Alkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.Methylnitronitrosoguanidine: A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.Leukemia P388: An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.Methyl Methanesulfonate: An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Mechlorethamine: A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.Carmustine: A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Chlorambucil: A nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as antineoplastic for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and others. Although it is less toxic than most other nitrogen mustards, it has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (Merck Index, 11th ed)Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Nitrogen Mustard Compounds: A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.Ethyl Methanesulfonate: An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids: Alkaloids derived from TYRAMINE combined with 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde via a norbelladine pathway, including GALANTAMINE, lycorine and crinine. They are found in the Amaryllidaceae (LILIACEAE) plant family.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Narcissus: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain ungiminorine and LECTINS.Ellipticines: Pyrido-CARBAZOLES originally discovered in the bark of OCHROSIA ELLIPTICA. They inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis and have immunosuppressive properties.Dacarbazine: An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)Bibenzyls: Compounds with 1,2-diphenylethane. They are structurally like reduced STILBENES.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Melphalan: An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.ThiadiazinesBryostatins: A group of 20-member macrolactones in which there are three remotely substituted pyran rings that are linked by a methylene bridge and an E-disubstituted alkene, and have geminal dimethyls at C8 and C18 carbons. Some interact with PROTEIN KINASE C.Leukemia L1210Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Methylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.GuanineAntineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Nitrosourea CompoundsAncitabine: Congener of CYTARABINE that is metabolized to cytarabine and thereby maintains a more constant antineoplastic action.Sulfuric Acid Esters: Organic esters of sulfuric acid.Gallium: A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Ethylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Thiotepa: A very toxic alkylating antineoplastic agent also used as an insect sterilant. It causes skin, gastrointestinal, CNS, and bone marrow damage. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), thiotepa may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 11th ed).Depsipeptides: Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Triaziquone: Alkylating antineoplastic agent used mainly for ovarian tumors. It is toxic to skin, gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow and kidneys.6-Mercaptopurine: An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Mitomycins: A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.Aminoacridines: Acridines which are substituted in any position by one or more amino groups or substituted amino groups.Epothilones: A group of 16-member MACROLIDES which stabilize MICROTUBULES in a manner similar to PACLITAXEL. They were originally found in the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, now renamed to Polyangium (MYXOCOCCALES).Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Mustard Gas: Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Aziridines: Saturated azacyclopropane compounds. They include compounds with substitutions on CARBON or NITROGEN atoms.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Sarcoma 180Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Etanidazole: A nitroimidazole that sensitizes hypoxic tumor cells that are normally resistant to radiation therapy.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.DNA Modification Methylases: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They are responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern, on either adenine or cytosine residues, in a specific short base sequence in the host cell's own DNA. This methylated sequence will occur many times in the host-cell DNA and remain intact for the lifetime of the cell. Any DNA from another species which gains entry into a living cell and lacks the characteristic methylation pattern will be recognized by the restriction endonucleases of similar specificity and destroyed by cleavage. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms.Daunorubicin: A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Propiolactone: Disinfectant used in vapor form to sterilize vaccines, grafts, etc. The vapor is very irritating and the liquid form is carcinogenic.Lomustine: An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Nylons: Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)DNA Repair Enzymes: Enzymes that are involved in the reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule, which contained damaged regions.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Camptothecin: An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.Phosphoramide Mustards: A group of nitrogen mustard compounds which are substituted with a phosphoramide group or its derivatives. They are usually cytotoxic and used as antineoplastic agents.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Nimustine: Antineoplastic agent especially effective against malignant brain tumors. The resistance which brain tumor cells acquire to the initial effectiveness of this drug can be partially overcome by the simultaneous use of membrane-modifying agents such as reserpine, calcium antagonists such as nicardipine or verapamil, or the calmodulin inhibitor, trifluoperazine. The drug has also been used in combination with other antineoplastic agents or with radiotherapy for the treatment of various neoplasms.Mesylates: Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Sarcoma, YoshidaMethionine SulfoximineQuinacrine Mustard: Nitrogen mustard analog of quinacrine used primarily as a stain in the studies of chromosomes and chromatin. Fluoresces by reaction with nucleic acids in chromosomes.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Dicumarol: An oral anticoagulant that interferes with the metabolism of vitamin K. It is also used in biochemical experiments as an inhibitor of reductases.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Porfiromycin: Toxic antibiotic of the mitomycin group, obtained from MITOMYCIN and also from Streptomyces ardus and other species. It is proposed as an antineoplastic agent, with some antibiotic properties.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Buthionine Sulfoximine: A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Leukemia L5178: An experimental lymphocytic leukemia of mice.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Iodoacetamide: An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.Leukemia, Radiation-Induced: Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.HydrazinesHL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Cyclohexenes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Topoisomerase II Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE II. Included in this category are a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS which target the eukaryotic form of topoisomerase II and ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS which target the prokaryotic form of topoisomerase II.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Ifosfamide: Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Busulfan: An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.Netropsin: A basic polypeptide isolated from Streptomyces netropsis. It is cytotoxic and its strong, specific binding to A-T areas of DNA is useful to genetics research.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.Hydrocarbons, BrominatedDNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Distamycins: Oligopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces distallicus. Their binding to DNA inhibits synthesis of nucleic acids.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mitolactol: Alkylating antineoplastic toxic to bone marrow; used in breast cancer, also in combination with other drugs.Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia: A lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by pleomorphic B-LYMPHOCYTES including PLASMA CELLS, with increased levels of monoclonal serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. There is lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltration into bone marrow and often other tissues, also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Clinical features include ANEMIA; HEMORRHAGES; and hyperviscosity.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Comet Assay: A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.NitroimidazolesStereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Reducing Agents: Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Semustine: 4-Methyl derivative of LOMUSTINE; (CCNU). An antineoplastic agent which functions as an alkylating agent.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Novobiocin: An antibiotic compound derived from Streptomyces niveus. It has a chemical structure similar to coumarin. Novobiocin binds to DNA gyrase, and blocks adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p189)Aniline Mustard: Alkylating anti-neoplastic agent.LeukopeniaApurinic Acid: Hydrolysate of DNA in which purine bases have been removed.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Topoisomerase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES.Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Podophyllotoxin: A lignan (LIGNANS) found in PODOPHYLLIN resin from the roots of PODOPHYLLUM plants. It is a potent spindle poison, toxic if taken internally, and has been used as a cathartic. It is very irritating to skin and mucous membranes, has keratolytic actions, has been used to treat warts and keratoses, and may have antineoplastic properties, as do some of its congeners and derivatives.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Carcinoma 256, Walker: A transplantable carcinoma of the rat that originally appeared spontaneously in the mammary gland of a pregnant albino rat, and which now resembles a carcinoma in young transplants and a sarcoma in older transplants. (Stedman, 25th ed)Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Epichlorohydrin: A chlorinated epoxy compound used as an industrial solvent. It is a strong skin irritant and carcinogen.Carbon-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.Deoxyribonuclease IV (Phage T4-Induced): An enzyme which catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of phosphodiester bonds at purinic or apyrimidinic sites (AP-sites) to produce 5'-Phosphooligonucleotide end products. The enzyme prefers single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and was formerly classified as EC 3.1.4.30.Intercalating Agents: Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Misonidazole: A nitroimidazole that sensitizes normally radio-resistant hypoxic cells to radiation. It may also be directly cytotoxic to hypoxic cells and has been proposed as an antineoplastic.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Vinca Alkaloids: A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Fibrosarcoma: A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Vidarabine: A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.Lucanthone: One of the SCHISTOSOMICIDES, it has been replaced largely by HYCANTHONE and more recently PRAZIQUANTEL. (From Martindale The Extrapharmacopoeia, 30th ed., p46)Phospholipid Ethers: Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.
... is accomplished with the class of drugs called alkylating antineoplastic agents. Alkylating agents are classified ... The toxicity, carcinogenity, and paradoxically, cancer cell-killing abilities of different DNA alkylating agents are an example ... Thus, when an electrophilic alkylating agent is introduced to a primary amine, it will preferentially alkylate all the way to a ... for the ability of some alkylating agents to perform as anti-cancer drugs in the form of alkylating antineoplastic agents, and ...
G-CSF is still included, even though the "G" is taken out of the acronym.) Amsacrine is an alkylating antineoplastic agent that ... in which cells display properties of both myeloid and lymphoid cells. There are several intensified versions of the FLAG ... In this setting, it is often combined with other agents, such as: Cyclophosphamide (FLAMSA-CYC), and/or Busulfan or treosulfan ... March 2012). "Upfront allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation for patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome or ...
Alkylating agents[edit]. Main article: Alkylating antineoplastic agent. Alkylating agents are the oldest group of ... This leads to a form of programmed cell death called apoptosis.[31][33] Alkylating agents will work at any point in the cell ... Available agents[edit]. Main article: List of antineoplastic agents. There is an extensive list of antineoplastic agents. ... Unlike alkylating agents, anti-metabolites are cell cycle dependent. This means that they only work during a specific part of ...
... is a cell cycle non-specific alkylating antineoplastic agent, in the class of alkyl sulfonates. Its chemical ... Both IV and oral formulations require prophylactic antiemetic agents administered prior to the busulfan dose and scheduled ... It is an alkylating agent that forms DNA-DNA intrastrand crosslinks between the DNA bases guanine and adenine and between ... Grigg A, Gibson R, Bardy P, Szer J (1996). "Acute portal vein thrombosis after autologous stem cell transplantation". Bone ...
The mechanism of antineoplastic activity of mannomustine, like for all other alkylating agents, lies in its ability to alkylate ... Mannomustine (INN), also known as mannitol nitrogen mustard, tradename Degranol is an old alkylating antineoplastic agent from ... DNA guanine nucleobases and, thus, to prevent uncoupling of DNA strands, which is a required step for any cell to divide. ...
... cancer cells are more sensitive to DNA damage-such as being alkylated. Alkylating agents are used to treat several cancers. ... An alkylating antineoplastic agent is an alkylating agent used in cancer treatment that attaches an alkyl group (CnH2n+1) to ... List of hormonal alkylating antineoplastic agents "Alkylating Agents". US National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2 August 2014 ... University of Nebraska page on alkylating agent drugs Alkylating antineoplastic agents at the US National Library of Medicine ...
Alkylating antineoplastic agent and anthracyclins are two examples. "Chemotherapy: The Basics". OncoLink. Archived from the ... Cell-cycle nonspecific antineoplastic agents (CCNS) refer to a class of pharmaceuticals that act as antitumor agents at all or ... "Cell killing action of cell cycle phase-non-specific antitumor agents is dependent on concentration--time product". Cancer ... Alberts DS, Golde DW (November 1974). "DNA synthesis in multiple myeloma cells following cell cycle-nonspecific chemotherapy". ...
This mechanism of toxicity is relevant to the function of anti-cancer drugs in the form of alkylating antineoplastic agents. ... Alcohols alkylate to give ethers: ROH + R'X → ROR'. When the alkylating agent is an alkyl halide, the conversion is called the ... In medicine, alkylation of DNA is used in chemotherapy to damage the DNA of cancer cells. Alkylation is accomplished with the ... Nucleophilic alkylating agentsEdit. Nucleophilic alkylating agents deliver the equivalent of an alkyl anion (carbanion). The ...
List of hormonal alkylating antineoplastic agents List of corticosteroid esters Lagova ND, Kiselev VI, Kurdiumova KN, Sof'ina ... is a synthetic glucocorticoid corticosteroid and cytostatic alkylating antineoplastic agent which was developed in Russia for ... "Dependence of antitumor effect of hormonal cytostatic cortifen on expression of glucocorticoid receptors in brain tumor cells ...
Antineoplastic Agents - Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of neoplasms. Antisickling Agents - Agents used to ... thereby preventing cells from leaving the G1/S phase of the cell cycle. This agent also exhibits radiosensitizing activity by ... offering potential synergy between hydroxyurea and radiation or alkylating agents. Hydroxyurea has many pharmacological ... responsible for sickle cell disease). Adult red cells containing more than 1% HbF are termed F cells. These cells are progeny ...
Another amino acid-like drug is the antineoplastic agent melphalan. Tumor cells spend less time in resting phases than normal ... is a chemotherapy drug belonging to the class of nitrogen mustard alkylating agents. ... An alkylating agent adds an alkyl group (CnH2n+1) to DNA. It attaches the alkyl group to the guanine base of DNA, at the number ... they are more likely to be metabolically active than most normal host cells. The rationale behind incorporating an alkylating ...
... balancing the effect of potent cell-killing agents on tumor cells versus healthy cells. The synthetic analogs of duocarmycins ... Adozelesin is an alkylating minor groove DNA binder that is capable of rapidly inhibiting DNA replication in treated cells ... Analogues of naturally occurring antitumour agents, such as duocarmycins, represent a new class of highly potent antineoplastic ... a system reported to be resistant to every agent tested. Carzelesin was highly effective against this tumor and produced 97% ...
Lead and its compounds Alkylating antineoplastic agents (e.g. mechlorethamine) Other alkylating agents (e.g. dimethyl sulfate) ... Usually, severe DNA damage leads to programmed cell death, but if the programmed cell death pathway is damaged, then the cell ... Group 3: the agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. Group 4: the ... Genotoxins include chemical agents like N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) or non-chemical agents such as ultraviolet light and ...
MGMT expression is upregulated in many cancer cells, which protects them from alkylating agents. Increased MGMT expression has ... 2001-04-01). "Acquired resistance of melanoma cells to the antineoplastic agent fotemustine is caused by reactivation of the ... Overexpression of the MDR1 gene in cancer cells is used to keep intracellular levels of antineoplastic drugs below cell-killing ... Re-expression of the wild-type gene in cancer cells in vitro has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation, induce cell cycle ...
... as well as the combined estrogenic and nitrogen mustard alkylating antineoplastic agent estramustine phosphate. Newer estrogens ... cell death). Normal cells are able to repair radiation damage, while cancer cells are not. Radiation therapy exploits this fact ... Many other single agents have been shown to reduce PSA, slow PSA doubling times, or have similar effects on secondary markers ... The rationale is that tumours containing hypoxic cells (cells with enough oxygen concentration to be viable, yet not enough to ...
In the past, antimetabolites (e.g., cytarabine, hydroxyurea), alkylating agents, interferon alfa 2b, and steroids were used as ... with stable proportions of maturing white blood cells. Because some leukemic cells (as evaluated by RT-PCR) persist in nearly ... Despite the move to replacing cytotoxic antineoplastics (standard anticancer drugs) with tyrosine kinase inhibitors sometimes ... in these situations it may be the preferred myelosuppressive agent due to its relative lack of leukemogenic effects and hence ...
Alkylating agents will work at any point in the cell cycle and thus are known as cell cycle-independent drugs. For this reason ... Adjei AA (Jun 2004). "Pemetrexed (ALIMTA), a novel multitargeted antineoplastic agent". Clinical Cancer Research. 10 (12 Pt 2 ... Unlike alkylating agents, anti-metabolites are cell cycle dependent. This means that they only work during a specific part of ... Traditional chemotherapeutic agents are cytotoxic by means of interfering with cell division (mitosis) but cancer cells vary ...
Alkylating antineoplastic agents (e.g. mechlorethamine). *Other alkylating agents (e.g. dimethyl sulfate) ... Usually, severe DNA damage leads to programmed cell death, but if the programmed cell death pathway is damaged, then the cell ... Group 4: the agent (mixture) is probably not carcinogenic to humans.. Globally Harmonized SystemEdit. The Globally Harmonized ... Genotoxins include chemical agents like N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) or non-chemical agents such as ultraviolet light and ...
Alkylating antineoplastic agent. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h "Dacarbazine". The American Society of Health-System ... This affects cancer cells more than healthy cells because cancer cells divide faster. Unfortunately however, some of the ... Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents / antineoplastic agents (L01). SPs/MIs. (M phase). Block microtubule assembly. *Vinca ... Dacarbazine is bioactivated in liver by demethylation to "MTIC" and then to diazomethane, which is an alkylating agent. ...
In vitro, exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells or human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells to agents such as hydrogen ... The alkylating agent affects more the upper parts of the respiratory tract, and only intensely exposed victims showed signs ... Bleomycin is an antineoplastic antibiotic drug isolated in 1966 from the actinomycete Streptomyces verticillus. Bleomycin forms ... Cells exposed to these agents demonstrate significant ATP depletion, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation, followed by death ...
It is a monofunctional alkylating agent, alkylates both DNA and RNA, has the ability to cross-link DNA.[4] As with other ... Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents / antineoplastic agents (L01). SPs/MIs. (M phase). Block microtubule assembly. *Vinca ... It has also been used in veterinary practice as a treatment for mast cell tumors in dogs.[6] ... This antineoplastic or immunomodulatory drug article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
Anticancer agents *Antimetabolites. *Alkylating. *Spindle poisons. *Antineoplastic. *Topoisomerase inhibitors. Immune disease. ... This network is made up of protein-protein interactions from Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis and other ... With the knowledge of cell biology and biochemistry increasing, the field of pharmacology has also changed substantially. It ... Targets in synapses can be modulated with pharmacological agents. In this case, cholinergics (such as muscarine) and ...
Although cisplatin is frequently designated as an alkylating agent, it has no alkyl group and it therefore cannot carry out ... Although bacterial cell growth continued, cell division was arrested, the bacteria growing as filaments up to 300 times their ... Cisplatin is in the platinum-based antineoplastic family of medications. It works in part by binding to, and inhibiting DNA ... Cisplatin: The Invention of an Anticancer Drug by Andri Smith Anti-cancer Agents: A treatment of Cisplatin and their analogues ...
List of agents[edit]. Adrenaline releasing agents[edit]. Main article: Norepinephrine releasing agent ... Alkylating. *Spindle poisons. *Antineoplastic. *Topoisomerase inhibitors. Immune disease. (L03-L04). *Immunomodulators * ... mast cell stabilizer (some are also antihistamines) (Cromoglicic acid. *Nedocromil. *Azelastine. *Olopatadine ... 3 List of agents *3.1 Adrenaline releasing agents *3.1.1 Common or widely marketed ...
These compounds are capable of crosslinking DNA, and kill cells by similar pathways to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents. ( ... Platinum-based antineoplastic agents are used in chemotherapy, and show good activity against some tumors. As platinum is a ... Platinum is used as an alloying agent for various metal products, including fine wires, noncorrosive laboratory containers, ... Platinum also strongly catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen and it is used in fuel cells as a ...
Diazomethane is toxic by inhalation or by contact with the skin or eyes (TLV 0.2ppm). Symptoms include chest discomfort, headache, weakness and, in severe cases, collapse.[14] Symptoms may be delayed. Deaths from diazomethane poisoning have been reported. In one instance a laboratory worker consumed a hamburger near a fumehood where he was generating a large quantity of diazomethane, and died four days later from fulminating pneumonia.[15] Like any other alkylating agent it is expected to be carcinogenic, but such concerns are overshadowed by its serious acute toxicity. CH2N2 may explode in contact with sharp edges, such as ground-glass joints, even scratches in glassware.[16] Glassware should be inspected before use and preparation should take place behind a blast shield. Specialized kits to prepare diazomethane with flame-polished joints are commercially available. The compound explodes when heated beyond 100 °C, exposed to intense light, alkali metals, or ...
... (INN), abbreviated as CCNU (original brand name (formerly available) is CeeNU, now marketed as Gleostine), is an alkylating nitrosourea compound used in chemotherapy. It is closely related to semustine and is in the same family as streptozotocin. It is a highly lipid-soluble drug,[2] thus it crosses the blood-brain barrier. This property makes it ideal for treating brain tumors, which is its primary use, although it is also used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma as a second-line option.[3] Lomustine has a long time to nadir (the time when white blood cells reach their lowest number). Unlike carmustine, lomustine is administered orally. It is a monofunctional alkylating agent, alkylates both DNA and RNA, has the ability to cross-link DNA.[4] As with other nitrosoureas, it may also inhibit several key enzymatic processes by carbamoylation of amino acids in proteins.[5] Lomustine is cell-cycle ...
... is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another. The alkyl group may be transferred as an alkyl carbocation, a free radical, a carbanion or a carbene (or their equivalents).[1] An alkyl group is a piece of a molecule with the general formula CnH2n+1, where n is the integer depicting the number of carbons linked together. For example, a methyl group (n = 1, CH3) is a fragment of a methane molecule (CH4). Alkylating agents use selective alkylation by adding the desired aliphatic carbon chain to the previously chosen starting molecule. This is one of many known chemical syntheses. Alkyl groups can also be removed in a process known as dealkylation. Alkylating agents are often classified according to their nucleophilic or electrophilic character. In oil refining contexts, alkylation refers to a particular alkylation of isobutane with olefins. For upgrading of petroleum, alkylation produces a ...
Another amino acid-like drug is the antineoplastic agent melphalan. Tumor cells spend less time in resting phases than normal cells so at any given time, they are more likely to be metabolically active than most normal host cells. The rationale behind incorporating an alkylating function in a molecule resembling a primary cellular metabolite was to get a greater safety margin by fooling tumor cells into taking up the toxin preferentially. ...
... is an irreversible mixed agonist-antagonist for μ-opioid receptors, which forms a covalent bond to the active site. It is 22 times more potent than morphine. Its alkylating group is a bis(chloroalkyl)amino-residue similar to that of the nitrogen mustards. Chloroxymorphamine, an irreversible full agonist Naloxazone, an irreversible μ-opioid antagonist Oxymorphazone, an irreversible full agonist Portoghese PS, Larson DL, Jiang JB, Takemori AE, Caruso TP (July 1978). "6β-[N,N-Bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]-17-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4,5α-epoxy-3,14-dihydroxymorphinan(chlornaltrexamine) a potent opioid receptor alkylating agent with ultralong narcotic antagonist actitivty". J. Med. Chem. 21 (7): 598-9. doi:10.1021/jm00205a002. PMID 209185. Portoghese PS, Larson DL, Jiang JB, Caruso TP, Takemori AE (February 1979). "Synthesis and pharmacologic characterization of an alkylating analogue ...
... is the organic compound with the formula BrCH2COCO2H. This a colorless solid is the brominated derivative of pyruvic acid. Together with the anion bromopyruvate, BPA is lactic acid and pyruvate analogs. It has been investigated as a metabolic poison and an anticancer agent. Like other α-bromoketones, it is a strong alkylating agent. The pyruvate transporter system can be used to deliver bromopyruvate inside trypanosomal cells. Once intracellular, the primary target of 3BP is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which is highly sensitive to inhibition by bromopyruvate. The pyruvate transporter system, which is known to be overexpressed in cancer cells, was later identified to be a monocarboxylate transporter called monocarboxylate transporter 1. Peter L. Pedersen (2012). "3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) A Fast Acting, Promising, Powerful, Specific, and Effective "Small Molecule" Anti-Cancer ...
... (CIPN) is a progressive, enduring, and often irreversible condition featuring pain, numbness, tingling and sensitivity to cold in the hands and feet (sometimes progressing to the arms and legs) that afflicts between 30% and 40% of patients undergoing chemotherapy. Chemotherapy drugs associated with CIPN include thalidomide, the epothilones such as ixabepilone, the vinca alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine, the taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel, the proteasome inhibitors such as bortezomib, and the platinum-based drugs cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin. Whether CIPN arises, and to what degree, is determined by the choice of drug, duration of use, the total amount consumed and whether the patient already has peripheral neuropathy. Though the symptoms are mainly sensory - pain, tingling, numbness and temperature sensitivity - in some cases motor nerves are affected, and occasionally, also, the autonomic nervous system. CIPN often follows the first ...
... is a receptor tyrosine kinase (encoded by the gene ROS1) with structural similarity to the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) protein; it is encoded by the c-ros oncogene and was first identified in 1986.[7][8][9][10] The exact role of the ROS1 protein in normal development, as well as its normal physiologic ligand, have not been defined.[8] Nonetheless, as gene rearrangement events involving ROS1 have been described in lung and other cancers, and since such tumors have been found to be remarkably responsive to small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, interest in identifying ROS1 rearrangements as a therapeutic target in cancer has been increasing.[7][11] Recently, the small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, crizotinib, was approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic NSCLC whose tumors are ROS1 -positive.[12]. Gene rearrangements involving the ROS1 gene were first detected in glioblastoma tumors and cell lines.[13][14] In 2007 a ROS1 rearrangement was identified in a ...
The main side effects of vincristine are chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, hyponatremia, constipation, and hair loss. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy can be severe, and may be a reason to reduce or avoid using vincristine. The symptoms of this are progressive and enduring tingling numbness, pain and hypersensitivity to cold, beginning in the hands and feet and sometimes affecting the arms and legs.[9] One of the first symptoms of peripheral neuropathy is foot drop: A person with a family history of foot drop and/or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) should avoid the taking of vincristine.[10]. Accidental injection of vinca alkaloids into the spinal canal (intrathecal administration) is highly dangerous, with a mortality rate approaching 100 percent. The medical literature documents cases of ascending paralysis due to massive encephalopathy and spinal nerve demyelination, accompanied by intractable pain, almost uniformly leading to death. Several patients have survived after ...
Cancer research is an area of biology where growth curve analysis plays an important role. In many types of cancer, the rate at which tumors shrink following chemotherapy is related to the rate of tumor growth before treatment. Tumors that grow rapidly are generally more sensitive to the toxic effects that conventional anticancer drugs have on the cancer cells. Many conventional anticancer drugs (for example, 5-Fluorouracil) interfere with DNA replication and can cause the death of cells that attempt to replicate their DNA and divide. A rapidly growing tumor will have more actively dividing cells and more cell death upon exposure to such anticancer drugs. ...
A chemotherapy regimen is a regimen for chemotherapy, defining the drugs to be used, their dosage, the frequency and duration of treatments, and other considerations. In modern oncology, many regimens combine several chemotherapy drugs in combination chemotherapy. The majority of drugs used in cancer chemotherapy are cytostatic, many via cytotoxicity. A fundamental philosophy of medical oncology, including combination chemotherapy, is that different drugs work through different mechanisms, and that the results of using multiple drugs will be synergistic to some extent. Because they have different dose-limiting adverse effects, they can be given together at full doses in chemotherapy regimens.[1]. The first successful combination chemotherapy was MOPP, introduced in 1963 for lymphomas. The term "induction regimen" refers to a chemotherapy regimen used for the initial treatment of a disease. A "maintenance regimen" refers to the ongoing use of chemotherapy to reduce the chances of a cancer ...
Numerous TKIs aiming at various tyrosine kinases have been generated by the originators of these compounds and proven to be effective anti-tumor agents and anti-leukemic agents.[4][5] Based on this work imatinib was developed against chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)[6] and later gefitinib and erlotinib aiming at the EGF receptor. Sunitinib, an inhibitor of the receptors for FGF, PDGF and VEGF is also based on early studies on TKIs aiming at VEGF receptors.[7] Adavosertib is a Wee1 kinase inhibitor that is undergoing numerous clinical trials in the treatment of refractory solid tumors.[8] However, toxicities such as myelosuppression, diarrhea, and supraventricular tachyarrhythmia have arisen while attempting to determine the toxicity and effectiveness of the drug.[9] Lapatinib, FDA approved for treatment in conjunction with chemotherapy or hormone therapy, is also currently undergoing clinical trials in the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancers as it is suggested ...
In finance, Fibonacci retracement is a method of technical analysis for determining support and resistance levels. They are named after their use of the Fibonacci sequence. Fibonacci retracement is based on the idea that markets will retrace a predictable portion of a move, after which they will continue to move in the original direction. The appearance of retracement can be ascribed to ordinary price volatility as described by Burton Malkiel, a Princeton economist in his book A Random Walk Down Wall Street, who found no reliable predictions in technical analysis methods taken as a whole. Malkiel argues that asset prices typically exhibit signs of random walk and that one cannot consistently outperform market averages. Fibonacci retracement is created by taking two extreme points on a chart and dividing the vertical distance by the key Fibonacci ratios. 0.0% is considered to be the start of the retracement, while 100.0% is a complete reversal to the original part of the move. Once these levels ...
In addition, this agent specifically inhibits the endonuclease activity of APE1, without affecting its redox activity, ... The multifunctional nuclease APE1 is a key component for DNA repair; its expression is often correlated with tumor cell ... Therefore, lucanthone may sensitize tumor cells to radiation and chemotherapy. Furthermore, lucanthone inhibits autophagy ... Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. ...
The down-regulation of multiple cytokine receptors, in combination with inhibition of COX-2 and VEGF and positive cell cycle ... Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / pharmacology* * Cell Movement / drug effects* * Cell Proliferation / drug effects ... Triptolide/PG490, an extract of the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that also ... Triptolide inhibits proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells by inhibition of cell cycle regulators and cytokine ...
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / pharmacology*. Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism*. ... TMZ, an imidazotetrazine derivative of the alkylating agent dacarbazine, is currently standard therapy for GBM. TMZ is well- ... 0/Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 4342-03-4/Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1/temozolomide; EC 2.7.12.2/Mitogen-Activated Protein ... Cells without TMZ challenge were used as control cells. Cells were then rinsed with fresh medium and left to form colonies ...
Alkylating antineoplastic agent and anthracyclins are two examples. "Chemotherapy: The Basics". OncoLink. Archived from the ... Cell-cycle nonspecific antineoplastic agents (CCNS) refer to a class of pharmaceuticals that act as antitumor agents at all or ... "Cell killing action of cell cycle phase-non-specific antitumor agents is dependent on concentration--time product". Cancer ... Alberts DS, Golde DW (November 1974). "DNA synthesis in multiple myeloma cells following cell cycle-nonspecific chemotherapy". ...
A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other ... It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity. [PubChem]. ... This agent also exhibits immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory responses and inhibits ornithine decarboxylase, thereby ... The hydrochloride is used as an antineoplastic in Hodgkins disease and lymphomas. It causes severe gastrointestinal and bone ...
This mechanism of toxicity is relevant to the function of anti-cancer drugs in the form of alkylating antineoplastic agents. ... Alcohols alkylate to give ethers: ROH + RX → ROR. When the alkylating agent is an alkyl halide, the conversion is called the ... In medicine, alkylation of DNA is used in chemotherapy to damage the DNA of cancer cells. Alkylation is accomplished with the ... Nucleophilic alkylating agentsEdit. Nucleophilic alkylating agents deliver the equivalent of an alkyl anion (carbanion). The ...
Antineoplastics are cell-cycle nonspecific alkylating agents that insert into the DNA helix, disrupting replication. ... Neomycin: This agent is one of the most cochleotoxic aminoglycosides when administered orally and in high doses; therefore, ... 5] It does appear that aminoglycoside agents must enter hair cells to induce cell death. [6] After entry into hair cells, many ... Antineoplastic Agents. Antineoplastic agents most commonly associated with ototoxicity are the platinum-based compounds ...
After cells divide, they enter a period of growth (ie, phase G1), followed ... more ... Antineoplastic AgentsCancer chemotherapy is based on an understanding of tumor cell growth and how drugs affect this growth. ... When this drug is used as an alkylating agent, the mechanism of action of its active metabolites may involve cross-linking of ... Antineoplastic agents interfere with cell reproduction. Some agents act at specific phases of the cell cycle, whereas others ( ...
... agent properties explanation free. What is agent properties? Meaning of agent properties medical term. What does agent ... Looking for online definition of agent properties in the Medical Dictionary? ... Alkylating agents inhibit cell division by reacting with DNA and are used as antineoplastic agents. ... See Alkylating agent, Antidiabetic agent, Antimitotic agent, Antineoplastic agent, Antiplatelet agent, Antipsychotic agent, ...
Busulfan is a cell cycle non-specific alkylating antineoplastic agent, in the class of alkyl sulfonates. Its chemical ... Both IV and oral formulations require prophylactic antiemetic agents administered prior to the busulfan dose and scheduled ... It is an alkylating agent that forms DNA-DNA intrastrand crosslinks between the DNA bases guanine and adenine and between ... Grigg A, Gibson R, Bardy P, Szer J (1996). "Acute portal vein thrombosis after autologous stem cell transplantation". Bone ...
... syndrome and its management are given in the introductory section and in discussion of the antineoplastic alkylating agents. ... P450 enzymes into highly toxic pyrrole metabolites which have alkylating properties that can damage hepatic endothelial cells ... avoiding daily and high doses of a single agent, using products from reputable sources and never using comfrey]). ... probably as a result of biotransformation by the liver to pyrrole derivatives that act as alkylating agents). ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Alkylating Agents. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck ... Individual alkylating agents are generally cell-cycle nonspecific and can be subgrouped according to chemical structure into ... Resistance to one alkylating agent often implies resistance to other drugs in the same class and can be caused by increased ... Antineoplastic Antibiotics. *Hormonal Agents. *Miscellaneous Antineoplastic Agents. *Ancillary Antineoplastic Agents. * ...
The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug ... A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to ... Bio-Agent Context: Research Results. *Chemical Actions and Uses*Pharmacologic Actions: 56*Therapeutic Uses: 297*Antineoplastic ... Alkylating; Antineoplastics, Alkylating; Antineoplastic Alkylating Drugs; Drugs, Antineoplastic Alkylating; Alkylating Agents, ...
a cytotoxic alkylating agent derived from nitrogen mustard, used as an antineoplastic agent, primarily for treatment of ... drug class: antineoplastic; action: responsible for cross-linking DNA strands, which leads to cell death; uses: palliative ... mel·pha·lan/ (mel´fah-lan) a cytotoxic alkylating agent derived from mechlorethamine, used as an antineoplastic.. melphalan. [ ... an antineoplastic alkylating agent. indications It is prescribed in the treatment of malignant neoplastic diseases, including ...
A High-throughput 96-Well Platform for Measuring DNA Damage in Microarrayed Human Cells, Busulfan as a Myelosuppressive Agent ... Ex Vivo Red Blood Cell Hemolysis Assay for the Evaluation of pH-responsive Endosomolytic Agents for Cytosolic Delivery of ... Generation of Prostate Cancer Cell Models of Resistance to the Anti-mitotic Agent Docetaxel, Adapting Human Videofluoroscopic ... Neutrophil Isolation and Analysis to Determine their Role in Lymphoma Cell Sensitivity to Therapeutic Agents, mRNA ...
Alkylating agents[edit]. Main article: Alkylating antineoplastic agent. Alkylating agents are the oldest group of ... This leads to a form of programmed cell death called apoptosis.[31][33] Alkylating agents will work at any point in the cell ... Available agents[edit]. Main article: List of antineoplastic agents. There is an extensive list of antineoplastic agents. ... Unlike alkylating agents, anti-metabolites are cell cycle dependent. This means that they only work during a specific part of ...
Carmustine is a cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. * HY-13424. RITA ... Alkylation is accomplished with the class of drugs called alkylating antineoplastic agents. Crosslinking of DNA occurs when ... Procarbazine Hcl, an antineoplastic chemotherapy drug, is an alkylating agent for the treatment of Hodgkins lymphoma and ... VAL-083 is a bi-functional alkylating agent; inhibit U251 and SF188 cell growth in monolayer better than TMZ and caused ...
Alkylating agents. Alkylating agents are most active in the resting phase of the cell. These drugs are cell-cycle non-specific ... Chemotherapy (anti-neoplastic drugs) is divided into five classes based on how they work to kill cancer. Although these drugs ... Paraplatin is classified as an "alkylating agent.". What Paraplatin Is Used For:. *Paraplatin is used to treat ovarian cancer. ... The process of cell division, whether normal or cancerous cells, is through the cell cycle. The cell cycle goes from the ...
alkylating agents; hypersensitivity; antineoplastic agents; glioblastoma; alkylation; dna; dna topoisomerases; type i; ... to alkylation damage and that TDP1 depletion sensitizes glioblastoma-resistant cancer cells to the alkylating agent ... The hypersensitivity to alkylation damage is partly restored by depletion of Top1, illustrating that alkylating agents can ... Alagoz, M., Wells, O. S. and El-Khamisy, S. F. orcid.org/0000-0003-2721-7763 (2014) TDP1 deficiency sensitizes human cells to ...
The probe has a lumen for delivering a diagnostic and/or therapeutic agent to tissue. The catheter has a third lumen through ... inflated the probe is captured between an outer wall of the balloon and the tissue so that therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent ... A balloon catheter with delivery probe and method of use for delivering a therapeutic agent and/or diagnostic agent to tissue ... Such agents include, for example, alkylating antineoplastic agents, such as cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin, ...
... and delivering the agent to the chamber. A balloon catheter system is also provided including a balloon having a wall with an ... lumen for supplying fluid to the balloon to inflate the balloon such that the abrasive surface stimulates a flow of blood cells ... and a second lumen for supplying an agent to tissue. ... stimulating a flow of blood cells by inflating the third ... Such agents include, for example, alkylating antineoplastic agents, such as cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin, ...
Ifosfamide is an alkylating agent. Alkylating agents are most active in the resting phase of the cell. These drugs are cell- ... Chemotherapy (anti-neoplastic drugs) is divided into five classes based on how they work to kill cancer. Although these drugs ... The process of cell division, whether normal or cancerous cells, is through the cell cycle. The cell cycle goes from the ... The "normal" cells most commonly affected by chemotherapy are the blood cells, the cells in the mouth, stomach and bowel, and ...
... including alkylating antineoplastic agent [36], antimetabolite [37], and anthracycline [38], act by impairing cell viability in ... a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. Agents Actions. 1986, 18: 407-412. 10.1007/BF01965005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle ... hepatoma cells [17], melanoma cells, fibrosarcoma cells [18], colon cancer cells [19], and prostate cancer cells [20-22]. ... Cell proliferation was determined in the breast cancer cell lines and immortalized MCF10-2A cells in their growth media. Cells ...
... although alkylating agent-treated mismatch repair-proficient HCT116+ch3 cells, in comparison with HCT116 parental cells, ... including platinum-based and alkylating agents ( 39). Interestingly, despite that MSI has been associated with a more favorable ... Lage H, Dietel M. Involvement of the DNA mismatch repair system in antineoplastic drug resistance. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1999 ... Colon cancer cell lines. Twenty-eight colon cancer cell lines were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas ...
PRNewswire/ -- In the recent past, the FDA approved cell therapies to treat CD19-positive hematological cancers. This have in ... DNA-Damaging Agents (Antineoplastics) and Alkylating Agents *Inhibitors *DNA-Repair Enzyme Inhibitors ... The number of patients receiving single-agent chemotherapy decreased considerably in the recent past and the patients who ... The global cancer cell therapy pipeline includes 1,011 active agents. Amongst them, the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell ...
  • Lucanthone is orally available thioxanthone-based DNA intercalator and inhibitor of the DNA repair enzyme apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APEX1 or APE1), with anti-schistosomal and potential antineoplastic activity. (medkoo.com)
  • Phytochemicals are an important source of emerging preventive and therapeutic agents for cancer. (nih.gov)
  • however, basic scientists and clinicians are continually seeking to find new methods to minimize ototoxic injury while retaining the therapeutic efficacy of these agents. (medscape.com)
  • A balloon catheter with delivery probe and method of use for delivering a therapeutic agent and/or diagnostic agent to tissue is provided. (google.es)
  • The probe has a lumen for delivering a diagnostic and/or therapeutic agent to tissue. (google.es)
  • When the balloon is inflated the probe is captured between an outer wall of the balloon and the tissue so that therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent may be delivered to the tissue through the probe lumen via the distal end of the probe. (google.es)
  • delivering a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent through the at least one delivery lumen to the tissue via the distal end of the delivery probe. (google.es)
  • 2 . The method of claim 1 , further comprising the step of repeatedly deflating and inflating said at least one balloon by supplying fluid to the balloon in a pulsed fashion such that the repeated deflation and inflation causes said therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent to spread on the tissue. (google.es)
  • 8 . The method of claim 7 , further comprising the step of delivering a first therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent through said first delivery lumen to the tissue via the distal end of the delivery probe and delivering a second therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent through said second delivery lumen to the tissue via the distal end of the delivery probe. (google.es)
  • delivering the therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent to the chamber. (google.co.uk)
  • 7 . The method of claim 1 , further comprising the step of circulating the therapeutic agent within the chamber, wherein the agent enters the chamber through a first opening in the catheter positioned on one side of the third balloon and exits the chamber through a second opening in the catheter positioned on the other side of the third balloon. (google.co.uk)
  • delivering a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent to tissue via a second lumen of the catheter. (google.co.uk)
  • Consistently, the essential oil represses signaling pathways and cell cycle regulators that have been proposed as therapeutic targets for breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Future pre-clinical and clinical studies are urgently needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Boswellia sacra essential oil as a therapeutic agent for treating breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System , alkylating agents are classified under L01A. (chemeurope.com)
  • This has led to the development of different kinds of nanomaterials used for detecting cancers, deliver the drugs and then combating tumor cells by a variety of therapeutic techniques. (jscholaronline.org)
  • The sulfonamide drugs developed in the 1930s, penicillin and other antibiotics of the 1940s, hormones in the 1950s, and more recent drugs that interfere with cancer cell metabolism and reproduction have all been part of the chemotherapeutic arsenal. (encyclopedia.com)
  • After cells divide, they enter a period of growth (ie, phase G1), followed by DNA synthesis (ie, phase S). The next phase is a premitotic phase (ie, G2), then finally a mitotic cell division (ie, phase M). (medscape.com)
  • This agent acts by inhibiting microtubule formation in mitotic spindles, causing metaphase arrest. (medscape.com)
  • Many of the side effects of chemotherapy can be traced to damage to normal cells that divide rapidly and are thus sensitive to anti-mitotic drugs: cells in the bone marrow , digestive tract and hair follicles . (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, the taxanes arrest the mitotic cell cycle by stabilizing microtubules against depolymerization . (gutenberg.org)
  • The mechanism of action of other classes of antitumor drugs, such as Vinca alkaloids, is more related to the inhibition of microtubule formation in the mitotic spindle, resulting in an arrest of the dividing cells at metaphase ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nelarabine is a prodrug of 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosylguanine (ara-G). This agent is converted to the active arabinofuranosyl-guanine-5'-triphosphate (ara-GTP), a T-cell-selective nucleoside analogue. (medscape.com)
  • PUNE, India , Sept. 10, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- In the recent past, the FDA approved cell therapies to treat CD19-positive hematological cancers. (prnewswire.com)
  • One of the devastating aspects of cancer is the propensity of cells from malignant neoplasms which disseminate from their primary site to distant organs and develop into metastatic cancers. (google.com)
  • A spindle poison , also known as a spindle toxin , is a poison that disrupts cell division by affecting the protein threads that connect the centromere regions of chromosomes , known as spindles. (gutenberg.org)
  • Even though numerous other spindle proteins exist that could be the target of novel chemotherapeutics , tubulin-binding agents are the only types in clinical use. (gutenberg.org)
  • Essential oil prepared by distillation of the gum resin traditionally used for aromatic therapy has also been shown to have tumor cell-specific anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The objective of this study was to optimize conditions for preparing Boswellea sacra essential oil with the highest biological activity in inducing tumor cell-specific cytotoxicity and suppressing aggressive tumor phenotypes in human breast cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)