Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Erythrocyte Aggregation: The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.Blood Viscosity: The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Flocculation: The aggregation of suspended solids into larger clumps.Hemorheology: The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Citraconic Anhydrides: Methylmaleic anhydrides.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Erythrocyte Deformability: Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Porifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.Receptors, Very Late Antigen: Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Azospirillum brasilense: A species of motile, free-living, gram-negative bacteria that occur in the soil. They are aerobic or microaerophilic and are sometimes capable of nitrogen fixation.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Myxomycetes: A division of organisms that exist vegetatively as complex mobile plasmodia, reproduce by means of spores, and have complex life cycles. They are now classed as protozoa but formerly were considered fungi.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.Receptor Aggregation: Chemically stimulated aggregation of cell surface receptors, which potentiates the action of the effector cell.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.alpha-Synuclein: A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.Bleeding Time: Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Thromboxane A2: An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Thromboxane B2: A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Platelet Function Tests: Laboratory examination used to monitor and evaluate platelet function in a patient's blood.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (1/2029)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

Analysis of the stimulation-inhibition paradox exhibited by lymphocytes exposed to concanavalin A. (2/2029)

High doses of Concanavalin A (Con A), which normally inhibit T-lymphocyte stimulation as measured by increases in DNA synthesis, cause these lymphocytes to become committed to mitogenesis while also generating a dominant but reversible negative growth signal. The observed response to the stimulatory signal as measured by the rate of commitment to enter the S phase (i.e., the rate at which the stimulation becomes lectin independent) increases with lectin concentration even in the inhibitory range. The generation of this positive signal is prevented by treating the cells with colchicine. Cells that have become committed but are also simultaneously blocked from entering the S phase by the high doses of Con A can begin synthesizing DNA if the lectin is released by adding a competitive inhibitor of binding. Experiments done in agarose cultures in which lymphocytes are kept from contact with each other suggest that the reversible inhibitory signal is mediated by structures in the individual cells rather than as a result of agglutination. Continuously dividing cells of the lymphoid line P388 are also individually and reversibly inhibited by Con A. These findings are considered in terms of the relation of the inhibitory signal to the microtubular components of cell surface modulating assemblies made up of submembranous arrays of microtubules, microfilaments, and associated proteins.  (+info)

The pro-phenoloxidase of coleopteran insect, Tenebrio molitor, larvae was activated during cell clump/cell adhesion of insect cellular defense reactions. (3/2029)

To characterize the proteins involved in cell clump/cell adhesion of insect cellular defense reactions, we induced the cell clump/cell adhesion reaction in vitro with the hemolymph of larvae of the coleopteran insect, Tenebrio molitor. The 72 kDa protein was specifically enriched in the residues of cell clump/cell adhesion and was purified to homogeneity. A cDNA clone for the 72 kDa protein was isolated. We found that the 72 kDa protein was an activated phenoloxidase from Tenebrio pro-phenoloxidase. We suggest that activated phenoloxidase is involved in the cell clump/cell adhesion reaction as well as in the synthesis of melanin.  (+info)

Distinct functions of alpha3 and alpha(v) integrin receptors in neuronal migration and laminar organization of the cerebral cortex. (4/2029)

Changes in specific cell-cell recognition and adhesion interactions between neurons and radial glial cells regulate neuronal migration as well as the establishment of distinct layers in the developing cerebral cortex. Here, we show that alpha3beta1 integrin is necessary for neuron-glial recognition during neuronal migration and that alpha(v) integrins provide optimal levels of the basic neuron-glial adhesion needed to maintain neuronal migration on radial glial fibers. A gliophilic-to-neurophilic switch in the adhesive preference of developing cortical neurons occurs following the loss of alpha3beta1 integrin function. Furthermore, the targeted mutation of the alpha3 integrin gene results in abnormal layering of the cerebral cortex. These results suggest that alpha3beta1 and alpha(v) integrins regulate distinct aspects of neuronal migration and neuron-glial interactions during corticogenesis.  (+info)

Multiple developmental roles for CRAC, a cytosolic regulator of adenylyl cyclase. (5/2029)

Receptor-mediated activation of adenylyl cyclase (ACA) in Dictyostelium requires CRAC protein. Upon translocation to the membrane, this pleckstrin homology (PH) domain protein stimulates ACA and thereby mediates developmental aggregation. CRAC may also have roles later in development since CRAC-null cells can respond to chemotactic signals and participate in developmental aggregation when admixed with wild-type cells, but they do not complete development within such chimeras. To test whether the role of CRAC in postaggregative development is related to the activation of ACA, chemotactic aggregation was bypassed in CRAC-null cells by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). While such strains formed mounds, they did not complete fruiting body morphogenesis or form spores. Expression of CRAC in the prespore cells of these strains rescued sporulation and fruiting body formation. This later function of CRAC does not appear to require its PH domain since the C-terminal portion of the protein (CRAC-DeltaPH) can substitute for full-length CRAC in promoting spore cell formation and morphogenesis. No detectable ACA activation was observed in any of the CRAC-null strains rescued by PKA activation and expression of CRAC-DeltaPH. Finally, we found that the development of CRAC-null ACA-null double mutants could be rescued by the activation of PKA together with the expression of CRAC-DeltaPH. Thus, there appears to be a required function for CRAC in postaggregative development that is independent of its previously described function in the ACA activation pathway.  (+info)

Origin of the integrin-mediated signal transduction. Functional studies with cell cultures from the sponge Suberites domuncula. (6/2029)

Sponges (phylum Porifera) represent the phylogenetically oldest metazoan animals. Recently, from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium a first cDNA encoding a putative integrin receptor molecule was isolated. In the present study basic functional experiments have been conducted to test the hypothesis that in sponges integrin polypeptides also function as adhesion molecules and as outside-in signaling molecules. The sponge Suberites domuncula has been used for the experiments because from this sponge only has a cell culture been established. Here we report that aggregation factor (AF)-mediated cell-cell adhesion is blocked by the RGDS peptide which is known to interact with beta integrin. Both RGDS and AF were found to stimulate DNA synthesis within 24 h. The beta subunit of the integrin receptor was cloned from S. domuncula; the estimated 91-kDa molecule comprises the characteristic signatures. Evolutionary conservation of the beta integrin was assessed by comparison with corresponding beta integrin subunits from evolutionary higher metazoan taxa. Addition of RGDS or of AF to isolated cells of S. domuncula causes a rapid (within 1-2 min) increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration which is further augmented in the presence of Ca2+. Furthermore, incubation of the cells with RGDS or AF causes an activation of the GTP-binding protein Ras. In addition it is shown that after a prolonged incubation of the cells with RGDS and AF the expression of the genes coding for Ras and for calmodulin is upregulated. These results suggest that the integrin receptor functions in the sponge system not only as adhesion molecule but also as a molecule involved in outside-in signaling.  (+info)

E-cadherin mediates aggregation-dependent survival of prostate and mammary epithelial cells through the retinoblastoma cell cycle control pathway. (7/2029)

E-cadherin and the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) are traditionally associated with diverse regulatory aspects of cell growth and differentiation. However, we have discovered new evidence, which suggests that these proteins are functionally linked in a physiologic pathway required for cell survival and programmed cell death. Pharmacological activation of protein kinase C (PKC) or inducible overexpression and activation of the alpha isozyme of PKC (PKCalpha) resulted in approximately 60% apoptosis of mammary and prostate epithelial cells. Interestingly, the surviving cells had undergone dramatic aggregation concurrent with increased E-cadherin expression. When aggregation was inhibited by the addition of an E-cadherin-blocking antibody, apoptosis increased synergistically. We hypothesized that survival of the aggregated population was associated with contact-inhibited growth and that apoptosis might result from aberrant growth regulatory signals in non-aggregated, cycling cells. This hypothesis was confirmed by experiments that demonstrated that E-cadherin-dependent aggregation resulted in Rb-mediated G1 arrest and survival. Immunoblot analysis and flow cytometry revealed that hypophosphorylated Rb was present in non-aggregated, S phase cultures concurrent with synergistic cell death. We have also determined that the loss of membrane E-cadherin and subsequent hypophosphorylation of Rb in luminal epithelial cells preceded apoptosis induced by castration. These findings provide compelling evidence that suggests that E-cadherin-mediated aggregation results in Rb activation and G1 arrest that is critical for survival of prostate and mammary epithelial cells. These data also indicate that Rb can initiate a fatal growth signal conflict in non-aggregated, cycling cells when the protein is hypophosphorylated as these epithelial cells enter S phase.  (+info)

Differential responses to CD40 ligation among Burkitt lymphoma lines that are uniformly responsive to Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1. (8/2029)

Ligation of CD40 on the surface of B cells induces multiple phenotypic effects, many of which are mimicked by the EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) through its interaction with downstream components of the CD40 signaling pathway. Because the effects of LMP1 have been most closely studied in human Burkitt Lymphoma (BL) cell lines retaining a tumor biopsy-like phenotype in vitro, we have examined the response of a panel of such lines to CD40 ligation. Two distinct patterns of response were observed that were unrelated to the surface level of CD40 or to the EBV genome status of the lines. Following exposure to either CD40-specific mAbs or the soluble trimeric ligand (sCD40L), high responder (HR) lines showed rapid aggregation, activation of NF-kappa B, up-regulation of cell surface markers ICAM-1/CD54 and Fas/CD95, and growth inhibition. Aggregation was seen at lower doses than those required to elicit the other effects. By contrast, low responder (LR) lines showed no detectable response to CD40 mAbs, while their responses to sCD40L were limited to activation of NF-kappa B and up-regulation of CD95 only. However, in transfection experiments, LMP1 uniformly induced the full spectrum of phenotypic effects in both HR and LR lines. We conclude that some BL cell lines show a highly restricted response to CD40 ligation but remain fully susceptible to LMP1.  (+info)

We study spreading on soft substrates of cellular aggregates using CT26 cells that produce an extracellular matrix (ECM). Compared to our previous work on the spreading of S180 cellular aggregates, which did not secrete ECMs, we found that the spreading velocity of the precursor film is also maximal for inte
Clone DB105 recognizes the CD44 antigen. CD44 is a marker for many types of cancer stem cells (CSCs), including breast CSCs that possess higher tumorigenicity and metastatic potential, colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate CSCs. In addition, expression was observed in several cancers as well as on carcinoma cell lines. Here, CD44 plays a role in cancer cell migration and matrix adhesion in response to a cellular microenvironment, thus enhancing cellular aggregation and tumor cell growth. CD44 is also expressed on mesodermal cells, such as hematopoietic, fibroblastic, and glial cells. - Österreich
TY - GEN. T1 - Role of cell aggregation protein in adhesion in vitro and in vivo. AU - Morelli, Lorenzo. AU - Cesena, Camilla. AU - Lucchini, Franco. AU - Callegari, Maria Luisa. AU - Alander, Minna. AU - Mattila-Sandholm, Tiina. AU - Wright, Atte von. AU - Salminen, Seppo. AU - Lehto, Elina. AU - Vilpponen-Salmela, Terttu. N1 - Poster. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. M3 - Conference article in proceedings. SN - 951-38-4564-8. T3 - VTT Symposium. SP - 63. EP - 64. BT - Novel methods for probiotic research. PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. CY - Espoo. ER - ...
Scientists estimate that planet Earth formed about 4.5 billion years ago as part of the formation of the solar system. It was only about one billion years later that the first unicellular organisms made their debut, and it took about two billion years more for multicellular organisms to appear. Initially these were simple cellular aggregates that later on evolved into more complex life forms with distinct tissues and organs. The most dramatic segment of evolution took place about a half billion years ago when over a "brief” period of 30 million years the foundations were laid for all the groups of animals that still surround us today. The following video describes the basics of how life is believed to have emerged and evolved on Earth, from the formation of DNA to the appearance of human beings. It should be mentioned that the video contains several inaccuracies on which I will elaborate in the following paragraphs.
A rotating cell culture system that allows epithelial cells to grow under physiological conditions resulting in 3-D cellular aggregate...
Caring Medical discusses treatments for Barré-Liéou and Cervicocranial syndrome due to vertebral instability, which affects the function of the nerve cell aggregations located in the neck just in front of the vertebrae.
Report prepared at Wed, 13 Dec 2017 00:09:45 UTC+1000, using data obtained within AS0.6447. The report may include routes internal to AS0.6447, and may also include routes that are accepted from adjacent ASs and marked "NO EXPORT". The report also does not take into account conditions local to each origin AS in terms of policy or traffic engineering requirements. As an aggregation guide, this report is a very approximate guide at best.. ...
metrics aggregation that counts the number of values that are extracted from the aggregated documents. These values can be extracted either from specific fields in the documents, or be generated by a provided script. Typically, this aggregator will be used in conjunction with other single-value aggregations. For example, when computing the ...
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Hello we have the following unique algo aa,a,nd we would like to know if it could be interesting in Bio. Does somebody can help ...
Campaigning in Florida, President Barack Obama told supporters that his Republican challenger, Mitt Romney, doesnt represent change in the 2012 election. Obama told them, you know what I mean, and I mean what I say. (Nov. 4)
Exposure of Sulfolobus solfataricus to the DNA damaging agents UV-irradiation, bleomycin or mitomycin C induces cellular aggregation.[2] Other physical stressors, such as pH or temperature shift, do not induce aggregation, suggesting that induction of aggregation is caused specifically by DNA damage. Ajon et al.[3] showed that UV-induced cellular aggregation mediates chromosomal marker exchange with high frequency. Recombination rates exceeded those of uninduced cultures by up to three orders of magnitude. Frols et al.[2][4] and Ajon et al.[3] hypothesized that the UV-inducible DNA transfer process and subsequent homologous recombinational repair represents an important mechanism to maintain chromosome integrity. This response may be a primitive form of sexual interaction, similar to the more well-studied bacterial transformation that is also associated with DNA transfer between cells leading to homologous recombinational repair of DNA damage.[5] In another related species, Sulfolobus ...
The species-specific cell adhesion in the marine sponge Microciona prolifera involves the interaction of an extracellular proteoglycan-like macromolecular complex, otherwise known as aggregation factor. In the interaction, two highly polyvalent functional domains play a role: a cell-binding and a self-interaction domain. The self-recognition has been characterized as a Ca2+-dependent carbohydrate-carbohydrate ... read more interaction of repetitive low affinity carbohydrate epitopes. One of the involved epitopes is the pyruvated trisaccharide b-D-Galp4,6(R)Pyr-(1→4)-b-D-GlcpNAc-(1→3)-LFucp. To evaluate the role of this trisaccharide in the proteoglycan-proteoglycan self-recognition, b-D-Galp4,6(R)Pyr-(1→4)-b-D-GlcpNAc-(1→3)-a-L-Fucp-(1→O)(CH2)3S(CH2)6SH was synthesized, and partially converted into gold glyconanoparticles. These mimics are being used to explore the self-interaction phenomenon for the trisaccharide epitope, via TEM aggregation experiments (gold glyconanoparticles) and ...
Using freeze-fracture electron microscopy and fluorescent dye injection we have analysed the contacts between cells of the deeper endoderm taken from neuru
The fixation of dissociated chick embryonic cells in the presence of ruthenium red or alcian blue revealed a remarkable reduction in the binding of these cations to cell surfaces following tryptic digestion at 37 °C, but not after trypsin used at 4 °C or EDTA.. The reconstitution of anionic sites present over the cell plasma membrane was studied in retina, liver and heart cells from embryos of different ages, cultivated according to a method which promotes cell reaggregation. All these cells regenerated ruthenium red-stainability within the first hour of culture. Culturing at 15 °C, substitution of saline for the culture medium or addition of puromycin or of neuraminidase to the culture media did not affect this restitutive process. Neuraminidase and hyaluronidase digestion were not able to alter the ruthenium red-binding, once it was present.. From these data and from the reports available in the literature it has been concluded that the anionic binding-sites cannot be identified with the ...
Buy PEAR1 elisa kit, Mouse platelet endothelial aggregation receptor 1 ELISA Kit-NP_001027585.1 (MBS9332849) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
Demonstration of the cellular aggregation which constitutes the lupus erythematosus (LE) phenomenon in heparinized bone marrow1 was the basis of the first in a series of specific diagnostic procedures in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).2 When this phenomenon was also demonstrated in heparinized3 and in clotted4 peripheral blood of patients suffering from this disease, such preparations were also used in laboratory diagnosis. Finally, the reproduction in vitro of the LE phenomenon by adding LE plasma or serum to cells of normal bone marrow5, 6 added another in this series of tests.. Thus, the three types of diagnostic procedures used have in ...
Related Transcriptional Enhancer Factor-1 (RTEF-1) has been suggested to induce angiogenesis through regulating target genes. Whether RTEF-1 has a direct role in angiogenesis and what specific genes are involved in RTEF-1 driven angiogenisis have not been elucidated. We found that over-expressing RTEF-1 in Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells-1 (HMEC-1) significantly increased endothelial cell aggregation, growth and migration while the processes were inhibited by siRNA of RTEF-1. In addition, we observed that Endothelial differentiation gene-1 (Edg-1) expression was up-regulated by RTEF-1 at the transcriptional level. RTEF-1 could bind to Edg-1 promoter and subsequently induce its activity. Edg-1 siRNA significantly blocked RTEF-1-driven increases in endothelial cell aggregation in a Matrigel assay and retarded RTEF-1-induced endothelial cell growth and migration. Pertussis Toxin (PTX), a Gi/Go protein sensitive inhibitor, was found to inhibit RTEF-1 driven endothelial cell aggregation ...
Mechanistically, IgSF9 and IgSF9b share similarities, but also seem to have distinct properties. Both CAMs mediate homophilic adhesion or homotypic aggregation and are not sufficient to induce synapse formation. Both proteins are localized at inhibitory synapses. Interestingly, IgSF9b was shown to act on the postsynaptic side of inhibitory synapses onto interneurons (Woo et al., 2013), whereas our study suggests that IgSF9 is enriched on the presynaptic side and is required for inhibitory synapse onto pyramidal neurons. Whether IgSF9 and IgSF9b are necessary in either the presynaptic or postsynaptic compartment in vivo will require conditional knock-out mice and is a direction of future studies.. The most striking difference between IgSF9 and IgSF9b was the role of their respective intracellular domains (ICDs). The ICD of IgSF9b was shown to interact with Neuroligin-2 by way of the scaffolding protein S-SCAM and it was suggested, although not formally shown, that this interaction is necessary ...
The researchers took on one of the most insidious problems, compound aggregation, in which small molecules form colloids that bind to and partially denature proteins, causing false positives in all sorts of assays. This can happen even at nanomolar concentrations of compound, and is all the more problematic at higher concentrations used in fragment screening and early hit to lead optimization. In many cases aggregates can be disrupted or passivated by including nonionic detergents such as Triton X-100 or Tween-80, but not all assays tolerate detergent, and some aggregates form even in the presence of detergent ...
1. As a preliminary study on the molecular basis of cell aggregation, the soluble macromolecular fractions of growing (vegetative) and aggregation competent cells of D. discoideum were compared. a) ...
Nam, M. H., Dewey D. Y. Ryu, B. R. Thomas, and R. Rodriguez. 1997. Expression and secretion of fusion protein (GUS) in the suspension culture of transgenic 3DG rice cell line: Effects of osmotic pressure, buffering capacity of pH and cell aggregation on GUS expression. J. Crop Science, 39: 9 -14 ...
Home › A disaggregated biodiversity offset accounting model to improve estimation of ecological equivalency and no net loss ...
In mid-1998 the 191 distributor Hgh molecule was genetically engineered in the workplace. Since then all HGH is synthetically produced and HGH from cadavers is no mortal in use. Inductive HGH (Somatrophin) is free to us now in two forms. One is through a pricey doctors pharmaceutical prescription, and secondly at a valid toll through a homeopathic exam spray. A position therapy deciding would be Secretogogues and Stacked Radical products which take absolutely no HGH. The aim here is to cable your own body, by stimulating the Endocrine Secretor, to food many of its own HGH. Alas this latter therapy totality for only a month or two ...
Disrupt protein-protein interactions or induce secretion. Previously available from ARIAD as the RPD Regulated Secretion/Aggregation Kit & AP21998.
Disrupt protein-protein interactions or induce secretion. Previously available from ARIAD as the RPD Regulated Secretion/Aggregation Kit & AP21998.
Page contains details about BiPy-BTA discotic 1 aggregates . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Swedish University dissertations (essays) about HäLSA. Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations. Full text. Free.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A study of whole blood platelet and white cell aggregation using a laser flow aggregometer. AU - Sun, J.. AU - Abel, E. W.. AU - Bancroft, A.. AU - McLaren, M.. AU - Belch, J. J. F.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Both platelet aggregation and white blood cell aggregation are involved in pathological processes such as thrombosis, atherosclerosis and chronic inflammation. People in older age groups are likely to suffer from cardiovascular diseases and may have increased white cell and platelet aggregation which could contribute to this increased risk. This study aimed to compare white cell and platelet aggregation between different age and gender groups. Whole blood white cell aggregation and platelet aggregation were carried out on healthy volunteers using cytometric techniques. It was found that both white cell and platelet aggregation in the elderly group (white cell aggregation median value, 0.08; range, 0.02-0.14; platelet aggregation median value, 0.32; range, 0.1-0.39) were ...
Membrane interaction in aggregating cells of Dictyostelium discoideum can be blocked by univalent antibodies directed against specific membrane sites. Using a quantitative technique for measuring cell association, two classes of target sites for blocking antibodies were distinguished and their developmental dynamics studied. One class of these sites is specific for aggregation-competent cells, their quantity rising from virtually 0-level during growth, with a steep increase shortly before cell aggregation. The serological activity of these structures is species specific; they are not detectable in a nonaggregating mutant, but present in a revertant undergoing normal morphogenesis. Patterns of cell assembly in the presence of antibodies show that selective blockage of these membrane sites abolishes the preference for end-to-end association which is typical for aggregating cells. A second class of target sites is present in comparable quantities in particle fractions from both growth-phase and ...
The aggregation phenomenon in lactococci has been studied for more than thirty years. It was found to be directly associated with a sex factor and lactose plasmid co-integration event [1] or duplication of the cell wall spanning (CWS) domain of PrtP proteinase [2]. Lactose plasmid conjugation in Lactococcus lactis 712 and in the related strains C2 and ML3, frequently involves plasmid co-integration with a sex factor. Moreover, this phenomenon is often associated with a cell aggregation phenotype and high frequency transfer ability [3-5]. The lactococcal sex factor exists integrated in the chromosome [6], although it can be excised as a closed circular form and lost from the cell [1]. Deletion and over-expression experiments confirmed that CluA is the only sex factor component responsible for aggregation in L. lactis. This 136 kDa surface-bound protein, encoded by the chromosomally located sex factor of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363, is associated with cell aggregation linked to ...
The purpose of these studies was to determine whether hematogenous clonal pulmonary melanoma metastases originate from the expansion of a single cell and if so, by extrapolation, metastasis can be considered a cloning process. Three different cell lines of murine K-1735 melanoma with different metastatic properties and unique karyotypes were injected i.v. into syngeneic C3H/HeN mice as multicell aggregates of individual cell lines or combinations of cell lines. Resultant solitary lung metastases were isolated in culture as individual lines and then karyotyped. Even when heterogeneous clumps of tumor cells were injected, the individual metastases exhibited a karyotype unique to one metastatic cell type. Furthermore, when cellular aggregates were composed of metastatic cells admixed with cells that were tumorigenic but nonmetastatic, the resultant metastases exhibited only the karyotype of the metastatic cells. This finding suggests that the presence of metastatic cells did not change the ...
The study clearly showed that the gene correction procedures did not impair the full pluripotentiality of iPS cells," said Shinya Yamanaka (director of the Center for iPS Cell Research and Application at Kyoto University). Yamanaka is the father of the iPS field. In 2006 his laboratory was the first to coax adult mouse fibroblasts into an undifferentiated state through the expression of 4 transcription factors: Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc.4. Yamanaka said that the findings of the German group "indicate a possibility that human iPS cells generated from people with genetic defects may be repaired and have the similar abilities." The work should "encourage researchers to improve differentiation methods from iPS cells into functional cells.". An intriguing aspect of the study was the relatively high efficiency at which the groups approach yielded full-term surviving pups. Up to 60% of cellular aggregates from tetraploid complementation generated surviving pups, and a significant number of the pups ...
To examine if cadherin function is essential for the activity-induced spine enlargement, we took advantage of the W2A mutant of N-cadherin (W2A-cadherin), a point mutant that lacks adhesive activity (Tamura et al., 1998). The overexpression of W2A-cadherin suppressed the adhesive function of N-cadherin as examined by cell aggregation assays (Fig. 7 A). The number of dendritic protrusions on the neurons overexpressing W2A-cadherin was equal to the spine number on the control neurons (Table II). 16% of these spines on the W2A-transfected neurons remained in normal cotyloid shape (Fig. 7 C-1; Table I). 32% of spines appeared largely normal with their heads still identifiable as the bulging end, but their apexes were flat without cotyloid curve (Fig. 7 C-2; Table I). This type of spine was occasionally accompanied by transient protrusions on its apex (see Fig. 8 D). 13% showed normally bulged spine head, but with elongated neck (Fig. 7 C-3; Table I). The other 39% showed filopodia-like elongated ...
Many types of mammalian cells can aggregate and differentiate into 3-D multicellular spheroids when cultured in suspension or a nonadhesive environment. Compared to conventional monolayer cultures, multicellular spheroids resemble real tissues better in terms of structural and functional properties. Multicellular spheroids formed by transformed cells are widely used as avascular tumor models for metastasis and invasion research and for therapeutic screening. Many primary or progenitor cells on the other hand, show significantly enhanced viability and functional performance when grown as spheroids. Multicellular spheroids in this aspect are ideal building units for tissue reconstruction. Here we review the current understanding of multicellular spheroid formation mechanisms, their biomedical applications, and recent advances in spheroid culture, manipulation, and analysis techniques. ...
In aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs) induced by macromolecules, the aggregating energy provided by macromolecular binding to RBC membrane must overcome the disaggregation energy of electrostatic repulsion between RBC surfaces and the effects of m
In this paper we report a novel effect of soluble Fbg that contributes to the sequential activation of circulating neutrophils. Although β2 integrins on myeloid cells were initially identified as cell surface structures mediating the traffic and localization of circulating immune cells (37), they are also able to regulate multiple cellular responses to environmental stimuli, leading to growth, differentiation, gene expression, and apoptosis (38). We now demonstrate that soluble hFbg is capable of triggering neutrophil activation through a CD11b-dependent mechanism. It is well known that several products of coagulation and fibrinolysis profoundly affect many facets of inflammatory reactions, such as induction of platelet activation (39), cytokine production by mononuclear phagocytes (40, 41, 42), neutrophil aggregation, and chemotaxis (43, 44, 45). However, the effects of soluble hFbg on inflammatory cells have only recently been investigated. In this regard, Sitrin et al. (9) recently reported ...
The aggregation state of sickle cells was studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure, with ultrasound backscattering. The ultrasonic backscattering coefficient χ , which depends on the size of the aggregates, is highly correlated with erythrocy
In 1975, Orci et al. (1) reported that human islet cells contain specialized membrane domains that are compatible with the ultrastructural features of two types of intercellular junctions: tight junctions and gap junctions. Since then, numerous reports have demonstrated critical functions for these cell-cell junctional complexes in islet cells (2-8). Eventually, a number of proteins were identified that regulated cell aggregation, islet cell-type segregation, architectural organization within islets of Langerhans, and state of differentiation, cell growth, and hormone secretion (9-16). Hints that direct islet cell-to-islet cell interactions are required for proper insulin secretion were uncovered in the 1980s when it was observed that single (isolated) β-cells are unresponsive to glucose unless they are given the opportunity to reaggregate into small clusters (17). Even more interesting, it was observed that islet cell types harbor specific cell-to-cell recognition signatures that drive their ...
We have recently demonstrated that the CD40 molecule was expressed on both normal human plasma cells and most malignant plasma cells, i.e., myeloma cells. Thus, we have investigated its putative role in the proliferation of myeloma cells. We report that 7 of 15 myeloma cell lines were CD40+ but only one, XG2, presented a high level of CD40 expression. We show that the CD40 stimulation by anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of the interleukin 6-dependent myeloma cell line XG2 induced a total inhibition of its proliferation. This inhibition was also observed when cells were either cultured in the "CD40 system," where the anti-CD40 mAb has been immobilized on fibroblasts expressing Fc receptors or in the presence of a soluble chimeric CD40 ligand molecule. This inhibition of proliferation was neither accompanied by differentiation nor apoptosis. Triggering CD40 induced an homotypic aggregation of XG2 cells, and the inhibition of proliferation was totally prevented by a blocking anti-CD18 mAb. ...
It is an interesting time to consider the means and roles of cell adhesion in the eukaryotes. There was initial wonder at the results of Wilsons reports of species-specific reaggregation of sponge...
Downloadable! In this paper we analyze judgement aggregation problems in which a group of agents independently votes on a set of complex propositions that has some interdependency constraint between them (e.g., transitivity when describing preferences). We consider the issue of judgement aggregation from the perspective of approximation. That is, we generalize the previous results by studying approximate judgement aggregation. We relax the main two constraints assumed in the current literature, Consistency and Independence and consider mechanisms that only approximately satisfy these constraints, that is, satisfy them up to a small portion of the inputs. The main question we raise is whether the relaxation of these notions significantly alters the class of satisfying aggregation mechanisms. The recent works for preference aggregation of Kalai, Mossel, and Keller fit into this framework. The main result of this paper is that, as in the case of preference aggregation, in the case of a subclass of a
Using Rezais cells, Norriss technology and Seagles leg work, the team was able to capture convincing and dramatic evidence that melanin protects the retinal cells. In the PNAS paper (21 June 2005), they show that increased melanin aggregation and radical migration within melanin aggregates can protect RPE cells from free-radical damage and help prevent cell death. In the JACS paper (17 August 2005, but available online) they demonstrate how melanin actually scavenges the harmful free radicals produced by high-energy blue or ultraviolet light as it flows into the eye, soaking them up and neutralizing their effects ...
Amphiphilic molecules have a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic chain. Under certain conditions, they can self-organize into hollow spherical hollow vesicles with a surfactant bilayer enclosing an aqueous core, the overall diameter ranging from a few tens of nanometers to several microns. By carefully choosing specific preparation conditions, the scientists of SIS2M have shown that extremely robust aggregates can be synthesized with an interesting potential for encapsulation. The vesicles are widely studied for many fundamental issues (mechanism of self-assembly, physical properties of the membrane, etc ...) which understanding may open new perspectives (controlled release of active molecules, chemical nanoreactors, energy conversion, etc...). Usually, these vesicles (in this case also known as
Organizations which change service provider but do not renumber. This has the effect of "punching a hole" in the aggregation of the original service providers advertisement. This plan will handle the situation by requiring the newer service provider to advertise a specific advertisement for the new client, which is preferred by virtue of being the longest match. To maintain efficiency of aggregation, it is recommended that organizations which do change service providers plan to eventually migrate their address assignments from the old providers space to that of the new provider. To this end, it is recommended that mechanisms to facilitate such migration, including improved protocols and procedures for dynamic host address assignment, be developed. Note that some aggregation efficiency gain can still be had for multi-homed sites (and, in general, for any site composed of multiple, logical IP network numbers) - by allocating a contiguous power-of-two block of network numbers to the client (as ...
This research study is thus designed to compute total factor productivity (TFP) growth for Pakistans large scale manufacturing (LSM) sector for each five year period from 1970-71 to 2005-06.
Relative GDP shares are frequently used as weights in aggregations. In order to ensure that these weights reflect countries shares in real output, GDP data in national currencies should be converted into a common numeraire currency at purchasing power parity (PPP) rates. A review of the empirical evidence on the relationship between exchange rates and prices suggests that market (or official) exchange rates are generally poor proxies for PPP rates. The paper examines the PPP-based GDP data generated by the International Comparison Program and compares aggregations with PPP- and exchange rate-based GDP weights.
Aggregation Klausenpass Passroad Switzerland: 1 assigned downloads, like The Stäubifall waterfall and an aggregation of alp huts, seen from the Klausenpass road, Schächental, Uri, Switzerland from stock-photos
A mill is a device that breaks solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cuttingFor instance rock crushing or grinding to produce uniform aggregate size for construction purposes, or separation of rock, soil or aggregate material for the . Rod mills are less common than ball mills for grinding minerals.. ...
... (SI) is a genetically controlled cell-cell recognition system that acts as a barrier to self pollination in a wide range of flowering plant species
We begin this discussion with an analysis of the hierarchical framework discussed in Hax and Meal, 1975. After defining the different levels of the hierarchy we provide necessary and detailed models. Several interpretations and consequences of these results are discussed. In addition, it is shown that planning horizons to insure consistency on a detailed level are intimately related to planning on an aggregate level. Although we cannot demonstrate the optimality of the approach of Hax and Meal, lower bounds are easily derived. For the remainder of the report, we do not consider the aggregate product structure of Hax and Meal. Instead, in a linear model, we aggregate all items together. Under a quite general cost structure, we are able to characterize optimal aggregate production which can be optimally disaggregated. The analysis is extended from the single to the multi-echelon case. We formalize some of the preceding notions and present a more general underlying theory. The aggregate
The AccuSizer FX Nano SIS system is specifically designed to measure protein aggregation. The instrument meets and/or exceeds all requirements described in USP
A method for performing Carrier Aggregation (CA) using spectrum shared between an incumbent user and a telecommunications network includes establishing a primary cell (PCell) for the secondary user in
The problem of finding the number and size distribution of cell clusters that grow in an organ or tissue from observations of the number and sizes of transections of such cell clusters in a planar section is considered. This problem is closely relate
All members providing Bonded Aggregate Surfacing services in Walsall are Recommended, Vetted and Monitored and meet our standards of trading.
Researchers believe they figured out how Parkinsons advances by triggering a process that culminated with a Parkinsons-type disease in lab mice.
Collagen, isolated from the sponge Geodia cydonium in the absence of denaturing agents, had the typical amino acid composition and was associated with the carbohydrates galactose and glucose. The resulting individual fibrils with a diameter of 23 nm, displayed a 19.5 nm periodicity with one intraperiod band. A collagen assembly factor (CAF) was identified in and partially purified from the extracellular space. The CAF reacted with antibodies against intact Geodia cells but not with antibodies against Geodia lectin and Geodia aggregation factor. In the presence of the CAF, the collagen fibrils reconstituted collagen bundles in an ordered sequence of events, which were followed by electron-microscopical and biochemical methods. Bundle formation was not dependent on the presence of the homologous lectin, glycoconjugates or aggregation factor. Homologous cells (Geodia archaeocytes) were determined to attach only to those Geodia collagen substrates that contained CAF. The attachment of these cells ...
P-cadherin is a subclass of Ca2+-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecules present in mouse placenta, where its localization suggests a function of connecting the embryo to the uterus (Nose, A., and M. Takeichi. 1986. J. Cell Biol. 103:2649-2658). We recently identified a human cadherin detected by an mAb capable of disrupting cell-cell adhesion of A-431 cells, and found that it was closely related immunochemically to mouse P-cadherin. Curiously, this cadherin was undetectable in human placenta by immunohistochemical examination (Shimoyama, Y., S. Hirohashi, S. Hirano, M. Noguchi, Y. Shimosato, M. Takeichi, and O. Abe. 1989. Cancer Res. 49:2128-2133). We here report the cloning and sequencing of cDNA clone encoding the human homologue of mouse P-cadherin. The deduced amino acid sequence of the human P-cadherin consists of 829 amino acid and shows striking homology with mouse P-cadherin. On Northern blot analysis, human P-cadherin was scarcely expressed in human placenta in contrast to mouse ...
An ovarian follicle is a roughly spheroid cellular aggregation set found in the ovaries. It secretes hormones that influence stages of the menstrual cycle. Women begin puberty with about 400,000 follicles, each with the potential to release an egg cell (ovum) at ovulation for fertilization. These eggs are developed once every menstrual cycle. Ovarian follicles are the basic units of female reproductive biology. Each of them contains a single oocyte (immature ovum or egg cell). These structures are periodically initiated to grow and develop, culminating in ovulation of usually a single competent oocyte in humans. They also consist of granulosa cells and theca of follicle. Once a month, one of the ovaries releases a mature egg (ovum), known as an oocyte. The nucleus of such an oocyte is called a germinal vesicle (see picture). Cumulus oophorus is a cluster of cells (called cumulus cells) that surround the oocyte both in the ovarian follicle and after ovulation. It contains numerous granulosa ...
Although methods exist to subjectively assess islet mass (i.e., islet equivalents) and graft purity, few researchers are rigorously assessing the cellular composition and function of these grafts. We have reported here data from 83 human islet preparations transplanted into 35 patients beginning with the inception of the Edmonton Protocol. These data were compared with donor age and long-term posttransplant metabolic function in recipients to define graft-dependent predictor(s) of subsequent isolation and transplant success.. In our analysis, dissociated cell preparations were used as opposed to staining of whole fixed cellular aggregates (17,18) to more accurately assess the proportion of each cell type. Although, based on dithizone staining, human islet preparations are routinely estimated to be ,50% in purity (19), and often approach 80-90% (4) purity, our results demonstrated this to be an overestimation. In fact, the difference in overall endocrine purity of our preparations as indicated by ...
Photobiomodulation refers to low-intensity light therapy, utilising wavelengths in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum to elicit biological effects. The principle aim of this investigation was to explore signalling pathways initiated by IR1072, with particular focus on heat shock proteins (HSPs), a family of proteins known to target cellular aggregates which are involved in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. This was further examined by exploring the role of age and sex in the magnitude of biological effects induced. Another aim of this study was to explore the cytoprotective potential of IR1072 in conjunction with Alzheimers disease-related insults. The results of this study show chronic IR1072 exposure altered the expression of a number of HSPs in both CD-1 and TASTPM mice; including HSP105, HSP70, HSP27, and αB crystallin. The magnitude of effect differed with age and sex of CD-1 and TASTPM mice respectively; these differences coincided with altered endogenous ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dysadherin, a cancer-associated cell membrane glycoprotein, down-regulates E-cadherin and promotes metastasis. AU - Ino, Yoshinori. AU - Gotoh, Masahiro. AU - Sakamoto, Michiie. AU - Tsukagoshi, Kiyomi. AU - Hirohashi, Setsuo. PY - 2002/1/8. Y1 - 2002/1/8. N2 - We report the cloning and characterization of a cancer-associated cell membrane glycoprotein recognized by mAb NCC-3G10. The antibody showed strong reactivity to a wide variety of cancer cells, but only to a limited number of normal cells including lymphocytes, endothelial cells, and basal cells of stratified squamous epithelium. The cDNA for the antigen encodes 178 aa, which includes a putative signal sequence, a potential O-glycosylated extracellular domain, a single transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. Transfection of the cDNA into PLC/PRF/5 liver cancer cells resulted in reduced cell-cell adhesiveness, based on both morphology and results of Ca2+-dependent cell aggregation assay. In transfected cells, ...
Ischemia followed by reperfusion, as happens in myocardial infarction, or the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, are associated with a exaggerated extravasation of leukocytes into the surrounding tissue , which may cause severe bystander damage. In animal models of these diseases, pharmacological blockage of the leukocyte adhesion molecule, L-selectin (CD62L), has been shown to be partially protective by reduction or inhibition of leukocyte-mediated secondary tissue damage. The aim of this project was the development of an in vitro assay to investigate the relative effectiveness of potential L-selectin antagonists. Ideally, the assay should require low sample volumes and allow for measurements of larger series of reagents. The assay system investigated was based on the homotypic granulocyte aggregation under shear stress, which mimicks the L-selectin-dependent adhesion of leukocytes to previously arrested neutrophils on vascular endothelium. After optimizing numerous variables ...
Understanding why some transplant patients reject their new organs req... ...The red beard sponge (Microciona prolifera) has a cell-to-cell recogni...In experiments carried out on these sponges this summer Dr. Fernndez-...Fernndez-Busquets has also been researching the role of the molecule c...,Simple,sea,sponge,helps,scientists,understand,tissue,rejection,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Clone REA1226 recognizes the murine CD18 antigen, a 95 kDa glycoprotein also known as integrin beta-2 (ITGB2). CD18 associates non-covalently with CD11a, CD11b, and CD11c to form LFA-1, Mac-1, and gp150/95, respectively and plays an important role in leukocytes adhesion. It is expressed on all leukocytes with NK and T cells showing higher density of surface expression. The CD18 integrin complexes bind CD54 (ICAM-1), CD102 (ICAM-2), CD50 (ICAM-3), iC3b, and fibrinogen. Heterodimers of CD18 with α subunits show different expression patterns on different leucocytes. Mice leucocytes lacking CD18 or expressing dysfunctional CD18 are defective in chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and homotypic aggregation. Additional information: Clone REA1226 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Schweiz
This work is concerned with some aspects of the social life of the amoebae |em|Dictyostelium discoideum|/em| (Dd). In particular, we shall focus on the early stages of the starvation-induced aggregation of Dd cells. Under such circumstances, amoebae are known to exchange a chemical messenger (cAMP) which acts as a signal to mediate their individual behaviour. This molecule is released from aggregation centres and advances through aggregation fields, first as circular waves and later on as spiral patterns. We shall recall below some of the basic features of this process, paying attention to the mathematical models that have been derived to account for experimental observations.
Monte Calro simulations on the basis of the Potts model have been carried out to study normal grain growth in two dimensions. A microstructure of a polycrystalline aggregate can be represented by means of mapping onto a discrete lattice of which site is assigned an orientation number from 1 to ,i,Q,/i,. The following three lattice models were used in this simulation: triangular lattice (with first nearest neighbor site interactions), square lattice I (with first nearest neighbor site interactions) and square lattice II (with first and second nearest neighbor site interactions). The simulations were performed under constant temperature conditions (0≤,i,T,/i,,,i,T,sub,c,/sub,,/i,) quenched from an initial high temperature (,i,T,/i,»,i,T,sub,c,/sub,,/i,) state. Obtained microstructures are evolved keeping asimilar form of a grain boundary network. The microstructures produced especially on the triangular lattice model are in good correspondence with those in cross-sections of annealed metals and ...
Scanning-electron and confocal microscopy of iPSC-derived cell aggregates and cardiospheres. a-b. SEM micrograph of differentiating cell aggregates collected
In the theory of judgment aggregation, it is known for which agendas of propositions it is possible to aggregate individual judgments into collective ones in accordance with the Arrow-inspired requirements of universal domain, collective rationality, unanimity preservation, nondictatorship and propositionwise independence. But it is only partially known for which agendas it is possible to respect additional requirements, notably non-oligarchy, anonymity, no individual veto power, or implication preservation. We fully characterize the agendas for which there are such possibilities, thereby answering the most salient open questions about propositionwise judgment aggregation. Our results build on earlier results by Nehring and Puppe (2002), Nehring (2006) and Dietrich and List (2007a).. ...
Only SAS combines powerful analytics and visualization with robust data management, providing a solid foundation for all facets of risk data aggregation.
Study of the effect of soot aggregation on thermal radiation: application of DDA on 3D combustion soot obtained by SEM tomography. ...
Aggregates are the major constituent (ingredient) in concrete, making up 60% to 70% of the volume of concrete. Aggregates influence the workability of plastic concrete and also the durability, strength, thermal properties, and density of hardened concrete. Particle size divides aggregates into two categories: fine and coarse. Most fine aggregates are sand and contain particles smaller than 3/8 in. (10 mm). Coarse aggregates may be either gravel or crushed materials, with particles larger than about 1/4 in. (6 mm).
Greenpeace report on genetic testing of tinned tuna from around the world, showing how tuna is being mixed following the unsustainable use of fish aggregation devices.
To me, neighborhoods are about ... the interaction of people both with the environment and with each other outside their own private places," said NoMa BID President Robin-Eve Jasper. "So parks are just a critical part of that. And we have disaggregated what a park is around the concept of what jobs do people hire parks to do ...
It has been suggested that a possible mechanism for TTR extracellular aggregation is the influence of secreted metabolites generated by oxidative stress and apoptosis on TTR aggregation [12 ...
... _Crushing 4 AfricaThe preferred scope of work was Crushing and Screening of Aggregate This division Crushing 4 AfricaThe preferred scope of work was Crushing and Screening of Aggregate This division
Advanced ovarian cancer is characterized by peritoneal metastasis and the accumulation of ascites. Peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer is a major cause of the negative treatment outcome, as these metastases are resistant to most chemotherapy regimens. The aim of this study was to clarify aggressive pathology of peritoneal metastasis and examine the therapeutic efficacy of a liposomal agent in the model. A human cancer cell line ES-2 of ovarian clear cell carcinoma, known as a chemotherapy-resistant cancer, was cultured in nonadherent plate to form spheroid and single cell suspension was transplanted into mouse peritoneal cavity. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathways in the cellular aggregates were analyzed both spheroid and ascites. The pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of CPT-11 (45 mg/kg) and IHL-305 (45 mg/kg), an irinotecan-encapsulated liposome, were examined by intravenous administration. Established peritoneal metastasis model showed an accumulation of ascites. The
Bulk measurements can be made of phytoplankton standing stocks on a quasi-synoptic scale but it is more difficult to measure rates of production and nutrient uptake. We present a method to estimate nitrogen uptake rates in productive coastal environments. We use observed phytoplankton cell size distributions and ambient nitrogen concentrations to calculate uptake rates of nitrate, ammonium and total nitrogen by different size fractions of diverse phytoplankton communities in a coastal upwelling system. The data are disaggregated into size categories, uptake rates are calculated and these uptake rates are reaggregated to obtain bulk estimates. The calculations are applied to 72 natural assemblages for which nitrogen uptake rates and particle size distributions were measured \textit{in situ}. The calculated values of total N uptake integrated across all size classes are similar to those of \textit{in situ} bulk measurements (N slope=0.90), (NH$_{4}$ slope=0.96) indicating dependence of NH$_{4}$ and
An increasing number of neurodegenerative diseases are being found to be associated with the abnormal accumulation of aggregated proteins in the brain. In Parkinsons disease, this process involves the aggregation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) into intraneuronal inclusions. Thus, compounds that inhibit α-syn aggregation represent a promising therapeutic strategy as disease-modifying agents for neurodegeneration. The formation of α-syn amyloid aggregates can be reproduced in vitro by incubation of the recombinant protein. However, the in vitro aggregation of α-syn is exceedingly slow and highly irreproducible, therefore precluding fast high throughput anti-aggregation drug screening. Here, we present a simple and easy-to-implement in-plate method for screening large chemical libraries in the search for α-syn aggregation modulators. It allows us to monitor aggregation kinetics with high reproducibility, while being faster and requiring lower protein amounts than conventional aggregation assays. We
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) from 40 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 40 normal subjects were incubated with confluent cultures of porcine aortic endothelium and their adherence assessed by either a microscopic or radiometric enumeration assay. There was no difference between the number of rheumatoid and control PMNs adhering. The synovial fluid PMNs from patients with RA were less adherent than their paired blood samples when autologous serum was present in the incubation medium and more adherent when serum was absent. Most of the RA sera tested inhibited the adhesion of normal PMNs, an effect that was not due to an increase in PMN aggregation. A similar inhibition was seen with sera obtained from patients with Feltys syndrome. These findings suggest that there is no intrinsic difference between the adhesiveness of rheumatoid PMNs and normal PMNs but that there are soluble factors present in RA serum which inhibit the attachment of normal PMNs to vascular endothelium. ...
Methods and Monitoring of Hydroponics Unit 3 - Soilless Systems Lesson 3.2 Hydroponics. Principles of Agricultural Science - Plant. Types of Hydroponic Systems. Media Based (Aggregate Culture) Ebb and Flow Drip System Wick System Water Culture NFT (Nutrient Flow Technique) Aeroponics. Slideshow 3345434 by sai
This gene is a type II classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily and one of three cadherin 7-like genes located in a cluster on chromosome 18. The encoded membrane protein is a calcium dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein comprised of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a transmembrane region and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail. Type II (atypical) cadherins are defined based on their lack of a HAV cell adhesion recognition sequence specific to type I cadherins. Since disturbance of intracellular adhesion is a prerequisite for invasion and metastasis of tumor cells, cadherins are considered prime candidates for tumor suppressor genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Müller cells, that belong to the family of radial glia cells, have central functions during retinogenesis. They form a stabilizing scaffold, they are candidate targets for the mediation of extraneous retinogenetic factors, and they are an important source for retina-borne retinogenetic factors. Reaggregate cultures allow the analysis of retinogenesis from dispersed cells to fully laminated tissues. Reaggregating cells from the embryonic chick retina reassemble to reversed laminated cellular spheres including constituents of all retinal layers, yet the outer nuclear layer is represented by internal rosettes. Using spheroids, we tested whether Müller cells have a decisive function in establishing retinal polarity and in determining the lamination pattern. To this end, we established confluent monolayers of highly enriched Müller cells derived from E6 or E13 chicken retinas, and then let dispersed E5.5 retinal cells reaggregate either in the absence of these monolayers or on top of them. In the ...
This book gives pharmaceutical scientists an up-to-date resource on protein aggregation and its consequences, and available methods to control or slow down the aggregation process. While significant progress has been made in the past decade, the current understanding of protein aggregation and its consequences is still immature. Prevention or even moderate inhibition of protein aggregation has been mostly experimental. The knowledge in this book can greatly help pharmaceutical scientists in the development of therapeutic proteins, and also instigate further scientific investigations in this area. This book fills such a need by providing an overview on the causes, consequences, characterization, and control of the aggregation of therapeutic proteins ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene belongs to the protocadherin subfamily within the cadherin superfamily. The encoded protein is a membrane protein found at cell-cell boundaries. It is involved in neural cell adhesion, suggesting a possible role in neuronal development. The protein includes an extracelllular region, containing 7 cadherin-like domains, a transmembrane region and a C-terminal cytoplasmic region. Cells expressing the protein showed cell aggregation activity. Alternative splicing occurs in this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Evidence is accumulating that suggests that cancer cell clusters are more likely to lead to metastatic lesions than are single cells. This mini-review explores this issue by examining evidence that indicates that cell clusters possess altered genes and metabolism that promote metastasis. When clusters are disaggregated, the resulting single cells often lose the altered properties characteristic of when they were in clusters. When cluster disrupting agents were injected into mice, metastasis was reduced. Cluster disaggregating agents are described and mechanisms of action of these compounds are explored. Using these agents to target cell clusters might offer a useful therapeutic approach in the treatment of cancer. Cell clusters are also involved in thrombocytosis and biofilm infectivity as well as cancer spread and cluster disrupting agents might be very useful in treating some human conditions in addition to cancer spread. Assays that examine the effectiveness of cluster disrupting agents are also
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is an important policy for the European Union and accounts for about 40% of the EU budget. Ever since its inception in 195
This last option can have great effect on the appearance of the level, depending on the set of blocks used and the weights assigned to them; for instance, if all the blocks are relatively large rectangles, and long rows and columns, this method could be used to make traditional roguelike dungeons (and collision-checking would reduce to checking the edges of the block). Placing Angband-style vaults would also be easy in this model: simply make sure they have a wall surrounding them, and change the way particles are initially placed so that they dont interfere with the vaults innards. Block aggregation will look very different depending on whether particles are allowed to spawn in a position where they would immediately freeze. Other ideas for block aggregation: ...
DOCTYPE html, ,html, ,head, ,meta charset = utf-8, ,title,Diffusion Limited Aggregation,/title, ,style type = text/css, body {background-color:black;} ,/style, ,script, /* Main Mapping Variables & declarations */ var size = 24,x,y,cx,cy; var map = new Array(size); // Set the map array for (var i = 0; i ,= size * size; ++i){ map[i] = new Array(size); } // Initialize the Map Array to Zeros for (x=1;x,=size;++x){ for (y=1;y,=size;++y){ map[x][y]=0; } //end for } //end for /* Functional Variables */ var builderSpawned=0 var builderMoveDirection=0; var allocatedBlocks=0 //variable used to track the percentage of the map filled var rootX=12,rootY=12; //this is where the growth starts from. Currently center of map var stepped=0; //this is how long corridors can be var orthogonalAllowed=0; //Orthogonal movement allowed? If not, it carves a wider cooridor on diagonal /* The Diffusion Limited Aggregation Loop */ while (allocatedBlocks,((size*size)/8)){ //quit when an eighth of the map is filled if ...
Klopper, Abigail, Gabriel Krens, Stephan Grill, and Carl-Philipp J Heisenberg. "Finite-Size Corrections to Scaling Behavior in Sorted Cell Aggregates." The European Physical Journal E: Soft Matter and Biological Physics 33, no. 2 (2010): 99-103. https://doi.org/10.1140/epje/i2010-10642-y ...
Aggregate(U) Method (Vector(U)) (Aggregate Method Overloads, Methods, AggregatorGroup(T) Class, Extreme.Collections, Reference) documentation.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. MNI-135 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
This document describes the configuration of Ethernet services, including configuring link aggregation, VLANs, Voice VLAN, VLAN mapping, QinQ, GVRP, MAC table, STP/RSTP/MSTP, SEP, and so on.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced cellular aggregation is essential for granuloma formation and may assist establishment and early spread of M. tuberculosis infection. The M. tuberculosis ESX1 mutant, which has a non-functional type VII secretion system, induced significantly less production of the host macrophage-derived chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1). Upon infection of human macrophages ESX1-dependent fractalkine production mediated selective recruitment of CD11b+ monocytic cells and increased infection of neighbouring cells consistent with early local spread of infection. Fractalkine levels were raised in vivo at tuberculous disease sites in humans and were significantly associated with increased CD11b+ monocytic cellular recruitment and extent of granulomatous disease. These findings suggest a novel fractalkine-dependent ESX1-mediated mechanism in early tuberculous disease pathogenesis in humans. Modulation of M. tuberculosis-mediated fractalkine induction may represent a potential ...
The pathogenic potential of RBC aggregation within the microcirculation is dependent on the extent of RBC aggregation and the cohesive forces within the aggregate (i.e., the resistance of aggregates to shear-induced disaggregation).25 This increase of the required shear forces might have important physiological consequences, especially at the microcirculatory level, since RBC are only able to pass through small capillaries as single cells.5 However, since γmin for SCA and SCC patients were similar, differences of blood viscosity and RBC deformability between the two groups probably play a role in their unequal clinical severity.26. Although the forces required to disperse preformed RBC aggregates are elevated in SCA and SCC subjects, the extent of aggregation at stasis (i.e., AI) was lower than control in both groups; this finding contrasts with results obtained by Obiefuna et al.27 on SCA patients but is consistent with results obtained by Chien et al.2 The reasons for the discordant results ...
Smooth muscle from newborn guinea-pig vas deferens was enzymically dispersed into single cells or small clumps and grown in culture in the presence or absence of sympathetic ganglion explants.. Most single smooth muscle cells gradually lost their typical ultrastructural features and contractile properties during the first few days in culture. At 7 days of culture these dedifferentiated smooth muscle cells underwent extensive proliferation. If sufficient cells were present in the culture inoculate, a continuous monolayer formed at about 9 days of culture and redifferentiation of smooth muscle began. At 11-12 days of culture the cells reaggregated into clumps, began to contract spontaneously, and formed into well-organized muscle bundles in two layers at right angles, resembling the muscle layer organization of the in vivo vas deferens. In cultures where a continuous monolayer was not formed at 9 days, isolated cells did not redifferentiate. The process of dedifferentiation and proliferation was ...
Gap junctions - the channels that allow adjacent cells to exchange molecules - are made of two hemichannels that dock with one another through their extracellular domains. Undocked hemichannels are also thought to have roles in intercellular communication, but until now these had not been investigated in vivo. Gerald Kidder and colleagues (p. 4016) have been probing possible roles for undocked hemichannels, using mouse folliculogenesis as a model. During folliculogenesis, developing oocytes are surrounded and nurtured by granulosa cells that are connected to one another by gap junctions containing the protein connexin 43 (Cx43). To find out whether undocked hemichannels have a role in this process, the researchers produced constructs encoding wild-type Cx43 or a Cx43 mutant that can form hemichannels but not intercellular gap junctions. They then expressed these in Cx43-deficient granulosa cells and combined them with wild-type oocytes to make reaggregated ovaries. Whereas wild-type Cx43 ...
Metastasis, the epitome of cancer progression, is a pathological process of profound significance, because much of cancers lethality is from malignant neoplasms and thus any experimental attempt aimed at better understanding this process should be encouraged. Dr. Razs saga in this field of research started in 1980 when as a Postdoctoral Fellow he published, in Nature, one of the first observations linking an in vitro phenomenon to in vivo metastasis showing the propensity of cancer cells to undergo homotypic aggregation. This inaugurated the role of galectins in cancer by raising the question "What mediates cell-cell adhesion?" A detailed analysis revealed that cell-cell recognition is mediated by carbohydrate recognition, that simple sugars containing galactose residues can block the reaction, and that tumor cells express a galactose-specific lectin(s). At that time, sugar-binding proteins (lectins) were thought to belong only or mainly to the plant kingdom and it was unheard of that ...
ITGA4 Integrins alpha-4/beta-1 (VLA-4) and alpha-4/beta-7 are receptors for fibronectin. They recognize one or more domains within the alternatively spliced CS-1 and CS-5 regions of fibronectin. They are also receptors for VCAM1. Integrin alpha- 4/beta-1 recognizes the sequence Q-I-D-S in VCAM1. Integrin alpha- 4/beta-7 is also a receptor for MADCAM1. It recognizes the sequence L-D-T in MADCAM1. On activated endothelial cells integrin VLA-4 triggers homotypic aggregation for most VLA-4-positive leukocyte cell lines. It may also participate in cytolytic T-cell interactions with target cells. Heterodimer of an alpha and a beta subunit. The alpha subunit can sometimes be cleaved into two non-covalently associated fragments. Alpha-4 associates with either beta-1 or beta-7. Alpha-4 interacts with PXN, LPXN, and TGFB1I1/HIC5. Interacts with CSPG4 through CSPG4 chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan. Belongs to the integrin alpha chain family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB ...
In animal cells, virus particles are gathered by the microtubule-dependent aggregation of toxic or misfolded protein near the ... Viroplasms also control release of virons when the insect stings an infected plant cell or a cell near the infected cells. ... Understanding the phenomena of virus aggregation and of the cell response to the presence of virus, and whether viroplasms ... Kopito, R (2000). "Aggresomes, inclusion bodies and protein aggregation". Trends Cell Biol. 10: 524-530. doi:10.1016/s0962-8924 ...
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.033. PMID 17320505.. *^ a b c Faghihi MA, Modarresi F, Khalil AM, Wood DE, Sahagan BG, Morgan TE, ... Mutations in UBQLN2 interfere with protein degradation resulting in neurodegeneration through abnormal protein aggregation.[52] ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 191 (2): 367-81. doi:10.1083/jcb.201008051. PMC 2958468. PMID 20937701.. ... Tested on: mouse (M), only mouse cells (MC), human (H), Drosophila (D), rat (R). Successful treatment: yes (y), yes but with ...
"Platelet phagocytosis and aggregation". J. Cell Biol. 27 (3): 531-43. doi:10.1083/jcb.27.3.531. PMC 2106759 . PMID 4957257 ... 2007). "Programmed anuclear cell death delimits platelet life span". Cell. 128 (6): 1173-86. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.037. ... Endothelial cells are attached to the subendothelial collagen by von Willebrand factor (VWF) which these cells produce. VWF is ... Berridge, M.J. (2012) Cell Signalling Biology; doi:10.1042/csb0001011. *^ Lancet, 1882, ii. 916; Notes of Gulliver's Researches ...
The host reacts against the tick lesion by haemostasis, inflammation and cell mediated immunity (CMI). An array of ... PGE2 and prostacyclin inhibit platelet aggregation and dilate blood vessels. Feeding is almost continuous with pulses of ... intracellular bacterial parasite that proliferates within the endothelial cells of small blood vessels, causing a vasculitis. ...
Conversely, thromboxanes (produced by platelet cells) are vasoconstrictors and facilitate platelet aggregation. Their name ... Long chain free fatty acids enter the metabolizing cells (i.e. most living cells in the body except red blood cells and neurons ... the cell wall, and the membranes that enclose all the organelles within the cells, such as the nucleus, the mitochondria, ... cannot cross the blood brain barrier into the interstitial fluids that bathe these cells. Once inside the cell long-chain-fatty ...
"Cell. 151 (6): 1308-18. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.10.051. PMC 3778871. PMID 23217712.. ... Low ATP is characteristic of heat shock and sustained binding is seen as aggregation suppression, while recovery from heat ... The Hsp70s are an important part of the cell's machinery for protein folding, and help to protect cells from stress.[2][3] ... "Cell Stress & Chaperones. 1 (1): 23-8. doi:10.1379/1466-1268(1996)001,0023:AHSGTT,2.3.CO;2. PMC 313013. PMID 9222585.. ...
... an enhancer of huntingtin aggregation, to Huntington's disease". Mol. Cell. 15 (6): 853-65. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.09.016. ... "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. 125 (4): ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. PMID 16169070.. *. Lim J, Hao T, Shaw C, Patel AJ, Szabó G, Rual JF, Fisk CJ, Li N, Smolyar A, ...
"Platelet phagocytosis and aggregation". J. Cell Biol. 27 (3): 531-43. doi:10.1083/jcb.27.3.531. PMC 2106759 . PMID 4957257. ... 2007). "Programmed anuclear cell death delimits platelet life span". Cell. 128 (6): 1173-86. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.037. ... Endothelial cells are attached to the subendothelial collagen by von Willebrand factor (VWF) which these cells produce. VWF is ... Platelets have no cell nucleus: they are fragments of cytoplasm that are derived from the megakaryocytes of the bone marrow, ...
"Ataxin-1 nuclear localization and aggregation: role in polyglutamine-induced disease in SCA1 transgenic mice". Cell. 95 (1): 41 ... Cell. 122 (4): 633-44. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.06.012. PMID 16122429. Mizutani A, Wang L, Rajan H, Vig PJ, Alaynick WA, Thaler ... Cell. 127 (7): 1335-47. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.11.038. PMID 17190598. Kim E, Lee Y, Choi S, Song JJ (July 2014). "Structural ... This led to the hypothesis that the aggregates are toxic to neurons, but it has been shown in mice that aggregation is not ...
... and reduce aggregation of platelets. Aggregating platelets stimulate ADP to act on endothelial cells and help them induce ... Normally endothelial cells release prostacyclin and nitric oxide (NO) which induce relaxation of the smooth muscle cells, ... Also there is not as much inhibition of aggregation of platelets. In this case, the greater aggregation of platelets produce ... However the serotonin and the thromboxane A2 cause more contraction of the smooth muscle cells and as a result contractions ...
"Anthraquinones Inhibit Tau Aggregation and Dissolve Alzheimer's Paired Helical Filaments in vitro and in Cells" (pdf). The ...
Bicher, Haim (1972). Blood Cell Aggregation in Thrombotic Processes. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas. ISBN 9780398022327. ICHS ...
Protein aggregation Protein folding Live cell imaging Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz : Intracellular Fluorescent Imaging: An ... "Live Cell Imaging". Live cell imaging enables in vivo tracking of proteins in space and time, in their natural endogenous ... which can then be followed inside a cell using a fluorescence microscope. The cell may then be treated by a perturbation of ... The discovery of JUNQ and IPOD suggested new insights of how the cell manages different kinds of misfolded proteins and offered ...
It is predominantly a neuronal protein, but can also be found in the neuroglial cells.[citation needed] In melanocytic cells, ... "Membrane-bound alpha-synuclein has a high aggregation propensity and the ability to seed the aggregation of the cytosolic form ... Bonini NM, Giasson BI (Nov 2005). "Snaring the function of alpha-synuclein". Cell. 123 (3): 359-61. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.10. ... Cell. 123 (3): 383-96. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.09.028. PMID 16269331. Burré J, Sharma M, Tsetsenis T, Buchman V, Etherton MR, ...
... an injury-induced aggregation event that disulfide crosslinks proteins and facilitates their removal by plasmin". Cell Reports ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 164 (3): 341-346. doi:10.1083/jcb.200311055. PMC 2172237. PMID 14757749.. ... In eukaryotic cells, in general, stable disulfide bonds are formed in the lumen of the RER (rough endoplasmic reticulum) and ... Sevier, C. S.; Kaiser, C. A. (2002). "Formation and transfer of disulphide bonds in living cells". Nature Reviews Molecular ...
Ball, P (Jan 2008). "Water as an active constituent in cell biology". Chem. Rev. 108 (1): 74-108. doi:10.1021/cr068037a. PMID ... Fernández, A; Crespo, A (Nov 2008). "Protein wrapping: a molecular marker for association, aggregation and drug design". Chem ...
Platelet aggregation is achieved by mediating expression of the glycoprotein complex GP IIb/IIIa in the cell membrane of ... Role of A2 in platelet aggregation[edit]. Thromboxane A2 (TXA2), produced by activated platelets, has prothrombotic properties ... Thromboxane is a vasoconstrictor and a potent hypertensive agent, and it facilitates platelet aggregation. ... there is a balance shift toward inhibition of vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation. It is believed that this shift in ...
Biomass often enters sea spray through the death and lysis of algal cells, often caused by viral infections.[19] Cells are ... aggregation of the DOC can also form surfactant or sea foam. ...
Aggregation theory represents a two state system. At low cell concentrations aggregation is relatively unimportant and somewhat ... Thus, aggregation of marine particles is more prevalent when cell and particle concentration is higher (e.g. algal blooms) ... where C1 is the concentration of the cells r is the radius of each cell G is the shearing rate α is the stickiness coefficient ... Aggregation and sinking is actually thought to be a large component of sources for algae loss from surface water. Most organic ...
Cell lysis is a convenient tool to isolate certain macromolecules that exist primarily inside of the cell. Cell membranes ... At 303 K (30 °C) it forms micelles with aggregation number 75-120 (depending on method of determination; average ~95) and ... Other toxicity tests have been conducted on humans using incubated human skin HaCaT keratinocyte cells. These human cells were ... The human cells show CTAB being nontoxic at concentrations less than 1 μM. Without the use of CTAB in this synthesis, the gold ...
... and colocalization in cultured cells". In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. 38 (10): 582-94. doi:10.1290/1543-706X(2002)38. 2.0.CO;2 ... Moss TN, Vo A, McKeehan WL, Liu L (2007). "UXT (Ubiquitously Expressed Transcript) causes mitochondrial aggregation". In Vitro ... and regulated expression in prostate cancer cells results in decreased cell proliferation. Significantly, because decreased ... Zhao H, Wang Q, Zhang H, Liu Q, Du X, Richter M, Greene MI (Nov 2005). "UXT is a novel centrosomal protein essential for cell ...
... s arise in various ways, for example by cell division or by aggregation of many single cells.[2] Colonial ... Jamin, M, H Raveh-Barak, B Podbilewicz, FA Rey (2014) "Structural basis of eukaryotic cell-cell fusion" (Cell, Volume 157, ... In some multicellular groups, which are called Weismannists, a separation between a sterile somatic cell line and a germ cell ... Animals have evolved a considerable diversity of cell types in a multicellular body (100-150 different cell types), compared ...
... produced by platelet cells) are vasoconstrictors and facilitate platelet aggregation. Their name comes from their role in clot ... produced by mast cells; recruits Th2 cells, eosinophils, and basophils. *In mammalian organs, large amounts of PGD2 are found ... acts on mesangial cells (specialised smooth muscle cells) in the glomerulus of the kidney to increase glomerular filtration ... Release of prostaglandins from the cellEdit. Prostaglandins were originally believed to leave the cells via passive diffusion ...
... agents to impact their cells of origin or as paracrine signaling agents to impact cells in the proximity of their cells of ... blood platelet aggregation; blood clotting; allergic reactions. NSAIDs inhibit its production to reduce incidence of strokes ... transferase in cells; Eosinophils, mast cells, and alveolar macrophages possess relatively high levels of LTC4 synthase and ... When this occurs with enzymes located in different cell types and involves the transfer of one enzyme's product to a cell which ...
Various cell types play a role in HR, including astrocytes, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, and ... This promotes platelet adhesion and aggregation. Moreover, only once disruption of the plaque surface has occurred are these ... This ultimately ends with cell death, as cells succumb to a lack of nutrients to power their metabolism and to a toxic brain ... A principal function of pericytes is to interact with astrocytes, smooth muscle cells, and other intracranial cells to form the ...
Cells are homogenised in a blender and filtered to remove debris. *The homogenised sample is placed in an ultracentrifuge and ... The first potential issue is the unwanted aggregation of particles, but this can occur in any centrifugation. The second ... General method of fractionation: Cell sample is stored in a suspension which is: *Buffered - neutral pH, preventing damage to ... This method is commonly used to separate organelles and membranes found in cells. Organelles generally differ from each other ...
Irwin J.W. (1973) Blood Cell Aggregation and Pulmonary Embolism. In: Bruley D.F., Bicher H.I. (eds) Oxygen Transport to Tissue ...
Each tick, one eligible dead cell goes live.. Dead cells are invisible (black). Live cells are shown in orange or red depending ... Hex Cell Aggregation. If you download the NetLogo application, this model is included. (You can also run this model in your ... Diffusion Limited Aggregation Life Hex Cells Example. CREDITS AND REFERENCES. This model was inspired by Stephen Wolframs A ... Only the center cell is alive at the start.. The switches determine which dead cells are eligible to become alive. For example ...
Experimental Evolution Reveals Favored Adaptive Routes to Cell Aggregation in Yeast. Elyse A. Hope, Clara J. Amorosi, Aaron W. ... Experimental Evolution Reveals Favored Adaptive Routes to Cell Aggregation in Yeast. Elyse A. Hope, Clara J. Amorosi, Aaron W. ... Experimental Evolution Reveals Favored Adaptive Routes to Cell Aggregation in Yeast. Elyse A. Hope, Clara J. Amorosi, Aaron W. ... Experimental Evolution Reveals Favored Adaptive Routes to Cell Aggregation in Yeast Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
... as a result of cell-cell aggregation. The simulation results are compared with the results of experimental measurement. ... Some Monte Carlo simulation results based on the model are presented for the heterotypic cell-cell collision and adhesion to a ... In particular, we focus on leukocyte (PMN)-melanoma cell emboli formation and subsequent tethering to the vascular endothelium ... we develop a population balance model for cell aggregation and adhesion process in a nonuniform shear flow. ...
The behavior of mammalian cells within three-dimensional structures is an area of intense biological research and underpins the ... Cell Aggregation / physiology*. Extracellular Matrix / physiology. Hepatocytes / cytology*. Humans. Liver / cytology*. Models, ... We propose a simple mathematical model for the early stages of this aggregation process, when cell clusters form on the surface ... 17475015 - Requirement of aggregation propensity of alzheimer amyloid peptides for neuronal cell s.... ...
Isolated aggregations of lymphoid cells (IALC) may be sites of localized inflammatory cell activation. Their distribution and ... Aggregations of lymphoid cells in the airways of nonsmokers, smokers, and subjects with asthma.. Elliot JG1, Jensen CM, ... Proliferating, apoptotic, and antigen-presenting cells (Rel B+ and HLA-DR+) were less than 5%, 30-40%, and less than 1% of all ... Within IALC, T and B lymphocytes were segregated and comprised more than 90% of all cells. ...
The cell body area, average neurite length, neurite width, number of primary neurites, and percent of bipolar cells and node/ ... We observed that the oligomeric form of insulin impaired the growth and complexity of PC12 cells compared to other forms. ... primary neurite ratios were used to assess the growth and complexity of PC12 cells exposed to different forms of insulin. ... our data suggest that the lower surface tension of oligomers and their perturbation affects the morphology of PC12 cells, ...
Alpha-synuclein-induced aggregation of cytoplasmic vesicles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol. Biol. Cell 19, 1093-1103 (2008). ... Cell models of lipid-rich α-synuclein aggregation validate known modifiers of α-synuclein biology and identify stearoyl-CoA ... Cell models of lipid-rich α-synuclein aggregation validate known modifiers of α-synuclein biology and identify stearoyl-CoA ... Cell models of lipid-rich α-synuclein aggregation validate known modifiers of α-synuclein biology and identify stearoyl-CoA ...
Expansion of the polyQ repeats in THAP11 forms intranuclear aggregation and causes cell G0/G1 arrest. Cell Biology ... Expansion of the polyQ repeats in THAP11 forms intranuclear aggregation and causes cell G0/G1 arrest. ... vector and then the cells were treated with 5μM PonA for the indicated time. Cells were harvested and the expression of THAP11 ... Figure S2. Stable PC12 cell line expressing pVg-RXR was transfected with pIND- THAP11(29Q) or pIND-THAP11(38Q) ...
... is a cell surface glycoprotein that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Although MPH was initially reported as the mouse ... Those mouse cells showed a higher activity of cell aggregation than the parental mouse L cells. Enhancement of cell aggregation ... did not show increased cell aggregation. The cell aggregation activity of L cells expressing mPRR2 was inhibited by the ... Mouse homolog of poliovirus receptor-related gene 2 product, mPRR2, mediates homophilic cell aggregation Exp Cell Res. 1997 Sep ...
Aggregation between teratocarcinoma cells and preimplantation mouse embryos Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... The ability of two embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell lines, F9 and PCI3, to aggregate with preimplantation 8-cell mouse embryos is ... The blastocysts sometimes contain the EC cells, located almost always in their inner cell mass. Differentiated derivatives of ... J Cell Sci 2017 130: 3809-3817; doi: 10.1242/jcs.206532. Interkinetic nuclear migration and basal tethering facilitates post- ...
... suspended cells. Thus, any small change of RBC aggregation in the surface-layer cells may affect significantly on the ... Red blood cells (RBCs) in normal human blood tend to form linear and branched aggregates. This RBC aggregation plays an ... O. K. Baskurt, H. J. Meiselman, and E. Kayar, "Measurement of red blood cell aggregation in a "plate-plate" shearing system by ... Both methods are widely used for examining the behavior of RBC aggregation under zero-or steady-shear conditions. After cells ...
D) Conditioned medium from α-syn-DsRed-expressing HEK cells was incubated with native SH-SY5Y cells for 5 days. Cells were ... α-Synuclein propagates from mouse brain to grafted dopaminergic neurons and seeds aggregation in cultured human cells.. Hansen ... α-Synuclein propagates from mouse brain to grafted dopaminergic neurons and seeds aggregation in cultured human cells ... α-Synuclein propagates from mouse brain to grafted dopaminergic neurons and seeds aggregation in cultured human cells ...
The aggregation state of sickle cells was studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure, with ultrasound backscattering. The ... These results suggest that sickling prevent aggregation of sickle cells. Keywords: Aggregation, Ultrasound, Red Blood Cell, ... Abstract: The aggregation state of sickle cells was studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure, with ultrasound ... Evaluation of sickle cell aggregation by ultrasound backscattering Article type: Research Article ...
Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells-1: a new player in platelet aggregation.. [Lucie Jolly, Jeremie Lemarie, Kevin ... Another member of the TREM family, The Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells Like Transcript-1 (TLT-1) is exclusively ... Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is an immunoreceptor initially known to be expressed on neutrophils ... Pharmacologic inhibition of TREM-1 reduces platelet activation as well as platelet aggregation induced by collagen, ADP, and ...
Both cell viability and survival only lost less than 20% when the cells were exposed to the high concentration of 100 μg/mL ... Moreover, they can stay inside cells, enabling the tacking of cells over a long period of time. The intracellular vesicles and ... Additionally, the cell apoptosis and intracellular ROS assay indicated that FSNP-SD had no significant toxic effects at the ... This study demonstrated that the FSNP-SD are promising biocompatible fluorescent probes for living cell imaging. ...
... biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules. ... Induces Aggregation of MCF-7 Mammary Carcinoma Cells by a Protease Activity-Dependent Cell-Oriented Mechanism. Satoru Yui, ... Effect of PMSF treatment against protease-treated FPS-coated wells on the induction of MCF-7 cell aggregation. ... Supplementary figure 1: Elastase does not increase MCF-7 cell motility.. Supplementary figure 2: The enzymatic activity of ...
... be identical or associated with the molecular units of the cell membrane that mediate cell-to-cell contacts during aggregation ... DYNAMICS OF ANTIGENIC MEMBRANE SITES RELATING TO CELL AGGREGATION IN DICTYOSTELIUM DISCOIDEUM. H. Beug, F. E. Katz, G. Gerisch ... Blockage of these sites leads to aggregation patterns in which the side-by-side contacts of aggregating cells are abolished. ... One class of these sites is specific for aggregation-competent cells, their quantity rising from virtually 0-level during ...
Therefore, we investigated the effect of shear-induced platelet activation on red blood cell (RBC) aggregation. The hypothesis ... Effect of shear-induced platelet activation on red blood cell aggregation Article type: Research Article ... In our study, an increase in RBC aggregation indices (critical shear stress (CSS) and aggregation index (AI)) by shear-induced ... Therefore, since high shear application results in the unexpected effect on RBC aggregation, conditions for shear application ...
Prion protein/protein interactions: fusion with yeast Sup35p-NM modulates cytosolic PrP aggregation in mammalian cells.. ... Sup35p-NM and PrP displayed strikingly different aggregation behaviors when expressed in mammalian cells, with NM remaining ... We have compared aggregation propensities of chimeric proteins derived from the Sup35p prion domain NM and PrP in vitro and in ... Our results provide new insights into prion protein aggregation behaviors, demonstrating the impact of dynamic interactions ...
D) Conditioned medium from α-syn-DsRed-expressing HEK cells was incubated with native SH-SY5Y cells for 5 days. Cells were ... SKMel5 plus PC12/GFP cell coculture. SKMel5 cells and PC12 cells stably expressing GFP were cocultured for 4 days in chamber ... misfolded α-syn could be released from a donor cell, be taken up by a recipient cell, and then seed aggregation of endogenous α ... We cocultured these cells with PC12 rat neuroblastoma cells that stably expressed GFP. After 4 days, we stained the cells with ...
In aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs) induced by macromolecules, the aggregating energy provided by macromolecular binding ... Physicochemical basis and clinical implications of red cell aggregation Issue title: Erythrocyte Aggregation. Proceedings of an ... Moderate shearing enhances RBC aggregation by promoting cell-cell encounter, but high shear stresses cause RBC disaggregation. ... Abstract: In aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs) induced by macromolecules, the aggregating energy provided by macromolecular ...
Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) dye-based fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) were prepared via Schiff base ... Facile fabrication and cell imaging applications of aggregation-induced emission dye-based fluorescent organic nanoparticles X ... Facile fabrication and cell imaging applications of aggregation-induced emission dye-based fluorescent organic nanoparticles ... Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) dye-based fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) were prepared via Schiff base ...
All three small molecules significantly attenuated platelet aggregation as did the antibody 8C10 although 3H12 had a weaker ... mCRP also induced endothelial cell-monocyte adhesion in a dose dependent fashion, however, both acetylcholine and nicotine as ... mCRP also induced endothelial cell-monocyte adhesion in a dose dependent fashion, however, both acetylcholine and nicotine as ... All three small molecules significantly attenuated platelet aggregation as did the antibody 8C10 although 3H12 had a weaker ...
Platelet Adhesion and Aggregation Under Flow using Microfluidic Flow Cells. J. Vis. Exp. (32), e1644, doi:10.3791/1644 (2009). ... Jackson, S. P. The growing complexity of platelet aggregation. Blood. 109, 5087-5095 (2007). ... The Effect of the Pannexin1-inhibitor Brilliant Blue FCF on Collagen-induced Aggregation… ...
  • Identification of THAP11 binding proteins in PC12 cells. (wiley.com)
  • We have compared aggregation propensities of chimeric proteins derived from the Sup35p prion domain NM and PrP in vitro and in the cytosol of mammalian cells. (nih.gov)
  • It is believed that the aggregation of oxidized and ubiquinated proteins is due to a decline in the proteasomal activity with age, and that this also occurs in RPE cells [ 7 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Red blood cells (RBCs) in the presence of plasma proteins or other macromolecules have a tendency to form aggregates. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Numerous genetic knockout experiments have shown that the sortase A (SrtA) isoform plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Gram-positive bacteria by modulating the ability of the bacterium to adhere to host tissue via the covalent anchoring of adhesions and other virulence-associated proteins to cell wall peptidoglycan. (omicsonline.org)
  • Therefore, PrP C may protect against Htt toxicity in neuronal cells by increasing cellular defense proteins, decreasing ROS and increasing proteasome activity thereby increasing Htt degradation. (biologists.org)
  • Quality control mechanisms promote aggregation and degradation of misfolded proteins. (biologists.org)
  • The proteins that are modulated by the proteasome are involved in the control of inflammatory processes, cell cycle regulation, and gene expression. (arvojournals.org)
  • In response to various stresses, cells increase the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps). (arvojournals.org)
  • The reversible red blood cell aggregation induced by polymers or proteins continues to be of biological and biophysical interest and the details regarding this process are still being explored. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • CDH26 expression is also important for localization of planar cell polarity proteins. (nature.com)
  • Basal cells exhibit a pattern of polarity in their organization of proteins such as KRT14 and KRT5 4 suggesting that formation of apicobasal domains happens early in formation of AEC sheets. (nature.com)
  • 5.These results suggest that chaperones and selegiline may be considered promising candidates for the protection of ocular cells from the accumulation of misfolded and aggregated proteins. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Proteins of the transforming growth factor beta family (TGFβ) are involved in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, migration and adhesion of most cell types. (biologists.org)
  • Depletion of αE-catenin also caused deep cells to have protracted plasma membrane blebbing, and a defect in plasma membrane recruitment of ERM proteins that are involved in controlling membrane-to-cortex attachment and membrane blebbing. (biologists.org)
  • Disruption of cellular membranes can, for example, slow the transport of immunomodulatory proteins to the surface of infected cells and protect against innate and acquired immune responses, and rearrangements to cytoskeleton can facilitate virus release. (wikipedia.org)
  • An aggresome is a perinuclear site where misfolded proteins are transported and stored by the cell components for their destruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Live cell imaging enables in vivo tracking of proteins in space and time, in their natural endogenous environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the process called cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classic cadherins (E-, N- and P-) are concentrated at the intermediate cell junctions, which link to the actin filament network through specific linking proteins called catenins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogenic amyloids form when previously healthy proteins lose their normal physiological functions and form fibrous deposits in plaques around cells which can disrupt the healthy function of tissues and organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • and semen proteins whose aggregation enhances HIV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA-binding proteins from starved cells (DPS) are proteins that belong to the ferritin superfamily and are characterized by strong similarities but also distinctive differences with respect to "canonical" ferritins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stress granules are dense aggregations in the cytosol composed of proteins & RNAs that appear when the cell is under stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stress proteins that are the main component of stress granules in plant cells are molecular chaperones that sequester, protect, and possibly repair proteins that unfold during heat and other types of stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymorphonuclear cells can bind proteins starting with fMet, and use them to initiate the attraction of circulating blood leukocytes and then stimulate microbicidal activities such as phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even the entry of pathogens can be governed by fusion, as many bilayer-coated viruses have dedicated fusion proteins to gain entry into the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Hsp70 system interacts with extended peptide segments of proteins as well as partially folded proteins to prevent aggregation, remodel folding pathways, and regulate activity When not interacting with a substrate peptide, Hsp70 is usually in an ATP bound state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hsp70 proteins can act to protect cells from thermal or oxidative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • These stresses normally act to damage proteins, causing partial unfolding and possible aggregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are synthesized within the cell body, and hence they must travel along the axon to reach their final destination. (wikipedia.org)
  • When Chinese hamster K12 cells are starved of glucose, the synthesis of several proteins, called glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs), is markedly increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bilayers are particularly impermeable to ions, which allows cells to regulate salt concentrations and pH by transporting ions across their membranes using proteins called ion pumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because bilayers define the boundaries of the cell and its compartments, these membrane proteins are involved in many intra- and inter-cellular signaling processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within cells, huntingtin may be involved in signaling, transporting materials, binding proteins and other structures, and protecting against programmed cell death (apoptosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Huntingtin has been found to interact directly with at least 19 other proteins, of which six are used for transcription, four for transport, three for cell signalling, and six others of unknown function (HIP5, HIP11, HIP13, HIP15, HIP16, and CGI-125). (wikipedia.org)
  • GADD45G interacts with several other proteins that are involved in DNA repair, cell cycle control, apoptosis, and senescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Withaferin induces aggregation of Hsp90, dissociation of Hsp90- CDC37 complex and down regulation of Hsp90 target proteins mediated through proteasomal degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • When PTPrho proteins are engineered with the different point mutations observed in cancer and then are expressed in non-adherent Sf9 cells, these cells do not mediate comparable levels of cell-cell aggregation to wild-type PTPrho, demonstrating that the mutations observed in cancer are loss of function mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, it has several potential membrane-related applications in biochemistry, including solubilizing membrane proteins, precipitating cholesterol, and permeabilizing cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuraminidase also cleaves sialic acid residues from viral proteins, preventing aggregation of viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crowding may also increase the effectiveness of chaperone proteins such as GroEL in the cell, which could counteract this reduction in folding efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • abstract = "During the past 40 years, mouse chimeras have served as invaluable tools for studying not only genetics but also embryonic development, and the path from undifferentiated cell populations to fully committed functional cell types. (monash.edu)
  • Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are exposed to chronic oxidative stress. (hindawi.com)
  • Oxidative inactivation of the proteasome in retinal pigment epithelial cells: a potential link between oxidative stress and up-regulation of interleukin-8," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 283, no. 30, pp. 20745-20753, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Alterations of activity and intracellular distribution of the 20S proteasome in ageing retinal pigment epithelial cells," Experimental Gerontology , vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 1114-1122, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Crosstalk between Hsp70 molecular chaperone, lysosomes and proteasomes in autophagy-mediated proteolysis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells," Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine , vol. 13, no. 9b, pp. 3616-3631, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Geldanamycin activates Hsp70 response and attenuates okadaic acid-induced cytotoxicity in human retinal pigment epithelial cells," Molecular Brain Research , vol. 137, no. 1-2, pp. 126-131, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Lipid raft membrane compartmentalization and membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family molecular scaffolds function in establishing cell polarity and organizing signal transducers within epithelial cell junctions and neuronal synapses. (rupress.org)
  • Polarization of the airway epithelial cells (AECs) in the airway lumen is critical to the proper function of the mucociliary escalator and maintenance of lung health, but the cellular requirements for polarization of AECs are poorly understood. (nature.com)
  • Airway epithelial cells (AECs) create a physical barrier to inhaled particles and pathogens, regulate airway surface fluid, secrete mediators to recruit immune cells in response to injury, and help regulate smooth muscle cells to facilitate respiration 1 . (nature.com)
  • The interaction between cadherin domains and their binding partners allows differentiating epithelial cells to change their shape and size and to form cell layers 10 . (nature.com)
  • Despite the data that CDH26 is expressed in epithelial cells and associates with diseases of epithelial cell dysfunction, the function of CDH26 in AECs is unknown. (nature.com)
  • Ileal lesions in Crohn's disease (CD) patients are colonized by pathogenic adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) able to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), and to survive within macrophages. (plos.org)
  • Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) has profound growth-suppressive effects on normal epithelial cells, but supports metastasis formation in many tumour types. (biologists.org)
  • In most epithelial tumour cells TGFβ 1 treatment results in epithelial dedifferentiation with reduced cell aggregation and enhanced cellular migration. (biologists.org)
  • In addition, it is largely localized to the nucleus and is highly expressed in human prostate epithelial cells as well as breast tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its expression is associated with an abundance of differentiated prostate epithelial cells, and regulated expression in prostate cancer cells results in decreased cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, it was found that CB causes the disorganization of the 50Å microfilaments of mouse epithelial cells which causes the cells to lose their shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • They consist of fine fibrils in epithelial cells that are anchored to the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • In epithelial cells, tonofilaments loop through desmosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • GADD45G is involved with dental epithelial cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene modulates p21-mediated epithelial cell proliferation by activating the p38 MAPK pathway during the development of teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have discovered a new and specific cell-killing mechanism mediated by the selective uptake of the antitumor drug 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (ET-18-OCH3, Edelfosine) into lipid rafts of tumor cells, followed by its coaggregation with Fas death receptor (also known as APO-1 or CD95) and recruitment of apoptotic molecules into Fas-enriched rafts. (csic.es)
  • This mechanism represents the first selective activation of Fas in tumor cells. (csic.es)
  • The discovery of aggregation inhibitors and the elucidation of their mechanism of action are key in the quest to mitigate the toxic consequences of amyloid formation. (springer.com)
  • However, the mechanism that facilitates aggregation and implantation of EOC cells is poorly understood. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A depletion mechanism has been proposed for dextran-mediated RBC aggregation and its applicability to high molecular weights has been recently documented. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • These results agree with the concept of polymer depletion near the cell surface and support a depletion mechanism for dextran-mediated red cell aggregation. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Our findings provide important new insights into polymer-RBC interactions and confirm the concept of depletion mechanism for RBC aggregation which may help in understanding how cellular properties control in-vivo RBC interactions. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Demonstrated a completely novel mechanism of stem cell-to-immune system communication that works via the horizontal exchange of functional IFN-g/Ifngr1 complexes delivered via stem cell exosomes. (news-medical.net)
  • Succinoglycan purified from cultures was applied to different concentrations of cells, and observation of the phase behaviour showed that the limiting polymer concentration for aggregation and phase separation to occur decreased with increasing cell concentration, suggesting a 'crowding mechanism' was occurring. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Regardless of the specific mechanism(s) of action, poloxamers appear to offer interesting approaches for future basic science and clinical studies, and thus the possibility for greater insight into RBC aggregation. (elsevier.com)
  • According to the primary mechanism they propose for signal transduction and the fate of TCR/CD3 complex in T-cell triggering, the TCR signaling models might be divided into three basic categories. (wikipedia.org)
  • The functions of these T cells were also investigated, leading in particular to the identification of Granzyme A and GZMB (then called CTLA-1 and CTLA-3) and the demonstration of their playing a role in the perforin-granzyme-based mechanism of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and to the discovery of the second, Fas ligand/Fas receptor based pathway of cytotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This leads to alteration of the stem-cell niche and results in stem cell exhaustion, another theorized mechanism of aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, with regards to cellular replication, the progressive shortening of telomeres is a mechanism which limits the amount of generations of a single cell may undergo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current research directions include determining the exact mechanism of the disease, improving animal models to aid with research, testing of medications to treat symptoms or slow the progression of the disease, and studying procedures such as stem cell therapy with the goal of repairing damage caused by the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, these stem cells can act as carriers for other therapies, though the positive effects of using stem cells as a delivery mechanism has not been confirmed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of two embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell lines, F9 and PCI3, to aggregate with preimplantation 8-cell mouse embryos is described. (biologists.org)
  • Differentiated derivatives of EC cells, namely PYS-1 and PYS-2, as well as STO fibroblasts do not aggregate with embryos. (biologists.org)
  • The migration stage begins once the amoebae have formed a tight aggregate and the elongated mound of cells tip over to lie flat on the ground. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells aggregate and rest in certain basins until conditions allow for reproduction and colonies to form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, we evaluated the role of this TA system in X. fastidiosa by overexpressing the MqsR toxin, and verified that the toxin positively regulated biofilm formation and negatively cell movement, resulting in reduced pathogenicity in citrus plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • Aggregation and biofilm formation are critical mechanisms for bacterial resistance to host immune factors and antibiotics. (pnas.org)
  • PrP C depletion caused an increase in both the number of cells containing granules and the number of apoptotic cells. (biologists.org)
  • Consistent with the increase in Htt aggregation, PrP C depletion caused an decrease in proteasome activity and a decrease in the activities of cellular defense enzymes compared with control cells whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased more than threefold. (biologists.org)
  • Depletion of endogenous PrP C in non-neuronal Caco-2 and HT-29 cells did not affect ROS levels or proteasome activity suggesting that only in neuronal cells does PrP C confer protection against Htt toxicity. (biologists.org)
  • In part of this study, the depletion layers around the cell surface for various polymer sizes (40kDa-28MDa), ionic strengths (5 and 15mM) and polymer concentrations (≤0.9g/dl) are measured by means of electrophoretic mobility. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Attractive energy between two RBCs is modelled by a depletion interaction theory and used for simulating aggregation of two cells. (elsevier.com)
  • We suggest that, as found in colloidal dispersions, the presence of a non-adsorbing polymer in the form of the exopolysaccharide succinoglycan drives aggregation of S. meliloti by depletion attraction. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Based upon the depletion model for polymer-induced aggregation, these findings suggest that poloxamer 188 acts by penetrating the depletion layer near the glycocalyx, thereby reducing the osmotic gradient between the intercellular gap and the suspending medium. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings suggest the therapeutic applications of novel trehalose analogs in polyglutamine aggregation-associated neurodegenerative diseases. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The B-Cell Lymphoma Moon Shot is revolutionizing the conventional medical research approach to rapidly translate findings into patient treatment options and develop personalized therapeutic strategies. (mdanderson.org)
  • Because prions are heritable, once they are triggered in a cell, all of the cells in later generations will inherit the same prion state. (eurekalert.org)
  • Membrane interaction in aggregating cells of Dictyostelium discoideum can be blocked by univalent antibodies directed against specific membrane sites. (rupress.org)
  • Patterns of cell assembly in the presence of antibodies show that selective blockage of these membrane sites abolishes the preference for end-to-end association which is typical for aggregating cells. (rupress.org)
  • In aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs) induced by macromolecules, the aggregating energy provided by macromolecular binding to RBC membrane must overcome the disaggregation energy of electrostatic repulsion between RBC surfaces and the effects of mechanical shear stress. (iospress.com)
  • In diffusely growing cells, cellulose microfibrils are synthesized by plasma-membrane-localized cellulose synthase (CESA) complexes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Hence, cadherins provide the framework that links the cell-cell contact on the membrane surface to the cytoskeleton. (rupress.org)
  • Here enucleated recipient cells are treated with cytochalasin B. Cytochalasin B makes the cytoplasm of the oocytes more fluid and makes it possible to aspirate the nuclear genome of the oocyte within a small vesicle of plasma membrane into a micro-needle. (wikipedia.org)
  • CTAB serves as an important surfactant in the DNA extraction buffer system to remove membrane lipids and promote cell lysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinetic-segregation model was originally used to elucidate how binding of TCR to peptide-MHC-complex on APC is communicated across the T-cell membrane resulting in T-cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acids can also be cleaved, or partially cleaved, from their chemical attachments in the cell membrane to form second messengers within the cell, and local hormones in the immediate vicinity of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prostaglandins made from arachidonic acid stored in the cell membrane, are probably the most well known group of these local hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme helps viruses to be released after budding from the plasma membrane of a host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • To clarify the role of α-1,3-glucan in hyphal aggregation, we constructed strains overexpressing agsA ( agsA OE ) or agsB ( agsB OE ), in which the other α-1,3-glucan synthase gene was disrupted. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the current study, the UT Southwestern researchers used mice that were genetically engineered to carry the mutant human gene for Huntington's, causing symptoms and death of brain cells similar to those seen in the disease. (news-medical.net)
  • In a study of the hospital population covering 56 198 Bahrainis, we found that 2% of newborns have sickle-cell disease [‎SCD]‎ and 18% have sickle-cell trait, while 24% are carriers of the [‎-thalassaemia gene. (who.int)
  • Gambhir S.S. (January 2017)Reporter gene imaging of targeted T cell immunotherapy in recurrent glioma. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene plays a role in cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deletion of an enhancer close to the GADD45G gene is correlated to increased proliferation of neuronal cells, which could account for part of the difference in neural development between humans and other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • GADD45G is expressed in enamel knots, where it regulates gene expression and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In esophageal cancer the expression level and methylation status of the gene are involved in the prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The observations on stmF mutants implicate cGMP in the regulation of chemoattractant-induced cell elongation and orientation. (illinois.edu)
  • Live-cell imaging of fluorescently labeled CESA showed that the rate of movement of CESA particles was directionally asymmetric in etiolated hypocotyls of S211A and T212E mutants, while similar bidirectional velocities were observed with the wild-type control and S211E and T212A mutant lines. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The accumulation of this damage in the postmitotic RPE cells seems to be one of the key events in the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in the developed countries. (hindawi.com)
  • 3.Expression of rhodopsin carrying P23H mutation causes its accumulation in intracellular inclusion bodies in a perinuclear area of photoreceptor cells. (cf.ac.uk)
  • The intracellular accumulation of highly phosphorylated tau is linked to the cell cycle and cell cycle dependent kinases (McShea et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, a greater investment in growth and reproduction would result in reduced investment in DNA repair maintenance, leading to increased cellular damage, shortened telomeres, accumulation of mutations, compromised stem cells, and ultimately, senescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3 Different aspects of RBC aggregation have been assessed by recording the intensity of light that is either backscattered from RBCs or transmitted through RBCs. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • A computational scheme using the Chimera grid method is presented for simulation of three-dimensional motion and aggregation of two red blood cells (RBCs) in a narrow tube. (elsevier.com)
  • Through the simulation, we show that the Chimera grid method is applicable to the simulation of three-dimensional motion and aggregation of multiple RBCs in a microvessel and microvascular network. (elsevier.com)
  • Measurements of red blood cell (RBC) deformability and aggregation can be subject to influence by pre-analytical handling procedures, with the degree of hemoglobin oxygenation having the potential to affect the results. (iospress.com)
  • To examine such effects, RBC deformability and aggregation were studied before and after oxygenation or deoxygenation of human blood samples. (iospress.com)
  • Concentrated erythrocyte (i.e., red blood cell) suspensions flowing in microchannels have been simulated with an immersed-boundary lattice Boltzmann algorithm, to examine the cell layer development process and the effects of cell deformability and aggregation on hemodynamic and hemorheological behaviors. (elsevier.com)
  • We found that the cell free layer thickness increases with both cell deformability and aggregation strength. (elsevier.com)
  • Zhang, J, Johnson, PC & Popel, AS 2009, ' Effects of erythrocyte deformability and aggregation on the cell free layer and apparent viscosity of microscopic blood flows ', Microvascular Research , vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 265-272. (elsevier.com)
  • It thus seems likely that these factors could play a role in sickle cell disease. (haematologica.org)
  • In addition, it is not suitable for the very ill, the elderly, or individuals with sickle cell disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Crowding has also been suggested to be involved in processes as diverse as the aggregation of hemoglobin in sickle-cell disease, and the responses of cells to changes in their volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • There have been numerous models proposed for the neuronal cell loss and spongiform changes in the brain that occur in scrapie, but it is still not clear whether this pathology is due to a loss of functional PrP C or only to a gain of function by PrP Sc . (biologists.org)
  • 1995). In the past decade, research has shown that neuronal cell cycle reentry plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of AD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mizuno T, Kurotani T, Komatsu Y, Kawanokuchi J, Kato H, Mitsuma N, Jacob Linder, Suzumura A. Neuroprotective role of phosphodiesterase inhibitor ibudilast on neuronal cell death induced by activated microglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mAb also caused homotypic aggregation of E710.2.3, which was inhibited by cytochalasin B, trifluoperazine, a combination of sodium azide and 2-deoxyglucose, EDTA, incubation at 4°C, or treatment with paraformaldehyde. (jimmunol.org)
  • The RPE cells ensure the survival of neural cells, rod, and cones. (hindawi.com)
  • Both cell viability and survival only lost less than 20% when the cells were exposed to the high concentration of 100 μg/mL FSNP-SD. (mdpi.com)
  • Homozygous Foxp2 (R552H)-KI mice showed reduced weight, immature development of the cerebellum with incompletely folded folia, Purkinje cells with poor dendritic arbors and less synaptophysin immunoreactivity, and achieved crisis stage for survival 3 weeks after birth. (pnas.org)
  • In our experience we observe a general survival of 3-8% of grafted neural stem cells, which persist over time. (news-medical.net)