Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.
A phylum of acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical flatworms, without a definite anus. It includes three classes: Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Trematoda.
A class of free-living freshwater flatworms of North America.
Identifies, for study and analysis, important issues and problems that relate to health and medicine. The Institute initiates and conducts studies of national policy and planning for health care and health-related education and research; it also responds to requests from the federal government and other agencies for studies and advice.
Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.
A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.
The application of technology to the solution of medical problems.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Intentionally using oneself as a research subject.
A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.

Differential roles for cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p16 in the mechanisms of senescence and differentiation in human fibroblasts. (1/4087)

The irreversible G1 arrest in senescent human diploid fibroblasts is probably caused by inactivation of the G1 cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes responsible for phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). We show that the Cdk inhibitor p21(Sdi1,Cip1,Waf1), which accumulates progressively in aging cells, binds to and inactivates all cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes in senescent cells, whereas in young cells only p21-free Cdk2 complexes are active. Furthermore, the senescent-cell-cycle arrest occurs prior to the accumulation of the Cdk4-Cdk6 inhibitor p16(Ink4a), suggesting that p21 may be sufficient for this event. Accordingly, cyclin D1-associated phosphorylation of pRb at Ser-780 is lacking even in newly senescent fibroblasts that have a low amount of p16. Instead, the cyclin D1-Cdk4 and cyclin D1-Cdk6 complexes in these cells are associated with an increased amount of p21, suggesting that p21 may be responsible for inactivation of both cyclin E- and cyclin D1-associated kinase activity at the early stage of senescence. Moreover, even in the late stage of senescence when p16 is high, cyclin D1-Cdk4 complexes are persistent, albeit reduced by +info)

Postnatal growth failure, short life span, and early onset of cellular senescence and subsequent immortalization in mice lacking the xeroderma pigmentosum group G gene. (2/4087)

The xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XP-G) gene (XPG) encodes a structure-specific DNA endonuclease that functions in nucleotide excision repair (NER). XP-G patients show various symptoms, ranging from mild cutaneous abnormalities to severe dermatological impairments. In some cases, patients exhibit growth failure and life-shortening and neurological dysfunctions, which are characteristics of Cockayne syndrome (CS). The known XPG protein function as the 3' nuclease in NER, however, cannot explain the development of CS in certain XP-G patients. To gain an insight into the functions of the XPG protein, we have generated and examined mice lacking xpg (the mouse counterpart of the human XPG gene) alleles. The xpg-deficient mice exhibited postnatal growth failure and underwent premature death. Since XPA-deficient mice, which are totally defective in NER, do not show such symptoms, our data indicate that XPG performs an additional function(s) besides its role in NER. Our in vitro studies showed that primary embryonic fibroblasts isolated from the xpg-deficient mice underwent premature senescence and exhibited the early onset of immortalization and accumulation of p53.  (+info)

Analysis of genomic integrity and p53-dependent G1 checkpoint in telomerase-induced extended-life-span human fibroblasts. (3/4087)

Life span determination in normal human cells may be regulated by nucleoprotein structures called telomeres, the physical ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeres have been shown to be essential for chromosome stability and function and to shorten with each cell division in normal human cells in culture and with age in vivo. Reversal of telomere shortening by the forced expression of telomerase in normal cells has been shown to elongate telomeres and extend the replicative life span (H. Vaziri and S. Benchimol, Curr. Biol. 8:279-282, 1998; A. G. Bodnar et al., Science 279:349-352, 1998). Extension of the life span as a consequence of the functional inactivation of p53 is frequently associated with loss of genomic stability. Analysis of telomerase-induced extended-life-span fibroblast (TIELF) cells by G banding and spectral karyotyping indicated that forced extension of the life span by telomerase led to the transient formation of aberrant structures, which were subsequently resolved in higher passages. However, the p53-dependent G1 checkpoint was intact as assessed by functional activation of p53 protein in response to ionizing radiation and subsequent p53-mediated induction of p21(Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1). TIELF cells were not tumorigenic and had a normal DNA strand break rejoining activity and normal radiosensitivity in response to ionizing radiation.  (+info)

Downregulation of metallothionein-IIA expression occurs at immortalization. (4/4087)

Metallothioneins (MTs) may modulate a variety of cellular processes by regulating the activity of zinc-binding proteins. These proteins have been implicated in cell growth regulation, and their expression is abnormal in some tumors. In particular, MT-IIA is expressed 27-fold less in human colorectal tumors and tumor cell lines compared with normal tissue (Zhang et al., 1997). Here we demonstrate that MT-IIA downregulation occurs when human cells become immortal, a key event in tumorigenesis. After immortalization MT-IIA expression remains inducible but the basal activity of the MT-IIA promoter is decreased. MT-IIA downregulation at immortalization is one of the most common immortalization-related changes identified to date, suggesting that MT-IIA has a role in this process.  (+info)

A telomere-independent senescence mechanism is the sole barrier to Syrian hamster cell immortalization. (5/4087)

Reactivation of telomerase and stabilization of telomeres occur simultaneously during human cell immortalization in vitro and the vast majority of human cancers possess high levels of telomerase activity. Telomerase repression in human somatic cells may therefore have evolved as a powerful resistance mechanism against immortalization, clonal evolution and malignant progression. The comparative ease with which rodent cells immortalize in vitro suggests that they have less stringent controls over replicative senescence than human cells. Here, we report that Syrian hamster dermal fibroblasts possess substantial levels of telomerase activity throughout their culture life-span, even after growth arrest in senescence. In our studies, telomerase was also detected in uncultured newborn hamster skin, in several adult tissues, and in cultured fibroblasts induced to enter the post-mitotic state irreversibly by serum withdrawal. Transfection of near-senescent dermal fibroblasts with a selectable plasmid vector expressing the SV40 T-antigen gene resulted in high-frequency single-step immortalization without the crisis typically observed during the immortalization of human cells. Collectively, these data provide an explanation for the increased susceptibility of rodent cells to immortalization (and malignant transformation) compared with their human equivalents, and provide evidence for a novel, growth factor-sensitive, mammalian senescence mechanism unrelated to telomere maintenance.  (+info)

Re-expression of endogenous p16ink4a in oral squamous cell carcinoma lines by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment induces a senescence-like state. (6/4087)

We have previously reported that a set of oral squamous cell carcinoma lines express specifically elevated cdk6 activity. One of the cell lines, SCC4, contains a cdk6 amplification and expresses functional p16ink4a, the other cell lines express undetectable levels of p16ink4a, despite a lack of coding-region mutations. Two of the cell lines, SCC15 and SCC40 have a hypermethylated p16ink4A promoter and a third cell line, SCC9, has a mutation in the p16ink4a promoter. Using the demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, we showed that the p16ink4a protein was re-expressed after a 5-day treatment with this chemical. One cell line, SCC15 expressed high levels of p16ink4a. In this line, cdk6 activity was decreased after 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine treatment, and the hypophosphorylated, growth suppressive form of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein pRB was detected. Expression of p16ink4a persisted, even after the drug was removed and the cells expressed senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity. Ectopic expression of p16ink4a with a recombinant retrovirus in this cell line also induced a similar senescence-like phenotype. Hence, it was possible to restore a functional pRB pathway in an oral squamous cell carcinoma line by inducing re-expression of endogenous p16ink4a in response to treatment with a demethylating agent.  (+info)

The synaptophysin-synaptobrevin complex: a hallmark of synaptic vesicle maturation. (7/4087)

Exocytosis of synaptic vesicles requires the formation of a fusion complex consisting of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptobrevin (vesicle-associated membrane protein, or VAMP) and the plasma membrane proteins syntaxin and soluble synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (or SNAP 25). In search of mechanisms that regulate the assembly of the fusion complex, it was found that synaptobrevin also binds to the vesicle protein synaptophysin and that synaptophysin-bound synaptobrevin cannot enter the fusion complex. Using a combination of immunoprecipitation, cross-linking, and in vitro interaction experiments, we report here that the synaptophysin-synaptobrevin complex is upregulated during neuronal development. In embryonic rat brain, the complex is not detectable, although synaptophysin and synaptobrevin are expressed and are localized to the same nerve terminals and to the same pool of vesicles. In contrast, the ability of synaptobrevin to participate in the fusion complex is detectable as early as embryonic day 14. The binding of synaptoporin, a closely related homolog of synaptophysin, to synaptobrevin changes in a similar manner during development. Recombinant synaptobrevin binds to synaptophysin derived from adult brain extracts but not to that derived from embryonic brain extracts. Furthermore, the soluble cytosol fraction of adult, but not of embryonic, synaptosomes contains a protein that induces synaptophysin-synaptobrevin complex formation in embryonic vesicle fractions. We conclude that complex formation is regulated during development and is mediated by a posttranslational modification of synaptophysin. Furthermore, we propose that the synaptophysin-synaptobrevin complex is not essential for exocytosis but rather provides a reserve pool of synaptobrevin for exocytosis that can be readily recruited during periods of high synaptic activity.  (+info)

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection after follicle stimulation with highly purified human follicle-stimulating hormone compared with human menopausal gonadotropin. (8/4087)

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to compare oocyte nuclear maturation and embryo quality after pituitary down-regulation and ovarian stimulation with highly purified follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG). METHODS: Fifty-five patients 37 years of age or younger who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were evaluated retrospectively. In all cases, male factor was the only indication for treatment, with no female-related factors identified. Following pituitary down-regulation, patients were stimulated with hMG (n = 20) or highly purified FSH (n = 35). Main outcome measures included ovarian response to stimulation, oocyte maturity, and ICSI fertilization results. Secondary outcome measures included pregnancy rates and outcome. RESULTS: The ovarian response to stimulation was similar for the two groups, as were the percentage of metaphase II oocytes, fertilization and cleavage rates, and number and quality of transferred and cryopreserved embryos. Cycle outcome was comparable. CONCLUSIONS: In normogonadotropic subjects, monocomponent therapy with highly purified FSH is as effective as hMG in stimulating ovarian follicular development, synchronization of oocyte maturation, and IVF-ICSI outcome. Our findings support the conclusion that the luteinizing hormone component in the stimulation protocol is unnecessary.  (+info)

From cell senescence to age-related diseases: differential mechanisms of action of senescence-associated secretory phenotypes - Age-associated diseases;Cell senescence;Differential expression;Senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASP);
Communication between cells is quintessential for biological function and cellular homeostasis. Membrane-bound extracellular vesicles known as exosomes play pivotal roles in mediating intercellular communication in tumor microenvironments. These vesicles and exosomes carry and transfer biomolecules such as proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Here we focus on exosomes secreted from senescent cells. Cellular senescence can alter the microenvironment and influence neighbouring cells via the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which consists of factors such as cytokines, chemokines, matrix proteases and growth factors. This review focuses on exosomes as emerging SASP components that can confer pro-tumorigenic effects in pre-malignant recipient cells. This is in addition to their role in carrying SASP factors. Transfer of such exosomal components may potentially lead to cell proliferation, inflammation and chromosomal instability, and consequently cancer initiation. Senescent cells are ...
Hematologic malignancies are typically associated with leukemogenic fusion proteins, which are required to maintain the oncogenic state. Previous studies have shown that certain oncogenes that promote solid tumors, such as RAS and BRAF, can induce senescence in primary cells, which is thought to provide a barrier to tumorigenesis. In these cases, the activated oncogene elicits a DNA damage response (DDR), which is essential for the senescence program. Here we show that 3 leukemogenic fusion proteins, BCR-ABL, CBFB-MYH11, and RUNX1-ETO, can induce senescence in primary fibroblasts and hematopoietic progenitors. Unexpectedly, we find that senescence induction by BCR-ABL and CBFB-MYH11 occurs through a DDR-independent pathway, whereas RUNX1-ETO induces senescence in a DDR-dependent manner. All 3 fusion proteins activate the p38 MAPK pathway, which is required for senescence induction. Our results reveal diverse pathways for oncogene-induced senescence and further suggest that leukemias harbor genetic or
Can regular aerobic exercise diminish the damaging effects of aging on the vascular system by improving the health of vascular endothelial cells? In this insightful podcast, Associate Editor Nancy Kanagy interviews lead author Matthew Rossman (University of Colorado Boulder) and content expert Raymond Migrino (Phoenix VA Health Care System) about the work by Rossman et al focusing on age-related changes in endothelial cell senescence and associated changes in endothelial cell function that occurs with normal, healthy aging. Habitual exercise has been shown to reduce age-related phenotypic changes such as increased arterial stiffness and reduced endothelial cell function. Did Rossman and colleagues find that regular aerobic exercise in older adults ameliorated increases in endothelial cell senescence? Listen and learn more.. Matthew J. Rossman, Rachelle E. Kaplon, Sierra D. Hill, Molly N. McNamara, Jessica R. Santos-Parker, Gary L. Pierce, Douglas R. Seals, Anthony J. Donato Endothelial cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - JAK inhibition alleviates the cellular senescence-associated secretory phenotype and frailty in old age. AU - Xu, Ming. AU - Tchkonia, Tamara. AU - Ding, Husheng. AU - Ogrodnik, Mikolaj. AU - Lubbers, Ellen R.. AU - Pirtskhalava, Tamar. AU - White, Thomas A.. AU - Johnson, Kurt O.. AU - Stout, Michael B.. AU - Mezera, Vojtech. AU - Giorgadze, Nino. AU - Jensen, Michael D.. AU - LeBrasseur, Nathan K.. AU - Kirkland, James L.. N1 - Funding Information: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank Dr. Ann Oberg for statistical support and colleagues in the Robert and Arlene Kogod Center on Aging for comments and discussion. This work was supported by NIH Grants DK50456 (to. PY - 2015/11/17. Y1 - 2015/11/17. N2 - Chronic, low grade, sterile inflammation frequently accompanies aging and age-related diseases. Cellular senescence is associated with the production of proinflammatory chemokines, cytokines, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling proteases, which comprise the senescence-associated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxidative stress-induced senescence markedly increases disc cell bioenergetics. AU - Patil, Prashanti. AU - Falabella, Micol. AU - Saeed, Amal. AU - Lee, Dayeong. AU - Kaufman, Brett. AU - Shiva, Sruti. AU - Croix, Claudette St. AU - Van Houten, Ben. AU - Niedernhofer, Laura J.. AU - Robbins, Paul D.. AU - Lee, Joon. AU - Gwendolyn, Sowa. AU - Vo, Nam V.. PY - 2019/6. Y1 - 2019/6. N2 - Cellular senescence is a phenotype characterized by irreversible growth arrest, chronic elevated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix proteases, a phenomenon known as senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Biomarkers of cellular senescence have been shown to increase with age and degeneration of human disc tissue. Senescent disc cells in culture recapitulate features associated with age-related disc degeneration, including increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, matrix proteases, and fragmentation of matrix proteins. However, little is known of the metabolic ...
Senescent cells are cells that no longer divide. These cells acquire a large and flat cellular appearance, decrease contacts with other cells, and increase adhesion to the extracellular matrix. In normal replicative senescence, the cell simply enters senescence after a certain number of replications. However, stress-induced senescence causes cells to initiate senescence prematurely due to a variety of stresses. In fact, some hypothesize that the senescence program originally evolved as an antiviral mechanism. This burgeoning field may also yield other important clues about the cellular biology of aging. Molecularly, the cellular senescence program activates p53 and pRb signaling, leading to withdrawal from the cell cycle. Stress pathways that may cause cellular senescence include DNA damage, oxidative stress, interferon-related responses, and signaling via either insulin growth factors (IGF) or mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK). Due to cellular senescence activation in early stage cancers ...
Pathological angiogenesis is the hallmark of diseases such as cancer and retinopathies. Although tissue hypoxia and inflammation are recognized as central drivers of vessel growth, relatively little is known about the process that bridges the two. In a mouse model of ischemic retinopathy, we found that hypoxic regions of the retina showed only modest rates of apoptosis despite severely compromised metabolic supply. Using transcriptomic analysis and inducible loss-of-function genetics, we demonstrated that ischemic retinal cells instead engage the endoplasmic reticulum stress inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) pathway that, through its endoribonuclease activity, induces a state of senescence in which cells adopt a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). We also detected SASP-associated cytokines (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor) in the vitreous humor of patients suffering from proliferative diabetic retinopathy. ...
Supplementary MaterialsData?S1 Foam cell-derived 4-hydroxynonenal induces endothelial cell senescence inside a TXNIP-dependent manner. was triggered by 4-hydroalkenals, such as 4-HNE. Pharmacological interventions supported the involvement of the 4-HNE-PPAR axis in the induction of TXNIP and VEC senescence. The association of TXNIP with VEC senescence was further supported by immunofluorescent staining of human being carotid plaques in which the manifestation of both TXNIP and p21 was augmented in endothelial cells. Collectively, order AZD6738 these findings suggest that foam cell-released 4-HNE activates PPAR in VEC, leading to improved TXNIP manifestation and consequently to senescence. by incubating nLDL under sterile conditions with 10?M copper chloride (24?hrs, at 37C), in the absence of antioxidant safety. The oxidative reaction was halted by addition of 1 1?mg/ml EDTA and after extensive dialysis against PBS, pH 7.4, 4C, oxLDL was stored at 4C, under sterile conditions. The copper-OxLDL ...
Old cells, new tricks: chromatin structure in senescence | SpringerLink. Senescence Assay Kit (Beta Galactosidase, Fluorescence) (ab228562) | Abcam. Overview of Cellular Senescence and Aging | Cell Signaling Technology. The chemistry of senescence | Nature Reviews Chemistry. Infographic: How Does Cell Senescence Drive Aging and Disease? | The Scientist Magazine®. Cellular senescence is associated with age-related blood clots. Frontiers | Cellular Senescence as the Causal Nexus of Aging | Genetics. Diabetic Retinopathy: premature cellular senescence and microvascular dysfunction - ELISA Genie. Stem Cells Versus Senescence | JACC: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. MHY2233 Attenuates Replicative Cellular Senescence in Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells via SIRT1
1. Bastonini E, Kovacs D, Picardo M. Skin pigmentation and pigmentary disorders: Focus on epidermal/dermal cross-talk. Ann Dermatol. 2016;28:279-89 2. Kim M, Han JH, Kim JH, Park TJ, Kang HY. Secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) functions as a melanogenic stimulator; The role of sFRP2 in UV-induced hyperpigmentary disorders. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:236-44 3. Coppé JP, Desprez PY, Krtolica A, Campisi J. The senescence-associated secretory phenotype: The dark side of tumor suppression. Annu Rev Pathol. 2010;5:99-118 4. Tchkonia T, Zhu Y, van Deursen J, Campisi J, Kirkland JL. Cellular senescence and the senescent secretory phenotype: Therapeutic opportunities. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:966-72 5. Kim YH, Choi YW, Lee JH, Soh EY, Kim JH, Park TJ. Senescent tumor cells lead the collective invasion in thyroid cancer. Nat Commun. 2017;8:15208 6. Mine S, Fortunel NO, Pageon H, Asselineau D. Aging alters functionally human dermal papillary fibroblasts but not reticular fibroblasts: A new view ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytogenetic analysis of human cells reveals specific patterns of DNA damage in replicative and oncogene-induced senescence. AU - Falcone, Germana. AU - Mazzola, Alessia. AU - Michelini, Flavia. AU - Bossi, Gianluca. AU - Censi, Federica. AU - Biferi, Maria G.. AU - Minghetti, Luisa. AU - Floridia, Giovanna. AU - Federico, Maurizio. AU - Musio, Antonio. AU - Crescenzi, Marco. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Senescence is thought to be triggered by DNA damage, usually indirectly assessed as activation of the DNA damage response (DDR), but direct surveys of genetic damage are lacking. Here, we mitotically reactivate senescent human fibroblasts to evaluate their cytogenetic damage. We show that replicative senescence is generally characterized by telomeric fusions. However, both telomeric and extratelomeric aberrations are prevented by hTERT, indicating that even non-telomeric damage descends from the lack of telomerase. Compared with replicative senescent cells, oncogene-induced ...
The Scientific World Journal is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research, reviews, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journal is divided into 81 subject areas.
The results of this study demonstrated that statins inhibit oxidative stress-induced endothelial senescence and that, subsequently, upregulation of SIRT1 plays a critical role in prevention of senescence through Akt pathway.. The mechanisms by which statins stimulate the expression and activation of eNOS appear to involve the geranylgeranyl pathway, because mevalonate, GGPP, and FPP reversed the inhibitory effect of statins on senescence. It is well known that inhibition of geranylgeranylation leads to inactivation of Rho kinase. However, pharmacological inhibitors of Rho kinase did not affect endothelial senescence, which indicated that the inhibitory effect of statins on senescence was not mediated by inhibition of Rho kinase. Moreover, treatment with statins increased the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473. Treatment with Akt siRNA or LY294002, which inhibited phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473, abrogated the eNOS activation and antisenescent property of atorvastatin. These results demonstrate ...
Cellular senescence is a complex phenotype observed in diverse tissues at distinct developmental stages. In adults, senescence likely acts to irreversibly prevent proliferation of damaged cells. Senescent cells appear during chronological aging, aberrant oncogene expression, and exposure to DNA damaging agents. Expression of the tumor suppressor p16INK4a increases with age in numerous mouse and human tissues and, thus, considered a reliable marker. Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) leads to delayed increase in p16INK4a expression in mice tissues and cancer-treated patients Senescent cells accumulate in tissues and secrete a range of cytokines, chemokines, and proteases known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Why senescent cells accumulate in vivo remains unclear. One theory suggests senescence accumulates with a decline in immune functions with age. While senescent cells support wound healing, accumulation of senescent cells also appears to contribute to tumor growth and ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a highly prevalent and devastating condition for which no curative treatment is available. Exaggerated lung cell senescence may be a major pathogenic factor. Here, we investigated the potential role for mTOR signaling in lung cell senescence and alterations in COPD using lung tissue and derived cultured cells from patients with COPD and from age- and sex-matched control smokers. Cell senescence in COPD was linked to mTOR activation, and mTOR inhibition by low-dose rapamycin prevented cell senescence and inhibited the proinflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype. To explore whether mTOR activation was a causal pathogenic factor, we developed transgenic mice exhibiting mTOR overactivity in lung vascular cells or alveolar epithelial cells. In this model, mTOR activation was sufficient to induce lung cell senescence and to mimic COPD lung alterations, with the rapid development of lung emphysema, pulmonary hypertension, and inflammation. ...
Cellular senescence is definitely an essential tumor suppression mechanism. PIK-93 exposed that BRG1h association with the human being and gene marketers was improved during senescence caused by oncogenic RAS or BRCA1 knockdown. Regularly, knockdown of pRB, g21CIP1, and g16INK4a, but not really g53, covered up SAHF development caused by BRG1. Collectively, these studies reveal the molecular underpinning by which BRG1 acts of BRCA1 to promote SAHF formation and senescence downstream. Intro Service of oncogenes (such as RAS) in major mammalian cells PIK-93 typically sets off mobile senescence, a condition of permanent cell development police arrest (1, 2). Oncogene-induced senescence can be an essential growth reductions system (1). Senescent cells display many molecular and morphological qualities. For example, they are positive for senescence-associated -galactosidase (SA-gal) activity (3). In addition, chromatin in the nuclei of senescent human being cells typically reorganizes to type ...
Cellular senescence is a fundamental cell fate playing significant and complex roles during tumorigenesis and natural aging process. However, the molecular determinants distinguishing senescence from other temporary and permanent cell-cycle arrest states such as quiescence and post-mitotic state and the specified mechanisms underlying cell-fate decisions towards senescence versus cell death in response to cellular stress stimuli remain less understood. In our studies, we aimed to employ multi-omics approaches to deepen our understanding of cellular senescence, in particular, regarding the specific molecular determinants distinguishing cellular senescence from other non-dividing cell fates. Notably, one of the most prominent features of cellular senescence differing from other non-dividing cell fates is the increased expression of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase. Because 5-Dodecanoylaminofluorescein Di-β-D-Galactopyranoside (C12FDG) is known as the substrate catalyzed by ...
Cellular senescence is an essentially irreversible arrest of cell proliferation coupled to a complex senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The senescence arrest prevents the development of cancer, and the SASP can promote tissue repair. Recent data suggest that the prolonged presence of senescent cells, and especially the SASP, could be deleterious, and their beneficial effects early in life can become maladaptive such that they drive aging phenotypes and pathologies late in life. It is therefore important to develop strategies to eliminate senescent cells. There are currently under development or approved several immune cell-based therapies for cancer, which could be redesigned to target senescent cells. This review focuses on this possible use of immune cells and discusses how current cell-based therapies could be used for senescent cell removal.
Stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) of endothelial cells (ECs) has emerged as a contributor to global EC dysfunction. One of the cellular abnormalities mechanistically linked to SIPS is lysosomal dysfunction. In this study, we examined the impact of a range of cardiovascular risk factors on t …
Full Text - Vascular calcification is commonly seen in elderly people, though it can also appear in middle-aged subjects affected by premature vascular aging. The aim of this work is to test the involvement of microvesicles (MVs) produced by senescent endothelial cells (EC) and from plasma of elderly people in vascular calcification. The present work shows that MVs produced by senescent cultured ECs, plus those found in the plasma of elderly subjects, promote calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells. Only MVs from senescent ECs, and from elderly subjects plasma, induced calcification. This ability correlated with these types of MVs carriage of: a) increased quantities of annexins (which might act as nucleation sites for calcification), b) increased quantities of bone-morphogenic protein, and c) larger Ca contents. The MVs of senescent, cultured ECs, and those present in the plasma of elderly subjects, promote vascular calcification. The present results provide mechanistic insights into the
Even under conditions where the immune system cannot kill the cancer, the two cytokines interferon (IFN) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), may drive cancers into senescence. Thus, senescence induction causes a state, where ‚the cancer sleeps well controlled in his host. This was first shown in an islet cancer of the pancreas (1, 4).. The same two cytokines, IFN and TNF, can drive a large number of mouse and human cancer cells into senescence. Clinically, this has two major consequences: Immune-induced senescence (figure 1) is obviously a physiological mechanism that contributes to the natural cancer control in humans (1). On the other side, recent data from cancer immune therapy suggest that the therapy is primarily efficient under conditions where the immune therapy causes permanent growth arrest of the metastases (8, 9).. Two mediators that are long known in cancer and infection immunology turn into the focus: interferon (IFN) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Many clinicians and researchers ...
In this work, we found that a MT1‐MMP‐dependent signaling between a defective ECM and the cell nucleus activates a senescence response that could explain some of the phenotypes caused by the loss of Mmp14 in mouse. This senescence process involves p16INK4a and p21CIP1/WAF1 and is also characterized by a series of archetypal senescent features, such as the presence of marked nuclear envelope abnormalities, the occurrence of a reduced proliferative potential, the induction of a chronic DNA damage response, and the triggering of a senescence‐associated secretory phenotype which involves the production of several inflammatory factors. We also show that this senescence program can be partially reversed by interventions on retinoid receptor signaling pathways, as demonstrated by the fact that treatment with ATRA increases life span and restores some of the phenotypic alterations observed in Mmp14‐deficient mice.. Interestingly, most molecular and cellular features observed in Mmp14−/− mice ...
Leaf senescence is a complex process, controlled by multiple genetic and environmental variables. In sunflower, leaf senescence is triggered abruptly following anthesis thereby limiting the capacity of plants to keep their green leaf area during grain filling, which subsequently has a strong impact on crop yield. Recently, we performed a selection of contrasting sunflower inbred lines for the progress of leaf senescence through a physiological, cytological and molecular approach. Here we present a large scale transcriptomic analysis using RNA-seq and its integration with metabolic profiles for two contrasting sunflower inbred lines, R453 and B481-6 (early and delayed senescence respectively), with the aim of identifying metabolic pathways associated to leaf senescence. Gene expression profiles revealed a higher number of differentially expressed genes, as well as, higher expression levels in R453, providing evidence for early activation of the senescence program in this line. Metabolic pathways
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Uncoupling the senescent phenotype from telomere shortening in hydrogen peroxide-treated fibroblasts. AU - Chen, Qin M.. AU - Prowse, Karen R.. AU - Tu, Victoria C.. AU - Purdom, Sally. AU - Linskens, Maarten H.K.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Juping Liu, Jeffrey Catania, and Maggi Burton for technical assistance and Dr. Kenneth Beckman for discussion. We thank Drs. Jennifer Pietenpol and Xiong Yue for p21 and p16 cDNAs. Tarrah Dilley is acknowledged for reading the manuscript. This work was supported by a grant from the Burroughs Wellcome Foundation and an NIA/NIH pilot project grant (Q.M.C.).. PY - 2001/5/1. Y1 - 2001/5/1. N2 - Normal human cells have a limited replicative potential and inevitably reach replicative senescence in culture. Replicatively senescent cells show multiple molecular changes, some of which are related to the irreversible growth arrest in culture, whereas others resemble the changes occurring during the process of aging in vivo. Telomeres shorten as ...
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive lung disease tightly correlated with aging. The pathological features of IPF include epithelial cell senescence and abundant foci of highly activated pulmonary fibroblasts. However, the underlying mechanism between epithelial cell senescence and pulmonary fibroblast activation remain to be elucidated. In our study, we demonstrated that Nanog, as a pluripotency gene, played an essential role in the activation of pulmonary fibroblasts. In the progression of IPF, senescent epithelial cells could contribute to the activation of pulmonary fibroblasts via increasing the expression of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). In addition, we found activated pulmonary fibroblasts exhibited aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling and elevated expression of Nanog. Further study revealed that the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling was responsible for senescent epithelial cell-induced Nanog phenotype in pulmonary
Loss of MDM2 can trigger senescence in WD/DDLS(A) The indicated cells were transduced with two different MDM2 knockdown lentiviral vectors (M376 or M380) or a s
Senescent cells affect many physiological and pathophysiological processes. While select genetic and epigenetic elements for senescence induction have been identified, the dynamics, epigenetic mechanisms and regulatory networks defining senescence competence, induction and maintenance remain poorly understood, precluding the deliberate therapeutic targeting of senescence for health benefits. Here, we examined the possibility that the epigenetic state of enhancers determines senescent cell fate. We explored this by generating time-resolved transcriptomes and epigenome profiles during oncogenic RAS-induced senescence and validating central findings in different cell biology and disease models of senescence. Through integrative analysis and functional validation, we reveal links between enhancer chromatin, transcription factor recruitment and senescence competence. We demonstrate that activator protein 1 (AP-1) pioneers the senescence enhancer landscape and defines the organizational principles of the
Rationale: Uncontrolled growth of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is a life-threatening vascular disease without an effective pharmaceutical treatment. AAA incidence dramatically increases with advancing age in men. However, the molecular mechanisms by which aging predisposes individuals to AAAs remain unknown. Objective: In this study, we investigated the role of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a class Ⅲ histone deacetylase, in AAA formation and the underlying mechanisms linking vascular senescence and inflammation. Methods and Results: The expression and activity of SIRT1 were significantly decreased in human AAA samples. SIRT1 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was remarkably downregulated in the suprarenal aortas of aged mice, in which AAAs induced by Ang II infusion were significantly elevated. Moreover, VSMC-specific knockout of SIRT1 accelerated Ang II-induced formation and rupture of AAAs and AAA-related pathological changes, whereas VSMC-specific overexpression of SIRT1 suppressed Ang ...
Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal ploid cells cease to divide. In culture, fibroblasts can reach a maximum of 50 cell divisions before becoming senescent. This phenomenon is known as replicative senescence, or the Hayflick limit. Replicative senescence is the result of telomere shortening that ultimately triggers a DNA damage response. Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. As such, cellular senescence represents a change in cell state rather than a cell becoming aged as the name misleadingly suggests. Nonetheless, the number of senescent cells in tissues rises substantially during normal aging. Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, ...
Cellular senescence is an irreversible state of terminal growth arrest that requires functional p53. Acting to block tumor formation, induction of senescence has also been demonstrated to contribute to tumor clearance via the immune system following p53 reactivation.1, 2 The Hdm2-antagonist, Nutlin-3a, has been shown to reactivate p53 and induce a quiescent state in various cancer cell lines,3, 4 similar to the G1 arrest observed upon RNAi targeting of Hdm2 in MCF7 breast cancer.5 In the present study we show that HdmX, a negative regulator of p53, impacts the senescence pathway. Specifically, overexpression of HdmX blocks Ras mediated senescence in primary human fibroblasts. The interaction of HdmX with p53 and the re-localization of HdmX to the nucleus through Hdm2 association appear to be required for this activity. Furthermore, inhibiting HdmX in prostate adenocarcinoma cells expressing wild-type p53, mutant Ras and high levels of HdmX induced cellular senescence as measured by an increase in
TY - JOUR. T1 - The pathway of cell senescence. T2 - WI-38 cells arrest in late G1 and are unable to traverse the cell cycle from a true G0 state. AU - Pignolo, Robert J.. AU - Martin, Bernard G.. AU - Horton, Joseph H.. AU - Kalbach, Anne N.. AU - Cristofalo, Vincent J.. PY - 1998/1/1. Y1 - 1998/1/1. N2 - Senescent human diploid fibroblasts have an undefined arrest state partially characterized by the differential expression of cell cycle- regulated genes and a failure to complete the mitogen-stimulated cascade of signalling events that lead to DNA synthesis. We present evidence that this arrest state precludes the entry of senescent fibroblasts into a normally reversible G0 or quiescent state. Both nuclear association kinetics and quinacrine dihydrochloride nuclear fluorescence show chromatin condensation patterns consistent with arrest in late G1 and exclusion of senescent cells from the G0 phase of the cell cycle. Steady-state thymidine kinase mRNA levels indicate that some of the signalling ...
Our studies reveal that the fundamental architecture of the genome undergoes profound alterations during replicative cellular senescence. One consequence is an overall closing of chromatin in euchromatic gene-rich regions, as evidenced by decreased FAIRE enrichment and associated dampening of gene activity, although some specific genes oppose this trend and become expressed at higher levels in senescent cells. Another, somewhat paradoxical trend, is an overall relative opening of chromatin in mostly heterochromatic gene-poor regions, as evidenced by increased FAIRE enrichment. The latter is associated with increased transcription of transposable elements, culminating in active transposition, as evidenced by an increase in copy number of L1 elements.. Telomere dysfunction drives a state of persistent DNA damage, which chronically activates the ATM and p53 pathways, leading to the cell cycle arrest that is the hallmark of senescence. Many forms of oncogene-induced senescence have also been ...
In culturing normal diploid cells, senescence may either happen naturally, in the form of replicative senescence, or it may be a consequence of external challenges such as oxidative stress. Here we present a comparative analysis aimed at reconstruction of molecular cascades specific for replicative (RS) and stressinduced senescence (SIPS) in human fibroblasts. An involvement of caspase-3/keratin-18 pathway and serine/threonine kinase Aurora A/ MDM2 pathway was shared between RS and SIPS. Moreover, stromelysin/MMP3 and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase enzyme MGAT1, which initiates the synthesis of hybrid and complex Nglycans, were identified as key orchestrating components in RS and SIPS, respectively. In RS only, Aurora-B driven cell cycle signaling was deregulated in concert with the suppression of anabolic branches of the fatty acids and estrogen metabolism. In SIPS, Aurora-B signaling is deprioritized, and the synthetic branches of cholesterol metabolism are upregulated, rather than downregulated.
The characteristic limited reproductive life-span of normal human fibroblasts in culture is due to a steadily decreasing fraction of cells able to proliferate in the standard rich growth media. We have observed that restricting the growth factor supply to old cells for variable lengths of time in culture increases the fraction of cells that can enter S-phase; although these cells do not go on to divide. Thus, it seems that there is a transient phase between the proliferating state and the irreversibly post-mitotic, senescent state. Perhaps a quiescent-G0 state, which can be maintained in the presence of growth factors, is a stage on the pathway to mortalization and senescence. ...
The deterioration of arterial anatomy and physiology that occurs during chronological aging is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality. Aged arteries are characterized by functional changes of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from a contractile and quiescent status to a senescent phenotype. VSMCs approaching senescence acquire the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that consists of the secretion of a variety of soluble molecules, mostly pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, growth factors, and matrix-remodeling enzymes. SASP factors are released in the blood circulation and act locally in a paracrine manner to spread senescence to neighboring cells; in this way, they contribute to the development of a sterile, low-grade, chronic age-associated systemic and tissues inflammation known as inflammaging considered the main risk factor for the most common age related diseases, included cardiovascular diseases. Senescent VSMCs express bone-related ...
Produced by senescent cells, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) is a potential driver of age-related dysfunction. We tested whether circulating concentrations of SASP proteins reflect age and medical risk in humans. We first screened senescent endothelial cells, fibroblasts, preadipocytes, epithelial cells, and myoblasts to identify candidates for human profiling. We then tested associations between circulating SASP proteins and clinical data from individuals throughout the life span and older adults undergoing surgery for prevalent but distinct age-related diseases. A community-based sample of people aged 20-90 years (retrospective cross-sectional) was studied to test associations between circulating SASP factors and chronological age. A subset of this cohort aged 60-90 years and separate cohorts of older adults undergoing surgery for severe aortic stenosis (prospective longitudinal) or ovarian cancer (prospective case-control) were studied to assess relationships between ...
Over half a century ago, Hayflick and Moorhead demonstrated that primary human cells in culture have a limited capacity for replication [1]. After undergoing a finite number of divisions, these cells entered into a permanent cell cycle arrest, subsequently termed replicative or cellular senescence. They hypothesized that cellular senescence was a model‐in‐miniature of processes leading to organismal aging. They also noted that cancer cells divided indefinitely in culture, suggesting a role for replicative senescence in preventing cancer.. The intracellular signals that drive senescence remained obscure until the discovery of telomere erosion and telomerase. Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences that comprise the ends of many linear chromosomes and protect them from degradation and recombination. Telomeres erode with each cell division due to the biochemical nature of DNA replication: the use of RNA‐based priming of the lagging strand and unidirectionality of DNA polymerases. Thus, ...
Cellular senescence is a cell cycle arrest accompanied by high expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors which counteract overactive growth signals, which serves as a tumor suppressive mechanism. Senescence can be a result of telomere shortening (natural or replicative senescence) or DNA damage resulting from exogenous stressors (induced senescence). Here, we performed gene expression profiling through RNA-seq of replicative senescence, adriamycin-induced senescence, H2O2-induced...
Premature or drug-induced senescence is a main cellular response to chemotherapy in stable tumors. results of Wip1 may become credited to its capability to dephosphorylate p53 at Ser15 and to lessen DNA harm response. Nevertheless, we also uncover a regulatory path whereby reductions of g53 Ser15 phosphorylation can be connected with improved phosphorylation at Ser46, improved g53 proteins amounts, and induction of Noxa appearance. On the entire, our data indicate that down-regulation of Wip1 appearance during premature senescence takes on a pivotal part in controlling many g53-reliant elements of the senescent phenotype. and and and and and and data not really demonstrated), an impact most likely attributable to a selection against Wip1-articulating senescent cells. Remarkably, under the circumstances utilized for regular distribution of the cells, in the lack of senescence induction, cells maintain a fairly steady level of FLAG-Wip1 appearance. 3 FIGURE. Cell routine distribution in senescent ...
Endothelial cell senescence is closely related to the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases and microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are considered as therapeutic targets for cardiovascular disease. The current study aimed to investigate the role of miR‑20b in the senescence process of endothelial cells and its underlying mechanism. Cell viability, proportion of senescent cells and the cell cycle were respectively determined by Cell Counting Kit‑8, SA‑β‑galactosidase and flow cytometry. The relative expressions of mRNA and protein were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. The possible target genes and binding sites of miR‑20b were predicted using Targetscan and further verified by dual luciferase reporter assay. The present study found that H2O2 inhibited cell viability, caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, decreased miR‑20b level and induced cell senescence. Moreover, high expression of miR‑20b promoted cell viability ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - PAI-1 contributes to homocysteine-induced cellular senescence. AU - Sun, Tianjiao. AU - Ghosh, Asish K.. AU - Eren, Mesut. AU - Miyata, Toshio. AU - Vaughan, Douglas E.. PY - 2019/12. Y1 - 2019/12. N2 - Cellular Senescence is associated with organismal aging and related pathologies. Previously, we reported that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is an essential mediator of senescence and a potential therapeutic target for preventing aging-related pathologies. In this study, we investigate the efficacies of PAI-1 inhibitors in both in vitro and in vivo models of homocysteine (Hcy)-induced cardiovascular aging. Elevated Hcy, a known risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, induces endothelial senescence as evidenced by increased senescence-associated β-Gal positivity (SA-β-Gal), flattened cellular morphology, and cylindrical appearance of cellular nuclei. Importantly, inhibition of PAI-1 by small molecule inhibitors reduces the number of SA-β-Gal positive cells, normalizes ...
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The tumor suppressor p16INK4a is a potent mediator of cell cycle arrest in transient expression studies, is induced in senescing cells, and can impose morphological features of senescence. Nonetheless, it is unclear whether p16INK4a can block cell proliferation irreversibly. We explored this issue u …
Senescent cells, or cells that display the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), accumulate as we age. To understand SASP and its impacts, says Sciex, use mass spectrometry to survey SASP proteins.
The exact mechanisms that connect the mind to the cell are unknown. Although it is well accepted that cell senescence can include stress-induced processes, psychological stress has not yet been considered as part of the stress pathway. The current findings suggest that stress-induced premature senescence in people might be influenced by chronic or perceived life stress. Psychological stress could affect cell aging through at least three nonmutually exclusive pathways: immune cell function or distribution, oxidative stress, or telomerase activity. We considered whether stress might have decreased naïve T cells and increased memory T cells [which have shorter telomere length (22)], but the data did not support this (Table 2, which is published as supporting information on the PNAS web site). Second, stress could potentially lead to oxidative stress by means of chronic activation of the autonomic and neuroendocrine stress responses. Although this hypothesis has never been tested in vivo, the ...
Although the induction of senescence in cancer cells is a potent mechanism of tumor suppression, senescent cells remain metabolically active and may secrete a broad spectrum of factors that promote tumorigenicity in neighboring malignant cells. Here we show that androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), a widely used treatment for advanced prostate cancer, induces a senescence-associated secretory phenotype in prostate cancer epithelial cells, indicated by increases in senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, heterochromatin protein 1 beta foci, and expression of cathepsin B and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3. Interestingly, ADT also induced high levels of vimentin expression in prostate cancer cell lines in vitro and in human prostate tumors in vivo. The induction of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype by androgen depletion was mediated, at least in part, by down-regulation of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, whereas the neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Restoration of senescent human diploid fibroblasts by modulation of the extracellular matrix. AU - Choi, Hae Ri. AU - Cho, Kyung A.. AU - Kang, Hyun Tae. AU - Lee, Jung Bin. AU - Kaeberlein, Matt. AU - Suh, Yousin. AU - Chung, In Kwon. AU - Park, Sang Chul. PY - 2011/2. Y1 - 2011/2. N2 - Human diploid fibroblasts have the capacity to complete a finite number of cell divisions before entering a state of replicative senescence characterized by growth arrest, changes in morphology, and altered gene expression. Herein, we report that interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM) from young cells is sufficient to restore aged, senescent cells to an apparently youthful state. The identity of the restored cells as having been derived from senescent cells has been confirmed by a variety of methods, including time lapse live cell imaging and DNA finger print analysis. In addition to cell morphology, phenotypic restoration was assessed by resumption of proliferative potential, growth factor ...
Premature senescence of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) can be induced by exposures to a variety of oxidative stress and DNA damaging agents. In this study we developed a robust model of UVB-induced premature senescence of skin HDFs. After a series of 10 subcytotoxic (non-proapoptotic) exposures to UVB at 250 mJ/cm2, the so-called biomarkers of senescence were markedly expressed: growth arrest, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, senescence-associated gene overexpression, deletion in mitochondrial DNA. A set of 44 stress- and senescence-associated genes were found to be differentially expressed in this model, among which clusterin/apolipoprotein J (apo J) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Transfection of apo J cDNA provided protection against premature senescence-inducing doses of UVB and other stressful agents. Neutralizing antibodies against TGF-β1 or its receptor II (TβRII) sharply attenuated the senescence-associated features, suggesting a role for TGF-β1 in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Suppression of Nucleotide Metabolism Underlies the Establishment and Maintenance of Oncogene-Induced Senescence. AU - Aird, Katherine M.. AU - Zhang, Gao. AU - Li, Hua. AU - Tu, Zhigang. AU - Bitler, Benjamin G.. AU - Garipov, Azat. AU - Wu, Hong. AU - Wei, Zhi. AU - Wagner, Stephan N.. AU - Herlyn, Meenhard. AU - Zhang, Rugang. PY - 2013/4/25. Y1 - 2013/4/25. N2 - Oncogene-induced senescence is characterized by a stable cell growth arrest, thus providing a tumor suppression mechanism. However, the underlying mechanisms for this phenomenon remain unknown. Here, we show that a decrease in deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) levels underlies oncogene-induced stable senescence-associated cell growth arrest. The decrease in dNTP levels is caused by oncogene-induced repression of ribonucleotide reductase subunit M2 (RRM2), a rate-limiting protein in dNTP synthesis. This precedes the senescence-associated cell-cycle exit and coincides with the DNA damage response. Consistently, ...
Curcuminoids are well known for their capabilities to combat risk factors that are associated with ageing and cellular senescence. Recent reports have demonstrated that curcuminoids can extend the lifespan of model organisms. However, the underlying mechanisms by which these polyphenic compounds exert these beneficial effects remain unknown. In this study, t-BHP-induced premature senescence model in human fibroblasts was chosen to explore the protective effects of a curcuminoid, bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), on cellular senescence. The results demonstrated that BDMC attenuated oxidative stress-induced senescence-like features which include the induction of an enlarged cellular appearance, higher frequency of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase staining activity, appearance of senescence-associated heterochromatic foci in nuclei, decrease in proliferation capability, and alteration inrelated molecules such as p16 and retinoblastoma protein. Notably, we found that BDMC treatment activated ...
Adult skin stem cells are recognized as potential therapeutics to rejuvenate aged skin. We previously demonstrated that human dermal stem/progenitor cells (hDSPCs) with multipotent capacity could be enriched from human dermal fibroblasts using collagen type IV. However, the effects of hDSPCs on cellular senescence remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether conditioned medium (CM) collected from hDSPC cultures (hDSPC-CM) exhibits beneficial effects on senescent fibroblasts. We found that hDSPC-CM promoted proliferation and decreased the expression level of senescence-associated β-galactosidase in senescent fibroblasts. In addition, p53 phosphorylation and p21 expression were significantly reduced in senescent fibroblasts treated with hDSPC-CM. hDSPC-CM restored the expression levels of collagen type I, collagen type III, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase, and antagonized the increase of matrix metalloproteinase 1 expression. Finally, we demonstrated that hDSPC-CM
The Wnt signaling pathway has key roles in development and generally promotes proliferation of stem cells and inhibits apoptosis. These effects are essentially opposite to the changes that occur in senescent stem cells. Thus, Ye et al. examined whether reduced Wnt signaling might have a role inhibitory in senescence. They monitored the formation of specialized domains of heterochromatin known as senescence-associated heterochromatin foci or SAHF, which are thought to repress transcription of genes that promote proliferation. In human WI38 fibroblasts, expression of Wnt2 mRNA was decreased as cells approached senescence. Formation of SAHF was inhibited when pharmacological inhibitors were used to decrease activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (a kinase activated downstream of Wnt). Furthermore, small hybrid RNAs were used to decrease expression of Wnt2 in young fibroblasts, and this promoted formation of SAHF, the authors marker of senescence. Accordingly, exposure of cells to a Wnt ligand ...
Cellular senescence (deterioration) is a critical factor of biological aging that occurs in almost all peripheral tissues but little is known about its role in age-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinsons disease (PD). Senescence occurs in dividing cell types and halts cell proliferation (growth) in an irreversible manner. This process is caused by stress and puts cells at risk for tumor formation. Once established, these cells express a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), the pro-inflammatory secretion of cytokines and other factors that contribute to the age-related loss of peripheral tissue function. We aim to interrogate induction of senescence and SASP in response to alpha-synuclein (protein clumps) within the most prevalent dividing cell type in the brain, the astrocyte (cells that provide support and clean waste in the brain), and how this in turn affects dopaminergic cell health in relation to PD.. Hypothesis ...
OBJECTIVE: Human diploid fibroblasts undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular aging. The beneficial effects of vitamin E in aging have been established, but studies to determine the mechanisms of these effects are ongoing. This study determined the molecular mechanism of γ-tocotrienol, a vitamin E homolog, in the prevention of cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts using the expression of senescence-associated genes. METHODS: Primary cultures of young, pre-senescent, and senescent fibroblast cells were incubated with γ-tocotrienol for 24 h. The expression levels of ELN, COL1A1, MMP1, CCND1, RB1, and IL6 genes were determined using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell cycle profiles were determined using a FACSCalibur Flow Cytometer. RESULTS: The cell cycle was arrested in the G0/G1 phase, and the percentage of cells in S phase decreased with senescence. CCND1, ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Suzana Makpol, Azalina Zainuddin, Kien Hui Chua, Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah].
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 27503890. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2016 Aug;113(34):E5024-33. Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is a critical tumor-suppressing mechanism that restrains cancer progression at premalignant stages, in part by causing telomere dysfunction. Currently it is unknown whether this proliferative arrest presents a stable and therefore irreversible barrier to cancer progression. Here we demonstrate that cells frequently escape OIS induced by oncogenic H-Ras and B-Raf, after a prolonged period in the senescence arrested state. Cells that had escaped senescence displayed high oncogene expression levels, retained functional DNA damage responses, and acquired chromatin changes that promoted c-Myc-dependent expression of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (hTERT). Telomerase was able to resolve existing telomeric DNA damage response foci and suppressed formation of new ones that were generated as a consequence of DNA replication stress and oncogenic signals. Inhibition ...
Glycans play essential roles in biological functions such as differentiation and cancer. Recently, glycans have been considered as biomarkers for physiological aging. However, details regarding the specific glycans involved are limited. Here, we investigated cellular senescence- and human aging-dependent glycan changes in human diploid fibroblasts derived from differently aged skin donors using a lectin microarray. We found that α2-6sialylated glycans in particular differed between elderly- and fetus-derived cells at early passage. However, both cell types exhibited sequentially decreasing α2-3sialylated O-glycan structures during the cellular senescence process and showed similar overall glycan profiles. We observed a senescence-associated decrease in sialylation and increase in galactose exposure. Therefore, glycan profiling using lectin microarrays might be useful for the characterization of biomarkers of aging.
Senescent fibroblasts are known to promote tumor growth. However, the exact mechanism remains largely unknown. An important clue comes from recent studies linking autophagy with the onset of senescence. Thus, autophagy and senescence may be part of the same physiological process, known as the autophagy-senescence transition (AST). To test this hypothesis, human fibroblasts immortalized with telomerase (hTERT-BJ1) were stably transfected with autophagy genes (BNIP3, CTSB or ATG16L1). Their overexpression was sufficient to induce a constitutive autophagic phenotype, with features of mitophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction and a shift toward aerobic glycolysis, resulting in L-lactate and ketone body production. Autophagic fibroblasts also showed features of senescence, with increased p21(WAF1/CIP1), a CDK inhibitor, cellular hypertrophy and increased β-galactosidase activity. Thus, we genetically validated the existence of the autophagy-senescence transition. Importantly, autophagic-senescent ...
The ends of linear chromosomes in eukaryotic cells are protected by telomeres. The telomeric DNA interacts with many proteins including the telomerase enzyme complex that extends telomere ends and compensates for the end replication problem. Human stem and cancer cells express telomerase to facilitate immortality. Without telomerase however, telomeres shorten with each round of DNA replication; this gradual erosion eventually leads to cell senescence, an irreversible cell cycle arrest, and serves to control cellular life span.
Senescence is an irreversible growth arrest phenotype adopted by cells that has a key role in protecting organisms from cancer. There is now considerable interest in therapeutic strategies that reactivate this process to control the growth of cancer cells. Protein kinase C iota (PKCι) is a member of the atypical protein kinase C family and an important downstream mediator in the phosphoinositide pathway. PKCι expression was found to be upregulated in a subset of breast cancers and breast cancer cell lines. Introduction of mutant, oncogenic PIK3CA, but not wild-type PIK3CA, into breast mammary epithelial cells increased both the expression and activation of PKCι. In breast cancer cell lines overexpressing PKCι, depletion of PKCι increased the number of senescent cells, as assessed by senescence-associated β-galactosidase, morphology and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. This phenomenon was not restricted to breast cancer cells, as it was also seen in glioblastoma cells. Senescence induction ...
Circulating Glioma Cells Exhibit Stem Cell-Like Properties Genetic probes showed that mouse glioblastoma (GBM)-derived circulating tumor cells (CTC) exhibited Sox2/ETn transcriptional activation and expressed glioma CSC markers, consistent with robust expression of stemness-associated genes including SOX2, OCT4, and NANOG in human GBM patient-derived samples containing CTC. Wnt activation induced stemness and chemoresistance in CTC. [Cancer Res] Abstract Tumor Cell-Secreted PLD Increases Tumor Stemness by Senescence-Mediated Communication with Microenvironment Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) was overexpressed in colon tumors and was secreted by cancer cells, inducing senescence in neighboring fibroblasts. Senescence induced by its product, phosphatidic acid, led to a senescence-associated secretory phenotype able to increase the stem properties of cancer cells. [Oncogene] Abstract CD24 Regulates Cancer Stem Cell (CSC)-Like Traits and a Panel of CSC-Related Molecules Serves as a Non-Invasive Urinary ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A genome-wide loss-of-function screen identifies SLC26A2 as a novel mediator of TRAIL resistance. AU - Dimberg, Lina Y.. AU - Towers, Christina G.. AU - Behbakht, Kian. AU - Hotz, Taylor J.. AU - Kim, Jihye. AU - Fosmire, Susan. AU - Porter, Christopher C.. AU - Tan, Aik-Choon. AU - Thorburn, Andrew. AU - Ford, Heide L.. PY - 2017/4/1. Y1 - 2017/4/1. N2 - TRAIL is a potent death-inducing ligand that mediates apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway and serves as an important endogenous tumor suppressor mechanism. Because tumor cells are often killed by TRAIL and normal cells are not, drugs that activate the TRAIL pathway have been thought to have potential clinical value. However, to date, most TRAIL-related clinical trials have largely failed due to the tumor cells having intrinsic or acquired resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Previous studies to identify resistance mechanisms have focused on targeted analysis of the canonical apoptosis pathway and other known regulators of ...
Aging is the biggest risk factor for cancer, but the mechanisms linking these two processes remain unclear. Using GTEx and TCGA data, we compared genes differentially expressed with age and genes differentially expressed in cancer among nine human tissues. In most tissues, aging and cancer gene expression pattern changed in the opposite direction. The exception was thyroid and uterus, where we found transcriptomic changes in the same direction in aging and in their corresponding cancers. The overlapping sets between genes differentially expressed with age and genes differentially expressed in cancer across tissues were enriched for several processes, mainly cell cycle and the immune system. Moreover, cellular senescence signatures, derived from a meta‐analysis, changed in the same direction as aging in human tissues and in the opposite direction of cancer signatures. Therefore, transcriptomic changes in aging and in cellular senescence might relate to a decrease in cell proliferation, while cancer
locus, play critical roles in inducing and maintaining permanent cell cycle arrest during cellular senescence. Although the elimination of p16INK4a-expressing cells extends the life span of the mouse, it is unclear whether tissue function is restored by the elimination of senescent cells in aged animals and whether and how p19ARF contributes to tissue aging. The aging-associated decline in lung function is characterized by an increase in compliance as well as pathogenic susceptibility to pulmonary diseases. We herein demonstrated that pulmonary function in 12-month-old mice was reversibly restored by the elimination of p19ARF-expressing cells. The ablation of p19ARF-expressing cells using a toxin receptor-mediated cell knockout system ameliorated aging-associated lung hypofunction. Furthermore, the aging-associated gene expression profile was reversed after the elimination of p19ARF. Our results indicate that the aging-associated decline in lung function was, at least partly, attributed to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The senescence marker protein (SMP-2) of the rat liver. T2 - purification, immunochemical characterization and age-dependent regulation. AU - Chatterjee, Bandana. AU - Mancini, Michael A.. AU - Roy, Arun K.. N1 - Funding Information: The work was supportedb y NIH grant AG-03527. A.K.R. is the recipient of a MERIT Award from NIDDK. We thank MasarratA li, Richard Lorch and C.V.R. Murty for their contributiontso this work.. PY - 1990/5/16. Y1 - 1990/5/16. N2 - In vitro translation of total rat hepatic mRNAs has identified a 31 kilodalton senescence marker protein (SMP-2) which is present in higher amounts in prepubertal and senescent males than in the post-pubertal adult male (more than 10-fold). SMP-2 is an androgen-repressible protein. The negative regulation of the SMP-2 gene activity by androgen accounts for its increased expression during the androgen insensitive states of the prepubertal and senescent livers, and its constitutive expresion in the female liver. A combination of ...
Cardiomyocytes cease to divide shortly after birth and an irreversible cell cycle arrest is evident accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase activities. To get a better understanding of the cardiac cell cycle and its regulation, the effect of functional recovery of the mitosis-promoting factor (MPF) consisting of cyclin B1 and the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc2 was assessed in primary cultures of postmitotic ventricular adult rat cardiomyocytes ( ARC). Gene transfer into ARC was achieved using the adenovirus-enhanced transferrinfection system that was characterized by the absence of cytotoxic events. Simultaneous ectopic expression of wild-type versions of cyclin B1 and Cdc2 was sufficient to induce MPF activity. Reestablished MPF resulted in a mitotic phenotype, marked by an abnormal condensation of the nuclei, histone H3 phosphorylation and variable degree of decay of the contractile apparatus. Although a complete cell division was not observed, the results provided ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Epithelial innate immunity mediates tubular cell senescence after kidney injury. AU - Jin, Heng. AU - Zhang, Yan. AU - Ding, Qiong. AU - Wang, Shan Shan. AU - Rastogi, Prerna. AU - Dai, Dao Fu. AU - Lu, Dongmei. AU - Purvis, Madison. AU - Cao, Chao. AU - Wang, Angela. AU - Liu, Dingxiao. AU - Ren, Chongyu. AU - Elhadi, Sarah. AU - Hu, Ming Chang. AU - Chai, Yanfen. AU - Zepeda-Orozco, Diana. AU - Campisi, Judith. AU - Attanasio, Massimo. PY - 2019/1/24. Y1 - 2019/1/24. N2 - Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common clinical condition of growing incidence. Patients who suffer severe AKI have a higher risk of developing interstitial fibrosis, chronic kidney disease, and end-stage renal disease later in life. Cellular senescence is a persistent cell cycle arrest and altered gene expression pattern evoked by multiple stressors. The number of senescent cells increases with age and even in small numbers these cells can induce chronic inflammation and fibrosis; indeed, in multiple organs ...
Project Description. Tumours are commonly described as wounds that do not heal. Tumours and chronic wounds comprise dysregulated epithelial cells, senescent fibroblasts, and share similar gene expression profiles. Fibroblast senescence is the major hallmark of chronic wounds, as proliferation defects prevent wound contraction and alters secretion that in turn directs epithelial cell behaviour. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a similar role in tumour formation. Senescent CAFs promote the growth and metastasis of cancer cells.. Over time, fibroblasts naturally tend towards senescence, which results in a decrease in healing rates and predisposition towards cancer as we age. We recently discovered that low-intensity ultrasound can promote healing in mice with pathological healing defects caused by diabetes or old age, by reversing and protecting fibroblasts from senescence. This PhD will investigate the effect of ultrasound on CAF senescence, leading to the development of new cancer ...
FtSH4 showed a high expression level in the rosette leaves, and its transcript levels were stable during different growth stages (Zhang et al., 2014). These results, combined with the premature senescence phenotype of the ftsh4-4 mutant, indicate that FtSH4 may be an upstream regulator of senescence. Although FtSH4 plays important roles in regulating premature senescence by altering the levels of ROS (Gibala et al., 2009; Kicia et al., 2010; Smakowska et al., 2014, 2016), the detailed mechanism behind this process is not clear. ROS are important multifaceted signaling molecules that can regulate a number of cellular pathways and, thus, play critical roles in plant development (Foyer and Noctor, 2013). ROS and autophagy are associated with cell death, and more recent evidence indicates that both ROS and autophagy play important roles in signaling and cellular adaptation to stress (Wang et al., 2011). Mitochondria are known to play key roles in triggering cell death via altering cellular redox to ...
posted from: https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2017/01/cellular-senescence-as-a-contributing-cause-of-osteoarthritis/. A fair few good scientific papers on the role of cellular senescence in the progression of osteoarthritis have emerged in the last year. Given that UNITY Biotechnology aims to initially trial senolytic therapies to clear senescent cells as a treatment for inflammatory joint diseases, a list in which osteoarthritis features prominently, and that the UNITY principals now have quite a lot of funding to work with, I expect that well be hearing a lot more on this topic over the course of the next few years. There is nothing quite like the existence of a funded company in a field to spur a great deal more investment in related research from all sources. The rate at which reviews of the relevant science are published tends to increase as well, with the paper linked below as an example of the type.. Senescent cells accumulate in tissues with age, and that accumulation is thought to ...
Our Cellular Senescence Flow Cytometry Assay provides an efficient method to measure Senescence Associated (SA) ß-galactosidase activity. A fluorogenic substrate is added directly to senescent cells in a 35 mm dish. Results can be measured by either flow cytometry or epifluorescence microscope.
09.30 - 09.45h Welcome/ Introduction: Clemens A. Schmitt Session I: 09.45 - 11.00h Chair: Fabrizio dAdda di Fagagna 09.45 - 10.15h Leonard Hayflick: A Brief History of the Discovery of the Relationship between Cell Senescence and Cancer 10.15 - 10.45h Jerry Shay: How Human Cells Bypass Telomere-associated Replicative Senescence In Cancer Development 10.45 - 11.00h Lars-Gunnar Larsson: Cdk2 inhibition delays Myc driven leukemia in vivo through restoration of cellular senescence (Abstract Talk) 11.00 - 11.30h Coffee break Session II: 11.30 - 12.45h Chair: Scott Lowe 11.30 - 12.00h Gerardo Ferbeyre: Regulation of E2F gene expression and senescence by the tumor suppressor PML 12.00 - 12.30h Masashi Narita: Gene expression in cellular senescence - from chromatin to proteins 12.30 - 12.45h Kristina Kirschner: Global analysis of tumour suppressor protein p53 shows plasticity in phenotype regulation (Abstract Talk) 12.45 - 14.15h Lunch/ Postersession Session III: 14.15 - 16.00h Chair: Daniel Peeper ...
Fibrosis involves activation of fibroblasts, increased production of collagen and fibronectin and transdifferentiation into contractile myofibroblasts. The process resembles aspects of wound-healing but remains unresolved and can be life-threatening when manifest in the kidneys, lungs and liver, in particular. The causes are largely unknown, but recent suggestions that repetitive micro-injury results in the eventual failure of epithelial cell repair due to replicative senescence are gaining favour. This is consistent with the onset of fibrotic diseases in middle age. Because epithelial injury often involves blood loss, inflammatory responses associated with the fibrotic response have been considered as therapeutic targets. However, this has proved largely unsuccessful and focus is now switching to earlier events in the process. These include EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) and fibroblast activation in the absence of inflammation. TGFβ1 (transforming growth factor-β1) induces both EMT ...
Fibrosis involves activation of fibroblasts, increased production of collagen and fibronectin and transdifferentiation into contractile myofibroblasts. The process resembles aspects of wound-healing but remains unresolved and can be life-threatening when manifest in the kidneys, lungs and liver, in particular. The causes are largely unknown, but recent suggestions that repetitive micro-injury results in the eventual failure of epithelial cell repair due to replicative senescence are gaining favour. This is consistent with the onset of fibrotic diseases in middle age. Because epithelial injury often involves blood loss, inflammatory responses associated with the fibrotic response have been considered as therapeutic targets. However, this has proved largely unsuccessful and focus is now switching to earlier events in the process. These include EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) and fibroblast activation in the absence of inflammation. TGFβ1 (transforming growth factor-β1) induces both EMT ...
Accelerated senescence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) represents an adaptive response allowing withstand cell death. TP53, the pivotal tumor suppressor plays an important role in this process by inducing a prolonged dual state with senescence and self-renewal as potential outcomes. Molecularly, this is achieved by activating both OCT4A (POU5F1) and p21CIP1. OCT4A suppresses the excessive activity of p21 preventing the immediate precipitation of apoptosis or terminal senescence. It persists as long as sufficient cellular energy remains; generated through autophagy, itself sequestrating p16INK4A in the cytoplasm. As such, autophagic capacity is the bottleneck of these TP53-dependent senescence reversal processes, as well terminal senescence will follow if DNA damage is not ultimately repaired. In TP53 mutants the CSC-like state is boosted by stressed cells overcoming the tetraploidy barrier. These cells acquire additional DNA repair capacity through mitotic slippage and entrance to a sequence of ploidy
TY - JOUR. T1 - ZNF313 is a novel cell cycle activator with an E3 ligase activity inhibiting cellular senescence by destabilizing p21WAF1. AU - Han, J.. AU - Kim, Y. L.. AU - Lee, K. W.. AU - Her, N. G.. AU - Ha, T. K.. AU - Yoon, S.. AU - Jeong, S. I.. AU - Lee, J. H.. AU - Kang, M. J.. AU - Lee, M. G.. AU - Ryu, B. K.. AU - Baik, J. H.. AU - Chi, S. G.. PY - 2013/8. Y1 - 2013/8. N2 - ZNF313 encoding a zinc-binding protein is located at chromosome 20q13.13, which exhibits a frequent genomic amplification in multiple human cancers. However, the biological function of ZNF313 remains largely undefined. Here we report that ZNF313 is an ubiquitin E3 ligase that has a critical role in the regulation of cell cycle progression, differentiation and senescence. In this study, ZNF313 is initially identified as a XIAP-associated factor 1 (XAF1)-interacting protein, which upregulates the stability and proapoptotic effect of XAF1. Intriguingly, we found that ZNF313 activates cell cycle progression and ...
In aging societies, the discrepancy between the total lifespan and the healthy lifespan is becoming a major problem. Chronological aging is associated with a higher prevalence of age-related diseases, including heart failure, diabetes, and atherosclerotic disorders with or without various comorbidities, resulting in impairment of the quality of life by limitation of normal activities. Thus, aging is associated with several undesirable processes. The mechanisms of aging and age-associated disorders are complex, and thus cannot be comprehended by a simple approach. However, recent studies have indicated a pivotal role of cellular senescence in the progression of age-related disorders. p53 signaling is thought to have a central role in cellular senescence. Somatic cells have a finite lifespan and eventually enter a state of irreversible growth arrest termed replicative senescence. Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences located at the terminals of mammalian chromosomes that undergo ...
d-galactose (d-gal)-induced cardiac alterations and Doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiomyocyte senescence are commonly used models to study cardiac aging. Accumulating evidence has suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are critically involved in the regulation of cellular and organismal aging and age-related diseases. However, little has been revealed about the roles of miRNAs in cardiac alterations induced by d-gal and Dox. In this study, we used miRNA arrays to investigate the dysregulated miRNAs in heart samples from 15month-old versus 2month-old male C57BL/6 mice and further validated them in d-gal-induced pseudo-aging mouse model and Dox-induced cardiomyocyte senescence in vitro model ...
Many cancers overexpress ATF4, a stress-induced transcription factor that promotes cell survival under hypoxic conditions and other stresses of the tumor microenvironment, but the potential contributions of ATF4 to oncogenesis itself have been little explored. Here, we report that ATF4 promotes oncogene-induced neoplastic transformation by suppressing the expression of cellular senescence-associated genes. Strikingly, primary embryo fibroblasts from ATF4-deficient mice were resistant to transformation by coexpression of H-rasV12 and SV40 large T antigen. In wild-type cells these oncogenes induced expression of the murine Atf4 gene along with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Cdkn2a, which encodes the cell senescence-associated proteins p16INK4 and p19ARF. Elevated levels of ATF4 were sufficient to suppress expression of these proteins and drive oncogenic transformation. Conversely, genetic ablation of ATF4 led to constitutive expression of p16INK4a and p19ARF, triggering cellular senescence. ...
Immune aging may underlie various aging-related disorders, including diminished resistance to infection, chronic inflammatory disorders, and autoimmunity. PD-1+ and CD153+ CD44high CD4+ T cells with features of cellular senescence, termed senescence-associated T (SA-T) cells, increasingly accumulate with age and may play a role in the immune aging phenotype. In this article, we demonstrate that, compared with young mice, the aged mouse environment is highly permissive for spontaneous proliferation of transferred naive CD4+ T cells, and it drives their transition to PD-1+ and CD153+ CD44high CD4+ T cells after extensive cell divisions. CD4+ T cells with essentially the same features as SA-T cells in aged mice are also generated from naive CD4+ T cells after extensive cell divisions under severe T-lymphopenic conditions by gamma irradiation or in developmental T cell defect, often in association with spontaneous germinal centers, as seen in aged mice. The increase in SA-T cells is significantly enhanced
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary data 41598_2017_2380_MOESM1_ESM. a variable ability to undergo senescence in response to serum. However all were able to undergo senescence in response to TGF, although for cells from one patient this required concomitant inhibition of Ras pathway signalling. Primary glioblastoma cells therefore retain a functional senescence program that is inducible by acute activation of the TGF signalling pathway. Introduction Glioblastoma is an aggressive form of brain cancer. A characteristic feature of glioblastoma is usually its heterogeneity. This was originally observed in its histology, giving rise to the term glioblastoma multiforme. More recently genetic studies have created a detailed picture of extensive heterogeneity at the molecular level. Analysis of microarray expression data has led to the subdivision of glioblastoma into four or five different molecular subtypes, designated G-CIMP/proneural, neural, classical and mesenchymal1. These tend to be associated ...
This page contains the abstract: Premature T Cell Senescence in Ovx Mice Is Inhibited By Repletion of Estrogen and Medicarpin: A Possible Mechanism For Alleviating Bone Loss http://www.chiro.org/nutrition/ABSTRACTS/Premature_T_Cell_Senescence.shtml
Judith Campisi has received international recognition for her contributions to understanding why age is the largest single risk factor for developing a panoply of diseases, ranging from neurodegeneration to cancer. Her highly acclaimed research integrates the genetic, environmental and evolutionary forces that result in aging and age-related diseases, and identifies pathways that can be modified to mitigate basic aging processes. See video interview.. Dr. Campisi also makes significant contributions to understanding why aging is the largest single risk factor for developing cancer. She is widely recognized for her work on senescent cells -- older cells that have stopped dividing -- and their influence on aging and cancer. Senescence occurs when cells experience certain types of stress, especially stress that can damage the genome. The senescence response helps prevent cancer by blocking damaged cells from multiplying. But there is a trade off - the lingering senescent cells may also cause harm ...
A Lack of Cellular Senescence, Formation of Microenvironment, and Role of Soluble CD30 in Development of Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Abstract.
TY - JOUR. T1 - 3′ UTR lengthening as a novel mechanism in regulating cellular senescence. AU - Chen, Meng. AU - Lyu, Guoliang. AU - Han, Miao. AU - Nie, Hongbo. AU - Shen, Ting. AU - Chen, Wei. AU - Niu, Yichi. AU - Song, Yifan. AU - Li, Xueping. AU - Li, Huan. AU - Chen, Xinyu. AU - Wang, Ziyue. AU - Xia, Zheng. AU - Li, Wei. AU - Tian, Xiao Li. AU - Ding, Chen. AU - Gu, Jun. AU - Zheng, Yufang. AU - Liu, Xinhua. AU - Hu, Jinfeng. AU - Wei, Gang. AU - Tao, Wei. AU - Ni, Ting. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Dr. Haijian Wang for providing the psiCHECK-2 Vector, Professor Hongyan Wang for luciferase assay instrument support, and Professors Li Jin and Jun Zhu for insightful suggestions regarding bioinformatic analyses. This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 program: 2013CB530700 and 2015CB943000), National Natural Science Foundation of China (31771336, 31471192, 31521003, and 31471205), and the 111 Project of China (B13016). We thank Genergy Biotech ...
30 June 2017 Researchers at the Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB) and at the Faculty of Biology at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) have further uncovered the secrets of telomeres, i.e., the caps that protect the ends of our chromosomes. They discovered that an RNA molecule called TERRA helps to ensure that very short (or broken) telomeres get fixed again. The work, which was recently published in the journal Cell, provides new insights into cellular processes that regulate cell senescence and survival in ageing and cancer. Telomeres protect the ends of our chromosomes, much like the plastic cap at the end of a shoelace that prevents the lace from unravelling. Over a cells lifetime, telomeres get gradually shorter with each cell division and therefore the protective cap becomes less and less effective. If they get too short, it is a signal for the cell that its genetic material is compromised and the cell stops dividing. Telomere shortening and reduced cell division are considered a ...
FOXO3, also known as FOXO3a (and previously as FKHRL1), is a Forkhead protein of the O subclass. FOXOs have overlapping expression profiles and activities, but FOXO3a is known to be particularly important in cell cycle control and apoptosis, the immune system, fertility, and longevity [1][2][3]. It has a widespread distribution in the body, although expression levels are not equal throughout tissues. It contains a characteristic Forkhead box DNA binding domain, and is able to up- and downregulate expression of a variety of genes via binding of its consensus Forkhead Recognition Element, or similar sequences (including Insulin Response Elements). DNA recognition is performed by helix 3 of the DBD, although other parts of the DBD also contact the DNA to increase binding stability. FOXO3 is a human orthologue of C. eleganss daf-16, a gene required for the long-lived phenotype of daf-2-null nematodes. FOXO3s involvement in longevity, aging and senescence may be linked to its roles in oxidative ...
This product is a simple detection kit by plate assay for senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity which is used as a marker for senescent cells. By simply adding SPiDER-βGal, a reagent for detection of β-galactosidase, to 96 well plates, this kit allows you to quantify SA-β-gal activity and makes it possible to evaluate multiple specimens. When normalization is done by the results obtained by counting cells, quantifying nucleic acids (the relevant product), or quantifying proteins, the measured values obtained using this kit become available for evaluating SA-β-gal activity according to cell number.. ...
Leonard Hayflick studied the processes by which cells age during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in the United States. In 1961 at the Wistar Institute in the US, Hayflick researched a phenomenon later called the Hayflick Limit, or the claim that normal human cells can only divide forty to sixty times before they cannot divide any further. Researchers later found that the cause of the Hayflick Limit is the shortening of telomeres, or portions of DNA at the ends of chromosomes that slowly degrade as cells replicate.. Format: Articles Subject: People ...
Leonard Hayflick studied the processes by which cells age during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in the United States. In 1961 at the Wistar Institute in the US, Hayflick researched a phenomenon later called the Hayflick Limit, or the claim that normal human cells can only divide forty to sixty times before they cannot divide any further. Researchers later found that the cause of the Hayflick Limit is the shortening of telomeres, or portions of DNA at the ends of chromosomes that slowly degrade as cells replicate.. Format: Articles Subject: People ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplemental Shape?S1 Cells transduced using the indicated constructs were collected and set at day time 7 after infection (A), at day time 6 after infection (B), or at day time 10 after infection (C). lysine 9. Significantly, ectopic coexpression of TS and RR or addition of deoxyribonucleosides suppressed DNA harm considerably, senescence-associated phenotypes, and proliferation arrest in two types of NHF-expressing HRASG12V. Reciprocally, brief hairpin RNA-mediated suppression of RR and TS triggered DNA harm and senescence in NHFs, although less efficiently than HRASG12V. However, overexpression of TS and RR in quiescent NHFs did not overcome proliferation arrest, suggesting that unlike quiescence, OIS requires depletion of dNTP pools and activated DNA replication. Our data identify a previously unknown role of deoxyribonucleotides in regulation of OIS. Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) represents an important fail-safe mechanism that suppresses proliferation of ...
Hi everybody. Today, it was published a paper in which its described the research that led to the identification and testing of a peptide that reduces the amount of senescent cells in the skin, and that peptide is being used in the first product in the whole world (as far as I know) that is already in the market and reduces the amount of senescent cells in humans (in this case, in the skin). The paper can be found in I dont think its an ordinary thing that a product that reduces the amount of senescent cells is being sold in the market. After many years watching Aubrey de Greys talks, and reading news about promising researches about senescent cells, and about the formation of many companies to research how to reduce the amount of senescent cells, finally there is something that reached the public. This paper is very important as it allows that the rejuvenation field analyzes it and be prepared to seize this opportunity to show to the world, in practice, that the theoretical base of the rejuvenation
And here we come to the next misleading argument that is posited to rationalize or justify the use of aborted babies in the production of vaccines. If youll notice in the list of vaccine ingredients above, the vaccines that are currently in use today are all derived from two fetal cell strains: WI-38 and MRC-5. Our vaccines come from only two aborted babies. Again, Megan over at Whole Living puts it best with her This Wasnt Just a One-Night Stand analogy, You might have also heard that only two babies were used and it was a really long time ago, which justifies the continued use of shooting up live babies with dead babies. Sometimes a little perspective goes a long way…. It may seem like common sense to some to realize that to arrive at WI number 38, numbers 1-37 logically preceded. You would be correct in this logical assumption. Hayflick also references WI-44 in his report, so you can be sure, very many more than one aborted baby has gone into the development of the WI-38 cell line ...
"The aged microenvironment contributes to the age-related functional defects of CD4 T cells in mice". Aging Cell. 11 (5): 732-40 ... cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with old age. The age-associated impairment ... Together with the age-related thymic involution, and the consequent age-related decrease of thymic output of new T cells, this ... The functional capacity of T-cells is most influenced by the effects of aging. In fact, age-related alterations are evident in ...
... cell death and aging". Aging. 3 (9): 821-8. doi:10.18632/aging.100380. PMC 3227447. PMID 21931183.. ... "Aging Cell. 9 (2): 236-42. doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2010.00553.x. PMC 3569090. PMID 20096034.. ... "Cell Stem Cell. 10 (5): 515-9. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2012.04.002. PMC 3561899. PMID 22560075.. ... "Can We Prevent Aging?". National Institute on Aging, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. 29 July 2016. Archived ...
"Human longevity and common variations in the LMNA gene: a meta-analysis". Aging Cell. 11: 475-481. doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2012 ... Aging. 5: 653-61. doi:10.18632/aging.100594. PMC 3808698 . PMID 24244950. "ASA Fellows list". American Statistical Association ... A controversial paper regarding the genetics of aging with which she was associated was retracted from the journal Science in ... "The rs1333049 polymorphism on locus 9p21.3 and extreme longevity in Spanish and Japanese cohorts". AGE. 36: 933-943. doi: ...
An individual's DNA plays a role in the aging process. Aging begins even before birth, as soon as cells start to die and need ... Other kinds of cells that can surpass the Hayflick limit are stem cells, hair follicles, and germ cells.[7] This is because ... "Regenerative potential of human skeletal muscle during aging". Aging Cell. 1 (2): 132-139. doi:10.1046/j.1474-9728.2002.00017.x ... "Aging Cell. 10 (5): 761-768. doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2011.00718.x. PMC 3387546. PMID 21518243.. ...
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"Genomic instability and aging-like phenotype in the absence of mammalian SIRT6". Cell. 124 (2): 315-29. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Aging. 1 (1): 109-21. doi:10.18632/aging.100011. PMC 2815768. PMID 20157594. Mao Z, Tian X, Van Meter M, Ke Z, Gorbunova V, ... that increases NAD+ levels in aged rodents has been touted as a sirtuin activator with anti-aging properties. In vitro studies ... As of 2018, there was no clinical evidence that sirtuins affect human aging. Yeast Sir2 and some, but not all, sirtuins are ...
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Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... Aging. 2 (9): 612-20. doi:10.18632/aging.100191. PMC 2984609. PMID 20834067. v t e. ... J Cell Physiol. 230 (4): 802-812. doi:10.1002/jcp.24808. PMID 25205602. S2CID 24986454. Yashin AI, Wu D, Arbeev KG, Ukraintseva ...
Cells. 13 (1): 21-7. PMID 11911470. Atack JR, Schapiro MB (2002). "Inositol monophosphatase activity in normal, Down syndrome ... Aging. 23 (3): 389-396. doi:10.1016/S0197-4580(01)00335-9. PMID 11959401. S2CID 24701473. Berggard T, Szczepankiewicz O, Thulin ... L-690,488, a prodrug or L-690,330, has also been developed which has greater cell permeability. Treatment of cortical slices ... L-690,330 has been used extensively in characterizing the results of IMPase inhibition in various cell culture models. ...
Lee JH, Budanov AV, Karin M (Dec 2013). "Sestrins orchestrate cellular metabolism to attenuate aging". Cell Metab. 18 (6): 792- ... "Sestrins at the crossroad between stress and aging". Aging. 2 (6): 369-74. doi:10.18632/aging.100157. PMC 2919257. PMID ... The encoded protein may function in the regulation of cell growth and survival. This protein may be involved in cellular ... "Identification of a novel stress-responsive gene Hi95 involved in regulation of cell viability". Oncogene. 21 (39): 6017-31. ...
Blagosklonny is editor-in-chief of Aging, Cell Cycle, and Oncotarget. In addition, he is associate editor of Cancer Biology & ... "Does a Real Anti-Aging Pill Already Exist? Inside Novartis's push to produce the first legitimate anti-aging drug, Business ... and anti-aging drugs. Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center lists Blagosklonny as holding "Adjunct Faculty" and "Cell Stress ... Mikhail Blagosklonny is a scientist who studies cancer and aging. He is an adjunct faculty member at the Roswell Park Cancer ...
Aging. 35 (6): 1334-44. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.11.031. PMID 24387984. S2CID 25277574. Condliffe D, Wong A, Troakes C ... 5-hydroxymethylcytosine binding, ES cell specific is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HMCES gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Aging. 35 (8): 1850-4. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.02.002. PMC 4066184. PMID 24679604. Kraus TF, Guibourt V, Kretzschmar ... "Entrez Gene: 5-hydroxymethylcytosine binding, ES cell specific". Retrieved 2018-05-16. Coppieters N, Dieriks BV, Lill C, Faull ...
Aging Cell. 15 (1): 28-38. doi:10.1111/acel.12405. PMC 4717280. PMID 26463117. Wang S, Raybuck A, Shiuan E, Jin J (2020). " ... everolimus has important effects on cell growth, cell proliferation and cell survival. mTORC1 inhibition by everolimus has been ... Aging. 12 (8): 6492-6510. doi:10.18632/aging.102988. PMC 7202545. PMID 32229705. Arriola Apelo SI, Neuman JC, Baar EL, Syed FA ... As a consequence, mRNAs that code for proteins implicated in the cell cycle and in the glycolysis process are impaired or ...
... have a lower epigenetic age than age-matched controls (age difference=5.1 years in peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and ... doi:10.18632/aging.100742. PMC 4468311. PMID 26000617. Horvath, S (2013). "DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types ... Median Age and Age by Sex>Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Single Year of Age and Sex: April 1, 2010 to July 1, ... The lymphocytic cells of centenarians have characteristics typical of cells from young people, both in their capability of ...
Aging Cell. 10 (2): 198-207. doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2010.00657.x. PMID 21108730. Ferrari CK (2004). "Functional foods, herbs ... The resulting reduction in per-cell copy number of mtDNA plays a role in the mitochondrial bottleneck, exploiting cell-to-cell ... The bottleneck exploits random processes in the cell to increase the cell-to-cell variability in mutant load as an organism ... the cells of the inner cell mass restrict mtDNA replication until they receive the signals to differentiate to specific cell ...
1995). "Mutation in the silencing gene SIR4 can delay aging in S. cerevisiae". Cell. 80 (3): 485-96. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95) ... 2007). "SIRT1 transgenic mice show phenotypes resembling calorie restriction". Aging Cell. 6 (6): 759-67. doi:10.1111/j.1474- ... In 1991 his lab started to study genes involved in aging. In 1993, Cynthia Kenyon's lab at UCSF discovered that a single-gene ... The Kenyon and Guarente labs came to lead the field studying the genetics of aging. In 1995 the Guarente lab identified the ...
Aging Cell. 10 (4): 604-21. doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2011.00700.x. PMC 3627294. PMID 21426483. "FTC Approves Final Consent Order ... The small study (using T-cells taken from 6 participants) found that TA-65 activated telomerase in cultured cells in all ... as well as Maria Blasco in the journal Aging Cell, finding no increase in murine median or mean lifespan but some physiological ... "Functional Assessment of Pharmacological Telomerase Activators in Human T Cells". Cells. 2 (1): 57-66. doi:10.3390/cells2010057 ...
Chan DC (June 2006). "Mitochondria: dynamic organelles in disease, aging, and development". Cell. 125 (7): 1241-52. doi:10.1016 ... October 2012). "Ca2+ dysregulation in neurons from transgenic mice expressing mutant presenilin 2". Aging Cell. 11 (5): 885-93 ... Among different cell types, neurons are particularly sensitive to MFN2 defects: to work properly, these cells need functional ... Vyas S, Zaganjor E, Haigis MC (July 2016). "Mitochondria and Cancer". Cell. 166 (3): 555-566. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.07.002. ...
Aging Cell. 15 (1): 28-38. doi:10.1111/acel.12405. PMC 4717280. PMID 26463117. Chhajed PN, Dickenmann M, Bubendorf L, Mayr M, ... It inhibits activation of T cells and B cells by reducing their sensitivity to interleukin-2 (IL-2) through mTOR inhibition. It ... inhibiting cytotoxic T cells and lowering the differentiation of effector T cells. Rapamycin is used in biology research as an ... Akt signalling promotes cell survival in Akt-positive lymphomas and acts to prevent the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy drugs ...
Aging Cell. 12 (4): 695-705. doi:10.1111/acel.12094. PMID 23648059. Kajitani K, Yamaguchi H, Dan Y, Furuichi M, Kang D, ... Cells from malignant breast tumors exhibit extreme MTH1 expression compared to other human cells. Because a cancer cell divides ... both as a potential method for healthy cells to prevent cancer and a weakness to target within existing cancer cells. ... damaging it and causing cell death. However, cancer cells have also been shown to benefit from use of MTH1. ...
October 2010). "Fat tissue, aging, and cellular senescence". Aging Cell. 9 (5): 667-84. doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2010.00608.x. ... These hematopoietic cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) which give rise to diverse cells: cells of the blood ... milieu of cells, and secreted factors. Recent advances in cell surface and intracellular marker identification and single-cell ... Aging is associated with lower osteogenic and greater adipogenic biasing of MSC. This aging-related biasing of MSC away from ...
... and age-related disease (in nondiabetics)". Aging Cell. 11 (1): 1-13. doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2011.00752.x. PMC 3257376. PMID ... Cell. 163 (5): 1079-94. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.001. PMID 26590418. "Glycemic Load". Avis Regime. Retrieved 12 May 2016. ... "Association between dietary glycemic index and age-related macular degeneration in nondiabetic participants in the Age-Related ... March 1998). "High blood glucose concentration is a risk factor for mortality in middle-aged nondiabetic men. 20-year follow-up ...
Kennedy BK, Lamming DW (June 2016). "The Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin: The Grand ConducTOR of Metabolism and Aging". Cell ... June 2010). "Fat cell-specific ablation of rictor in mice impairs insulin-regulated fat cell and whole-body glucose and lipid ... October 2014). "Depletion of Rictor, an essential protein component of mTORC2, decreases male lifespan". Aging Cell. 13 (5): ... October 2019). "Hypothalamic mTORC2 is essential for metabolic health and longevity". Aging Cell. 18 (5): e13014. doi:10.1111/ ...
T cells sensitizing them to apoptotic cell death". Aging Cell. 11 (4): 579-87. doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2012.00819.x. PMC ... Calissano M, Latchman DS (December 2010). "Cell-specific regulation of the pro-survival Brn-3b transcription factor by ... Cell Biology. 44 (9): 1448-56. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2012.05.011. PMID 22634383. Brunner S, Herndler-Brandstetter D, Arnold CR, ... "Antisense inhibition of human miRNAs and indications for an involvement of miRNA in cell growth and apoptosis". Nucleic Acids ...
Aging Cell. 19 (4): e13126. doi:10.1111/acel.13126. PMC 7189992. PMID 32100453. Ji YJ, Ugolino J, Zhang T, Lu J, Kim D, Wang J ... the macrophage-like cells of the brain. GTPase targets of a stable C9ORF72-SMCR8-WDR41 complex include the Rag GTPases that ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 191 (2): 367-81. doi:10.1083/jcb.201008051. PMC 2958468. PMID 20937701. Farg MA, Sundaramoorthy V ... Molecular Biology of the Cell. 29 (18): 2213-2227. doi:10.1091/mbc.E17-12-0703. PMC 6249801. PMID 29995611. Wang M, Wang H, Tao ...
"Methylation of ELOVL2 gene as a new epigenetic marker of age". Aging Cell. 11 (6): 1132-1134. doi:10.1111/acel.12005. hdl:11585 ... "An epigenetic biomarker of aging for lifespan and healthspan". Aging (Albany NY). 10 (4): 573-591. doi:10.18632/aging.101414. ... Horvath, Steve (2013-12-10). "DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types". Genome Biology. 14 (10): 3156. doi:10.1186/ ... "Epigenetic age" refers to the connection between chronological age and levels of DNA methylation in the genome. Coupling the ...
Most surgeons will not intervene until after the age of six months due to the heightened risk which blood loss poses before ... Certain cells in the brain respond specifically to an increase of CO2 in the blood.[4][24] The response involves vasodilatation ... this age.[42] It is generally preferable to wait until after three months of age when anaesthetic risks will also be decreased. ... This intervention is likely most effective when used in the time frame between three and six months of age. ...
T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ... The role of the thymus in immune reconstitution in aging, bone marrow transplantation, and HIV-1 infection. Annual Review of ... 细胞毒性T细胞(CTLs, killer T cells)负责杀伤被病毒感染的细胞和癌细胞,在对器官移植的免疫排斥中也有参与。其特点在于细胞表面的CD8蛋白质。它通过识别所有有核细胞表
If the stem cells and sebaceous gland are destroyed, there is then no possibility for regeneration of the hair follicle, and ... Scarring hair loss occurs in otherwise healthy men and women of all ages and is seen worldwide. It is important to continue to ... The goal of treatment is to decrease or eliminate the lymphocytic inflammatory cells that are attacking and destroying the hair ... However, all cicatricial alopecias involve inflammation directed at the upper part of the hair follicle where the stem cells ...
... a type 2 diabetic will have lost about half of their beta cells.[52] Fatty acids in the beta cells activate FOXO1, resulting in ... such as increasing age, female gender, and genetics.[10] Obesity is more common in women than men in many parts of Africa.[29] ... Type 2 diabetes is due to insufficient insulin production from beta cells in the setting of insulin resistance.[13] Insulin ... In the early stages of insulin resistance, the mass of beta cells expands, increasing the output of insulin to compensate for ...
... perforating the middle lamella but damage to either the plasmalemma or cell walls was not observed.[29] The disease is often ... of trees survived in all progeny trials to the age of eight years.[25] ...
The brain detects insulin in the blood, which indicates that nutrients are being absorbed by cells and a person is getting full ... Their diet is still limited, however, because most babies lack molars or canines at this age, and often have a limited number ... Between 8 and 12 months of age, the digestive system improves, and many babies begin eating finger foods. ... When the glucose levels of cells drop (glucoprivation), the body starts to produce the feeling of hunger. The body also ...
ventricular cardiac muscle cell development. · cellular response to hypoxia. · positive regulation of cell aging. ... M phase of mitotic cell cycle. · mitotic prophase. · mitotic anaphase. · mitotic cell cycle. · apoptotic process. · cellular ... Halaschek-Wiener J, Brooks-Wilson A. Progeria of stem cells: stem cell exhaustion in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. J. ... J. Cell. Sci. October 2000, 113 (19): 3473-84. PMID 10984438.. *^ Dreuillet C, Tillit J, Kress M, Ernoult-Lange M. In vivo and ...
At the age of 46 I put myself in a movie, dancing the Tango with the best tango dancer in the world. [...] It was so terrifying ... Rage (2009) was the first feature ever to premiere on cell-phones. The cast includes Judi Dench, Steve Buscemi, Lily Cole and ... Potter began making amateur films at age 14, using an 8mm camera given to her by an uncle.[5] She eventually dropped out of ... school at age 16 to pursue filmmaking. From 1968-1970 she worked as a kitchen worker and a picture researcher for BBC in order ...
Greene received a BA in liberal arts from Amherst College in 1955 and a PhD in biochemistry and cell biology at Rockefeller ... 1934-08-10) August 10, 1934 (age 84). New York City. Alma mater. Rockefeller University. Amherst College. ... where he is a full professor of cell and molecular biology and head of the Center for Protein Chemistry of Hemocentro de ...
The cells met to read Marxist texts and hold self-criticism sessions.[51] Sâr joined a cell that met on the rue Lacepède; his ... receiving his Certificat d'Etudes Primaires Complémentaires in 1941 at the age of 16.[17] He had continued to visit Meak at the ... They established party cells, emphasising the recruitment of small numbers of dedicated members, and organized political ... the government ordered that children over the age of seven would live not with their parents but communally with Khmer Rouge ...
Aquarian Age: The Movie (2003). *Di Gi Charat Theater - Leave it to Piyoko! (2003) ... Cells at Work! Code Black (2018). *Gurazeni: Pa League-hen (2018). *Cells at Work! Baby (2019) ...
During aging, there is a gradual decrease in the ability to maintain skeletal muscle function and mass. This condition is ... "satellite cells" which help to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, and a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of ... More research is needed to determine the precise effects of HMB on muscle strength and function in this age group. Since the ... In addition to the simple loss of muscle mass (atrophy), or the age-related decrease in muscle function (sarcopenia), there are ...
cell proliferation. •organ morphogenesis. •extracellular matrix organization. •regulation of actin filament polymerization. • ... Tzaphlidou M (2004). «The role of collagen and elastin in aged skin: an image processing approach». Micron. 35 (3): 173-7. PMID ... Bax DV, Rodgers UR, Bilek MM, Weiss AS (2009). «Cell adhesion to tropoelastin is mediated via the C-terminal GRKRK motif and ... Bertram C, Hass R (2009). «Cellular senescence of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) is associated with an altered MMP-7/HB- ...
A Vital Legacy: Biological and Environmental Research in the Atomic Age, U.S. Department of Energy, The Office of Biological ... This tracer is a glucose analog that is taken up by glucose-using cells and phosphorylated by hexokinase (whose mitochondrial ... This means that FDG is trapped in any cell that takes it up until it decays, since phosphorylated sugars, due to their ionic ... March 1999). "In vivo mapping of cerebral acetylcholinesterase activity in aging and Alzheimer's disease". Neurology. 52 (4): ...
The TH2 lymphocytes interact with B cells and together they produce IgE. IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells ... They have shown that IgE levels are at their greatest before 10 years of age and fall vastly until one reaches 30.[15] There is ... the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). ... Allergic sensitization development varies with age, with younger children at the greatest risk of developing allergic ...
... epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in the stomatal complex; guard cells and subsidiary cells. The epidermal cells are the ... Losing hairs with age.. Glabrous. No hairs of any kind present.. Glandular. With a gland at the tip of the hair.. Hirsute. With ... Cells that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf.. Phloem. Cells that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose( ... Its cells contain many more chloroplasts than the spongy layer. Cylindrical cells, with the chloroplasts close to the walls of ...
... excess secretion from the acidophil cells) caused acromegaly, then an excess of basophil cells must be involved in another ... Women aged 45-70 years have a significantly higher mortality rate than men.[19] Moreover, the disease shows a progressive ... Given this conviction, and his knowledge of the three anterior pituitary cell types, Cushing hypothesized that if acidophil ... In a patient with Cushing's disease, the tumor cells will be stimulated to release corticotropin and elevated plasma ...
As stated in the CMS website,[5] Medicare is a health insurance program for people age 65 or older, people under age 65 with ... T-cell count drops below 200).[76] The Medicaid eligibility policy contrasts with the Journal of the American Medical ... a child under the age of 21 or a child of any age who is blind or disabled" and "the law also carved out other exceptions for ... 9,032).[78] Medicaid super-utilizers were more likely than other Medicaid patients to be male and to be aged 45-64 years.[78] ...
The invention of the transistor & the birth of the information age. *. Warnes, Lionel (1998). Analogue and Digital Electronics ... Low operating voltages compatible with batteries of only a few cells.. *Circuits with greater energy efficiency are usually ... Solaristor (from solar cell transistor), a two-terminal gate-less self-powered phototransistor. ... paving the way for the digital age.[66] The US Patent and Trademark Office calls it a "groundbreaking invention that ...
... and Th1 cells.[45] IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ... Acne usually improves around the age of 20 but may persist into adulthood.[75] Permanent physical scarring may occur.[20] There ... and accumulation of skin cells in the hair follicle.[1] In healthy skin, the skin cells that have died come up to the surface ... the increased production of oily sebum causes the dead skin cells to stick together.[10] The accumulation of dead skin cell ...
Basu et al (2014) Intestinal cell proliferation and senescence is regulated by receptor guanylyl cyclase C and p21 J. Biol. ... 1957-03-06) March 6, 1957 (age 62). Nationality. Indian. Occupation. Scientist/Academic. ... the Alliance for Cell Signalling[20] (1997-present), the TB Structural Genomics Consortium, the American Society for ... Indian Society of Cell Biology[19] (1995-present) and the Society of Research in Reproduction, India (1994-present). ...
"The cell was hot. I couldn't sleep at night. The pillow was soaked with my sweat. There was a small opening in the cell wall; I ... 1963-08-23) August 23, 1963 (age 56). Kuwait City, Kuwait. Detained at. Guantanamo. ...
The German Type 214 submarine employs advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells that assist in delivering it comparable ... "The Age. Retrieved 14 May 2016.. *^ a b c Kerr, Analysis: European yards face Soryu-shaped hurdle to replacing Collins class ... http://www.industry.usa.siemens.com/verticals/us/en/marine-shipbuilding/brochures/Documents/SINAVY-PEM-Fuel-Cell-en.pdf ...
"Regulation of PLAP-1 expression in periodontal ligament cells". Journal of Dental Research. 85 (5): 447-51. PMID 16632759. doi: ... "Association of the aspartic acid-repeat polymorphism in the asporin gene with age at onset of knee osteoarthritis in Han ...
Polymorphonuclear cells also infiltrate the epithelium, and chronic inflammatory cells infiltrate the lamina propria. Atrophic ... At very young ages, the immune system is yet to develop fully and there is no individual immune response to candida species, an ... Apart from true hyphae, Candida can also form pseudohyphae - elongated filamentous cells, lined end to end. As a general rule, ... Smears and biopsies are usually stained with periodic acid-Schiff, which stains carbohydrates in fungal cell walls in magenta. ...
... of nonmyeloablative and myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for patients older than 50 years of age". ... who have lost their stem cells after birth. Other conditions[13] treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease ... Peripheral blood stem cells[26] are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ... Sources and storage of cells[edit]. To limit the risks of transplanted stem cell rejection or of severe graft-versus-host ...
"Stone Age Man". History World. Retrieved 13 February 2007.. *^ James, Steven R. (February 1989). "Hominid Use of Fire in the ... In medicine, this era brought innovations such as open-heart surgery and later stem cell therapy along with new medications and ... Anthony, David A. (2007). The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern ... Innovations continued through the Middle Ages with innovations such as silk, the horse collar and horseshoes in the first few ...
The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting ... For example, a stone carving found in the archaeological recovery from Bronze Age Minoan Crete at Knossos (1900 - 1100 BC) has ... Other colour-changing cells are reflective iridophores and white leucophores.[93] This colour-changing ability is also used to ... The lens is suspended behind the pupil and photoreceptive retinal cells cover the back of the eye. The pupil can be adjusted in ...
Grapefruit juice may delay the absorption of levothyroxine, but based on a study of 10 healthy people aged 20-30 (8 men, 2 ... T4 and T3 bind to thyroid receptor proteins in the cell nucleus and cause metabolic effects through the control of DNA ... Dosages vary according to the age groups and the individual condition of the person, body weight and compliance to the ... and with age. The bioavailability of the drug is decreased by dietary fiber.[20] ...
7 Caulobacter aging. *8 Cell polarity regulation. *9 References. *10 External links ... Role of the swarmer cell stageEdit. The Caulobacter stalked cell stage provides a fitness advantage by anchoring the cell to ... Swarmer cells differentiate into stalked cells after a short period of motility. Chromosome replication and cell division only ... What is the offsetting fitness advantage of this motile cell stage? The swarmer cell is thought to provide cell dispersal, so ...
Part of Vittorio Sebastianos job is to babysit a few million stem cells. The research professor of reproductive biology at ... Are germ cells immune to aging?. Yes and no. They definitely do age, but not to the same extent as other cell types. In males, ... Female cells do age, and the consensus is that there are no germ stem cells in the ovary so these cells lack a molecular ... which means it can become any other cell of the body-and you also revert the age of that cell to the youngest age possible. ...
"Stem Cells and Aging: A Chicken-Or-Egg Issue?". Aging and Disease. 3 (3): 260-268. Liang Y, Zant GV (2008). "Aging stem cells, ... The stem cell theory of aging is also a sub-category of cellular theories. Smith J., A., Daniel R. "Stem Cells and Aging: A ... The stem cell theory of aging postulates that the aging process is the result of the inability of various types of stem cells ... have reviewed evidence that age-dependent accumulation of DNA damage in both stem cells and cells that comprise the stem cell ...
CELL DEATH Cell death during aging is an important issue, and it is important to understand what cell death is, and what it is ... Source for information on Cellular Aging: Cell Death: Encyclopedia of Aging dictionary. ... Encyclopedia of Aging COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. CELLULAR AGING: CELL DEATH. Cell death during aging is an important ... Cell death and aging. "Running out of cells" because of apoptosis does not cause aging. Nevertheless, apoptosis is considered ...
Such is the case with a new experiment that flushed old, broken-down cells from the bodies of mice, slowing their descent into ... Cell-Aging Hack Opens Longevity Research Frontier. Research into longevity, that most fundamental and intractable of all human ... When p16 is found in a cell, that cell is probably reaching its replication limit and grinding to a senescent halt. ... untreated bone marrow cells (top) and treated cells. (Baker et al./Nature) ...
Information about the open-access journal Aging Cell in DOAJ. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to ...
... and using key supplements may help your cells produce more energy and protect you against many diseases of aging. ... New Anti-Aging Drugs Focusing on Toxic Cells. Senescent cells can cause a number of age-related diseases, yet also perform ... Why Scientists Think Hacking Our Cells Could Turn Off the Aging Process. Written by Marsha McCulloch, MS, RD. on February 27 ... Without proper skin care techniques, your hands may start to show signs of aging. Well share some of the causes of aging skin ...
... investigation of the genetic and molecular mechanisms that underlie diminished T-cell activation that both occurs in the aging ... T-Cell Activation In Aging is an ...
Swiss anti-aging cream Prestige Cell with a potent and proven ... Swiss anti-aging cream Prestige Cell with a potent and proven ... Prestige Cell not only helps to fight pesky fine lines, wrinkles, creases and crows feet but also works to keep the skin ... This active anti-aging cream is nutrient rich and concentrated to efficiently reduce the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles and ... aging while helping to improve the texture of damaged skin. Prestige Cell is considered highly effective in restoring ...
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As they report in the European Respiratory Journal, they have already successfully counteracted this mechanism in the cell ... Pulmonary fibrosis can possibly be attributed to a kind of cellular aging process, which is called senescence. This has been ... Cell aging in lung epithelial cells. Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health ... IMAGE: Green cells show markers of the lung epithelium, red cells are undergoing senescence. The nuclei are stained in blue. ...
President Bush ignores stem-cell research in his State of the Union address, leaving future research murky. Commentary by ... Stem Cell Tactics for a New Age. President Bush ignores stem-cell research in his State of the Union address, leaving future ... Also, the Domestic Policy Council, which advises Bush on stem-cell policy, released a stem-cell white paper (.pdf) titled ... disease-specific cell lines for researchers to study and patient-specific cell lines for treatment. ...
Memory T cell homeostasis and senescence during aging.. Akbar AN1, Fletcher JM. ... Human memory T cell pools proliferate and differentiate at varying rates that are determined by the frequency of lifelong ... An important question concerning immunity is whether certain specific pools of memory T cells are driven to exhaustion in ... is an agent that induces specific T cells to extreme differentiation. The question that begs to be answered is whether this can ...
Researchers from The University of Nottingham have demonstrated how a species of flatworm overcomes the aging process to be ... Flatworms Defy Aging Through Cell Division Tricks 106 Posted by Unknown Lamer on Tuesday February 28, 2012 @12:06AM. from the ... Research Council and may shed light on the possibilities of alleviating aging and age-related characteristics in human cells." ... I am wondering now how Humans survive for more than 50 generations, since gametes are also fomred by cell division. ...
Researchers from The University of Nottingham have demonstrated how a species of flatworm overcomes the aging process to be ... Flatworms Defy Aging Through Cell Division Tricks 106 Posted by Unknown Lamer on Tuesday February 28, 2012 @12:06AM. from the ... Research Council and may shed light on the possibilities of alleviating aging and age-related characteristics in human cells." ... Furthermore, cells work together, so if two nearby cells have different lineages then they have different errors, and can ...
Studies in fruit flies have shown how certain cells in the offspring of older fathers can replace copies of genes that have ... Aging Clues Found in Stem Cell Ribosomal DNA. February 14, 2018. 0 ... Their studies looks more closely at the dynamics of rDNA loci and rDNA loss during aging in male Drosophila germline stem cells ... Studies have confirmed that in yeast cells, at least, this rDNA instability and gene copy loss underlies aging, via a process ...
Injecting cardiosphere-derived cells from newborn rats into aged rats hearts rejuvenated heart function, exercise capacity, ... Could stem cells reverse the aging process? Stem cells found in the hypothalamus are responsible for the aging process, new ... Low-calorie diet may slow aging by rejuvenating biological clock Research on how aging alters the way that cells circadian ... What are stem cells and why are they important? Everyones body produces stem cells. They are nonspecific cells that could ...
... as old cells are rejuvenated using resveratrol-like compounds. ... makes a kidney cell a kidney cell and heart cell a heart cell." ... Eradicating mitochondria from cells may reverse aging Scientists found that removing mitochondria from human cells reduced ... to aging human cells and found that they reactivated these splicing factors. This, in turn, not only made the old cells appear ... Anti-aging peptide recovers fur growth, kidney health in mice New study reveals how a peptide targeted senescent cells - known ...
New research shows that eating a vegetable-rich diet while exercising and managing stress may help modify cell aging. ... New research shows that eating a vegetable-rich diet while exercising and managing stress may help modify cell aging. ... Further, many cells, such as liver and kidney cells cant lengthen telomeres, while cancer cells can increase telomere length. ... New research showed that eating a diet rich in vegetables while exercising and managing stress may modify cell aging and ...
Fuel cells come of age at last. By tech.co.uk staff 04 December 2006. ... One of the latest prototypes was on show at the 2006 Fuel Cell Seminar in Hawaii last month - a tiny methanol-powered cell from ... Fuel cells come in many varieties but all share the same benefits - they run on a volatile fuel, such as methanol or ethanol, ... Elsewhere, Koreas LG has been showing off a notebook PC that uses a methanol fuel cell for a battery life measured in dozens ...
Mice minus these aged or senescent cells went on to enjoy better kidney function and ... middle-aged mice caused the rodents to live longer, healthier lives, said a study Wednesday that raised intriguing prospects ... Zapping worn-out cells in the organs of ... Zapping worn-out cells in the organs of "middle-aged" mice ... A future step in research would be to test the method on already aged mice, to see if removing senescent cells can reverse age- ...
Tissues with high rates of cell turnover depend on the functional capacity of stem cells for lifelong maintenance of tissue ... ... Adult stem cells are present in most postnatal tissues of mammals. ... Stem cells are the most long-lived cells in the proliferative compartment of mammalian tissues. Therefore, stem cells have an ... Advances in Stem Cell Aging ISBN: 978-3-318-02170-7 e-ISBN: 978-3-318-02171-4 DOI:10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-02171-4 VIII + 126 p ...
... according to UC San Francisco researchers who found in a new study that drinking sugary drinks was associated with cell aging. ... Sugared soda consumption, cell aging associated in new study UCSF scientists find shorter telomeres in immune cells of soda ... Sugared soda consumption, cell aging associated in new study. University of California - San Francisco ... according to UC San Francisco researchers who found in a new study that drinking sugary drinks was associated with cell aging. ...
Jasper knew the enzyme JNK was involved in cell signaling, and that cells activate it to help repair damage when a cell ... which led Jasper to believe that perhaps the stem cells which produce new intestinal cells were themselves degrading with age. ... Geneticist Wins $900,000 for Revealing Signaling Mechanisms that Accelerate Stem Cell Aging ... In a recent issue of the journal Cell: Stem Cell, Jasper and his colleagues, Benoit Biteau and Christine Hochmuth, showed that ...
Aging and disease results when telomeres break off.. "There is no doubt that stem cells can be used to counter the aging ... "Modifying aged human cardiac cells from elderly patients adds to the cells ability to regenerate damaged heart muscle, making ... Damaged and aged heart tissue of older heart failure patients was rejuvenated by stem cells modified by scientists, according ... Modified human stem cells helped the signaling and structure of the heart cells, which were biopsied from elderly patients. ...
The aging mother cells are trapped at the bottom of finger-shaped chambers, producing daughter cells until their final death. ... Single yeast cells aging in a new microfluidic chip. ... Single yeast cells aging in a new microfluidic chip. The aging ... mother cells are trapped at the bottom of finger-shaped chambers, producing daughter cells until their final death. ... Scientists decipher mechanisms underlying the biology of aging. University of California - San Diego ...
... researchers have believed that aging cells damage the tissue around them, and that this damage underlies a number of age- ... The study shows that selectively eliminating those aging, or ... Age eraser: Researchers subjected mouse bone-marrow cells to a ... Prior to this study, it was unclear how senescent cells contributed to aging. The cells make up a very small proportion of all ... The new research appears to validate the idea of senescent-cell toxicity. "Now that we know the cells play a role in aging, ...
These findings indicate that vascular niches for haematopoietic stem cells are part of complex, age-dependent microenvironments ... They find that Notch signalling in bone endothelial cells induces change in the capillaries and mesenchymal stem cells of the ... Here we show that Notch signalling in endothelial cells leads to the expansion of haematopoietic stem cell niches in bone, ... function and change as an organism age is unclear. Ralf Adams and colleagues used imaging and cell-type-specific genetic mouse ...
The stem cells in aging brains are not reduced in number, but instead they divide less frequently, resulting in dramatic ... This decreased division of stem cells is what causes the decreased neurogenesis, or birth of nerve cells, seen with aging, the ... Neural stem cells are immature cells that have the ability to give rise to all types of nerve cells in the brain. In the ... Previous studies by Shetty and others had demonstrated that as the brain ages, fewer new nerve cells, or neurons, are born in ...
Here, we provide the first in vivo evidence of global and local chromatin changes in human aging by analyzing cfDNA from the ... is present in the circulating plasma and other body fluids and is known to originate mainly from apoptotic cells. ... Cell-free DNA as a biomarker of aging Aging Cell. 2019 Feb;18(1):e12890. doi: 10.1111/acel.12890. Epub 2018 Dec 20. ... Our results also revealed age and deteriorating health status correlate with increased enrichment of signals from cells in ...
Now researchers are reporting in the scientific journal EMBO that the bone marrow niche where HSCs form also ages, ... As people get older so do the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that form their blood, creating an increased risk for compromised ... One test in aging mice looked at the formation of endosteum stroma cells, which form a thin layer of connective tissue on the ... Reversing the niche aging process Scientists followed up the earlier experiments by transplanting bone marrow cells from older ...
  • The stem cell theory of aging postulates that the aging process is the result of the inability of various types of stem cells to continue to replenish the tissues of an organism with functional differentiated cells capable of maintaining that tissue's (or organ's) original function. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are also several challenges when it comes to therapeutic use of stem cells and their ability to replenish organs and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • To accomplish this, Baker and van Deursen designed a fast-aging mouse strain that would, upon receiving a drug trigger, expel p16-producing cells from fatty tissues, muscles and eyes. (wired.com)
  • dramatically increase the activity of this gene when they regenerate, allowing stem cells to maintain their telomeres as they divide to replace missing tissues. (slashdot.org)
  • We knew that senescent cells were accumulating with age in natural tissues and the thought was: let's just start removing these things starting at mid-age in mice and see what the consequences were," Baker said. (yahoo.com)
  • Adult stem cells are present in most postnatal tissues of mammals. (karger.com)
  • Tissues with high rates of cell turnover depend on the functional capacity of stem cells for lifelong maintenance of tissue homeostasis. (karger.com)
  • Adult stem cells are also required for the regeneration of tissues in response to injury as in, for example, the regeneration of skeletal muscle. (karger.com)
  • Stem cells are the most long-lived cells in the proliferative compartment of mammalian tissues. (karger.com)
  • Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened sodas might influence disease development, not only by straining the body's metabolic control of sugars, but also through accelerated cellular aging of tissues," said Elissa Epel, PhD, professor of psychiatry at UCSF and senior author of the study. (eurekalert.org)
  • The results were striking: in tissues that contained the labeled cells, including everything from fat to muscle to eyes, selective removal appeared to postpone age-related damage. (technologyreview.com)
  • It's a proof of principle that if you remove this particular cell type from an organism-we did it in a mouse but it will probably hold true for humans-tissues and organs would function better and would be more resistant to aging. (technologyreview.com)
  • Our results also revealed age and deteriorating health status correlate with increased enrichment of signals from cells in different tissues. (nih.gov)
  • These differences in gene expression are responsible for the many different properties and behaviors of various cells and tissues as they experience health, normal aging, and disease. (nih.gov)
  • Aging of these tissues may limit lifespan. (nih.gov)
  • Alternatively, FoxOs may promote longevity cell nonautonomously by signaling to themselves (FoxO to FoxO) or other factors (FoxO to other) in distal tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Senescence of endothelial cells (ECs) impaired vascular functions, leading to aging of tissues and organ [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Aging changes occur in all of the body's cells, tissues, and organs, and these changes affect the functioning of all body systems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tissues are layers of similar cells that perform a specific function. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cells are the basic building blocks of tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cell membranes change, so many tissues have more trouble getting oxygen and nutrients, and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder that mainly affects tissues derived from mesoderm. (springer.com)
  • Aging is known to have a negative impact on the regenerative capacity of most tissues, and human MSCs are susceptible to biologic aging including changes in differentiation potential, proliferation ability and gene expression. (prweb.com)
  • Compared to other tissues in the body, stem cells in the brain are extremely rare. (singularityhub.com)
  • When they analysed the tissues from lymph nodes and the prostate, they found many cells had started to age, and they also found a slow rate of cell division. (abc.net.au)
  • Tissues are maintained through a balance of cellular aging and regeneration. (jove.com)
  • Aging of somatic stem cells reduces cell function and results in dysfunctional organs and tissues, making it an underlying cause of diseases associated with aging. (ebooks.com)
  • Mechanisms of Stem Cell Aging in Mammalian Tissues. (ebooks.com)
  • This is a sort of Google maps of the human body, the purpose of which is to chart all the cells and tissues at different times to build a reference database of the normal healthy condition, which promises tremendous importance for the development of personalized medicine. (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • An exciting new study of yeast and mammalian cells implicates deterioration of the nuclear pore, and consequent leakage of cytoplasmic components into the nucleus, as an important cause of aging in postmitotic tissues. (wiley.com)
  • In this case, an old mouse was connected to a young mouse - a technique that coauthor Amy Wagers, a Harvard stem cell scientist, has utilized to examine the effect of blood on aging in various tissues. (bostonglobe.com)
  • thus, suggesting that the regenerative outcome of stem cell-based replacement therapies will be determined by a balance between negative influences of aged tissues on transplanted cells and positive effects of embryonic cells on the endogenous regenerative capacity. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • You have trillions of cells, and they're organized into different tissues that make up organs, such as your brain , heart , and skin . (howstuffworks.com)
  • One hallmark sets naive T cell aging apart from most other tissues except stem cells: they initiate but do not complete differentiation programs toward memory cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • 9 ), a decline in regenerative capacity is a well-appreciated hallmark of aging, and attrition of stem cells with age is a universal finding in virtually all tissues ( Table I ). To prevent stem cell exhaustion, mechanisms are in place to preserve cell quiescence ( 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Such is the case with a new experiment that flushed old, broken-down cells from the bodies of mice, slowing their descent into the infirmities of age. (wired.com)
  • When they inactivated p16 and other senescence-linked genes in embryonic mice, aging proceeded normally. (wired.com)
  • Paris (AFP) - Zapping worn-out cells in the organs of "middle-aged" mice caused the rodents to live longer, healthier lives, said a study Wednesday that raised intriguing prospects for anti-ageing treatments. (yahoo.com)
  • Mice minus these aged or "senescent" cells went on to enjoy better kidney function and stronger hearts, a later onset of cancer and fewer cataracts than untreated peers, according to a research paper in the journal Nature. (yahoo.com)
  • The mice that were treated to remove their senescent cells had a lifespan extension. (yahoo.com)
  • A future step in research would be to test the method on already aged mice, to see if removing senescent cells can reverse age-related decline. (yahoo.com)
  • Mice lacking these cells were stronger and had no cataracts. (technologyreview.com)
  • To determine their role in the diseases of aging, scientists at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, identified senescent cells in mice that had been genetically engineered to age rapidly using a biomarker, called p16Ink4a, specific to these cells. (technologyreview.com)
  • The current study used a mouse strain that had been genetically tweaked for rapid aging to speed up the experiment-because these mice tend to die early from other causes, the researchers were unable to determine whether increasing the animals' "health span" would also increase their life span. (technologyreview.com)
  • Van Deursen and his colleagues are now beginning a more extensive study in normally aging mice in order to further investigate the effects of senescent-cell removal. (technologyreview.com)
  • Figure 4: Endothelial Notch reactivates HSC niches in aged mice. (nature.com)
  • One test in aging mice looked at the formation of endosteum stroma cells, which form a thin layer of connective tissue on the inner surface of bones. (eurekalert.org)
  • Study authors say they observed reduced production of osteoblasts and other stroma cells in the endosteum of older mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • Scientists followed up the earlier experiments by transplanting bone marrow cells from older mice (19-21 months) into young mice (8 to 10 weeks). (eurekalert.org)
  • In two other experiments, the authors also transplanted aged HSCs from older mice into younger mice, and they treated aged HSCs with a recombinant form of the osteopontin protein. (eurekalert.org)
  • As a follow up to the current study, the researchers are investigating the possibility to use osteopontin replacement therapy in mice to counter the influence of an aging niche directly in the animals. (eurekalert.org)
  • New research has provided insight into the HSC's aging process by systematically evaluating the gene expression (whether genes are turned "off" or "on") in cells from both young and old male mice. (nih.gov)
  • In aging mice, PrP C changes in subcellular localization and post-translational modifications have been explored in an attempt to relate them to different protein roles and propensity to convert into PrP Sc . (frontiersin.org)
  • When isolated from young mice, these GFP + stem cells exhibited greater colony-forming capacity in vitro than those isolated from aged mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Exposure to ionizing radiation or topical treatment with a chemical that induces epidermal hyperproliferation caused expansion of the GFP + cell population in young mice but had no effect (radiation) or even reduced (chemical agent) the number of GFP + stem cells in aged mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Transcriptome analysis of GFP + cells revealed age-related changes in the expression of genes associated with the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway, including an increase in stem cells from aged mice in the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 ( Socs1 ) and Socs2 that participate in a negative feedback loop to limit inflammation-associated JAK-STAT signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • The abundance of many proinflammatory cytokines was increased in the epidermis of aged mice compared to the epidermis of young mice, as was the abundance of phosphorylated (activated) Stat3, consistent with increased inflammatory signaling in epidermal stem cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Treatment with any of three JAK inhibitors (pyridone-6, ruxolitinib, and tofacitinib) rescued the reduced colony-forming ability of epidermal stem cells isolated from aged mice, but this rescue was lost as the cells were propagated in vitro. (sciencemag.org)
  • Conditional depletion of Foxp1 in bone marrow MSCs led to premature aging characteristics, including increased bone marrow adiposity, decreased bone mass, and impaired MSC self-renewal capacity in mice. (jci.org)
  • In these mice, precisely, the skin repair mechanism did not work, the skin aged prematurely and they did not develop skin cancer. (scienceblog.com)
  • Comparing cells from young and old mice, they discovered that the first phase of egg division in older eggs was chaotic. (newscientist.com)
  • But in half the cells taken from old mice, the team observed microtubules sending chromosomes in different directions, causing clumps in three or four different spots, instead of just to two opposite camps. (newscientist.com)
  • In their study, mice were induced with chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and treated before disease onset with human adipose-derived MSCs derived from younger (less than 35 years) or older (over age 60) donors. (prweb.com)
  • Mice treated with older donor cells had increased inflammation of the central nervous system, demyelination leading to an impairment in movement, cognition and other functions dependent on nerves, and a proliferation of splenocytes [white blood cells in the spleen], compared to the mice receiving cells from younger donors,' Dr. Bunnell noted. (prweb.com)
  • As such, Dr. Bunnell said, 'A decrease in T cell proliferation would result in a decreased number of T cells available to attack the CNS in the mice, which directly supports the results showing that the CNS damage and inflammation is less severe in the young MSC-treated mice than in the old MSC-treated mice. (prweb.com)
  • And-get this-they also lived 10 to 15 percent longer than mice transplanted with other cell types. (singularityhub.com)
  • Zap out NF-kappaB activity in mice, and they showed much fewer age-related symptoms as they grew older. (singularityhub.com)
  • Over a period of four months, these mice aged much faster: their muscle endurance, coordination and treadmill performance tanked. (singularityhub.com)
  • We show that senescent human fibroblasts stimulate premalignant and malignant, but not normal, epithelial cells to proliferate in culture and form tumors in mice. (pnas.org)
  • In mice, senescent, much more than presenescent, fibroblasts caused premalignant and malignant epithelial cells to form tumors. (pnas.org)
  • To study colon cancer in the setting of aging, Baylin and senior corresponding author Hari Easwaran, Ph.D., assistant professor of oncology, and team used a mouse colon organoids derived from six- to eight-week old mice. (news-medical.net)
  • But a study in mice, published today in Nature , shows that blocking a cancer-causing gene called Skp2 forces cancer cells to go through an aging process known as senescence - the same process involved in ridding the body of cells damaged by sunlight. (abc.net.au)
  • When the mice reached six months of age, they found those with an inactive Skp2 gene did not develop tumours, while the other mice did. (abc.net.au)
  • To see if this would work in mice, they transplanted the cells and treated the mice with the drug. (abc.net.au)
  • We put human cancer cells into mice. (abc.net.au)
  • However, there are some cells that are still capable of division in old age - in the brains of mice, at least. (mpg.de)
  • In the brains of mice different types of neuronal stem cells exist that can create new neurons. (mpg.de)
  • It is known from tests on mice that the newly formed cells are integrated into the existing networks and play an important role in the learning capacity of animals. (mpg.de)
  • In young mice, the stem cells divide four times more frequently than in older animals. (mpg.de)
  • The result is that more radial stem cells divide in active mice. (mpg.de)
  • It would appear that neuronal stem cells are not only found in the brains of mice. (mpg.de)
  • To test this, aging female mice were transplanted with mesenchymal stem cells from aged or young male donors. (nature.com)
  • We find that transplantation of young mesenchymal stem cells significantly slows the loss of bone density and, surprisingly, prolongs the life span of old mice. (nature.com)
  • To test the possible impact of aging on stem cell function, we have carried out a series of studies to compare the function of BMSCs isolated from young (1-2 months old) or old (20-24 months old) mice. (nature.com)
  • To test whether defective stem cells function might be responsible for the progression of osteoporosis, old female mice were irradiated then transplanted with BMSCs from young or old males. (nature.com)
  • Flow cytometry analyses showed that second passage cells from Balb/c mice were positive for CD44, CD29, CD105, SCA-1 and negative for CD34, CD45 ( Figure 1B ). (nature.com)
  • University of Colorado team reports that specific types of stem cells transplanted into the leg muscles of mice prevented the loss of muscle function and mass that normally occurs with aging. (worldhealth.net)
  • The researchers transplanted between 10 and 50 stem cells along with attached myofibers -- which are individual skeletal muscle cells -- from donor mice (healthy) into host mice (affected with limb muscle injuries). (worldhealth.net)
  • Among the young host receiving the muscle stem cells, the stem cells not only repaired the injury within days, they caused the treated muscle to double in mass and sustain itself through the lifetime of the transplanted mice. (worldhealth.net)
  • After studying a group of mice, who because of a natural disease aged relatively fast, researchers concluded that our body's oldest cells-called senescent cells because they no longer divide-may cause aging and age-related disease. (bigthink.com)
  • This is because when researchers removed the senescent cells from the mice, their aging process slowed and disease rates greatly decreased. (bigthink.com)
  • In 2011, Villeda, who was not involved in the current research, found that blood from old mice could decrease the creation of new brain cells in young mice . (bostonglobe.com)
  • This work uncovers novel mechanisms of aging within stem cell niches that are evolutionarily conserved between mice and humans and affect both embryonic and adult stem cells. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Consequently, the protective capacity of natural serum IgM against S. pneumoniae infection is significantly decreased in aged mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, the average percent of B-1a cells binding PtC-liposomes (13-15%) did not change in aged mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • Therefore, in aged mice the majority of natural IgM derives from non-PtC binding B-1a cells producing antibody that has moved away from the germline. (jimmunol.org)
  • The finding, made in mice, could lead to new strategies for warding off age-related diseases and extending lifespan. (disabled-world.com)
  • In studying whether stem cells in the hypothalamus held the key to aging, the researchers first looked at the fate of those cells as healthy mice got older. (disabled-world.com)
  • By old age--about two years of age in mice--most of those cells were gone," says Dr. Cai. (disabled-world.com)
  • So they observed what happened when they selectively disrupted the hypothalamic stem cells in middle-aged mice. (disabled-world.com)
  • This disruption greatly accelerated aging compared with control mice, and those animals with disrupted stem cells died earlier than normal," says Dr. Cai. (disabled-world.com)
  • To answer that question, the researchers injected hypothalamic stem cells into the brains of middle-aged mice whose stem cells had been destroyed as well as into the brains of normal old mice. (disabled-world.com)
  • miRNAs are packaged inside tiny particles called exosomes, which hypothalamic stem cells release into the cerebrospinal fluid of mice. (disabled-world.com)
  • The researchers extracted miRNA-containing exosomes from hypothalamic stem cells and injected them into the cerebrospinal fluid of two groups of mice: middle-aged mice whose hypothalamic stem cells had been destroyed and normal middle-aged mice. (disabled-world.com)
  • A team of researchers, led by scientists at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, with support from the National Institute on Aging at the NIH, has developed an innovative approach to study aging cells in living mice. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers found an exponential increase of p16 as mice aged, supporting the relationship between senescence and aging. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers conclude that findings from this work support p16 as a potential indicator of aging and this new strain of mice may be helpful in determining the effects of compounds on aging cells. (nih.gov)
  • Specifically, they identified circulating immune cells as key purveyors of aging in the hippocampus, culminating in memory loss in mice. (alzforum.org)
  • Blocking its action restored memory in aging mice, and protected mouse models of Parkinson's disease from motor deficits, sparking early stage clinical trials in humans. (alzforum.org)
  • Hematopoietic cells from old mice tax memory in young ones. (alzforum.org)
  • To investigate whether these cells trigger aging in the brain, graduate student Luke Smith transplanted hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from 24-month-old mice into two-month-old mice. (alzforum.org)
  • As a control, he transplanted other two-month-old mice with HSCs from same-age littermates. (alzforum.org)
  • To understand how the environment of the aging brain itself affects microglia, Shea next transplanted fledgling microglia extracted from the brains of newborn mice into the hippocampi of young or old mice. (alzforum.org)
  • Returning to parabiosis, the researchers found that microglia in young mice ramped up an age-related gene expression signature after being conjoined to old mice, upregulating disease-related and immune genes. (alzforum.org)
  • Scientists first discovered embryonic stem cells of mice in 1981, leading to a method of collecting human embryonic stem cells in 1998. (worldhealth.net)
  • Balancing proliferation and quiescence along with homing (See niche) and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells are favoring elements of stem cell pool maintenance while differentiation, mobilization and senescence are detrimental elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • First identified in the late 1960s by Leonard Hayflick and his collaborators, the term cellular senescence refers to the fact that normal, nonmalignant cells of vertebrates do not divide indefinitely in culture, but in time terminally differentiate and enter a prolonged postmitotic phase, eventually dying in the culture dish. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The mechanism for cell senescence is not completely understood. (encyclopedia.com)
  • But even with those, the findings mark the first time that cellular senescence - its importance debated by biologists for decades - has been experimentally manipulated in an animal, demonstrating a fantastic new tool for studying its role in human aging. (wired.com)
  • Many researchers think senescence-related tissue dysfunction contributes to heart disease and cancer and other conditions that become more likely with age. (wired.com)
  • Green cells show markers of the lung epithelium, red cells are undergoing senescence. (eurekalert.org)
  • Pulmonary fibrosis can possibly be attributed to a kind of cellular aging process, which is called senescence. (eurekalert.org)
  • In both the experimental model and in the lungs of IPF patients, we were able to show that some cells in the alveolar epithelium have markers for senescence*," explains study leader Königshoff. (eurekalert.org)
  • Senescence impairs lung function in two ways: It prevents lung cells from dividing when they need to be replaced. (eurekalert.org)
  • Altogether, the study shows that senescence in the cells of the alveolar epithelium can contribute to the development and worsening of IPF. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cellular senescence describes a type of arrested growth during which the cells no longer divide. (eurekalert.org)
  • Memory T cell homeostasis and senescence during aging. (nih.gov)
  • Studies have confirmed that in yeast cells, at least, this rDNA instability and gene copy loss underlies aging, via a process known as replicative senescence. (genengnews.com)
  • Our results show that nucleosome signals inferred from cfDNA are consistent with the redistribution of heterochromatin observed in cellular senescence and aging in other model systems. (nih.gov)
  • Senescence is the biological aging of cells and represents the gradual deterioration of cellular function. (mdpi.com)
  • The ageing of cells are technically called replicative senescence, a term which means that the cells are losing their ability to divide. (medindia.net)
  • Human cells divide between 60 and 90 times before senescence sets in. (medindia.net)
  • 2013 ). We have recently developed a human stem cell model by homozygous depletion of the exons 15 and 16 of WRN alleles, which recapitulates the major cellular defects of WS, including accelerated senescence, growth arrest, telomere attrition, increased DNA damage response, excessive production of inflammatory factors, as well as increased stem cell attrition in the in vivo niche (Zhang et al. (springer.com)
  • Notably, overexpression of the homologue of SIR2 extends longevity in C. elegans , suggesting that this conserved gene may affect both replicative senescence and chronological aging in other eukaryotes ( Tissenbaum & Guarente, 2001 ). (wiley.com)
  • In bone marrow MSCs, FOXP1 expression levels declined with age in an inverse manner with those of the senescence marker p16 INK4A . (jci.org)
  • These results indicate that FOXP1 attenuates MSC senescence by orchestrating their cell-fate switch while maintaining their replicative capacity in a dose- and age-dependent manner. (jci.org)
  • Mammalian cells can respond to damage or stress by entering a state of arrested growth and altered function termed cellular senescence. (pnas.org)
  • Cellular senescence is also thought to contribute to aging, but the mechanism is not well understood. (pnas.org)
  • In culture, the growth stimulation was evident when senescent cells comprised only 10% of the fibroblast population and was equally robust whether senescence was induced by replicative exhaustion, oncogenic RAS, p14 ARF , or hydrogen peroxide. (pnas.org)
  • Our findings suggest that, although cellular senescence suppresses tumorigenesis early in life, it may promote cancer in aged organisms, suggesting it is an example of evolutionary antagonistic pleiotropy. (pnas.org)
  • Cellular senescence appears to be a major barrier that cells must overcome to progress to full-blown malignancy ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Proliferating cells progressively lose telomeric DNA, and short telomeres, which are potentially oncogenic, elicit a senescence response. (pnas.org)
  • Cellular senescence is controlled by tumor suppressor genes and seems to be a checkpoint that prevents the growth of cells at risk for neoplastic transformation ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, whereas apoptosis kills and eliminates damaged or potential cancer cells, cellular senescence stably arrests their growth. (pnas.org)
  • Cellular senescence is also thought to contribute to aging ( 4 - 7 ), although how it does so is poorly understood. (pnas.org)
  • Upon senescence, such cells show striking changes in gene expression ( 7 , 12 ), some of which relate to the growth arrest and senescent morphology. (pnas.org)
  • Cell senescence, a state in which cells stop dividing but maintain a limited function in the body, may protect against cancer. (nih.gov)
  • However, research suggests that cell senescence may also contribute to some of the negative effects of aging. (nih.gov)
  • Exhaustion of adult stem cell pools as a result of deranged metabolic signaling, premature senescence as a response to oncogenic insults to the somatic genome, and other causes contribute to tissue degeneration with age. (mdpi.com)
  • Molecular changes associated with age include telomere dysfunction, oxidative stress and deranged mitochondrial metabolism, inflammation, and cellular senescence, as well as altered signaling of sirtuins, insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway [ 3 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Remarkably, the cells of participants younger than 65 were free of the same mutations, suggesting a link to the aging process, known as cellular senescence, which Dr. Attardi continued to study until recently. (nytimes.com)
  • Under culture conditions, or in conditions of excessive proliferation, such as chronic challenge to the immune system, the cells eventually use up their telomeres and cease proliferation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In humans, telomeres limit cells to ~50 divisions, which is probably related to how DNA replication is only 99.9998% accurate. (slashdot.org)
  • Telomeres also help divvy-up the workload among stem cells so the most eager doesn't monopolize the work. (slashdot.org)
  • One of the features they mention is the progressive shortening, as cells divide, of telomeres, which are the "caps" that protect the ends of chromosomes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The researchers explain that "critical shortening" of telomeres is associated with a number of heart problems that arise with age, such as heart dysfunction. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Further, many cells, such as liver and kidney cells can't lengthen telomeres, while cancer cells can increase telomere length. (mercola.com)
  • The good news is that the telomeres in almost all the cells other than WBCs and stem cells do not increase, for if they did, dying of cancer would be all but certain. (mercola.com)
  • Choosing a diet that encourages proper level of leptin and insulin in your body, and thereby proper genetic expression, is likely the most powerful anti-aging diet there is - and may also be involved, or at the very least associated, with the length of your telomeres, although this is only beginning to be explored. (mercola.com)
  • The study revealed that telomeres -- the protective units of DNA that cap the ends of chromosomes in cells -- were shorter in the white blood cells of survey participants who reported drinking more soda. (eurekalert.org)
  • The length of telomeres within white blood cells -- where it can most easily be measured -- has previously been associated with human lifespan. (eurekalert.org)
  • Short telomeres also have been associated with the development of chronic diseases of aging, including heart disease, diabetes, and some types of cancer. (eurekalert.org)
  • The UCSF researchers measured telomeres after obtaining stored DNA from 5,309 participants, ages 20 to 65, with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, who had participated in the nation's largest ongoing health survey, called the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, during the years 1999 through 2002. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a small study involving 35 men in their 50s and 60s, researchers at the Preventive Medicine Research Institute and the University of California, San Francisco found that the 10 participants who adopted several healthful lifestyle changes for five years experienced a 10 percent lengthening of their cell's telomeres, indicating that the cells would have a longer lifespan. (bostonglobe.com)
  • The 25 men in a control group had a 3 percent shortening of their cell's telomeres over five years, which typically occurs during that aging time frame. (bostonglobe.com)
  • Telomeres are "caps" on the ends of chromosomes that facilitate cell replication. (redorbit.com)
  • Aging and disease results when telomeres break off. (redorbit.com)
  • In probing the links between depression and physical disease, the research team explored aging of the immune system as measured by the shortening of telomeres in immune cells taken from the blood. (scienceblog.com)
  • Telomerase helps repair and restore telomeres, protecting cells from damage related to premature aging. (scienceblog.com)
  • During cell replication, the telomeres function by ensuring the cell's chromosomes do not fuse with each other or rearrange, which can lead to cancer. (nutraingredients.com)
  • As is the length of telomeres, the protective end caps of DNA, and of course, stem cells. (singularityhub.com)
  • Age how you eat: Adopting a diet rich in vegetables and unprocessed foods and focusing on stress-management activities such as yoga have been shown to increase the length of telomeres, the ends of chromosomes linked to aging. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • Adopting a diet rich in unprocessed foods combined with moderate exercise and stress management over five years increased the length of telomeres, the ends of chromosomes linked to aging, according to a study of 35 men published in the Lancet medical journal. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • He was inspired by Blackburn's research showing that the shortening of telomeres, and therefore aging, is accelerated by emotional stress such as that experienced by women who have parents with Alzheimer's disease or children with autism. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • As telomeres become shorter, cells age and die more quickly. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • Telomerase repairs and lengthens telomeres, which are DNA-protein complexes at the end of chromosomes that directly affect how quickly cells age. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • As telomeres become shorter and their structural integrity weakens, cells age and die more quickly, according to background information in a University of California, Irvine, new release. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Telomeres are stretches of DNA that shorten every time a cell divides. (wbez.org)
  • Short telomeres indicate aging and they're associated with stress and disease. (wbez.org)
  • But it also offers an encouraging review of research on four methods that could provide researchers with embryonic-like stem cells without the moral objections. (wired.com)
  • One of the methods, de-differentiation, even provides the same benefits as cloning -- disease-specific cell lines for researchers to study and patient-specific cell lines for treatment. (wired.com)
  • Researchers from The University of Nottingham have demonstrated how a species of flatworm overcomes the aging process to be potentially immortal . (slashdot.org)
  • Researchers from California have demonstrated that injecting stem cells taken from the hearts of newborn rats into older rats improved the latter's cardiovascular function and capacity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Researchers from the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute in Los Angeles, CA, found that injecting aged rats with specialized stem cells taken from the hearts of newborns appeared to rejuvenate the older animals. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In their study report - which is published in the European Heart Journal - the researchers note that the incidence of cardiovascular disease "increases markedly" with age, and they discuss what happens in the aging heart. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For their investigation, the researchers took cardiosphere-derived cells from newborn rats bred in the laboratory and injected them into the hearts of elderly rats aged around 22 months. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In the new study, the researchers added "resveralogues," or chemicals similar to resveratrol, to aging human cells and found that they reactivated these splicing factors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sugar-sweetened soda consumption might promote disease independently from its role in obesity, according to UC San Francisco researchers who found in a new study that drinking sugary drinks was associated with cell aging. (eurekalert.org)
  • Based on the way telomere length shortens on average with chronological age, the UCSF researchers calculated that daily consumption of a 20-ounce soda was associated with 4.6 years of additional biological aging. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers modified the stem cells in the laboratory with PIM-1, a protein that promotes cell survival and growth. (redorbit.com)
  • For more than a decade, researchers have believed that aging cells damage the tissue around them, and that this damage underlies a number of age-related disorders. (technologyreview.com)
  • Researchers subjected mouse bone-marrow cells to a drug that induced aging (top), then selectively killed off only the cells that could no longer divide (bottom). (technologyreview.com)
  • More recently, researchers have suggested that these cells might be secreting damaging chemicals that poison the cells around them. (technologyreview.com)
  • In the current study, however, the researchers found that the stem cells in aging brains are not reduced in number, but instead they divide less frequently, resulting in dramatic reductions in the addition of new neurons in the hippocampus. (medindia.net)
  • To conduct their census, the researchers attached easy-to-spot fluorescent tags to the neuronal stem cells in the hippocampus in young, middle-aged and old rats. (medindia.net)
  • This finding, the researchers said, suggested that the decreased production of new neurons in the aged brain was not due to a lack of starting material. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers then used another fluorescent molecule to tag all stem cells that were undergoing division in the process of staying "fresh" in case they were recruited to become mature nerve cells. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers also are grafting neural stem cells grown in culture dishes into the hippocampus, to stimulate those already present. (medindia.net)
  • Now researchers are reporting in the scientific journal EMBO that the bone marrow niche where HSC's form also ages, contributing to the problem. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers conducted a number of experiments to test the formation and vitality of cells in and near the bone marrow microenvironment. (eurekalert.org)
  • For this study, the researchers used several techniques, including a process called transcriptome analysis, to determine the extent to which genes are on or off depending on the age of the HSCs. (nih.gov)
  • Often researchers can count the number of different types of transcripts in the transcriptome to determine the level of activity of different genes, also called gene expression, in a certain cell or tissue type. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers found, for instance, that genes regulated by a growth factor called TGF-β showed differences in expression between young and old HSC cells. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the researchers confirmed and extended previous studies by identifying epigenetic changes in young versus old HSCs that are consistent with the aging HSCs' inability to develop into other types of blood cells. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers hope the findings will provide new insight into treating progeria as well as other age-related diseases. (technologyreview.com)
  • As stem cell clinical trials for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients become more common, it is crucial for researchers to understand the biologic changes and therapeutic effects of older donor stem cells. (prweb.com)
  • To see whether declined stem cell function contributes to aging, rather as a result of old age, the researchers used two different types of toxins to wipe out 70 percent of stem cells while keeping mature neurons intact. (singularityhub.com)
  • Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers say a new study of clusters of mouse cells known as 'organoids' has significantly strengthened evidence that epigenetic changes, common to aging, play a essential role in colon cancer initiation. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers found that epigenetic alterations characterized by changes in DNA methylation--a process by which cells add tiny methyl chemical groups to a beginning region of a gene's DNA sequence, often silencing the gene's activation--are a key component of cancer initiation. (news-medical.net)
  • Scientists from the Bonn University Department of Ophthalmology, together with researchers in New York (USA), have now tested a new method in rabbits by which the damaged RPE cells in AMD may be replaced. (uni-bonn.de)
  • The researchers implanted different RPEs which were obtained, among others, from stem cells from adult human donors. (uni-bonn.de)
  • After four days, the researchers used tomographic methods to check whether the replacement cells had integrated into the surrounding cell layers. (uni-bonn.de)
  • When the donor pool was narrowed down to those with the best possible set of genetics, the researchers found that just 10 stem cell types would be enough to provide a favourable level of match for 78% of recipients. (fightaging.org)
  • Researchers are looking at actin polymerization and calcium uptake in human cells to study mitochondrial division. (the-scientist.com)
  • The researchers developed a new technique to track fluorescently labeled vesicles in adrenal cells from cows. (innovations-report.com)
  • Researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota have unveiled a long-kept medical secret: What causes aging and the onset of age-related disease? (bigthink.com)
  • In order to understand these effects in detail, researchers at Helmholtz Zentrum München, a partner in the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), analyzed the aging process in the lung at single-cell level using AI approaches. (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • Major lifestyle changes can help improve levels of an enzyme called telomerase that controls cell aging, say California researchers. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • In a 2013 Nature paper, Einstein researchers made the surprising finding that the hypothalamus also regulates aging throughout the body. (disabled-world.com)
  • The researchers next wanted to learn whether this progressive loss of stem cells was actually causing aging and was not just associated with it. (disabled-world.com)
  • The researchers are now trying to identify the particular populations of microRNAs and perhaps other factors secreted by these stem cells that are responsible for these anti-aging effects--a first step toward possibly slowing the aging process and treating age-related diseases. (disabled-world.com)
  • The expression of p16 did not predict cancer or aging-related death, leading researchers to suspect that an accumulation of senescent cells is not the main cause of mortality. (nih.gov)
  • For years, health researchers and entrepreneurs have been studying aging down to the cellular level to see if it's possible to slow, stop or even reverse the factors that influence how getting older affects us . (goodhousekeeping.com)
  • Researchers at the Scripps Translational Science Institute (STSI) and The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) who looked at the effect of aging on induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) found that genetic mutations increased with the age of the donor who provided the source cells, according to study results published today by the journal Nature Biotechnology. (scripps.org)
  • Researchers found that iPSCs made from donors in their late 80s had twice as many mutations among protein-encoding genes as stem cells made from donors in their early 20s. (scripps.org)
  • Unexpectedly, iPSCs made from blood cells donated by people over 90 years old actually contained fewer mutations than what researchers had expected. (scripps.org)
  • Researchers said the reason for this could be tied to the fact that blood stem cells remaining in elderly people have been protected from mutations over their lifetime by dividing less frequently. (scripps.org)
  • In the 1990s, Dr. Attardi and his fellow researchers pursued the possibility of a connection between mutations in mitochondria and aging and disease. (nytimes.com)
  • At SfN, researchers from the lab of Saul Villeda at the University of California, San Francisco, hypothesized that circulating immune cells were likely responsible for these parabiotic effects. (alzforum.org)
  • The researchers also developed a mathematical model that quantitatively predicted the pattern of metabolic waste excretion in response to perturbations they applied to affect the physiological state of growing cells. (ucsd.edu)
  • Researchers discovered in 2006 that certain specialized adult stem cells could be reprogrammed to assume a state similar to embryonic stem cells. (worldhealth.net)
  • The technique increased telomere length and activity, as well as increasing cardiac stem cell proliferation, all vital steps in combating heart failure. (redorbit.com)
  • Additional approaches include using behavioral modification techniques, such as physical exercise and exposure to an enriching environment, that are known to stimulate proliferation of stem cells. (medindia.net)
  • Previous research has shown that TGF-β helps control the growth and proliferation of cells, the process by which cells mature to carry out specific functions (differentiation), cell movement, and the self-destruction of cells. (nih.gov)
  • The cell cultures are then infused with a combination of growth factors-common factors that cause blood vessel growth and cell proliferation-positioned in such a way within the porous scaffolding that the cells are able to be stimulated by these factors. (redorbit.com)
  • There is no cure and no treatment eases the severe forms of MS. But previous studies on animals have shown that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) holds promise as a therapy for all forms of MS. The MSCs migrate to areas of damage, release trophic (cell growth) factors and exert neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects to inhibit T cell proliferation. (prweb.com)
  • In fact, the T cell proliferation assay results in the study indicated that older MSCs might actually stimulate the proliferation of the T cells, while younger stem cells are capable of inhibiting the proliferation of T cells. (prweb.com)
  • Because stem cells recapitulate cellular development, the application of cultured stem cells in a petri dish, which have been upgraded to brain-on-a-chip and organoids, has allowed in-depth probing of cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation under homeostatic and pathologic conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. (jove.com)
  • Our results reveal that aged differentiated niches dominantly inhibit the expression of Oct4 in hESCs and Myf-5 in activated satellite cells, and reduce proliferation and myogenic differentiation of both embryonic and tissue-specific adult stem cells (ASCs). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In previous studies, we found that chronic activation of stress signaling pathways in the Drosophila gut causes uncontrolled stem cell proliferation and severely disrupts the function of all cells that compose the intestinal epithelium. (rochester.edu)
  • We showed that genetic manipulations that prevent the abnormal stem cell proliferation, observed in the intestine of older flies, are sufficient to prevent most of the metabolic changes associated with aging and extend the lifespan of Drosophila . (rochester.edu)
  • Finally, they blocked BPS-induced proliferation of cancer cells via treatment of cells with anti-estrogen drugs that are designed to block estrogen's effects on estrogen binding proteins (also referred to as estrogen receptors) within breast cancer cells. (worldhealth.net)
  • And senescent cells secrete mediators that further promote fibrosis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since this effect also plays a role in cancer, the scientists were able to access an already existing group of medicines, the so-called senolytic drugs that selectively kill off senescent cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Senescent cells are cells which have stopped dividing, and no longer function. (yahoo.com)
  • The results suggested "this approach may be useful to treat aspects of age-related functional decline, age-related diseases that involve senescent cells, or side effects of therapies that create senescent cells," the study authors wrote. (yahoo.com)
  • But there are a variety of groups that we know of that are specifically looking for compounds that can selectively eliminate these senescent cells with age that accumulate in you and I," he said. (yahoo.com)
  • So it is not a far-fetched idea to think that there will be things that will be coming down the pipeline that influence or remove these senescent cells. (yahoo.com)
  • The study shows that selectively eliminating those aging, or "senescent," cells, could help prevent the onset of everything from muscle loss to cataracts. (technologyreview.com)
  • Senescent cells can no longer divide, and therefore fail to replenish aging tissue. (technologyreview.com)
  • For the length of the animals' lives, they were injected with a drug that induced only those biomarker-containing senescent cells to commit suicide, while leaving others untouched. (technologyreview.com)
  • We've shown there is a causal link between these senescent cells and age-related decline in tissue function," says Jan van Deursen , the Mayo Clinic cancer researcher who led the study. (technologyreview.com)
  • Prior to this study, it was unclear how senescent cells contributed to aging. (technologyreview.com)
  • Not only does the study propose a biomarker for aging, levels of p16Ink4a, but it validates the idea that it might be possible to create a drug that targets senescent cells without causing harm to healthy cells. (technologyreview.com)
  • But senescent cells are also associated with skin wrinkles, delayed wound healing, weakened immune system response and age-related diseases. (medindia.net)
  • A new study sheds light on the accumulation of senescent cells and suggests that therapies that remove them could be beneficial both immediately and in the long term for human health and longevity. (lifeboat.com)
  • This leads to the accumulation of unwanted, damaged senescent cells in every tissue of our body. (lifeboat.com)
  • This build-up of senescent cells is one of the proposed reasons we age and has been the focus of intense research in the last few years. (lifeboat.com)
  • Moreover, it was due at least in part to soluble and insoluble factors secreted by senescent cells. (pnas.org)
  • In addition to arresting growth, senescent cells show changes in function ( 2 , 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Because senescent cells accumulate with age ( 8 - 10 ), they may contribute to age-related declines in tissue function. (pnas.org)
  • The functional changes, by contrast, may be unselected consequences of the growth arrest and thus compromise tissue function as senescent cells accumulate. (pnas.org)
  • Because senescent cells can alter the tissue microenvironment, we and others proposed that senescent cells may contribute to the exponential rise in cancer that occurs with age ( 2 , 4 , 13 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Were it possible to remove senescent cells in humans, age-related disease might become a thing of the past. (bigthink.com)
  • The p16 gene is best known as a tumor suppressor and is primarily active in senescent cells. (nih.gov)
  • In order to test possible treatment strategies, the scientists placed the affected cells into a three-dimensional cell culture and examined the drugs's effect ex vivo, so to speak. (eurekalert.org)
  • As you probably know, the president handed down an executive order on August 9, 2001, saying scientists could only study stem-cell lines already derived from embryos destroyed by that day. (wired.com)
  • It will be of special interest to scientists working on stem cell research, aging, regeneration, and cancer as well as physicians and scientists specializing in geriatric medicine, internal medicine, and surgery. (karger.com)
  • Jasper's work could help scientists understand what causes organs to malfunction in old age, and why certain cancers are so prevalent in the elderly. (rochester.edu)
  • Damaged and aged heart tissue of older heart failure patients was rejuvenated by stem cells modified by scientists, according to research presented at the American Heart Association's Basic Cardiovascular Sciences 2012 Scientific Sessions. (redorbit.com)
  • The scientists said the finding, made in rodents, refutes current ideas on how long crucial "progenitor" stem cells persist in the aging brain. (medindia.net)
  • This decreased division of stem cells is what causes the decreased neurogenesis, or birth of nerve cells, seen with aging, the scientists said. (medindia.net)
  • Conducting their study in mouse models, the scientists point to cells in the bone marrow called osteoblasts, which help form bone. (eurekalert.org)
  • The discovery, which transforms aged stem cells into cells that function like much younger ones, may one day enable scientists to grow cardiac patches for damaged or diseased hearts from a patient's own stem cells-no matter what age the patient-while avoiding the threat of rejection. (redorbit.com)
  • Scientists belonging to the Brown University have revealed that the ageing of the body is directly connected to the aging of the cells. (medindia.net)
  • Because each organ has its own pool of stem cells to replenish aged tissue, scientists have long thought that the body has multiple "aging clocks" running concurrently. (singularityhub.com)
  • The scientists found that acquired DNA methylation during 'aging' of the organoids, silenced cancer protective genes in a pattern similar to human aging that associates with risk for colon cancer by decade. (news-medical.net)
  • Instead of killing off cancer cells with toxic drugs, scientists have discovered a molecular pathway that forces them to grow old and die. (abc.net.au)
  • Scientists at the Department of Ophthalmology at the Bonn University Hospital and from the Neural Stem Cell Institute in New York (USA) have developed a method for using stem cells to replace cells in the eye destroyed by AMD. (uni-bonn.de)
  • According to scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology in Freiburg, different types of neuronal stem cells exist that can create new neurons. (mpg.de)
  • Therefore, scientists suspect that different types of active and inactive stem cells also arise in the human brain. (mpg.de)
  • The book is intended for all scientists and clinicians working with stem cells, aging mechanisms or age-related diseases. (ebooks.com)
  • The scientists are working on the assumption that cells lose epigenetic control during the aging process, which results in different gene activities. (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • Specifically, the scientists used single-cell transcriptomics and a proteomic mass spectrometry method to measure changes in 30 different pulmonary cell types. (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • A team of Harvard Stem Cell Institute scientists have discovered a protein that circulates in blood that can turn old hearts young, causing a mouse's heart that has thickened and enlarged with age to revert back to a more youthful state. (bostonglobe.com)
  • Scientists at Albert Einstein College of Medicine have found that stem cells in the brain's hypothalamus govern how fast aging occurs in the body. (disabled-world.com)
  • Now, the scientists have pinpointed the cells in the hypothalamus that control aging: a tiny population of adult neural stem cells, which were known to be responsible for forming new brain neurons. (disabled-world.com)
  • The results of the procedure are now being eagerly awaited around the world by doctors and scientists hoping that embryonic stem cells can be used to treat conditions ranging from heart disease to diabetes and blindness. (abc.net.au)
  • The other development is that some scientists today are less interested in the date on your birth certificate than they are in a different marker: your biological age . (goodhousekeeping.com)
  • Scientists have now identified biomarkers (chemical changes) in an individual's DNA that correspond with aging. (goodhousekeeping.com)
  • The findings extend striking previous,evidence, conducted largely by the same scientists, that systemic factors fuel age-related decline in brain function. (alzforum.org)
  • Scientists have not yet perfected dependable procedures that will ensure the correct differentiation of stem cells. (worldhealth.net)
  • Diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, end-stage renal failure and heart disease are caused by different mechanisms that are not related to stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, some diseases related to hematopoietic system, such as aplastic anemia and complete bone marrow failure, are not especially age-dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • It plays a role in age-related diseases. (wired.com)
  • Cutting carbs, reducing calories, and using key supplements may help your cells produce more energy and protect you against many diseases of aging. (healthline.com)
  • Dr. Lee Know, author of "Mitochondria and the Future of Medicine," argues that declining energy levels in cells may trigger many diseases of aging, including heart disease and dementia. (healthline.com)
  • The latest research strongly suggests that the vast majority of age-related degenerative diseases have tangled roots in dysfunctional mitochondria," Dr. Lee Know, author of " Mitochondria and the Future of Medicine ," told Healthline. (healthline.com)
  • Know explained that if our mitochondria can't meet the energy needs of our cells, things start to fall apart, setting up a downward spiral that can eventually show up as diseases like heart disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease, among many others. (healthline.com)
  • I keep hoping President Bush will finally realize that chronic diseases, those that embryonic stem-cell research stands to help the most, are the number one threat to Medicare. (wired.com)
  • It may very well be that controlling telomere length specific to different diseases and cells may be a powerful way to improve health. (mercola.com)
  • The Ellison Medical Foundation, which awarded Jasper the $900,000 to continue his aging research over four years, was founded to support basic biomedical research on aging and age-related diseases and disabilities. (rochester.edu)
  • As if feeling depressed is not bad enough, we are finding that long-term depression may be associated with damage to cells in the body, and this may predispose patients to certain physical diseases. (scienceblog.com)
  • For example, depressed individuals are more likely to develop the diseases of advanced age, including diabetes, heart disease, osteoporosis, stroke and dementia. (scienceblog.com)
  • Telomere shortening predicts earlier onset of several major age-related diseases and earlier mortality, and may serve as one index of human longevity. (scienceblog.com)
  • Aging of ECs and resultant endothelial dysfunction lead to a variety of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellites, hypertension, and ischemic injury. (mdpi.com)
  • In turn, aging becomes a risk factor for many diseases, such as stroke and heart failure, and accelerates age-related diseases [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The discovery has implications for the treatment of several diseases-as well as normal aging in healthy people. (technologyreview.com)
  • Some age-related diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, also result in defects in the cells' "trash-removal" system, says Dimitri Krainc , associate professor of neurology at Harvard Medical School and one of the authors of the paper. (technologyreview.com)
  • Therefore, defining PrP C roles, properties and fate in the physiology of mammalian cells would be fundamental to understand its pathological involvement in prion diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • The advances in pluripotent stem cell and gene editing techniques have opened a new avenue to study the pathogenesis of human premature aging syndromes and aging-related diseases (Fu et al. (springer.com)
  • Commitment signalling for apoptosis, or DNA repair and its relevance to aging and age-dependent diseases (E. Wang, R. Marcotte, H.T. Papaconstantinou, J. Papaconstantinou). (elsevier.com)
  • Insights into the relationship between cellular aging and age-associated diseases, particularly malignancies, are also provided in several chapters. (elsevier.com)
  • It offers insights into stem cell function, explains in detail the mechanisms of stem cell aging in model organisms as well as mammalian systems and describes related diseases and approaches to attenuating stem cell aging or achieving rejuvenation. (ebooks.com)
  • Diseases of Aging and Stem Cells. (ebooks.com)
  • In addition, he says, it now seems likely that upsetting this process may play a role in the development or progression of diseases of secretory cells, such as diabetes. (innovations-report.com)
  • Aging promotes lung function decline and increases susceptibility to diseases of the respiratory tract. (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • Stem cells in the brain hypothalamus govern how fast aging occurs in the body, and could lead to new strategies for warding off age-related diseases and extending lifespan. (disabled-world.com)
  • Aging is the number one risk factor for developing neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. (worldstemcellsummit.com)
  • So I think what this trial does is provide this first step towards realising the potential of human embryonic stem cells with a new method to treat patients with a variety of diseases. (abc.net.au)
  • Diseases of aging constitute a huge burden for society, both in terms of economic cost and quality life-years of the population. (mdpi.com)
  • The need for therapies to prevent and/or correct age-related molecular events leading to these diseases is growing. (mdpi.com)
  • Onset of these diseases is highly correlated to advancing age across organ systems. (mdpi.com)
  • Hence, delineation of risk factors including immunological parameters associated with diseases of aging that we identify as differences in the current elderly compared to the young may not necessarily be relevant to the latter as they themselves age. (haematologica.org)
  • Aging, defined as progressive functional decline over time, affects all organ systems and is the major cause of, or at least contributes to, most diseases in the adult. (jimmunol.org)
  • Less intuitively, the aging immune system is also more inclined to elicit nonspecific inflammation, which accelerates degenerative diseases, most prominently seen in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders ( 4 - 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Stem cells are a source of great hope for effective treatment of diseases or injuries that have previously been difficult to treat. (worldhealth.net)
  • For example, blood stem cells can only differentiate into blood cells, skin cells can only replace skin cells and neuron cells must be used to treat brain diseases. (worldhealth.net)
  • Stem cell research shows much promise for the treatment of common diseases such as spinal cord injury, burns, stroke, heart disease, diabetes and Parkinson's disease. (worldhealth.net)
  • Although they have protective mechanisms, they still age and lose function. (wikipedia.org)
  • I would hope that the study increases the search for molecules to replace rapamycin," which don't have the immunosuppressant side effects, says David Sinclair, director of the Paul F. Glenn Laboratories for the Biological Mechanisms of Aging at Harvard Medical School. (technologyreview.com)
  • This book is an excellent single source of information for anyone interested in DNA repair, mechanisms of aging, or certainly their intersection. (elsevier.com)
  • Simple model systems have played an important role in the discovery of fundamental mechanisms of aging. (wiley.com)
  • These age-related differences may affect the ability of older donor cells to migrate extensively, provide trophic support, persist long-term and promote repair mechanisms,' said Bruce Bunnell, Ph.D., of Tulane University's Center for Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine. (prweb.com)
  • Multicellular organisms have evolved mechanisms to prevent the unregulated growth and malignant transformation of proliferating cells. (pnas.org)
  • Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved is critical for developing approaches to attenuate stem cell aging and could pave the way for improved quality of life among the elderly. (ebooks.com)
  • General mechanisms of stem cell aging (overview). (ebooks.com)
  • Mechanisms of Stem Cell Aging in Model Organisms. (ebooks.com)
  • This annual review focuses on invertebrate model organisms, which continue to yield fundamental new insights into mechanisms of aging. (wiley.com)
  • Among the key underlying pathological mechanisms behind aging is a gradual deterioration of mitochondria, organelles inside cells in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. (worldstemcellsummit.com)
  • Though molecular mechanisms contributing to cancer formation have been extensively studied, the mechanisms underlying age-related disease on the whole have only begun to be elucidated [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Although, we and others have started to elucidate some of the mechanisms that drive age-related tissue decay in the fly intestine, many other changes that have been observed in the aging Drosophila digestive tract remain poorly understood. (rochester.edu)
  • however, emerging data suggest that homeostatic mechanisms are robust enough to maintain a large and diverse CD4 T cell repertoire with age. (jimmunol.org)
  • Moreover, immune aging can impair tolerance mechanisms and is a risk factor for autoimmunity ( 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • and altered intercellular communication ( Table I ). In this review, we discuss how these general aging mechanisms help explain age-associated changes in the immune system and, conversely, how studies on T cell aging can expand this conceptual framework. (jimmunol.org)
  • Failure of these mechanisms leads to premature exhaustion and accelerates the aging process. (jimmunol.org)
  • An emerging consensus is that cytomegalovirus (CMV), a beta-herpesvirus with a prevalence of 60-90% worldwide, is an agent that induces specific T cells to extreme differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • A hallmark of aged mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) in bone marrow is the pivot of differentiation potency from osteoblast to adipocyte coupled with a decrease in self-renewal capacity. (jci.org)
  • After culture in the presence of various differentiation agents, BMSCs isolated from younger animals were easily differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic, neurogenic and myogenic cell types. (nature.com)
  • Maintaining quiescence and avoiding differentiation may be the ultimate challenge to maintain the functions unique for naive T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recent work has suggested that, although adult tissue stem cells may the key cell type in the aging process, they may contribute via reducing their differentiation rates, rather than via becoming exhausted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells divide more than non stem cells so the tendency of accumulating damage is greater. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name for cells that divide without stopping is cancer. (wired.com)
  • In general, fatal mutations don't matter, the stem cell will just divide again (or be dead), and cells are specialized so only a small number of genes are relevant. (slashdot.org)
  • Their studies looks more closely at the dynamics of rDNA loci and rDNA loss during aging in male Drosophila germline stem cells (GSCs), which continue to divide throughout adulthood. (genengnews.com)
  • Rather, they thought, when the cells lost their ability to divide, the inability to replace lost tissue might be what caused symptoms of aging. (technologyreview.com)
  • One approach being explored is to treat older rats with drugs designed to mimic the action of compounds called neurogenic factors, which encourage stem cells in the brain to divide, Shetty said. (medindia.net)
  • In most mammalian systems, the capacity of endothelial cells to divide is limited and endothelial cells are prone to be senescent. (mdpi.com)
  • Cancer cells spread and grow because they can divide indefinitely. (abc.net.au)
  • While they divide continuously and create new neurons in young animals, a large proportion of the cells in older animals persist in a state of dormancy. (mpg.de)
  • The cells can, however, be stimulated to divide again. (mpg.de)
  • When the animals are physically active, some radial stem cells abandon their dormant state and begin to divide, while this has little influence on the horizontal stem cells. (mpg.de)
  • Adult stem cells divide linkurl:asymmetrically,;https://www.the-scientist.com/article/display/54197/ yielding one stem cell and one specialized daughter cell. (the-scientist.com)
  • New research from the Mayo Clinic sheds light on the aging process and suggests that by removing old cells that can no longer divide, age-related disease can be slowed or stopped. (bigthink.com)
  • In cancer, cells divide and proliferate without control. (nih.gov)
  • Stem cells are present in both humans and animals, and they are specialized in that they provide what amounts to an internal repair system with the ability to continuously divide and renew through cell division. (worldhealth.net)
  • Under this model, when stem cells divide but do not differentiate, they produce an excess of daughter stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term programmed cell death derived originally from developmental and embryonic observations, and it emphasizes the idea that specific genes regulate the death of cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, apoptosis does not necessarily require protein synthesis and is usually not programmed (meaning that the sequence of death is coded in the genes) except in the generic sense that it was preprogrammed into the cell and simply required release or activation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Studies in fruit flies have shown how cells in the offspring of older fathers can replace copies of genes that have been lost due to aging. (genengnews.com)
  • And with repeated cell divisions, some copies of the rDNA genes are lost. (genengnews.com)
  • The results of their cell analyses showed that in comparison with younger male fruit flies, older males had fewer copies of the rDNA genes on the Y chromosome in their GSCs-in effect their Y chromosomes had shrunk. (genengnews.com)
  • Every cell in the body carries the same genes, but not every gene is switched on in every cell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The genome is made up of DNA, a long, winding molecule that contains the instructions, in the form of genes, needed to build and maintain cells. (nih.gov)
  • In humans and other multi-cell creatures, nearly every cell contains the same genes, but different cells show different patterns of gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Other theories view aging as a predetermined process controlled by genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • RNA sequencing analysis indicates that Vitamin C alters the expression of a series of genes involved in chromatin condensation, cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, and DNA damage repair pathways in WRN-deficient MSCs. (springer.com)
  • Other genes that regulate replicative aging have been identified. (wiley.com)
  • Replicative aging has been linked to the retrograde response, which is activated by an intracellular signalling pathway from the mitochondrion to the nucleus and leads to the transcription of several genes encoding for metabolic enzymes. (wiley.com)
  • Our study indicates that promoter DNA methylation-mediated silencing for important stem cell regulator genes play critical roles in allowing the BRAF mutant oncogene to initiate cancer,' says Easwaran. (news-medical.net)
  • What is exciting to me is the creation of a potential aging model and cancer risk in the lab in which the genes being manipulated have functional significance for the events taking place,' says Baylin. (news-medical.net)
  • The activity of genes such as Notch, RBP-J and Sox2 is common to all of the cells. (mpg.de)
  • The study showed that, with increasing age, the genes in the cells no longer behaved in a synchronized manner. (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • Of the 336 different mutations that were identified in the iPSCs generated for the study, 24 were in genes that could impair cell function or trigger tumor growth if they malfunctioned. (scripps.org)
  • The research professor of reproductive biology at Stanford University keeps the cells warm and moist deep inside the Lorry I. Lokey Stem Cell Research Building, one of the nation's largest stem cell facilities. (nautil.us)
  • That's where this comes in, and that's why it's so important,' said Felipe Sierra, director of the National Institute on Aging's Division of Aging Biology, which helped fund the research. (wired.com)
  • New research published in the journal BMC Cell Biology shows that old human cells can be rejuvenated using chemicals similar to resveratrol, which is a substance found in red wine and dark chocolate. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Heinrich Jasper, assistant professor of biology at the University of Rochester, has won a $900,000 Senior Fellow Award from the Ellison Medical Foundation for his work showing how stress affects stem cell function, leading to symptoms of aging. (rochester.edu)
  • Now that we know the cells play a role in aging, it's worth investing in trying to find a way to eliminate them," says Felipe Sierra , the director of aging biology at the National Institute on Aging, who was not involved in the research. (technologyreview.com)
  • We show that the place where HSCs form in the bone marrow loses osteopontin upon aging, but if you give back the missing protein to the blood-forming cells they suddenly rejuvenate and act younger," says Hartmut Geiger, PhD, study lead investigator at the Institute for Molecular Medicine and Aging Research Center at the University of Ulm , and the Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology at Cincinnati Children's. (eurekalert.org)
  • Kan Cao , an associate professor of cell biology and molecular genetics at the University of Maryland , and her colleagues found that rapamycin could reverse these defects by enhancing the cells' ability to degrade the protein progerin, which accumulates in abnormal amounts in progeria patients. (technologyreview.com)
  • STEM CELLS TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE (SCTM), published by AlphaMed Press, is a monthly peer-reviewed publication dedicated to significantly advancing the clinical utilization of stem cell molecular and cellular biology. (prweb.com)
  • His main research interest lies in the molecular biology of aging. (ebooks.com)
  • I think this is a fantastic piece of work that begins to explain" how adult stem cells age, said linkurl:Leanne Jones,;http://www-biology.ucsd.edu/faculty/jonesl.html a stem cell biologist at the Salk Institute, who was not involved in the study. (the-scientist.com)
  • 2 Glenn Center for the Biology of Aging and Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA, and Center for Regenerative Rehabilitation, Veterans Administration Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA. (sciencemag.org)
  • It was established in 2002 and the editors-in-chief are Peter Adams (University of Glasgow), Adam Antebi (Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing), Ana Maria Cuervo (Albert Einstein College of Medicine), Brian Kennedy (Buck Institute for Research on Aging and National University of Singapore), and John Sedivy (Brown University). (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Journal Citation Reports, in 2017, the journal had an impact factor of 7.627, ranking 2/49 (Geriatrics & Gerontology) and 36/190 (Cell Biology). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aging Biology: How do cells age? (howstuffworks.com)
  • One explanation for the limitation in cell replication is based on the importance of the end-piece, or telomere, of a chromosome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cancerous cells reacquire the embryonic ability to reconstruct the telomere, and thus become immortal. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It has been suggested, not without controversy, that increasing telomere length slows down or even reverses aging. (mercola.com)
  • However, it may be possible that the modifications in cell aging being attributed to telomere length increases may actually be a byproduct of healthy genetic expression gained by eating a whole-food, low-sugar diet. (mercola.com)
  • Dr. Ron Rosedale, M.D. is widely considered to be one of the leading anti-aging doctors in the US, and as such is highly qualified to discuss the complex issues behind using telomere length as an indicator of lifespan. (mercola.com)
  • Getting wrinkles is far more correlated, and is therefore a far better biomarker for aging than telomere length, however undergoing a dermabrasion is not likely to extend lifespan. (mercola.com)
  • It could very well be, and in fact is likely, that reduced telomere length is a byproduct of the cell damage and turnover associated with aging, rather than a prime cause of it, though it likely does have some adverse repercussions especially to the immune system and possibly stem cells. (mercola.com)
  • This effect on telomere length is comparable to the effect of smoking, or to the effect of regular exercise in the opposite, anti-aging direction, according to UCSF postdoctoral fellow Cindy Leung, ScD, from the UCSF Center for Health and Community and the lead author of the newly published study. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cells were rejuvenated when the modified stem cells enhanced activity of an enzyme called telomerase, which elongates telomere length. (redorbit.com)
  • There is no doubt that stem cells can be used to counter the aging process of cardiac cells caused by telomere degradation," Mohsin said. (redorbit.com)
  • however, individuals with nine or more years of untreated chronic depression showed significant telomere shortening, even after accounting for chronological age. (scienceblog.com)
  • Telomere shortening also was associated with higher levels of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients, both linked to cell damage and premature aging. (scienceblog.com)
  • The authors suggest that telomere shortening in very chronic depression may reflect an individual's cumulative exposure to biochemical stressors that promote cell death and increase the likelihood of physical disease. (scienceblog.com)
  • Extracts from Ashwagandha root may significantly increase telomerase activity, thereby protecting against telomere loss and potentially delaying aging, suggest new results from a cell study. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that can arrest such telomere loss, and therefore offers a pathway to ameliorate the effects of age. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Based on a screen of a number of chemicals, here we found that Vitamin C exerts most efficient rescue for many features in premature aging as shown in WRN-deficient MSCs, including cell growth arrest, increased reactive oxygen species levels, telomere attrition, excessive secretion of inflammatory factors, as well as disorganization of nuclear lamina and heterochromatin. (springer.com)
  • DNA instability, telomere dynamics, and cell transformation (R.J. Shmookler Reis, M.A. Shammas). (elsevier.com)
  • To our knowledge, we have reported here the first longitudinal study showing that comprehensive lifestyle changes--or any intervention--are significantly associated with increases in cellular telomerase activity levels and telomere maintenance capacity in immune system cells,' the study authors wrote. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • The NAU study looked at telomere data for more than 1,000 married people over the age of 60. (wbez.org)
  • Rather, in Drosophila, activation of dFOXO in the gut/fat body or in neuroendocrine cells acts on other organs to promote healthy aging by signaling to other, as-yet-unidentified factors. (nih.gov)
  • All vital organs begin to lose some function as you age during adulthood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because of cell and tissue changes, your organs also change as you age. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aging organs slowly lose function. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aging is a complex process that varies as to how it affects different people and even different organs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This process is not yet well understood, but it is known that stem cells in the organs play a key role, and that when repair fails, the organism ages more quickly. (scienceblog.com)
  • Organoids are lab- grown cells that clump together and resemble specific normal organs, such as the colon in this case, and can grow indefinitely. (news-medical.net)
  • It might even be the primary cause for age-associated attrition of tissue function in organs that heavily rely on stem cells for maintaining homeostasis, like the skin, blood and intestines. (ebooks.com)
  • Comprehensively, this work points toward novel venues for in situ restoration of tissue repair in the old and identifies critical determinants of successful cell-replacement therapies for aged degenerating organs. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • To further complicate matters, organs age at different speeds. (howstuffworks.com)
  • With age, the ability of most organs to maintain their function and be repaired gradually declines. (rochester.edu)
  • Replacing damaged cells of other organs of the body is also possible through the same procedure, but these stem cells are limited in the number of cells that can be grown. (worldhealth.net)
  • Deep imaging of bone marrow shows non-dividing stem cells are mainly perisinusoidal. (nature.com)
  • Mesenchymal and haematopoietic stem cells form a unique bone marrow niche. (nature.com)
  • Another experiment monitored levels of osteopontin and other proteins linked to distinct cells in bone marrow during the aging process. (eurekalert.org)
  • Osteopontin levels are not only low in the bone marrow niche, but also in the blood upon aging. (eurekalert.org)
  • Stem cell therapies involving donated bone marrow stem cells run the risk of patient rejection in a portion of the population, argues Milica Radisic, Canada Research Chair in Functional Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering at the Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME) and Associate Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry at the University of Toronto. (redorbit.com)
  • Our investigations, involving the simple strategy of introducing young bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into old recipients, were intended to test the possibility that age-related loss of functional stem cells might be at least partially responsible for this disorder. (nature.com)
  • For example, cells made from iPSCs for a bone marrow transplant would be potentially dangerous if they contained a TET2 gene mutation linked to blood cancer, which surfaced during the study. (scripps.org)
  • Since embryonic cells are naturally endowed with a pluripotency program, if you then take that embryo and put it in culture, you can establish pluripotent stem cell lines. (nautil.us)
  • The aging and lifespan of normal, healthy cells are linked to the so-called telomerase shortening mechanism, which limits cells to a fixed number of divisions. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Several years ago, during the course of our studies on lysosomes in aging human diploid cells, we observed a small but consistent increase in the lifespan of cultures grown in the presence of 14μM hydrocortisone (HC). (springer.com)
  • Prolongation of postmitotic lifespan of primary human amnion cells in vitro by hydrocortisone. (springer.com)
  • The relationship between functional aging, susceptibility to aging-related disease and lifespan itself are explored in two studies in C. elegans , the first examining the role of dietary restriction and reduced insulin signalling in cognitive decline and the second profiling aggregation of the proteome during aging. (wiley.com)
  • We highlight emerging therapeutic approaches to manipulation of key signaling pathways corrupting or exhausting adult stem cells, as well as other approaches targeted at maintaining robust stem cell pools to extend not only lifespan but healthspan. (mdpi.com)
  • According to their findings, it is possible to track male GSCs labeled with lacZ gene in Drosophila model by inducing recombination with heat shock and observe the decrease in GSC number with aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat shock is used to induce Flp recombinase marker gene expression is activated in dividing cells due to recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, all clone of cells derived from GSC are marked with a functional lacZ gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • We're learning more and more that dealing with aging is not a black and white issue of 'turn on that gene' or 'turn off that one. (rochester.edu)
  • Effects of aging on gene specific repair (A. Richardson, ZhongMao Guo). (elsevier.com)
  • Gene action at the Werner helicase locus: its role in the pathobiology of aging (J. Oshima, G.M. Martin, M.D. Gray, M. Poot, P.S. Rabinovitch). (elsevier.com)
  • Both of these facts-that Sox4 is expressed only in some cells in the adult organism, and that it favours cancer development when there is too much of it-indicate that Sox4 is a powerful gene, with important consequences if it is not properly regulated. (scienceblog.com)
  • Use these social-bookmarking links to share Blocking gene forces cancer cells to age . (abc.net.au)
  • Combining gene editing and stem-cell induction improves efficiency of functional genetic analyses. (the-scientist.com)
  • We were thus able to pinpoint gene activity in the individual lung cells and ascribe it to the changes in the corresponding gene products - i.e. to the proteins," Dr. Schiller explains. (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • Whereas in younger lungs a particular cell type will control the gen activity very precisely, the gene activity of older lung cells, and thus also their identity, is less constant," Herbert Schiller explains. (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • As a result, the p16 gene glows in areas of the body where the gene is active-the more cells expressing the gene, the more intense the glowing effect. (nih.gov)
  • The rise of epigenetics (a complex field of study that examines specific changes in gene activity) and the identification of biological age have been regarded by some as the holy grail in understanding how we grow older. (goodhousekeeping.com)
  • The initiation of cell division in a contact-inhibited mammalian cell line. (springer.com)
  • His own research program is nothing if not ambitious: He wants to reverse aging in humans. (nautil.us)
  • The question that begs to be answered is whether this can explain why CMV seropositivity and the presence of highly differentiated CMV-specific T cells are included in a cluster of immune parameters that have been shown recently to predict the early mortality of elderly humans. (nih.gov)
  • I am wondering now how Humans survive for more than 50 generations, since gametes are also fomred by cell division. (slashdot.org)
  • If the same results can be confirmed in humans, they could offer a new level of understanding about how cells deteriorate with time. (genengnews.com)
  • Then, van Deursen says, "the challenge is to translate these findings into a way of getting rid of these cells in humans. (technologyreview.com)
  • In one study, Shetty and colleagues showed that the production of new neurons in rats slows down dramatically by middle age -- the equivalent of 50 years in humans. (medindia.net)
  • This present study goes deeper in that it posits the mechanism by which KSM-66 can serve as an anti-aging agent in humans. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Because the baboons are quite intelligent, skilled and able to interact with a computer-based neuropsychological test similar to the one used in hospitals for humans, we are able to detect age-related cognitive decline and how a drug impacts this" Dr. Daadi explained. (worldstemcellsummit.com)
  • This is due, at least in part, to the dramatic impact of aging on adult stem cells from flies to humans. (rochester.edu)
  • It repeats the disingenuous tripe about adult stem cells -- ASCs have 1,229 clinical trials listed at clinicaltrials.gov , while embryonic stem cells have none . (wired.com)
  • In addition to its function in tissue homeostasis and regeneration, adult stem cells can represent the cell type of origin of various types of cancers including leukemia and colorectal cancer. (karger.com)
  • The HSC, a type of adult stem cell, holds great promise for future biomedical applications because of its ability to self-renew and develop into any kind of blood cell. (nih.gov)
  • 2013 ). Werner Syndrome (referred to as WS, also known as adult progeria) is a premature aging disorder with phenotypes such as grey hair, osteoporosis, diabetes, and cancer. (springer.com)
  • It is also active in the adult organism, but in a very limited way, being mainly restricted to some stem cell compartments. (scienceblog.com)
  • The discovery and characterization of the adult RPE stem cells was performed in the group of Prof. Sally Temple and Dr. Jeffrey Stern from the Neural Stem Cell Institute (NSCI) in New York, USA. (uni-bonn.de)
  • The results from the experiments prove that retinal pigment epithelial cells obtained from adult stem cells have the potential to replace cells destroyed by age-related macular degeneration," summarizes Dr. Stanzel. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Aging refers to the gradual loss of cellular function, and regeneration is the repair of damaged tissue generally mediated by preexisting adult or somatic stem cells. (jove.com)
  • Adult stem cells become slower at dividing as they age because they get less efficient at sensing their microenvironment, according to a study to be published in Nature tomorrow. (the-scientist.com)
  • The findings suggest a mechanism to explain why production of adult stem cells such as sperm drops as an organism gets older. (the-scientist.com)
  • Preservation of adult stem cells pools is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis into old age. (mdpi.com)
  • Both progeria, an extreme example of early-onset aging, and heritable longevity have provided avenues to study regulation of the aging program and its impact on adult stem cell compartments. (mdpi.com)
  • These pioneer experiments demonstrated, for the first time, that longevity can be efficiently promoted by specifically altering adult stem cell behavior. (rochester.edu)
  • Some of the advantages of ECS over adult stem cells is their ability to differentiate into specific cell types such as muscle, blood or nerve cells. (worldhealth.net)
  • Adult stem cells - are also referred to as tissue stem cells. (worldhealth.net)
  • This means adult stem cells can only be used to treat the area they have been harvested from. (worldhealth.net)
  • Induced Pluripotent stem cells - are adult stem cells that can be reprogrammed to a state similar to embryonic stem cells. (worldhealth.net)
  • Right now we can only offer medication, heart transplantation or stem cell therapies with modest regenerative potential, but PIM-1 modification offers a significant advance for clinical treatment. (redorbit.com)
  • T-cell therapies are not just for cancer. (the-scientist.com)
  • Following on from more modest trials of first generation stem cell therapies for heart disease, a 1200-member trial is to begin in Brazil. (fightaging.org)
  • T-cell expression of these molecules in HIV-infected patients on HAART may help to define the degree of immune dysfunction and to predict the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines or other immune-based therapies in late-presenting HIV-infected patients with very low nadir CD4 T-cell counts. (natap.org)
  • As you age, the amount of mitochondria you have tends to decline. (healthline.com)
  • The bone-produced hormone osteocalcin may reverse age-related memory decline. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This discovery provides a new avenue to pursue in trying to combat the cognitive decline associated with conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and with aging in general," Hattiangady said. (medindia.net)
  • An age-related decline in this DRC, amounting to approximately 0.61% per yr occurred in the controls from 20 to 60 yr of age. (pnas.org)
  • The normal decline in DNA repair with increased age may account for the increased risk of skin cancer that begins in middle age, suggesting that the occurrence of skin cancer in the young may represent precocious aging. (pnas.org)
  • The delay in GSC cell cycle in aging flies as a result of centrosome misorientation suggests a mechanism for the decline in sperm production previously indicated in studies of aging animals," Jones said. (the-scientist.com)
  • Our research shows that the number of hypothalamic neural stem cells naturally declines over the life of the animal, and this decline accelerates aging. (disabled-world.com)
  • Our research shows that the number of hypothalamic neural stem cells naturally declines over the life of the animal, and this decline accelerates aging," says senior author Dongsheng Cai, M.D., Ph.D., professor of molecular pharmacology at Einstein. (disabled-world.com)
  • San Antonio, Texas (June 17, 2019) - The William and Ella Owens Medical Research Foundation has awarded Texas Biomed Associate Professor Marcel Daadi, Ph.D., with a grant of more than $100,000 to test a promising FDA-approved drug for reversing age-related cognitive decline and memory deficits observed in aged baboons. (worldstemcellsummit.com)
  • We are truly excited about this opportunity to use aged baboons in our study because they develop human-like, age-related decline in cognitive and motor performances," Dr. Daadi said. (worldstemcellsummit.com)
  • Aging is the inevitable decline in the body's resiliency, which ultimately leads to dwindling powers, both mental and physical. (howstuffworks.com)
  • This work became the foundation for his widely recognized studies of how genetic mutations hinder the mitochondrion's effectiveness and may result in a cell's decline and aging. (nytimes.com)
  • The findings by Yukiko Yamashita, Ph.D., a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, and colleagues at the University of Michigan Life Sciences Institute provide clues as to how some cells could overcome genomic shrinkage that appears to occur as an organism ages. (genengnews.com)
  • These findings indicate that vascular niches for haematopoietic stem cells are part of complex, age-dependent microenvironments involving multiple cell populations and vessel subtypes. (nature.com)
  • Certain cases of major depression are associated with premature aging of immune cells, which may make people more susceptible to other serious illness, according to findings from a new UCSF-led study. (scienceblog.com)
  • The findings indicate that accelerated cell aging does not occur in all depressed individuals, but is dependent upon how long someone is depressed, particularly if that depression goes untreated. (scienceblog.com)
  • 2015 ). These findings suggest that epigenetic alterations could underlie human cellular aging, and the "epigenetic aging" can be repressed or reversed under specific context. (springer.com)
  • New findings indicate that these pathways may have evolved to prevent damage and postpone aging during periods of starvation and may be conserved from yeast to mammals. (wiley.com)
  • To Dr. David Sinclair , an aging expert at Harvard Medical School, the findings represent a " breakthrough " in aging research. (singularityhub.com)
  • The findings were reported in the February issue of Cancer Cell . (news-medical.net)
  • The findings show "centrosomes are the proximal reason whether a stem cell goes through mitosis or not," Yamashita said. (the-scientist.com)
  • Yamashita said her findings suggest the centrosome has to be in the 'right place' before cell cycle resumes. (the-scientist.com)
  • In this review, we discuss recent findings concerning the effects of aging on stem cells, contributions of stem cells to age-related pathologies, examples of signaling pathways at work in these processes, and lessons about cellular aging gleaned from the development and refinement of cellular reprogramming technologies. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, utilizing the WS MSC model, we tested the potential rescuing effect with a group of compounds which have been reported with "anti-aging" or "longevity-promoting" activity from different model organisms. (springer.com)
  • These observations lend further support to the idea that age-related diminution of stem cell number or function may play a critical role in age-related loss of bone density in aging animals and may be one determinant of overall longevity. (nature.com)
  • Stem cells, aging and longevity (overview). (ebooks.com)
  • More than 90% of our longevity in terms of life span and health span - the healthy years of life - is determined by our environment, not genetics," stresses Eric Verdin, M.D. , president and CEO of the Buck Institute for Research on Aging. (goodhousekeeping.com)
  • This damage response involves the proteolysis of type XVII collagen by neutrophil elastase in response to the DNA damage in the hair follicle stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • found that the number of Krt-15-GFP-positive (GFP + ) hair follicle stem cells increased with age. (sciencemag.org)
  • DNA damage and its processing with aging: human premature aging syndromes as model systems (V.A. Bohr). (elsevier.com)
  • One could consider examining people with genetic phenotypic premature aging syndromes, but it is unclear to what degree these various genetic lesions have anything to do with 'normal' aging. (haematologica.org)
  • full text PDF) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , is part of a project funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council and Medical Research Council and may shed light on the possibilities of alleviating aging and age-related characteristics in human cells. (slashdot.org)
  • It remains unclear if such conditions are developmentally programmed or reflect the limitation of certain cell biological processes that underlie rDNA copy number recovery," the authors point out. (genengnews.com)
  • Epel and co-author Elizabeth Blackburn, PhD, UCSF professor of biochemistry and biophysics, pioneered research on the impact of psychological stress on several biological markers of cell aging. (scienceblog.com)
  • Like fountains of youth, these stem cells release tiny fatty bubbles filled with mixtures of small biological molecules called microRNAs. (singularityhub.com)
  • What Is Biological Age? (goodhousekeeping.com)
  • Biological age is a measurement that, instead of tracking years, looks at chemical marks on DNA that show how our biological systems are actually aging. (goodhousekeeping.com)
  • So the real question is, how can we change our biological age? (goodhousekeeping.com)
  • Four to six weeks later, you receive your report, in which you'll learn your cumulative rate of aging and find out whether your biological age is older or younger than the number on your driver's license. (goodhousekeeping.com)
  • About 68% of people will have a biological age within five years of their chronological age, but you can also find individuals who are a decade or more older or younger," she explains. (goodhousekeeping.com)
  • The most important thing to keep in mind is that if your rate of biological aging is less than one, you're aging more slowly than your actual years. (goodhousekeeping.com)
  • If you see room for improvement in your biological age, think of it as a chance to reevaluate your choices. (goodhousekeeping.com)
  • The people who did not nominate their spouse as a support source had other sources, yet they looked different on this marker of biological aging. (wbez.org)
  • 2019): An atlas of the aging lung mapped by single cell transcriptomics and deep tissue proteomics. (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • Endothelial mitochondrial oxidative stress is implicated in senescent vascular events and AMPK plays a defensive role in this oxidative stress in aging ECs [ 12 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In summary, our results demonstrate the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in age-related changes of immune cell survival factors in the BM, suggesting that antioxidants may be beneficial in counteracting immunosenescence by improving immunological memory in old age. (nih.gov)
  • Foxp1 expression declines with age in BM MSCs. (jci.org)
  • With age, these cells die out, and the animal's muscle, skin and brain function declines. (singularityhub.com)
  • Nonetheless, the formation of new cells declines with age and the reasons for this were unknown up to now. (mpg.de)
  • immune competence declines with age, causing increased morbidity and mortality from infections, as well as being a factor in the increased incidence of malignancies ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This reduced cohesion causes them to prematurely separate during cell division, creating eggs that don't have the right number of chromosomes - a state called aneuploidy - which usually renders them infertile. (newscientist.com)
  • Microtubules normally corral chromosomes to opposite ends of a dividing cell, so that they can be split evenly in two. (newscientist.com)
  • Later on, these cells began to look more normal, but the damage has already been done, says Fitzharris - when division is complete, the egg is more likely to have the wrong number of chromosomes. (newscientist.com)
  • Swapping the nuclei of young eggs with those from old eggs showed that it is the age of the egg cell itself, and not the chromosomes inside the nucleus, that seems to cause this problem. (newscientist.com)
  • Forming correctly arranged microtubules and segregating chromosomes requires energy, so it could be due to ageing mitochondria - the powerhouses of the cell - which are known to produce less energy. (newscientist.com)
  • To find out, Yamashita's team tagged proteins with linkurl:GFP;https://www.the-scientist.com/blog/display/55077/ to track the movement of centrosomes in germline stem cells (GSCs) in the testes of live Drosophila males ranging from "early puberty to middle age. (the-scientist.com)
  • B-1a cells provide immediate and essential protection from S. pneumoniae through production of natural immunoglobulin, which is germline-like due to minimal insertion of N-region additions. (jimmunol.org)
  • We have previously demonstrated B-1a derived phosphorylcholine (PC)- specific and total IgM moves away from the germline with age as a result of selection. (jimmunol.org)
  • In direct contrast, the PtC-binding B-1a cell population preserves its germline status. (jimmunol.org)
  • Fizzah Aziz Choudry and Mattia Frontini, "Epigenetic Control of Haematopoietic Stem Cell Aging and Its Clinical Implications," Stem Cells International , vol. 2016, Article ID 5797521, 9 pages, 2016. (hindawi.com)
  • I'm studying whether we can separate the process of functional reprogramming of cells from the process of aging reprogramming of cells. (nautil.us)
  • Age, on the other hand, is just the degree of usefulness of that cell, and it's mostly an epigenetic process. (nautil.us)
  • In an active process, it has moved a component of the inner cell membrane , phosphatidyl serine (PS), to the external surface. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This research provides new insight into the aging process and may be the basis for future treatments for aging-related disorders. (nih.gov)
  • No single process can explain all the changes of aging. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although accumulation of progerin is associated with progeria, the protein also accumulates in small amounts in normal cells, and may be partially responsible for the aging process. (technologyreview.com)
  • Additionally, the aging process may alter PrP C biochemical properties, thus influencing its propensity to convert into PrP Sc . (frontiersin.org)
  • Normally, as cells become damaged beyond repair, exhausted, and no longer able to replicate, they are removed from the body via a process known as apoptosis, which is a kind of self-destruct program initiated by the cell, or removed by the immune system. (lifeboat.com)
  • There is no the key to aging, no single molecule or pathway that dominates the process. (singularityhub.com)
  • If you block Skp2 in cancer cells, this process is triggered, write Dr Pier Paolo Pandolfi of Harvard Medical School in Boston and colleagues. (abc.net.au)
  • The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences Cell death via the process of Apoptosis . (jove.com)
  • Increasing evidence suggests that the loss of functional stem cells may be important in the aging process. (nature.com)
  • But the next stage in the cell cycle -- spindle formation -- was absent, suggesting that the cells suspended the process of cell division in response to misoriented centrosomes. (the-scientist.com)
  • Though cell death is the basis for understanding the aging process, it is not the only factor. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The aging process is incredibly complicated, and it's often difficult to distinguish between changes that are the result of time marching on and those that come with common medical conditions, including high blood pressure and heart disease . (howstuffworks.com)
  • On the other hand, cataracts , which are formations on the lens of the eye that cloud your vision, can be prevented and are not considered part of the aging process, despite their prevalence in older people. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Although none of the theories can fully explain the process, they do help us better understand how we age. (howstuffworks.com)
  • There's a hypothesis that if you can manipulate the aging process, you could possibly forestall the development of chronic disease and get people living longer and healthier," says Marie A. Bernard, M.D. , deputy director of the National Institute on Aging at the National Institutes of Health . (goodhousekeeping.com)
  • As it is in much of life, the aging process isn't kind to an important type of stem cell that has great therapeutic promise. (scripps.org)
  • To describe our current understanding of the aging process in its complexity, López-Otín et al. (jimmunol.org)
  • Embattled microglia, waning neurogenesis, and withering synapses are also part and parcel of the aging process. (alzforum.org)
  • But this process of fermentation-which is used by bacteria, fungi and other fast-growing cells to generate energy in the absence of oxygen-is a much less efficient way of generating energy for cells than aerobic respiration. (ucsd.edu)
  • The controversy surrounding stem cell research and therapy is ongoing, and it is hoped that the process will eventually be available to treat health problems that are currently difficult to resolve. (worldhealth.net)
  • Another study in a mouse model shows that stem cells do age and their aging can lead to heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new study builds on previous research from the University of Exeter, which found that so-called splicing factors - which are a type of protein - tend to become inactive as we age. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Recently, a small study published in the Lancet once again confirmed that eating a diet rich in vegetables while exercising and managing stress may modify cell aging and potentially help you live longer. (mercola.com)
  • Epel is co-leading a new study in which participants will be tracked for weeks in real time to look for effects of sugar-sweetened soda consumption on aspects of cellular aging. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since patients with heart failure are normally elderly, their cardiac stem cells aren't very healthy," said Sadia Mohsin, Ph.D., one of the study authors and a post-doctoral research scholar at San Diego State University's Heart Institute in San Diego, Cal. (redorbit.com)
  • Must be used in conjunction with PNAS study on aging. (eurekalert.org)
  • The finding also suggests the possibility of treating various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, dementia and depression, by stimulating the brain's ability to produce new nerve cells, said senior study investigator Ashok K. Shetty, Ph.D., professor of neurosurgery at Duke University Medical Center and medical research scientist at Durham VA Medical Center. (medindia.net)
  • Results of the study appear online in the journal Neurobiology of Aging. (medindia.net)
  • The common assumption had been that the brain drain was due to a decreasing supply of neural stem cells in the aging hippocampus, said lead study investigator Bharathi Hattiangady, Ph.D., research associate in neurosurgery. (medindia.net)
  • In conclusion, our results show that the sequencing of circulating cfDNA from human blood plasma can be used as a noninvasive methodology to study age-associated changes to the epigenome in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • The collection also includes specially characterized normal human diploid fibroblast cultures (IMR90 and IMR91) and over 500 skin fibroblast cultures from subjects participating in the NIA-sponsored Gerontology Research Center Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. (bio.net)
  • This could mean younger acting HSCs that form healthier blood cells, boosted immunity in older people, and a better defense mechanism against certain cancers, according to study authors. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our study points to exciting novel ways to have a better immune system and possibly less blood cancer upon aging by therapeutically targeting the place where blood stem cells form. (eurekalert.org)
  • DNA repair and aging in basal cell carcinoma: a molecular epidemiology study. (pnas.org)
  • This molecular epidemiology study examines the DNA-repair capacities (DRCs) of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) skin cancer patients (88) and their controls (135) by using a plasmid/host-cell reactivation assay. (pnas.org)
  • Taken together, this study provides a comprehensive analysis of the genomic properties of young and old mouse HSCs and suggests how changes in the stem cell during aging promotes self-renewal and hinders HSCs' ability to transition into other types of blood cells. (nih.gov)
  • Most gerontologists (people who study aging) feel that aging is due to the interaction of many lifelong influences. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Such alternatives could be a major step forward in the fight against aging, says Sinclair, who was not involved in the current study. (technologyreview.com)
  • This is the first published study to use a standardized, branded ashwagandha extract that show an anti-aging effect with a telomerase promotion effect in the human cell line. (nutraingredients.com)
  • This study adds to the body of evidence supporting the use of KSM-66 Ashwagandha for anti-aging. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The study is the first to quantify the number of such cells in any species. (medindia.net)
  • Perhaps the best evidence for the association between WBCs with mortality risk comes from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging (BLSA), which studied 2803 men and women over a period of 44 years (Ruggiero et al. (lifeboat.com)
  • We will review the yeast S. cerevisiae model system with emphasis on the chronological life span as a model system to study aging and the regulation of stress resistance in eukaryotes. (wiley.com)
  • The classic approach to the study of aging in yeast is based on the measurement of replicative life span. (wiley.com)
  • The study is published this week in the journal Cell Reports . (scienceblog.com)
  • A new study appearing in the latest issue of STEM CELLS Translational Medicine is the first to demonstrate that, in fact, adipose-derived stem cells donated by older people are less effective than cells from their younger counterparts. (prweb.com)
  • This study in an animal model of MS is the first to demonstrate that fat-derived stem cells from older human donors have less therapeutic effectiveness than cells from young donors,' said Anthony Atala, M.D., editor of STEM CELLS Translational Medicine and director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine. (prweb.com)
  • This week, a study published in Nature threw a wrench into the classical theory of aging. (singularityhub.com)
  • Animal cell cultures as a model system for the study of aging. (springer.com)
  • Comprehensive lifestyle changes, including more fruit and vegetables as well as meditation and yoga, were shown to reverse signs of aging at the cellular level for the first time in a study published Sept. 16. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • The stem cell niche, or microenvironment, helps to maintain stem cell identity by signaling for cell division to be turned on and off, said linkurl:Yukiko Yamashita,;http://www.lsi.umich.edu/facultyresearch/labs/yamashita a stem cell scientist at the University of Michigan and lead author of study. (the-scientist.com)
  • I have only found one clinical study that demonstrates that the chemical 2-dimethyl-amino-ethanol (dimethylaminoethanol), commonly listed in many anti-aging cosmetics as DMAE, may cause a seriously negative reaction in skin cells. (truthinaging.com)
  • For the current study, we analyzed changes between young and aging lungs down to the single-cell level in a preclinical model," explains Dr. Herbert Schiller. (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • The current study is also a pioneering project for the Human Cell Atlas (HCA). (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • Our study provides the first such dataset of this magnitude for lung cells," Herbert Schiller explains. (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • The change was unbelievably obvious," said Dr. Richard T. Lee, a cardiologist at Brigham and Women's Hospital and one of the leaders of the study, published Thursday in the journal Cell . (bostonglobe.com)
  • A study commissioned in 2012 by John Breyault, Vice President of Public Policy, Telecommunications and Fraud at the National Consumers League found that nearly 60 percent of parents said they offered cell phones to their children at ages 10 or 11.What age is a right age? (hubpages.com)
  • This study, designated BASE II, 2 is collating data from 2200 people sharing the same general environment in Berlin: one-third of them young middle-aged and two-thirds older (60-80 years). (haematologica.org)
  • Our study highlights that increased risk of mutations in iPSCs made from older donors of source cells. (scripps.org)
  • When we proposed this study, we weren't sure whether it would even be possible to grow iPSCs from the blood of the participants in the Wellderly Study, since others have reported difficulty in making these stem cells from aged patients," Baldwin said. (scripps.org)
  • The study shows that BPS is a powerful endocrine disruptor as it acts like estrogen within breast cells. (worldhealth.net)
  • What we established in this study is that the cost of making the energy-generating apparatus is also substantial, and is in fact the dominant cost for fast growing cells. (ucsd.edu)
  • They found that in young rats, approximately 25 percent of the neural stem cells were actively dividing, but only 8 percent of the cells in middle-aged rats and 4 percent in old rats were dividing. (medindia.net)
  • However, when the team transplanted these stem cells from young animals into a middle-aged one, they slowed aging. (singularityhub.com)
  • Modifying aged human cardiac cells from elderly patients adds to the cell's ability to regenerate damaged heart muscle, making stem cell engineering a viable option," Mohsin said. (redorbit.com)
  • This was caused by microtubules, the structures that direct the movement and traffic of a cell's contents when a cell is replicating. (newscientist.com)
  • CBDs increase the death of cancer cells, keeps the cancer cells from spreading, and cuts off the cancer cell's energy supply. (worldhealth.net)
  • A young keratinocyte cell is younger than an older keratinocyte but it is still a keratinocyte. (nautil.us)
  • The factors also somehow wipe off the epigenetic memory of the cell, making them younger. (nautil.us)
  • By the time they had reached about 10 days of age, the sons of aged fathers had comparable amounts of rDNA to those male offspring of younger fathers that had passed on less depleted Y chromosomal rDNA. (genengnews.com)
  • This, in turn, not only made the old cells appear younger, but they also started dividing again, as young cells would. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Transplantation into the younger animals caused cells to act in a younger more vital manner, the authors report. (eurekalert.org)
  • When given a young nucleus, older cells still had dysfunctional microtubules, and younger eggs hosting the older nuclei didn't show chaotic cell division. (newscientist.com)
  • Small trials using younger donors and elderly recipients hint that mesenchymal stem cell transfers might reduce frailty. (the-scientist.com)
  • Why, then, would a cell want its younger vesicles to push aside the older ones? (innovations-report.com)
  • Identified factors relevant in this context can then be selectively tested on younger populations to determine whether they also represent risk factors at a younger age. (haematologica.org)
  • This approach is feasible but, unfortunately, we already know that risk factors in people highly selected for survival in very old populations are different from those relevant in middle age, simply because of earlier mortality in younger people with those risk factors. (haematologica.org)
  • In fact, stem cells from those extremely elderly participants had mutation numbers more comparable to iPSCs made from donors one-half to two-thirds younger. (scripps.org)
  • have reviewed evidence that age-dependent accumulation of DNA damage in both stem cells and cells that comprise the stem cell microenvironment is responsible, at least in part, for stem cell dysfunction with aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain "rejuvenating strategies" - including transfusing young blood and reprogramming cells - have shown promise in tackling some of these problems, note the authors, but none have yet "addressed age-related heart dysfunction. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The last decade has seen remarkable progress in identifying genetic and biochemical pathways that are pertinent for aging in general and that are instructive to understand naive T cell dysfunction. (jimmunol.org)
  • 2017): Senolytic drugs target alveolar epithelial cell function and attenuate experimental lung fibrosis ex vivo. (eurekalert.org)
  • Senescent fibroblasts secrete growth factors, cytokines, extracellular matrix, and degradative enzymes ( 2 , 7 , 13 ), all of which can alter tissue microenvironments and affect nearby epithelial cells. (pnas.org)
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) regenerate the blood system throughout life and maintain homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • SLAM family receptors distinguish hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and reveal endothelial niches for stem cells. (nature.com)
  • CINCINNATI - As people get older so do the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that form their blood, creating an increased risk for compromised immunity and certain blood cancers. (eurekalert.org)
  • Recent research identified changes in blood (hematopoietic) stem cells (HSCs) that may contribute to age-associated loss of function. (nih.gov)
  • Somatic stem cells (stress and regulation of hematopoietic precursors, intestinal stem cell aging and regulation). (ebooks.com)
  • Chronic Myeloid Leukemia and Aging of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (Mouse/Human). (ebooks.com)
  • The finding suggests that hematopoietic cells impart some of the blood's aging influence on the brain, said Smith. (alzforum.org)
  • When p16 is found in a cell , that cell is probably reaching its replication limit and grinding to a senescent halt. (wired.com)
  • Human DNA replication (in normal cells with no damage) is 99.99999999% accurate (i.e. about 1 mutation per 10^-10 base pairs). (slashdot.org)
  • Neurobiologists have discovered why the aging brain produces progressively fewer new nerve cells in its learning and memory center. (medindia.net)
  • Previous studies by Shetty and others had demonstrated that as the brain ages, fewer new nerve cells, or neurons, are born in the hippocampus, the brain's learning and memory center. (medindia.net)
  • Neural stem cells are immature cells that have the ability to give rise to all types of nerve cells in the brain. (medindia.net)
  • Nerve tissue is made up of nerve cells (neurons) and is used to carry messages to and from various parts of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • After birth the brain looses many nerve cells and this continues throughout life - most neurons are formed before birth, after which many excess neurons degenerate. (mpg.de)
  • However, neuronal stem cells exist in the hippocampus - a region of the brain that plays a central role in learning and memory functions - that can produce new nerve cells throughout life. (mpg.de)
  • The typical secretory cell-endocrine cells like those found in the adrenal gland or in the pancreas, as well as nerve cells that secrete neurotransmitters-is filled with tens of thousands of bubble-like vesicles. (innovations-report.com)
  • Others, such as heart and nerve cells, live for years or even decades. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The embryonic stem cells that were injected had been manipulated so they have become precursors to certain types of nerve cells. (abc.net.au)
  • A new approach to manipulating mitochondrial activity in Drosophila , by introducing the yeast NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, shows promise for understanding the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in aging. (wiley.com)
  • In parallel, the stemness property of these cells has ushered cell-based regenerative medicine, demonstrating their therapeutic capacity to replace dead or dying cells, as well as affording by-stander effects such as secretion of neurotrophic, neurogenic, angiogenic, vasculogenic, and anti-inflammatory factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • This Research Topic welcomes the critical analysis of the stem cell field as a cellular development tool and as a therapeutic regimen, in the hopes of further advancing the field of cell-based regenerative medicine for aging related neurological disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • T cells are a type of white blood cell in the body's immune system that help fight off disease and harmful substances. (prweb.com)
  • The adaptive immune system is special, in that generation of novel naive T cells is entirely dependent on thymic function. (jimmunol.org)
  • President Bush ignores stem-cell research in his State of the Union address, leaving future research murky. (wired.com)
  • I was severely disappointed that President Bush completely ignored embryonic stem-cell research in his State of the Union address last night. (wired.com)
  • The white paper was ostensibly timed to mitigate media excitement over the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act (SCREA), which passed in the House earlier this month, but not with a veto-proof margin (the same bill was the subject of Bush's first veto last year). (wired.com)
  • It would allow federal funding for stem-cell research performed using embryos that have been slated for destruction at fertility clinics. (wired.com)
  • On top of that he will have the white paper and possibly a new executive order to use as a political shield to deflect criticism about his unwillingness to support stem-cell research. (wired.com)
  • By bridging stem cell research and clinical trials, SCTM will help move applications of these critical investigations closer to accepted best practices. (prweb.com)
  • In spite of the moral objections of those people who support the sanctity of life from inception, stem cell research continues to offer promise for successful treatment. (worldhealth.net)
  • Whereas FoxO-to-FoxO signaling appears to be required for metabolic homeostasis, our results pinpoint FoxO-to-other signaling as an important mechanism through which localized FoxO activity ameliorates aging. (nih.gov)
  • Aging is defined as a time-dependent deterioration of organism's physiological functions that leads to loss of homeostasis and consequently increases susceptibility to morbidity and mortality (Benayoun et al. (springer.com)
  • Historically, the way pluripotency was induced from non-pluripotent cells was by doing the procedure I've just described: so-called "somatic cell nuclear transfer. (nautil.us)
  • Also, continual effort to replace the somatic cells may cause exhaustion of stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • New research suggests that youthful heart stem cells may be able to rejuvenate an aging heart and perhaps even reverse other signs of aging. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This finding suggests that there is less signaling by TGF-β in older cells. (nih.gov)
  • Necrotic cells, generated in an uncontrolled manner, create many problems for an organism because of inflammation and because of the leakage of potentially dangerous chemicals or enzymes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These results imply that age-related changes in the inflammatory milieu may account for age-related phenotypic changes in skin, such as reduced hair follicle cycling and impaired wound healing, and suggest that inflammation may play a role in stem cell aging in other contexts. (sciencemag.org)
  • Age-related decreases in the proliferative capacity of epidermal stem cells may result from inflammation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Diet, high caloric intake and aging-related inflammation are among the factors believed to support the evolution of epigenetic instability as cancers form. (news-medical.net)
  • DNA strand breaks accumulate in long term HSCs during aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lig4 deficiency in the mouse causes a progressive loss of HSCs during aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • This includes the presence of smaller numbers of HSCs with greater potential for forming different types of blood cells, which included larger populations of B and T cells and smaller production of myeloid cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • The authors also saw aged HSCs treated with recombinant osteopontin regain their youthful characteristics and capacity to form different blood-cell types. (eurekalert.org)
  • Also observed was diminished signaling of the protein Cdc42, a protein that Geiger and his team previously showed causes HSCs to age. (eurekalert.org)
  • Epigenomic profiling of young and aged HSCs reveals concerted changes during aging that reinforce self-renewal. (nih.gov)
  • Results published in Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology ​ ​ indicated that incubating human HeLa cells with the commercially available KSM-66 Ashwagandha root extract led to an enhancement of approximately 45% in telomerase activity at a concentration of 10 to 50 micrograms. (nutraingredients.com)
  • First, different cells may have different lifespans even though they are originated from the same stem cells (See T-cells and erythrocytes), meaning that aging can occur differently in cells that have longer lifespans as opposed to the ones with shorter lifespans. (wikipedia.org)
  • What isn't known yet is whether the same rebuilding of lost rDNA can also occur in female stem cells in the ovary. (genengnews.com)
  • Especially those that 'work at the cellular level' or that are designed to penetrate through the epidermis into the dermis where most of the processes aging actually occur. (truthinaging.com)
  • But changes also occur outside the cells: "The structure of the so-called extracellular matrix - in other words, the network of proteins surrounding the cells - changes with age," Schiller explains. (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • Tucked away in your body's cells, mitochondria convert the food you eat and the oxygen you breathe into energy. (healthline.com)
  • This is because everything that happens within the body's cells requires an input of energy, and it's the mitochondria that produce over 90% of that energy. (healthline.com)
  • The hypothalamus has a classical function to regulate the whole body's physiology," he says , "so there's a natural logic for us to reason that the hypothalamus might be involved in aging, which was never studied before. (singularityhub.com)
  • Metabolic aspects of aging in diploid human cells. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, they demonstrated that certain metabolic pathways in lung cells are altered with increasing age. (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • David B. Finkelstein, a molecular biologist and the director of the Metabolic Regulation Program at the National Institute on Aging, said Dr. Attardi made a "very basic and important observation" that poses primary questions about "what is happening to the integrity of this integral part of every cell. (nytimes.com)
  • He discovered in the 1920s that cancer cells generate energy by fermenting glucose, which generates a great deal of metabolic waste such as lactic acid. (ucsd.edu)
  • They found that the cost of protein synthesis overrules the metabolic savings for fast growing cells. (ucsd.edu)
  • The number of stem cells in young people is very much higher than older people and this cause a better and more efficient replacement mechanism in the young contrary to the old. (wikipedia.org)
  • As they report in the European Respiratory Journal , they have already successfully counteracted this mechanism in the cell culture with the help of drugs. (eurekalert.org)
  • Strikingly, we found that GSCs in the F1 generation are capable of recovering rDNA copy number in the early ages of adulthood, revealing the likely presence of a mechanism that maintains rDNA copy number through generations," the authors write. (genengnews.com)
  • Ashwagandha deserves to be evaluated as a potential anti-aging ayurvedic herbal preparation in higher organisms and the potential mechanism needs to be investigated. (nutraingredients.com)
  • One possible explanation is that a lower rate of tissue regeneration -given than the stem cells are less active in the absence of Sox4- is a cancer-inhibiting mechanism. (scienceblog.com)
  • Here, we present milestone studies in basic science, translational medicine, and clinical research detailing the discovery, mechanism, and therapeutic applications of stem cells in aging related neurological disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • What we discovered is if you damage cells, the cells have a built-in mechanism to put themselves out of business," says Pandolfi. (abc.net.au)
  • The same mechanism of damage caused by the Sun can be evoked pharmacologically in cancer cells. (abc.net.au)
  • They can reprogram themselves to carry out the function of virtually any other type of cell, and play a vital role in early development. (nautil.us)
  • My hypothesis is that we can induce cellular rejuvenation without changing the function of the cells. (nautil.us)
  • The function of a skin cell is to express certain proteins, keratins for example that protect the skin. (nautil.us)
  • The function of a liver cell is to metabolize. (nautil.us)
  • Reprogramming that function means that you no longer have a liver cell. (nautil.us)
  • You now have another cell, which has a totally different function. (nautil.us)
  • The amazing thing is that if you take an aged cell that is fully committed to a certain function, and you transplant its nucleus into an immature egg cell called an oocyte, then you revert its function to a pluripotent, embryonic one, which means it can become any other cell of the body-and you also revert the age of that cell to the youngest age possible. (nautil.us)
  • The treatment improved heart function, increased exercise capacity, and reversed several biomarkers of aging. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We found at 18 months of age, so after six months of treatment, the treated animals were more exploratory, more active, they had also improvements in kidney function, in heart function. (yahoo.com)
  • Although endothelial hypoxia-inducible factor signalling promotes some of these changes, it fails to enhance vascular niche function because of a lack of arterialization and expansion of PDGFRβ-positive cells. (nature.com)
  • The team now is searching for ways to stimulate the brain to replace its own cells in order to improve learning and memory function in the elderly. (medindia.net)
  • Many cells lose their ability to function, or they begin to function abnormally. (medlineplus.gov)
  • But until now, clinical trials of this kind of therapy using elderly patients' own cells have not been a viable option, since aged cells tend not to function as well as cells from young patients. (redorbit.com)
  • The prominent age-related changes in the appearance, function, and healing properties of skin have been hypothesized to result from changes in epidermal stem cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, the proliferative capacity of these stem cells, which contribute to sebaceous gland function, hair follicle cycling, and wound repair, decreased with age. (sciencemag.org)
  • It coordinates the metabolism and function of the sensory cells in the eye. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Our experiments were originally aimed at testing the idea that, in the specific case of age-related osteoporosis, declining function of osteogenic precursor cells might be at least partially responsible. (nature.com)
  • Writing that: "These near-lifelong, physiological changes suggest an approach for the amelioration of muscle atrophy and diminished function that arise with aging through myofiber-associated satellite cell transplantation. (worldhealth.net)
  • Nearly all of them, both professional and commercial, claim to alter the function of the skin to reduce signs of aging. (truthinaging.com)
  • Many cell phones also give the user access to the internet, email and a camera function, this adds another dimension to the issue of safety. (hubpages.com)
  • With this drug, we hope to develop a therapeutic intervention to enhance the bioenergetics and function of our brain cells and improve the general health and well-being of our aged population. (worldstemcellsummit.com)
  • In work that began at the California Institute of Technology in the 1960s, Dr. Attardi investigated the function and makeup of mitochondria, the rod-shaped organelles in cells that produce the chemical energy needed for growth and other essential processes. (nytimes.com)
  • Chronic untreated HIV infection results in decreased expression of CD28 [6] and increased expression of CTLA-4 by CD4 T cells [7], where both may contribute to impaired T-cell function. (natap.org)
  • I'm cautiously optimistic that this is a really major advance," says Norman Sharpless , a geneticist who studies cancer and aging at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. (technologyreview.com)
  • This system acts as a safety net to prevent damaged cells from remaining active and, in the context of cells damaged by mutations, a way to prevent cancer. (lifeboat.com)
  • The authors believe that it adds another piece to the ageing, stem cells and cancer puzzle, made up of three main elements that are known to be related, but no one knows exactly how. (scienceblog.com)
  • These animals survive and are fertile, but they have several peculiarities: they are smaller than normal, age earlier and do not have cancer. (scienceblog.com)
  • The model was designed to mimic alterations more likely to cause cancer in colon cells over time, potentially providing the framework for measuring such alterations in human lab-grown colon cells to assess cancer risk. (news-medical.net)
  • Cancer is primarily a disease of aging, with the majority of cancers occurring in people over age 60. (news-medical.net)
  • In general, the risk of cancer increases with age, but if we can shift the epigenetic landscape through lifestyle changes to limit the impact of methylation fluctuations, we might be able to prevent cancer from developing,' says Easwaran. (news-medical.net)
  • If what we are seeing in these mouse studies occurs in actual human aging, the model will provide much insight into means for preventing and/or intercepting cancer development. (news-medical.net)
  • They got a similar effect when they used the Skp2-blocking drug MLN4924 in lab cultures of human prostate cancer cells. (abc.net.au)
  • He says this Skp2-related aging pathway appears to be active in cancer, and not other cells. (abc.net.au)
  • That our bodies' oldest cells, which are more at risk for mutation, stop replicating in the first place is believed to be an important evolutionary guard against tumors and, by extension, cancer. (bigthink.com)
  • Recent research reveals that BPS (Bisphenol S) is not a safer alternative to BPA as it is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that multiplies breast cancer cells. (worldhealth.net)
  • Dinda's team tested BPS within human breast cancer cells. (worldhealth.net)
  • Dinda's research group used two breast cancer cell lines derived from women who have estrogen-receptor-positive cancer in the breast. (worldhealth.net)
  • The team exposed cancer cells to numerous BPS strengths along with an inactive substance that served as a control. (worldhealth.net)
  • Dinda's group also treated breast cancer cells with estrogen known as estradiol. (worldhealth.net)
  • The research team determined BPS multiplied the number of breast cancer cells. (worldhealth.net)
  • When BPS treatment was applied for six days, the breast cancer cells within each cell line advanced by 12 percent at the study's lowest dose of 4 micromolars. (worldhealth.net)
  • The breast cancer cells increased by 60 percent when a dose of 8 micromolars was applied. (worldhealth.net)
  • He acknowledged that additional studies of BPS in breast cancer cells will be necessary for confirmation. (worldhealth.net)
  • Exposure to BPA Substitute, BPS, Multiplies Breast Cancer Cells. (worldhealth.net)
  • Cancer cells have CB1 and CB2 receptors that can cause levels of ceramide to rise when CBDs attach to those receptors. (worldhealth.net)
  • After taking CBD oil it travels through the blood and attaches to these cancer cell receptors and causes them to produce more ceramide which in turns kills the cancer cell. (worldhealth.net)
  • Normal cells do not behave the same as cancer cells, meaning that CBD will have no effect on them: CBDs will specifically target cancer cells and leave healthy cells alone. (worldhealth.net)
  • CBD oils need to be taken at a steady rate over a period of time to keep pressure on the cancer cells to gain the most benefits, naturally without toxic effects or chemicals. (worldhealth.net)
  • Cannabis also contains a phytonutrients called terpenes which have also been proven to affect cancer cell death. (worldhealth.net)
  • These cells have been successfully used to treat blood-related cancer and blood disorders that are genetic. (worldhealth.net)
  • We have recently developed a novel human WS model using WRN-deficient human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). (springer.com)
  • Cardiosphere-derived cells are immature cells that can mature into any of the three major types of heart cell: cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Here we show that Notch signalling in endothelial cells leads to the expansion of haematopoietic stem cell niches in bone, which involves increases in CD31-positive capillaries and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ)-positive perivascular cells, arteriole formation and elevated levels of cellular stem cell factor. (nature.com)
  • Engraftment and reconstitution of hematopoiesis is dependent on VEGFR2-mediated regeneration of sinusoidal endothelial cells. (nature.com)
  • In addition, the Aging Cell Repository has human and animal differentiated cell cultures (epithelial, endothelial, and smooth muscle), human mammary epithelial and keratinocyte cell cultures, and fibroblast cultures from animals with different life spans. (bio.net)
  • Endothelial Cell Aging: How miRNAs Contribute? (mdpi.com)
  • Endothelial cells (ECs) form monolayers and line the interior surfaces of blood vessels in the entire body. (mdpi.com)
  • Yeast: Chronological aging. (ebooks.com)
  • But our chronological age doesn't account for how we interpret or feel about that number. (goodhousekeeping.com)
  • This functional reprogramming is usually accompanied by an age reset, down to zero. (nautil.us)
  • What is the difference between functional and aging reprogramming? (nautil.us)
  • What impact will your work have on aging research? (nautil.us)
  • I believe there's a good chance Bush would support a SCREA that allowed federal funding for embryonic stem-cell lines that already exist, as long as the bill also encourages research into techniques that don't destroy embryos. (wired.com)
  • While human cells were used, the research was limited to the laboratory. (redorbit.com)
  • The new research appears to validate the idea of senescent-cell toxicity. (technologyreview.com)
  • However, previous research has shown that as the HSC ages, its capacity to develop into different types of blood cells diminishes. (nih.gov)
  • In fact, previous research has shown that the failure of cellular maintenance is a key component of aging. (technologyreview.com)
  • The hippocampus-because of its importance in maintaining memory with age-is the most popular research target. (singularityhub.com)
  • These cells have now been used for the first time in research for transplantation purposes," says lead author Dr. Boris V. Stanzel from the Department of Ophthalmology at the University of Bonn. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Our research group developed special instruments to implant the replacement cells can under the retina," reports Dr. Stanzel. (uni-bonn.de)
  • From 1999 to 2002 he was scientific research fellow at the University of Kentucky, USA with expertise in stem cells, genetics and aging. (ebooks.com)
  • Hormones and neurotransmitters secreted from cells via bubble-like vesicles are released using age-related criteria, with the youngest vesicles getting first shot at releasing their contents, according to research led by a University of Southern California (USC) physiologist. (innovations-report.com)
  • The research will be published as the cover story in the March 13 issue of the journal Nature, which will feature an image from the research paper representing the movement of a single vesicle over time, from docking at the cell membrane to release of its neurotransmitter. (innovations-report.com)
  • In the next phase, the relevant data for human cells will have to be collected and integrated in the project in order to advance progress in basic and applied research. (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • Much of this shift in mindset can be attributed to the ever-expanding field of aging research and its perceived infinite potential. (goodhousekeeping.com)
  • New research from Northern Arizona University found signs of increased aging in the cells of married people who say they don't receive emotional support from their spouse. (wbez.org)
  • Much more research is needed to advance the technology of these iPSCs , but this type of stem cell shows much promise for future stem cell therapy. (worldhealth.net)
  • The final goal of research involving iPSC is to develop a procedure that will enable this type of cell to treat a wide variety of health conditions. (worldhealth.net)
  • Although research has been ongoing for nearly 20 years, health professionals are hopeful that stem cell therapy will be the answer to some serious health problems. (worldhealth.net)
  • They managed to identify different populations of neuronal stem cells, thereby demonstrating that the hippocampus has active and dormant or inactive neuronal stem cells. (mpg.de)
  • Therefore, neuronal stem cells do not disappear with age but are kept in reserve,' explains Verdon Taylor from the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology. (mpg.de)
  • Pathological brain activity, for example that which occurs during epileptic seizures, also triggers the division of the neuronal stem cells. (mpg.de)