Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Nobel PrizeHistory, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Human Genome Project: A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Biochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Genetic Techniques: Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.Forensic Sciences: Disciplines that apply sciences to law. Forensic sciences include a wide range of disciplines, such as FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY; FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; FORENSIC MEDICINE; FORENSIC DENTISTRY; and others.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Biochemical Phenomena: The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Cells: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Cybernetics: That branch of learning which brings together theories and studies on communication and control in living organisms and machines.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Luciferases, Bacterial: Luciferases from BACTERIA such as PHOTOBACTERIUM; VIBRIO; and PHOTORHABDUS.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Molecular Probe Techniques: The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Software Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Ictaluridae: A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Information Theory: An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Genetic Diseases, Inborn: Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Bioengineering: The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.
  • Role for regulated phosphatase activity in generating mitotic oscillations in Xenopus cell-free extracts. (nih.gov)
  • We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensors to visualize gradients of Ran-GTP and liberated cargoes around chromosomes in mitotic Xenopus egg extracts. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cell-free cytoplasmic extracts prepared from Xenopus eggs have been used extensively to recapitulate and characterize intracellular events in vitro. (chemie.de)
  • Here, we present a large dataset of Xenopus extract spindle images together with an analysis pipeline designed to assess spindle morphology across a range of experimental conditions. (rupress.org)
  • Our goal was to assemble a large dataset of Xenopus spindle images and develop a pipeline for efficient measurement and analysis that can be broadly applied by cell biologists without specialized skills in automated image analysis. (rupress.org)
  • Our model systems include: zebrafish and Xenopus cleavage-stage embryos, mammalian cell culture, and synthetic cells. (upenn.edu)
  • Encapsulation of Xenopus Egg and Embryo Extract Spindle Assembly Reactions In Synthetic Cell-like Compartments with Tunable Size. (upenn.edu)
  • The model was derived from classic experiments on the biochemistry and molecular genetics of CDKs and their partner proteins. (nih.gov)
  • We have investigated eosinophils as potential anti-cancer effector cells, and have reported the ability of their toxic granular proteins (MBP, EPO, ECP, EDN) to inhibit prostate tumor cell growth in vitro . (scirp.org)
  • Briefly, granular proteins were differentially extracted from GRC.014.22 and GRC.014.24, eosinophilic cell lines established in our laboratory from a patient with moderate asthma. (scirp.org)
  • There was significant down-regulation in the gene expression of G0/G1 phase-related proteins CDK 1, cyclin B1, CDK 4 and cyclin D1 in comparison to untreated HeLa cells, inferring an inhibitory action of the plant extract on the cyclin dependent kinases and activation of cell cycle checkpoints. (omicsonline.org)
  • Continuous flow separation of hydrophobin fusion proteins from plant cell culture extract. (vtt.fi)
  • While SPA solves the structure of highly purified proteins, Cryo-ET opens windows into cells, allowing a molecular view of proteins in their native environment. (fei.com)
  • The circadian clock drives rhythms in the levels of thousands of proteins in the mammalian cell, arising in part from rhythmic transcriptional regulation of the genes that encode them. (chemie.de)
  • The genome of Methanosarcina acetivorans encodes three homologs, initially annotated as hypothetical fused corrinoid/methyl transfer proteins, which are highly elevated in CO-grown cells versus cells grown with alternate substrates. (asm.org)
  • Our laboratory is involved in the development of novel methods of single molecule manipulation and detection (such as Optical Tweezers and Single Molecule Fluorescence microscopy) and their application to study the behavior of DNA-binding molecular motors and the mechanical unfolding of globular proteins and RNA's. (berkeley.edu)
  • The overlying goals of these studies are to determine whether stable subunits present in these cell lines associate with novel proteins, how these are modified by cancer-causing mutations, and whether the presence of mutant Swi/Snf complexes can interfere with the functioning of normal SAGA. (stowers.org)
  • These proteins mediate recognition and adhesion between myoblasts and regulation of actin-associated processes that occur at the point of cell fusion. (stowers.org)
  • Viral envelope proteins are what enable viruses to attach to and enter host cells, and then proceed to replicate their DNA and RNA. (prohealth.com)
  • p16 INK4A , originally identified as a protein associating with CDK4 in transformed cells ( 57 ), was cloned in a two-hybrid screen for proteins interacting with CDK4 ( 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Although current textbook explanations of cell-cycle control in eukaryotes emphasize the periodic activation of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs), recent experimental observations suggest a significant role for the periodic activation and inactivation of a CDK-counteracting protein phosphatase 2A with a B55δ subunit (PP2A:B55δ), during mitotic cycles in frog-egg extracts and early embryos. (nih.gov)
  • Bistability, oscillations, and traveling waves in frog egg extracts. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we describe six unexpected predictions of our 1993 model of the CDK control system in frog egg extracts and the remarkable experiments, performed much later, that verified all six predictions. (nih.gov)
  • Extracts of cells that are down-regulated for transcription by RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III exhibit a reduced in vitro transcriptional capacity. (asm.org)
  • Phytochemical, in vitro antioxidant and in vivo safety evaluation of leaf extracts of Tragia plukenetii. (ikprress.org)
  • Manipal S, Fathima L, Hussain ST, Venkat R. Efficacy of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal action on four medicinal plants extract the A. arabica, T. chebula, A. indica and V. vinifera against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans-an in-vitro study. (ikprress.org)
  • The goal of this in vitro study was to test the cytostatic and cytotoxic activities of extracts derived from the polysaccharopeptide (PSP), I'm-Yunity (Integrated Chinese Medicine Holdings Ltd., Kowloon, Hong Kong) prepared from strain Cov-1 of the mushroom Coriolus versicolor. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro analysis of transcription and the factors that play a role in transcription require preparation of an extract that faithfully reproduces in vivo transcription. (currentprotocols.com)
  • The extracts were found to have a polyphenol profile (ultraperformance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight) and to exhibit antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition (spectrophotometer) in vitro and a hypoglycemic effect in vivo . (ijpsonline.com)
  • Regulation of T cell motility in vitro and in vivo by LPA and LPA2. (rochester.edu)
  • The aim of this study is to determine the in vitro anti-proliferative effects and apoptotic events of A. muricata extracts on HL-60 cells as well as to quantify its phenols content. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Osteopontin (OPN), an RGD-containing extracellular matrix protein, is associated with arterial smooth muscle cell (SMC) activation in vitro and in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • Circulating angiogenic cell function is inhibited by cortisol in vitro and associated with psychological stress and cortisol in vivo. (ucsf.edu)
  • Different garlic extracts including Ethanol (EE), Ether (ALE), Aqueous extracts (AQE), as well as Nano-emulsion extract (ALN) were prepared and investigated using agar well diffusion method against common poultry strains (E. coli), and clinical strains including gram-positive methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and gram-negative enteric bacteria containing NDM1 resistant gene (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Citrobacter and Klebsiella pneumonia). (ikprress.org)
  • Different volumes of 70% ethanol and water extracts of I'm-Yunity were incubated with cultures of human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells, and compared to nontreated control cells. (nih.gov)
  • This study revealed that the number of polyphenol subclasses of the 96 % ethanol extract was greater than that of the other extracts. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The 96 % ethanol extract showed very high inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities. (ijpsonline.com)
  • A hypoglycemic assay of the 96 % ethanol extract at 300 mg/kg dose exhibited a significant hypoglycemic activity in experimental rats. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The present results suggested that the ethanol extract of Acalpha hispida leaves could be an effective hyperglycemic agent acting through inhibiting α-glucosidase and α-amylase. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The ethanol extract of A. hispida leaves exhibited antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhii [ 9 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • reported that the ethanol extract of A. hispida leaves showed antiinflammatory and antioxidant activity[ 9 , 10 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • 50 g of Lycium barbarum L. medicinal material was soaked overnight in a 3-fold amount of 30% ethanol, then extracted under heat reflux for 1 h three times. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Polymerase III transcription factor B activity is reduced in extracts of growth-restricted cells. (asm.org)
  • We have recently demonstrated that the down-regulation of polymerase I transcription in extracts of cycloheximide-treated and stationary-phase cells results from a lack of an activated subform of RNA polymerase I which is essential for rDNA transcription. (asm.org)
  • To examine whether polymerase III transcriptional down-regulation occurs by a similar mechanism, the polymerase III transcription factors were isolated and added singly and in pairs to control cell extracts and to extracts of cells that had reduced polymerase III transcriptional activity due to cycloheximide treatment or growth into stationary phase. (asm.org)
  • Thus, although transcription by both polymerase III and polymerase I is substantially decreased in extracts of growth-arrested cells, this regulation is brought about by reduction of different kinds of activities: a component of the polymerase III stable transcription complex in the former case and the activated subform of RNA polymerase I in the latter. (asm.org)
  • Cell lines overexpressing ribin exhibit enhanced rRNA transcription and faster growth. (asm.org)
  • The transcription of these genes, executed by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) and assisting factors, is strictly cell cycle and growth regulated (reviewed in references 15 , 32 , and 34 ). (asm.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that other Pol I transcription factors are also targets of regulation, finding that the phosphorylation status and activity of UBF, SL1, and TTFI are cell cycle controlled through cyclin-dependent kinases ( 20 , 24 , 41 , 44 ). (asm.org)
  • It has also been shown that the core promoter sequence alone is sufficient to inhibit PolI transcription in trans , presumably competing for a factor(s) binding to it, and detection of such binding activity in cells supported this finding ( 23 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, the present study explored whether various signaling molecules associated with HepG2 cell death were affected by CO treatment, including caspase‑3, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), tumor protein p53 (p53), cyclin‑dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and cyclin D. The expression levels of these genes were examined by reverse‑transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 3 days results in transcription extracts of a very poor quality. (currentprotocols.com)
  • In addition we use the Scanning Force Microscope (SFM) to investigate the structure of chromatin and the global structure of protein-nucleic acid complexes relevant to the molecular mechanisms of control of transcription in prokaryotes. (berkeley.edu)
  • WetLab-2 will enable traditional uses of quantitative PCR, such as measuring gene transcription or rapid detection of gene targets that indicate infectious disease, cell stress, changes in cell cycle, growth and development, and/or genetic abnormality. (nasa.gov)
  • Within a cell, transcription of DNA packaged into chromatin is regulated by large multiprotein complexes that modify chromatin structure and gene accessibility through a variety of mechanisms. (stowers.org)
  • These approaches lose dynamic information from individual cells, and give the impression transcription is a continuous smooth process. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We are testing the implications of noisy transcription on the generation of diversity between cells during development and for improving regenerative medicine. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In frog eggs and fission yeast cells, this control is exercised primarily at the level of protein degradation, by controlling the activity of the APC:Cdc20 ubiquitination machinery. (nih.gov)
  • Cell division protein kinase 8 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK8 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein extracts were fractionated on Sephadex G-50 columns, and prostate tumor cell lines DU-145, LNCaP, PC-3, and HPC8L (established in our laboratory from a tumor resected from an African American patient) were treated with MBP extracts from the pooled third peaks. (scirp.org)
  • In this study we compared two different codon usages of RHDV2-VP1 to improve the expression of recombinant VP1 of RHDV2 by recombinant baculoviruses after infection of insect SF9 cells or transduction of mammalian RK13 cells in order to gain high protein yields. (springer.com)
  • In contrast, HIF-1α protein is remarkably unstable in cells exposed to oxygen, whereas hypoxia induces a striking increase in the abundance of HIF-1α protein. (pnas.org)
  • Nucleoplasmin, the first identified molecular chaperone is a thermostable acidic protein with a pentameric structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GLP-1 promotes β-cell survival by interaction with GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), a member of the G s -protein-coupled receptor superfamily ( 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) stimulates the expression of various genes required for insulin secretion and cell survival ( 17 , 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our lab is interested: 1) cell size control and the downstream consequences of size-dysregulation, and 2) coordinated protein assembly into mesoscale structures, including membraneless organelles, the mitotic spindle and signaling complexes. (upenn.edu)
  • optochemical dimerizers to control protein localization and enzymatic activity within synthetic cells. (upenn.edu)
  • Optochemical Control of Protein Localization and Activity within Cell-like Compartments. (upenn.edu)
  • Inhibition of protein synthesis during G2 phase prevents the cell from undergoing mitosis. (wikibooks.org)
  • Our studies also extended to the myoblast cell surface, and included the discovery of the IgSF protein SNS and the Rac1 regulatory complex MBC/Ced12, some of the earliest identified Drosophila genes critical for fusion of myoblasts into myotubes. (stowers.org)
  • By repressing the translation and promoting the degradation of target mRNA s, mi RNA s may reduce the cell‐to‐cell variability in protein expression, induce correlations between target expression levels, and provide a layer through which targets can influence each other's expression as "competing RNA s" (ce RNA s). (embopress.org)
  • To investigate the effects of Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (p38MAPK) and other kinase pathways on the activation of Nuclear related factor 2 (Nrf2) signalling pathway by Phyllanthus emblica L. extract (PET). (alliedacademies.org)
  • A series of stable breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) knockdown cell lines were produced by transduction of Caco-2 cells with lentiviral vector-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here, we show that the leucine-rich repeat protein LRR-1 promotes cell cycle progression during C. elegans development, both in the germ line and in the early embryo. (biologists.org)
  • Provides comprehensive proteomics services using mass spectrometry, determining the protein contents of samples as simple as gel bands or as complicated as whole cell extracts. (berkeley.edu)
  • MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability and cytotoxic effect of aqueous-methanol extract of R. arboreum was determined. (omicsonline.org)
  • The ability of extracts to affect the secretion of IL-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-8 were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (nih.gov)
  • Cell viability was determined using the 2,3‑bis [2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]‑2H‑tetrazolium‑5‑carboxanilide assay. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Extracts' antiproliferative activities were evaluated against MCF 10A, MCF7, and MDA-MB-231 for 24 and 48 h using MTT assay. (mdpi.com)
  • We used male and female Swiss mice and Wistar rats and the comet assay and micronucleus test to investigate the mutagenic potential of a crude extract of P. cubeba seeds. (scielo.br)
  • For the Wistar rats, peripheral blood and hepatic cells were collected for the comet assay and bone marrow cells were collected for the micronucleus test 24 h after treatment. (scielo.br)
  • Manuscripts should significantly advance the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying biological processes in which lipids are involved. (elsevier.com)
  • The molecular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle progression in a developmental context are poorly understood. (biologists.org)
  • Dr. Springer's research interests include cell therapy and gene therapy approaches to studying cardiovascular disease, with the goals of exploring potential treatments and understanding underlying mechanisms involved in angiogenesis, vascular function, and treatments for myocardial infarction. (ucsf.edu)
  • In this paper, we extend an earlier mathematical model of embryonic cell cycles to include experimentally motivated roles for PP2A:B55δ and its regulation by Greatwall kinase. (nih.gov)
  • Our model is consistent with what is already known about the regulation of CDK and PP2A:B55δ in frog eggs, and it suggests a previously undescribed role for the Greatwall-PP2A:B55δ interaction in creating a toggle switch for activation of the anaphase-promoting complex as embryonic cells exit mitosis and return to interphase. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of CDK8 and CDK19 with cortistatin A suppresses AML cell growth and has anticancer activity in animal models of AML by causing selective and disproportionate up regulation of super-enhancer -associated genes including the cell identity genes CEBPA and IRF8 . (wikipedia.org)
  • BBA Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids publishes papers on original research dealing with novel aspects of molecular genetics related to the lipidome, the biosynthesis of lipids , the role of lipids in cells and whole organisms, the regulation of lipid metabolism and function, and lipidomics in all. (elsevier.com)
  • In the last decade, there has been substantial progress in understanding the molecular basis of oxygen sensing and transcriptional regulation of physiologically relevant genes including those encoding erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor, tyrosine hydroxylase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and glycolytic enzymes (for reviews see refs. (pnas.org)
  • Molecular regulation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis in streptozotocin-induced diabetes: Effects of insulin treatment. (scialert.net)
  • Top: Biochemical studies of frog eggs focused on the role of M-phase promoting factor (MPF) in driving cells from interphase (DNA synthesis) into mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • MPF activity disappears as cells exit mitosis and return to interphase. (nih.gov)
  • During interphase, Ran-GTP was highly enriched in the nucleoplasm, and a steep concentration difference between nuclear and cytoplasmic Ran-GTP was established, providing evidence for a Ran-GTP gradient surrounding chromosomes throughout the cell cycle. (sciencemag.org)
  • The cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1 (Gap1) phase, S phase (synthesis), G2 (Gap2) phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis). (wikibooks.org)
  • These results indicated that DNA damage checkpoint system in γIR or HI exposed cells were abrogated by FEPLE treatment through the inhibition of ATM-dependent signaling pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This investigation is aimed at evaluating the polyphenol profile, antioxidant, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory and the hypoglycemic activities of Acalypha hispida leaf extract in vivo . (ijpsonline.com)
  • To determine the function of FGF2 in vivo, we have generated FGF2 knockout mice, lacking all three FGF2 isoforms, by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. (jove.com)
  • Under our experimental conditions, the P. cubeba seed extract was genotoxic in vivo when administered orally to mice and rats. (scielo.br)
  • The progression of cells in culture to an immortalized state, although not identical, has many features in common with the development of cancer in vivo. (asm.org)
  • The molecular framework of spliceosome at near-atomic-resolution demonstrates Spp42 component of U5 snRNP forms a central scaffold and anchors the catalytic center in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • LB Medium supports a luxurious growth of E. coli cells as tryptone and yeast extract supply essential growth factors that E. coli cells would otherwise have to synthesize. (mpbio.com)
  • Finally, both RHDV-VP1 VLPs derived from mammalian and insect cells were able to induce a protective humoral immune response in rabbits against RHDV2. (springer.com)
  • 2-4 We have previously shown that extracellular nucleotides are also able to induce cell-cycle progression of SMCs 5,6 and their migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Papers detailing novel methodology must report significant biochemical, molecular, or functional insight in the area of lipids. (elsevier.com)
  • The modelling aspect is divided into modelling molecular interaction and regulatory networks, through dynamic Boolean and Bayesian models, and modelling biochemical networks and regulatory networks, through Differential/Difference Equations. (igi-global.com)
  • Indeed, quantitative global proteomic profiling coupled with molecular and biochemical analyses of M. acetivorans grown with CO versus acetate or methanol revealed an H 2 -independent CO 2 reduction pathway in which electron transfer reactions deviate substantially from that of M. barkeri and other H 2 -oxidizing, CO 2 -reducing species ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Therefore the present study provides biochemical evidence for the antiulcerogenic property of Carica papaya fruit extract. (ispub.com)
  • Stochastic variation in single‐cell gene expression can be used to infer biochemical parameters of mi RNA ‐target interaction. (embopress.org)
  • R. arboreum extract up-regulated the gene expression of caspase 8, caspase 9, caspase 3, p53 and p21, thus indicating a switching on of both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways resulting in DNA damage which in-turn up-regulated p53. (omicsonline.org)
  • There was no influence of different codon usages on RHDV2-VP1 gene expression in the respective cell lines detected. (springer.com)
  • Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation and gene Expression patterns in purified, uncultures human liver cells and activated hepatic stellate cells. (uio.no)
  • The approach is generalizable to other mi RNA s and post‐transcriptional regulators to improve the understanding of gene expression dynamics in individual cell types. (embopress.org)
  • The main angiogenesis interest is how cardiac motion and cyclical forces influences angiogenic gene expression and cell behavior. (ucsf.edu)
  • In this study, the various solvent extracts of different parts of the plant were tested for the presence of phytochemicals. (ikprress.org)
  • The present study aimed to evaluate the cellular response of MCF10, MCF7, and MDA-MB-231 breast cell lines to ethanolic extracts of neem leaves (EENL) obtained by dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate (EA) solvent. (mdpi.com)
  • These findings show that the sample reconstitution step has a clear impact on the metabolome coverage of MeOH extracted biological samples, highlighting the importance of the reconstitution solvent composition for untargeted discovery metabolomics. (diva-portal.org)
  • In turn, it suggests that cell type-specific differences in the chromatin accessibility landscape may change the genome-wide binding of HOX factors in a cell type-specific manner, at least for those HOX factors unable to bind inaccessible chromatin. (nature.com)
  • Mathematical modeling is the correct tool for reliably determining the properties of the network in comparison with observed properties of dividing cells and for predicting the behavior of the control system under novel conditions. (nih.gov)
  • The behavior of AR-V7 in the MDA-MB-231 tumor lineage indicates new pathways involved in tumor biology and this may have therapeutic value for cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Mutations in many of the subunits of this complex are associated with altered cell behavior and cancers. (stowers.org)
  • Simulations of normal mitotic cycles in a frog-egg extract. (nih.gov)
  • The pre-treatment of FEPLE significantly prevented the decrease of mitotic cells in HI exposed cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • G0 is sometimes referred to as a "post-mitotic" state, since cells in G0 are in a non-dividing phase outside of the cell cycle. (wikibooks.org)
  • Some types of cells, such as nerve and heart muscle cells, become post-mitotic when they reach maturity (i.e., when they are terminally differentiated) but continue to perform their main functions for the rest of the organism's life. (wikibooks.org)
  • On occasion, a distinction in terms is made between a G0 cell and a 'post-mitotic' cell (e.g., heart muscle cells and neurons), which will never enter the G1 phase, whereas other G0 cells may. (wikibooks.org)
  • Loss of lrr-1 function causes cell cycle arrest in the mitotic region of the germ line, resulting in sterility due to the depletion of germ cells. (biologists.org)
  • However, CDK8 may not be oncogenic in all cell types, and indeed may act as a tumor suppressor in the notch and EGFR signaling pathways . (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast Cancer (BC) encompasses numerous entities with different biological and behavioral characteristics, favored by tumor molecular complexity. (mdpi.com)
  • Aloin (ALO), a bioactive ingredient extracted from aloe vera, has anti-tumor effects. (dovepress.com)
  • Since the identification of the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene as a tumor suppressor gene and elucidation of its role in controlling the cell cycle, the Rb pathway has emerged as one of the key targets for inactivation in the development of cancer. (asm.org)
  • This, coupled with targeted inactivation of Rb by oncoproteins of the DNA tumor viruses, underscores the importance of Rb in controlling the cell cycle (for a review, see reference 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Recent developments in analytical techniques and in the generation of anti-pectin probes have begun to place the structural complexity of pectin in cell biological and developmental contexts. (deepdyve.com)
  • Emerging data points to fundamental roles for many of these molecules in development and disease, so we believe that determining the structure of lncRNAs is critical for understanding how they function,' explained Laurie Boyer, the senior author of the study and the Irwin and Helen Sizer Career Development Associate Professor of Biology and Biological Engineering at MIT. (labroots.com)
  • A spliceosome is a large and complex molecular machine found primarily within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Symbiogenesis , or endosymbiotic theory , is the leading evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The theory holds that mitochondria , plastids such as chloroplasts , and possibly other organelles of eukaryotic cells are descended from formerly free-living prokaryotes (more closely related to bacteria than archaea ) taken one inside the other in endosymbiosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • In her 1981 work Symbiosis in Cell Evolution she argued that eukaryotic cells originated as communities of interacting entities, including endosymbiotic spirochaetes that developed into eukaryotic flagella and cilia . (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA replication is a period of extreme vulnerability for the genome of eukaryotic cells. (biologists.org)
  • HL-60 cells incubated with various amounts (1, 3, 5, 7.5, and 10 micro l/mL) of the extracts for 1-3 days showed dose-dependent, time-dependent growth suppression and decrease in cell viability. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, the present study investigated the ability of CO to reduce cell viability through apoptotic pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The viability and function of both individual cells and the organism as a whole depend on the modulation of a variety of genes in response to changes in oxygen tension. (pnas.org)
  • Rhododendron arboreum, traditionally used as a folk remedy by the people of North-East India was investigated for its effects on apoptotic induction and cell cycle arrest in Human Cervical Cancer (HeLa) cell line. (omicsonline.org)
  • Treatment with the plant extract showed distribution of cells between late apoptotic and necrotic phases and caused cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. (omicsonline.org)
  • A number of diverse studies have reported the anticancer properties of Cnidium officinale Makino (CO). However, the apoptotic effect of this traditional medicinal herb in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) remains to be elucidated. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Apoptotic characteristics of MCF-7 cells were detected by transmission electron microscopy. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The anti-apoptotic role of GLP-1 has been determined in different β-cell models. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • GLP-1 and its long-acting receptor agonist, exendin-4 (ex-4) ( 6 , 7 ), increase the survival of immortalized rodent β-cell lines and purified rat β-cells when challenged with various pro-apoptotic stimuli, including the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) ( 8 - 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Overexpression of wee1 delays mitosis until cells grow larger than normal, whereas overexpression of cdc25 induces cells to divide at a smaller size. (nih.gov)
  • Likewise, in the early embryo, loss of lrr-1 function induces CHK-1 phosphorylation and a severe cell cycle delay in P lineage division, causing embryonic lethality. (biologists.org)
  • Finally, we are also studying DNA-binding molecular motors (nucleic acid translocases such as RNA polymerase, DNA polymerase, etc.) using optical tweezers to investigate the dynamics of these molecules and their mechanochemical conversion during translocation, as well as the effect of external force load and nucleotide tri-phosphate concentration on their power and force generation. (berkeley.edu)
  • Lymphocytes and myocytes were microdissected and analyzed separately by polymerase chain reaction analysis on DNA extracted from the collected cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Various extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) showed promising antibacterial qualities that can be improved using nanotechnology to overcome the barriers faced by antibiotic resistance bacteria. (ikprress.org)
  • Many Gram-negative bacteria synthesize acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) signal molecules that serve in a cell-to-cell communication system termed quorum sensing. (pnas.org)
  • What would be the shortest and optimal method of extracting human cells for PCR? (protocol-online.org)
  • Human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were incubated with FEPLE (0, 1, 10, 30 μg/mL) at one hour prior to γIR or HI treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- Isolated human, rat, and mouse islets and the rat insulin-secreting INS-1E cells were incubated with ex-4 in the presence or absence of IL-1β. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A new device from University of Washington engineers and a company called NanoFacture can extract human DNA from fluid samples in a simpler, more efficient and environmentally friendly way than conventional methods. (slashdot.org)
  • Interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 cause barrier dysfunction in human airway epithelial cells. (rochester.edu)
  • We also apply our pipeline to analyze nuclear morphology in human cell culture, showing the general utility of the segmentation approach. (rupress.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that TSV also infects human cell lines, which may suggest that Penaeus is a potential reservoir of this virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Since Sabin strain LSc 2ab (Sabin 1), the poliovirus used for human vaccination, is usually replicated in monolayer culture cells of human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD), human larynx carcinoma (Hep-2C) (), or Buffalo green monkey kidney (BGM) ( 7 ), we injected these cell lines with a 0.22-µm membrane-filtered whole extract of the hepatopancreas of shrimp ( Penaeus stylirostris ) affected with TSV. (cdc.gov)
  • Microscopic image of the subcuticular tissue of the pleopod from a shrimp infected with the supernatant of the third passage of a human larynx carcinoma (Hep-2C) cell culture inoculated with an. (cdc.gov)
  • Bitter melon extracts can kill certain viruses on contact in the laboratory, but human data are lacking. (mskcc.org)
  • Cistus has demonstrated an ability to prevent both the Ebola virus and HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) from attaching to host cells! (prohealth.com)
  • Combining mathematical modeling with RNA sequencing of individual human embryonic kidney cells in which the expression of two distinct mi RNA s was induced over a wide range, we have inferred parameters describing the response of hundreds of mi RNA targets to mi RNA induction. (embopress.org)
  • Importantly, human cells express all of the HR genes needed to carry out gene targeting . (prolekare.cz)
  • Caco-2 cell is a human intestinal-derived cell line widely used to study intestinal drug absorption. (aspetjournals.org)
  • BCRP is overexpressed in a variety of human multidrug resistance (MDR) cancer cell lines that exhibit an atypical MDR or a non-P-gp-mediated MDR phenotype. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The writings of St. Augustine on ensoulment were referenced, but he wrote at a time of far less understanding of biology and the beginning of human life than we have currently. (ncregister.com)
  • For example, high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that are associated with anogenital cancer readily immortalize human cells in culture while low-risk HPVs that are associated with benign lesions do not ( 19 , 22 , 40 ). (asm.org)
  • Specifically, CDK8 promotes turnover of the notch intracellular domain, and inhibits EGFR signaling -driven cell fates in C. elegans . (wikipedia.org)
  • Umifenovir) has revealed that the drug is a broad spectrum antiviral compound, which inhibits infection of cells by many viruses, including HCV, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), certain Arenaviruses, and Ebola virus. (washington.edu)
  • Bitter melon extract inhibits CYP2C9 and may affect the metabolism of substrate drugs. (mskcc.org)
  • Hypoxic bone marrow mesenchymal cell-extracellular vesicles containing miR-328-3p promote lung cancer progression via the NF2-mediated Hippo axis. (medworm.com)
  • Once recruited to the stalled replication fork, ATR phosphorylates and thereby activates Chk1, which in turn blocks cell cycle progression, prevents origin firing, stabilizes stalled replication forks and facilitates the restart of collapsed forks. (biologists.org)
  • Under these conditions, the ATL-1/CHK-1 pathway is required to transiently arrest cell cycle progression ( Garcia-Muse and Boulton, 2005 ), presumably to allow time for DNA repair. (biologists.org)
  • To test whether extracts also affected normal cells, similar experiments were also performed using isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy volunteers, with and without stimulation by the mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA). (nih.gov)
  • Age-Related Impaired Efficacy of Bone Marrow Cell Therapy for Myocardial Infarction Reflects a Decrease in B Lymphocytes. (ucsf.edu)
  • It was found that water extract of Nigella sativa was investigated for hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats and induced significant reduction in serum glucose from (19.83±1.25 Mmol L -1 ) in diabetic group to (9.7±1.10 Mmol L -1 ) in N. sativa - treated diabetic group. (scialert.net)
  • Toward the long-term improvement of β-cell mass, a new class of hypoglycemic mimetic agents and analogs of the glucoincretin glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) ( 1 - 5 ) offer a promising feature for patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Huzaifa U, Labaran I, Bello AB, Olatunde A. Phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum) bulbs. (ikprress.org)
  • Cutler RR, Wilson P. Antibacterial activity of a new, stable, aqueous extract of allicin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (ikprress.org)
  • The rats were treated with 400 mg kg-1 body weight of aqueous extract of Carica papaya for 7 days after which they were fasted for 48h. (ispub.com)