Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.
A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. Ng-CAM is immunologically and structurally distinct from NCAM.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecules that are involved in NERVOUS SYSTEM patterning.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A complex blood group system having pairs of alternate antigens and amorphic genes, but also subject to a dominant independently segregating repressor.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.
Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.

Engrailed negatively regulates the expression of cell adhesion molecules connectin and neuroglian in embryonic Drosophila nervous system. (1/1624)

Engrailed is expressed in subsets of interneurons that do not express Connectin or appreciable Neuroglian, whereas other neurons that are Engrailed negative strongly express these adhesion molecules. Connectin and Neuroglian expression are virtually eliminated in interneurons when engrailed expression is driven ubiquitously in neurons, and greatly increased when engrailed genes are lacking in mutant embryos. The data suggest that Engrailed is normally a negative regulator of Connectin and neuroglian. These are the first two "effector" genes identified in the nervous system of Drosophila as regulatory targets for Engrailed. We argue that differential Engrailed expression is crucial in determining the pattern of expression of cell adhesion molecules and thus constitutes an important determinant of neuronal shape and perhaps connectivity.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and developmental expression of a zebrafish axonal glycoprotein similar to TAG-1. (2/1624)

TAG-1 is a mammalian cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed transiently by a subset of neurons and serves as a fertile substrate for neurite outgrowth in vitro (Furley, A.H., Morton, S.B., Manalo, D., Karagogeos, S., Dodd, H., Jessell, T.M., 1990 The axonal glycoprotein TAG-1 is an immunoglobulin superfamily member with neurite outgrowth promoting activity. Cell 61, 157-170). In order to examine the in vivo function of this molecule, we have cloned a zebrafish tag1-like cDNA and analyzed its expression patterns. tag1 Is expressed transiently by specific subsets of neurons when they are projecting their axons or when they are migrating. The specific and dynamic pattern of expression of zebrafish tag1 is consistent with its proposed role in axon guidance and cell migration.  (+info)

Characterization of a novel rat brain glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (Kilon), a member of the IgLON cell adhesion molecule family. (3/1624)

In the central nervous system, many cell adhesion molecules are known to participate in the establishment and remodeling of the neural circuit. Some of the cell adhesion molecules are known to be anchored to the membrane by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) inserted to their C termini, and many GPI-anchored proteins are known to be localized in a Triton-insoluble membrane fraction of low density or so-called "raft." In this study, we surveyed the GPI-anchored proteins in the Triton-insoluble low density fraction from 2-week-old rat brain by solubilization with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. By Western blotting and partial peptide sequencing after the deglycosylation with peptide N-glycosidase F, the presence of Thy-1, F3/contactin, and T-cadherin was shown. In addition, one of the major proteins, having an apparent molecular mass of 36 kDa after the peptide N-glycosidase F digestion, was found to be a novel protein. The result of cDNA cloning showed that the protein is an immunoglobulin superfamily member with three C2 domains and has six putative glycosylation sites. Since this protein shows high sequence similarity to IgLON family members including LAMP, OBCAM, neurotrimin, CEPU-1, AvGP50, and GP55, we termed this protein Kilon (a kindred of IgLON). Kilon-specific monoclonal antibodies were produced, and Western blotting analysis showed that expression of Kilon is restricted to brain, and Kilon has an apparent molecular mass of 46 kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in its expressed form. In brain, the expression of Kilon is already detected in E16 stage, and its level gradually increases during development. Kilon immunostaining was observed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, in which the strongly stained puncta were observed on dendrites and soma of pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

Cortical bitufted, horizontal, and Martinotti cells preferentially express and secrete reelin into perineuronal nets, nonsynaptically modulating gene expression. (4/1624)

Reelin (Reln) is a protein with some structural analogies with other extracellular matrix proteins that functions in the regulation of neuronal migration during the development of cortical laminated structures. In the cortex of adult animals, Reln is expressed primarily in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons and is secreted into perineuronal nets. However, only 50-60% of GABAergic interneurons express Reln. We have characterized this subpopulation of cortical GABAergic neurons that expresses Reln by using two strategies: (i) a double immunolabeling procedure to determine the colocalization of Reln with neuropeptides and Ca2+-binding proteins and (ii) a combination of Golgi staining and Reln immunolabeling to determine the morphology of the rat cortical cells that store Reln. Many interneurons that express Neuropeptide Y (NPY) or somatostatin (but none of those that express parvalbumin) are Reln-immunopositive. A small population of calbindin-positive interneurons and very few calretinin-positive cells express Reln immunopositivity. Golgi staining revealed that layer I horizontal cells, layer II-V bitufted neurons, and some deep cortical layer Martinotti cells express Reln. Basket and chandelier cells are often immunopositive to parvalbumin, but never to Reln. Although Reln is secreted by GABAergic neurons, its target are not the GABA receptors, but rather may be extrasynaptically located in perineuronal nets and concerned with the modulation of neuronal plasticity. Dab1, the target adapter protein that presumably mediates transcription regulation via the extrasynaptic actions of Reln, is expressed predominantly in pyramidal neurons, but it can also be detected in a small population of GABAergic neurons that are neither horizontal nor bitufted neurons.  (+info)

Reelin-induced tyrosine [corrected] phosphorylation of disabled 1 during neuronal positioning. (5/1624)

The reelin (reln) and disabled 1 (dab1) genes both ensure correct neuronal positioning during brain development. We have found that the intracellular Dab1 protein receives a tyrosine phosphorylation signal from extracellular Reln protein. Genetic analysis shows that reln function depends on dab1, and vice versa, as expected if both genes are in the same pathway. Dab1 is expressed at a higher level, yet phosphorylated at a lower level, in reln mutant embryo brains. In primary neuronal cultures, Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation is stimulated by exogenous Reln. These results suggest that Reln regulates neuronal positioning by stimulating Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation.  (+info)

Discs Lost, a novel multi-PDZ domain protein, establishes and maintains epithelial polarity. (6/1624)

Polarization of epithelial cells depends on a hierarchical process whereby specific membrane-associated proteins become targeted to specialized membrane domains. Here, we describe a novel Drosophila protein, Discs Lost (DLT), that plays a crucial role in the polarization of embryonic epithelia during cellular blastoderm formation. At subsequent stages of development, DLT interacts with the apical determinant Crumbs (CRB) and the laterally localized protein Neurexin IV (NRX IV). Mutations in dlt or double-stranded RNA interference lead to aberrant localization of CRB and NRX IV and cause a concomitant loss of epithelial cell polarity. Hence, DLT is required to establish and maintain cell polarity and participates in different molecular complexes that define apical and lateral membrane domains.  (+info)

Neural development: The semantics of axon guidance. (7/1624)

Recent studies of the semaphorin family of axon guidance signals and their receptors have revealed a surprising versatility in the ways that they can be used solve problems in neural development, and provided new opportunities for understanding how guidance information is interpreted beneath the cell surface.  (+info)

Watching a synapse grow: noninvasive confocal imaging of synaptic growth in Drosophila. (8/1624)

The glutamatergic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in Drosophila adds new boutons and branches during larval development. We generated transgenic fruit flies that express a novel green fluorescent membrane protein at the postsynaptic specialization, allowing for repeated noninvasive confocal imaging of synapses in live, developing larvae. As synapses grow, existing synaptic boutons stretch apart and new boutons insert between them; in addition, new boutons are added at the ends of existing strings of boutons. Some boutons are added de novo, while others bud from existing boutons. New branches form as multiple boutons bud from existing boutons. Nascent boutons contain active zones, T bars, and synaptic vesicles; we observe no specialized growth structures. Some new boutons exhibit a lower level of Fasciclin II, suggesting that the levels of this synaptic cell adhesion molecule vary locally during synaptic growth.  (+info)

NRCAM (neuronal cell adhesion molecule), Authors: Justyna Janik, Barbara Czarnocka. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
OBJECTIVE: The authors goals were to establish the cellular origin of the reduced cortical reelin expression that occurs in schizophrenia and to relate it to markers of synaptic pathology. METHOD: In situ hybridization was used to quantify reelin mRNA in the hippocampal formation and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of brains from 13 subjects with schizophrenia and 12 subjects without schizophrenia. Results were correlated with the expression of three synaptic protein genes in the dentate gyrus. RESULTS: Reelin mRNA was expressed by layer I neurons, interneurons, and interstitial white matter neurons. In subjects with schizophrenia, less reelin mRNA was expressed by interstitial white matter neurons in the hippocampal formation and by all three cell types in the prefrontal cortex. Reelin and synaptic protein expression correlated positively. CONCLUSIONS: Interstitial white matter neurons, presumed remnants of the cortical subplate, contribute to the reduction in reelin mRNA in schizophrenia. Down
The surface of the mammalian brain (the neocortex) contains six distinct layers of neurons. The extracellular matrix protein reelin regulates the migration of the neurons that form these layers. Reelin has two receptors: very low density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr) and apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2). Now, Hack and colleagues reveal divergent roles for these two receptors in the migration of cortical neurons (see p. 3883). In mice, the order of the cortical layers is inverted in reelin-knockout mutants and in ApoER2 Vldlr double-knockout mutants; the phenotype of single-receptor knockouts is much milder. To determine the specific role of each reelin receptor in neuronal migration, the researchers mapped the fate of newly generated cortical neurons in single and double receptor mutants. Their results indicate that the proper migration of late-generated neurons, which form the superficial layers of the neocortex, requires ApoER2. Vldlr, by contrast, mediates a reelin stop signal that ...
Mammalian cell membranes provide an interface between the intracellular and extracellular compartments. It is currently thought that cytoplasmic signaling adapter proteins play no functional role within the extracellular tumor environment. Here, by selecting combinatorial random peptide libraries in tumor-bearing mice, we uncovered a direct, specific, and functional interaction between CRKL, an adapter protein [with Src homology 2 (SH2)- and SH3-containing domains], and the plexin-semaphorin-integrin domain of beta(1) integrin in the extracellular milieu. Through assays in vitro, in cellulo, and in vivo, we show that this unconventional and as yet unrecognized protein-protein interaction between a regulatory integrin domain (rather than a ligand-binding one) and an intracellular adapter (acting outside of the cells) triggers an alternative integrin-mediated cascade for cell growth and survival. Based on these data, here we propose that a secreted form of the SH3/SH2 adaptor protein CRKL may act ...
MDGA1 consists of six Ig-like domains, fibronectin type III repeat domain, and MAM domain . The crystal structure of MDGA1/Neuroligin-2 complex reveals that they form the 2:2 hetero-tetrameric complex and only the Ig1-Ig2 domains of MDGA1 are involved in interactions with Neuroligin-2. The structural comparison between the MDGA1/Neuroligin-2 and Neurexin-1β/Neuroligin-1 complexes intriguingly indicates that the Neuroligin-2 region binding to MDGA1 largely overlaps with that of Neurexin-1β, but the interaction interface of the MDGA1/Neuroligin-2 complex is much larger than that of the Neurexin-1β/Neuroligin-1 complex. This explains why Neuroligin-2 binds stronger to MDGA1 than Neurexin-1β, and how the favored MDGA1 binding to Neuroligin-2 sterically blocks the interaction between Neuroligin-2 and Neurexin-1β, which is critical for the suppression of inhibitory synapse development ...
L1, also known as L1CAM, is a transmembrane protein; it is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule, member of the L1 protein family, of 200-220 kDa, and…
The outcome of signaling events of ligand receptor systems that consist of multiple receptors and/or ligands is complex; such multicomponent systems can yield different biological responses and the individual components can add different layers of regulation. Because these systems enable diverse biological responses, they are very common. Examples include the vascular endothelial growth factor ligand receptor system, the fibroblast growth factor, or the TRAIL ligand receptor systems (2, 4, 8).. Extrapolation of kinetic and equilibrium constants from in vitro measurements of purified recombinant ligands and receptors to in vivo conditions is challenging when dealing with such complex cases as the molecule that triggers the signal can be trapped in nonproductive interactions that equilibrate slowly with the productive complex. This is not only the case with the aforementioned multiple receptor/ligand systems but in principle also extends to promiscuous intracellular adaptor proteins that can be ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a membrane glycoprotein that is a member of the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family. This family forms a subset of the larger CD2 cell-surface receptor Ig superfamily. The encoded protein is a homophilic adhesion molecule that is expressed in numerous immune cells types and is involved in regulating receptor-mediated signaling in those cells. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011 ...
Lsamp geen kodeerib membraanvalku LSAMP (limbilise süsteemiga assotsieeritud membraani proteiin), mille funktsiooni seostatakse peamiselt aju limbilise süsteemiga. LSAMP on 64-68-kDa (kilodalton) glükoproteiin, mis koosneb valgust ja polüsahhariidide ahelast. LSAMP valgul esineb IgLON perekonnale iseloomulikult kolm Ig domeeni ja GPI (glükosüül-fosfatidüül-inositooli) ankur. LSAMP on inimesel ja närilistel 99%-lise identsusega, samuti esineb kanal ja ahvil sarnane geeni avaldumismuster[4]. Inimesel asub LSAMP geen 3. kromosoomis, olles 2,2 Mb (megaaluspaari) suurune, sisaldades 11 eksonit (DNA lõik, mis ühendatakse mRNA pidevasse järjestusse) ja kahte ekson ühte (1a ja 1b), mis paiknevad üksteisest 1,6 Mb kaugusel. Hiirel esineb Lsamp 16. kromosoomis, geen on 2,28 Mb suurune ja sisaldab samuti 11 eksonit ning kolme ekson ühte (1a, 1a ja 1b). Ekson 1a ei oma eraldi promootorit (transkriptsiooni alguspunkti) nii nagu 1a ja 1b. Eksonid 1a ja 1a kodeerivad alternatiivseid ...
Complete information for NLGN1 gene (Protein Coding), Neuroligin 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for NRXN2 gene (Protein Coding), Neurexin 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Neurexin 1山羊多克隆抗体(ab77596)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, ICC/IF实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SynCAMs) are crucial for synapse formation and plasticity. However, we have previously demonstrated that SynCAMs are also required during earlier stages of neural circuit formation because SynCAM1 and SynCAM2 (also known as CADM1 and CADM2, respectively) are important for the guidance of post-crossing commissural axons. In contrast to the exclusively homophilic cis-interactions reported by previous studies, our previous in vivo results suggested the existence of heterophilic cis-interactions between SynCAM1 and SynCAM2. Indeed, as we show here, the presence of homophilic and heterophilic cis-interactions modulates the interaction of SynCAMs with trans-binding partners, as observed previously for other immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules. These in vitro findings are in agreement with results from in vivo studies, which demonstrate a role for SynCAMs in the formation of sensory neural circuits in the chicken embryo. In the absence of SynCAMs, ...
A. Growth cone motility and neurite branch formation are activated (+) by Rac1 and Cdc42 and negatively regulated (-) by RhoA. Reelin participates in the regulation of growth cone motility and branching by regulating Rho GTPase activity (B). Filopodia formation and the formation of neuronal transport vesicles, both known to be mediated by Cdc42, are triggered by Reelin. B. Binding of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin to its transmembrane receptors Apoer2 and Vldlr triggers Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation by Src-family-kinases (SFK). This leads to the activation of several downstream signals, including phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), which activates Cdc42 via an unknown intermediate effector. There is evidence that Reelin also might locally activate Rac1. N-WASP and WAVE link Cdc42 and Rac1 activity to changes of the actin cytoskeleton, leading to increased growth cone motility, filopodia and vesicle formation, and dendritic branching (A). Cdc42 and Rac1 also contribute to activation of ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
In complex nervous systems neuron-glia interactions play pivotal roles in forming and maintaining neuronal circuits. From early developmental stages onwards, reciprocal signaling between neurons and glial cells ensures the balanced formation of correct cell numbers and cell types and their subsequent differentiation. During neuronal differentiation, glial cells often act as intermediate targets or guidepost cells, instructing neuronal growth cones on their path towards their final destination (Bastiani and Goodman, 1986; Bentley and Caudy, 1983; Whitington et al., 2004). Subsequently, once the axonal trajectories are established, glial cells migrate along these tracts to ensure that all axons are regularly covered with glial cells. Using signals that remain largely elusive, the glia starts to differentiate into the different insulating glial cell layers (Birchmeier and Nave, 2008; Brinkmann et al., 2008).. The CNS midline of Drosophila, which comprises only 22 cells with known lineage and ...
Synaptic cell-adhesion molecules and their interactions with other molecular pathways affect both synapse formation and its function (Varoqueaux et al., 2006; Sudhof, 2008; Bemben et al., 2015a). Neurexins are presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that interact with neuroligins and other postsynaptic partners. Neurexins are encoded by three genes, each of which encodes a long and short isoform, termed α- and β-neurexins, respectively (Sudhof, 2008). Interestingly, despite studies linking neurexins to autism and other neuropsychiatric disorders (Leone et al., 2010; Rabaneda et al., 2014), the precise cellular mechanisms underlying the role of neurexins in cognition remain poorly understood.Since most biochemical studies of neurexins have focused on β-neurexins, investigating the synaptic actions of β-neurexins is particularly imperative. In their timely Cell article, Anderson et al reported that β-neurexins selectively modulate synaptic strength at excitatory synapses by regulating postsynaptic
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of reelin during layer formation in the cerebralneocortex. AU - Nakajima, Kazunori. PY - 2016/8. Y1 - 2016/8. N2 - Reelin controls the neuronal layer formation in the developing cerebral neocortex. The Reelin glycoprotein is mainly secreted from Cajat-Retzius cells in the marginal zone, and it guides the proper aggregation of the migrating neurons in a birth-dependent inside-out manner. Reelin also regulates the final process of neuronal migration (terminal translocation and somal translocation) by activating integrin and N-cadherin. It is also expressed around the subventricular zone and it controls the behavior of the migrating neurons.. AB - Reelin controls the neuronal layer formation in the developing cerebral neocortex. The Reelin glycoprotein is mainly secreted from Cajat-Retzius cells in the marginal zone, and it guides the proper aggregation of the migrating neurons in a birth-dependent inside-out manner. Reelin also regulates the final process of neuronal ...
We developed a method for labeling individual recombinant biotinylated neurexin and neuroligin molecules using monomeric streptavidin (mSA) conjugated to photostable Atto dyes. These small monomeric ligands (3 nm) do not induce cross-linking as divalent antibodies or streptavidin tetramers do, and provide excellent penetration into synaptic junctions (20 nm).. mSA can be combined with GFP nanobodies in an orthogonal labeling strategy that allows unprecedented dual-color visualization of NRX/NLG trans-synaptic contacts. We report a differential dynamics and nanoscale organization of the two NRX1 post-synaptic counter-receptors NLG1 and LRRTM2, compatible with divergent physiological roles (Chamma et al., Nat Comm, 2016).. This versatile technique is applicable to virtually any membrane molecule and compatible with a wide range of super-resolution microscopy techniques, including uPAINT (Universal Point Accumulation In Nanoscopic Topography), STORM (Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy), ...
In brain, signaling mediated by cell adhesion molecules defines the identity and functional properties of synapses. The specificity of presynaptic and postsynaptic interactions that is presumably mediated by cell adhesion molecules suggests that there exists a logic that could explain neuronal connectivity at the molecular level. Despite its importance, however, the nature of such logic is poorly understood, and even basic parameters, such as the number, identity, and single-cell expression profiles of candidate synaptic cell adhesion molecules, are not known. Here, we devised a comprehensive list of genes involved in cell adhesion, and used single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to analyze their expression in electrophysiologically defined interneurons and projection neurons. We compared the cell type-specific expression of these genes with that of genes involved in transmembrane ion conductances (i.e., channels), exocytosis, and rho/rac signaling, which regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Using these data,
Much of our understanding of synaptogenesis comes from studies that deal with the development of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Although well studied, it is not clear how far the NMJ represents an adequate model for the formation of synapses within the CNS. Here we investigate the role of Fasciclin II (Fas II) in the development of synapses between identified motor neurons and cholinergic interneurons in the CNS of Drosophila. Fas II is a neural cell adhesion molecule homolog that is involved in both target selection and synaptic plasticity at the NMJ in Drosophila. In this study, we show that levels of Fas II are critical determinants of synapse formation and growth in the CNS. The initial establishment of synaptic contacts between these identified neurons is seemingly independent of Fas II. The subsequent proliferation of these synaptic connections that occurs postembryonically is, in contrast, significantly retarded by the absence of Fas II. Although the initial formation of synaptic ...
Neural connections require precise organization of the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. Neuroligins are transmembrane proteins expressed on the postsynaptic cell that bind to β-neurexins, which are presynaptic transmembrane proteins. Graf et al. report that β-neurexin is present in both excitatory (glutamatergic) and inhibitory (GABAergic) presynaptic neurons of the hippocampus. When these cells were plated with COS cells transfected to express neuroligin-1 or neuroligin-2, the presynaptic specializations that contained synaptic vesicles were induced in both types of axons. Coculture of fibroblasts expressing neurexin-1β with hippocampal neurons triggered the formation of PSD-95-positive or gephyrin-positive postsynaptic clusters in contacting dendrites (PSD-95 is an excitatory postsynaptic organizing protein and gephyrin is an inhibitory postsynaptic organizing protein). In addition, neurexin-1β stimulated clustering of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor subunits and ...
Neural connections require precise organization of the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. Neuroligins are transmembrane proteins expressed on the postsynaptic cell that bind to β-neurexins, which are presynaptic transmembrane proteins. Graf et al. report that β-neurexin is present in both excitatory (glutamatergic) and inhibitory (GABAergic) presynaptic neurons of the hippocampus. When these cells were plated with COS cells transfected to express neuroligin-1 or neuroligin-2, the presynaptic specializations that contained synaptic vesicles were induced in both types of axons. Coculture of fibroblasts expressing neurexin-1β with hippocampal neurons triggered the formation of PSD-95-positive or gephyrin-positive postsynaptic clusters in contacting dendrites (PSD-95 is an excitatory postsynaptic organizing protein and gephyrin is an inhibitory postsynaptic organizing protein). In addition, neurexin-1β stimulated clustering of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor subunits and ...
We focused on changes in the exons of DNA-protein-coding areas in which deletions or duplications are more likely to directly disrupt biological functions, said study leader Hakon Hakonarson, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Center for Applied Genomics at The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia and associate professor of Pediatrics at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. We identified additional autism susceptibility genes, many of which, as we previously found, belong to the neuronal cell adhesion molecule family involved in the development of brain circuitry in early childhood. He added that the team discovered many private gene mutations, those found only in one or a few individuals or families-an indication of genetic complexity, in which many different gene changes may contribute to an autism spectrum disorder ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CHL1 gene acts as a tumor suppressor in human neuroblastoma. AU - Ognibene, Marzia. AU - Pagnan, Gabriella. AU - Marimpietri, Danilo. AU - Cangelosi, Davide. AU - Cilli, Michele. AU - Benedetti, Maria Chiara. AU - Boldrini, Renata. AU - Garaventa, Alberto. AU - Frassoni, Francesco. AU - Eva, Alessandra. AU - Varesio, Luigi. AU - Pistoia, Vito. AU - Pezzolo, Annalisa. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Neuroblastoma is an aggressive, relapse-prone childhood tumor of the sympathetic nervous system that accounts for 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. A distal portion of human chromosome 3p is often deleted in neuroblastoma, this region may contain one or more putative tumor suppressor genes. A 2.54 Mb region at 3p26.3 encompassing the smallest region of deletion pinpointed CHL1 gene, the locus for neuronal cell adhesion molecule close homolog of L1. We found that low CHL1 expression predicted poor outcome in neuroblastoma patients. Here we have used two inducible cell models to analyze ...
Purpose: Reeler mice appear to be a good model for exploring the cross-talk between NGF and Reelin in development/maintenance of a physiological retinal function. Therefore, we sought to characterize NGF and trkANGFR/p75NTR expression in retinal cells from Reeler-L7-EGFPreln-/- transgenic mice (E-Reeler, n=2) and C57BL/6J-L7-EGFPreln+/+ transgenic mice (E-control, n=7), both expressing EGFP positivity in Rod Bipolar Cells (RBC).. Methods: Retinas were dissected from not pooled whole eyes. Single cell were obtained by DispaseII and/or Trypsin digestion, in the presence of DNAseI, equilibrated in HBSS-EDTA and fixed in 1% PFA. Cells were probed with specific antibodies (NGF, p75NTR and trkANGFR) and at least 10000 cells were acquired/analysed by flow cytometry, according to the MACSquant technology. Apoptosis was also estimated by AnnexinV.. Results: Both treatments were successful to obtain single cells from dissected retinas, albeit trypsin allowed a better side-scatter definition/resolution of ...
The Wnt- and BMP-rich cortical hem has been demonstrated to be critical for the pattern formation of the telencephalon, and it is particularly important for the induction of the hippocampus. Meanwhile, the cortical hem is one of the sources of Cajal-Retzius cells. Many Cajal-Retzius cells are produced in the hem and populated to the media-caudal surface of the telencephalon. However, the mechanism of the maintenance of the hem remain unclear. In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse line CAG-loxp-stop-loxp-Foxg1-IRES-EGFP. By crossing Fzd10CreERTM with this line, combined with tamoxifen induction, Foxg1 was ectopically expressed in the hem from embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) onwards. We have found the hem-derived Cajal-Retzius cells were transformed into dentate granule neurons accompanied with ectopic expression of Lhx2. However, the morphology of the hem displayed no obvious changes. The hem specific markers, Wnt3a and Wnt2b, were slightly downregulated. Our results indicate that Foxg1 is sufficient
Browse Item # 75-001, CASPR/Neurexin IV in the Antibodies, Inc. catalog including Item #,Item Name,Description,Target,Applications,Clone,IgG Isotype,Species Reactivity,Validation,Type,Format,Cross Reactivity,Expected Banding Pattern,Host,Label,Antibo
Third immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NCAM-1 (NCAM). Ig3_NCAM-1_like: domain similar to the third immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NCAM-1 (NCAM). NCAM plays important roles in the development and regeneration of the central nervous system, in synaptogenesis and neural migration. NCAM mediates cell-cell and cell-substratum recognition and adhesion via homophilic (NCAM-NCAM), and heterophilic (NCAM-non-NCAM), interactions. NCAM is expressed as three major isoforms having different intracellular extensions. The extracellular portion of NCAM has five N-terminal Ig-like domains and two fibronectin type III domains. The double zipper adhesion complex model for NCAM homophilic binding involves Ig1, Ig2, and Ig3. By this model, Ig1,and Ig2 mediate dimerization of NCAM molecules situated on the same cell surface (cis interactions), and Ig3 domains mediate interactions between NCAM molecules expressed on the surface of opposing cells (trans ...
Cerebral cavernous malformation is a common human vascular disease that arises due to loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding three intracellular adaptor proteins, cerebral cavernous malformations 1 protein (CCM1), CCM2, and CCM3 ...
Toll-interacting protein impacts on irritation, autophagy, and vacuole trafficking in human illness Toll-interacting protein (TOLLIP) is a ubiquitous intracellular adaptor protein concerned in a number of intracellular signaling pathways. It performs a key position in mediating inflammatory intracellular responses, selling autophagy, and enabling vacuole transport throughout the cell. TOLLIP is being more … Continue reading Toll-interacting protein impacts on inflammation, autophagy. ...
The precise sub-compartmental profile of Kv1 channels at AIS and along axons is critical for the shaping of neuronal signaling. In the present study, we showed that two CAMs associated with Kv1, TAG-1 and Caspr2, are distinctly targeted along the axon in hippocampal neurons. TAG-1 strongly colocalizes with Kv1.2 channels at the AIS whereas Caspr2 is evenly distributed along the axon, in contrast to their colocalization at juxtaparanodes. Live imaging of Caspr2 and TAG-1 vesicular transport revealed that they are sorted together in the same axonal transport vesicles. Thus, we hypothesize that their differential distribution may result from diffusion and/or trapping mechanisms induced by selective partnerships. We identified two molecular determinants of Caspr2 that regulate its axonal positioning. First, we showed that deletion of the LNG2-EGF1 extracellular modules in Caspr2Δ2 induces its restricted localization at the AIS and strengthened its association with TAG-1. Second, we demonstrated ...
The S14L variant has been reported in individuals with autism and seizures, although the phenotype was variable with reduced penetrance and did not uniformly include seizures (Feng et al., 2006; Gauthier et al., 2011; Yangngam et al., 2014). This variant is in the shorter transcript of NRXN1 (NM_138735.2), and alters a residue that is predicted to be in the signal peptide of the beta-neurexin protein (Zweier et al., 2009; Gauthier et al., 2011). Although the S14L was not observed in 1,201 controls studied separately (Feng et al., 2006; Gauthier et al., 2011; Kim et al., 2008), it was observed in 1/200 controls in an additional publication (Camacho-Garcia et al., 2012). This variant is a non-conservative amino acid substitution, which is likely to impact secondary protein structure as these residues differ in polarity, charge, size, and/or other properties. However, this substitution occurs at a position that is not conserved, and functional studies have shown no abnormalities in beta-neurexin ...
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The present studies were to determine whether the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib or its type regorafenib interacted with the ERBB1/ERBB2 inhibitor lapatinib to kill CNS tumor cells. fetal calf serum and 10% (v/v) Non-essential amino acids. All main human being glioblastoma cells were cultured at 37 C (5% (v/v CO2) using RPMI supplemented with 2% 16679-58-6 … Continue reading The present studies were to determine whether the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib. ...
A blog post discussing research examining an interaction between loss of reelin expression and organophosphate exposure in a mouse model
Summary of NLGN4X (HLNX, KIAA1260, NLGN, NLGN4) expression in human tissue. Cytoplasmic expression in CNS and peripheral ganglia.
Reln is a quality-endorsed Australian company, with worldwide manufacturing and plastic injection moulding capabilities. Reln is renowned designing, market
Results Overview Central to the complex functioning of the brain is the ability of neurons to communicate. This occurs at highly...
The carcinoembryonic-antigen-related cell-adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family of proteins has been implicated in various intercellular-adhesion and intracellular-signalling-mediated effects that govern the growth and differentiation of normal and cancerous cells. Recent studies show that there is an i …
The Ig-like domains of L1 can consider component in homophilic and heterophilic interactions ... condition models and human patients of Advertisement.
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マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab78540 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,ICC,IHC (PFA fixed)…Reelin抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
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An altered expression of the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is associated with cancer progression in various cancer types. In some cancers ALCAM has a prognostic value or is predictive for the benefit of therapeutic interventions. To date there are no data on the role of ALCAM in cervical cancer available. In this study, ALCAM expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissue samples of 233 patients with cervical cancer, among them 178 with complete follow-up information. In addition, soluble (s-)ALCAM was measured in sera of a subset of the included patients (n = 55) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ALCAM overexpression was detected (immunoreactive score (IRS) 2-12) in 58.4% of the cervical cancer samples. The normal ectocervical or endocervical epithelium showed no ALCAM reactivity. In untreated patients, ALCAM overexpression in tumor tissue tended to be associated with shorter cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Patients,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reelin receptors ApoER2 and VLDLR are expressed in distinct spatiotemporal patterns in developing mouse cerebral cortex. AU - Hirota, Yuki. AU - Kubo, Ken ichiro. AU - Katayama, Kei ichi. AU - Honda, Takao. AU - Fujino, Takahiro. AU - Yamamoto, Tokuo T.. AU - Nakajima, Kazunori. PY - 2015/2/15. Y1 - 2015/2/15. N2 - In mammalian developing brain, neuronal migration is regulated by a variety of signaling cascades, including Reelin signaling. Reelin is a glycoprotein that is mainly secreted by Cajal-Retzius neurons in the marginal zone, playing essential roles in the formation of the layered neocortex via its receptors, apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR). However, the precise mechanisms by which Reelin signaling controls the neuronal migration process remain unclear. To gain insight into how Reelin signaling controls individual migrating neurons, we generated monoclonal antibodies against ApoER2 and VLDLR and examined the ...
anti-Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) (AA 550-583) antibody (Alexa Fluor 488) ABIN888844 from antibodies-online
Buy ALCAM elisa kit, Cavy Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule ELISA Kit-AAB59499.1 (MBS046317) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
Our purpose was assess the impact of Activated Leucocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) on Human Vascular Endothelial Cells (HECV), these cell are important in angiogenesis and hence wound healing. HECV line positive for ALCAM were used. Anti-ALCAM transgenes were constructed based on the secondary structure of the ALCAM mRAN. After transfection of HECV cells with the transgene and control vectors, the following cell sublines were created; a control (HECVpEF) endothelial cell line and a ALCAM-knockdown (HECVALCAM/KD) cell line. We then assessed the impact of ALCAM on cellular migration of the endothelial cells by way of electric wounding using Electrical Cell Impedence Sensing (ECIS) zy model. We successfully suppressed the expression of ALCAM in HECV cells by using the anti-ALCAM transgene. HECV rapidly migrated after wounding. It recovered at a rapid pace (0.57/min). Interestingly, after losing ALCAM transcript, the HECVALCAM/KD cells migrated at a substantially reduced rate. Finally, the ...
An interaction of growth cone axonin-1 with the floor-plate NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) was shown to play a crucial role in commissural axon guidance across the midline of the spinal cord. We now provide evidence that axonin-1 mediates a guidance signal without promoting axon elongation. In an in vitro assay, commissural axons grew preferentially on stripes coated with a mixture of NrCAM and NgCAM. This preference was abolished in the presence of anti-axonin-1 antibodies without a decrease in neurite length. Consistent with these findings, commissural axons in vivo only fail to extend along the longitudinal axis when both NrCAM and NgCAM interactions, but not when axonin-1 and NrCAM or axonin-1 and NgCAM interactions, are perturbed. Thus, we conclude that axonin-1 is involved in guidance of commissural axons without promoting their growth. ...
In the central nervous system, cellular prion proteins are found in astrocytes and neurons. There has been evidence showing that they prolong the survival9 as well as affect the differentiation of these structures. Scientists have found that cellular prions interact with NCAM, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, in astrocytes and this causes neurogenesis. Another role that the cellular prions might be involved in is the differentiation process of neurons. Scientists have found that when the ligand, STI1 (secreted from astrocytes) binds a receptor on the cellular prion glycoprotein membrane, the neurons differentiate. There were much lower levels of neurogenesis in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures, when they did not express the Prnp gene. Furthermore, they suggested that the interaction between cellular prion proteins and STI1 may play a role in protecting against apoptosis, as they have seen in neurons located in the hippocampus and the retina8 . It is likely that there are other molecular factors in ...
Artemin (ARTN) is a neurotrophic factor from the GDNF family ligands (GFLs) that is involved in development of the nervous system and neuronal differentiation and survival. ARTN signals through a complex receptor system consisting of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored co-receptor GFL receptor α, GFRα3. We found that ARTN binds directly to neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and that ARTN-induced neuritogenesis requires NCAM expression and activation of NCAM-associated signaling partners, thus corroborating that NCAM is an alternative receptor for ARTN. We designed a small peptide, artefin, that could interact with GFRα3 and demonstrated that this peptide agonist induces RET phosphorylation and mimics the biological functions of ARTN - neuroprotection and neurite outgrowth. Moreover, artefin mimicked the binding of ARTN to NCAM and required NCAM expression and activation for its neurite elongation effect, thereby suggesting that artefin represents a binding
Attractants and repellents shunt neurons into their correct final location. But now Iris Hack, Harold Cremer (Université Mediterranée, Marseille, France), and colleagues have found evidence that reelin fits into neither of these categories. They propose, instead, that reelin converts cells that are migrating in association with each other into individual cells that can strike out alone to find their final position.. This conclusion comes over fifty years after the locomoter abnormality of reeler mice was first described. Loss of reelin, the product of the reeler gene, causes a failure of older neurons to migrate through the layers of younger neurons in the cortex. But, says Cremer, the available data gave no clear idea of what reelin was doing.. Cremer studied not the cortex but the adult olfactory bulb, where he found that reelin was required for the ongoing arrival of new interneurons. Without reelin, incoming chains of migrating interneurons piled up at the entrance to the olfactory bulb, ...
Bio: I was born at Seoul, Korea in 1971 and served as a soldier in the army from 1991 to 1994. I received Ph.D. in neuroscience in 2004 from Dep. of Physiology and Biophysics, Inha University, school of medicine, Korea. Research topic was Effects of Caveolin-1 on the Na+-Ca2+ Exchanger Activity in Soma of Rat Cerebellar Purkinje Neuron that was supervised by Chang Kook Suh. I had been trained as a postdoctoral fellow in Dep. of Life Science, Pohang University of science and technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Korea since 2005 and was promoted to research assistant professor from the same institute in 2007. In POSTECH, research topic was that synaptic adhesion protein, neuroligin-1 (synaptic adhesion molecule) affected synaptic plasticity and the fear memory in amygdala. To study on vesicle dynamics, I came to Max-Planck-Institut für Experimentelle Medizin in Germany in 2009 with Korea government supported grant. Research topic was the measurement of calcium cooperativity on vesicle release in ...
The brains circuitry is established by directed migration and synaptogenesis of neurons during development. Although neurons mature and migrate in specific patterns, little is known about how neurons exit their germinal zone niche. We found that cerebellar granule neuron germinal zone exit is regulated by proteasomal degradation of Pard3A by the Seven in Absentia homolog (Siah) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Pard3A gain-of-function and Siah loss-of-function induce precocious radial migration. Time-lapse imaging using a probe to measure neuronal cell contact reveals that Pard3A promotes adhesive interactions needed for germinal zone exit by recruiting the JAM-C epithelial tight junction adhesion molecule to the neuronal cell surface. Our findings define a Siah-Pard3A signaling pathway that controls adhesion-dependent exit of neuronal progenitors or immature neurons from a germinal zone niche.. ...
The proliferation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells requires communication with the lymphoid organ microenvironment. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a multifunctional intracellular adaptor protein that transmits extracellular signals to regulate malignant cell motility, metastasis, and cell cycle progression, but is poorly characterized in hematological malignancies. In this study, we investigated the role of ILK in the context of CLL and observed high ILK expression in patient samples, particularly in tumor cells harboring prognostic high risk markers such as unmutated IGHV genes, high Zap70 or CD38 expression, or a signature of recent proliferation. We also found increased numbers of Ki67 (MKI67)-positive cells in regions of enhanced ILK expression in lymph nodes (LNs) from CLL patients. Using co-culture conditions mimicking the proliferative LN microenvironment, we detected a parallel induction of ILK and cyclin D1 (CCND1) expression in CLL cells that was dependent on the activation ...
Specific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting viral pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Non-self RNA appearing in a cell as a result of intracellular viral replication is recognized by a family of cytosolic RNA helicases termed RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs). The RLR proteins include RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2 and are expressed in both immune and nonimmune cells. Upon recognition of viral nucleic acids, RLRs recruit specific intracellular adaptor proteins to initiate signaling pathways that lead to the synthesis of type I interferon and other inflammatory cytokines, which are important for eliminating viruses ...
Specific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting viral pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Non-self RNA appearing in a cell as a result of intracellular viral replication is recognized by a family of cytosolic RNA helicases termed RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs). The RLR proteins include RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2 and are expressed in both immune and nonimmune cells. Upon recognition of viral nucleic acids, RLRs recruit specific intracellular adaptor proteins to initiate signaling pathways that lead to the synthesis of type I interferon and other inflammatory cytokines, which are important for eliminating viruses ...
Excess expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the cortex and hippocampus causes a decrease in the number of glutamatergic synapses and alters the expression of neurexin and neuroligin, trans-synaptic proteins that control synaptic stability. The molecular sequence and three-dimensional structure of AChE are homologous to the corresponding aspects of the ectodomain of neuroligin. This study investigated whether excess AChE interacts physically with neurexin to destabilize glutamatergic synapses. The results showed that AChE clusters colocalized with neurexin assemblies in the neurites of hippocampal neurons and that AChE co-immunoprecipitated with neurexin from the lysate of these neurons. Moreover, when expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, N-glycosylated AChE co-immunoprecipitated with non-O-glycosylated neurexin-1β, with N-glycosylation of the AChE being required for this co-precipitation to occur. Increasing extracellular AChE decreased the association of neurexin with neuroligin and
3.3.CO;2-7. PMID 9671277. Schiffmann SN, Bernier B, Goffinet AM (May 1997). Reelin mRNA expression during mouse brain development. The European Journal of Neuroscience. 9 (5): 1055-71. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.1997.tb01456.x. PMID 9182958. Pesold C, Impagnatiello F, Pisu MG, Uzunov DP, Costa E, Guidotti A, Caruncho HJ (Mar 1998). Reelin is preferentially expressed in neurons synthesizing gamma-aminobutyric acid in cortex and hippocampus of adult rats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 95 (6): 3221-6. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.6.3221. PMC 19723 . PMID 9501244. Alcántara S, Ruiz M, DArcangelo G, Ezan F, de Lecea L, Curran T, Sotelo C, Soriano E (Oct 1998). Regional and cellular patterns of reelin mRNA expression in the forebrain of the developing and adult mouse. The Journal of Neuroscience. 18 (19): 7779-99. PMID 9742148. Pesold C, Liu WS, Guidotti A, Costa E, Caruncho HJ (Mar 1999). Cortical bitufted, horizontal, and Martinotti cells ...
To investigate the effects of hippocampal microenvironment, especially Reelin on cell differentiation and cell polarization, mouse (wild type and reeler) hippocampal slices were co-cultured with various kinds of cells with different degrees of differentiation, such as the stem cells (undifferentiated cells), tumor cells (poorly differentiated cells) and terminal differentiated cells (mature somatic cells).
ALCAM - ALCAM (untagged)-Human activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
To view the total text, make sure you login as a subscribed user or purchase a membership. Click on right here to view the full text on ScienceDirect. Loading… LAR-RPTPs: synaptic adhesion molecules that condition synapse advancement Developments in Mobile Biology, Publication Day 05 August 2013Copyright © 2013 All…. ...
Clone REA542 recognizes the human plexin-D1 antigen, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein that is a member of the D subfamily of semaphorin receptors. Plexin-D1 is amongst others the receptor for semaphorin 3E (Sema3E) which is a secreted molecule implicated in axonal path finding and inhibition of developmental and postischemic angiogenesis. Plexin-D1 plays an important role in cell-cell signaling and in regulating the migration of a wide spectrum of cell types, and is able to trigger R-Ras inactivation, leading to axonal and cell repulsion in vitro. Moreover, it was shown that Sema3E mediates either axonal attraction or repulsion in distinct neuronal populations, depending on the coexpression of neuropilin-1 with plexin-D1. Plexin-D1 expression is generally low in normal adult tissues, it is elevated in endothelial cells of tumor vessels and in cancer cells.Additional information: Clone REA542 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Österreich
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of p73 and Reelin in the Developing Human Cortex. AU - Meyer, Gundela. AU - Perez-Garcia, Carlos Gustavo. AU - Abraham, Hajnalka. AU - Caput, Daniel. PY - 2002/6/15. Y1 - 2002/6/15. N2 - Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells of the developing neocortex secrete Reelin (Reln), a glycoprotein involved in neuronal migration. CR cells selectively express p73, a p53 family member implicated in cell survival and apoptosis. Immunocytochemistry in prenatal human telencephalon reveals a complex sequence of migration waves of p73- and Reln-immunoreactive (IR) neurons into the cortical marginal zone (MZ). At early preplate stages, p73/Reln-IR cells arise in distinct sectors of the telencephalon, including cortical primordium and ganglionic eminences. After the appearance of the cortical plate, further p73/Reln-IR cells originate in the medial periolfactory forebrain. In addition, p73 marks a novel cell population that appears at the choroid-cortical junction or cortical hem before the ...
Langley, K. und Gratzl, Manfred (1991): Neural Cells adhesion Molecule NCAM in neural and endocrine cells. In: Gratzl, Manfred und Langley, K. (Hrsg.): Markers for Neural and Endocrine Cells : molecular and cell biology, diagnostic applications. Winheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag. S. 133-178 [PDF, 6MB] ...
I. Introduction .............................................................................................212 II. Long-term effects of postnatal inorganic
CD166 antibody [8E12C7] (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule) for ELISA, FACS, ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-CD166 mAb (GTX60782) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Botella-Lopez A. , Burgaya, F; Gavin, R; Garcia-Ayllon, MS; Gomez-Tortosa, E; Peña-Casanova, J; Ureña, JM; Del Rio, JA; Blesa, R; Soriano, E; Saez-Valero, J. Reelin expression and glycosylation patterns are altered in Alzheimers disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA . 103 , 5573 - 5578 ( 2006 ) ...
Purpose: To examine mRNA expression level of angiogenic growth factors, VEGF and TGFb1, in macrophages and ocular fibroblasts derived from a tenascin X-null mouse. We previously reported that the loss of tenascin X suppress neocvascularization with reduction of in vivo expression of angiogenic growth factors in a mouse cornea (ARVO 2014).. Methods: Peritoneal macrophages were obtained from tenascin X-null and wild types mice by using macrophage induction by oyster glycogen i.p. injection. Ocular fibroblasts were cultured from eye-shells of post-natal day 1 or 2 mice. The cultures were maintained for 24 hrs with or without exogenous TGFb1 and processed for RNA extraction. Real-time RT-PCR was ran to examine the expression level of VEGF and TGFb1.. Results: Loss of tenascin X supprsss mRNA expression of VEGF in macrophages and of TGFb1 in fibroblasts in the absence of TGFb1. Loss of tenascin X did not attenuate the TGFb1 induction of VEGF and TGFb1 in these cell types.. Conclusions: Tenascin X is ...
Many studies have supported a genetic etiology for autism. Here we report mutations in two X-linked genes encoding neuroligins NLGN3 and NLGN4 in siblings with autism-spectrum disorders. These mutations affect cell-adhesion molecules localized at the synapse and suggest that a defect of synaptogenesis may predispose to autism. ...
Accumulation of glia, gliosis, in various neurological disorders is not a static scar, but actively involved in pathogenesis of various neurological and psychiatric disorders, where glial cells produce both inflammatory and neurotrophic factors. These factors may play a role in neuronal damage, but.... Full description. ...
Cell adhesion molecules (CAM) have four major superfamilies or groups: immunoglobulin superfamily (IgCAM) of cell adhesion molecules, cadherin, integrin and lectin-like domain protein C-type superfamily (CTLD).
Ajou University Medical Information & Media Center 164 Worldcup-ro Yeongtong-gu Suwon 16499 Korea / TEL : 031-219-5312 / FAX : 031-219- ...
Reelin labeling is not present in all endothelial cells. A) Low magnification image of an unlabeled brain capillary in the cortex. The wall of this brain capill
View mouse Cntnap4 Chr8:112570043-112882717 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Scientists have decoded the molecular details of a genetic defect that disrupts signal transmission in the brain and causes autism. In mice without neuroligins the synapses do not mature.
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We developed a method for labeling individual recombinant biotinylated neurexin and neuroligin molecules using monomeric streptavidin (mSA) conjugated to photostable Atto dyes. These small (...). ...
To investigate a possible new method based on biophysical principles (scrambler therapy) to be used in the effective treatment of drug-resistant oncological pain of the visceral/neuropathic type
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The neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM simultaneously combines with another N-CAM and a fibroblast growth factor receptor to ... A neurite or neuronal process refers to any projection from the cell body of a neuron. This projection can be either an axon or ... Berezin, Vladimir (2009-12-17). Structure and Function of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NCAM. Springer Science & Business ... a protein in brain that induces the collapse and paralysis of neuronal growth cones". Cell. 75 (2): 217-227. doi:10.1016/0092- ...
The ion channels are accompanied by a high number of cell adhesion molecules and scaffolding proteins that anchor them to the ... Cells called guidepost cells assist in the guidance of neuronal axon growth. These cells that help axon guidance, are typically ... Environments with high levels of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) create an ideal environment for axonal growth. This seems to ... Another set of molecules called extracellular matrix-adhesion molecules also provide a sticky substrate for axons to grow along ...
... and reported by several authors and it was suggested that the expression of proteins like the neuronal cell adhesion molecule ( ... by principal cells) and hydrogen ions (by intercalated cells of the collecting duct). Sodium retention is also a response of ... by principal cells) and hydrogen ions (by intercalated cells of the collecting duct). Sodium retention is also a response of ... NCAM) in the cells of the zona glomerulosa reflects the regenerative feature of these cells, which would lose NCAM ...
necl-1 : CADM3 (Cell adhesion molecule 3), TSLL1 (TSLC1-like 1), SynCAM3 (Synaptic cell adhesion molecule 3), IGSF4B ( ... Nectin-1 and nectin-3 have been shown to be involved in cellular adhesion in some neuronal synapses. Unlike many other cellular ... Synaptic cell adhesion molecule 2) necl-4 : TSLL2 (TSLC1-like 2), SynCAM4 (Synaptic cell adhesion molecule 1) necl-5 : Tage4, ... Cell adhesion molecule 1), TSLC1 (Tumor suppressor in lung cancer 1), SynCAM1 (Synaptic cell adhesion molecule 1), IGSF4 ( ...
of Cell and Dev. Biol. 13: 425-456. *↑ Colman R. D. ja Filbin T. M. (2006). Cell adhesion molecules, lk 111-121. George J. ... Cell recognition during neuronal development. Science 225 (4668): 1271-1279. ... Walsh, F. S., Doherty, P. (1997). Neural cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily: Role in Axon Growth and ... opioid-binding cell adhesion molecule) ja Kilon/Neurotractin (vastavalt roti ja kana ortoloogid)[4]. Lisaks kolmele Ig domeeni ...
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs): Integral membrane proteins mediating adhesion between growing axons and eliciting intracellular ... These cues can be expressed on glial and neuronal cells the growing axon contacts or be part of the extracellular matrix. ... and cadherins or Ig-family cell-adhesion molecules, found on cell surfaces. Tropic cues, that can act as attractants or ... Ephrins: Ephrins are cell surface molecules that activate Eph receptors on the surface of other cells. This interaction can be ...
"Inflammatory cytokine-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in mesenchymal stem cells ... "Differentiation of human adipose-derived adult stem cells into neuronal tissue: does it work?". Differentiation; Research in ... May 2012). "Mesenchymal-stem-cell-induced immunoregulation involves FAS-ligand-/FAS-mediated T cell apoptosis". Cell Stem Cell ... bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), myocytes (muscle cells) and adipocytes (fat cells which give rise to marrow ...
Class 3 semaphorins signal through heterocomplexes of neuropilins, Class A Plexins, and cell adhesion molecules, and the makeup ... They regulate neuronal and non-neuronal cells associated with the traumatic injury due to their presence in the scar tissue. ... Each class of Semaphorin has many subgroups of different molecules that share similar characteristics. For example, Class 3 ... Semaphorin Nomenclature Committee (May 1999). "Unified nomenclature for the semaphorins/collapsins". Cell. 97 (5): 551-2. doi: ...
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are also important in plasticity as they help coordinate the signaling across the synapse. More ... In essence, neuronal activity regulates gene expression related to dendritic branching and synapse development. Mutations in ... Many molecules have been implicated in synaptic plasticity. Notably, AMPA and NMDA receptors are key molecules in mechanisms of ... Of the estimated 30-40 genes that comprise the total neuronal IEG response, all are prototypical activity-dependent genes and a ...
Class 3 semaphorins signal through heterocomplexes of neuropilins, Class A Plexins, and cell adhesion molecules, and the makeup ... They regulate neuronal and non-neuronal cells associated with the traumatic injury due to their presence in the scar tissue. ... Class III semaphorins regulate multiple processes after spinal cord injury by influencing neuronal and non-neuronal cells. ... Semaphorin Nomenclature Committee (May 1999). "Unified nomenclature for the semaphorins/collapsins". Cell. 97 (5): 551-2. doi: ...
The cells then exit and circulate in the blood until they reach their designated tissues, coded for by adhesion molecules and ... Other studies also confirm the regulation of ILC function via neuronal circuits. In addition, ILC1s and ILC3s release oxygen ... Retinoic acid, produced by many cell types, such as nerve cells, dendritic cells, and stromal cells, favours the ... NK cells express many cell-surface receptors that can be activating, inhibitory, adhesion, cytokine, or chemotactic. The ...
Reid RA, Bronson DD, Young KM, Hemperly JJ (Jan 1994). "Identification and characterization of the human cell adhesion molecule ... domains in neuronal cell functions and identification of the domain interacting with the neuronal recognition molecule F3/11". ... four members of an axon-associated cell adhesion molecule subgroup of the immunoglobulin superfamily". Journal of Neurobiology ... "Signaling events following the interaction of the neuronal adhesion molecule F3 with the N-terminal domain of tenascin-R". ...
1997). «Signaling events following the interaction of the neuronal adhesion molecule F3 with the N-terminal domain of tenascin- ... Reid RA, Bronson DD, Young KM, Hemperly JJ (1994). «Identification and characterization of the human cell adhesion molecule ... domains in neuronal cell functions and identification of the domain interacting with the neuronal recognition molecule F3/11 ... four members of an axon-associated cell adhesion molecule subgroup of the immunoglobulin superfamily.». J. Neurobiol. 28 (1): ...
Chiasm crossing is also promoted by Nr-CAM (Ng-CAM-related cell adhesion molecule) and Semaphorin6D (Sema6D) expressed at the ... This navigation is mediated by the neuronal growth cone, a structure that responds to the cues by ligand-receptor signalling ... Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons leaving the eye through the optic nerve are blocked from exiting the developing pathway by ... Herrera, E; Erskine, L; Morenilla-Palao, C (2019). "Guidance of retinal axons in mammals". Seminars in Cell & Developmental ...
... and it was suggested that the expression of proteins like the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in the cells of the zona ... by principal cells) and hydrogen ions (by intercalated cells of the collecting duct).[7] Sodium retention is also a response of ... by principal cells) and hydrogen ions (by intercalated cells of the collecting duct).[7] Sodium retention is also a response of ... "Basal steroidogenic activity of adrenocortical cells is increased 10-fold by coculture with chromaffin cells". Endocrinology. ...
SynCAM is a cell adhesion molecule that is present in both pre- and post-synaptic membranes. ... Neuronal precursor cells proliferate in the ventricular zone of the developing neocortex, where the principal neural stem cell ... They do not resemble the cells migrating by locomotion or somal translocation. Instead these multipolar cells express neuronal ... In explant cultures (which allow direct cell-cell interactions) the same cells differentiate into epidermis. This is due to the ...
... and it was suggested that the expression of proteins like the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in the cells of the zona ... "Basal Steroidogenic Activity of Adrenocortical Cells is Increased 10-Fold by Coculture with Chromaffin Cells". Endocrinology. ... In response to increased potassium levels, renin or decreased blood flow to the kidneys, cells of the zona glomerulosa produce ... Its cells are ovoid and arranged in clusters or arches (glomus is Latin for "ball"). ...
... which are cell-cell adhesion molecules found in desmosomes). Underlying cancer or irreversible system impairment, seen in acute ... In this paradigm, tumor cells express tissue-restricted antigens (e.g., neuronal proteins), triggering an anti-tumor immune ... "Regression of small-cell lung carcinoma in patients with paraneoplastic neuronal antibodies", Lancet, 341 (8836): 21-22, doi: ... In contrast, these phenomena are mediated by humoral factors (such as hormones or cytokines) secreted by tumor cells or by an ...
Keppel Hesselink JM (2012). "New Targets in Pain, Non-Neuronal Cells, and the Role of Palmitoylethanolamide" (review). The Open ... PAR and adhesion molecules expression, the infiltration and activation of mastcells and apoptosis. The biological responses to ... Keppel Hesselink JM (2012). "New Targets in Pain, Non-Neuronal Cells, and the Role of Palmitoylethanolamide" (review). The Open ... Since 1993, at least 25 papers have been published on the various effects of PEA on mast cells. These cells are often found in ...
Additionally, cells destined to become neural plate cells express nerve cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) to further neural plate ... on the neural plate began in earnest by looking into the determination of the ectoderm and its commitment to the neuronal path ... Cell grafting[edit]. Cell grafting in the early stages of embryo development has provided crucial information on cell fates and ... Without BMP4 the ectoderm cells would develop into neural cells. Axial mesoderm cells under the ectoderm secrete inhibitory ...
In parallel, ectodermic cells, differentiated into neuronal cells, became the primitive nervous system and brain. Both these ... Functional roles of lipids are in fact many: They serve as regulatory agents in cell growth and adhesion. They participate in ... control the entry and exit of other molecules and ions as part of the cell's metabolism. In order to perform physiological ... About 500 million years ago, some nervous cells and some gut cells of vertebrates migrated and specialized in a more complex ...
... which allow the pericytes and neighboring cells to exchange ions and other small molecules. Important molecules in these ... In some regions of the basement membrane, adhesion plaques composed of fibronectin can be found. These plaques facilitate the ... and in the brain it has been reported that neuronal activity increases local blood flow by inducing pericytes to dilate ... and heterotypic cell-cell interactions mediate endothelial cell-induced recruitment of 10T1/2 cells and their differentiation ...
Cells counterbalance the detrimental effects of ROS by producing antioxidant molecules, such as reduced glutathione (GSH) and ... ROS can also promote migration by augmenting phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) p130Cas and paxilin. Both in ... including alterations in neuronal DNA methylation. The two bodies of information on memory formation appear to be connected in ... a cell undergoes apoptosis or programmed cell death. In addition, ROS are produced in immune cell signaling via the NOX pathway ...
... and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). In mice, vinpocetine reduced lipopolysaccharide inoculation induced ... Increases in neuronal levels of DOPAC, a metabolic breakdown product of dopamine, have been shown to occur in striatal isolated ... vinpocetine inhibits IKK preventing IκB degradation and the following translocation of NF-κB to the cell nucleus.[10][11] ... Vinpocetine inhibits the up-regulation of NF-κB by TNFα in various cell tests. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction ...
They do not resemble the cells migrating by locomotion or somal translocation. Instead these multipolar cells express neuronal ... Neurotrophic factors are molecules which promote and regulate neuronal survival in the developing nervous system. They are ... forces that interact with the extracellular environment through cell adhesion proteins to cause the movement of these cells. ... In explant cultures (which allow direct cell-cell interactions) the same cells differentiate into epidermis. This is due to the ...
... binding other L1CAM molecules as well as extracellular cell adhesion molecules, integrins, and proteoglycans or intracellular ... Neuronal cell bodies of degenerating axons are preserved and there is no evidence of primary demyelination. Loss of anterior ... another nerve cell or a muscle). Significant for this mechanism is the L1CAM gene, a cell surface glycoprotein of the ... and other substances through the cell. Long nerve fibers (axons) are affected because long distances make nerve cells ...
... shown that neuronal production of HCN activates NMDA receptors and plays a role in signal transduction between neuronal cells ( ... CO inhibits blood platelet aggregation and adhesion. CO may play a role as potential therapeutic agent. In mammals, carbon ... The beta cells of the pancreas in type 1 diabetes produce an excess of the gas, leading to the death of these cells and to a ... There is a theory that, in some nerve cell synapses, when long-term memories are being laid down, the receiving cell makes ...
Each molecule of calsequestrin can bind 18 to 50 Ca2+ ions.[1] Sequence analysis has suggested that calcium is not bound in ... raise the magnitude of cell-averaged ICA-induced calcium transients and spontaneous calcium sparks in isolated heart cells.[4] ...
ImSAIDs work by altering the activation and migration of inflammatory cells, which are immune cells responsible for amplifying ... One SGP-T derivative is a three-amino acid sequence shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory molecule with systemic effects. This ... One lead ImSAID, the tripeptide FEG (Phe-Glu-Gly) and its D-isomer feG are known to alter leukocyte adhesion involving actions ... results in the release of immune-regulating peptides from the submandibular gland upon neuronal stimulation from sympathetic ...
... as demonstrated by using arrays of perfusion chambers for mesenchymal stem cells and fibroblast cell adhesion studies. Cell-ECM ... Electrokinetics have been exploited in bio-MEMS for separating mixtures of molecules and cells using electrical fields. In ... Michigan probes have been used in large-scale recordings and network analysis of neuronal assemblies , and the Utah electrode ... Micropatterning of cell adhesion proteins can be used in defining the spatial positions of different cells on a substrate to ...
"Substance P enhances cytokine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression on cultured rheumatoid fibroblast- ... given that NK1Rs are unprotected by a blood brain barrier in the area postrema just adjacent to neuronal structures in the ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ...
The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting ... The infundibulum provides adhesion while the acetabulum remains free, and muscle contractions allow for attachment and ... Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ... which involves changes to the nucleic acid sequence of the primary transcript of RNA molecules) than any other organisms. ...
heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • cell recognition. • homophilic cell adhesion via ... cell-cell adherens junction. • мембрана. • клеточная мембрана. • поверхность клетки. • аксон. • neuron projection. • neuronal ... cell adhesion molecule binding. • protein binding involved in heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • glycosylated region protein ... heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of transforming growth factor beta production. • cell-cell adhesion. • ...
... processes than any other molecule and is strongly regulated by calcium activity making it incredibly sensitive to neuronal ... with focal adhesion kinase and suppression of the extracellular matrix-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt cell ... cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • collateral ... regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor activity. • activation of phospholipase C activity ...
"Cell. 142 (5): 687-698. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.07.041. PMC 2956412. PMID 20813258.. ... as well as decreased neuronal response to oral fatty acids.[10] ... It is expressed in taste bud cells (specifically cell type II, ... fat cell differentiation. • signal transduction. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • detection of chemical ...
T cell activation. • peristalsis. • receptor localization to synapse. • single organismal cell-cell adhesion. • negative ... The L27 domain is involved in SAP97 oligomerization with other SAP97 molecules, CASK, and other L27-domain-containing proteins. ... a novel neuronal PSD-95/SAP90-binding protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (41): 26269-72. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.41 ... There is some evidence that SAP97 regulates cell-to-cell adhesion during cell death, and may interact with HPV. In the brain, ...
... s are essential to neuronal function: neurons are cells that are specialized to pass signals to individual target cells ... are stabilized in position by synaptic adhesion molecules (SAMs) projecting from both the pre- and post-synaptic neuron and ... Phosphoinositides (PIP, PIP2, and PIP3) are molecules that have been shown to affect neuronal polarity.[12] A gene (ttx-7) was ... Arimura, Nariko; Kaibuchi, Kozo (December 22, 2005). "Key regulators in neuronal polarity". Neuron. Cambridge, MA: Cell Press. ...
... to the Pseudomonas fluorescens cell adhesion protein LapA of 520 kDa.[7] The best characterized are the RTX toxins and the ... Secretion in bacterial species means the transport or translocation of effector molecules for example: proteins, enzymes or ... "Neuronal porosome proteome: Molecular dynamics and architecture". Journal of Proteomics. 75 (13): 3952-62. doi:10.1016/j.jprot ... "Unconventional mechanisms of protein transport to the cell surface of eukaryotic cells". Annual Review of Cell and ...
11] Chiasm crossing is also promoted by Nr-CAM (Ng-CAM-related cell adhesion molecule) and Semaphorin6D (Sema6D) expressed at ... Gordon-Weeks, PR (2005). Neuronal Growth Cones. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780511529719. .. ... 7] Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons leaving the eye through the optic nerve are blocked from exiting the developing pathway by ... Herrera, E; Erskine, L; Morenilla-Palao, C (2019). "Guidance of retinal axons in mammals". Seminars in Cell & Developmental ...
Malformations in neuronal migration. *Malignant astrocytoma. *Malignant germ cell tumor. *Malignant hyperthermia arthrogryposis ... Male pseudohermaphroditism due to defective LH molecule. * ... Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 2. *Leukodystrophy reunion ...
... β-neurexin then binds to cell adhesion molecule, neuroligin located on the postsynaptic membrane. Neuroligin then interacts ... Neurotransmitter Release Machinery: Components of the Neuronal SNARE Complex and Their Function. Structural and Functional ... The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... "Synaptic cell adhesion". Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 4 (4): a005694. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a005694. PMC 3312681. PMID ...
single organismal cell-cell adhesion. • cell differentiation. • positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation involved ... apical part of cell. • secretory granule. • neuronal cell body. • cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein granule. • mitotic spindle. • ... regulates neurite extension through association with the TrkA receptor and N-Shc and CrkL/Crk adapter molecules". Molecular and ... cell-cell junction. • focal adhesion. • microtubule organizing center. • spindle midzone. • neuron projection. • storage ...
cell nucleus. • cell projection. • mitochondrial membrane. • keratin filament. • dendritic shaft. • dendritic spine head. • ... neuronal action potential. • signal transduction. • mineralocorticoid receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of ... cell differentiation. • immune system process. • negative regulation of cell cycle process. • positive regulation of release of ... negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. • positive regulation of cell migration. • positive ...
Mechanical forces can be transmitted by focal adhesion sites, integrins, and cell-cell junctions. Changes in the actin ... After secretion from the cell, the cleaved by procollagen N- and C-proteinases, and the tropocollagen molecules spontaneously ... Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions. 6 (2): 181-190. PMID 16849830.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list ( ... There is a three-dimensional network of cell processes associated with collagen in the tendon. The cells communicate with each ...
neuronal cell body membrane. • cell nucleus. • sperm midpiece. Biological process. • response to estradiol. • aging. • ... Khawaja AM, Rogers DF (Jul 1996). "Tachykinins: receptor to effector". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology ...
2004). „HIV-1 Nef control of cell signalling molecules: multiple strategies to promote virus replication.". J. Biosci. 28 (3): ... 2004). „Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activated by epidermal growth factor and cell adhesion interacts with and ... Peruzzi F, Gordon J, Darbinian N, Amini S (2003). „Tat-induced deregulation of neuronal differentiation and survival by nerve ... Cell. United States. 121 (2): 179-93. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 15851026. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.02.031.. ...
Cells in each layer bound together cell-adhesion molecules, but no basement membranes except Homoscleromorpha.[16]. inter-cell ... Satterlie, Richard A (2002-10-01). "Neuronal control of swimming in jellyfish: a comparative story". Canadian Journal of ... Nerve cells. Sensory cells appear between or sometimes on top of the muscle cells,[9] and communicate via synapses (gaps across ... Number of cells in middle "jelly" layer Many. Few. (Not applicable) Cells in outer layers can move inwards and change functions ...
Although some cell-adhesion molecules have been reported to be present at the nodes inconsistently; however, a variety of other ... The first event appears to be the accumulation of cell adhesion molecules such as NF186 or NrCAM. The intra-cellular regions of ... such as tenascin R and the cell-adhesion molecules neurofascin and contactin. Contactin is also present at nodes in the CNS and ... these cell-adhesion molecules interact with ankyrin G, which serves as an anchor for sodium channels. At the same time, the ...
... stereotyped inhibitions may have been caused by the removal of central neuronal processes other than the dopaminergic cells in ... The third, small spine cells, are similar to the pial cells in that they also look like medium-size spine cells except they are ... The most common cell types in the olfactory tubercle are medium-size dense spine cells found predominantly in layer II (dense ... The largest cells, and most striking feature of the olfactory tubercle, are densely packed crescent-shape cell clusters, ...
The KAL1 gene encodes anosmin-1, an extracellular adhesion molecule that plays a role in GnRH neuronal migration and adhesion.[ ... LH acts on Leydig cells in the male testes and theca cells in the female. FSH acts on Sertoli cells in the male and follicular ... The mechanism for this reversal is unknown but there is believed to be some neuronal plasticity within GnRH releasing cells. [4 ... FSH will stimulate granulosa cells for follicular maturation while LH will act on luteal cells to produce steroids aiding ...
neuronal cell body. • plasma membrane. • Golgi cisterna. • cleavage furrow. • midbody. • cell nucleus. • cytoskeleton. • actin ... Citron-K or its fly orthologue Sticky has been suggested to interact with several molecules in cytokinesis such as Kinesin-3 ( ... Husi H, Ward MA, Choudhary JS, Blackstock WP, Grant SG (Jul 2000). "Proteomic analysis of NMDA receptor-adhesion protein ... cell division. • protein phosphorylation. • cell cycle. • G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle. • regulation of actin ...
homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules. • Peyer's patch morphogenesis. • peptidyl-tyrosine ... neuronal cell body. • dendrite. • early endosome. • membrane raft. • endosome membrane. • plasma membrane. • cytosol. • plasma ... positive regulation of cell migration. • neuron cell-cell adhesion. • nervous system development. • neuron maturation. • ... regulation of cell adhesion. • lymphocyte migration into lymphoid organs. • cell adhesion. • positive regulation of gene ...
One particular Drosophila gene (Dscam, the Drosophila homolog of the human Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule DSCAM) can be ... "RNA splicing capability of live neuronal dendrites". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... "Cell. 122 (3): 379-91. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.06.015. PMC 4401993. PMID 16096058.. ... Cell. Biol. 8 (9): 3755-60. PMC 365433. PMID 3065622.. *^ Query CC, Moore MJ, Sharp PA (1994). "Branch nucleophile selection in ...
Cell adhesion molecule. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. IgSF CAM:. *OFC7 ... Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is caused by genetic mutations that cause defects in neuronal proteins. Nerve signals are conducted ... Neurons, Schwann cells, and fibroblasts work together to create a functional nerve. Schwann cells and neurons exchange ... Cell membrane protein disorders (other than Cell surface receptor, enzymes, and cytoskeleton) ...
cGMP keeps cGMP-gated channels open, allowing for the entry of calcium into the cell.[1] Like cAMP, cGMP is an important second ... Upregulation, which creates neuronal sensitivity, of the cGMP in a dopamine-depleted striatum has been associated with the ... Soluble guanylate cyclase contains a molecule of heme, and is activated primarily by the binding of nitric oxide (NO) to that ... Depending on cell type, it can drive adaptive/developmental changes requiring protein synthesis. In smooth muscle, cGMP is the ...
... neuronal cell adhesion molecule), Authors: Justyna Janik, Barbara Czarnocka. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol ... NRCAM, neuronal cell adhesion molecule, Homo sapiens. - NRCAM, neuronal cell adhesion molecule, Bos taurus. - Nrcam, neuron- ... NRCAM, neuronal cell adhesion molecule, Pan troglodytes. - LOC475881, similar to Neuronal cell adhesion m..., Canis lupus ... Nrcam, neuron-glia-CAM-related cell adhesion molecule, Rattus norvegicus. - NRCAM, neuronal cell adhesion molecule, Gallus ...
of Cell and Dev. Biol. 13: 425-456. *↑ Colman R. D. ja Filbin T. M. (2006). Cell adhesion molecules, lk 111-121. George J. ... Cell recognition during neuronal development. Science 225 (4668): 1271-1279. ... Walsh, F. S., Doherty, P. (1997). Neural cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily: Role in Axon Growth and ... opioid-binding cell adhesion molecule) ja Kilon/Neurotractin (vastavalt roti ja kana ortoloogid)[4]. Lisaks kolmele Ig domeeni ...
... it is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule, member of the L1 protein family, of 200-220 kDa, and… ... has been shown to function as a cell adhesion molecule mediating homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell interactions in neuronal ... other cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix molecules and thus plays a vital role in cell adhesion and signal ... L1, also known as L1CAM, is a transmembrane protein; it is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule, member of the L1 protein family, ...
... less reelin mRNA was expressed by interstitial white matter neurons in the hippocampal formation and by all three cell types in ... Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal, Cerebral Cortex, Dentate Gyrus, Down-Regulation, Extracellular Matrix Proteins, Female, GAP- ... less reelin mRNA was expressed by interstitial white matter neurons in the hippocampal formation and by all three cell types in ...
Characterization of the 5 and promoter regions of the gene encoding the mouse neuronal cell adhesion molecule F3.. Buttiglione ... non-expressing cells. In addition, a cell type-specific enhancer, only active in F3-expressing cells, was found immediately ... F3 is a 135 kDa neuronal cell surface adhesive glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin supergene family (IgSF) which ... The study of F3 gene exon/intron organization revealed that, like other neural IgSF molecules, each of the first two F3 C2 ...
A Neuronal Form of the Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 Contains a Tyrosine-Based Signal Required for Sorting to the Axonal Growth ... A Neuronal Form of the Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 Contains a Tyrosine-Based Signal Required for Sorting to the Axonal Growth ... A Neuronal Form of the Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 Contains a Tyrosine-Based Signal Required for Sorting to the Axonal Growth ... A Neuronal Form of the Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 Contains a Tyrosine-Based Signal Required for Sorting to the Axonal Growth ...
Functional cross-talk between the cellular prion protein and the neural cell adhesion molecule is critical for neuronal ... Although PrP has been reported to associate with the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), the consequences of concerted PrP- ... NCAM not only fails to promote neuronal differentiation but also induces an accumulation of doublecortin-positive neuronal ... HB-EGF human, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥95% (SDS-PAGE), ≥95% (HPLC), cell culture tested pricing ...
Lierheimer, R; Kunz, B; Vogt, L; Savoca, R; Brodbeck, U; Sonderegger, P (1997). The neuronal cell-adhesion molecule axonin-1 is ... The neuronal cell-adhesion molecule axonin-1 is specifically released by an endogenous glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific ... Axonin-1, a member of the immunoglobulin/fibronectin type-III family of cell-adhesion molecules, occurs both as a ... Axonin-1, a member of the immunoglobulin/fibronectin type-III family of cell-adhesion molecules, occurs both as a ...
Although the two dennexin peptides differed in amino acid sequence, they both modulated cell adhesion, reflected by inhibition ... mediated cell adhesion results in activation of intracellular signaling cascades that lead to cellular responses such as ... Consistent with the effect of dennexinA on NCAM-mediated adhesion in vitro, the peptide impaired long-term memory retention in ... Both dennexins also promoted neuronal survival, and the effect of dennexinA was independent of polysialic acid expression. ...
Biosynthesis of the D2 cell adhesion molecule: pulse-chase studies in cultured fetal rat neuronal cells.. J Cell Biol 1 June ... Biosynthesis of the D2 cell adhesion molecule: pulse-chase studies in cultured fetal rat neuronal cells. J M Lyles, J M Lyles ... D2 is a membrane glycoprotein that is believed to function as a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) in neural cells. We have examined ... Biosynthesis of the D2-cell adhesion molecule: post-translational modifications, intracellular transport, and developmental ...
Targeting vectors, ES Cells Nrcamtm2a(KOMP)Wtsi KO first allele (reporter-tagged insertion with conditional potential) ...
"Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal" was a ... Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal*Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal. *Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecules ... These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION ... "Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ...
"Expression of Cell Adhesion Molecules During Embryogenesis and Regeneration" by Gerald M. Edelman. in Experimental Cell ... The brain thus contains large numbers of different neuronal groups.. Neuronal groups are connected to one another as well as to ... "Cell Adhesion Molecules" by Gerald M. Edelman. in Science, Vol. 219, (February 4, 1983) ... The structure of the cell adhesion molecules themselves is determined by particular genes. And in early development of the ...
Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily. This gene encodes a neuronal cell adhesion ... NRCAM (Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with NRCAM include Autism. Among its ... cDNA FLJ35011 fis, clone OCBBF2013149, highly similar to Neuronal cell adhesion molecule (B3KRX0_HUMAN) ...
Roles of cell adhesion molecules",. abstract = "Neurons contact their neighbors through a diverse array of cell adhesion and ... Neuronal pathfinding and recognition : Roles of cell adhesion molecules. In: Developmental Biology. 1996 ; Vol. 180, No. 2. pp ... Chiba A, Keshishian H. Neuronal pathfinding and recognition: Roles of cell adhesion molecules. Developmental Biology. 1996 Dec ... Neuronal pathfinding and recognition : Roles of cell adhesion molecules. / Chiba, Akira; Keshishian, Haig. ...
... we have now identified a cell adhesion molecule on neurons (Ng-CAM) that mediates the heterotypic adhesion between neuronal ... Two antigenically related neuronal cell adhesion molecules of different specificities mediate neuron-neuron and neuron-glia ... Therefore, these different neuronal cell adhesion molecules with distinct binding specificities share at least one antigenic ... immunologically based cell adhesion assays suggested that they have different specificities in mediating cell adhesion. Whereas ...
Interactions between a neuron and its environment play a major role in neuronal migration. We show here that the cell adhesion ... The cell adhesion molecule Tag1, transmembrane protein Stbm/Vangl2, and Lamininα1 exhibit genetic interactions during migration ... The cell adhesion molecule Tag1, transmembrane protein Stbm/Vangl2, and Lamininα1 exhibit genetic interactions during migration ... The cell adhesion molecule Tag1, transmembrane protein Stbm/Vangl2, and Lamininα1 exhibit genetic interactions during migration ...
The axonal surface glycoproteins neuronglia cell adhesion molecule (NgCAM) and axonin-1 promote cell-cell adhesion, neurite ... Cell adhesion molecules NgCAM and axonin-1 form heterodimers in the neuronal membrane and cooperate in neurite outgrowth ... By expressing NgCAM and axonin-1 in myeloma cells and performing cell aggregation assays, we found that NgCAM and axonin-1 ... on the surface of CV-1 cells coexpressing NgCAM and axonin-1 and the selective chemical cross-linking of the two molecules in ...
Analyzing increasing numbers of cells, however, generates extremely large data sets, extending processing t … ... with the latest techniques capable of processing tens of thousands of cells simultaneously. ... Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) has significantly deepened our insights into complex tissues, ... Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal / genetics * Cell Differentiation / genetics * Cluster Analysis * Extracellular Matrix ...
Although the BMP-2 overexpressing C3H10T1/2 cells failed to form chondrogenic nodules, cells of both models expressed mRNA ... Although the adipogenic lineage-specific marker gene FABP4 was also expressed in micromass cultures, Oil Red O-positive cells ... established from either BMP-2 overexpressing C3H10T1/2 cells or mouse embryonic limb bud-derived chondroprogenitor cells, using ... reflecting on the presence of various mesenchymal lineages as well as undifferentiated cells. This cellular heterogeneity has ...
Cultures of human neural progenitor cells screened on the L1-Fc/polymer biointerfaces showed significantly enhanced neuronal ... Notably, the highest degree of βIII-tubulin expression for cells in 3-D fibrous scaffolds were observed in protein A oriented ... effects of cell attachment to polycationic charged substrates with subcellular topography along with L1-mediated adhesion ... mediating neuronal differentiation. Together, these findings highlight the promise of displays of multimeric neural adhesion ...
... superfamily that has an important function in cell adhesion and motility through the advancement and regeneration of neuronal ... Background/Aims The neural cell adhesion molecule L1CAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein. Background/Aims The neural cell ... a 32-42 kDa molecule and is expressed on naive/resting T cells and on medullart thymocytes. In comparison B cells BI6727 but is ... we previously discovered the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM, Compact disc171) being a differentially portrayed mRNA and ...
... and a nonsense mutation in the neural cell adhesion molecule gene ,i,Nrcam,/i,. These mutant mice may be useful in studying ... Nrcam, neuronal cell adhesion molecule. Gene Synonym(s). Strain of Origin. C57BL/6J. ... and the neural cell adhesion molecule, neuron-glia-CAM-related cell adhesion molecule (Nrcam) gene. Sequencing of these genes ... and a nonsense mutation in the neural cell adhesion molecule gene, Nrcam. The two single mutations appear to act ...
1998) A neuronal form of the cell adhesion molecule L1 contains a tyrosine-based signal required for sorting to the axonal ... 1999) NrCAM, cerebellar granule cell receptor for the neuronal adhesion molecule F3, displays an actin-dependent mobility in ... 1997) Mutational analysis of the L1 neuronal cell adhesion molecule identifies membrane-proximal amino acids of the cytoplasmic ... 1988) Neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule interacts with neurons and astroglia via different binding mechanisms. J Cell Biol 106 ...
Collapsin-1/semaphorin-III/D is regulated developmentally in Purkinje cells and collapses pontocerebellar mossy fiber neuronal ... Chemorepulsion and cell adhesion molecules in patterning initial trajectories of sensory axons * * MASUDA Tomoyuki ... Cell adhesion molecules regulate guidance of dorsal root ganglion axons in the marginal zone and their invasion into the mantle ... Binding between the neural cell adhesion molecules axonin-1 and Nr-CAM/Bravo is involved in neuron-glia interaction SUTER DM ...
... and NEURONAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES. Several variants of the receptor exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. ... Loosing of fibroblast cell is the main problem in aging and wrinkles and non-healed skin wounds. Therefore proliferation of ... Fibroblasts are cells that synthesize the extracellular matrix and collagen and play a critical role in wound healing and ... A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and ...
Neuronal cell adhesion molecule antibody. *Neuronal surface protein Bravo antibody. *Ng CAM related antibody ... Cell adhesion, ankyrin-binding protein involved in neuron-neuron adhesion. May play a role in the molecular assembly of the ... Cell Biology. Epigenetics. Metabolism. Developmental Biology. By research area. Immunology. Microbiology. Neuroscience. Signal ... Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and biochemical assays. By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. ...
Polysialic acid is a developmentally regulated component in the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM which also occurs as the ... Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal / metabolism*. Microscopy, Atomic Force. Sialic Acids / chemistry, metabolism*. ... 0/Biopolymers; 0/Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal; 0/Sialic Acids; 0/polysialic acid ... Polysialic acid is a developmentally regulated component in the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM which also occurs as the ...
... that probably underlie the neuronal migration errors. Furthermore, mutant mice have severely blunted hippocampal long-term ... and aberrant migration of granule cells. Dystroglycan-null brain loses its high-affinity binding to the extracellular matrix ... Trafficking and Activity of Glutamate and GABA Receptors: Regulation by Cell Adhesion Molecules *Ryan Keable ... Muscular dystrophy and neuronal migration disorder caused by mutations in a glycosyltransferase, POMGnT1. Dev. Cell 1, 717-724 ...
... a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule subgroup IgLON, has been implicated in neuronal growth and ... a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule subgroup IgLON, has been implicated in neuronal growth and ... and dentate granule cells. In co-cultures of cortical neurons and NSC-34 cells overexpressing NEGR1, neurite growth of cortical ... In co-cultures of cortical neurons and NSC-34 cells overexpressing NEGR1, neurite growth of cortical neurons was enhanced and ...
Putative Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule 2 3 4 * PUNC 3 4 * HsT18880 3 ... span" data-trigger="SectionLoaded"> Inner Cell Mass (Early Embryonic Tissues) * Induced pluripotent stem cell line 1 ... mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery. *span" data-trigger="SectionLoaded"> Skeletal ... Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for IGDCC3 Gene ...
Cytoskeleton-dependent regulation of neuronal network formation Thomas Fath , Alla Kostyukova , ... * Cell Adhesion Molecules ... Trafficking mechanisms of synaptogenic cell adhesion molecules Luís F. Ribeiro , Ben Verpoort , ... ... Dynamics, nanoscale organization, and function of synaptic adhesion molecules Ingrid Chamma , Olivier Thoumine ... A cellular model for sporadic ALS using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells Matthew F. Burkhardt , Fernando J. ...
  • It is involved in the development of the nervous system and regulates processes such as neuron-neuron adhesion, myelination, axonal guidance, and neuronal migration. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • LSAMP ( limbic system-associated membrane protein ), Neurotrimin(Ntm)/CEPU-1 (vastavalt roti ja kana ortoloogid), OBCAM ( opioid-binding cell adhesion molecule ) ja Kilon/Neurotractin (vastavalt roti ja kana ortoloogid) [4] . (wikipedia.org)
  • it is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule, member of the L1 protein family, of 200-220 kDa, and involved in axon guidance and cell migration with a strong implication in treatment-resistant cancers. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • In subjects with schizophrenia, less reelin mRNA was expressed by interstitial white matter neurons in the hippocampal formation and by all three cell types in the prefrontal cortex. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Inside our seek out potential molecular markers of endometriosis, we previously discovered the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM, Compact disc171) being a differentially portrayed mRNA and proteins in endometriotic lesions [5] and demonstrated it facilitates endometriotic cell development, success, motility and invasiveness, in addition to neurite outgrowth [6]. (pyr-41.com)
  • Coating the surface of every cell in the body are specialized proteins, called receptors, that have the capability of selectively binding or adhering to other "signaling" molecules. (nih.gov)
  • Detailed understanding of pathways that integrate cell adhesion and signaling will ultimately require knowledge of the specific amino acid residue(s) subject to phosphorylation, as well as the precise cellular localization of the relevant regulatory signals, protein kinases, protein phosphatases and adapter proteins. (biologists.org)
  • During development cell surface proteins allow to communicate with the surrounding cells and the extracellular matrix for proper proliferation, migration, differentiation and contact formation in the complex network. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • There are many cross-talks of different cell surface proteins on neuronal membranes which even can be different concerning their localization in axons, dendrites, synapses and other specialized membrane structures. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Distinct proteins known as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) mediate these interactions. (bmj.com)
  • Potentiates integrin-dependent cell migration towards extracellular matrix proteins. (uniprot.org)
  • One set of candidates were the nectinsâ cell-adhesion proteins known to work with cadherins in other contexts. (redorbit.com)
  • We know that there are four nectin proteins, plus a slew of nectin-like molecules," said Mueller. (redorbit.com)
  • ICAM-5 (intercellular adhesion molecule-5, telencephalin, TLN) is a member of the ICAM family of adhesion proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • These same adhesion proteins and proteases play critical roles in axonal growth and synaptogenesis including processes induced by seizure in adult brain. (springer.com)
  • A novel multiple PDZ domain-containing molecule interacting with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and neuronal cell adhesion proteins. (springer.com)
  • They also specifically compared the function of neuronal channel proteins in both the edited and the unedited versions. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The expression of neuron-specific proteins in the zona glomerulosa cells of human adrenocortical tissues has been predicted and reported by several authors and it was suggested that the expression of proteins like the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in the cells of the zona glomerulosa reflects the regenerative feature of these cells, which would lose NCAM immunoreactivity after moving to the zona fasciculata. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although PrP has been reported to associate with the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), the consequences of concerted PrP-NCAM action in NPC physiology are unknown. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Moreover, we found that PrP is required for the NPC response to NCAM-induced neuronal differentiation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the absence of PrP, NCAM not only fails to promote neuronal differentiation but also induces an accumulation of doublecortin-positive neuronal progenitors at the proliferation stage. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Analysis of the migration of SVZ cells in microexplant cultures from wild-type and PrP-/- mice revealed no differences between genotypes or a role for NCAM in this process. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our data demonstrate that PrP plays a critical role in neuronal differentiation of NPCs and suggest that this function is, at least in part, NCAM-dependent. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The crystal structure of the immunoglobulin (Ig) 1-2-3 fragment of the NCAM ectodomain has revealed novel mechanisms for NCAM homophilic adhesion. (epfl.ch)
  • Although the two dennexin peptides differed in amino acid sequence, they both modulated cell adhesion, reflected by inhibition of NCAM-mediated neurite outgrowth. (epfl.ch)
  • Consistent with the effect of dennexinA on NCAM-mediated adhesion in vitro, the peptide impaired long-term memory retention in rats in the Morris water maze test. (epfl.ch)
  • PSA-NCAM, a unique permissive element for cell plasticity is involved in cell migration and required for activity-induced synaptic plasticity. (europa.eu)
  • Laboratory 1 has chosen to work on the NCAM and F3 adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin super-family which are known to play a role in axonal growth during development. (europa.eu)
  • Together with laboratory 4 they have shown, using post-hypophysial tissue explants as a model, that PSA-NCAM is necessary for the migration of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, a population of cells particularly motile in vivo, and that PSA expression is controlled by NMDA receptor activation. (europa.eu)
  • We previously demonstrated that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays an important role in supporting the survival of injured retinal ganglion cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • In the current study, we used light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD) as a model to investigate whether NCAM plays a functional role in neuroprotection and whether NCAM influences p75 NTR signaling in modulating retinal cell survival. (arvojournals.org)
  • 3 The cleavage of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) has been shown to be involved in cortical neuronal death under oxidative stress, 4 and previous results from our laboratory have demonstrated that NCAM is important in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and age-related deterioration in vision. (arvojournals.org)
  • My research group focuses on investigating the cross-talk and function of the glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptors, such as the receptor tyrosine kinase Ret, the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), integrins, N-cadherins, and syndecan 3 in the midbrain dopaminergic system altered in PD patients and drug addicts and in motoneurons innervating the skeletal muscles. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • GDNF can also activate alternative GDNF receptors, such as the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • But when an NCAM becomes modified with polysialic acid (becomes "polysialylated"), the cells gain the ability to migrate to new areas. (prweb.com)
  • Although it was already well known that cells expressing polySia-NCAM exist in the central nervous system, this study is the first to document that they are also in the peripheral nervous system, specifically in the spiral ganglia, groups of nerve cells located in the inner ear that are essential to hearing. (prweb.com)
  • Working with adult cells isolated from the inner ear spiral ganglia of guinea pigs, Troy's team was able to show that they expressed both polySia and NCAM. (prweb.com)
  • The polySia component was abundantly present on neural stem cells but markedly reduced on mature cells, implicating the polySia-NCAM complex as being present on immature cells and able to serve as a biomarker to identify these cells. (prweb.com)
  • Finding polySia-NCAM - a functional biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation - on adult inner ear neural stem cells after differentiation gives researchers a 'handle' to identify and isolate these cells from among the many cells taken from a patient," said Jan Nolta, director of the UC Davis Stem Cell Program and the university's Institute for Regenerative Cures. (prweb.com)
  • The neuronal cell adhesion molecules NCAM and Neuroligin-2 link stress vulnerability and social behavior. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • However, together with other data on neuroendocrine properties of zona glomerulosa cells, NCAM expression may reflect a neuroendocrine differentiation of these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polysialic acid (polySia) is a large glycan with restricted expression, typically found attached to the protein scaffold neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). (jimmunol.org)
  • Specifically, we found that human NK cells modulate expression of NCAM and the degree of polymerization of its polySia glycans according to activation state. (jimmunol.org)
  • This contrasts with the mouse, where polySia and NCAM expression are restricted to multipotent hematopoietic progenitors and cells developing along a myeloid lineage. (jimmunol.org)
  • Aside from autopolysialylation of the ST8Sia IV and ST8Sia II enzymes, only four other protein carriers have been identified: the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM, also termed CD56), the α-subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, CD36, and neuropilin ( 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • F3 is a 135 kDa neuronal cell surface adhesive glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin supergene family (IgSF) which mediates heterophilic contact formation among neural cells and is involved in the control of neurite growth. (nih.gov)
  • The axonal surface glycoproteins neuronglia cell adhesion molecule (NgCAM) and axonin-1 promote cell-cell adhesion, neurite outgrowth and fasciculation, and are involved in growth cone guidance. (scripps.edu)
  • Based on these and previous results, which implicated NgCAM as the neuronal receptor involved in neurite outgrowth on NgCAM substratum, we concluded that neurite outgrowth on an NgCAM substratum depends on two essential interactions of growth cone NgCAM: a trans-interaction with substratum NgCAM and a cis-interaction with axonin-1 residing in the same growth cone membrane. (scripps.edu)
  • Background/Aims The neural cell adhesion molecule L1CAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein abnormally expressed in tumors and previously connected with cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion, in addition to neurite outgrowth in endometriosis. (pyr-41.com)
  • A neurite or neuronal process refers to any projection from the cell body of a neuron . (wikipedia.org)
  • Weak endogenous electric fields may be used to both facilitate and direct the growth of projections from cell soma neurites, EFs of moderate strength have been used to direct and enhance neurite outgrowth in both murine , or mouse, and xenopus models. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is known that 60% of the time the first neurite that protrudes from the cell body will become the axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] 30% of the time, a neurite not destined to become the axon protrudes from the cell body first. (wikipedia.org)
  • 10% of the time, the neurite that will become the axon protrudes from the cell body simultaneously with one or more other neurites. (wikipedia.org)
  • L1 has long been characterized as a cell recognition molecule within the nervous system, where it is involved in neurite fasciculation, synaptogenesis, axonal growth and path finding, and cell migration. (rupress.org)
  • Contactin genes CNTN5 and CNTN6 code for neuronal cell adhesion molecules that promote neurite outgrowth in sensory-motor neuronal pathways. (gu.se)
  • The neural cell adhesion molecule L1, which is present on axons and growth cones, plays a crucial role in the formation of major axonal tracts such as the corticospinal tract and corpus callosum. (jneurosci.org)
  • L1 FL and L1 ΔC77 , both of which possess the YRSLE sequence, were expressed in the axonal growth cone and to a lesser degree in the cell body. (jneurosci.org)
  • In contrast, expression of both L1 ΔRSLE and L1 Y1176A was restricted to the cell body and proximal axonal shaft. (jneurosci.org)
  • These data demonstrate that the neuronal form of L1 carries the tyrosine-based sorting signal YRSLE, which is critical for sorting L1 to the axonal growth cone. (jneurosci.org)
  • This ankyrin-binding protein is involved in neuron-neuron adhesion and promotes directional signaling during axonal cone growth. (genecards.org)
  • The cell adhesion molecule (CAM) L1 plays crucial roles in axon growth in vitro and in the formation of major axonal tracts in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
  • Growth cones express various cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that recognize localized guidance cues present on neighboring cells or in the extracellular matrix and translate them into a directed axonal extension ( Tessier-Lavigne and Goodman, 1996 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • 1991) A gene deleted in Kallmann's syndrome shares homology with neural cell adhesion and axonal path‐finding molecules. (els.net)
  • A number of processes are thought to contribute to the development of epilepsy including enduring increases in excitatory synaptic transmission, changes in GABAergic inhibition, neuronal cell death and the development of aberrant innervation patterns in part arising from reactive axonal growth. (springer.com)
  • Recent studies are beginning to ask how these membrane-bound neural recognition molecules interact with each other and intracellular signaling pathways within an individual neuronal growth cone, and direct the formation of neural connections during development. (elsevier.com)
  • As a result, novel healing 162808-62-0 manufacture strategies have already been lately investigated generally concentrating on the modulation of mobile pathways involved with cell development, invasion and angiogenesis [4]. (pyr-41.com)
  • The bond of L1CAM with several cellular pathways and its own cell surface area localization makes it a fascinating focus on for the monoclonal antibody-based therapy. (pyr-41.com)
  • Activation of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchored neuronal adhesion molecules leads to triggering of intracellular second messenger pathways. (europa.eu)
  • They identified several genes encoding neuronal cell-adhesion molecules and several genes within or surrounding genes involved in the ubiquitin pathways. (doctorslounge.com)
  • The distribution of tenascin coincides with pathways of neural crest cell migration. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the present study, we show that L1 affected cell migration and survival in CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cell line by modulation of sialylation and fucosylation at the cell surface via the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and Erk (extracellularsignal-regulated kinase) signaling pathways. (medsci.org)
  • Inhibitors of sialylation and fucosylation blocked L1-induced cell migration and survival, while decreasing FUT9 and ST6Gal1 expressions via the PI3K-dependent and Erk-dependent signaling pathways. (medsci.org)
  • L1 modulated cell migration and survival by regulation of cell surface sialylation and fucosylation via the PI3K-dependent and Erk-dependent signaling pathways. (medsci.org)
  • This gene is also expressed in non-neural tissues and may play a general role in cell-cell communication via signaling from its intracellular domain to the actin cytoskeleton during directional cell migration. (genecards.org)
  • Laboratories 5 and 1 showed, using transfected cells as a model, that mimicking F3 triggering by cross-linking with antibodies induced the phosphorylation of intracellular substrates. (europa.eu)
  • Based on our results, physiological FIGQY-tyrosine phosphorylation of the L1 family likely regulates adhesion molecule-ankyrin interactions establishing ankyrin-free and ankyrin-containing microdomains and participates in an ankyrin-independent intracellular signaling pathway at specialized sites of intercellular contact in epithelial and nervous tissue. (biologists.org)
  • Support for the participation of cell adhesion molecules in intracellular signaling is based largely on experiments performed in vitro and in cell culture. (biologists.org)
  • Neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR1), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule subgroup IgLON, has been implicated in neuronal growth and connectivity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Polysialic acid has been considered as a repulsive element that regulates intermolecular and intercellular adhesion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Researchers at UC Davis School of Medicine have for the first time shown that a polysialylated glycoprotein that regulates neurodevelopment exists on the surface of cells in the adult inner ear. (prweb.com)
  • Leptin signaling in atsrocytes regulates hypothalamic neuronal circuits and feeding. (yale.edu)
  • Heparan sulfate regulates the anabolic activity of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells by induction of Runx2. (umassmed.edu)
  • D2 is a membrane glycoprotein that is believed to function as a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) in neural cells. (rupress.org)
  • L1CAM is normally an extremely conserved transmembrane glycoprotein from the immunoglobulin superfamily that has an important function in cell adhesion and motility through the advancement and regeneration of neuronal tissues [7]. (pyr-41.com)
  • L1 (also known as L1CAM or CD171) is a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the Ig superfamily of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs [Ig-CAMs]), which mediate calcium-independent cell-cell adhesion. (rupress.org)
  • The gene L1CAM (L1 cell adhesion molecule) encodes a glycoprotein that functions in axon growth during development and axon bundling. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Central and peripheral nervous system, and other tissues, endothelial cells, and certain tumor cell lines and human cancers including pancreatic cancer, melanoma, renal and colon carcinoma, adrenal gland, placenta, thyroid and testis (Wang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue. (rush.edu)
  • Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) has significantly deepened our insights into complex tissues, with the latest techniques capable of processing tens of thousands of cells simultaneously. (nih.gov)
  • In recent years, scientists have discovered a wide array of stem cells that have unique capabilities to self-renew, grow indefinitely, and differentiate or develop into multiple types of cells and tissues. (nih.gov)
  • So, how do scientists identify these rare type of cells found in many different cells and tissues-a process that is much akin to finding a needle in a haystack? (nih.gov)
  • A second method uses stem cell markers and their fluorescent tags to visually assess cells as they exist in tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Often researchers want to assess how stem cells appear in tissues and in doing so they use a microscope to evaluate them rather than the FACS instrument. (nih.gov)
  • A necessary first step in elucidating a physiologically relevant pathway would be to determine, at high resolution in tissues of an intact organism, the cellular localization of cell adhesion molecules phosphorylated at specific amino acid residues. (biologists.org)
  • Indeed, upon microbial contact and stimulation by inflammatory cytokines DCs take up antigens and migrate from peripheral tissues, via the afferent lymphatics, into the T cell area of the draining lymph node where they present the antigens to T lymphocytes, thus triggering the immune response. (rupress.org)
  • Models for densely packed and confluent biological tissues often describe the network formed cells as a triple-junction network, similar to foams. (aps.org)
  • Meanwhile, other work has demonstrated that there is a direct relationship between cell shapes and tissue shear modulus in confluent tissues. (aps.org)
  • Linear stability analysis indicates that the formation of aster-like and banding patterns in these tissues is controlled by a composite ``morphotaxis'' parameter which encapsulates the influence of inhomogeneities in cell shape on collective cell migration and vice versa. (aps.org)
  • Although sorting in particle-model simulations is well studied, recent discoveries suggest that in confluent tissues (with no gaps or overlaps between cells), both fluid-solid transitions and surface tension are strongly influenced by cell shapes and topologies. (aps.org)
  • Hence, we seek to analyze the behavior of cell sorting in a confluent model of tissues across the fluid-solid transition, and compare to experimental data for a 2D co-culture of breast carcinoma and non-malignant cell lines, which display robust sorting. (aps.org)
  • Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is classically known for its ubiquitous roles in inflammation, immune and stress-related responses and regulation of cell survival in all tissues, including the nervous system. (biologists.org)
  • A clinical application of human ES cells would require the generation of highly purified donor c