-TrKA (AF175, R&D System) and 2 μg ...
  • Student Name:_________________________________________________ BIO-QUEST: Cell Biology Directions: In this module, we will explore the basic units of life, their structure, function, and energy processes. (majortests.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 12446664 Autophagy, pexophagy, and the Cvt pathway are processes that deliver hydrolytic enzymes and substrates to the yeast vacuole/lysosome via double-membrane cytosolic vesicles. (jove.com)
  • Generally speaking, two principal mechanisms operate in the biology of membrane processes, such as membrane transport and permeation. (schoolbag.info)
  • These patterns of cell dynamics are strikingly oriented within the plane of the epithelium, suggesting a key role for planar cell polarity (PCP) systems in guiding these processes. (tu-dresden.de)
  • The bio-production of fine chemicals is typically performed at lower temperatures compared with those required for chemical syntheses, and important advantages of bio-based fine chemical production are cost-effectiveness and the use of processes that are not hazardous to the environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These compartments allow the separation/specialization of processes within the cell. (edu.au)
  • The flotillins seem to have an effect on the physical structure of the membrane, conferring the correct fluidity so other membrane-bound processes can function properly"," Savietto continues. (idw-online.de)
  • These cells are characterized by their ability to grow, reproduce, respond to external stimuli and perform the different metabolic processes. (alevelbiology.co.uk)
  • Lipids are in charge of the physical properties of cell membranes, but also play a role in chemical processes. (uvigo.es)
  • During these processes, the cell membrane forms a depression and surrounds the particle that it is engulfing. (biologydictionary.net)
  • i.e., containing both a lipid-soluble and a water-soluble region) is basic to the role of lipids as building blocks of cellular membranes. (britannica.com)
  • Dietary lipids also influence the fatty acid composition in various tissues including cellular membranes altering composition and function. (mun.ca)
  • Monensin catalyzes the exchange of Na + for H + across cellular membranes, and it has been shown to be effective against a number of parasites in the phylum Apicomplexa, including members of the genera Plasmodium , Toxoplasma , and Eimeria ( 17 , 23 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • Both of these crucial roles are served by cellular membranes, which comprise the responsive interface between life and non-life. (uni-saarland.de)
  • Remarkably, all organisms have converged on a relatively narrow window that balances chemical/mechanical robustness against the fluidity necessary for the biochemistry that underlies homeostasis. (uni-saarland.de)
  • The fatty acid proportion of 20:3ω6 and 20:4ω6 at 18.0°C and 20:3ω6 at 13.5°C (final) was significantly higher in fish fed L-ω3 diets and may have influenced the increased fluidity in liver cell membranes. (mun.ca)
  • Membranes that are composed of fully saturated, long fatty acid tails are generally less fluid then the opposite conditions. (varsitytutors.com)
  • The human cell membrane must be continually fed with the correct lipid substrates to enable the organism to function ideally, yet fatty acid metabolism has been poorly delineated in treatment protocols. (bodybio.com)
  • The fatty acid profile changes in marine invertebrate larval cells during cryopreservation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To better understand the mechanism of the protective effect of exogenous lipids on cell membranes of sea animals, a comparative analysis of the fatty acid (FA) composition of total lipids in larval cells before and after freezing was carried out using a gas-liquid chromatography. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The double bounds make fatty acid chain to be bent and, although rotation of these chains is restricted, the increase of unsaturated fatty acids makes membranes more fluid, because the lipids are more separated between each other. (uvigo.es)
  • In contrast, the interior of the membrane, between its two surfaces, is a hydrophobic or nonpolar region because of the fatty acid tails. (openstax.org)
  • So instead of a nice, smoothly packing big, long fatty acid chain that can pack up right against another one, unsaturated introduces this fluidity. (medicalschoolhq.net)
  • Fas is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, a family of transmembrane receptors that include neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), TNF-R1, and a variety of other cell surface receptors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In contrast to the nuclear membrane-bound lipids, free lipids extracted from the nuclei rigidify with increasing Ca/Mg concentrations. (eurekamag.com)
  • In the early 19th century, cells were recognized as being separate entities, unconnected, and bound by individual cell walls after it was found that plant cells could be separated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, we will discuss a scenario in which initial α-syn aggregation is determined by shifts in lipid/α-syn ratio as well as by dyshomeostasis of membrane bound/unbound state of α-syn. (frontiersin.org)
  • Why don't membrane-bound cells frequently collapse or spill their contents? (stackexchange.com)
  • In general, there are two classes of fluorochrome used in flow cytometry - those which bind non-covalently to structures within the cell and those which are covalently bound to other probes. (arklatexcraftbeerandbbq.com)
  • Mitochondria and chloroplasts are bound by a double membrane. (alevelbiology.co.uk)