The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.
The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The aggregation of suspended solids into larger clumps.
The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.
Methylmaleic anhydrides.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of motile, free-living, gram-negative bacteria that occur in the soil. They are aerobic or microaerophilic and are sometimes capable of nitrogen fixation.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A division of organisms that exist vegetatively as complex mobile plasmodia, reproduce by means of spores, and have complex life cycles. They are now classed as protozoa but formerly were considered fungi.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.
Chemically stimulated aggregation of cell surface receptors, which potentiates the action of the effector cell.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.
Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Laboratory examination used to monitor and evaluate platelet function in a patient's blood.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (1/2029)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

Analysis of the stimulation-inhibition paradox exhibited by lymphocytes exposed to concanavalin A. (2/2029)

High doses of Concanavalin A (Con A), which normally inhibit T-lymphocyte stimulation as measured by increases in DNA synthesis, cause these lymphocytes to become committed to mitogenesis while also generating a dominant but reversible negative growth signal. The observed response to the stimulatory signal as measured by the rate of commitment to enter the S phase (i.e., the rate at which the stimulation becomes lectin independent) increases with lectin concentration even in the inhibitory range. The generation of this positive signal is prevented by treating the cells with colchicine. Cells that have become committed but are also simultaneously blocked from entering the S phase by the high doses of Con A can begin synthesizing DNA if the lectin is released by adding a competitive inhibitor of binding. Experiments done in agarose cultures in which lymphocytes are kept from contact with each other suggest that the reversible inhibitory signal is mediated by structures in the individual cells rather than as a result of agglutination. Continuously dividing cells of the lymphoid line P388 are also individually and reversibly inhibited by Con A. These findings are considered in terms of the relation of the inhibitory signal to the microtubular components of cell surface modulating assemblies made up of submembranous arrays of microtubules, microfilaments, and associated proteins.  (+info)

The pro-phenoloxidase of coleopteran insect, Tenebrio molitor, larvae was activated during cell clump/cell adhesion of insect cellular defense reactions. (3/2029)

To characterize the proteins involved in cell clump/cell adhesion of insect cellular defense reactions, we induced the cell clump/cell adhesion reaction in vitro with the hemolymph of larvae of the coleopteran insect, Tenebrio molitor. The 72 kDa protein was specifically enriched in the residues of cell clump/cell adhesion and was purified to homogeneity. A cDNA clone for the 72 kDa protein was isolated. We found that the 72 kDa protein was an activated phenoloxidase from Tenebrio pro-phenoloxidase. We suggest that activated phenoloxidase is involved in the cell clump/cell adhesion reaction as well as in the synthesis of melanin.  (+info)

Distinct functions of alpha3 and alpha(v) integrin receptors in neuronal migration and laminar organization of the cerebral cortex. (4/2029)

Changes in specific cell-cell recognition and adhesion interactions between neurons and radial glial cells regulate neuronal migration as well as the establishment of distinct layers in the developing cerebral cortex. Here, we show that alpha3beta1 integrin is necessary for neuron-glial recognition during neuronal migration and that alpha(v) integrins provide optimal levels of the basic neuron-glial adhesion needed to maintain neuronal migration on radial glial fibers. A gliophilic-to-neurophilic switch in the adhesive preference of developing cortical neurons occurs following the loss of alpha3beta1 integrin function. Furthermore, the targeted mutation of the alpha3 integrin gene results in abnormal layering of the cerebral cortex. These results suggest that alpha3beta1 and alpha(v) integrins regulate distinct aspects of neuronal migration and neuron-glial interactions during corticogenesis.  (+info)

Multiple developmental roles for CRAC, a cytosolic regulator of adenylyl cyclase. (5/2029)

Receptor-mediated activation of adenylyl cyclase (ACA) in Dictyostelium requires CRAC protein. Upon translocation to the membrane, this pleckstrin homology (PH) domain protein stimulates ACA and thereby mediates developmental aggregation. CRAC may also have roles later in development since CRAC-null cells can respond to chemotactic signals and participate in developmental aggregation when admixed with wild-type cells, but they do not complete development within such chimeras. To test whether the role of CRAC in postaggregative development is related to the activation of ACA, chemotactic aggregation was bypassed in CRAC-null cells by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). While such strains formed mounds, they did not complete fruiting body morphogenesis or form spores. Expression of CRAC in the prespore cells of these strains rescued sporulation and fruiting body formation. This later function of CRAC does not appear to require its PH domain since the C-terminal portion of the protein (CRAC-DeltaPH) can substitute for full-length CRAC in promoting spore cell formation and morphogenesis. No detectable ACA activation was observed in any of the CRAC-null strains rescued by PKA activation and expression of CRAC-DeltaPH. Finally, we found that the development of CRAC-null ACA-null double mutants could be rescued by the activation of PKA together with the expression of CRAC-DeltaPH. Thus, there appears to be a required function for CRAC in postaggregative development that is independent of its previously described function in the ACA activation pathway.  (+info)

Origin of the integrin-mediated signal transduction. Functional studies with cell cultures from the sponge Suberites domuncula. (6/2029)

Sponges (phylum Porifera) represent the phylogenetically oldest metazoan animals. Recently, from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium a first cDNA encoding a putative integrin receptor molecule was isolated. In the present study basic functional experiments have been conducted to test the hypothesis that in sponges integrin polypeptides also function as adhesion molecules and as outside-in signaling molecules. The sponge Suberites domuncula has been used for the experiments because from this sponge only has a cell culture been established. Here we report that aggregation factor (AF)-mediated cell-cell adhesion is blocked by the RGDS peptide which is known to interact with beta integrin. Both RGDS and AF were found to stimulate DNA synthesis within 24 h. The beta subunit of the integrin receptor was cloned from S. domuncula; the estimated 91-kDa molecule comprises the characteristic signatures. Evolutionary conservation of the beta integrin was assessed by comparison with corresponding beta integrin subunits from evolutionary higher metazoan taxa. Addition of RGDS or of AF to isolated cells of S. domuncula causes a rapid (within 1-2 min) increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration which is further augmented in the presence of Ca2+. Furthermore, incubation of the cells with RGDS or AF causes an activation of the GTP-binding protein Ras. In addition it is shown that after a prolonged incubation of the cells with RGDS and AF the expression of the genes coding for Ras and for calmodulin is upregulated. These results suggest that the integrin receptor functions in the sponge system not only as adhesion molecule but also as a molecule involved in outside-in signaling.  (+info)

E-cadherin mediates aggregation-dependent survival of prostate and mammary epithelial cells through the retinoblastoma cell cycle control pathway. (7/2029)

E-cadherin and the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) are traditionally associated with diverse regulatory aspects of cell growth and differentiation. However, we have discovered new evidence, which suggests that these proteins are functionally linked in a physiologic pathway required for cell survival and programmed cell death. Pharmacological activation of protein kinase C (PKC) or inducible overexpression and activation of the alpha isozyme of PKC (PKCalpha) resulted in approximately 60% apoptosis of mammary and prostate epithelial cells. Interestingly, the surviving cells had undergone dramatic aggregation concurrent with increased E-cadherin expression. When aggregation was inhibited by the addition of an E-cadherin-blocking antibody, apoptosis increased synergistically. We hypothesized that survival of the aggregated population was associated with contact-inhibited growth and that apoptosis might result from aberrant growth regulatory signals in non-aggregated, cycling cells. This hypothesis was confirmed by experiments that demonstrated that E-cadherin-dependent aggregation resulted in Rb-mediated G1 arrest and survival. Immunoblot analysis and flow cytometry revealed that hypophosphorylated Rb was present in non-aggregated, S phase cultures concurrent with synergistic cell death. We have also determined that the loss of membrane E-cadherin and subsequent hypophosphorylation of Rb in luminal epithelial cells preceded apoptosis induced by castration. These findings provide compelling evidence that suggests that E-cadherin-mediated aggregation results in Rb activation and G1 arrest that is critical for survival of prostate and mammary epithelial cells. These data also indicate that Rb can initiate a fatal growth signal conflict in non-aggregated, cycling cells when the protein is hypophosphorylated as these epithelial cells enter S phase.  (+info)

Differential responses to CD40 ligation among Burkitt lymphoma lines that are uniformly responsive to Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1. (8/2029)

Ligation of CD40 on the surface of B cells induces multiple phenotypic effects, many of which are mimicked by the EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) through its interaction with downstream components of the CD40 signaling pathway. Because the effects of LMP1 have been most closely studied in human Burkitt Lymphoma (BL) cell lines retaining a tumor biopsy-like phenotype in vitro, we have examined the response of a panel of such lines to CD40 ligation. Two distinct patterns of response were observed that were unrelated to the surface level of CD40 or to the EBV genome status of the lines. Following exposure to either CD40-specific mAbs or the soluble trimeric ligand (sCD40L), high responder (HR) lines showed rapid aggregation, activation of NF-kappa B, up-regulation of cell surface markers ICAM-1/CD54 and Fas/CD95, and growth inhibition. Aggregation was seen at lower doses than those required to elicit the other effects. By contrast, low responder (LR) lines showed no detectable response to CD40 mAbs, while their responses to sCD40L were limited to activation of NF-kappa B and up-regulation of CD95 only. However, in transfection experiments, LMP1 uniformly induced the full spectrum of phenotypic effects in both HR and LR lines. We conclude that some BL cell lines show a highly restricted response to CD40 ligation but remain fully susceptible to LMP1.  (+info)

We study spreading on soft substrates of cellular aggregates using CT26 cells that produce an extracellular matrix (ECM). Compared to our previous work on the spreading of S180 cellular aggregates, which did not secrete ECMs, we found that the spreading velocity of the precursor film is also maximal for inte
We had one patient that asked the phlebotomist to come in the hospital to take their blood cause they got. [inaudible 00:44:24] I wasnt, we couldnt do that, but it was. So this is looking at the cellular aggregates and what we noticed, this is consistent with what weve seen in the animal models as well as what weve seen in the PDE9 study, that when a patient is reporting a VOC, we actually see an increase in cellular aggregates in terms of the monocyte platelet aggregates as well as the neutrophil platelet aggregates when you look at baseline comparison. In addition, we did see some changes in adhesion to P-selectin under flow conditions shown in the bottom. So both of these we do see changes in aggregates when a patient is self-reporting a VOC. So in addition to the other biomarkers that we said, we also took clinical laboratories and this is looking at the standard hemoglobin, hemoglobin F, nucleated red blood cells, eosinophiles as well as C-reactive protein. Interestingly, eosinophiles ...
Clone DB105 recognizes the CD44 antigen. CD44 is a marker for many types of cancer stem cells (CSCs), including breast CSCs that possess higher tumorigenicity and metastatic potential, colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate CSCs. In addition, expression was observed in several cancers as well as on carcinoma cell lines. Here, CD44 plays a role in cancer cell migration and matrix adhesion in response to a cellular microenvironment, thus enhancing cellular aggregation and tumor cell growth. CD44 is also expressed on mesodermal cells, such as hematopoietic, fibroblastic, and glial cells. - Österreich
TY - GEN. T1 - Role of cell aggregation protein in adhesion in vitro and in vivo. AU - Morelli, Lorenzo. AU - Cesena, Camilla. AU - Lucchini, Franco. AU - Callegari, Maria Luisa. AU - Alander, Minna. AU - Mattila-Sandholm, Tiina. AU - Wright, Atte von. AU - Salminen, Seppo. AU - Lehto, Elina. AU - Vilpponen-Salmela, Terttu. N1 - Poster. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. M3 - Conference article in proceedings. SN - 951-38-4564-8. T3 - VTT Symposium. SP - 63. EP - 64. BT - Novel methods for probiotic research. PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. CY - Espoo. ER - ...
Scientists estimate that planet Earth formed about 4.5 billion years ago as part of the formation of the solar system. It was only about one billion years later that the first unicellular organisms made their debut, and it took about two billion years more for multicellular organisms to appear. Initially these were simple cellular aggregates that later on evolved into more complex life forms with distinct tissues and organs. The most dramatic segment of evolution took place about a half billion years ago when over a "brief” period of 30 million years the foundations were laid for all the groups of animals that still surround us today. The following video describes the basics of how life is believed to have emerged and evolved on Earth, from the formation of DNA to the appearance of human beings. It should be mentioned that the video contains several inaccuracies on which I will elaborate in the following paragraphs.
A rotating cell culture system that allows epithelial cells to grow under physiological conditions resulting in 3-D cellular aggregate...
Caring Medical discusses treatments for Barré-Liéou and Cervicocranial syndrome due to vertebral instability, which affects the function of the nerve cell aggregations located in the neck just in front of the vertebrae.
Report prepared at Wed, 13 Dec 2017 00:09:45 UTC+1000, using data obtained within AS0.6447. The report may include routes internal to AS0.6447, and may also include routes that are accepted from adjacent ASs and marked NO EXPORT. The report also does not take into account conditions local to each origin AS in terms of policy or traffic engineering requirements. As an aggregation guide, this report is a very approximate guide at best.. ...
metrics aggregation that counts the number of values that are extracted from the aggregated documents. These values can be extracted either from specific fields in the documents, or be generated by a provided script. Typically, this aggregator will be used in conjunction with other single-value aggregations. For example, when computing the ...
Aggregations (Group-by, Pivot-table, and N-dimensional Cube) and Time Series Transformations as Stored Procedures in DocumentDB - lmaccherone/documentdb-lumenize
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Hello we have the following unique algo aa,a,nd we would like to know if it could be interesting in Bio. Does somebody can help ...
Campaigning in Florida, President Barack Obama told supporters that his Republican challenger, Mitt Romney, doesnt represent change in the 2012 election. Obama told them, you know what I mean, and I mean what I say. (Nov. 4)
Exposure of Sulfolobus solfataricus to the DNA damaging agents UV-irradiation, bleomycin or mitomycin C induces cellular aggregation.[2] Other physical stressors, such as pH or temperature shift, do not induce aggregation, suggesting that induction of aggregation is caused specifically by DNA damage. Ajon et al.[3] showed that UV-induced cellular aggregation mediates chromosomal marker exchange with high frequency. Recombination rates exceeded those of uninduced cultures by up to three orders of magnitude. Frols et al.[2][4] and Ajon et al.[3] hypothesized that the UV-inducible DNA transfer process and subsequent homologous recombinational repair represents an important mechanism to maintain chromosome integrity. This response may be a primitive form of sexual interaction, similar to the more well-studied bacterial transformation that is also associated with DNA transfer between cells leading to homologous recombinational repair of DNA damage.[5] In another related species, Sulfolobus ...
Funded by the NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences through its Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program, grant number UL1TR002541 ...
The species-specific cell adhesion in the marine sponge Microciona prolifera involves the interaction of an extracellular proteoglycan-like macromolecular complex, otherwise known as aggregation factor. In the interaction, two highly polyvalent functional domains play a role: a cell-binding and a self-interaction domain. The self-recognition has been characterized as a Ca2+-dependent carbohydrate-carbohydrate ... read more interaction of repetitive low affinity carbohydrate epitopes. One of the involved epitopes is the pyruvated trisaccharide b-D-Galp4,6(R)Pyr-(1→4)-b-D-GlcpNAc-(1→3)-LFucp. To evaluate the role of this trisaccharide in the proteoglycan-proteoglycan self-recognition, b-D-Galp4,6(R)Pyr-(1→4)-b-D-GlcpNAc-(1→3)-a-L-Fucp-(1→O)(CH2)3S(CH2)6SH was synthesized, and partially converted into gold glyconanoparticles. These mimics are being used to explore the self-interaction phenomenon for the trisaccharide epitope, via TEM aggregation experiments (gold glyconanoparticles) and ...
Using freeze-fracture electron microscopy and fluorescent dye injection we have analysed the contacts between cells of the deeper endoderm taken from neuru
The fixation of dissociated chick embryonic cells in the presence of ruthenium red or alcian blue revealed a remarkable reduction in the binding of these cations to cell surfaces following tryptic digestion at 37 °C, but not after trypsin used at 4 °C or EDTA.. The reconstitution of anionic sites present over the cell plasma membrane was studied in retina, liver and heart cells from embryos of different ages, cultivated according to a method which promotes cell reaggregation. All these cells regenerated ruthenium red-stainability within the first hour of culture. Culturing at 15 °C, substitution of saline for the culture medium or addition of puromycin or of neuraminidase to the culture media did not affect this restitutive process. Neuraminidase and hyaluronidase digestion were not able to alter the ruthenium red-binding, once it was present.. From these data and from the reports available in the literature it has been concluded that the anionic binding-sites cannot be identified with the ...
Buy PEAR1 elisa kit, Mouse platelet endothelial aggregation receptor 1 ELISA Kit-NP_001027585.1 (MBS9332849) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
Demonstration of the cellular aggregation which constitutes the lupus erythematosus (LE) phenomenon in heparinized bone marrow1 was the basis of the first in a series of specific diagnostic procedures in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).2 When this phenomenon was also demonstrated in heparinized3 and in clotted4 peripheral blood of patients suffering from this disease, such preparations were also used in laboratory diagnosis. Finally, the reproduction in vitro of the LE phenomenon by adding LE plasma or serum to cells of normal bone marrow5, 6 added another in this series of tests.. Thus, the three types of diagnostic procedures used have in ...
Cloning of a heat-inducible biomarker, the cDNA encoding the 70 kDa heat shock protein, from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium:response to natural ...
Related Transcriptional Enhancer Factor-1 (RTEF-1) has been suggested to induce angiogenesis through regulating target genes. Whether RTEF-1 has a direct role in angiogenesis and what specific genes are involved in RTEF-1 driven angiogenisis have not been elucidated. We found that over-expressing RTEF-1 in Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells-1 (HMEC-1) significantly increased endothelial cell aggregation, growth and migration while the processes were inhibited by siRNA of RTEF-1. In addition, we observed that Endothelial differentiation gene-1 (Edg-1) expression was up-regulated by RTEF-1 at the transcriptional level. RTEF-1 could bind to Edg-1 promoter and subsequently induce its activity. Edg-1 siRNA significantly blocked RTEF-1-driven increases in endothelial cell aggregation in a Matrigel assay and retarded RTEF-1-induced endothelial cell growth and migration. Pertussis Toxin (PTX), a Gi/Go protein sensitive inhibitor, was found to inhibit RTEF-1 driven endothelial cell aggregation ...
The reaggregation of dissociated cells to form organotypic structures provides an in vitro system for the analysis of the cellular interactions and molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of tissue architecture. The retina, an outgrowth of the forebrain, is a precisely layered neural tissue, yet the mechanisms underlying layer formation are largely unexplored. Here we describe the protocol to dissociate, re-aggregate, and culture zebrafish retinal cells from a transgenic, Spectrum of Fates, line where all main cell types are labelled with a combination of fluorescent proteins driven by fate-specific promoters. These cells re-aggregate and self-organize in just 48 h in minimal culture conditions. We also describe how the patterning in these aggregates can be analyzed using isocontour profiling to compare whether different conditions affect their self-organization ...
Mechanistically, IgSF9 and IgSF9b share similarities, but also seem to have distinct properties. Both CAMs mediate homophilic adhesion or homotypic aggregation and are not sufficient to induce synapse formation. Both proteins are localized at inhibitory synapses. Interestingly, IgSF9b was shown to act on the postsynaptic side of inhibitory synapses onto interneurons (Woo et al., 2013), whereas our study suggests that IgSF9 is enriched on the presynaptic side and is required for inhibitory synapse onto pyramidal neurons. Whether IgSF9 and IgSF9b are necessary in either the presynaptic or postsynaptic compartment in vivo will require conditional knock-out mice and is a direction of future studies.. The most striking difference between IgSF9 and IgSF9b was the role of their respective intracellular domains (ICDs). The ICD of IgSF9b was shown to interact with Neuroligin-2 by way of the scaffolding protein S-SCAM and it was suggested, although not formally shown, that this interaction is necessary ...
The researchers took on one of the most insidious problems, compound aggregation, in which small molecules form colloids that bind to and partially denature proteins, causing false positives in all sorts of assays. This can happen even at nanomolar concentrations of compound, and is all the more problematic at higher concentrations used in fragment screening and early hit to lead optimization. In many cases aggregates can be disrupted or passivated by including nonionic detergents such as Triton X-100 or Tween-80, but not all assays tolerate detergent, and some aggregates form even in the presence of detergent ...
1. As a preliminary study on the molecular basis of cell aggregation, the soluble macromolecular fractions of growing (vegetative) and aggregation competent cells of D. discoideum were compared. a) ...
Nam, M. H., Dewey D. Y. Ryu, B. R. Thomas, and R. Rodriguez. 1997. Expression and secretion of fusion protein (GUS) in the suspension culture of transgenic 3DG rice cell line: Effects of osmotic pressure, buffering capacity of pH and cell aggregation on GUS expression. J. Crop Science, 39: 9 -14 ...
Home › A disaggregated biodiversity offset accounting model to improve estimation of ecological equivalency and no net loss ...
We specialize in using statistical and soft matter physics methods and advanced computational tools to understand stabilities and dynamic transitions of various molecular and cellular biosystems, from single biomolecules, assemblies, to cell dynamics. We are particularly interested in mechanical structures at the nanometer to micrometer scale. Our research spans from internal motions of biomolecules (often near equilibrium) to subcellular assemblies and cell aggregation, which can be far-from-equilibrium systems. These nanoscale molecular machines are not only quite complicated structurally, but have evolved intriguing functions responding to many environmental pressures. It is both fun and important to answer questions such as: How stable and robust are their functions? Under what conditions will they fail? How quickly can such molecules carry out their functions? How does a molecule actually pick out one unique, or maybe a few conformations, from an astronomical number of possibilities? How ...
In mid-1998 the 191 distributor Hgh molecule was genetically engineered in the workplace. Since then all HGH is synthetically produced and HGH from cadavers is no mortal in use. Inductive HGH (Somatrophin) is free to us now in two forms. One is through a pricey doctors pharmaceutical prescription, and secondly at a valid toll through a homeopathic exam spray. A position therapy deciding would be Secretogogues and Stacked Radical products which take absolutely no HGH. The aim here is to cable your own body, by stimulating the Endocrine Secretor, to food many of its own HGH. Alas this latter therapy totality for only a month or two ...
PV Economics, Markets and Policies, PV Economics and Markets, Development of Innovative Self-Consumption and Aggregation Concepts for PV Prosumers to Improve Grid Load and Increase Market Value of PV: The PV-Prosumers4Grid Project
Page contains details about BiPy-BTA discotic 1 aggregates . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
So when it comes to applying sizing installing and supporting your equipment needs think of Aggregate Crusher Specialists as your first call for support Proudly Representing Sandvik Crushing amp Screening
Swedish University dissertations (essays) about HäLSA. Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations. Full text. Free.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A study of whole blood platelet and white cell aggregation using a laser flow aggregometer. AU - Sun, J.. AU - Abel, E. W.. AU - Bancroft, A.. AU - McLaren, M.. AU - Belch, J. J. F.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Both platelet aggregation and white blood cell aggregation are involved in pathological processes such as thrombosis, atherosclerosis and chronic inflammation. People in older age groups are likely to suffer from cardiovascular diseases and may have increased white cell and platelet aggregation which could contribute to this increased risk. This study aimed to compare white cell and platelet aggregation between different age and gender groups. Whole blood white cell aggregation and platelet aggregation were carried out on healthy volunteers using cytometric techniques. It was found that both white cell and platelet aggregation in the elderly group (white cell aggregation median value, 0.08; range, 0.02-0.14; platelet aggregation median value, 0.32; range, 0.1-0.39) were ...
Membrane interaction in aggregating cells of Dictyostelium discoideum can be blocked by univalent antibodies directed against specific membrane sites. Using a quantitative technique for measuring cell association, two classes of target sites for blocking antibodies were distinguished and their developmental dynamics studied. One class of these sites is specific for aggregation-competent cells, their quantity rising from virtually 0-level during growth, with a steep increase shortly before cell aggregation. The serological activity of these structures is species specific; they are not detectable in a nonaggregating mutant, but present in a revertant undergoing normal morphogenesis. Patterns of cell assembly in the presence of antibodies show that selective blockage of these membrane sites abolishes the preference for end-to-end association which is typical for aggregating cells. A second class of target sites is present in comparable quantities in particle fractions from both growth-phase and ...
The aggregation phenomenon in lactococci has been studied for more than thirty years. It was found to be directly associated with a sex factor and lactose plasmid co-integration event [1] or duplication of the cell wall spanning (CWS) domain of PrtP proteinase [2]. Lactose plasmid conjugation in Lactococcus lactis 712 and in the related strains C2 and ML3, frequently involves plasmid co-integration with a sex factor. Moreover, this phenomenon is often associated with a cell aggregation phenotype and high frequency transfer ability [3-5]. The lactococcal sex factor exists integrated in the chromosome [6], although it can be excised as a closed circular form and lost from the cell [1]. Deletion and over-expression experiments confirmed that CluA is the only sex factor component responsible for aggregation in L. lactis. This 136 kDa surface-bound protein, encoded by the chromosomally located sex factor of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363, is associated with cell aggregation linked to ...
Abstract. We have recently found that antibodies to L-selectin, the homing receptor on neutrophils, are as effective as those to beta 2-integrin at blocking fo
The purpose of these studies was to determine whether hematogenous clonal pulmonary melanoma metastases originate from the expansion of a single cell and if so, by extrapolation, metastasis can be considered a cloning process. Three different cell lines of murine K-1735 melanoma with different metastatic properties and unique karyotypes were injected i.v. into syngeneic C3H/HeN mice as multicell aggregates of individual cell lines or combinations of cell lines. Resultant solitary lung metastases were isolated in culture as individual lines and then karyotyped. Even when heterogeneous clumps of tumor cells were injected, the individual metastases exhibited a karyotype unique to one metastatic cell type. Furthermore, when cellular aggregates were composed of metastatic cells admixed with cells that were tumorigenic but nonmetastatic, the resultant metastases exhibited only the karyotype of the metastatic cells. This finding suggests that the presence of metastatic cells did not change the ...
The study clearly showed that the gene correction procedures did not impair the full pluripotentiality of iPS cells, said Shinya Yamanaka (director of the Center for iPS Cell Research and Application at Kyoto University). Yamanaka is the father of the iPS field. In 2006 his laboratory was the first to coax adult mouse fibroblasts into an undifferentiated state through the expression of 4 transcription factors: Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc.4. Yamanaka said that the findings of the German group indicate a possibility that human iPS cells generated from people with genetic defects may be repaired and have the similar abilities. The work should encourage researchers to improve differentiation methods from iPS cells into functional cells.. An intriguing aspect of the study was the relatively high efficiency at which the groups approach yielded full-term surviving pups. Up to 60% of cellular aggregates from tetraploid complementation generated surviving pups, and a significant number of the pups ...
Because sponges (Porifera) are generally the dominant group of multicellular animals found in the marine benthos they are key animals for the testing of biomarkers in this biotope. Previously, it was shown that the heat shock protein hsp70 from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium is a useful biomarker for following biological responses to selected physical and chemical stressors. One protein which is critical for hsp70 function in other organisms is the DnaJ-like protein. In this study we therefore isolated and characterized a cDNA encoding the DnaJ-like protein from G. cydonium designated GCDNAJ. GCDNAJ is 1476 base pairs (bp) long with a 1236 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 45542 daltons. Northern blot analysis revealed a transcript size of 1.5 kilobase (kb). The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence of GCDNAJ contains motifs characteristic of most prokaryotic and eukaryotic DnaJ family members. In response to a 7°C temperature increase, expression of the transcripts encoding hsp70 and ...
To examine if cadherin function is essential for the activity-induced spine enlargement, we took advantage of the W2A mutant of N-cadherin (W2A-cadherin), a point mutant that lacks adhesive activity (Tamura et al., 1998). The overexpression of W2A-cadherin suppressed the adhesive function of N-cadherin as examined by cell aggregation assays (Fig. 7 A). The number of dendritic protrusions on the neurons overexpressing W2A-cadherin was equal to the spine number on the control neurons (Table II). 16% of these spines on the W2A-transfected neurons remained in normal cotyloid shape (Fig. 7 C-1; Table I). 32% of spines appeared largely normal with their heads still identifiable as the bulging end, but their apexes were flat without cotyloid curve (Fig. 7 C-2; Table I). This type of spine was occasionally accompanied by transient protrusions on its apex (see Fig. 8 D). 13% showed normally bulged spine head, but with elongated neck (Fig. 7 C-3; Table I). The other 39% showed filopodia-like elongated ...
Many types of mammalian cells can aggregate and differentiate into 3-D multicellular spheroids when cultured in suspension or a nonadhesive environment. Compared to conventional monolayer cultures, multicellular spheroids resemble real tissues better in terms of structural and functional properties. Multicellular spheroids formed by transformed cells are widely used as avascular tumor models for metastasis and invasion research and for therapeutic screening. Many primary or progenitor cells on the other hand, show significantly enhanced viability and functional performance when grown as spheroids. Multicellular spheroids in this aspect are ideal building units for tissue reconstruction. Here we review the current understanding of multicellular spheroid formation mechanisms, their biomedical applications, and recent advances in spheroid culture, manipulation, and analysis techniques. ...
In aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs) induced by macromolecules, the aggregating energy provided by macromolecular binding to RBC membrane must overcome the disaggregation energy of electrostatic repulsion between RBC surfaces and the effects of m
In this paper we report a novel effect of soluble Fbg that contributes to the sequential activation of circulating neutrophils. Although β2 integrins on myeloid cells were initially identified as cell surface structures mediating the traffic and localization of circulating immune cells (37), they are also able to regulate multiple cellular responses to environmental stimuli, leading to growth, differentiation, gene expression, and apoptosis (38). We now demonstrate that soluble hFbg is capable of triggering neutrophil activation through a CD11b-dependent mechanism. It is well known that several products of coagulation and fibrinolysis profoundly affect many facets of inflammatory reactions, such as induction of platelet activation (39), cytokine production by mononuclear phagocytes (40, 41, 42), neutrophil aggregation, and chemotaxis (43, 44, 45). However, the effects of soluble hFbg on inflammatory cells have only recently been investigated. In this regard, Sitrin et al. (9) recently reported ...
The aggregation state of sickle cells was studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure, with ultrasound backscattering. The ultrasonic backscattering coefficient χ , which depends on the size of the aggregates, is highly correlated with erythrocy
In 1975, Orci et al. (1) reported that human islet cells contain specialized membrane domains that are compatible with the ultrastructural features of two types of intercellular junctions: tight junctions and gap junctions. Since then, numerous reports have demonstrated critical functions for these cell-cell junctional complexes in islet cells (2-8). Eventually, a number of proteins were identified that regulated cell aggregation, islet cell-type segregation, architectural organization within islets of Langerhans, and state of differentiation, cell growth, and hormone secretion (9-16). Hints that direct islet cell-to-islet cell interactions are required for proper insulin secretion were uncovered in the 1980s when it was observed that single (isolated) β-cells are unresponsive to glucose unless they are given the opportunity to reaggregate into small clusters (17). Even more interesting, it was observed that islet cell types harbor specific cell-to-cell recognition signatures that drive their ...
We have recently demonstrated that the CD40 molecule was expressed on both normal human plasma cells and most malignant plasma cells, i.e., myeloma cells. Thus, we have investigated its putative role in the proliferation of myeloma cells. We report that 7 of 15 myeloma cell lines were CD40+ but only one, XG2, presented a high level of CD40 expression. We show that the CD40 stimulation by anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of the interleukin 6-dependent myeloma cell line XG2 induced a total inhibition of its proliferation. This inhibition was also observed when cells were either cultured in the CD40 system, where the anti-CD40 mAb has been immobilized on fibroblasts expressing Fc receptors or in the presence of a soluble chimeric CD40 ligand molecule. This inhibition of proliferation was neither accompanied by differentiation nor apoptosis. Triggering CD40 induced an homotypic aggregation of XG2 cells, and the inhibition of proliferation was totally prevented by a blocking anti-CD18 mAb. ...
It is an interesting time to consider the means and roles of cell adhesion in the eukaryotes. There was initial wonder at the results of Wilsons reports of species-specific reaggregation of sponge...
Professor J.P. Trinkaus with Tommy Harris, Oxford University, 1987 Malcolm Steinberg (1963, and later) proposed a thermodynamic theory that sorting out of dissociated chick, mouse and amphibian cells is caused by quantitative differences in amount of cell-cell adhesiveness (amount rather than kind). The Differential Adhesion Hypothesis or DAH.. Steinberg, M.S. (1963). Reconstruction of Tissues by Dissociated Cells. Some morphogenetic tissue movements and the sorting out of embryonic cells may have a common explanation. Science 141, 401-408. [doi: 10.1126/science.141.3579.401. PMID: 13983728]. Steinberg, M.S. (1970) Does differential adhesion govern self-assembly processes in histogenesis? Equilibrium configurations and the emergence of a hierarchy among populations of embryonic cells. J Exp Zool. 173(4):395-433. [doi: 10.1002/jez.1401730406. PMID: 5429514] This theory had the great advantage of making testable predictions. Relative interior-exterior positions of sorting out should form a ...
Downloadable! In this paper we analyze judgement aggregation problems in which a group of agents independently votes on a set of complex propositions that has some interdependency constraint between them (e.g., transitivity when describing preferences). We consider the issue of judgement aggregation from the perspective of approximation. That is, we generalize the previous results by studying approximate judgement aggregation. We relax the main two constraints assumed in the current literature, Consistency and Independence and consider mechanisms that only approximately satisfy these constraints, that is, satisfy them up to a small portion of the inputs. The main question we raise is whether the relaxation of these notions significantly alters the class of satisfying aggregation mechanisms. The recent works for preference aggregation of Kalai, Mossel, and Keller fit into this framework. The main result of this paper is that, as in the case of preference aggregation, in the case of a subclass of a
Using Rezais cells, Norriss technology and Seagles leg work, the team was able to capture convincing and dramatic evidence that melanin protects the retinal cells. In the PNAS paper (21 June 2005), they show that increased melanin aggregation and radical migration within melanin aggregates can protect RPE cells from free-radical damage and help prevent cell death. In the JACS paper (17 August 2005, but available online) they demonstrate how melanin actually scavenges the harmful free radicals produced by high-energy blue or ultraviolet light as it flows into the eye, soaking them up and neutralizing their effects ...
Amphiphilic molecules have a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic chain. Under certain conditions, they can self-organize into hollow spherical hollow vesicles with a surfactant bilayer enclosing an aqueous core, the overall diameter ranging from a few tens of nanometers to several microns. By carefully choosing specific preparation conditions, the scientists of SIS2M have shown that extremely robust aggregates can be synthesized with an interesting potential for encapsulation. The vesicles are widely studied for many fundamental issues (mechanism of self-assembly, physical properties of the membrane, etc ...) which understanding may open new perspectives (controlled release of active molecules, chemical nanoreactors, energy conversion, etc...). Usually, these vesicles (in this case also known as
Numerous bacterial strains produce surface lectins, commonly in the form of fimbriae that are filamentous assemblies of protein subunits. Among the best characterized of these are the type 1 (mannose specific) fimbrial lectins of Escherichia coli that consist almost exclusively of one class of subun …
Organizations which change service provider but do not renumber. This has the effect of punching a hole in the aggregation of the original service providers advertisement. This plan will handle the situation by requiring the newer service provider to advertise a specific advertisement for the new client, which is preferred by virtue of being the longest match. To maintain efficiency of aggregation, it is recommended that organizations which do change service providers plan to eventually migrate their address assignments from the old providers space to that of the new provider. To this end, it is recommended that mechanisms to facilitate such migration, including improved protocols and procedures for dynamic host address assignment, be developed. Note that some aggregation efficiency gain can still be had for multi-homed sites (and, in general, for any site composed of multiple, logical IP network numbers) - by allocating a contiguous power-of-two block of network numbers to the client (as ...
This research study is thus designed to compute total factor productivity (TFP) growth for Pakistans large scale manufacturing (LSM) sector for each five year period from 1970-71 to 2005-06.
Relative GDP shares are frequently used as weights in aggregations. In order to ensure that these weights reflect countries shares in real output, GDP data in national currencies should be converted into a common numeraire currency at purchasing power parity (PPP) rates. A review of the empirical evidence on the relationship between exchange rates and prices suggests that market (or official) exchange rates are generally poor proxies for PPP rates. The paper examines the PPP-based GDP data generated by the International Comparison Program and compares aggregations with PPP- and exchange rate-based GDP weights.
Aggregation Klausenpass Passroad Switzerland: 1 assigned downloads, like The Stäubifall waterfall and an aggregation of alp huts, seen from the Klausenpass road, Schächental, Uri, Switzerland from stock-photos
A mill is a device that breaks solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cuttingFor instance rock crushing or grinding to produce uniform aggregate size for construction purposes, or separation of rock, soil or aggregate material for the . Rod mills are less common than ball mills for grinding minerals.. ...
Self‐incompatibility (SI) is a genetically controlled cell-cell recognition system that acts as a barrier to self pollination in a wide range of flowering plant species
We begin this discussion with an analysis of the hierarchical framework discussed in Hax and Meal, 1975. After defining the different levels of the hierarchy we provide necessary and detailed models. Several interpretations and consequences of these results are discussed. In addition, it is shown that planning horizons to insure consistency on a detailed level are intimately related to planning on an aggregate level. Although we cannot demonstrate the optimality of the approach of Hax and Meal, lower bounds are easily derived. For the remainder of the report, we do not consider the aggregate product structure of Hax and Meal. Instead, in a linear model, we aggregate all items together. Under a quite general cost structure, we are able to characterize optimal aggregate production which can be optimally disaggregated. The analysis is extended from the single to the multi-echelon case. We formalize some of the preceding notions and present a more general underlying theory. The aggregate
The AccuSizer FX Nano SIS system is specifically designed to measure protein aggregation. The instrument meets and/or exceeds all requirements described in USP
A method for performing Carrier Aggregation (CA) using spectrum shared between an incumbent user and a telecommunications network includes establishing a primary cell (PCell) for the secondary user in
The problem of finding the number and size distribution of cell clusters that grow in an organ or tissue from observations of the number and sizes of transections of such cell clusters in a planar section is considered. This problem is closely relate
All members providing Bonded Aggregate Surfacing services in Walsall are Recommended, Vetted and Monitored and meet our standards of trading.
Researchers believe they figured out how Parkinsons advances by triggering a process that culminated with a Parkinsons-type disease in lab mice.
In animal cells, virus particles are gathered by the microtubule-dependent aggregation of toxic or misfolded protein near the ... Viroplasms also control release of virons when the insect stings an infected plant cell or a cell near the infected cells. ... Understanding the phenomena of virus aggregation and of the cell response to the presence of virus, and whether viroplasms ... Kopito, R (2000). "Aggresomes, inclusion bodies and protein aggregation". Trends Cell Biol. 10: 524-530. doi:10.1016/s0962-8924 ...
"Ataxin-1 nuclear localization and aggregation: role in polyglutamine-induced disease in SCA1 transgenic mice". Cell. 95 (1): 41 ... Cell. 127 (7): 1335-47. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.11.038. PMID 17190598. S2CID 14900395. Kim E, Lee Y, Choi S, Song JJ (July 2014 ... Cell. 122 (4): 633-44. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.06.012. PMID 16122429. S2CID 16706329. Mizutani A, Wang L, Rajan H, Vig PJ, ... This led to the hypothesis that the aggregates are toxic to neurons, but it has been shown in mice that aggregation is not ...
Bicher, Haim (1972). Blood Cell Aggregation in Thrombotic Processes. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas. ISBN 9780398022327. " ...
Protein aggregation Protein folding Live cell imaging Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz : Intracellular Fluorescent Imaging: An ... "Live Cell Imaging". Live cell imaging enables in vivo tracking of proteins in space and time, in their natural endogenous ... which can then be followed inside a cell using a fluorescence microscope. The cell may then be treated by a perturbation of ... "Live-Cell Imaging". Lippincott-Schwartz, J.; Patterson, GH (2003). "Development and Use of Fluorescent Protein Markers in ...
"Strong aggregation and increased toxicity of polyleucine over polyglutamine stretches in mammalian cells". Human Molecular ... They may play a structural role in proteins such as collagens, myosin, keratins, silk, cell wall proteins. Tandem repeats of ... They thus hypothesize and propose that, in a cell-free environment, the early genetic code may have also produced low ... Thus, their presence may disturb the balance of protein-protein interaction networks within the cell, especially if the carrier ...
It is predominantly a neuronal protein, but can also be found in the neuroglial cells. In melanocytic cells, SNCA protein ... "Membrane-bound alpha-synuclein has a high aggregation propensity and the ability to seed the aggregation of the cytosolic form ... Bonini NM, Giasson BI (November 2005). "Snaring the function of alpha-synuclein". Cell. 123 (3): 359-61. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Cell. 123 (3): 383-96. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.09.028. PMID 16269331. S2CID 18173864. Burré J, Sharma M, Tsetsenis T, Buchman V ...
In addition, PGE2 inhibits platelet aggregation. PGE2 also suppresses T cell receptor signaling and proliferation, and may play ... PGE2 also has roles in inhibition of cytotoxic T-cell function, cell division of T-lymphocytes, and the development of TH1 ... "A live imaging cell motility screen identifies prostaglandin E2 as a T cell stop signal antagonist". Journal of Immunology. 187 ... Torres R, Picado C, de Mora F (January 2015). "The PGE2-EP2-mast cell axis: an antiasthma mechanism". Molecular Immunology. 63 ...
Cell lysis is a convenient tool to isolate certain macromolecules that exist primarily inside of the cell. Cell membranes ... At 303 K (30 °C) it forms micelles with aggregation number 75-120 (depending on method of determination; average ~95) and ... Other toxicity tests have been conducted on humans using incubated human skin HaCaT keratinocyte cells. These human cells were ... The human cells show CTAB being nontoxic at concentrations less than 1 μM. Without the use of CTAB in this synthesis, the gold ...
... and colocalization in cultured cells". In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. 38 (10): 582-94. doi:10.1290/1543-706X(2002)38. 2.0.CO;2 ... Moss TN, Vo A, McKeehan WL, Liu L (2007). "UXT (Ubiquitously Expressed Transcript) causes mitochondrial aggregation". In Vitro ... and regulated expression in prostate cancer cells results in decreased cell proliferation. Significantly, because decreased ... Cell. 13 (2): 670-82. doi:10.1091/mbc.01-10-0513. PMC 65658. PMID 11854421. Nwachukwu JC, Li W, Pineda-Torra I, Huang HY, Ruoff ...
Dobson CM (February 2004). "Principles of protein folding, misfolding and aggregation". Seminars in Cell & Developmental ... Auxiliary factors inside the living cell such as folding catalysts and chaperones assist in the folding process but do not ... that a protein's native state corresponds to its free energy minimum under the solution conditions usually encountered in cells ...
Wang, Michelle Dong (1993). Reaction and aggregation dynamics of cell surface receptors. OCLC 713128957. "Michelle D. Wang". ... including RNA polymerase molecules which move along the DNA template during cell division. During this process genetic ...
found that CB causes multinucleation in cells and significantly affects cell motility. The multinucleated cells probably arise ... Cytochalasin B inhibits glucose transport and platelet aggregation. It blocks adenosine-induced apoptotic body formation ... Cells treated with cytochalasin B and control group cells could not be distinguished. This indicated, that CB has no ... These are small nuclei containing one chromosome or part of a chromosome which did not get to one of the cell poles during cell ...
Ice crystals can damage cell membranes directly. In addition, ice crystals can damage small blood vessels at the site of injury ... Platelet aggregation is another possible mechanism of injury. Blisters and spasm of blood vessels (vasospasm) can develop after ... Scar tissue forms when fibroblasts replace the dead cells. Rewarming causes tissue damage through reperfusion injury, which ... inflammatory mast cells act in the area. Small clots (microthrombi) form and can cut off blood to the affected area (known as ...
Tartaglia GG, Pawar AP, Campioni S, Dobson CM, Chiti F, Vendruscolo M (4 July 2008). "Prediction of aggregation-prone regions ... Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 15 (6): 384-96. doi:10.1038/nrm3810. PMID 24854788. S2CID 46357173. "Membership to EMBO ... Vendruscolo provided contributions in the field of protein folding, misfolding and aggregation. He introduced the approach of ... He edited computational programs able to predict essential characteristics of protein folding and protein aggregation. In a ...
Cells expressing the protein showed cell aggregation activity. Alternative splicing occurs in this gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... The encoded protein is a membrane protein found at cell-cell boundaries. It is involved in neural cell adhesion, suggesting a ... Cell. Proteomics. 3 (11): 1093-101. doi:10.1074/mcp.M400085-MCP200. PMID 15345747. S2CID 18659460. Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, et ... 2005). "Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells". Nat. Biotechnol. 23 (1): 94-101. doi:10.1038/ ...
... agents to impact their cells of origin or as paracrine signaling agents to impact cells in the proximity of their cells of ... blood platelet aggregation; blood clotting; allergic reactions. NSAIDs inhibit its production to reduce incidence of strokes ... transferase in cells; Eosinophils, mast cells, and alveolar macrophages possess relatively high levels of LTC4 synthase and ... When this occurs with enzymes located in different cell types and involves the transfer of one enzyme's product to a cell which ...
These kinds of chimeras can be made through either aggregation of stem cells and the diploid embryo or injection of the stem ... ES cells from the inner cell mass of an implanted blastocyst can contribute to all cell lineages of a mouse including the germ ... ES cells can be used in combination with eight-cell-and two-cell-stage embryos to make chimeras and exclusively give rise to ... Often, most or all of the cells of a single cell type will be composed of a single cell line, i.e. the blood may be composed ...
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.033. PMID 17320505.. *^ a b c Faghihi MA, Modarresi F, Khalil AM, Wood DE, Sahagan BG, Morgan TE, ... Mutations in UBQLN2 interfere with protein degradation resulting in neurodegeneration through abnormal protein aggregation.[52] ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 191 (2): 367-81. doi:10.1083/jcb.201008051. PMC 2958468. PMID 20937701.. ... Tested on: mouse (M), only mouse cells (MC), human (H), Drosophila (D), rat (R). Successful treatment: yes (y), yes but with ...
"Widespread Proteome Remodeling and Aggregation in Aging C. elegans". Cell. 161 (4): 919-32. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.03.032. PMC ... Krammer, C.; Park, K.W.; Li, L.; Melki, R.; Morimoto, R.I. (2013). "Spreading of a Prion Domain from Cell to Cell by Vesicular ... Cell. 159 (4): 709-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.039. PMC 4852871. PMID 25417146. Brehme, M; Voisine, C; Rolland, T; Wachi, S ... Cell. 153 (6): 1366-1378. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.05.015. PMC 3955170. PMID 23746847. Kirstein-Miles, J; Scior, A; Deuerling, E ...
... aggregation-prone mutants of the tumor-suppressor protein p53; and semen proteins whose aggregation enhances HIV infection. ... which kills pancreatic β-cells in type-2 diabetes; transthyretin (TTR), which causes familial amyloid polyneuropathy, familial ... Lysine-specific molecular tweezers are broad-spectrum inhibitor of aggregation and toxicity of amyloid proteins. J. Am. Chem. ... The Lys-specific molecular tweezer, CLR01, modulates aggregation of mutant p53 DNA binding domain and inhibits its toxicity, ...
"Arfaptin 2 regulates the aggregation of mutant huntingtin protein". Nature Cell Biology. 4 (3): 240-5. doi:10.1038/ncb761. PMID ... Molecular Biology of the Cell. 14 (9): 3767-81. doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-01-0864. PMC 196566. PMID 12972563. Rangone H, Pardo R, ...
"Transient aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins during dendritic cell maturation". Nature. 417 (6885): 177-82. doi:10.1038/ ... Subsequently, research at the CIML expanded to other cells of the immune system, including B cells, dendritic cells and natural ... 2012). "Tuning of Natural Killer Cell Reactivity by NKp46 and Helios Calibrates T Cell Responses". Science. 335 (6066): 344-8. ... 2009). "MafB restricts M-CSF-dependent myeloid commitment divisions of hematopoietic stem cells". Cell. 138 (2): 300-13. doi: ...
Both modifications enhance BiP's ability to prevent protein aggregation. In mice cells, the conserved cysteine pair forms a ... These cysteines have been shown to undergo post-translational modifications in both yeast and mammalian cells. In yeast cells, ... In contrast, viruses rely on host BiP to successfully replicate, largely by infecting cells through cell-surface BiP, ... "Inhibition of antigen-presenting cell function and stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to express an ...
Tuchin DA, Erve PR, Schumer W (1976). "Prevention of endotoxin--induced irreversible platelet aggregation in vitro". Surgical ... Molecular Cell. 19 (1): 89-100. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2005.05.015. PMID 15989967. Wada O, Oishi H, Takada I, Yanagisawa J, Yano ... Molecular Cell. 3 (1): 97-108. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80178-1. PMID 10024883. Donner AJ, Ebmeier CC, Taatjes DJ, Espinosa JM ...
These byproducts can react with cellular proteins to cause misfolding and aggregation (especially in nondividing cells like ... 2014). "Proteostasis impairment in protein-misfolding and aggregation diseases". Trends Cell Biol. 24 (9): 211-217. doi:10.1016 ... The unregulated cell division that marks cancer development requires increased protein synthesis for cancer cell function and ... This can change the sensitivity of cancer cells to antineoplastic drugs; cancer cells either die at a lower drug concentration ...
... the transient auto-aggregation of these cells in suspension and equally transient fall in circulating neutrophils when injected ... Follow-up studies found that the genes of mitochondria and chloroplasts organelles of Eukaryote cells, including those of ... O'Flaherty JT, Kreutzer DL, Showell HS, Becker EL, Ward PA (Dec 1978). "Desensitization of the neutrophil aggregation response ... O'Flaherty JT, Kreutzer DL, Ward PA (Jul 1977). "Neutrophil aggregation and swelling induced by chemotactic agents". Journal of ...
The host reacts against the tick lesion by haemostasis, inflammation and cell mediated immunity (CMI). An array of ... PGE2 and prostacyclin inhibit platelet aggregation and dilate blood vessels. Feeding is almost continuous with pulses of ... intracellular bacterial parasite that proliferates within the endothelial cells of small blood vessels, causing a vasculitis. ...
... with Fc epsilon RI gamma 2 subunits in U937 cells. Aggregation induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of gamma 2". Journal of ... FcαRI is present on the cell surface of myeloid lineage cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and eosinophils, ... FcαRI is also an important Fc receptor for neutrophil killing of tumor cells. When FcαRI-expressing neutrophils come into ... van Egmond M, Bakema JE (June 2013). "Neutrophils as effector cells for antibody-based immunotherapy of cancer". Seminars in ...
Various cell types play a role in HR, including astrocytes, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, and ... This promotes platelet adhesion and aggregation. Moreover, only once disruption of the plaque surface has occurred are these ... This ultimately ends with cell death, as cells succumb to a lack of nutrients to power their metabolism and to a toxic brain ... These consist of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, and as these pial arteries further branch and run deeper into the ...
Irwin J.W. (1973) Blood Cell Aggregation and Pulmonary Embolism. In: Bruley D.F., Bicher H.I. (eds) Oxygen Transport to Tissue ...
Each tick, one eligible dead cell goes live.. Dead cells are invisible (black). Live cells are shown in orange or red depending ... Hex Cell Aggregation. If you download the NetLogo application, this model is included. (You can also run this model in your ... Diffusion Limited Aggregation Life Hex Cells Example. CREDITS AND REFERENCES. This model was inspired by Stephen Wolframs A ... Only the center cell is alive at the start.. The switches determine which dead cells are eligible to become alive. For example ...
... they used established aggregation and cell viability assays to determine the effects of the designed CPPs on the aggregation ... Home Neurological Disorders Alzheimers Alzheimers Disease Protein Aggregation Prevented by Cell-Penetrating Peptides ... NYUAD researchers have developed small proteins called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) that prevent the aggregation of the Aβ ... "Designed Cell-Penetrating Peptide Inhibitors of Amyloid-beta Aggregation and Cytotoxicity." ...
7f) Mammalian Cell-Based Methods Monitoring Protein Misfolding and Aggregation. *Conference: AIChE Annual Meeting ... Fusion of both mfrGFP and EGFP were effective in monitoring mutant SOD1 aggregation within cultured cells, whereas split GFP ... In order to quantitatively and qualitatively monitor protein misfolding and aggregation in mammalian cells, we utilized three ... Despites the benefits of mammalian cells to study misfolding and aggregation of human proteins associated with ...
Experimental Evolution Reveals Favored Adaptive Routes to Cell Aggregation in Yeast. Elyse A. Hope, Clara J. Amorosi, Aaron W. ... Experimental Evolution Reveals Favored Adaptive Routes to Cell Aggregation in Yeast. Elyse A. Hope, Clara J. Amorosi, Aaron W. ... Experimental Evolution Reveals Favored Adaptive Routes to Cell Aggregation in Yeast. Elyse A. Hope, Clara J. Amorosi, Aaron W. ... Experimental Evolution Reveals Favored Adaptive Routes to Cell Aggregation in Yeast Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
... as a result of cell-cell aggregation. The simulation results are compared with the results of experimental measurement. ... Some Monte Carlo simulation results based on the model are presented for the heterotypic cell-cell collision and adhesion to a ... In particular, we focus on leukocyte (PMN)-melanoma cell emboli formation and subsequent tethering to the vascular endothelium ... we develop a population balance model for cell aggregation and adhesion process in a nonuniform shear flow. ...
The behavior of mammalian cells within three-dimensional structures is an area of intense biological research and underpins the ... Cell Aggregation / physiology*. Extracellular Matrix / physiology. Hepatocytes / cytology*. Humans. Liver / cytology*. Models, ... We propose a simple mathematical model for the early stages of this aggregation process, when cell clusters form on the surface ... 17475015 - Requirement of aggregation propensity of alzheimer amyloid peptides for neuronal cell s.... ...
The cell body area, average neurite length, neurite width, number of primary neurites, and percent of bipolar cells and node/ ... We observed that the oligomeric form of insulin impaired the growth and complexity of PC12 cells compared to other forms. ... primary neurite ratios were used to assess the growth and complexity of PC12 cells exposed to different forms of insulin. ... our data suggest that the lower surface tension of oligomers and their perturbation affects the morphology of PC12 cells, ...
Aggregation between teratocarcinoma cells and preimplantation mouse embryos Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... The ability of two embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell lines, F9 and PCI3, to aggregate with preimplantation 8-cell mouse embryos is ... The blastocysts sometimes contain the EC cells, located almost always in their inner cell mass. Differentiated derivatives of ... J Cell Sci 2017 130: 3809-3817; doi: 10.1242/jcs.206532. Interkinetic nuclear migration and basal tethering facilitates post- ...
D) Conditioned medium from α-syn-DsRed-expressing HEK cells was incubated with native SH-SY5Y cells for 5 days. Cells were ... α-Synuclein propagates from mouse brain to grafted dopaminergic neurons and seeds aggregation in cultured human cells.. Hansen ... α-Synuclein propagates from mouse brain to grafted dopaminergic neurons and seeds aggregation in cultured human cells ... α-Synuclein propagates from mouse brain to grafted dopaminergic neurons and seeds aggregation in cultured human cells ...
Isolated aggregations of lymphoid cells (IALC) may be sites of localized inflammatory cell activation. Their distribution and ... Aggregations of lymphoid cells in the airways of nonsmokers, smokers, and subjects with asthma.. Elliot JG1, Jensen CM, ... Proliferating, apoptotic, and antigen-presenting cells (Rel B+ and HLA-DR+) were less than 5%, 30-40%, and less than 1% of all ... Within IALC, T and B lymphocytes were segregated and comprised more than 90% of all cells. ...
Huawei boosts HSPA cell edge with multi-carrier aggregation. Monday 24 February 2014 , 15:17 CET , News ... However, user throughput at the cell edge is not as high as at the cell centre due to lower radio strength and interference ... Ofloading and carrier aggregation still not enough to make mobile a fixed-line replacement 25 Feb 2014 , World , Background ... Huawei promotes crowd-sourcing to speed up small cells 24 Feb 2014 , World , News ...
Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells-1: a new player in platelet aggregation.. [Lucie Jolly, Jeremie Lemarie, Kevin ... Another member of the TREM family, The Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells Like Transcript-1 (TLT-1) is exclusively ... Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is an immunoreceptor initially known to be expressed on neutrophils ... Pharmacologic inhibition of TREM-1 reduces platelet activation as well as platelet aggregation induced by collagen, ADP, and ...
Alpha-synuclein-induced aggregation of cytoplasmic vesicles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol. Biol. Cell 19, 1093-1103 (2008). ... Cell models of lipid-rich α-synuclein aggregation validate known modifiers of α-synuclein biology and identify stearoyl-CoA ... Cell models of lipid-rich α-synuclein aggregation validate known modifiers of α-synuclein biology and identify stearoyl-CoA ... Cell models of lipid-rich α-synuclein aggregation validate known modifiers of α-synuclein biology and identify stearoyl-CoA ...
Expansion of the polyQ repeats in THAP11 forms intranuclear aggregation and causes cell G0/G1 arrest. Cell Biology ... Expansion of the polyQ repeats in THAP11 forms intranuclear aggregation and causes cell G0/G1 arrest. ... vector and then the cells were treated with 5μM PonA for the indicated time. Cells were harvested and the expression of THAP11 ... Figure S2. Stable PC12 cell line expressing pVg-RXR was transfected with pIND- THAP11(29Q) or pIND-THAP11(38Q) ...
D) Conditioned medium from α-syn-DsRed-expressing HEK cells was incubated with native SH-SY5Y cells for 5 days. Cells were ... SKMel5 plus PC12/GFP cell coculture. SKMel5 cells and PC12 cells stably expressing GFP were cocultured for 4 days in chamber ... misfolded α-syn could be released from a donor cell, be taken up by a recipient cell, and then seed aggregation of endogenous α ... We cocultured these cells with PC12 rat neuroblastoma cells that stably expressed GFP. After 4 days, we stained the cells with ...
Platelet Adhesion and Aggregation Under Flow using Microfluidic Flow Cells. J. Vis. Exp. (32), e1644, doi:10.3791/1644 (2009). ... Jackson, S. P. The growing complexity of platelet aggregation. Blood. 109, 5087-5095 (2007). ... The Effect of the Pannexin1-inhibitor Brilliant Blue FCF on Collagen-induced Aggregation… ...
... is a cell surface glycoprotein that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Although MPH was initially reported as the mouse ... Those mouse cells showed a higher activity of cell aggregation than the parental mouse L cells. Enhancement of cell aggregation ... did not show increased cell aggregation. The cell aggregation activity of L cells expressing mPRR2 was inhibited by the ... Mouse homolog of poliovirus receptor-related gene 2 product, mPRR2, mediates homophilic cell aggregation Exp Cell Res. 1997 Sep ...
These findings open new perspectives for understanding the pathogenesis of protein aggregation in retinal cells and can be ... aggregation and functional abnormalities during aging. The protein aggregates formed at the cell periphery are delivered along ... protein aggregation in a way that is independent of HDAC inhibition or the tubulin acetylation levels in ARPE-19 cells. However ... the tubulin acetylation and polymerization state affects the localization of the proteasome-inhibitor-induced aggregation. ...
... cell migration and cell-cell interactions," Trends in Cell Biology, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 291-297, 2008. View at Publisher · View ... R. R. Kopito, "Aggresomes, inclusion bodies and protein aggregation," Trends in Cell Biology, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 524-530, ... "Geldanamycin activates a heat shock response and inhibits huntingtin aggregation in a cell culture model of Huntingtons ... "The deacetylase HDAC6 regulates aggresome formation and cell viability in response to misfolded protein stress," Cell, vol. 115 ...
GFP_Syn cell-derived exosomes induce neuronal cell death in vitro.. Fig. S4. Visualization of cell-to-cell transmission of αSyn ... Hence, in this study, we assessed the effects of environmental Mn2+ on αSyn aggregation, secretion and cell-to-cell ... Manganese promotes the aggregation and prion-like cell-to-cell exosomal transmission of α-synuclein ... Manganese promotes the aggregation and prion-like cell-to-cell exosomal transmission of α-synuclein ...
... suspended cells. Thus, any small change of RBC aggregation in the surface-layer cells may affect significantly on the ... Red blood cells (RBCs) in normal human blood tend to form linear and branched aggregates. This RBC aggregation plays an ... O. K. Baskurt, H. J. Meiselman, and E. Kayar, "Measurement of red blood cell aggregation in a "plate-plate" shearing system by ... Both methods are widely used for examining the behavior of RBC aggregation under zero-or steady-shear conditions. After cells ...
Cristian V. L. Pop, Cristian V. L. Pop, Silvia Neamtu, Silvia Neamtu, } "Aggregation of red blood cells in suspension: study by ... Aggregation of red blood cells in suspension: study by light-scattering technique at small angles. ... Cristian V. L. Pop, Silvia Neamtu, "Aggregation of red blood cells in suspension: study by light-scattering technique at small ... Red blood cells (RBCs) in the presence of plasma proteins or other macromolecules have a tendency to form aggregates. Light- ...
Both cell viability and survival only lost less than 20% when the cells were exposed to the high concentration of 100 μg/mL ... Moreover, they can stay inside cells, enabling the tacking of cells over a long period of time. The intracellular vesicles and ... Additionally, the cell apoptosis and intracellular ROS assay indicated that FSNP-SD had no significant toxic effects at the ... This study demonstrated that the FSNP-SD are promising biocompatible fluorescent probes for living cell imaging. ...
... be identical or associated with the molecular units of the cell membrane that mediate cell-to-cell contacts during aggregation ... DYNAMICS OF ANTIGENIC MEMBRANE SITES RELATING TO CELL AGGREGATION IN DICTYOSTELIUM DISCOIDEUM. H. Beug, F. E. Katz, G. Gerisch ... Blockage of these sites leads to aggregation patterns in which the side-by-side contacts of aggregating cells are abolished. ... One class of these sites is specific for aggregation-competent cells, their quantity rising from virtually 0-level during ...
Therefore, we investigated the effect of shear-induced platelet activation on red blood cell (RBC) aggregation. The hypothesis ... Effect of shear-induced platelet activation on red blood cell aggregation Article type: Research Article ... In our study, an increase in RBC aggregation indices (critical shear stress (CSS) and aggregation index (AI)) by shear-induced ... Therefore, since high shear application results in the unexpected effect on RBC aggregation, conditions for shear application ...
These primary cell cultures were then tested for the differential ability to induce baboon or pig platelet aggregation. ... Results: None of the pig cells induced aggregation or phagocytosis of porcine platelets. However, pig hepatocytes, liver ... Mechanisms of xenogeneic baboon platelet aggregation and phagocytosis by porcine liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. PLoS ONE 7 ... Mechanisms of Xenogeneic Baboon Platelet Aggregation and Phagocytosis by Porcine Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells. ...
Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) dye-based fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) were prepared via Schiff base ... Facile fabrication and cell imaging applications of aggregation-induced emission dye-based fluorescent organic nanoparticles X ... Facile fabrication and cell imaging applications of aggregation-induced emission dye-based fluorescent organic nanoparticles ... Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) dye-based fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) were prepared via Schiff base ...
All three small molecules significantly attenuated platelet aggregation as did the antibody 8C10 although 3H12 had a weaker ... mCRP also induced endothelial cell-monocyte adhesion in a dose dependent fashion, however, both acetylcholine and nicotine as ... mCRP also induced endothelial cell-monocyte adhesion in a dose dependent fashion, however, both acetylcholine and nicotine as ... All three small molecules significantly attenuated platelet aggregation as did the antibody 8C10 although 3H12 had a weaker ...
... a single cell suspension of MDA-MB-435 or DU-145 cells (5 × 104 cells/ml) was perfused for a 15-min period. Tumor cell ... Homotypic tumor cell adhesion (aggregation) leads to the formation of multicellular malignant cell aggregates. Because ... Rolling (C2) tumor cell approaches stably adhered (C1) cell to form a two-cell aggregate, which remains stably adhered to the ... It appears that similarly heterotypic tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium induces homotypic cancer cell aggregation ...
  • CPPs alone, or coupled to cargoes many times their own molecular mass, enter cells with high efficiency and low toxicity in vitro and in vivo and target specific intracellular organelles. (genengnews.com)
  • Finite-difference and pseudo-spectral methods for the numerical simulations of in vitro human tumor cell population kinetics. (aimsciences.org)
  • A mathematical model of liver cell aggregation in vitro. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Xia Y, Li M, Peng T, Zhang W, Xiong J, Hu Q, Song Z, Zheng Q. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles Hybridized with Aggregation-Induced Emission Luminogens for Living Cell Imaging. (mdpi.com)
  • In order to study the mechanisms of platelet consumption in liver xenotransplantation, we have developed an in vitro system to examine the interaction between pig endothelial cells with baboon platelets and to thereby identify molecular mechanisms and therapies. (harvard.edu)
  • Here, we demonstrate in vitro , ex vivo , and in vivo that metastatic breast and prostate carcinoma cells form multicellular homotypic aggregates at the sites of their primary attachment to the endothelium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This work aims to ascertain the structure-activity relationship of FA and its alkyl esters (FAEs) for evaluating the antioxidant activities in PC12 cells and Aβ 1-42 aggregation inhibitory activities in vitro , as well as the signaling mechanisms against oxidative stress elicited by Aβ 1-42 in PC12 cells. (rsc.org)
  • A hamster mAb, DMF10.62.3, inhibited the spontaneous, thymocyte-induced, and PMA-stimulated proliferation of E710.2.3 in vitro and induced these cells to undergo apoptosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, soluble Mer decreased platelet aggregation in vitro and prevented fatal collagen/epinephrine-induced thromboembolism in mice, suggesting a potential therapeutic use for soluble Mer in the treatment of clotting disorders. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 18 Axl and Tyro - 3 also transform cells in vitro 3 , 4 and are overexpressed in a spectrum of human cancers. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Mice lacking either Gas6 or Mer protein have impaired platelet aggregation in vitro and diminished clot stability in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • As the in vitro aggregation of amino-terminal mutant huntingtin fragment offers a ready assay to identify small compounds that interfere with the conformation of the polyglutamine tract, we have identified a number of aggregation inhibitors, and tested whether these are also capable of reversing a phenotype caused by endogenous expression of mutant huntingtin in a striatal cell line from the \(Hdh^{Q111/Q111}\) knock-in mouse. (harvard.edu)
  • Results: We screened the NINDS Custom Collection of 1,040 FDA approved drugs and bioactive compounds for their ability to prevent in vitro aggregation of Q58-htn 1-171 amino terminal fragment. (harvard.edu)
  • Conclusions: At least some compounds identified as aggregation inhibitors also prevent a neuronal cellular phenotype caused by full-length mutant huntingtin, suggesting that in vitro fragment aggregation can act as a proxy for monitoring the disease-producing conformational property in HD. (harvard.edu)
  • Thus, identification and testing of compounds that alter in vitro aggregation is a viable approach for defining potential therapeutic compounds that may act on the deleterious conformational property of full-length mutant huntingtin. (harvard.edu)
  • The different capability of phthalocyanines and meso-tetra ( N -methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetrachloride ([H 2 PrTPCl 4 ]) to modulate αS aggregation in vitro was reproduced in cell-based models of αS aggregation, demonstrating unequivocally that the modulation exerted by these compounds on amyloid assembly is a direct consequence of their interaction with the target protein. (springer.com)
  • In this study, P-cadherin not only promoted migration of EOC cells, but also facilitated the assembly of floating EOC cells into multicellular aggregates and inhibited anoikis in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, inhibiting P-cadherin by short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) or a neutralizing antibody prevented EOC cells from attaching to peritoneal mesothelial cells in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Endothelium-derived relaxing factor inhibits platelet aggregation in human whole blood in vitro and in the rat in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • After the first research declaring the generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) in 2007, several attempts have been made to model neurodegenerative disease in vitro during the past decade. (bmbreports.org)
  • In the case of somatic neural stem cell therapies one of the present limitations is indeed the starting source of material, which is in most of the cases collected out of therapeutic abortions and then extensively expanded/manipulated in vitro, prior to transplantation. (news-medical.net)
  • AIMS: To investigate aggregation and adhesiveness of Lactobacillus acidophilus M92 to porcine ileal epithelial cells in vitro, and the influence of cell surface proteins on autoaggregation and adhesiveness of this strain. (mendeley.com)
  • Mechanistic studies of both productive protein folding and misfolding/aggregation have been considerably advanced by the ability to observe these reactions in vitro with purified proteins. (jci.org)
  • An international research team headed by scientists at New York University (NYU) Abu Dhabi has developed small proteins called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), which can prevent formation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) protein aggregates that are characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and so inhibit Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. (genengnews.com)
  • In the particular case of hepatocytes (liver cells), the formation of spheroidal multicellular aggregates has been shown to improve cell viability and functionality compared to traditional monolayer culture techniques. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The model predicts that provided cells are seeded at a suitable density, aggregates with clearly defined boundaries and a spatially uniform cell density on the interior will form. (biomedsearch.com)
  • While the mechanical properties of the ECM do not appear to have a significant effect, strong cell-ECM interactions can inhibit, or possibly prevent, the formation of aggregates. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Importantly, α-syn-GFP derived from 1 neuroblastoma cell line localized to red fluorescent aggregates in other cells expressing DsRed-α-syn, suggesting a seeding effect of transmitted α-syn. (nih.gov)
  • The protein aggregates formed at the cell periphery are delivered along the microtubulus network by dynein-dependent retrograde trafficking to a juxtanuclear location. (hindawi.com)
  • HDAC6 controls major cell response pathways to cytotoxic accumulation of protein aggregates," Genes and Development , vol. 21, no. 17, pp. 2172-2181, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Red blood cells (RBCs) in normal human blood tend to form linear and branched aggregates. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Red blood cells (RBCs) in the presence of plasma proteins or other macromolecules have a tendency to form aggregates. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The time dependence of the aggregates mean radius and of the mean number of cells per aggregate was also calculated. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Homotypic tumor cell adhesion (aggregation) leads to the formation of multicellular malignant cell aggregates. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Early pioneering works from the groups of Drs. Isaiah Fidler, Reuben Lotan, Garth Nicolson, and Avraham Raz (12 , 13 , 14) , as well as our previous results (6 , 15) , demonstrated that cancer cells with high metastatic potential exhibit a superior ability to form homotypic aggregates compared with their low metastatic counterparts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Together, these two approaches firmly establish the protective effect of SAP on TTR-induced cell death and degenerative phenotypes, and suggest a novel role for SAP through which the toxicity of early amyloidogenic aggregates is attenuated. (diva-portal.org)
  • A recent set of experiments involving yeast cell populations have shown that selection for faster sedimenting cells leads to the appearance of stable aggregates of cells that are able to split into smaller clusters. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In this scenario, MC aggregates can form under some conditions and disaggregate into non-clonal individual cells. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The authors took advantage of the fastest sedimentation speed of cell aggregates of increasing size as a shortcut for selecting for more complex cell assemblies and potential mutations favouring them. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In these diseases, S. aureus forms biofilms as cell aggregates interspersed in host matrix material. (asm.org)
  • Sickle cell anemia (n=21) and SCC (n=19) subjects had a lower red blood cell aggregation index and longer time for red blood cell aggregates formation than AA (n=16) and AS (n=15), and a 2 to 3 fold greater shear rate required to disperse red blood cell aggregates. (haematologica.org)
  • Red blood cell aggregation properties are likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease: the increased shear forces needed to disperse red blood cell aggregates may disturb blood flow, especially at the microcirculatory level, since red blood cell are only able to pass through narrow capillaries as single cells rather than as aggregates. (haematologica.org)
  • In addition to generation of spheroidal DP microtissues for hair follicle regeneration and large-scale production of aggregates of other cells, this strategy can help to regulate the tissue-substrate adhesivity and tissue spreadability on the surface of implantable materials. (nih.gov)
  • EOC cells typically disseminate by shedding into the peritoneal fluid in which they survive as multicellular aggregates and then implant onto peritoneal surfaces. (aacrjournals.org)
  • EOC cells are frequently present in ascites either as floating multicellular aggregates or as single cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Differentially Expressed in FDCP6 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, primarily expressed in T cells, which has been previously shown to form cytoplasmic aggregates when phosphorylated by ITK. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Similar to the wild-type protein, Foxp2 (R552H) localized in the nuclei of the Purkinje cells and the thalamus, striatum, cortex, and hippocampus (CA1) neurons of the homozygous Foxp2 (R552H)-KI mice (postnatal day 10), and some of the neurons showed nuclear aggregates of Foxp2 (R552H). (pnas.org)
  • In addition to the immature development of the cerebellum, Foxp2 (R552H) nuclear aggregates may further compromise the function of the Purkinje cells and cerebral neurons of the homozygous mice, resulting in their death. (pnas.org)
  • In bacteria, the production of exopolysaccharides-polysaccharides secreted by the cells into their growth medium-is integral to the formation of aggregates and biofilms. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This force leads to self-organization of the bacteria into small clusters of laterally aligned cells, and, furthermore, leads to aggregates clustering into biofilm-like structures on a surface. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The work, published in Cell as the cover story, details how the team developed yTRAP and then used it to study a variety of protein aggregates, including disease-relevant proteins, RNA-binding proteins and prions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Heat activated the prion to aggregate in a batch of cells and the hotter it got, the more aggregates formed. (eurekalert.org)
  • This synthetic cellular memory device is like installing a dimmer switch onto that light--the brighter the light gets, the more aggregates will form in the cell population. (eurekalert.org)
  • Protein aggregates can cause a cell to gain or lose a function," says Khalil. (eurekalert.org)
  • Stress granules are basically liquid droplets in the cell, similar in content to the toxic protein aggregates found in ALS and FTLD, but different in that their assembly is dynamic and reversible. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cells have mechanisms that can refold or degrade protein aggregates. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, as cells age, these control mechanisms are weakened and the cell is less able to resolve the aggregates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of the ARK protein in Drosophila S2 cells induces formation of cell aggregates consisting of ARK-expressing cells, and aggregation leads to receptor activation, with an increase in receptor phosphorylation. (meta.org)
  • It seems to form aggregates with control substances (p63 and p73) in the cell, causing them to lose their function as well. (phys.org)
  • abstract = "During the past 40 years, mouse chimeras have served as invaluable tools for studying not only genetics but also embryonic development, and the path from undifferentiated cell populations to fully committed functional cell types. (monash.edu)
  • The designed CPPs represent a novel potential treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease," said NYU Abu Dhabi assistant professor of biology, Mazin Magzoub, PhD. "These findings also reveal a general underlying principle for inhibition of pathogenic protein aggregation that will facilitate the design of even more potent CPP-based therapeutics for various neurodegenerative diseases. (genengnews.com)
  • Pharmacologic inhibition of TREM-1 reduces platelet activation as well as platelet aggregation induced by collagen, ADP, and thrombin in human platelets. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We demonstrate that Hsp90 inhibition by geldanamycin can effectively suppress proteasome inhibitor, MG-132-induced protein aggregation in a way that is independent of HDAC inhibition or the tubulin acetylation levels in ARPE-19 cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Acetylcholine and to a lesser extent nicotine show potential for therapeutic inhibition of mCRP-induced inflammation and cell and platelet adhesion. (frontiersin.org)
  • We first investigated the effects of cell source and culture conditions on lung colony formation by i.v. injected B16a (B16 amelanotic melanoma) cells and inhibition of tumor colony formation by the thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitor, CGS14854. (rti.org)
  • Lung colony formation by elutriated B16a cells (i.e., cells freshly isolated from tumor tissue) was consistently inhibited by CGS14854, whereas inhibition of lung colony formation by cultured B16a cells was dependent upon culture conditions. (rti.org)
  • The inhibition of Gas6 activity by soluble Mer led to defective macrophage-mediated engulfment of apoptotic cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The suppression of cell-aggregation activity indicates the potential of these compounds in the treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections via the inhibition of SrtA. (omicsonline.org)
  • Inhibition of cell migration hinders spheroid formation. (nih.gov)
  • Luzak B, Golanski J, Rozalski M, Krajewska U, Olas B, Watala C. Basic researchExtract from Aronia melanocarpa fruits potentiates the inhibition of platelet aggregation in the presence of endothelial cells. (termedia.pl)
  • There are no literature reports on the modulation of endothelial cell (EC)-induced inhibition of platelet aggregation by polyphenolic compounds. (termedia.pl)
  • In mouse intraperitoneal xenograft models of EOC, inhibition of P-cadherin decreased the aggregation and survival of floating tumor cells in ascites and reduced the number of tumor implants on peritoneal surfaces. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Role of Hsp70, Hsp90 and proteasome inhibition were evaluated in cellular aggregation in human RPE cells (ARPE-19). (arvojournals.org)
  • Inhibition of intravascular platelet aggregation by endothelium-derived relaxing factor: reversal by red blood cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Studies were performed to determine whether endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) can inhibit platelet aggregation within the vascular lumen, and if so, whether the inhibition persists in the presence of red blood cells (RBCs). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Inhibition of human platelet reactivity by endothelium-derived relaxing factor from human umbilical vein endothelial cells in suspension: blockade of aggregation and secretion by an aspirin-insensitive mechanism. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Activation of guanylate cyclase and inhibition of platelet aggregation by endothelium-derived relaxing factor released from cultured cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Synergistic inhibition of platelet aggregation by endothelium-derived relaxing factor and prostacyclin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Dose-dependent inhibition of the abilities of AIEC strain LF82 to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial T84 cells was observed when bacteria were pre-treated with both exogenous meprin α and meprin β. (plos.org)
  • 2.Recently, abnormal protein accumulation and aggregation due to protein misfolding and proteasome inhibition have been implicated in the pathogenesis of RD. In this paper we describe effects of several factors on protein aggregation and survival of photoreceptor cells. (cf.ac.uk)
  • NYUAD researchers have developed small proteins called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) that prevent the aggregation of the Aβ protein. (genengnews.com)
  • One significant obstacle to the successful application of most proteins as therapeutics is their poor delivery to target organs and cells. (genengnews.com)
  • The constructs effectively combine beneficial properties of proteins with potent therapeutic effects and highly efficient delivery to target cells. (genengnews.com)
  • Despites the benefits of mammalian cells to study misfolding and aggregation of human proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases, mammalian cell-based monitoring methods have not been explored much. (aiche.org)
  • In order to quantitatively and qualitatively monitor protein misfolding and aggregation in mammalian cells, we utilized three folding reporter proteins, split GFPs, mammalian folding reporter GFP (mfrGFP), and EGFP as a fusion partner. (aiche.org)
  • The cellular fluorescence of transfected HEK293T and NSC-34 cells expressing fusion proteins was determined by flow cytometry. (aiche.org)
  • Identification of THAP11 binding proteins in PC12 cells. (wiley.com)
  • Control of protein turnover is particularly important in postmitotic cells, since the accumulation of malfunctioning proteins may be highly detrimental to the cells [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is believed that the aggregation of oxidized and ubiquinated proteins is due to a decline in the proteasomal activity with age, and that this also occurs in RPE cells [ 7 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Numerous genetic knockout experiments have shown that the sortase A (SrtA) isoform plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Gram-positive bacteria by modulating the ability of the bacterium to adhere to host tissue via the covalent anchoring of adhesions and other virulence-associated proteins to cell wall peptidoglycan. (omicsonline.org)
  • Therefore, PrP C may protect against Htt toxicity in neuronal cells by increasing cellular defense proteins, decreasing ROS and increasing proteasome activity thereby increasing Htt degradation. (biologists.org)
  • The proteins that are modulated by the proteasome are involved in the control of inflammatory processes, cell cycle regulation, and gene expression. (arvojournals.org)
  • In response to various stresses, cells increase the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps). (arvojournals.org)
  • MG-132 proteasome inhibitor caused robust accumulation of Hsp70 protein and ubiquitinated proteins in ARPE-19 cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • The reversible red blood cell aggregation induced by polymers or proteins continues to be of biological and biophysical interest and the details regarding this process are still being explored. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • This thread is known as protein aggregation and happens when proteins clump together. (eurekalert.org)
  • Now, Assistant Professor Ahmad S. Khalil (BME) along with colleagues from MIT and the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, among others, have built a synthetic genetic tool called yTRAP (yeast Transcriptional Reporting of Aggregating Proteins) to quantitatively sense, measure and manipulate protein aggregation in live cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using the new tool, Khalil and the team created sensors to track aggregation of prions and other proteins, manipulated prions to engineer synthetic memories in cells, identified genes that can cure cells of prions and enabled high-throughput studies to learn what can influence protein aggregation and its consequences. (eurekalert.org)
  • With the help of the tool, they uncovered aggregation prone RNA-binding proteins, monitored the consequences of their aggregation and performed high-throughput screens to see how the aggregation of one protein influences another. (eurekalert.org)
  • Protein aggregation is a biological phenomenon in which intrinsically disordered proteins or mis-folded proteins aggregate (i.e., accumulate and clump together) either intra- or extracellularly. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these cases, if the cell does not assist the protein in re-folding, or degrade the unfolded protein, the unfolded/misfolded protein may aggregate, in which the exposed hydrophobic portions of the protein may interact with the exposed hydrophobic patches of other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to mutations in the affected proteins themselves, protein aggregation could also be caused indirectly through mutations in proteins in regulatory pathways such as the refolding pathway (molecular chaperones) or the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (ubiquitin ligases). (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cell surface proteins revealed the presence of potential surface layer (S-layer) proteins, approximated at 45 kDa, in L. acidophilus M92. (mendeley.com)
  • 5.These results suggest that chaperones and selegiline may be considered promising candidates for the protection of ocular cells from the accumulation of misfolded and aggregated proteins. (cf.ac.uk)
  • In these proteins, the expanded polyQ tract perturbs the native conformation, resulting in an ordered aggregation process that leads to the formation of amyloid-like fibrils. (springer.com)
  • The presence or increased concentrations of acute phase proteins, particularly fibrinogen, results in enhanced erythrocyte aggregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erythrocyte aggregation is the reversible clumping of red blood cells (RBCs) under low shear forces or at stasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erythrocyte aggregation is a physiological phenomenon that takes places in normal blood under low-flow conditions or at stasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erythrocyte aggregation is determined by both suspending phase (blood plasma) and cellular properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erythrocyte aggregation is the main determinant of blood viscosity at low shear rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influence of erythrocyte aggregation on in vivo blood flow is still a controversial issue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erythrocyte aggregation also affects hemodynamic mechanisms in microcirculation and vascular control mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erythrocyte aggregation can also be quantitated by monitoring optical properties of blood during the time course of aggregation process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another member of the TREM family, The Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells Like Transcript-1 (TLT-1) is exclusively expressed in platelets and promotes platelet aggregation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The hypothesis of the present research is as follows: Platelets activated by high shear stress secrete substances, which can affect hemorheological characteristics to promote RBC aggregation. (iospress.com)
  • Phagocytosis was evaluated by direct observation of CFSE labeled-platelets, which are incubated with endothelial cells under confocal light microscopy. (harvard.edu)
  • Results: None of the pig cells induced aggregation or phagocytosis of porcine platelets. (harvard.edu)
  • However, pig hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal and aortic endothelial cells (GTKO and Gal+) all induced moderate aggregation of baboon platelets. (harvard.edu)
  • Importantly, pig liver sinusoidal endothelial cells efficiently phagocytosed baboon platelets, while pig aortic endothelial cells and hepatocytes had minimal effects on platelet numbers. (harvard.edu)
  • Conclusions: Although pig hepatocytes and aortic endothelial cells directly caused aggregation of baboon platelets, only pig liver endothelial cells efficiently phagocytosed baboon platelets. (harvard.edu)
  • It has been shown that cell membranes, liposomes, and static activated platelets can dissociate pentameric or native C-reactive protein (nCRP) into the monomeric and highly pro-inflammatory form via binding to phosphocholine groups on lysophosphatidylcholine. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mechanistic studies indicated that LD/LP tumor cells induced aggregation of homologous platelets, whereas HD/HP B16a cells failed to induce significant platelet aggregation. (rti.org)
  • Aggregation of homologous platelets correlated positively with lung-colonizing ability. (rti.org)
  • Stable overexpression of cytochrome P450 2C9 in EA.hy926 cells (EA.hy2C9 cells) resulted in release of EETs and a factor that hyperpolarized platelets and inhibited their adhesion to endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions- EETs hyperpolarize platelets and inactivate them by inhibiting adhesion molecule expression and platelet adhesion to cultured endothelial cells in a membrane potential-dependent manner. (ahajournals.org)
  • BM-MSCs and LA-MSCs inhibited activation and aggregation of stimulated platelets independent of the agonist used. (biomedcentral.com)
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  • Clustering of collagen-binding integrins induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 that cleaves the E-cadherin ectodomain, thereby loosening adhesion between EOC cells and enabling tumor cells to shed ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pinho, B. R. , Reis, S. D. , Hartley, R. C. , Murphy, M. P. and Oliveira, J. M.A. (2019) Mitochondrial superoxide generation induces a parkinsonian phenotype in zebrafish and huntingtin aggregation in human cells. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Wild-type Aurora-A induces focus formation and aggregation of the Ras V12 transformants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We propose a simple mathematical model for the early stages of this aggregation process, when cell clusters form on the surface of the extracellular matrix (ECM) layer on which they are seeded. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Extracellular α-syn was taken up by cells through endocytosis and interacted with intracellular α-syn. (nih.gov)
  • Both intra- and extracellular aggregation processes are crucial in cell degeneration and AMD [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Western blotting confirmed the ability of acetylcholine to inhibit mCRP-induced cell signaling phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). (frontiersin.org)
  • IMPORTANCE This study revealed that SpoVG can modulate cell aggregation by repressing sasC expression and extracellular DNA (eDNA) release. (asm.org)
  • Spatiotemporal responses to extracellular signals have been documented in a wide variety of cells, such as neuronal synapses, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, germ cells and during embryo development. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • As a result, DEF6 is a likely candidate in mediating a spatiotemporal response to an extracellular signal in T cells. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Finally, translocation of DEF6 appears to occur in response to an extracellular signal alternative to the T cell receptor during T-T communication and that the translocation may occur in vesicle-like structures in close proximity to LFA-1. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Consequently, these data identify a novel link between DEF6 and active translation as well as mRNA turnover and that the extracellular signal required for this spatial response is not antigen presenting cell specific but rather a response to LFA-1 stimulation. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • It is generally described as the intrinsic, but also environment-reactive, capacity of the grafted stem cells to sense the dysfunctional/pathologic environment and to activate a number of key behavioral responses to extracellular ligand molecules coming from the dysfunctional environment that include cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, neurotransmitters, etc. (news-medical.net)
  • Cells adhere to each other and to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through protein molecules on the surface of the cells. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • The partial differential equations for cell dynamics are coupled with ordinary differential equations describing the extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and the production and decay of integrins. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • The ARK (AXL, UFO) receptor is a member of a new family of receptor tyrosine kinases whose extracellular domain contains a combination of fibronectin type III and immunoglobulin motifs similar to those found in many cell adhesion molecules. (meta.org)
  • Last, the potential of the proposed technique (forward-scattering light technique) as a new quantitative investigation of cellular aggregation process was estimated. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The investigators reported on their developments and results in Cell Reports Physical Science , in a paper titled, " Designed Cell-Penetrating Peptide Inhibitors of Amyloid-beta Aggregation and Cytotoxicity . (genengnews.com)
  • The discovery of aggregation inhibitors and the elucidation of their mechanism of action are key in the quest to mitigate the toxic consequences of amyloid formation. (springer.com)
  • Necula, M., Kayed, R., Milton, S. & Glabe, C. G. Small molecule inhibitors of aggregation indicate that amyloid β oligomerization and fibrillization pathways are independent and distinct. (nature.com)
  • Specific inhibitors of RANTES-induced activation, such as soluble glycosaminoglycans, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta, acted by preventing the binding of RANTES on the cell surface. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These findings suggest the therapeutic applications of novel trehalose analogs in polyglutamine aggregation-associated neurodegenerative diseases. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Prions are a special, heritable form of aggregation and are most famous for transmitting neurodegenerative diseases in mammals. (eurekalert.org)
  • Similarly, other neurodegenerative diseases have recently been discovered to involve protein aggregation. (jci.org)
  • Here we show that a single alanine-for-proline substitution did not affect potency when measured as the ability either to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by ADP (IC 50 ≈ 170nM) or to block transfected A375-SM cell adhesion to fibrinogen in the presence of Mn 2+ as compared with wild-type dendroaspin. (portlandpress.com)
  • Oxidative inactivation of the proteasome in retinal pigment epithelial cells: a potential link between oxidative stress and up-regulation of interleukin-8," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 283, no. 30, pp. 20745-20753, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Alterations of activity and intracellular distribution of the 20S proteasome in ageing retinal pigment epithelial cells," Experimental Gerontology , vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 1114-1122, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Crosstalk between Hsp70 molecular chaperone, lysosomes and proteasomes in autophagy-mediated proteolysis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells," Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine , vol. 13, no. 9b, pp. 3616-3631, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Geldanamycin activates Hsp70 response and attenuates okadaic acid-induced cytotoxicity in human retinal pigment epithelial cells," Molecular Brain Research , vol. 137, no. 1-2, pp. 126-131, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • It is widely recognized that most types of epithelial tumors initially progress by undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process that loosens adhesion between epithelial cells and eases their attachment to the basement membrane ( 7, 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ileal lesions in Crohn's disease (CD) patients are colonized by pathogenic adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) able to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), and to survive within macrophages. (plos.org)
  • The relationship between autoaggregation and adhesiveness to intestinal tissue was investigated by observing the adhesiveness of L. acidophilus M92 to porcine ileal epithelial cells. (mendeley.com)
  • Our findings signify that flow cytometric fluorescence measurement of cells expressing GFP variant fused to mutant SOD1 is a simple, but effective way to monitor mutant SOD1 aggregation in mammalian cells and also has a promise for a high-throughput screening for aggregation modulators. (aiche.org)
  • The behavior of mammalian cells within three-dimensional structures is an area of intense biological research and underpins the efforts of tissue engineers to regenerate human tissues for clinical applications. (biomedsearch.com)
  • AIDA mediates bacterial attachment to a broad variety of human and other mammalian cells. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • only the glycosylated form binds to mammalian cells. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • We applied pulse-shape analysis (PulSA) to monitor protein localization changes in mammalian cells by flow cytometry. (monash.edu)
  • The ability of two embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell lines, F9 and PCI3, to aggregate with preimplantation 8-cell mouse embryos is described. (biologists.org)
  • Differentiated derivatives of EC cells, namely PYS-1 and PYS-2, as well as STO fibroblasts do not aggregate with embryos. (biologists.org)
  • Generally, cells tend to aggregate on a substratum with lower cell adhesivity. (nih.gov)
  • However, cells can only aggregate on uncoated or Fn-coated EVAL. (nih.gov)
  • Stefani M, Dobson CM. Protein aggregation and aggregate toxicity: new insights into protein folding, misfolding diseases and biological evolution. (springer.com)
  • A concentric pulse by motile cells of Escherichia coli (E. coli) propagates and the cells aggregate to form self-organized patterns.We summarize experimental and numerical results on the self-organized pattern formation of E. coli to elucidate some aspects of its mechanism. (elsevier.com)
  • We found that SAP prevents cell death induced by mutant TTR, while several other molecules that are also known to decorate amyloid fibrils do not have such effect. (diva-portal.org)
  • Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the aberrant aggregation of the amyloid- β peptide. (nature.com)
  • To address this problem, we adopt a kinetics-based strategy that reveals a specific catalytic role of cholesterol in the aggregation of A β 42 (the 42-residue form of the amyloid- β peptide). (nature.com)
  • Instability, unfolding and aggregation of human lysozyme variants underlying amyloid fibrillogenesis. (springer.com)
  • In Alzheimer, clustering of the beta-amyloid protein causes brain cells to die off. (phys.org)
  • 3 Different aspects of RBC aggregation have been assessed by recording the intensity of light that is either backscattered from RBCs or transmitted through RBCs. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • A computational scheme using the Chimera grid method is presented for simulation of three-dimensional motion and aggregation of two red blood cells (RBCs) in a narrow tube. (elsevier.com)
  • Attractive energy between two RBCs is modelled by a depletion interaction theory and used for simulating aggregation of two cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Through the simulation, we show that the Chimera grid method is applicable to the simulation of three-dimensional motion and aggregation of multiple RBCs in a microvessel and microvascular network. (elsevier.com)
  • In our studies we observed that chokeberry extract may increase the antiplatelet action of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after stimulation with ADP, and it is important to emphasize the significance of the dose-effect relationship of such interactions. (termedia.pl)
  • MSCs from bone marrow (BM), lipoaspirate (LA) and cord blood (CB) were compared to human umbilical vein endothelial cells or HeLa tumor cells as inhibitory or activating cells, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Endothelium-derived relaxing factor reduces platelet adhesion to bovine endothelial cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • EETs inhibited platelet adhesion to endothelial cells under static and flow conditions. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hence, Fn enhances cell aggregation by enhancing cell attachment, cell growth and cell motility. (nih.gov)
  • All three small molecules significantly attenuated platelet aggregation as did the antibody 8C10, although 3H12 had a weaker effect. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pre-treating cells with butyl ferulate (FAC4) significantly attenuated Aβ 1-42 -evoked intracellular ROS formation. (rsc.org)
  • Cultured B16a cells maintained at low density (LD) and harvested at low passage (LP) formed significantly more lung colonies than B16a cells harvested at high densities (HD) or high passage (HP). (rti.org)
  • Using a SCA3 ATXN3/Q75-GFP cell model, we found that the ATXN3/Q75 aggregation was significantly prohibited by lactulose and melibiose because of their abilities to up-regulate autophagy. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Here, we have observed that the level of cell aggregation was significantly higher in the isogenic spoVG -deletion strain than in the wild-type strain. (asm.org)
  • In addition, deletion of the SasC aggregation domain in the spoVG -deletion strain indicated that high-level expression of sasC could be the underlying cause of significantly increased cell aggregation formation. (asm.org)
  • 1 , 4 For example, increased RBC aggregation, elevated blood viscosity and the ratio of hematocrit (Hct) to blood viscosity (HVR, an index to the oxygen transport potential of blood) have been shown to significantly affect in vivo microcirculatory flow dynamics. (haematologica.org)
  • Better harvesting protocols would significantly improve the success rate for current indications and open curative hematopoietic cell therapies to a wider spectrum of disorders,' Forsberg says. (news-medical.net)
  • Our results suggest that metastatic cell heterotypic adhesion to the microvascular endothelium and homotypic aggregation represent two coordinated subsequent steps of the metastatic cascade mediated largely by similar molecular mechanisms, specifically by interactions of tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich glycoantigen with the β-galactoside-binding protein, galectin-3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition to inhibiting neoplastic cell adhesion to the endothelium and homotypic aggregation, disrupting this line of intercellular communication using synthetic Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen masking and Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen mimicking compounds greatly affects cancer cell clonogenic survival and growth as well. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The mAb also caused homotypic aggregation of E710.2.3, which was inhibited by cytochalasin B, trifluoperazine, a combination of sodium azide and 2-deoxyglucose, EDTA, incubation at 4°C, or treatment with paraformaldehyde. (jimmunol.org)
  • Blocking vWF and integrin adhesion pathways prevented both aggregation and phagocytosis. (harvard.edu)
  • Folding versus aggregation: polypeptide conformations on competing pathways. (springer.com)
  • PrP C depletion caused an increase in both the number of cells containing granules and the number of apoptotic cells. (biologists.org)
  • Consistent with the increase in Htt aggregation, PrP C depletion caused an decrease in proteasome activity and a decrease in the activities of cellular defense enzymes compared with control cells whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased more than threefold. (biologists.org)
  • Depletion of endogenous PrP C in non-neuronal Caco-2 and HT-29 cells did not affect ROS levels or proteasome activity suggesting that only in neuronal cells does PrP C confer protection against Htt toxicity. (biologists.org)
  • A depletion mechanism has been proposed for dextran-mediated RBC aggregation and its applicability to high molecular weights has been recently documented. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • In part of this study, the depletion layers around the cell surface for various polymer sizes (40kDa-28MDa), ionic strengths (5 and 15mM) and polymer concentrations (≤0.9g/dl) are measured by means of electrophoretic mobility. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • These results agree with the concept of polymer depletion near the cell surface and support a depletion mechanism for dextran-mediated red cell aggregation. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Our findings provide important new insights into polymer-RBC interactions and confirm the concept of depletion mechanism for RBC aggregation which may help in understanding how cellular properties control in-vivo RBC interactions. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • We suggest that, as found in colloidal dispersions, the presence of a non-adsorbing polymer in the form of the exopolysaccharide succinoglycan drives aggregation of S. meliloti by depletion attraction. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Methods: Fresh pig hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal and aortic endothelial cells were isolated by collagenase digestion of livers and processing of aortae from GTKO and Gal+ MGH-miniature swine. (harvard.edu)
  • We used three established models (platelet aggregation assay, endothelial leucocyte binding assay and monocyte inflammation via ELISA and Western blotting) to assess the potential of these therapeutics. (frontiersin.org)
  • mCRP also induced endothelial cell-monocyte adhesion in a dose dependent fashion, however, both acetylcholine and nicotine as well as targeting antibodies notably inhibited adhesion. (frontiersin.org)
  • Objective- Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are potent vasodilators produced by endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, although RBC aggregation certainly affects low-shear blood viscosity, its effects on in vivo flow resistance remain uncertain. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Background Recent evidence suggests that red blood cell aggregation and the ratio of hematocrit to blood viscosity (HVR), an index of the oxygen transport potential of blood, might considerably modulate blood flow dynamics in the microcirculation. (haematologica.org)
  • Design and Methods We compared red blood cell aggregation characteristics, blood viscosity and HVR at different shear rates between sickle cell anemia and sickle cell hemoglobin C disease (SCC) patients, sickle cell trait carriers (AS) and control individuals (AA). (haematologica.org)
  • Results Blood viscosity determined at high shear rate was lower in sickle cell anemia (n=21) than in AA (n=52), AS (n=33) or SCC (n=21), and was markedly increased in both SCC and AS. (haematologica.org)
  • Despite differences in blood viscosity, both sickle cell anemia and SCC had similar low HVR values compared to both AA and AS. (haematologica.org)
  • The results indicate that the impact of bulk viscosity on the red cell mobility is reduced by increasing the polymer size, and mobility values are higher than that predicted by Helmholtz-Smoluchowski equation. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is an important component of whole blood viscosity and the major cause of non-Newtonian blood flow properties. (rjb.ro)
  • Red cell aggregation has been shown to play a role in viscosity at low shear rates and deformability at high shear rates. (rjb.ro)
  • Several important characteristics of microscopic blood flows observed experimentally have been well reproduced in our model, including the cell free layer, blunt velocity profile, changes in apparent viscosity, and the Fahraeus effect. (elsevier.com)
  • Due to the opposing effects of the cell free layer lubrication and the high viscosity of cell-concentrated core, the influence of aggregation is complex but the lubrication effect appears to dominate, causing the relative apparent viscosity to decrease with aggregation. (elsevier.com)
  • Zhang, J, Johnson, PC & Popel, AS 2009, ' Effects of erythrocyte deformability and aggregation on the cell free layer and apparent viscosity of microscopic blood flows ', Microvascular Research , vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 265-272. (elsevier.com)
  • The target sites of aggregation-inhibiting antibodies are suggested to be identical or associated with the molecular units of the cell membrane that mediate cell-to-cell contacts during aggregation. (rupress.org)
  • However, the mechanisms that mediate adhesion between floating EOC cells are poorly understood. (aacrjournals.org)
  • One FUS protein domain was generally considered to mediate aggregation, but the new findings indicate that arginine residues in another region of the protein are also required for maturation of FUS in cellular stress granules. (eurekalert.org)
  • Here, we show that AIDA possesses self-association characteristics and can mediate autoaggregation of E. coli cells. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • Geldanamycin activates a heat shock response and inhibits huntingtin aggregation in a cell culture model of Huntington's disease," Human Molecular Genetics , vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1307-1315, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Of these, both juglone and celastrol were effective in reversing the abnormal cellular localization of full-length mutant huntingtin observed in mutant \(Hdh^{Q111/Q111}\) striatal cells. (harvard.edu)
  • The effect of normal cellular prion protein (PrP C ) on abnormal protein aggregation was examined by transfecting huntingtin fragments (Htt) into SN56 neuronal-derived cells depleted of PrP C by RNA interference. (biologists.org)
  • In a HD cell model, MitoPQ promoted mutant huntingtin aggregation without increasing cell death, contrasting with the complex I inhibitor rotenone that increased death in cells expressing either wild-type or mutant huntingtin. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The rat cremaster muscle was used to visualize arteriolar flows, and the extent of aggregation was raised by dextran 500 infusion to levels seen in normal human blood. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate closely reflects the extent of aggregation, therefore can be used as a measure of aggregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carrier aggregation is a technique used in wireless communication to increase the data rate per user, whereby multiple frequency blocks (called component carriers) are assigned to the same user. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition load balancing is possible with carrier aggregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the positions of the component carriers three cases of carrier aggregation are distinguished: The case where the component carriers are contiguous in the same frequency band is called intra-band contiguous carrier aggregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the component carriers are in the same frequency band but are separated by a gap the carrier aggregation is called intra-band non-contiguous. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is called inter-band carrier aggregation applied to heterogeneous networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the complexity from an RF point of view is increased in the case inter-band carrier aggregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carrier aggregation is also called Dual Cell in the context of UMTS/HSPA+. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through carrier aggregation (part of the UMTS extension HSPA+) two downlink carriers may be assigned to one user since Release 8. (wikipedia.org)
  • Release 10 supports four-carrier aggregation and eight-carrier-aggregation is supported since Release 11. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3GPP standardized carrier aggregation for HSPA+ for the uplink for up to two component carriers since Release 9. (wikipedia.org)
  • A difference between two aggregated 10 MHz component carriers and a single ordinary 20 MHz channel is that in the case of carrier aggregation the control information are transmitted on both component carriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • LTE Advanced with carrier aggregation allows Gigabit LTE. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is made possible through higher order modulation (256QAM), carrier aggregation and 4x4 MIMO. (wikipedia.org)
  • S. C. G. Tsinos, F. Foukalas, T. Khattab and L. Lai "On Channel Selection for Carrier Aggregation Systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • F. Foukalas and T. Tsiftsis, "Energy Efficient Power Allocation for Carrier Aggregation in Heterogeneous Networks: Partial Feedback and Circuit Power Consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autoaggregation in bacteria is the phenomenon of aggregation between cells of the same strain, whereas coaggregation is due to aggregation occurring among different species. (upm.es)
  • In the laboratory, pure cultures of bacteria are often grown as dispersed single cells. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Dose-dependent proteolytic degradation of type 1 pili was observed in the presence of active meprins, but not with heat-inactivated meprins, and pretreatment of AIEC bacteria with meprins impaired their ability to bind mannosylated host receptors and led to decreased secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 by infected T84 cells. (plos.org)
  • Data presented in this work suggest that endogenous DEF6 forms cytoplasmic granules in a variety of T cell states and the DEF6 mutant Y210EY222E, which mimics ITK phosphorylation, interacts with mRNA. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Lee and Guo labeled the early-passage fibrils strain A, and the later ones strain B. In cells, strain A typically seeded aggregation of endogenous α-synuclein. (alzforum.org)
  • The RPE cells ensure the survival of neural cells, rod, and cones. (hindawi.com)
  • Both cell viability and survival only lost less than 20% when the cells were exposed to the high concentration of 100 μg/mL FSNP-SD. (mdpi.com)
  • It has been reported that PrP C functions in cell survival, signal transduction, cell adhesion, copper-dependent antioxidant activity, and copper uptake and sequestration ( Roucou and LeBlanc, 2005 ). (biologists.org)
  • Homozygous Foxp2 (R552H)-KI mice showed reduced weight, immature development of the cerebellum with incompletely folded folia, Purkinje cells with poor dendritic arbors and less synaptophysin immunoreactivity, and achieved crisis stage for survival 3 weeks after birth. (pnas.org)
  • In our experience we observe a general survival of 3-8% of grafted neural stem cells, which persist over time. (news-medical.net)
  • A similar localization of mPRR2 was observed for intrinsic mPRR2 molecules of the mouse neuroblastoma cell line NS20Y. (nih.gov)
  • To identify functional molecules on this cell line, we screened for mAbs that could block its proliferation. (jimmunol.org)
  • The first is clonal development [ 6 , 8 ] which involves the evolution of a life cycle that requires all cells to display adhesion molecules capable of maintaining them together and for all cells to share the same genotype. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We have discovered a new and specific cell-killing mechanism mediated by the selective uptake of the antitumor drug 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (ET-18-OCH3, Edelfosine) into lipid rafts of tumor cells, followed by its coaggregation with Fas death receptor (also known as APO-1 or CD95) and recruitment of apoptotic molecules into Fas-enriched rafts. (csic.es)
  • Targeting cell surface molecules that promote both the aggregation of EOC cells and their implantation, therefore, represents an attractive therapeutic approach to improve outcomes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The focus then turns to cellular responses in which aggregation is prevented or reversed by molecular chaperones, molecules dedicated to providing kinetic assistance to protein folding. (jci.org)
  • ARK mRNA is expressed at high levels in the mouse brain, prevalently in the hippocampus and cerebellum, and this pattern of expression resembles that of adhesion molecules that are capable of promoting cell aggregation through homophilic or heterophilic binding. (meta.org)
  • Both adhere to the embryonic cells and subsequently compact with the embryos. (biologists.org)
  • Embryo Cryopreservation: We will cryopreserve 2-cell embryos for heterozygous males mated to wild type females (for those strains amenable to this procedure) or 2-cell embryos for homozygous males mated to wild type or homozygous females. (mdanderson.org)
  • Guo attempted to seed tau aggregation in a similar fashion, transferring synthetic α-synuclein fibrils into hippocampal neurons from mouse embryos expressing mutant, aggregation-prone tau. (alzforum.org)
  • Aggresomes protect cells by enhancing the degradation of toxic polyglutamine-containing protein," Human Molecular Genetics , vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 749-757, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Chen S, Ferrone FA, Wetzel R. Huntington's disease age-of-onset linked to polyglutamine aggregation nucleation. (springer.com)
  • Extended polyglutamine tracts cause aggregation and structural perturbation of an adjacent beta barrel protein. (springer.com)
  • Bhattacharyya AM, Thakur AK, Wetzel R. polyglutamine aggregation nucleation: thermodynamics of a highly unfavorable protein folding reaction. (springer.com)
  • Fusion of both mfrGFP and EGFP were effective in monitoring mutant SOD1 aggregation within cultured cells, whereas split GFP was not. (aiche.org)
  • Investigating the bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti , we found that a mutant that overproduces the exopolysaccharide succinoglycan showed enhanced aggregation, resulting in phase separation of the cultures. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • β- and γ-synucleins and heat shock protein Hsp-70, but not α-synuclein, protect cultured ocular cells from mutant opsin accumulation. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Live-cell imaging of fluorescently labeled CESA showed that the rate of movement of CESA particles was directionally asymmetric in etiolated hypocotyls of S211A and T212E mutants, while similar bidirectional velocities were observed with the wild-type control and S211E and T212A mutant lines. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Thus, the degree of RBC aggregation is widely accepted as a major determinant of hemorheological characteristics. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • In this study, we investigate the effect of these two rheological parameters on cell-free layer characteristics in the arterioles (20-60 μm inner diameter). (nus.edu.sg)
  • For the first time, we provide here the detailed temporal information of the arteriolar cell-free layer in various rheological conditions to better describe the characteristics of the layer variation. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The probe is comprised of a hydrophilic caspase-specific Asp-Glu-Val-Asp (DEVD) peptide and a hydrophobic tetraphenylethene (TPE) unit, a typical fluorogen with aggregation-induced emission characteristics. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Here we present an in vivo study of MitoPQ in the vertebrate zebrafish model in the context of Parkinson's disease (PD), and in a human cell model of Huntington's disease (HD). (gla.ac.uk)
  • We have challenged our initial observation by injecting stem cells locally, at the level of injury site in a rodent model of severe spinal cord contusion injury, and indeed proven that stem cells possess intrinsic homeostatic properties that make them capable of creating the cellular and molecular conditions to create 'atypical ectopic perivascular stem cell niches' also after injection routes that avoid the systemic circulation. (news-medical.net)
  • In this study, we mutagenized CESA3 S211 and T212 to Ala or Glu residues to examine how elimination or mimicry of phosphorylation of the neighboring residues modulates anisotropic cell expansion and to explore molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of anisotropic cell wall expansion. (plantphysiol.org)
  • This mechanism represents the first selective activation of Fas in tumor cells. (csic.es)
  • However, the mechanism that facilitates aggregation and implantation of EOC cells is poorly understood. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Succinoglycan purified from cultures was applied to different concentrations of cells, and observation of the phase behaviour showed that the limiting polymer concentration for aggregation and phase separation to occur decreased with increasing cell concentration, suggesting a 'crowding mechanism' was occurring. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Demonstrated a completely novel mechanism of stem cell-to-immune system communication that works via the horizontal exchange of functional IFN-g/Ifngr1 complexes delivered via stem cell exosomes. (news-medical.net)
  • This mechanism is also known as "chemiosmotic hypothesis" for aggregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given that a prion-like, cell-to-cell transfer of misfolded αSyn has been recognized in the spreading of αSyn pathology in synucleinopathies, we investigated the biological mechanisms underlying the propagation of the disease with respect to environmental neurotoxic stress. (sciencemag.org)
  • Because prions are heritable, once they are triggered in a cell, all of the cells in later generations will inherit the same prion state. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers take a bit of the prion and use it to seed aggregation of the normal protein in a new test tube. (alzforum.org)
  • Finally, we demonstrated in vivo transfer of α-syn between host cells and grafted dopaminergic neurons in mice overexpressing human α-syn. (nih.gov)
  • Prolonged culture resulted in a 10-fold decrease in the incidence of B16a lung colonies, whereas passage in vivo for 150 days did not affect lung colony formation by tumor cells isolated from enzymatic dispersates by centrifugal elutriation. (rti.org)
  • Mer regulates macrophage activation, promotes apoptotic cell engulfment, and supports platelet aggregation and clot stability in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We show that MitoPQ is 100-fold more potent than non-targeted paraquat in both cells and in zebrafish in vivo. (gla.ac.uk)
  • What percentage of transplanted neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) survive in vivo and why? (news-medical.net)
  • Candidates will be designed to deliver in vivo treatments to the right places in the body, and optimized to target the cells involved in the respective diseases efficiently and specifically, according to the agency and Foundation. (genengnews.com)
  • Misfolding and accumulation of the protein α-synuclein (αS) inside nerve cells characterize Parkinson's disease (PD) and related brain diseases, for which no disease-modifying therapies exist. (pnas.org)
  • The accumulation of this damage in the postmitotic RPE cells seems to be one of the key events in the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in the developed countries. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we show, using a simple model of cell-cell interactions and evolving adhesion rates, that the observed patterns in cluster size and localized mortality can be easily interpreted in terms of waste accumulation and toxicity-driven apoptosis. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR data indicated that SpoVG could repress the expression of sasC , which codes for S. aureus surface protein C and is involved in cell aggregation and biofilm accumulation. (asm.org)
  • Pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) involves to impaired degradation of membranous discs shed from photoreceptor outer segments and accumulation of lysosomal lipofuscin in RPE cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • The formation of unique and filamentous inclusion bodies called Lewy bodies (LBs) is the hallmark of both PD and dementia with LBs. The key pathology in PD is generally considered to be the alpha-synuclein (α-syn) accumulation, although it is still controversial whether this protein aggregation is a cause or consequence of neurodegeneration. (bmbreports.org)
  • Whether VENs and fork cells are prone to tau accumulation in FTLD-tau remains unclear, and no previous studies of these neurons have focused on patients with pathogenic variants in the gene encoding microtubule-associated protein tau (FTLD-tau/ MAPT ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3.Expression of rhodopsin carrying P23H mutation causes its accumulation in intracellular inclusion bodies in a perinuclear area of photoreceptor cells. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are continually exposed to oxidative stress that contributes to protein misfolding, aggregation and functional abnormalities during aging. (hindawi.com)
  • These findings open new perspectives for understanding the pathogenesis of protein aggregation in retinal cells and can be useful for the development of therapeutic treatments to prevent retinal cell deterioration. (hindawi.com)
  • Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are exposed to chronic oxidative stress. (hindawi.com)
  • Selegiline-a monoamine oxidase inhibitor used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, reduces apoptosis and increases viability in cultured retinal pigment epithelium cells (APRE-19). (cf.ac.uk)
  • In cell culture and mouse models, exposure to manganese or to isolated, manganese-induced exosomes promoted the transfer of αSyn between neurons and microglia, which induced inflammation and neuronal cell death. (sciencemag.org)
  • There have been numerous models proposed for the neuronal cell loss and spongiform changes in the brain that occur in scrapie, but it is still not clear whether this pathology is due to a loss of functional PrP C or only to a gain of function by PrP Sc . (biologists.org)
  • Irwin J.W. (1973) Blood Cell Aggregation and Pulmonary Embolism. (springer.com)
  • Light-transmission and light-backscattering methods are commonly used to determine red-blood-cell (RBC) aggregation. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Therefore, we investigated the effect of shear-induced platelet activation on red blood cell (RBC) aggregation. (iospress.com)
  • Formation of a cell-free layer is an important dynamic feature of microcirculatory blood flow, which can be influenced by rheological parameters, such as red blood cell aggregation and flow rate. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Our results show that cell-free layer formation in the arterioles is enhanced by a combination of flow reduction and red blood cell aggregation. (nus.edu.sg)
  • This study shows that the cell-free layer width in arterioles is dependent on both flow rate and red blood cell aggregability, and that the temporal variations in width are asymmetric with a greater excursion into the red blood cell core than toward the vessel wall. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Concentrated erythrocyte (i.e., red blood cell) suspensions flowing in microchannels have been simulated with an immersed-boundary lattice Boltzmann algorithm, to examine the cell layer development process and the effects of cell deformability and aggregation on hemodynamic and hemorheological behaviors. (elsevier.com)
  • Red Blood Cell (rbc) Aggregation, A Normally Occurring Phenomenon And A Major Factor Affecting Blood Rheology, Is An Important Area Of Study Within Bioengineering. (vanstockum.nl)
  • The evolution of a tumor cord cell population. (aimsciences.org)
  • The two major theories of cancer metastasis, the seed and soil hypothesis and the mechanical trapping theory, view tumor cell adhesion to blood vessel endothelia and cancer cell aggregation as corresponding key components of the metastatic process. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, β-galactoside-mediated intravascular heterotypic and homotypic tumor cell adhesive interactions at the sites of a primary attachment to the microvascular endothelium could play an important role during early stages of hematogenous cancer metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Over-confluent tumor cells produced even lower number of lung colonies. (rti.org)
  • Drug sensitivity was dependent on drug uptake and Fas expression, regardless of the presence of other major death receptors, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand R2/DR5 in the target cell. (csic.es)
  • The cell adhesion molecule P-cadherin has been reported to be induced during early progression of EOC and to promote tumor cell migration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings indicate that P-cadherin promotes intraperitoneal dissemination of EOC by facilitating tumor cell aggregation and tumor-peritoneum interactions in addition to promoting tumor cell migration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The most widely recognized pattern of EOC dissemination is intraperitoneal "seeding" in which tumor cells passively shed into, and are transported by, the circulating peritoneal fluid ( 2-4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is thought that aggregation of floating EOC cells prevents anoikis and also facilitates the implantation of tumor cells on to peritoneal surfaces such as the cavity wall, bowel serosa, and the omentum ( 3-5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • If p53 control ceases - e.g. when there is a mutation in the protein - the cells start to divide in an uncontrolled manner and this may result in a tumor. (phys.org)
  • The CPPs effectively target Aβ both outside and inside neurons, protecting them against the damage caused by Aβ aggregation. (genengnews.com)
  • α-Synuclein propagates from mouse brain to grafted dopaminergic neurons and seeds aggregation in cultured human cells. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we explored whether intercellular transfer of α-syn from host to graft, followed by seeding of α-syn aggregation in recipient neurons, can contribute to this phenomenon. (nih.gov)
  • A hallmark of the disease is aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (αSyn), which is toxic to neurons. (sciencemag.org)
  • Early and selective loss of von Economo neurons (VENs) and fork cells within the frontoinsular (FI) and anterior cingulate cortices (ACC) is observed in patients with sporadic behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) due to frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), including FTLD with tau inclusions (FTLD-tau). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, we further showed that these specialized neurons show preferential aggregation of TDP-43 in FTLD-TDP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These regions are the earliest and most consistently affected in patients with sporadic behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) [ 3 , 4 , 5 ] and represent the major sites where von Economo neurons (VENs) and fork cells are located. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Virginia Lee and colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia report that certain forms of α-synuclein fibrils seed tau aggregation in mouse neurons in culture and in the brains of mice. (alzforum.org)
  • In strain B-seeded neurons, α-synuclein and tau inclusions associated closely, as if α-synuclein templated the tau aggregation (see image below). (alzforum.org)
  • Strain A was toxic to neurons, increasing lactate dehydrogenase release and reducing metabolism in the cells within two weeks of inoculation. (alzforum.org)
  • The hypothesis that protein aggregation is a causative process in aging is testable now since some models of delayed aging are in hand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane interaction in aggregating cells of Dictyostelium discoideum can be blocked by univalent antibodies directed against specific membrane sites. (rupress.org)
  • The interaction of Gas6 with Mer, Axl, and Tyro-3 is important in platelet degranulation and aggregation in response to known agonists. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Interestingly, AIDA-expressing cells can interact with antigen 43 (Ag43) -expressing cells, which is indicative of an intercellular AIDA-Ag43 interaction. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • If proven safe and effective in human clinical studies, 'clinicians could consider these findings when selecting treatment strategies for their patients and for volunteer donors of hematopoietic cells used in transplantation therapies. (news-medical.net)
  • Building on these findings in the new study, Forsberg and her team tested whether Viagra, a vasodilator approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, might be a viable option for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (news-medical.net)
  • By contrast, mice treated with Plerixafor alone showed a nearly 3-fold increase in hematopoietic cells compared to control mice, consistent with findings from previous studies. (news-medical.net)
  • As above, the main findings of our research were the observation of homeostatic functions by a cell technology that was expected to work by cell differentiation and integration into the host tissue. (news-medical.net)
  • The B-Cell Lymphoma Moon Shot is revolutionizing the conventional medical research approach to rapidly translate findings into patient treatment options and develop personalized therapeutic strategies. (mdanderson.org)
  • The DMF10 62.3 mAb stained a number of immortalized murine and human cell lines and, where tested, blocked their proliferation and caused death to varying extents by apoptosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • The data suggest that the molecule recognized by DMF62.3 is a novel cell surface molecule that may be involved in cell proliferation and/or cell death. (jimmunol.org)
  • MTT and focus formation assays were conducted to measure proliferation rate and focus formation capability of the cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ferrone F. Analysis of protein aggregation kinetics. (springer.com)
  • Patterns of cell assembly in the presence of antibodies show that selective blockage of these membrane sites abolishes the preference for end-to-end association which is typical for aggregating cells. (rupress.org)
  • Blockage of these sites leads to aggregation patterns in which the side-by-side contacts of aggregating cells are abolished. (rupress.org)
  • It was suggested that the observed evolutionary patterns could be the result of evolved programmes affecting cell death. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We investigated some cell processes which may contribute to cell aggregation patterns in the social ameba Dictyostelium discoideum. (illinois.edu)
  • Aggregation patterns in Dictyostelium involve morphogenetic movements of up to 10$\sp{6}$ amebae. (illinois.edu)
  • We further qualitatively assessed the cellular patterns of frontoinsular tau aggregation in FTLD-tau/ MAPT using antibodies specific for tau hyperphosphorylation, acetylation, or conformational change. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We discuss different possible cell aggregation patterns, as well as travelling wave patterns. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • It thus seems likely that these factors could play a role in sickle cell disease. (haematologica.org)
  • In addition, it is not suitable for the very ill, the elderly, or individuals with sickle cell disease. (news-medical.net)
  • The NIH and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation are committing a total $200 million toward developing gene therapies for sickle cell disease (SCD) and HIV that will be affordable in areas of the world hardest hit by the diseases. (genengnews.com)
  • This unprecedented collaboration focuses from the get-go on access, scalability, and affordability of advanced gene-based strategies for sickle cell disease and HIV to make sure everybody, everywhere has the opportunity to be cured, not just those in high-income countries. (genengnews.com)
  • This study reveals that ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is an important way to control protein turnover in the RPE cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Finally, the Ras/MEK/ERK signaling pathway is responsible for Aurora-A induced aggregation of the Ras V12 transformants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wild-type-Aurora-A enhances focus formation and aggregation of the Ras V12 transformants and the latter occurs through modulating the Ras/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study raises the possibility that Aurora protein may also transduce cell transformation signals through the MAPK signaling pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More specifically, we demonstrate that lipid membranes containing cholesterol promote A β 42 aggregation by enhancing its primary nucleation rate by up to 20-fold through a heterogeneous nucleation pathway. (nature.com)
  • These results identify a specific microscopic pathway by which cholesterol dramatically enhances the onset of A β 42 aggregation, thereby helping rationalize the link between Alzheimer's disease and the impairment of cholesterol homeostasis. (nature.com)
  • Non-polyQ host protein regions modulate the misfolding pathway, suggesting an importance of protein context in aggregation. (springer.com)
  • This chapter describes the current research regarding polyQ misfolding, with emphasis on the species populated during aggregation, suggesting an important role of protein context in modulating the aggregation pathway. (springer.com)
  • E710.2.3 is a murine thymic lymphoma cell line with an immature phenotype (CD4 − CD8 − ) that proliferates in response to thymocytes or PMA when cultured at low density and proliferates spontaneously when grown at high density. (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, we examined regional profiles of tau aggregation and neurodegeneration in 40 brain regions in 8 patients with FTLD-tau/ MAPT and 7 with Pick's disease (PiD), a sporadic form of FTLD-tau that often presents with bvFTD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ACC and mid-insula were among the regions most affected by neurodegeneration and tau aggregation in FTLD-tau/ MAPT and PiD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In these two forms of FTLD-tau, severity of regional neurodegeneration and tau protein aggregation were highly correlated across regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lansbury, P. T. & Lashuel, H. A. A century-old debate on protein aggregation and neurodegeneration enters the clinic. (nature.com)
  • Cell-free and erythrocytic S-nitrosohemoglobin inhibits human platelet aggregation. (semanticscholar.org)