Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase: A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2: A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck): This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Phospholipase C gamma: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.Mice, Inbred C57BLHistocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecule composed of the non-covalent association of the T-cell antigen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL) with the CD3 complex (ANTIGENS, CD3). This association is required for the surface expression and function of both components. The molecule consists of up to seven chains: either the alpha/beta or gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor, and four or five chains in the CD3 complex.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Immunoglobulin D: An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.Duffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesAntigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-vav: Proto-oncogene proteins that are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for RHO GTPASES. They also function as signal transducing adaptor proteins.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.PhosphoproteinsImmunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Gene Rearrangement, beta-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the beta-chain of antigen receptors.GRB2 Adaptor Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn: Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 184.108.40.206), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin alpha-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Gene Rearrangement, alpha-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the alpha-chain of antigen receptors.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Receptor Aggregation: Chemically stimulated aggregation of cell surface receptors, which potentiates the action of the effector cell.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6: A Src-homology domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase found in the CYTOSOL of hematopoietic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by dephosphorylating signaling proteins that are activated or inactivated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Immunological Synapses: The interfaces between T-CELLS and ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS. Supramolecular organization of proteins takes place at these synapses involving various types of immune cells. Immunological synapses can have several functions including LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION; enhancing, balancing, or terminating signaling; or directing cytokine secretion.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Genes, Immunoglobulin: Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.GPI-Linked Proteins: A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 3: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES.Nitrohydroxyiodophenylacetate: Also called 4-hydroxy-3-iodo-5-nitrophenylacetate. A haptenic determinant that can be radiolabeled and used as salts and derivatives for investigations of immunogenic specificity studies.Immunoglobulin mu-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl: Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Here they act as antigen-presenting cells: they activate helper T-cells and killer T-cells as well as B-cells by presenting ... Simultaneously, they upregulate cell-surface receptors that act as co-receptors in T-cell activation such as CD80 (B7.1), CD86 ... Dendritic cells are derived from hematopoietic bone marrow progenitor cells. These progenitor cells initially transform into ... where there is a specialized dendritic cell type called the Langerhans cell) and the inner lining of the nose, lungs, stomach ...
... and B-cell antigen receptor signaling. It functions through either direct interaction with components of the antigen receptor ... on a subset of dendritic cells and other antigen-presenting cells. Naive T lymphocytes express large CD45 isoforms and are ... "CD45-associated kinase activity requires lck but not T cell receptor expression in the Jurkat T cell line". J. Biol. Chem. 268 ... CD45 does not colocalize with lipid rafts on murine and human non-transformed hematopoietic cells, but CD45 positioning within ...
Induced stem cells
... human iPS cell-derived myeloid cell lines as unlimited cell source for dendritic cell-like antigen-presenting cells". Gene ... "Small Molecule-Mediated TGF-β Type II Receptor Degradation Promotes Cardiomyogenesis in Embryonic Stem Cells". Cell Stem Cell. ... Antibody that Transforms Bone Marrow Stem Cells Directly into Brain Cells Xie, Jia; Zhang, Hongkai; Yea, Kyungmoo; Lerner, ... "Regeneration of Human Tumor Antigen-Specific T Cells from iPSCs Derived from Mature CD8+ T Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 12 (1): 31-6 ...
T cells that bind (via their T cell receptor) to self antigen (presented by dendritic cells on MHC molecules) too strongly are ... antigen-presenting cells: macrophages and dendritic cells. After engulfment, foreign proteins (the antigens) are broken down ... Dendritic cells are present in the tissues that are in contact with the external environment, mainly the skin, the inner lining ... blood stream after 20-40 hours to travel to tissues and organs and in doing so transform into macrophages or dendritic cells ...
Pathophysiology of asthma
... inhaled allergens that find their way to the inner airways are ingested by a type of cell known as antigen-presenting cells, or ... In asthma patients, however, these cells transform into a different type of cell (TH2), for reasons that are not well ... in which blockage of the Beta-2 receptors of pulmonary smooth muscle cells causes asthma. Szentivanyi's Beta Adrenergic Theory ... The parasympathetic reflex loop consists of afferent nerve endings which originate under the inner lining of the bronchus. ...
Gamma delta T cell
These Vγ9Vδ2 T cells can also behave like professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). It seems that human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are ... Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) are T cells that have a distinctive T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface. Most T cells are ... first line of defense', 'regulatory cells', or 'bridge between innate and adaptive responses' only address facets of their ... signal of stressed or transformed cells is still unclear. Of pharmacological interest and with bioactivities comparable to that ...
... antigen presenting cells (APCs) display tumor-associated antigens (TAA) and viral-associated antigens (VAA) to educate T-cells ... Hashiro, G; Loh, PC; Yau, JT (1977). "The preferential cytotoxicity of reovirus for certain transformed cell lines". Archives ... Strong, JE; Tang, D; Lee, PW (1993). "Evidence that the epidermal growth factor receptor on host cells confers reovirus ... Duncan, MR; Stanish, SM; Cox, DC (1978). "Differential sensitivity of normal and transformed human cells to reovirus infection ...
T-helper cell) response. As mentioned above, resident non-activated microglia act as poor antigen presenting cells due to their ... CD45 antigens, and many other surface receptors required to act in the antigen-presenting, phagocytic, and cytotoxic roles that ... Accumulation of minor neuronal damage that occurs during normal aging can transform microglia into enlarged and activated cells ... Kreutzberg GW (March 1995). "Microglia, the first line of defence in brain pathologies". Arzneimittel-Forschung. 45 (3A): 357- ...
Antigens are delivered to antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, and B lymphocytes. M cells express the protease ... is another example of a cell surface receptor on M cells. M cells lack microvilli but, like other epithelial cells, they are ... 2012). "Salmonella Transforms Follicle-Associated Epithelial Cells into M Cells to Promote Intestinal Invasion". Cell Host ... Similarly, a human lymphoma cell line is also known to undergo transition from adenocarcinoma cells to M cells. Though many ...
... the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). The TH2 ... IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells leading to an acute inflammatory response. In this case, ... in line with the gateway drug theory - and also between sugar consumption and the self-administration of drugs of abuse. ... exposure to sufficiently high doses of a drug for long periods of time can transform someone who has relatively lower genetic ...
They are often found within tissues where they can be activated by antigen-presenting cells upon infection. They are present in ... There are two lines of evidence that restriction of mast cell activation in the testis could be beneficial during treatment of ... Pöllänen P, von Euler M, Jahnukainen K, Saari T, Parvinen M, Sainio-Pöllänen S, Söder O (1993). "Role of transforming growth ... "Structure, cytochemistry, endocytic activity, and immunoglobulin (Fc) receptors of rat testicular interstitial-tissue ...
... including loss of tolerance to various oxidised antigens, which includes topoisomerase I. B cells mature into plasma cells, ... fewer endothelial progenitor cells), likely related to the presence of antiendothelinal cell antibodies (AECA). Despite this ... Dysregulated transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signalling in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts has been observed in multiple ... Walker KM, Pope J (August 2012). "Treatment of systemic sclerosis complications: what to use when first-line treatment fails - ...
T-helper cells, cytotoxic T-cells, and many others. Antigen-presenting cells (APC) are capable of internalizing pathogens and ... by flow cytometry identifies and isolates specific T cells based on the binding specificity of their cell surface receptors ... For example, NFAT and MAPK/ERK kinase pathways are expressed in anergic (or "tolerant) cell lines, whereas NF-kB and c-Jun N- ... of the most complete networks in immunology has deciphered regulatory connections among normal and transformed human B cells. ...
... other antigen presenting cells, or in certain conditions surrounding tissue. Treg cells are not the only cells that mediate ... B cells also express CD22, a non-specific inhibitor receptor that dampens B cell receptor activation. A subset of B regulatory ... It is well recognized that tumors are a complex and dynamic population of cells composed of transformed cells as well as ... Foxp3- TR1 cells that make IL-10 are also enriched in the intestinal lining. Break in this tolerance is thought to underlie the ...
... dendritic cells, mononuclear cell, antigen-presenting cell) while losing intestinal tropism. In a large group of cats, n, the ... "Type I feline coronavirus spike glycoprotein fails to recognize aminopeptidase N as a functional receptor on feline cell lines ... The virus is insignificant until mutations cause the virus to be transformed from FECV to FIPV. FIPV causes feline infectious ... In 2007, it was well established that serotype I did not work with the FCoV fAPN receptor. The FCoV type I receptor still is ...
... cells being a liver-resident antigen-presenting cell that presents lipid antigens to and stimulates proliferation of NKT cells ... This creates an enormous diversity of T cells bearing antigen receptors. Afterward some T cells leave the thymus to migrate to ... A set of markers is colloquially describes as the barcode for that cell or that cell line. Here is an example of how a barcode ... Because of these abilities much research has been done into transforming these qualities into medical therapy but progress has ...
The normal cell line most closely associated with MM cells is generally taken to be either an activated memory B cell or the ... Historically, the CD138 has been used to isolate myeloma cells for diagnostic purposes. However, this antigen disappears ... Correlation of measured myeloma cell mass with presenting clinical features, response to treatment, and survival". Cancer. 36 ( ... MGUS transforms to multiple myeloma at the rate of 1% to 2% per year, and almost all cases of multiple myeloma are preceded by ...
CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity
... its effect and its synergism with interferon-gamma on a variety of normal and transformed human cell lines. Eur. J. Cancer Clin ... Th1 cells are indirectly responsible for activating tumor-suppressing CTLs by activating the antigen-presenting cells which ... CD4+ T cell-mediated tumor rejection involves inhibition of angiogenesis that is dependent on IFNγ receptor expression on ... through activation of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and increased antigen presentation on MHC class I, as well as secretion ...
These receptors, that recognize the antigen soluble (B cells) or linked to a molecule on Antigen Presenting Cells (T cells), ... have been widely explored in cell lines, challenged with toxic insults or genetically modified. The central role of a-synuclein ... In TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor β) pathway, BMP (Bone Morphogenic Protein), Activin and Nodal ligands bind to their ... The antigen receptor and signal protein form a stable complex, named BCR or TCR, in B or T cells, respectively. The family Src ...
As with B cells, each type of T cell recognizes a different antigen. Killer T cells are activated when their T-cell receptor ( ... The transformed cells of tumors express antigens that are not found on normal cells. To the immune system, these antigens ... antigen molecule. Helper T cell activation also requires longer duration of engagement with an antigen-presenting cell. The ... Immune System - from the University of Hartford (high school/undergraduate level) Microbiology and Immunology On-Line Textbook ...
Shi H (2004). "Eosinophils function as antigen-presenting cells". J Leukoc Biol. 76 (3): 520-7. doi:10.1189/jlb.0404228. PMID ... "Diverse effects of eosinophil cationic granule proteins on IMR-32 nerve cell signaling and survival". Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ... Mepolizumab and benralizumab are other treatment options that target the alpha subunit of the IL-5 receptor, thereby inhibiting ... primes eosinophilic exit from the bone marrow by lining vessel walls with adhesion molecules such as VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. When ...
This suggests that when a healthy cell transforms into a tumor cell (a neoplastic transformation) the mitochondria seem to ... not only cancer cells). Thus, drugs that knock out these oncogenes (and thereby kill cancer cells) may also damage normal cells ... systematically sequences the exons and flanking splice junctions of the genomes of primary tumors and cancerous cell lines. ... Two were already thought to contribute to tumor progression: an internal tandem duplication of the FLT3 receptor tyrosine ...
... cell death). Rather, infection of liver cells activates the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system leading to an ... inflammation of membranes lining certain organs), elevated eosinophils (a type of white blood cell), and suppression of bone ... The combination of antigen and antibody positivity can provide information about the stage of infection (acute or chronic), the ... However, certain factors may portend a poorer outcome, such as co-morbid medical conditions or initial presenting symptoms of ...
Type IV hypersensitivity
Walled off lesion containing macrophages and other cells. Some peripheral neuropathies. Schwann cell antigen. Neuritis, ... antigen in a complex with the MHC class II major histocompatibility complex on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. These ... University of South Carolina School of Medicine - Microbiology and Immunology On-line. Retrieved 2016-05-29.. ... transform into multinucleated giant cells. ... "Type V"/receptor. *Graves' disease. *Myasthenia gravis. * ...
... human lung cancer cell line with wild-type p53) and T47D (human breast cancer cell line with mutant p53) cells with DNA- ... the immune response by better mediating the physical interaction of the antigen-presenting DCs and the naive CD8+ T cells, ... Altieri DC (1994). "Molecular cloning of effector cell protease receptor-1, a novel cell surface receptor for the protease ... suggest survivin might provide a new target for cancer therapy that would discriminate between transformed and normal cells. ...
... normally monitors cell division and kills cells if they have Wnt pathway defects. Eventually, a cell line acquires a mutation ... Another class of drugs used in the second line setting are epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, of which the two FDA ... It has been suggested that the presence of antibodies to Streptococcus bovis/gallolyticus antigens or the antigens themselves ... in the TP53 gene and transforms the tissue from a benign epithelial tumor into an invasive epithelial cell cancer. Sometimes ...
Antigen presenting cells *Dendritic cells. *Langerhans cell. *CFU-DL. *CFU-M *MPS ... The process is initiated either by immune cells sensu stricto by activating their pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), or by ... The intact endothelial lining inhibits platelet activation by producing nitric oxide, endothelial-ADPase, and PGI2 ( ... α granules (alpha granules) - containing P-selectin, platelet factor 4, transforming growth factor-β1, platelet-derived growth ...
Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma: Toward the Identification of Clinical Molecular Targets
... attempts have been made to generate in vitro LMP2-specific CTL using antigen-presenting cells overexpressing LMP2, to treat ... and the AURKA inhibitor MK8751 induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human cell lines, including NKTCL-derived cell lines ... NK cells use MHC class I-specific NK cell receptors (NKR) for this purpose . NK cells are part of the innate immune system ... LMP1 is the main transforming protein of EBV. It is essential for EBV-induced B-cell transformation in vitro, acting like a ...
Natural Killer Cell Accumulation in Tumors Is Dependent on IFN-γ and CXCR3 Ligands | Cancer Research
In addition, NK cells produce the pleiotropic cytokine IFN-γ that is important for activation of antigen-presenting cells ( 8) ... cells of the innate immune system and represent the first line of defense against virally infected and transformed cells ( 5). ... certain chemokine receptors were implicated in the accumulation of NK cells in tumors. NK cell recruitment to a CX3CL1- ... Tumor cell lines and tumor cell injection. MHC class I-deficient RMA-S or MHC class I-expressing RMA lymphoma cells ( 14) were ...
"Rapid production of TNF-alpha following TCR engagement of naive CD8 T " by Michael A. Brehm, Keith A. Daniels et al.
Interfering with TNF-alpha activity during the initial encounter between naive CD8 T cells and Ag loaded dendritic cells ... We show that naive CD8 T cells are capable of immediate effector function following TCR engagement, which stimulates the rapid ... These findings suggest that production of TNF-alpha by naive CD8 T cells immediately after TCR engagement may have an ... virus-specific TCR-transgenic CD8 T cells stimulated with either their cognate peptide ligand or virus-infected cells produced ...
Frontiers | Immunomodulatory Dual-Sized Microparticle System Conditions Human Antigen Presenting Cells Into a Tolerogenic...
In co-culture, dMP-treated DCs (dMP-DCs) reduced allogeneic T cell receptor (TCR) signaling and proliferation, while increasing ... and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) along with 1 µm MPs to facilitate phagocytic uptake of encapsulated antigen and 1α, ... To model antigen-specific activation and downstream function, we co-cultured TCR-engineered autoreactive T cell ... To model antigen-specific activation and downstream function, we co-cultured TCR-engineered autoreactive T cell ...
Theileria annulata -transformed cell lines are efficient antigen-presenting cells for in vitro analysis of CD8 T cell responses...
The aim of the current study was to determine whether such transformed cell lines could be used as antigen presenting cells to ... The capacity of the cells to generate antigen-specific CD8 T cell lines was initially validated using a recombinant canarypox ... annulata-transformed cells infected with BHV-1 were then used successfully to generate specific CD8 T cell lines and clones ... Given the ease with which T. annulata-transformed cell lines can be established and maintained in vitro and their ...
Transposon-mediated generation of CAR-T cells shows efficient anti B-cell leukemia response after ex vivo expansion | Gene...
... expressing higher levels of inhibitory receptors when compared with mock cells. In addition, CAR-T cells were cytotoxic against ... Current methods for CAR-T-cell production use viral vectors for T-cell genetic modification and can take up to 15 days to ... 11 or Nalm-6 B-cell leukemias. Infused CAR-T cells persisted for up to 28 days, showing that they are capable of long-term ... and Japan for the treatment of refractory patients with CD19+ B-cell leukemia or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. ...
Dendritic Cell Progenitor Is Transformed by a Conditional v-Rel Estrogen Receptor Fusion Protein v-RelER - PubMed
Here, we demonstrate that such v-relER-transformed cells exhibit B lymphoid determinants in line with earlier studies on v-rel ... causes estrogen-dependent but otherwise unaltered v-rel-specific transformation of chicken bone marrow cells. ... A conditional v-Rel estrogen receptor fusion protein, v-RelER, ... Dendritic cells are professional antigen presenting cells that ... Dendritic Cell Progenitor Is Transformed by a Conditional v-Rel Estrogen Receptor Fusion Protein v-RelER G Boehmelt et al. Cell ...
Frontiers | The Role of Type 1 Interferon in Systemic Sclerosis | Immunology
Being the first cells in line in the defense against pathogens of any sort, the antigen presenting cells (APCs) are often ... and bacterial cell wall components via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) (51). These PRRs are widely expressed on cells of ... Mast cells are a source of transforming growth factor beta in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum (2011) 63(3):795-9. doi: ... M2 macrophages highly express several receptors such as hemoglobin scavenger receptor (CD163), class A scavenger receptor ( ...
HLA-G peptide preferences change in transformed cells: impact on the binding motif | Springer for Research & Development
... expression of primary trophoblast cells and placental cell lines, determined using single antigen beads to characterize ... HRS cells tend to loose many of the typical B cell lineage factors and the expression of the B cell receptor (Kanzler et al. ... HLA-G1-expressing antigen-presenting cells induce immunosuppressive CD4+ T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:7064-7069 ... cell line K562, a standard cell line for HLA allele-specific peptide determination and the cell line HDLM-2 that exhibits an ...
NFAT1 Supports Tumor-induced Anergy of CD4+ T Cells | Cancer Research
... associated dendritic cells are deficient in T cell co-stimulatory molecules and are impaired as antigen-presenting cells. Am J ... Ligation of inhibitory receptors and defective activation of antigen presenting cells, among others, seem to contribute to the ... To characterize tumor-induced hyporesponsiveness in antigen-specific CD4+ T cells, we used a B16 melanoma cell line that had ... Transformed cells can express tumor-associated antigens that should be recognized as nonself by T cells and elicit effective ...
Using NK Cell Mediated Cytolysis to Trigger Adaptive Immune Responses
Several cell types, commonly referred to as professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs), are able to carry out this function ... Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells, capable of eliminating virus infected or cancer-transformed cells without ... adaptive immune cells is able to recognize billions of unique antigens due to specialized receptors on their surface. This ... as a result of being stimulated with peptide fragments obtained through NK cell mediated cytolysis of a melanoma cell line. ...
Tolerance Strategies Employing Antigen-Coupled Apoptotic Cells and Carboxylated PLG Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Type 1...
... nanoparticles or apoptotic cellular carriers for tolerogenic presentation by host splenic antigen-presenting cells, the ... This review discusses the mechanisms and potential therapeutic applications of antigen-specific T cell tolerance techniques ... through ECDI fixation effectively induce and maintain antigen-specific T cell abortive activation and anergy by T cell ... Translation of this approach to clinical trials of T1D and other T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases will also be reviewed in ...
Activation of cytotoxic T-cell receptor γδ T lymphocytes in response to specific stimulation in myelodysplastic syndromes |...
17 and potentially act as antigen-presenting cells.18 They have a regulatory function, interact with myeloid cells and are ... and the resistant cell line Raji. These target cell lines were labeled with 100 μCi 51Cr for 60 min. The effector to target ... 8 These effector cells detect altered self or stress molecules expressed by various transformed cells, which are then killed ... β T cells), as well as STAT4 (as in NK cells), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (as in T-cell receptor α /β T cells).38 ...
Transgene Presents New Pre-Clinical Data at AACR on (i) the Combination of TG4010 with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors; (ii)...
TG3003 is directed against human CD115, the CSF-1 cell-surface receptor expressed by all types of myeloid cells, including ... immune-stimulatory antigen-presenting cells. A third poster reviewing the clinical experience with Transgenes MVA platform was ... These changes transform the MUC1 protein into a highly immunogenic tumor associated antigen (TAA) and make it an attractive ... metastatic NSCLC in combination with first-line chemotherapy. TG4010 is a recombinant vaccinia virus of the Ankara strain (MVA ...
MDA-rrMOG was taken up more effectively by antigen-presenting cells (APC), at least partially through scavenger receptors. ... An attractive alternative to primary human hepatocytes is the use of tightly regulated human hepatocyte cell lines. Such cell ... After 2 months, the MGC had ceased production of IL-1, and TNF-,, but the expression of transforming growth factor-, (TGF-,) ... We describe here methods for creating transplantable human hepatocyte cell lines using currently available cell cultures and ...
JCI - Immunotherapy transforms cancer treatment
MHC molecules located on antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, present foreign tumor-specific antigens to T cells ... T cell priming and activation occur when the MHC-peptide complex interacts with the T cell receptor (TCR), followed by the ... Honjo, along with other groups, provided the first lines of unequivocal evidence that the inhibition of PD-1 or PDL-1 using ... CTLA-4 and its ligands B7.1 and B7.2 on antigen-presenting cells were originally discovered in the 1980s. CTLA-4 was found to ...
JCI - Antigen delivery targeted to tumor-associated macrophages overcomes tumor immune resistance
... tumors sensitive to adaptive immune responses such as adoptive transfer of tumor-specific T cell receptor-engineered T cells. ... induced their antigen-presenting activity, and thereby transformed the resistant tumors into ... The murine tumor cell line CT26, CMS7, CMS5a/NY, or CMS5a was subcutaneously inoculated into BALB/c mice. Checkpoint inhibitors ... TAMs remained inactive and did not exert antigen-presenting activity. Targeted delivery of a long peptide antigen to TAMs by ...
Helper T Cells
cells presenting antigen to them, e.g., dendritic cells *several cytokines notably *transforming growth factor-beta TGF-β, and ... presents antigen to the T cells receptor for antigen (TCR), and *secretes interleukin 12 (IL-12) as well as IFN-γ. More on ... with the receptor drives the rapid proliferation of the Th17 cells. Situated in the skin and the lining of the GI tract, Th17 ... Th2 Cells. Th2 cells are produced when antigen-presenting cells (APCs) present antigen (e.g., on parasitic helminth worms or ...
New Insights into the Role of the Immune Microenvironment in Breast Carcinoma
Other mechanisms of immunosuppression are direct cell-to-cell contact with antigen presenting cells (APC) via transforming ... APC: antigen presenting cell; MHC: major histocompatibility complex; and TCR: T-cell receptor. ... Again in this case FOXP3 expression in tumor cells correlates with better relapse free and overall survival. In line with these ... The immune synapse is a region of physical contact between the T cell and the antigen presenting cell (APC), and it represents ...
GITR Ligand-Mediated Local Expansion of Regulatory T Cells and Immune Privilege of Corneal Allografts | IOVS | ARVO Journals
... class II-expressing antigen-presenting cells (APCs). 11 Although bone marrow-derived cells recently been reported to be present ... A new member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor receptor family inhibits T cell receptor-induced apoptosis. Proc ... 49 because currently available RPE cell lines do not express GITRL at protein levels on their surface, no reports have ... Namba K Kitaichi N Nishida T Taylor AW . Identification a-melanocyte stimulating hormone and transforming growth factor-β2. J ...
Patent WO2011044186A1 - Human single-chain t cell receptors - Google Patents
A soluble human single-chain T cell receptor (TCR) having the structure: Vα2-L-Vβ or Vβ-L-Vα2, wherein L is a linker peptide ... The three domain TCR expressing cells were unable to release IL-2 in response to SIY peptide loaded antigen presenting cells ... the T cell line lacking endogenous receptor will not express the CD3 subunits at the cell surface. ... 0074] The expression construct may be transformed into the host as the cloning vector construct, either linear or circular, or ...
Tumor-derived hyaluronan induces formation of immunosuppressive macrophages through transient early activation of monocytes |...
... have a poor antigen-presenting capacity, and also suppress T-cell responses.4,5 The M2 cells share an IL-12low/IL-10high ... Human monocytes were cultured for 6 days in medium alone (solid lines) or with 15% TSN from various tumor cells (dashed lines ... Tumor cells deactivate human monocytes by up-regulating IL-1 receptor associated kinase-M expression via CD44 and TLR4. J ... Tumor-derived factors, including IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, "educate" the newly recruited monocytes to take ...
Notch-mediated generation of monocyte-derived Langerhans cells: Phenotype and function :: MPG.PuRe
Notch-mediated generation of monocyte-derived Langerhans cells: Phenotype and function ... pattern recognition receptors and enhanced expression of the antigen-presenting machinery. On protein level, moLCs showed low ... Abstract: Langerhans cells (LCs) in the skin are a first line of defense against pathogens but also play an essential role in ... For vaccine testing, an easily accessible cell platform would be desirable as an alternative to the time-consuming purification ...
Applications filed at Aug 18 2016 | Manufacturing methods to control C-terminal lysine, galactose and sialic acid content...
Methods of Preventing or Reducing Photoreceptor Cell Death , BINDING MOIETIES FOR BIOFILM REMEDIATION , THERMUS THERMOPHILUS ... Nanoparticle Based Artificial Antigen Presenting Cell Mediated Activation of NKT Cells. The present invention relates to, in ... The invention includes cell lines that express various subunit... 2016/0237135. INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR-BINDING FUSION PROTEINS ... Also provided are transformed host cells that were... 2016/0237130. Apelin Fusion Proteins and Uses Thereof. The invention ...
Differential Gene Expression in Human Lung Adenocarcinomas and Squamous Cell Carcinomas | Clinical Cancer Research
These genes code for antigen-presenting proteins that present processed cellular or foreign antigens to T cells, potentially ... and NADH dehydrogenases 1 and 4 compared with a human H-ras oncogene-transformed NIH3T3 cell line, reflecting decreased enzyme ... Demonstration of receptors specific for connective tissue growth factor on a human chondrocytic cell line (HCS-2/8). Biochem. ... et al Recombinant human stem cell factor mediates chemotaxis of small-cell lung cancer cell lines aberrantly expressing the c- ...
Role of altered immune cells in liver diseases: a review | Gastroenterología y Hepatología (English Edition)
Antigen-presenting cell function in the tolerogenic liver environment.. Nature reviews. Immunology, 10 (2010), pp. 753. http:// ... blockage of NK cell inhibitory receptors, targeting of NK cells to increase ADCC, and activation of NK cells by cytokines all ... Unlike this, some researchers reported that NK cells efficiently killed different cell lines and eliminated metastases and ... The multitude of cells makes this organ play active role in peripheral immune tolerance of the organism using transforming ...
Impact of Air Pollution on Vitamin D Status and Related Health Consequences | IntechOpen
... maturation and function of other antigen presenting cells - dendritic cells. Other functions of vitamin D in the immune system ... 1,25(OH)2D3 has been shown both in in vitro experiments (performed on human breast and lung cancer cell lines) as well as on ... receptor, inhibition of prostaglandins, activation of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and proteins binding insulin-like ... VDR together with thyroid hormone receptor (TR) and retinoid-X receptor (RXR) belongs to the class II of nuclear receptors ...
Glioblastoma Cancer-Initiating Cells Inhibit T-Cell Proliferation and Effector Responses by the Signal Transducers and...
... and the downmodulation of costimulation molecules by antigen-presenting cells resulting in loss of T-cell effector function-all ... Spheres isolated from 9L gliosarcoma rat cell line possess chemoresistant and aggressive cancer stem-like cells. Stem Cells ... T cell receptor-mediated signaling is defective in T cells obtained from patients with primary intracranial tumors. J Immunol ... Loss of SOCS3 in T helper cells resulted in reduced immune responses and hyperproduction of interleukin 10 and transforming ...
Dendritic cell progenitor is transformed by a conditional v-rel estrogen receptor fusion v-relER - MDC Repository
... cells differentiate into antigen-presenting dendritic cells as judged by several morphological and functional criteria. ... B-Lymphocytes, Bone Marrow, Cell Differentiation, Transformed Cell Line, Dendritic Cells, Dendritic Cells, Fibroblasts, Flow ... that such v-relER-transformed cells exhibit B lymphoid determinants in line with earlier studies on v-rel-transformed cells. ... Dendritic cell progenitor is transformed by a conditional v-rel estrogen receptor fusion v-relER ...
Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer: building on success. - PubMed - NCBI
Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) requires the generation of highly avid tumour-antigen-reactive T cells. Tumour-specific T cells, ... T-cell clones are uniformly late effector T cells. KLRG1, killer-cell lectin-like receptor G1. This figure is reproduced with ... competition for antigen at the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and inefficient lymphocyte activation in the absence ... when cultured with autologous or allogeneic MHC-matched tumour-cell lines. Alternatively, cell-mediated lysis has been used to ...
Effector cellsChimericTumorsTransferred antigen-specificResponsesCytotoxicImmunityLigandsProteinsInhibitoryVivoPeptidesPhenotypeArtificial antigen preseMurineActivationGenesIntracellularMiceRecognizeAdaptiveHelperChemokine receptorsTransgenicInducesTregAutologousExogenousDefenseTumor microenvironmentSpecificMoleculeMelanomaUptakeMicroenvironmentPathway
- NK cells are cytolytic and cytokine-producing effector cells of the innate immune system and represent the first line of defense against virally infected and transformed cells ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- 2000 ). HLA-G interacts with different subsets of immune effector cells (NK, T, B, macrophages), usually resulting in inhibition of these cells (Bainbridge et al. (springer.com)
- These cells have a number of direct functions, but they get their name from the help they provide to other types of effector cells, such as B cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). (biology-pages.info)
- RESULTS Islet-specific IL-10 + CD4 T-cells are potent suppressors of Th1 effector cells, operating through a linked suppression mechanism in which there is an absolute requirement for the cognate antigen of both the regulatory and effector T-cells to be presented by the same antigen-presenting cell (APC). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Effector cells of Innate and adaptive Immunity. (haematologica.org)
- Additionally, purification of MCF7-sepcfic, CD45+, IFNγ-secreting effector cells led to a significant increase from 1.54% up to 92% purity. (oatext.com)
- June CH, Sadelain M. Chimeric antigen receptor therapy. (nature.com)
- Chicaybam L, Sodré AL, Bonamino M. Chimeric antigen receptors in cancer immuno-gene therapy: current status and future directions. (nature.com)
- The present invention provides a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) comprising: (i) a B cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-binding domain which comprises at least. (patents.com)
- In this issue of the JCI , MacDonald and colleagues transduced human Tregs with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that targets the HLA class I molecule A2. (jci.org)
- and (iii) a polynucleotide encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting agent within the pores of the nanoparticle. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- The recent development of genetically engineered T cells stably expressing exogenous T-cell receptors (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) specific for tumor-associated antigens offers the possibility of testing the efficacy of ACT against a wide range of cancer types in addition to melanoma ( 2, 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Seattle Children's has opened the first chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell immunotherapy trial in the U.S. for children and young adults with relapsed or refractory CD19- and CD22-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that will simultaneously attack two targets on cancer cells. (eurekalert.org)
- The term extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) refers to a group of clonal proliferations of cytotoxic lymphocytes of natural killer (NK) or, more rarely, T-cell types, with peculiar clinicopathologic features, arising mainly as tumors or destructive lesions in the nasal cavity, maxillary sinuses, or palate [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The cell of origin of these tumors has been debated. (hindawi.com)
- Extranodal NKTCL represents the major group of mature NK cell neoplasms in the recently revised WHO classification of hematolymphoid tumors, which also include the aggressive NK cell leukemia (ANKL) and a provisional group of chronic NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorder of uncertain malignant potential, most likely related to T-cell large granular lymphomas [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- We observed that fewer NK cells infiltrated the tumors in IFN-γ receptor knockout (IFN-γR −/− ) mice compared with wild-type controls that correlated with decreased survival rate. (aacrjournals.org)
- Our results identify IFN-γ and the expression of CXCR3 on NK cells as prerequisites for NK cell infiltration into tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- For this reason, it is important to identify and exploit factors regulating NK cell accumulation in tumors to improve the success of antitumor therapies. (aacrjournals.org)
- Therefore, NK cells are particularly important for the elimination of tumors with reduced or absent MHC class I expression that evade CD8 + T cell-mediated killing ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Thus far, only little is known about chemokines or other factors governing accumulation of NK cells in tumors and tumor metastases. (aacrjournals.org)
- T-cell receptor γ δ T cells constitute an important subset of cytotoxic non-conventional effectors involved in immune reactions against mycobacteria and tumors. (haematologica.org)
- In the resistant tumors, TAMs remained inactive and did not exert antigen-presenting activity. (jci.org)
- Seven days after the last administration, splenocytes were isolated and restimulated with peptides of predicted neoepitopes or known tumor antigens (AH-1 in CT26 and NY-ESO-1 p81 in CMS5a/NY tumors). (jci.org)
- Moreover, we found that hyaluronan fragments constitute a common factor produced by various tumors to induce the formation of immunosuppressive Mφ, and also that upregulation of hyaluronan synthase-2 in tumor cells is correlated with the ability of the cells to cause Mφ dysfunction. (bloodjournal.org)
- Malignant gliomas express tumor-associated and tumor-specific antigens that should make these tumors detectable to the immune system ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- On the contrary, killing of different NK-susceptible tumor cell lines was variably affected, reflecting the differential usage of NKp30 and/or NKG2D in the lysis of such tumors. (pnas.org)
- One of this markers, the paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 (PNMA2), which is normally expressed only in nervous tissue, can in the process of carcinogenesis be detected in tumors located outside the nervous system. (enets.org)
- used a three-dimensional, collagen-fibrin gel system to investigate the effects of CD8 + T cells on cocultured melanoma cells excised from mouse tumors. (sciencemag.org)
- APUDOMA is a general term collectively applied to tumors associated with APUD cells. (slicksurface.com)
- To investigate the impact of CTL therapy on the cell cycle of tumor cells in situ , we generated B16 cells expressing a fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator (B16-fucci) and performed CTL therapy in mice bearing B16-fucci tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- The immune system protects against assaults on the body External assaults include microorganisms: protozoans, bacteria, and viruses Internal assaults: abnormal cells reproduce and form tumors that may become cancerous and spread. (slideserve.com)
- In seeing the promise of CAR T-cell immunotherapy, Seattle Children's researchers are also working to develop CAR T-cell trials that will target solid tumors, including brain tumors and sarcomas. (eurekalert.org)
- Refuge initially focused on furthering cell therapy efficacy in solid tumors, but now we are exploring the potential ways to utilize the Refuge platform beyond oncology indications. (wuxiapptec.com)
- Upon activation, CD8 + T cells develop into cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs) ready to kill cells infected by intracellular pathogens, such as viruses, or eradicate tumors cells. (biology-online.org)
- Unopposed production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by tumors inhibits CD8+ T cell responses by dysregulating antigen-presenting cell maturation. (springer.com)
- These findings suggest that production of TNF-alpha by naive CD8 T cells immediately after TCR engagement may have an unappreciated impact within the local environment where Ag presentation is occurring and potentially influence the development of immune responses. (umassmed.edu)
- Collectively, these data suggest this dMP formulation conditions human antigen presenting cells toward a tolerogenic phenotype, inducing regulatory and suppressive T cell responses. (frontiersin.org)
- The aim of the current study was to determine whether such transformed cell lines could be used as antigen presenting cells to analyse the antigenic specificity of bovine CD8 T cell responses to viral infections. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1), which is known to induce CD8 T cell responses, was used as a model. (biomedcentral.com)
- BHV-1 is an important cause of respiratory disease in cattle [ 7 ] and, as with other related alpha herpesviruses, CD8 T cell responses are considered to have a key role in controlling persistent infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- Such systems can also permit the generation of T cell clones, allowing analysis of responses at the clonal level. (biomedcentral.com)
- Dendritic cells are professional antigen presenting cells that capture antigens and migrate to lymphoid tissues to elicit specific T cell responses. (nih.gov)
- The initiation of primary immune responses is the key function of specialized antigen presenting cells, the dendritic cells (DC). (nih.gov)
- Type I IFN subtypes-α and -β share common multicomponent, cell surface receptors, and elicit a similar range of biological responses, including antiviral, anti-proliferative ( 6 ), and immune modulatory activities. (frontiersin.org)
- Cancer cells express antigens that elicit T cell-mediated responses, but these responses are limited during malignant progression by the development of immunosuppressive mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment that drive immune escape. (aacrjournals.org)
- NFAT1 deficiency blunted the induction of anergy in tumor antigen-specific CD4+ T cells, enhancing antitumor responses. (aacrjournals.org)
- Successful responses of the immune system against tumor cells are frequently hindered by the presence of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Furthermore, by specifically targeting the regulation of anergy induction using NFAT1-deficient mice, our results support that tumor-induced CD4+ T-cell anergy participates in the evasion of antitumor responses, as NFAT1-deficient T cells become resistant to tumor-induced anergy, delaying tumor appearance and slowing tumor growth. (aacrjournals.org)
- Efficient antigen presentation requires the two distinct immune compartments to act in unison, where cell-mediated lysis carried out by the innate system generate antigenic peptides for activation of adaptive responses. (uio.no)
- 21 In addition, although not directly related to TAM, HA was recently found to induce potent proinflammatory responses in dendritic cells and Mφ. (bloodjournal.org)
- however, the lack of tumor eradication indicates that the T cells mediating adaptive immune responses are deficient in malignant glioma patients and are functionally impaired within the local tumor microenvironment ( 5 - 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Because significant T-cell immune suppression is induced by the GBM and because glioblastoma-associated cancer-initiating cells are a therapeutically resistant population, the question arises as to the participation of cancer-initiating cells in inhibiting T-cell responses. (aacrjournals.org)
- The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway is a potent regulator of anti-inflammatory responses through its suppression of macrophage activation ( 19 , 20 ), reduction of the cellular cytotoxicity of natural killer cells and neutrophils, and reduction of the expression of MHC II, CD80, CD86, and IL-12 in dendritic cells rendering them unable to stimulate T cells and generate antitumor immunity ( 21 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Here, we test the hypothesis that these T-cells represent a naturally generated population of Tregs capable of suppressing proinflammatory T-cell responses. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Meanwhile, preclinical evidence suggested that blocking negative regulators, or checkpoints, of T cell responses could improve antitumor immune responses ( Fig 1 ). (prolekare.cz)
- On the other hand, no information has been provided so far that cytokines known to exert an immunomodulatory role in immune responses can modulate the surface expression of triggering NK receptors. (pnas.org)
- T cells (right) and NK cells (left) are among the principal cellular effectors of the adaptive and innate immune responses, respectively. (haematologica.org)
- The adaptive immune system is an antigen-specific system that generates immunological memory and T-cell and antibody responses specific to pathogens or infected cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The innate immune system is the first line of defense against pathogens, working to recognize common components of pathogens so that further immune responses can be signaled in the presence of foreign pathogens. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Importantly, the majority of autoimmune responses against self-antigens do not result in disease progression. (diabetesjournals.org)
- T cell responses play a critical role in controlling or clearing viruses. (asm.org)
- Therefore, strategies to prevent or treat infections include boosting T cell responses. (asm.org)
- IMPORTANCE Preventive and therapeutic vaccines are being developed for many viral infections and often aim on inducing T cell responses. (asm.org)
- Preexisting T cells in unexposed individuals could be one reason that helps to explain the variable T cell responses to vaccines. (asm.org)
- Boosting T cell responses is one strategy to prevent or treat infections, including hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (asm.org)
- Tumor cells appear to have developed mechanisms to avoid immune system recognition and control, and among these is the inhibition of antitumor immune responses. (bloodjournal.org)
- One such deficiency is our inability to characterize T cell responses because susceptible syngeneic deer mice are not available. (biomedcentral.com)
- Besides NK and CD8 + T cells, which are highly specialized killer cells during the innate and adaptive responses, respectively, cells of the myeloid lineage also exhibit cytotoxic potential to various target cells using mechanisms that might also be used to eliminate pathogens. (jimmunol.org)
- Dendritic cells (DC) 4 are well known as professional APC able to activate naive T cells and thus are critical for the development of adaptive immune responses ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Many clinical trials have now been conducted using genetically engineered T cells specific for tumor antigens as well as TILs, and some objective responses have been achieved ( 4, 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The conditions that lead to responses of γδ T cells are not fully understood, and current concepts of γδ T cells as 'first line of defense', 'regulatory cells', or 'bridge between innate and adaptive responses' only address facets of their complex behavior. (wikidoc.org)
- Mature γδ T cells are divided into functionally distinct subsets that obey their own (mostly unknown) rules and that have countless direct and indirect effects on healthy tissues and immune cells, on pathogens and tissues enduring infections and the host responses to them. (wikidoc.org)
- Clearly, the complexity of γδ T cell biology spans definitions of both innate and adaptive immune responses. (wikidoc.org)
- Thus, the design of effective immune-based therapies for cancer relies in the identification of relevant tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) capable of eliciting strong helper and cytotoxic T-cell responses against tumor cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
- We use Cell Squeeze ® to engineer antigen-presenting cells, the cells that naturally activate T-cell responses," says Armon Sharei, PhD, CEO and founder of SQZ Biotech. (genengnews.com)
- they activate immune responses during viral infection and direct T cells toward distinct T helper type responses. (nih.gov)
- These cells are thought to negatively regulate immune responses and to prevent uncontrolled autoimmunity. (biology-online.org)
- The failure of RhoA activation to impact on pre-TCR-mediated signaling was in marked contrast to its actions on T cell responses mediated by the mature TCR α/β complex. (rupress.org)
- On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
- On the other hand, tumor cells develop various immune evasion mechanisms, including the down-regulation of anti-tumor immune responses. (oatext.com)
- help cytotoxic T cells (CTL) do their work and, probably, help convert some of them to memory cells. (biology-pages.info)
- The first such negative regulator tested was cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), a T cell surface receptor that binds with high affinity to the costimulatory ligands B7-1 and B7-2 found on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. (prolekare.cz)
- In this context, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) has been shown to inhibit human cytotoxic T lymphocyte- and, in part, human NK-mediated antitumor cytotoxicity ( 10 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
- CD8 + T cells are important mediators of immunity to many viral infections [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Several processes have been described to contribute to the immune escape that allows tumor cells to block antitumor immunity including, among others, the downregulation of antigen presentation by tumor cells and the expression of suppressor factors or the recruitment of cells with suppressor activity ( 1-5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- In this thesis we hypothesized that NK mediated cytolysis can bridge innate and adaptive immunity and prime systemic T cell reactivity. (uio.no)
- T-cell receptor γδ T cells are other important components of innate immunity that have been recently implicated in the immune response against hematologic malignancies. (haematologica.org)
- Thus, the strategy is to induce MUC1 antigen expression in a non-tumor environment, i.e., where the immune system is fully functional, in order to induce both innate and MUC1 specific adaptive immunity. (businesswire.com)
- These participate in both cell-mediated immunity and antibody-mediated immunity. (biology-pages.info)
- 1 - 4 The M1 or classical Mφ are activated by microbial products and interferon (IFN)-γ, and they are capable of efficiently killing microorganisms and tumor cells and eliciting adaptive Th1 immunity. (bloodjournal.org)
- 3 , 8 , 9 Mφ in normal or inflamed tissues exhibit spontaneous antitumor activity, whereas TAM are polarized M2 cells that suppress antitumor immunity and promote tumor progression. (bloodjournal.org)
- T-cells mission is to carry out what is known as "cell-mediated" immunity (cells against cells). (cjswaby.com)
- D ENDRITIC CELLS (DC), as the most potent antigen-presenting cells, play a central role in antitumor immunity. (bloodjournal.org)
- Regulatory T cells (T regs ) suppress antitumor immunity by inhibiting the killing of tumor cells by antigen-specific CD8 + T cells. (sciencemag.org)
- Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. (slicksurface.com)
- On one hand, γδ T cells may be considered a component of adaptive immunity in that they rearrange TCR genes to produce junctional diversity and will develop a memory phenotype. (wikidoc.org)
- However, the various subsets may also be considered part of the innate immunity where a restricted TCR may be used as a pattern recognition receptor. (wikidoc.org)
- T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play an essential role in the development of antigen-specific B cell immunity. (plos.org)
- Moreover, the adoptive transfer of HCMV-specific CD8 + T-cell clones has led to the restoration of virus-specific immunity in BMT patients ( 44 ). (asm.org)
- As an ideal intranasal vaccine adjuvant, it should have the properties of assisting soluble antigens to pass the mucosal barrier and potentiating both systemic and mucosal immunity via nasal administration. (dovepress.com)
- These TDSFs exert profound effects on T cells by shifting the T helper 1(Th1): T helper 2 (Th2) ratio towards Th2 that inhibit cell-mediated immunity [ 16 ], and inhibit T cell activation by down-regulating IL-2 receptor on T cells and interfering with IL-2 secretion [ 17 , 18 ]. (oatext.com)
- Exogenous application of IFN-γ in the tumor augmented levels of ligands of the chemokine receptor CXCR3, increased NK cell accumulation, and prolonged survival. (aacrjournals.org)
- One prominent activating receptor is NKG2D that recognizes multiple ligands, including RAE-1 family members ( 12 , 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- It was reported that the lack of MHC class I expression or ectopic expression of NKG2D ligands on tumor cells enhanced the accumulation of NK cells at the site of tumor cell injection ( 13 , 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- CTLA-4 and its ligands B7.1 and B7.2 on antigen-presenting cells were originally discovered in the 1980s. (jci.org)
- Target cell killing depends on the engagement of ligands specifically recognized by activating receptors and coreceptors expressed at the NK cell surface. (pnas.org)
- The ligands of these cells and their role remain elusive. (rupress.org)
- This review discusses the mechanisms and potential therapeutic applications of antigen-specific T cell tolerance techniques using syngeneic apoptotic cellular carriers and synthetic nanoparticles that are covalently cross-linked to diabetogenic peptides or proteins through ethylene carbodiimide (ECDI) to prevent and treat T1D. (soc-bdr.org)
- A range of cells and proteins are deployed to neutralise or destroy pathogens. (cjswaby.com)
- Sneaky and resourceful little chaps, they can also team up with other proteins to form traps for pathogens outside of cells. (cjswaby.com)
- These T cells are primed to recognize foreign proteins expressed on malignant and non-self cells. (haematologica.org)
- Zymosan, an immune stimulator, is composed of a crude mixture of yeast cell wall materials including proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides synthesized into a drug, which unfortunately has many negative side effects in patients. (betaglucan.org)
- With the PLAT-05 trial, researchers will now be able to reprogram CAR T cells to detect and destroy leukemia cells by targeting both the CD19 and CD22 proteins upfront. (eurekalert.org)
- These diverse biological roles are due to the tendency of CD81 to associate with other tetraspanins and with cell-specific partner proteins, which provide the cells with a signaling platform. (stanford.edu)
- The expanded cells display mostly a central memory phenotype, expressing higher levels of inhibitory receptors when compared with mock cells. (nature.com)
- Ligation of inhibitory receptors and defective activation of antigen presenting cells, among others, seem to contribute to the establishment of a hyporesponsive state in tumor specific T cells ( 3 , 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- For their biologic basis, these discoveries rely on the premise that T cell function is tightly regulated by both stimulatory and inhibitory checkpoints, a balance that strives to maintain self-tolerance and prevent autoimmunity. (jci.org)
- In contrast to the central immune inhibitory effects of CTLA-4, inhibition through PD-1 predominantly occurs at the periphery, with tumor cells up-regulating PD-L1 in response to local immune signals such as interferon-γ. (prolekare.cz)
- Second, NK cells are induced to kill target cells when the interaction between inhibitory receptor and HLA class I does not occur, as in the case of allogeneic cells or in the case of HLA class I-defective targets (such as certain tumor or virally infected cells) ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
- The cytoplasmic domain of CD45 is one of the largest known and it has an intrinsic phosphatase activity that removes an inhibitory phosphate group on a tyrosine kinase called Lck (in T cells) or Lyn/Fyn/Lck (in B cells) and activates it. (wikipedia.org)
- Fig. 5: 19BBz CAR-T cells are effective against RS4;11 GFP+ tumor cells in vivo. (nature.com)
- Here, using a B16 melanoma tumor model expressing the tumor surrogate antigen chicken albumin (OVA), we show that tumor antigen specific CD4+ T cells are rendered anergic in vivo through a mechanism that requires NFAT1 activity and involves the expression of anergy specific genes. (aacrjournals.org)
- Specifically, corneal endothelial cells cannot proliferate in vivo. (arvojournals.org)
- Characteristics of cancer-initiating cells also include high levels of the antiapoptotic genes, the ability to form neurospheres, nonadherence, possession of marker characteristics for astrocytic, neuronal, and oligodendroglial lineages ( 16 ), and tumorigencity in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
- By using IC-loaded DCs, ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells have been successfully induced in mice ( 8 ), suggesting that effective cross-presentation also occurs in vivo . (pnas.org)
- Examples include ex vivo gene transfer to modify cells, which are then infused into patients as described in "Gene Transfer and T-cell Therapies for Viral Infection and Cancer" and in the accompanying article by Aiuti and Roncarolo, beginning on page 678, and by local injection of vectors directly into sites with highly circumscribed anatomy, such as the retina. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- This presents a substantial challenge to translating advances in our understanding of Treg biology into immunotherapy for human type 1 diabetes, because the literature on the natural repertoire of human islet antigen-specific Tregs that may contribute to the tolerant state in vivo is scant. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In recent years, we have developed approaches that allow the functional interrogation of human autoreactive T-cells directly ex vivo for their ability to respond to islet autoantigens ( 14 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- T cells and natural killer cells are both thought to be important in the graft- versus -leukemia effect, and both cell types are amenable to ex vivo manipulation and clinical manufacture, making them versatile immunotherapeutics. (haematologica.org)
- 9 From a therapeutic perspective, both cell types are amenable to ex vivo manipulation and clinical manufacture, thus making them versatile immunotherapeutics. (haematologica.org)
- Compared to other cells, both T cells and NK cells are amenable to ex vivo manipulation, making them excellent sources of biological therapeutics. (haematologica.org)
- Ex vivo , these NS3-1073-specific CD8 + T cells were found to be both naive and memory cells. (asm.org)
- These data suggest that VEGF, at pathologically relevant concentrations in vivo, may exert effects on pluripotent stem cells that result in blocked DC development as well as affect many other hematopoietic lineages. (bloodjournal.org)
- We ask in this study whether recombinant VEGF alone at relevant concentrations would cause significant alterations in DC development in vivo in otherwise healthy animals, which cell populations would be most affected, and what role other factors may play in the effects mediated by VEGF. (bloodjournal.org)
- The methods can be practiced in vivo and any cell type that expresses a known marker can be targeted for a therapeutic objective. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- Delayed-type hypersensitivity response (DTH) is a rapid in vivo manifestation of T cell-dependent immune response to a foreign antigen (Ag) that the host immune system has experienced in the recent past. (jove.com)
- Comparative analysis of ex vivo Nrp1 + and Nrp1 - Tfh cells reveals gene expression modulation during activation. (plos.org)
- WuXi AppTec communications asked Dr. Wang to explain how Refuge's unique cell therapy platform can fight cancer in vivo and the future benefits of and challenges in developing cell therapies. (wuxiapptec.com)
- IFN-gamma can promote tumor evasion of the immune system in vivo by down-regulating cellular levels of an endogenous tumor antigen. (springer.com)
- This ability is dependent on an efficient means of exposing the cells to antigenic peptides, achieved through a mechanism known as antigen presentation. (uio.no)
- Importantly, recognition of various peptides derived from unrelated viruses by NS3-1073-specific CD8 + T cells showed a considerable degree of T cell cross-reactivity, suggesting that they might in part originate from previous heterologous infections. (asm.org)
- We describe here a strategy to identify helper T-cell epitopes for HER2/neu that focuses on peptides predicted to bind to numerous histocompatibility alleles (promiscuous epitopes), which would encourage their use in therapeutic vaccines for the general cancer patient population. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Interestingly, one of these peptides, HER2(883), was recognized by T cells in the context of either HLA-DR1, HLA-DR4, HLA-DR52, and HLA-DR53, indicating a high degree of histocompatibility promiscuity. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for the anergic phenotype of tumor antigen-specific T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- 4 , 5 The M2 cells share an IL-12 low /IL-10 high phenotype and are generally better adapted to remodeling tissues. (bloodjournal.org)
- Tumor-derived factors, including IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, "educate" the newly recruited monocytes to take on a M2 phenotype and perform a protumoral role. (bloodjournal.org)
- On the contrary, in certain pathological conditions, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), most patients' NK cells were found to express a homogeneous NCR dull phenotype ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
- Langerhans cells ( 7 ) and lymph node (LN) CD11c + cells from influenza-infected mice can express functional FasL ( 8 ), yet the precise phenotype of FasL + DC was not reported in the latter study. (jimmunol.org)
- D. A. MacKenzie, J. Schartner, J. Lin, A. Timmel, M. Jennens-Clough, C. G. Fathman, C. M. Seroogy, GRAIL is up-regulated in CD4 + CD25 + T regulatory cells and is sufficient for conversion of T cells to a regulatory phenotype. (sciencemag.org)
- However, the full range of MSC-mediated immune-modulation remains incompletely understood, as emerging reports also reveal that MSCs can adopt an immunogenic phenotype, stimulate immune cells, and yield seemingly contradictory results in experimental animal models of inflammatory disease. (wjgnet.com)
Artificial antigen prese2
- The present invention relates to, in part, artificial antigen presenting cells that are useful in treating disease (including cancers) and have uses, for. (patents.com)
- PB nT regs were purified under GMP conditions and expanded 80-fold to yield 19 × 10 9 cells using anti-CD3 antibody-loaded, cell-based artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) that expressed the high-affinity Fc receptor and CD86. (sciencemag.org)
- Murine fibrosarcoma CMS5a is highly refractory to checkpoint inhibition and lacks a specific CD8 + T cell response. (jci.org)
- A ) The murine tumor cell line CT26, CMS7, CMS5a/NY, or CMS5a was subcutaneously inoculated into BALB/c mice. (jci.org)
- The objective of our study was established the effect of the bovine IFN-τ on human (SiHa) and murine (BMK-16/myc) cells transformed with HPV 16 and evaluates the antitumor effect in a murine tumor model HPV 16 positive. (jcancer.org)
- We determine that bovine IFN-τ has antiproliferative effects, pro-apoptotic activity and induces repression of viral E6 and E7 oncogenes (time- and dose-dependent) on human and murine cells transformed with HPV 16 similar to the effects of IFN-β. (jcancer.org)
- CD45 does not colocalize with lipid rafts on murine and human non-transformed hematopoietic cells, but CD45 positioning within lipid rafts is modified during their oncogenic transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
- Purified lipooligosaccharide (LOS) containing lipid A devoid of the PEA modification and an lptA mutant of strain FA19 induced significantly lower levels of NF-κB in human embryonic kidney Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) cells and murine embryonic fibroblasts than wild-type LOS of the parent strain. (asm.org)
- In a murine model of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, CAR-modified Tregs were more effective in preventing the development of graft-versus-host disease compared with polyclonal Tregs. (jci.org)
- Natural CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells (nT regs ) have proven highly effective in preventing GVHD and autoimmunity in murine models. (sciencemag.org)
- To understand global effector mechanisms of CTL therapy, we performed microarray gene expression analysis in a murine model using pmel-1 T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic T cells as effectors and B16 melanoma cells as targets. (aacrjournals.org)
- In addition, CD8 + T cells and NK cells are essential to the control of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) replication ( 33 ). (asm.org)
- To model antigen-specific activation and downstream function, we co-cultured TCR-engineered autoreactive T cell "avatars," with dMP-DCs or control DCs followed by β-cell line (ßlox5) target cells. (frontiersin.org)
- Clonal anergy in CD4+ T cells is established as a result of the activation of a program of gene expression that is dependent on the transcription factor NFAT. (aacrjournals.org)
- Given CTLA-4's function as a negative regulator of T cell activation, Allison's group came to the realization that blocking CTLA-4 with an antibody could release the brakes on T cell function. (jci.org)
- Activation of natural killer cells provides a novel therapeutic strategy to cure liver related diseases. (elsevier.es)
- The simplified scheme of activation of the target gene by the vitamin D receptor. (intechopen.com)
- These cells are characterized by high endocytic activity and low T-cell activation potential. (wikipedia.org)
- Simultaneously, they upregulate cell-surface receptors that act as co-receptors in T-cell activation such as CD80 (B7.1), CD86 (B7.2), and CD40 greatly enhancing their ability to activate T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
- This shortest isoform facilitates T cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
- The activation of a T-cell involves multiple different cell types and genes, as we will discuss. (diabetesjournals.org)
- 8 VEGF binds to hematopoietic progenitor CD34 + cells through one of the VEGF-specific receptors (Flt-1) and inhibits the activation of transcription factor NF-κB in these cells. (bloodjournal.org)
- Activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) leading to IFN? (jove.com)
- The finding that the interaction between pDC and HBV may change upon activation may aid in the identification of a scavenging receptor supporting immunosuppressive effects of HBV and also in the design of novel treatment strategies for chronic HBV. (jove.com)
- Thus, Nrp1 is a specific marker of Tfh cells cognate activation in humans, which may prove useful as a prognostic factor and a therapeutic target in neoplastic diseases associated with Tfh cells activity. (plos.org)
- In the human immune system, in addition to being a specific marker for plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) [ 16 ], Nrp1 has been attributed a crucial role for the primary activation of T cells by DCs [ 17 ]. (plos.org)
- reported that CB1 activation by anandamide inhibited tumor cell migration, which is of paramount importance in metastasis development. (420magazine.com)
- Cell therapy company Refuge Biotechnologies, based in Menlo Park, CA is leveraging gene engineering technologies known as CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) and CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) to develop therapeutic cells that are programmed to make decisions inside the patient's body. (wuxiapptec.com)
- Macrophage-derived nitric oxide regulates T cell activation via reversible disruption of the Jak3/STAT5 signaling pathway. (springer.com)
- Here we report that the key T-cell transcription factor NFAT mediates expression of anergy-associated genes in the context of cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- Mice whose genes for T-bet have been "knocked-out" lack Th1 cells and have elevated numbers of Th2 cells (making them susceptible to such Th2-mediated disorders as asthma ). (biology-pages.info)
- Ninety-two genes/sequences were differentially expressed in adenocarcinomas and/or squamous cell carcinomas compared with their corresponding normal tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
- Several genes discovered recently of which the functions are unknown, such as KIAA0728 and KIAA0425 , were also differentially expressed in both adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. (aacrjournals.org)
- Vitamin D with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) binds to the regulatory sequences in the promoters of p21 and p27 genes activating their transcription that leads to the inhibition of the CDKs, lack of Rb phosphorylation and inhibition of the cell cycle progression. (intechopen.com)
- The adaptive immune system depends on the ability to assemble rearranged genes for both the T-cell receptor (TCR) and the immunoglobulin gene. (diabetesjournals.org)
- We have previously identified six novel marker genes for neuroendocrine tumor cells by using Affymetrix microarrays and advanced bioinformatics. (enets.org)
- Diaz M, Velez J, Singh M, Cerny J and Flajnik MF (1999) Mutational pattern of the nurse shark antigen receptor gene (NAR) is similar to that of mammalian Ig genes and to spontaneous mutations in evolution: the translesion synthesis model of somatic hypermutation. (els.net)
- Papavasiliou FN and Schatz DG (2000) Cell‐cycle‐regulated DNA double‐stranded breaks in somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. (els.net)
- Refuge's technology enables cells to sense their surroundings and conditionally activate or repress multiple genes when they encounter specific external antigens. (wuxiapptec.com)
- In particular, with receptor-dCas, immune cells can now be engineered to conditionally turn on/off certain genes, such as PD-1, to generate more potent CAR-T immune cells when it senses the presence of a tumor cell. (wuxiapptec.com)
- Refuge is uniquely positioned to be able to tackle these issues together as its platform technology has the ability to target multiple pathways that underpin these mechanisms at the same time by modulating multiple genes simultaneously in addition to a cell therapy itself, such as CAR-T. This effectively designs an intelligent cell that is fitter and can react to its environment. (wuxiapptec.com)
- Over the last few years technological advances have made it possible to study, in parallel, the expression of thousands of genes in cells, tissues or organisms. (biology-online.org)
- dMP delivery to monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) increased their expression of surface and intracellular anti-inflammatory mediators. (frontiersin.org)
- The frequency of stimulated CD8 + T cells was quantified by ( C ) intracellular IFN-γ staining ( n = 4 mice per group) or ( D ) the fold increase in CXCL9 mRNA levels compared with DMSO. (jci.org)
- 57. A synthetic nanocarrier of claim 43 wherein the CAR targeting agent is a surface antigen receptor or a receptor for an intracellular antigen presented by a Major Histocompatibility Complex antigen-presenting pathway. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- When released, anandamide and 2-AG are removed from extracellular compartments by a carrier-mediated reuptake process, and once within the cell, both endocannabinoids are hydrolyzed by intracellular hydrolytic enzymes of which the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is capable of recognizing both compounds as substrates [5, (420magazine.com)
- Our study aimed at identifying factors controlling intratumoral NK cell accumulation in s.c. injected NK cell sensitive tumor models and at studying their effect on survival time of recipient mice. (aacrjournals.org)
- Accordingly, significantly lower numbers of tumor-infiltrating NK cells were detected in CXCR3 −/− mice, and the capacity of adoptively transferred CXCR3 −/− NK cells to accumulate in the tumor was severely impaired. (aacrjournals.org)
- Stimulation of splenocytes from naive mice of differing genetic backgrounds with anti-CD3epsilon mAb resulted in significant production of TNF-alpha by naive CD8 T cells within 5 h. (umassmed.edu)
- B ) The experiment was performed in nude mice as described in A . ( C and D ) Induction of a tumor-specific CD8 + T cell response by checkpoint inhibition was evaluated. (jci.org)
- Indeed, cryopreserved donor nT regs restimulated four times significantly reduced GVHD lethality induced by the infusion of human T cells into immune-deficient mice. (sciencemag.org)
- Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. (slicksurface.com)
- Ratios of interleukin (IL)-17 to interferon-gamma production were higher in antigen-driven cultures of splenocytes from severely arthritic mice compared to mildly or nonarthritic mice. (biomedcentral.com)
- The ability of transferred CDPs to contribute to the pDC population in PP and to respond to Flt3L was evaluated by flow cytometry of PP single cell suspensions from recipient mice. (jove.com)
- No differences in ACF formation were observed between CB1 receptor-deficient and wild-type mice. (420magazine.com)
- Whereas the cells of the innate arm recognizes threats based on certain characteristics common to most invaders, adaptive immune cells is able to recognize billions of unique antigens due to specialized receptors on their surface. (uio.no)
- This explains how the immune system is able to recognize and respond to a virtually inestimable number of foreign antigens. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Of note, all Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells recognize the same small microbial compound ( E )-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate ( HMB-PP ), a natural intermediate of the non-mevalonate pathway of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) biosynthesis. (wikidoc.org)
- In addition, many of the clones generated may not produce mAbs that recognize the antigen of interest. (justia.com)
- A single dose of peripherally infused EGFRvIII-directed CAR T cells mediates antigen loss and induces adaptive resistance in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. (nature.com)
- T-cell hyporesponsiveness can be caused by clonal anergy or adaptive tolerance, but the pathophysiological roles of these processes in specific tumor contexts has yet to be understood. (aacrjournals.org)
- Once activated, they migrate to the lymph nodes where they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate and shape the adaptive immune response. (wikipedia.org)
- For discovering the central role of dendritic cells in the adaptive immune response, Steinman was awarded the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 2007 and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
- T cells, along with B cells, comprise the major cellular components of the adaptive immune system (Figure 1). (haematologica.org)
- The adaptive immune response is specific to the infecting pathogen and is triggered when the innate mechanisms are insufficient and a threshold antigen dose is reached. (genetherapynetwork.com)
- Little is known however on the mechanisms that regulate tumor-induced hyporesponsiveness in T helper cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- The most abundant helper T cells there are B-cell helpers called follicular helper T (Tfh) cells. (biology-pages.info)
- The use of these APC has allowed us to dramatically expand deer mouse helper T cells in culture and should permit extensive characterization of T cell epitopes. (biomedcentral.com)
- TY - JOUR T1 - Defining promiscuous MHC class II helper T-cell epitopes for the HER2/neu tumor antigen. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Our data indicate that TCR transfer is feasible as an alternative strategy to generate human HPV16 specific CD4+ T helper cells for the treatment of patients suffering from cervical cancer and other HPV16 induced malignancies. (biomedcentral.com)
- Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) are a specific T cell subset providing help to B cells, thus bolstering the formation of germinal centers (GC), the generation of long-lived plasma cells and of memory B cells. (plos.org)
- Reduced numbers of splenic FasL + CD5 + B cells correlated with increasing arthritis severity and decreased T-cell death in a T-cell receptor transgenic mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Importantly, we also show recognition of the endogenously processed and HLA-DP1 presented HPV16E6 epitope by 24.101 TCR transgenic CD4+ T cells and recognition of the HLA-A2 presented HPV16E7 epitope by A9 TCR transgenic CD4+ T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- These cells, designated Treg , are discussed on another page. (biology-pages.info)
- DO11 GRAIL cells also had larger amounts of the surface Treg markers, CD25, GITR, and CTLA4. (sciencemag.org)
- In mouse, Nrp1 is expressed by recent thymic emigrant invariant NKT cells [ 18 ] and is constitutively expressed by natural Foxp3 + Treg cells [ 19 - 23 ]. (plos.org)
- However, in humans Nrp1 expression is rarely found on CD25 + Foxp3 + Treg cells [ 24 , 25 ]. (plos.org)
- In turn, Treg cells hinder DCs and/or normal CD4+ T cells in their activities, while Th17 cells are involved in inflammatory and autoimmune reactions . (nih.gov)
- Autologous T. annulata -transformed cells infected with BHV-1 were then used successfully to generate specific CD8 T cell lines and clones from memory T cell populations of BHV-1-immune animals. (biomedcentral.com)
- TILs are successively selected for their ability to secrete high levels of interferon-γ (IFNγ) when cultured with autologous or allogeneic MHC-matched tumour-cell lines. (nih.gov)
- The natural mechanisms involved in host defense can turn against self, promoting the development of an autoimmune response to antigens of the host's own tissue. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In summary, when the macrophage is activated by receptor contact with a beta glucan particulate, a cascade of events transforms the cells into 'an arsenal of defense,' according to Dr. Czop. (betaglucan.org)
- Divided into granulocytes (N, E, B) and mononuclear cells (M, L). Responsible for defense against infections. (brainscape.com)
- With this more robust defense, researchers hope the new experimental therapy, first being investigated in the phase 1 Pediatric Leukemia Adoptive Therapy (PLAT-05) trial, will ultimately be able to cut the rate of relapse following CAR T-cell therapy by almost half. (eurekalert.org)
- One of the effects reported to occur in the tumor microenvironment is the induction of antigen-specific tolerance in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells ( 6, 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The immune system is a major player in the cancer cell/tumor microenvironment crosstalk. (biomedcentral.com)
- But when the enemy is a solid tumor, one must do battle in the tumor microenvironment, a hostile terrain where one's allies in the immune system may lose their way, exhaust themselves, or even switch sides, lending cancer cells aid and comfort. (genengnews.com)
- Dr. Bing Wang: As research progresses further into how cell therapies work and act within the tumor microenvironment, it is expected that better control over these mechanisms will improve the efficacy of cell therapies. (wuxiapptec.com)
- More than structural cells, fibroblasts create and orchestrate the tumor microenvironment. (springer.com)
- To address this, we developed a novel biomaterial therapy to deliver immunomodulatory agents along with autoantigen as a means to recruit and tolerize dendritic cells (DCs) for robust antigen-specific T cell tolerance ( 20 , 21 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The capacity of the cells to generate antigen-specific CD8 T cell lines was initially validated using a recombinant canarypox virus expressing a defined immunodominant T. parva antigen (Tp1). (biomedcentral.com)
- These lines were BHV-1-specific and class I MHC-restricted. (biomedcentral.com)
- Given the relatively low frequencies of virus-specific CD8 T cells in circulating memory T cell populations (typically ranging from 1/500 to 1/20 000 in human peripheral blood) [ 8 , 9 ], such assays have limited sensitivity. (biomedcentral.com)
- Several models of intrinsic T-cell hyporesponsiveness have been proposed, each regulated by a specific set of molecular mechanisms that maintain T cells anergic ( 10, 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- By using CD40 activated B cells as an alternative APC, we observed a significant difference in T cell expansions towards specific antigens. (uio.no)
- This stimulation also led to an increase in epitope specific cells against a known melanoma antigen, MART-1. (uio.no)
- Although further investigations are needed, exploiting NK cell cytolysis and natural fragmentation of tumor associated antigens may hold utility in the development of cancer vaccines by providing new insights into tumor specific epitopes and neo-antigens. (uio.no)
- The ability to tolerize T cells specific for autoantigens, allergens, and alloantigens remains the most desired treatment for a myriad of immune-mediated diseases, including autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). (soc-bdr.org)
- A goal was to establish cell-type-specific expression of key transporters and enzymes involved in neurotransmitter metabolism in order to estimate neurotransmitter and metabolite traffic between neurons and astrocytes. (academicconcepts.net)
- Blockade of GITRL did not affect allo-specific ACAID but led to infiltration of Foxp3(−)CD4 + T cells and allograft rejection. (arvojournals.org)
- 23. The TCR of claim 16, wherein the TCR recognizes a specific antigen. (google.com.au)
- The vitamin D receptor (VDR) with vitamin D (VD) binds as a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) specific sequence in the promoter region of the target gene - the vitamin D responsive element (VDRE). (intechopen.com)
- CONCLUSIONS This hitherto undescribed population of islet autoantigen-specific Tregs displays unique characteristics that offer exquisite specificity and control over the potential for pathological autoreactivity and may provide a suitable target with which to strengthen β-cell-specific tolerance. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Critically, these studies highlighted the importance of antigen specificity: islet-specific Tregs have far greater potency than those derived from polyclonal populations. (diabetesjournals.org)
- These assassins directly attack and destroy other cells with the same specific antigen presented, this is done through various mechanisms. (cjswaby.com)
- Among these, the NK-specific NKp46, NKp30, and NKp44, collectively termed natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR) ( 5 ), and NKG2D ( 6 , 7 ) appear to play a major role in the NK-mediated cytotoxicity. (pnas.org)
- Thus, their simultaneous blocking by specific mAbs results in the virtual abrogation of the NK-mediated cytolytic activity against the majority of target cells. (pnas.org)
- 5 Over the last several decades, the introduction of calcineurin inhibitors, T-cell depletion strategies, and immunomodulators has helped to prevent GVHD, but at a cost - with inhibition of the donor-specific immune response including the graft-versus-tumor/leukemia (GVL) effect. (haematologica.org)
- We performed a detailed characterization of CD8 + T cells specific to a hepatitis C virus (HCV) epitope (NS3-1073) in 121 HCV-seronegative individuals. (asm.org)
- Research at Harvard University in the 1980s by Joyce Czop, Ph.D., found specific receptor sites for beta glucan that matches a site on the surface of the macrophage. (betaglucan.org)
- The Harvard University research demonstrated the macrophage, an immune system white blood cell that 'eats' or subjects non-self foreign microbes to phagocytosis, has a specific receptor for beta-1,3-glucan approximately one micron in size. (betaglucan.org)
- Confirmation of the direct killing effect of B cells on T cells was demonstrated using an antigen-specific T hybridoma cell line. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, low precursor frequencies of HPV16 specific T cells in patients and healthy donors hampers routine isolation of these cells for adoptive transfer purposes. (biomedcentral.com)
- An alternative to generate HPV specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is TCR gene transfer. (biomedcentral.com)
- HPV specific CD4+ T cells were generated using either a MHC class I or MHC class II restricted TCR (from clones A9 and 24.101 respectively) directed against HPV16 antigens. (biomedcentral.com)
- Adoptive transfer of HPV specific T cells could be an attractive strategy to treat patients suffering from HPV induced malignancies. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our studies provide a potentially more efficient approach for generating antigen-specific CTLs for ACT-based therapies and facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies for diseases. (jove.com)
- The methods may be used to improve the efficiency of obtaining immortalized antigen-specific plasma cells or to improve the quality of molecularly cloned Ig heavy and light chains. (justia.com)
- For a given target, dozens of mAbs may need to be screened, and thus the techniques used to generate the mAbs must be able to generate a panel of highly diverse antigen-specific (Ag-specific) mAbs. (justia.com)
- Typically, one hybridoma clone may be generated per 10 5 -10 6 splenocytes fused, thus most of the Ag-specific cells contained within the splenocyte population may be lost. (justia.com)
- The frequency of producing successful, Ag-specific B cell hybridomas may be on the order of one per 10 6 -10 8 starting cells. (justia.com)
- Specifically, we utilized 30 µm MPs to provide local sustained release of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) along with 1 µm MPs to facilitate phagocytic uptake of encapsulated antigen and 1α,25(OH) 2 Vitamin D 3 (VD3) followed by tolerogenic antigen presentation. (frontiersin.org)
- Remarkably, this IFN-γ-inducible characteristic was due neither to enhanced antigen uptake nor to facilitated antigen processing in LCs. (pnas.org)
- The enhanced cross-presentation reflects, at least in part, the efficient uptake of IC-bound antigen by means of plasma membrane Fcγ receptors ( 5 , 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
- Such interactions determine the extent of the cellular nanoparticles uptake in targeted drug delivery - shape and size have the potential to increase uptake into a desired cell type while minimizing the uptake into the other cell types14. (bioskinrevive.com)
- acts as a positive-feedback device promoting more pre-Th cells to enter the Th2 pathway. (biology-pages.info)
- The STAT3 pathway is constitutively active in these clones and the immunosuppressive properties were markedly diminished when the STAT3 pathway was blocked in the cancer-initiating cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- These findings indicate that cancer-initiating cells contribute to the immune evasion of GBM and that blockade of the STAT3 pathway has therapeutic potential. (aacrjournals.org)
- To develop a vaccine strategy by using IC, it is essential to understand the mechanism of antigen transport from the membrane to the cytosol by means of the cross-presentation pathway in DCs, which remains to be elucidated. (pnas.org)
- Results of previous studies demonstrated that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway may be activated in the great majority of NET cells. (enets.org)
- It enhances tumor immunogenicity by upregulating components of the MHC antigen processing and presentation pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
- Bacterial species that lack the non-mevalonate pathway and synthesize IPP via the classical mevalonate pathway instead, such as Streptococcus , Staphylococcus , and Borrelia , are unable to produce HMB-PP and do not specifically activate Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells. (wikidoc.org)