Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.
A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. Ng-CAM is immunologically and structurally distinct from NCAM.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecules that are involved in NERVOUS SYSTEM patterning.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A complex blood group system having pairs of alternate antigens and amorphic genes, but also subject to a dominant independently segregating repressor.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.
Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.

Engrailed negatively regulates the expression of cell adhesion molecules connectin and neuroglian in embryonic Drosophila nervous system. (1/1624)

Engrailed is expressed in subsets of interneurons that do not express Connectin or appreciable Neuroglian, whereas other neurons that are Engrailed negative strongly express these adhesion molecules. Connectin and Neuroglian expression are virtually eliminated in interneurons when engrailed expression is driven ubiquitously in neurons, and greatly increased when engrailed genes are lacking in mutant embryos. The data suggest that Engrailed is normally a negative regulator of Connectin and neuroglian. These are the first two "effector" genes identified in the nervous system of Drosophila as regulatory targets for Engrailed. We argue that differential Engrailed expression is crucial in determining the pattern of expression of cell adhesion molecules and thus constitutes an important determinant of neuronal shape and perhaps connectivity.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and developmental expression of a zebrafish axonal glycoprotein similar to TAG-1. (2/1624)

TAG-1 is a mammalian cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed transiently by a subset of neurons and serves as a fertile substrate for neurite outgrowth in vitro (Furley, A.H., Morton, S.B., Manalo, D., Karagogeos, S., Dodd, H., Jessell, T.M., 1990 The axonal glycoprotein TAG-1 is an immunoglobulin superfamily member with neurite outgrowth promoting activity. Cell 61, 157-170). In order to examine the in vivo function of this molecule, we have cloned a zebrafish tag1-like cDNA and analyzed its expression patterns. tag1 Is expressed transiently by specific subsets of neurons when they are projecting their axons or when they are migrating. The specific and dynamic pattern of expression of zebrafish tag1 is consistent with its proposed role in axon guidance and cell migration.  (+info)

Characterization of a novel rat brain glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (Kilon), a member of the IgLON cell adhesion molecule family. (3/1624)

In the central nervous system, many cell adhesion molecules are known to participate in the establishment and remodeling of the neural circuit. Some of the cell adhesion molecules are known to be anchored to the membrane by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) inserted to their C termini, and many GPI-anchored proteins are known to be localized in a Triton-insoluble membrane fraction of low density or so-called "raft." In this study, we surveyed the GPI-anchored proteins in the Triton-insoluble low density fraction from 2-week-old rat brain by solubilization with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. By Western blotting and partial peptide sequencing after the deglycosylation with peptide N-glycosidase F, the presence of Thy-1, F3/contactin, and T-cadherin was shown. In addition, one of the major proteins, having an apparent molecular mass of 36 kDa after the peptide N-glycosidase F digestion, was found to be a novel protein. The result of cDNA cloning showed that the protein is an immunoglobulin superfamily member with three C2 domains and has six putative glycosylation sites. Since this protein shows high sequence similarity to IgLON family members including LAMP, OBCAM, neurotrimin, CEPU-1, AvGP50, and GP55, we termed this protein Kilon (a kindred of IgLON). Kilon-specific monoclonal antibodies were produced, and Western blotting analysis showed that expression of Kilon is restricted to brain, and Kilon has an apparent molecular mass of 46 kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in its expressed form. In brain, the expression of Kilon is already detected in E16 stage, and its level gradually increases during development. Kilon immunostaining was observed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, in which the strongly stained puncta were observed on dendrites and soma of pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

Cortical bitufted, horizontal, and Martinotti cells preferentially express and secrete reelin into perineuronal nets, nonsynaptically modulating gene expression. (4/1624)

Reelin (Reln) is a protein with some structural analogies with other extracellular matrix proteins that functions in the regulation of neuronal migration during the development of cortical laminated structures. In the cortex of adult animals, Reln is expressed primarily in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons and is secreted into perineuronal nets. However, only 50-60% of GABAergic interneurons express Reln. We have characterized this subpopulation of cortical GABAergic neurons that expresses Reln by using two strategies: (i) a double immunolabeling procedure to determine the colocalization of Reln with neuropeptides and Ca2+-binding proteins and (ii) a combination of Golgi staining and Reln immunolabeling to determine the morphology of the rat cortical cells that store Reln. Many interneurons that express Neuropeptide Y (NPY) or somatostatin (but none of those that express parvalbumin) are Reln-immunopositive. A small population of calbindin-positive interneurons and very few calretinin-positive cells express Reln immunopositivity. Golgi staining revealed that layer I horizontal cells, layer II-V bitufted neurons, and some deep cortical layer Martinotti cells express Reln. Basket and chandelier cells are often immunopositive to parvalbumin, but never to Reln. Although Reln is secreted by GABAergic neurons, its target are not the GABA receptors, but rather may be extrasynaptically located in perineuronal nets and concerned with the modulation of neuronal plasticity. Dab1, the target adapter protein that presumably mediates transcription regulation via the extrasynaptic actions of Reln, is expressed predominantly in pyramidal neurons, but it can also be detected in a small population of GABAergic neurons that are neither horizontal nor bitufted neurons.  (+info)

Reelin-induced tyrosine [corrected] phosphorylation of disabled 1 during neuronal positioning. (5/1624)

The reelin (reln) and disabled 1 (dab1) genes both ensure correct neuronal positioning during brain development. We have found that the intracellular Dab1 protein receives a tyrosine phosphorylation signal from extracellular Reln protein. Genetic analysis shows that reln function depends on dab1, and vice versa, as expected if both genes are in the same pathway. Dab1 is expressed at a higher level, yet phosphorylated at a lower level, in reln mutant embryo brains. In primary neuronal cultures, Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation is stimulated by exogenous Reln. These results suggest that Reln regulates neuronal positioning by stimulating Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation.  (+info)

Discs Lost, a novel multi-PDZ domain protein, establishes and maintains epithelial polarity. (6/1624)

Polarization of epithelial cells depends on a hierarchical process whereby specific membrane-associated proteins become targeted to specialized membrane domains. Here, we describe a novel Drosophila protein, Discs Lost (DLT), that plays a crucial role in the polarization of embryonic epithelia during cellular blastoderm formation. At subsequent stages of development, DLT interacts with the apical determinant Crumbs (CRB) and the laterally localized protein Neurexin IV (NRX IV). Mutations in dlt or double-stranded RNA interference lead to aberrant localization of CRB and NRX IV and cause a concomitant loss of epithelial cell polarity. Hence, DLT is required to establish and maintain cell polarity and participates in different molecular complexes that define apical and lateral membrane domains.  (+info)

Neural development: The semantics of axon guidance. (7/1624)

Recent studies of the semaphorin family of axon guidance signals and their receptors have revealed a surprising versatility in the ways that they can be used solve problems in neural development, and provided new opportunities for understanding how guidance information is interpreted beneath the cell surface.  (+info)

Watching a synapse grow: noninvasive confocal imaging of synaptic growth in Drosophila. (8/1624)

The glutamatergic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in Drosophila adds new boutons and branches during larval development. We generated transgenic fruit flies that express a novel green fluorescent membrane protein at the postsynaptic specialization, allowing for repeated noninvasive confocal imaging of synapses in live, developing larvae. As synapses grow, existing synaptic boutons stretch apart and new boutons insert between them; in addition, new boutons are added at the ends of existing strings of boutons. Some boutons are added de novo, while others bud from existing boutons. New branches form as multiple boutons bud from existing boutons. Nascent boutons contain active zones, T bars, and synaptic vesicles; we observe no specialized growth structures. Some new boutons exhibit a lower level of Fasciclin II, suggesting that the levels of this synaptic cell adhesion molecule vary locally during synaptic growth.  (+info)

NRCAM (neuronal cell adhesion molecule), Authors: Justyna Janik, Barbara Czarnocka. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
OBJECTIVE: The authors goals were to establish the cellular origin of the reduced cortical reelin expression that occurs in schizophrenia and to relate it to markers of synaptic pathology. METHOD: In situ hybridization was used to quantify reelin mRNA in the hippocampal formation and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of brains from 13 subjects with schizophrenia and 12 subjects without schizophrenia. Results were correlated with the expression of three synaptic protein genes in the dentate gyrus. RESULTS: Reelin mRNA was expressed by layer I neurons, interneurons, and interstitial white matter neurons. In subjects with schizophrenia, less reelin mRNA was expressed by interstitial white matter neurons in the hippocampal formation and by all three cell types in the prefrontal cortex. Reelin and synaptic protein expression correlated positively. CONCLUSIONS: Interstitial white matter neurons, presumed remnants of the cortical subplate, contribute to the reduction in reelin mRNA in schizophrenia. Down
The surface of the mammalian brain (the neocortex) contains six distinct layers of neurons. The extracellular matrix protein reelin regulates the migration of the neurons that form these layers. Reelin has two receptors: very low density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr) and apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2). Now, Hack and colleagues reveal divergent roles for these two receptors in the migration of cortical neurons (see p. 3883). In mice, the order of the cortical layers is inverted in reelin-knockout mutants and in ApoER2 Vldlr double-knockout mutants; the phenotype of single-receptor knockouts is much milder. To determine the specific role of each reelin receptor in neuronal migration, the researchers mapped the fate of newly generated cortical neurons in single and double receptor mutants. Their results indicate that the proper migration of late-generated neurons, which form the superficial layers of the neocortex, requires ApoER2. Vldlr, by contrast, mediates a reelin stop signal that ...
Mammalian cell membranes provide an interface between the intracellular and extracellular compartments. It is currently thought that cytoplasmic signaling adapter proteins play no functional role within the extracellular tumor environment. Here, by selecting combinatorial random peptide libraries in tumor-bearing mice, we uncovered a direct, specific, and functional interaction between CRKL, an adapter protein [with Src homology 2 (SH2)- and SH3-containing domains], and the plexin-semaphorin-integrin domain of beta(1) integrin in the extracellular milieu. Through assays in vitro, in cellulo, and in vivo, we show that this unconventional and as yet unrecognized protein-protein interaction between a regulatory integrin domain (rather than a ligand-binding one) and an intracellular adapter (acting outside of the cells) triggers an alternative integrin-mediated cascade for cell growth and survival. Based on these data, here we propose that a secreted form of the SH3/SH2 adaptor protein CRKL may act ...
MDGA1 consists of six Ig-like domains, fibronectin type III repeat domain, and MAM domain . The crystal structure of MDGA1/Neuroligin-2 complex reveals that they form the 2:2 hetero-tetrameric complex and only the Ig1-Ig2 domains of MDGA1 are involved in interactions with Neuroligin-2. The structural comparison between the MDGA1/Neuroligin-2 and Neurexin-1β/Neuroligin-1 complexes intriguingly indicates that the Neuroligin-2 region binding to MDGA1 largely overlaps with that of Neurexin-1β, but the interaction interface of the MDGA1/Neuroligin-2 complex is much larger than that of the Neurexin-1β/Neuroligin-1 complex. This explains why Neuroligin-2 binds stronger to MDGA1 than Neurexin-1β, and how the favored MDGA1 binding to Neuroligin-2 sterically blocks the interaction between Neuroligin-2 and Neurexin-1β, which is critical for the suppression of inhibitory synapse development ...
L1, also known as L1CAM, is a transmembrane protein; it is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule, member of the L1 protein family, of 200-220 kDa, and…
Background Neurexins and neuroligins, which have recently been associated with neurological disorders such as autism in humans, are highly conserved adhesive proteins found on synaptic membranes of neurons. that experienced lateralised sensory input after antennal amputation showed a specific increase in manifestation compared to control bees, which only happened over time. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that (1) there is a lack of synaptic pruning during sensory deprivation; (2) manifestation raises with sensory activation; (3) concomitant changes in gene manifestation suggests interacts with all neuroligins; (4) there CAY10505 is evidence for synaptic payment after lateralised injury. Introduction Sensory input arising from environmental stimuli, learning experiences, and social relationships manifests itself in-part through cell-to-cell contact of neurons via synapses. The neurexin/neuroligin adhesion system of synapses is definitely highly conserved across varieties, actually ...
The outcome of signaling events of ligand receptor systems that consist of multiple receptors and/or ligands is complex; such multicomponent systems can yield different biological responses and the individual components can add different layers of regulation. Because these systems enable diverse biological responses, they are very common. Examples include the vascular endothelial growth factor ligand receptor system, the fibroblast growth factor, or the TRAIL ligand receptor systems (2, 4, 8).. Extrapolation of kinetic and equilibrium constants from in vitro measurements of purified recombinant ligands and receptors to in vivo conditions is challenging when dealing with such complex cases as the molecule that triggers the signal can be trapped in nonproductive interactions that equilibrate slowly with the productive complex. This is not only the case with the aforementioned multiple receptor/ligand systems but in principle also extends to promiscuous intracellular adaptor proteins that can be ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a membrane glycoprotein that is a member of the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family. This family forms a subset of the larger CD2 cell-surface receptor Ig superfamily. The encoded protein is a homophilic adhesion molecule that is expressed in numerous immune cells types and is involved in regulating receptor-mediated signaling in those cells. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011 ...
Lsamp geen kodeerib membraanvalku LSAMP (limbilise süsteemiga assotsieeritud membraani proteiin), mille funktsiooni seostatakse peamiselt aju limbilise süsteemiga. LSAMP on 64-68-kDa (kilodalton) glükoproteiin, mis koosneb valgust ja polüsahhariidide ahelast. LSAMP valgul esineb IgLON perekonnale iseloomulikult kolm Ig domeeni ja GPI (glükosüül-fosfatidüül-inositooli) ankur. LSAMP on inimesel ja närilistel 99%-lise identsusega, samuti esineb kanal ja ahvil sarnane geeni avaldumismuster[4]. Inimesel asub LSAMP geen 3. kromosoomis, olles 2,2 Mb (megaaluspaari) suurune, sisaldades 11 eksonit (DNA lõik, mis ühendatakse mRNA pidevasse järjestusse) ja kahte ekson ühte (1a ja 1b), mis paiknevad üksteisest 1,6 Mb kaugusel. Hiirel esineb Lsamp 16. kromosoomis, geen on 2,28 Mb suurune ja sisaldab samuti 11 eksonit ning kolme ekson ühte (1a, 1a ja 1b). Ekson 1a ei oma eraldi promootorit (transkriptsiooni alguspunkti) nii nagu 1a ja 1b. Eksonid 1a ja 1a kodeerivad alternatiivseid ...
Early-life stress is a key risk factor for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders later in life. Neuronal cell adhesion… Expand ...
Complete information for NLGN1 gene (Protein Coding), Neuroligin 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for NRXN2 gene (Protein Coding), Neurexin 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Neurexin 1山羊多克隆抗体(ab77596)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, ICC/IF实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Although used interchangeably in context with chatbots, NLP, NLG, and NLU have differences. They come together to perform end-to-end functioning of chatbots.
Synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SynCAMs) are crucial for synapse formation and plasticity. However, we have previously demonstrated that SynCAMs are also required during earlier stages of neural circuit formation because SynCAM1 and SynCAM2 (also known as CADM1 and CADM2, respectively) are important for the guidance of post-crossing commissural axons. In contrast to the exclusively homophilic cis-interactions reported by previous studies, our previous in vivo results suggested the existence of heterophilic cis-interactions between SynCAM1 and SynCAM2. Indeed, as we show here, the presence of homophilic and heterophilic cis-interactions modulates the interaction of SynCAMs with trans-binding partners, as observed previously for other immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules. These in vitro findings are in agreement with results from in vivo studies, which demonstrate a role for SynCAMs in the formation of sensory neural circuits in the chicken embryo. In the absence of SynCAMs, ...
A. Growth cone motility and neurite branch formation are activated (+) by Rac1 and Cdc42 and negatively regulated (-) by RhoA. Reelin participates in the regulation of growth cone motility and branching by regulating Rho GTPase activity (B). Filopodia formation and the formation of neuronal transport vesicles, both known to be mediated by Cdc42, are triggered by Reelin. B. Binding of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin to its transmembrane receptors Apoer2 and Vldlr triggers Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation by Src-family-kinases (SFK). This leads to the activation of several downstream signals, including phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), which activates Cdc42 via an unknown intermediate effector. There is evidence that Reelin also might locally activate Rac1. N-WASP and WAVE link Cdc42 and Rac1 activity to changes of the actin cytoskeleton, leading to increased growth cone motility, filopodia and vesicle formation, and dendritic branching (A). Cdc42 and Rac1 also contribute to activation of ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
In complex nervous systems neuron-glia interactions play pivotal roles in forming and maintaining neuronal circuits. From early developmental stages onwards, reciprocal signaling between neurons and glial cells ensures the balanced formation of correct cell numbers and cell types and their subsequent differentiation. During neuronal differentiation, glial cells often act as intermediate targets or guidepost cells, instructing neuronal growth cones on their path towards their final destination (Bastiani and Goodman, 1986; Bentley and Caudy, 1983; Whitington et al., 2004). Subsequently, once the axonal trajectories are established, glial cells migrate along these tracts to ensure that all axons are regularly covered with glial cells. Using signals that remain largely elusive, the glia starts to differentiate into the different insulating glial cell layers (Birchmeier and Nave, 2008; Brinkmann et al., 2008).. The CNS midline of Drosophila, which comprises only 22 cells with known lineage and ...
Synaptic cell-adhesion molecules and their interactions with other molecular pathways affect both synapse formation and its function (Varoqueaux et al., 2006; Sudhof, 2008; Bemben et al., 2015a). Neurexins are presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that interact with neuroligins and other postsynaptic partners. Neurexins are encoded by three genes, each of which encodes a long and short isoform, termed α- and β-neurexins, respectively (Sudhof, 2008). Interestingly, despite studies linking neurexins to autism and other neuropsychiatric disorders (Leone et al., 2010; Rabaneda et al., 2014), the precise cellular mechanisms underlying the role of neurexins in cognition remain poorly understood.Since most biochemical studies of neurexins have focused on β-neurexins, investigating the synaptic actions of β-neurexins is particularly imperative. In their timely Cell article, Anderson et al reported that β-neurexins selectively modulate synaptic strength at excitatory synapses by regulating postsynaptic
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of reelin during layer formation in the cerebralneocortex. AU - Nakajima, Kazunori. PY - 2016/8. Y1 - 2016/8. N2 - Reelin controls the neuronal layer formation in the developing cerebral neocortex. The Reelin glycoprotein is mainly secreted from Cajat-Retzius cells in the marginal zone, and it guides the proper aggregation of the migrating neurons in a birth-dependent inside-out manner. Reelin also regulates the final process of neuronal migration (terminal translocation and somal translocation) by activating integrin and N-cadherin. It is also expressed around the subventricular zone and it controls the behavior of the migrating neurons.. AB - Reelin controls the neuronal layer formation in the developing cerebral neocortex. The Reelin glycoprotein is mainly secreted from Cajat-Retzius cells in the marginal zone, and it guides the proper aggregation of the migrating neurons in a birth-dependent inside-out manner. Reelin also regulates the final process of neuronal ...
We developed a method for labeling individual recombinant biotinylated neurexin and neuroligin molecules using monomeric streptavidin (mSA) conjugated to photostable Atto dyes. These small monomeric ligands (3 nm) do not induce cross-linking as divalent antibodies or streptavidin tetramers do, and provide excellent penetration into synaptic junctions (20 nm).. mSA can be combined with GFP nanobodies in an orthogonal labeling strategy that allows unprecedented dual-color visualization of NRX/NLG trans-synaptic contacts. We report a differential dynamics and nanoscale organization of the two NRX1 post-synaptic counter-receptors NLG1 and LRRTM2, compatible with divergent physiological roles (Chamma et al., Nat Comm, 2016).. This versatile technique is applicable to virtually any membrane molecule and compatible with a wide range of super-resolution microscopy techniques, including uPAINT (Universal Point Accumulation In Nanoscopic Topography), STORM (Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy), ...
In brain, signaling mediated by cell adhesion molecules defines the identity and functional properties of synapses. The specificity of presynaptic and postsynaptic interactions that is presumably mediated by cell adhesion molecules suggests that there exists a logic that could explain neuronal connectivity at the molecular level. Despite its importance, however, the nature of such logic is poorly understood, and even basic parameters, such as the number, identity, and single-cell expression profiles of candidate synaptic cell adhesion molecules, are not known. Here, we devised a comprehensive list of genes involved in cell adhesion, and used single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to analyze their expression in electrophysiologically defined interneurons and projection neurons. We compared the cell type-specific expression of these genes with that of genes involved in transmembrane ion conductances (i.e., channels), exocytosis, and rho/rac signaling, which regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Using these data,
Much of our understanding of synaptogenesis comes from studies that deal with the development of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Although well studied, it is not clear how far the NMJ represents an adequate model for the formation of synapses within the CNS. Here we investigate the role of Fasciclin II (Fas II) in the development of synapses between identified motor neurons and cholinergic interneurons in the CNS of Drosophila. Fas II is a neural cell adhesion molecule homolog that is involved in both target selection and synaptic plasticity at the NMJ in Drosophila. In this study, we show that levels of Fas II are critical determinants of synapse formation and growth in the CNS. The initial establishment of synaptic contacts between these identified neurons is seemingly independent of Fas II. The subsequent proliferation of these synaptic connections that occurs postembryonically is, in contrast, significantly retarded by the absence of Fas II. Although the initial formation of synaptic ...
Neural connections require precise organization of the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. Neuroligins are transmembrane proteins expressed on the postsynaptic cell that bind to β-neurexins, which are presynaptic transmembrane proteins. Graf et al. report that β-neurexin is present in both excitatory (glutamatergic) and inhibitory (GABAergic) presynaptic neurons of the hippocampus. When these cells were plated with COS cells transfected to express neuroligin-1 or neuroligin-2, the presynaptic specializations that contained synaptic vesicles were induced in both types of axons. Coculture of fibroblasts expressing neurexin-1β with hippocampal neurons triggered the formation of PSD-95-positive or gephyrin-positive postsynaptic clusters in contacting dendrites (PSD-95 is an excitatory postsynaptic organizing protein and gephyrin is an inhibitory postsynaptic organizing protein). In addition, neurexin-1β stimulated clustering of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor subunits and ...
Neural connections require precise organization of the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. Neuroligins are transmembrane proteins expressed on the postsynaptic cell that bind to β-neurexins, which are presynaptic transmembrane proteins. Graf et al. report that β-neurexin is present in both excitatory (glutamatergic) and inhibitory (GABAergic) presynaptic neurons of the hippocampus. When these cells were plated with COS cells transfected to express neuroligin-1 or neuroligin-2, the presynaptic specializations that contained synaptic vesicles were induced in both types of axons. Coculture of fibroblasts expressing neurexin-1β with hippocampal neurons triggered the formation of PSD-95-positive or gephyrin-positive postsynaptic clusters in contacting dendrites (PSD-95 is an excitatory postsynaptic organizing protein and gephyrin is an inhibitory postsynaptic organizing protein). In addition, neurexin-1β stimulated clustering of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor subunits and ...
In neurons, generation and propagation of action potentials requires the complete accumulation of sodium stations on the axonal initial portion (AIS) and in the nodes of Ranvier through ankyrin G scaffolding. portion (AIS), and in myelinated axons, their saltatory conduction takes place via the nodes of Ranvier (Stuart et al., 1997; Kole et al., 2008). These procedures require a specific distribution of voltage-gated sodium stations that accumulate at high density in both of these highly specific axonal subdomains, described with the segregation from the cytoskeletal adaptor complicated ankyrin G/IV spectrin (Zhou et al., 1998; for review find Salzer, 2003). This scaffolding complicated not merely concentrates voltage-gated sodium stations Nav1.2 and Nav1.6 (Boiko et al., 2003), but additionally potassium stations KCNQ2/KCNQ3 (Devaux et al., 2004; Skillet et al., 2006), cell adhesion substances neurofascin-186 (NF-186), and neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM; Davis et al., 1996; Basak et ...
We focused on changes in the exons of DNA-protein-coding areas in which deletions or duplications are more likely to directly disrupt biological functions, said study leader Hakon Hakonarson, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Center for Applied Genomics at The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia and associate professor of Pediatrics at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. We identified additional autism susceptibility genes, many of which, as we previously found, belong to the neuronal cell adhesion molecule family involved in the development of brain circuitry in early childhood. He added that the team discovered many private gene mutations, those found only in one or a few individuals or families-an indication of genetic complexity, in which many different gene changes may contribute to an autism spectrum disorder ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CHL1 gene acts as a tumor suppressor in human neuroblastoma. AU - Ognibene, Marzia. AU - Pagnan, Gabriella. AU - Marimpietri, Danilo. AU - Cangelosi, Davide. AU - Cilli, Michele. AU - Benedetti, Maria Chiara. AU - Boldrini, Renata. AU - Garaventa, Alberto. AU - Frassoni, Francesco. AU - Eva, Alessandra. AU - Varesio, Luigi. AU - Pistoia, Vito. AU - Pezzolo, Annalisa. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Neuroblastoma is an aggressive, relapse-prone childhood tumor of the sympathetic nervous system that accounts for 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. A distal portion of human chromosome 3p is often deleted in neuroblastoma, this region may contain one or more putative tumor suppressor genes. A 2.54 Mb region at 3p26.3 encompassing the smallest region of deletion pinpointed CHL1 gene, the locus for neuronal cell adhesion molecule close homolog of L1. We found that low CHL1 expression predicted poor outcome in neuroblastoma patients. Here we have used two inducible cell models to analyze ...
Purpose: Reeler mice appear to be a good model for exploring the cross-talk between NGF and Reelin in development/maintenance of a physiological retinal function. Therefore, we sought to characterize NGF and trkANGFR/p75NTR expression in retinal cells from Reeler-L7-EGFPreln-/- transgenic mice (E-Reeler, n=2) and C57BL/6J-L7-EGFPreln+/+ transgenic mice (E-control, n=7), both expressing EGFP positivity in Rod Bipolar Cells (RBC).. Methods: Retinas were dissected from not pooled whole eyes. Single cell were obtained by DispaseII and/or Trypsin digestion, in the presence of DNAseI, equilibrated in HBSS-EDTA and fixed in 1% PFA. Cells were probed with specific antibodies (NGF, p75NTR and trkANGFR) and at least 10000 cells were acquired/analysed by flow cytometry, according to the MACSquant technology. Apoptosis was also estimated by AnnexinV.. Results: Both treatments were successful to obtain single cells from dissected retinas, albeit trypsin allowed a better side-scatter definition/resolution of ...
The Wnt- and BMP-rich cortical hem has been demonstrated to be critical for the pattern formation of the telencephalon, and it is particularly important for the induction of the hippocampus. Meanwhile, the cortical hem is one of the sources of Cajal-Retzius cells. Many Cajal-Retzius cells are produced in the hem and populated to the media-caudal surface of the telencephalon. However, the mechanism of the maintenance of the hem remain unclear. In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse line CAG-loxp-stop-loxp-Foxg1-IRES-EGFP. By crossing Fzd10CreERTM with this line, combined with tamoxifen induction, Foxg1 was ectopically expressed in the hem from embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) onwards. We have found the hem-derived Cajal-Retzius cells were transformed into dentate granule neurons accompanied with ectopic expression of Lhx2. However, the morphology of the hem displayed no obvious changes. The hem specific markers, Wnt3a and Wnt2b, were slightly downregulated. Our results indicate that Foxg1 is sufficient
Browse Item # 75-001, CASPR/Neurexin IV in the Antibodies, Inc. catalog including Item #,Item Name,Description,Target,Applications,Clone,IgG Isotype,Species Reactivity,Validation,Type,Format,Cross Reactivity,Expected Banding Pattern,Host,Label,Antibo
Third immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NCAM-1 (NCAM). Ig3_NCAM-1_like: domain similar to the third immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NCAM-1 (NCAM). NCAM plays important roles in the development and regeneration of the central nervous system, in synaptogenesis and neural migration. NCAM mediates cell-cell and cell-substratum recognition and adhesion via homophilic (NCAM-NCAM), and heterophilic (NCAM-non-NCAM), interactions. NCAM is expressed as three major isoforms having different intracellular extensions. The extracellular portion of NCAM has five N-terminal Ig-like domains and two fibronectin type III domains. The double zipper adhesion complex model for NCAM homophilic binding involves Ig1, Ig2, and Ig3. By this model, Ig1,and Ig2 mediate dimerization of NCAM molecules situated on the same cell surface (cis interactions), and Ig3 domains mediate interactions between NCAM molecules expressed on the surface of opposing cells (trans ...
Cerebral cavernous malformation is a common human vascular disease that arises due to loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding three intracellular adaptor proteins, cerebral cavernous malformations 1 protein (CCM1), CCM2, and CCM3 ...
Toll-interacting protein impacts on irritation, autophagy, and vacuole trafficking in human illness Toll-interacting protein (TOLLIP) is a ubiquitous intracellular adaptor protein concerned in a number of intracellular signaling pathways. It performs a key position in mediating inflammatory intracellular responses, selling autophagy, and enabling vacuole transport throughout the cell. TOLLIP is being more … Continue reading Toll-interacting protein impacts on inflammation, autophagy. ...
Toll-interacting protein impacts on irritation, autophagy, and vacuole trafficking in human illness Toll-interacting protein (TOLLIP) is a ubiquitous intracellular adaptor protein concerned in a number of intracellular signaling pathways. It performs a key position in mediating inflammatory intracellular responses, selling autophagy, and enabling vacuole transport throughout the cell. TOLLIP is being more … Continue reading Toll-interacting protein impacts on inflammation, autophagy. ...
The precise sub-compartmental profile of Kv1 channels at AIS and along axons is critical for the shaping of neuronal signaling. In the present study, we showed that two CAMs associated with Kv1, TAG-1 and Caspr2, are distinctly targeted along the axon in hippocampal neurons. TAG-1 strongly colocalizes with Kv1.2 channels at the AIS whereas Caspr2 is evenly distributed along the axon, in contrast to their colocalization at juxtaparanodes. Live imaging of Caspr2 and TAG-1 vesicular transport revealed that they are sorted together in the same axonal transport vesicles. Thus, we hypothesize that their differential distribution may result from diffusion and/or trapping mechanisms induced by selective partnerships. We identified two molecular determinants of Caspr2 that regulate its axonal positioning. First, we showed that deletion of the LNG2-EGF1 extracellular modules in Caspr2Δ2 induces its restricted localization at the AIS and strengthened its association with TAG-1. Second, we demonstrated ...
The S14L variant has been reported in individuals with autism and seizures, although the phenotype was variable with reduced penetrance and did not uniformly include seizures (Feng et al., 2006; Gauthier et al., 2011; Yangngam et al., 2014). This variant is in the shorter transcript of NRXN1 (NM_138735.2), and alters a residue that is predicted to be in the signal peptide of the beta-neurexin protein (Zweier et al., 2009; Gauthier et al., 2011). Although the S14L was not observed in 1,201 controls studied separately (Feng et al., 2006; Gauthier et al., 2011; Kim et al., 2008), it was observed in 1/200 controls in an additional publication (Camacho-Garcia et al., 2012). This variant is a non-conservative amino acid substitution, which is likely to impact secondary protein structure as these residues differ in polarity, charge, size, and/or other properties. However, this substitution occurs at a position that is not conserved, and functional studies have shown no abnormalities in beta-neurexin ...
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
LSAMP Undergraduate Program The LSAMP Undergraduate Program offers various activities and benefits throughout the year. Once a students initial application is approved, the student is responsible for submitting a continuing application each academic year. In order to continue receiving benefits of the LSAMP Undergraduate program, participants must do the following (1) Retain
The present studies were to determine whether the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib or its type regorafenib interacted with the ERBB1/ERBB2 inhibitor lapatinib to kill CNS tumor cells. fetal calf serum and 10% (v/v) Non-essential amino acids. All main human being glioblastoma cells were cultured at 37 C (5% (v/v CO2) using RPMI supplemented with 2% 16679-58-6 … Continue reading The present studies were to determine whether the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib. ...
A blog post discussing research examining an interaction between loss of reelin expression and organophosphate exposure in a mouse model
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Summary of NLGN4X (HLNX, KIAA1260, NLGN, NLGN4) expression in human tissue. Cytoplasmic expression in CNS and peripheral ganglia.
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Results Overview Central to the complex functioning of the brain is the ability of neurons to communicate. This occurs at highly...
The carcinoembryonic-antigen-related cell-adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family of proteins has been implicated in various intercellular-adhesion and intracellular-signalling-mediated effects that govern the growth and differentiation of normal and cancerous cells. Recent studies show that there is an i …
The Ig-like domains of L1 can consider component in homophilic and heterophilic interactions ... condition models and human patients of Advertisement.
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マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab78540 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,ICC,IHC (PFA fixed)…Reelin抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
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The neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM simultaneously combines with another N-CAM and a fibroblast growth factor receptor to ... A neurite or neuronal process refers to any projection from the cell body of a neuron. This projection can be either an axon or ... Berezin, Vladimir (2009-12-17). Structure and Function of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NCAM. Springer Science & Business ... a protein in brain that induces the collapse and paralysis of neuronal growth cones". Cell. 75 (2): 217-227. doi:10.1016/0092- ...
2000). "Neuronal adhesion molecule telencephalin induces rapid cell spreading of microglia". Brain Res. 849 (1-2): 58-66. doi: ... 2000). "Intercellular adhesion molecule-5 induces dendritic outgrowth by homophilic adhesion". J. Cell Biol. 150 (1): 243-52. ... Intercellular adhesion molecule 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ICAM5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... "Entrez Gene: ICAM5 intercellular adhesion molecule 5, telencephalin". Annaert, W G; Esselens C; Baert V; Boeve C; Snellings G; ...
Neuronal cell adhesion molecule is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NRCAM gene. Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are ... NRCAM neuronal cell adhesion molecule". Marui T, Funatogawa I, Koishi S, et al. (2008). "Association of the neuronal cell ... This gene encodes a neuronal cell adhesion molecule with multiple immunoglobulin-like C2-type domains and fibronectin type-III ... Grumet M (1997). "Nr-CAM: a cell adhesion molecule with ligand and receptor functions". Cell Tissue Res. 290 (2): 423-8. doi: ...
... cell-adhesion molecules are also essential to synaptogenesis. Often the binding of pre-synaptic cell-adhesion molecules with ... This brain region contains three main neuronal cell types- Purkinje cells, granule cells and mossy fiber cells. Wnt-3 ... These changes are thought to be mediated by neurotrophin and cell adhesion molecule release from muscle cells, thereby ... Indeed, a defect in genes encoding neuroligin, a cell-adhesion molecule found in the post-synaptic membrane, has been linked to ...
An unusual glycoform variation is seen in neuronal cell adhesion molecule, NCAM involving polysialic acids, PSA. G-actin: ... the function of one isoform can promote cell survival, while another promotes cell death-or can have similar basic functions ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.01.029. PMC 4882190. PMID 26871637. Barre L, Fournel-Gigleux S, Finel M, Netter P, Magdalou J, Ouzzine ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.03.014. PMID 27104977. Dasgupta B, Chhipa RR (March 2016). "Evolving Lessons on the Complex Role of ...
Mutations in human L1 cell adhesion molecules are reported to cause a number of neuronal disorders. In addition, recent ... "Endocytic pathways downregulate the L1-type cell adhesion molecule neuroglian to promote dendrite pruning in Drosophila". ... Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol. Advances in Anatomy Embryology and Cell Biology. 190. pp. 1-65. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-37107-6_1. ... neuronal, glial, and other types of cells. Neuregulin 1 is thought to play a role in synaptic plasticity. It has been shown ...
"Cell-cell adhesion by homophilic interaction of the neuronal recognition molecule axonin-1". European Journal of Biochemistry ... It is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored neuronal membrane protein that functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It ... "The human TAX1 gene encoding the axon-associated cell adhesion molecule TAG-1/axonin-1: genomic structure and basic promoter". ... "The gene for the axonal cell adhesion molecule TAX-1 is amplified and aberrantly expressed in malignant gliomas". Cancer ...
... these cell adhesion molecule are not necessary for formation of neuronal connections during development. A triple knockout ... Rikitake Y, Mandai K, Takai Y (August 2012). "The role of nectins in different types of cell-cell adhesion". Journal of Cell ... cell-adhesion molecules in synaptic plasticity". Trends in Cell Biology. 10 (11): 473-82. doi:10.1016/S0962-8924(00)01838-9. ... "Roles and modes of action of nectins in cell-cell adhesion". Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. 15 (6): 643-56. doi: ...
Neuropilin (A5 antigen), a calcium-independent cell adhesion molecule that functions during the formation of certain neuronal ... gene in colorectal tumour cells". FEBS Letters. 581 (6): 1137-42. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2007.02.025. PMID 17335815. S2CID ... cell signalling, fertilisation, haemostasis, inflammation, neurotransmission, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and tumour ...
It is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored neuronal membrane protein that functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It ... Reid RA, Bronson DD, Young KM, Hemperly JJ (Jan 1994). "Identification and characterization of the human cell adhesion molecule ... domains in neuronal cell functions and identification of the domain interacting with the neuronal recognition molecule F3/11". ... "Signaling events following the interaction of the neuronal adhesion molecule F3 with the N-terminal domain of tenascin-R". ...
It is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored neuronal membrane protein that functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It ... "Molecular genetic analysis of a cell adhesion molecule with homology to L1CAM, contactin 6, and contactin 4 candidate ... "cDNA cloning and chromosomal localization of neural adhesion molecule NB-3 in human". Journal of Neuroscience Research. 51 (3 ... Walsh FS, Doherty P (November 1991). "Glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored recognition molecules that function in axonal ...
It is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored neuronal membrane protein that functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It ... 1997). "A novel splice variant of the cell adhesion molecule BIG-2 is expressed in the olfactory and vomeronasal neuroepithelia ... 2004). "Cloning and characterization of the human neural cell adhesion molecule, CNTN4 (alias BIG-2)". Cytogenet. Genome Res. ... "A novel splice variant of the cell adhesion molecule contactin 4 ( CNTN4) is mainly expressed in human brain". J Hum Genet. 47 ...
"Genes for the neuronal immunoglobulin domain cell adhesion molecules neurofascin and Nr-CAM map to mouse chromosomes 1 and 12 ... "FIGQY phosphorylation defines discrete populations of L1 cell adhesion molecules at sites of cell-cell contact and in migrating ... Hortsch M (October 1996). "The L1 family of neural cell adhesion molecules: old proteins performing new tricks". Neuron. 17 (4 ... Neurofascin is an L1 family immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule (see L1CAM) involved in axon subcellular targeting and ...
PTPrho protein mediates homophilic cell-cell adhesion, meaning that when it interacts with a like molecule on an adjacent cell ... PTPrho activity has also been demonstrated to be required for the development of neuronal dendrites. It was found to regulate ... 2009). "Synapse formation regulated by protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor T through interaction with cell adhesion molecules ... PTPrho associates with members of the cadherin and catenin family of cell adhesion molecules as demonstrated by GST-fusion ...
... neuronal cell adhesion molecule) består af fem antistof-lignende (immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domains) og to fibronectin type III ... Structure and Interactions of NCAM Ig1-2-3 Suggest a Novel Zipper Mechanism for Homophilic Adhesion. ScienceDirect Structure ...
The IgLON proteins are a family of five cell-adhesion molecules IgLON 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5, which assist in neuronal growth and ... June 2019). "A Proteomic Screen of Neuronal Cell-Surface Molecules Reveals IgLONs as Structurally Conserved Interaction Modules ... IgLON5 refers to a cell surface protein involved in promoting connections among nerve cells. Prevalence of the HLA-DRB1*10:01 ... connections among nerve cells. and help in brain evolution and maturation to maintain integrity of the blood brain barrier. ...
"The neuronal chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan neurocan binds to the neural cell adhesion molecules Ng-CAM/L1/NILE and N-CAM, ... Retzler C, Göhring W, Rauch U (1996). "Analysis of neurocan structures interacting with the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM ... and inhibits neuronal adhesion and neurite outgrowth". J. Cell Biol. 125 (3): 669-80. doi:10.1083/jcb.125.3.669. PMC 2119998. ... It is thought to be involved in the modulation of cell adhesion and migration. Neurocan is a significant component of the ...
SynCAM is a cell adhesion molecule that is present in both pre- and post-synaptic membranes. The processes of neuronal ... where the principal neural stem cell is the radial glial cell. The first postmitotic cells must leave the stem cell niche and ... They do not resemble the cells migrating by locomotion or somal translocation. Instead these multipolar cells express neuronal ... In explant cultures (which allow direct cell-cell interactions) the same cells differentiate into epidermis. This is due to the ...
"Soluble forms of NCAM and F3 neuronal cell adhesion molecules promote Schwann cell migration: identification of protein ... Kawachi H, Fujikawa A, Maeda N, Noda M (2001). "Identification of GIT1/Cat-1 as a substrate molecule of protein tyrosine ... Expression of this gene is induced in gastric cancer cells, in the remyelinating oligodendrocytes of multiple sclerosis lesions ... Both the protein and transcript are overexpressed in glioblastoma cells, promoting their haptotactic migration. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
For example, IQGAP1 expression is necessary for neuronal process outgrowth on the cell adhesion molecule PTPmu (PTPRM). ... with cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and with several signaling molecules to regulate cell morphology and motility. ... weakening these junctions and thus decreasing cell-cell adhesion. IQGAP weakens cell adhesion by displacing a-catenin from the ... a negative regulator of cell-cell adhesion, is upregulated by gene amplification at 15q26 in gastric cancer cell lines HSC39 ...
This protein, of 200-220 kDa, is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule with a strong implication in cell migration, adhesion, ... L1 has a static function as a cell adhesion molecule which connects different cells. It is involved in the adhesion between ... There are a wide variety of cells which express the protein L1, not only neuronal cells but also some non-neuronal ones. Cells ... where an adhesion molecule on one cell works as a receptor that connects with a different molecule on the other cell. These ...
of Cell and Dev. Biol. 13: 425-456. *↑ Colman R. D. ja Filbin T. M. (2006). Cell adhesion molecules, lk 111-121. George J. ... Cell recognition during neuronal development. Science 225 (4668): 1271-1279. ... Walsh, F. S., Doherty, P. (1997). Neural cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily: Role in Axon Growth and ... opioid-binding cell adhesion molecule) ja Kilon/Neurotractin (vastavalt roti ja kana ortoloogid)[4]. Lisaks kolmele Ig domeeni ...
In: Structure and Function of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NCAM, Series: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, ... while the GPI-linked form is expressed by non-neuronal cells (mainly glial cells), where it functions as a substrate for growth ... related superfamily of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). It was first identified in the developing grasshopper embryo, seen ... having structural homology to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) found in vertebrates. Alternative splicing of fasII ...
... cell adhesion molecules, neuronal MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.150 - cell adhesion molecules, neuron-glia MeSH D12.776.395.550. ... activated-leukocyte cell adhesion molecule MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.500 - myelin p0 protein MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250. ... 520 - neural cell adhesion molecules MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.520.156 - antigens, cd56 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.520.578 ... vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 MeSH D12.776.395.550.550.500 - lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 MeSH D12.776.395.550. ...
... cell adhesion molecules, neuronal MeSH D23.050.301.350.250.150 - cell adhesion molecules, neuron-glia MeSH D23.050.301.350. ... neural cell adhesion molecules MeSH D23.050.301.350.250.520.156 - antigens, cd56 MeSH D23.050.301.350.250.520.578 - neural cell ... adhesion molecule l1 MeSH D23.050.301.350.275 - integrin alphaxbeta2 MeSH D23.050.301.350.450 - intercellular adhesion molecule ... cell adhesion molecules MeSH D23.050.301.350.065 - antigens, cd22 MeSH D23.050.301.350.098 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050. ...
... cell adhesion molecules, neuronal MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.150 - cell adhesion molecules, neuron-glia MeSH D12.776.543.550. ... activated-leukocyte cell adhesion molecule MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.500 - myelin p0 protein MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250. ... 520 - neural cell adhesion molecules MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.520.156 - antigens, cd56 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.520.578 ... vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 MeSH D12.776.543.550.425.150 - calcium channels MeSH D12.776.543.550.425.150.400 - calcium ...
... caused by both hydrocephalus and poor neuronal development because of defects in the L1 cell adhesion molecule, results in ... The L1 cell adhesion molecule is a surface protein found on the surface of all neurons. It allows neurons to bind to one ... L1 cell adhesion molecule is essential for the structural development of the brain and contributes to the ability to think, ... the gene that provides the information that allows the body to produce L1 cell adhesion molecule (sometimes called the L1 ...
... of cell and surface adhesion molecules plays a key role in the migration and connectivity of neurons as they form neuronal ... Edelman's isolation of NCAM lead him to theorize on the role of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and substrate adhesion molecules ... Cell Division Cell Motion Cell Death Regulatory Processes - Cell Adhesion Induction Differentiation Neurons can communicate as ... Edelman and his team went on to isolate the first neural cell-adhesion molecule (N-CAM), one of the many molecules that hold ...
... and reported by several authors and it was suggested that the expression of proteins like the neuronal cell adhesion molecule ( ... NCAM) in the cells of the zona glomerulosa reflects the regenerative feature of these cells, which would lose NCAM ... "Basal Steroidogenic Activity of Adrenocortical Cells is Increased 10-Fold by Coculture with Chromaffin Cells". Endocrinology. ... Its cells are ovoid and arranged in clusters or arches (glomus is Latin for "ball"). In response to increased potassium levels ...
... and reported by several authors and it was suggested that the expression of proteins like the neuronal cell adhesion molecule ( ... by principal cells) and hydrogen ions (by intercalated cells of the collecting duct). Sodium retention is also a response of ... by principal cells) and hydrogen ions (by intercalated cells of the collecting duct). Sodium retention is also a response of ... NCAM) in the cells of the zona glomerulosa reflects the regenerative feature of these cells, which would lose NCAM ...
"Substance P enhances cytokine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression on cultured rheumatoid fibroblast- ... given that NK1Rs are unprotected by a blood brain barrier in the area postrema just adjacent to neuronal structures in the ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ...
The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting ... The infundibulum provides adhesion while the acetabulum remains free, and muscle contractions allow for attachment and ... Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ... which involves changes to the nucleic acid sequence of the primary transcript of RNA molecules) than any other organisms. ...
heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • cell recognition. • homophilic cell adhesion via ... cell-cell adherens junction. • мембрана. • клеточная мембрана. • поверхность клетки. • аксон. • neuron projection. • neuronal ... cell adhesion molecule binding. • protein binding involved in heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • glycosylated region protein ... heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of transforming growth factor beta production. • cell-cell adhesion. • ...
... processes than any other molecule and is strongly regulated by calcium activity making it incredibly sensitive to neuronal ... with focal adhesion kinase and suppression of the extracellular matrix-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt cell ... cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • collateral ... regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor activity. • activation of phospholipase C activity ...
"Cell. 142 (5): 687-698. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.07.041. PMC 2956412. PMID 20813258.. ... as well as decreased neuronal response to oral fatty acids.[10] ... It is expressed in taste bud cells (specifically cell type II, ... fat cell differentiation. • signal transduction. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • detection of chemical ...
T cell activation. • peristalsis. • receptor localization to synapse. • single organismal cell-cell adhesion. • negative ... The L27 domain is involved in SAP97 oligomerization with other SAP97 molecules, CASK, and other L27-domain-containing proteins. ... a novel neuronal PSD-95/SAP90-binding protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (41): 26269-72. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.41 ... There is some evidence that SAP97 regulates cell-to-cell adhesion during cell death, and may interact with HPV. In the brain, ...
... s are essential to neuronal function: neurons are cells that are specialized to pass signals to individual target cells ... are stabilized in position by synaptic adhesion molecules (SAMs) projecting from both the pre- and post-synaptic neuron and ... Phosphoinositides (PIP, PIP2, and PIP3) are molecules that have been shown to affect neuronal polarity.[12] A gene (ttx-7) was ... Arimura, Nariko; Kaibuchi, Kozo (December 22, 2005). "Key regulators in neuronal polarity". Neuron. Cambridge, MA: Cell Press. ...
... which are cell-cell adhesion molecules found in desmosomes). Underlying cancer or irreversible system impairment, seen in acute ... In this paradigm, tumor cells express tissue-restricted antigens (e.g., neuronal proteins), triggering an anti-tumor immune ... "Regression of small-cell lung carcinoma in patients with paraneoplastic neuronal antibodies", Lancet, 341 (8836): 21-22, doi: ... In contrast, these phenomena are mediated by humoral factors (such as hormones or cytokines) secreted by tumor cells or by an ...
... to the Pseudomonas fluorescens cell adhesion protein LapA of 520 kDa.[7] The best characterized are the RTX toxins and the ... Secretion in bacterial species means the transport or translocation of effector molecules for example: proteins, enzymes or ... "Neuronal porosome proteome: Molecular dynamics and architecture". Journal of Proteomics. 75 (13): 3952-62. doi:10.1016/j.jprot ... "Unconventional mechanisms of protein transport to the cell surface of eukaryotic cells". Annual Review of Cell and ...
11] Chiasm crossing is also promoted by Nr-CAM (Ng-CAM-related cell adhesion molecule) and Semaphorin6D (Sema6D) expressed at ... Gordon-Weeks, PR (2005). Neuronal Growth Cones. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780511529719. .. ... 7] Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons leaving the eye through the optic nerve are blocked from exiting the developing pathway by ... Herrera, E; Erskine, L; Morenilla-Palao, C (2019). "Guidance of retinal axons in mammals". Seminars in Cell & Developmental ...
negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of cell migration. • ephrin receptor signaling pathway. • ... "Specific interactions of neuronal focal adhesion kinase isoforms with Src kinases and amphiphysin". Journal of Neurochemistry ... "Insulin receptor substrate-1 as a signaling molecule for focal adhesion kinase pp125(FAK) and pp60(src)". The Journal of ... regulation of endothelial cell migration. • establishment of cell polarity. • regulation of focal adhesion assembly. • リン酸化. • ...
Malformations in neuronal migration. *Malignant astrocytoma. *Malignant germ cell tumor. *Malignant hyperthermia arthrogryposis ... Male pseudohermaphroditism due to defective LH molecule. * ... Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 2. *Leukodystrophy reunion ...
1997). «Signaling events following the interaction of the neuronal adhesion molecule F3 with the N-terminal domain of tenascin- ... Reid RA, Bronson DD, Young KM, Hemperly JJ (1994). «Identification and characterization of the human cell adhesion molecule ... domains in neuronal cell functions and identification of the domain interacting with the neuronal recognition molecule F3/11 ... four members of an axon-associated cell adhesion molecule subgroup of the immunoglobulin superfamily.». J. Neurobiol. 28 (1): ...
Each molecule of calsequestrin can bind 18 to 50 Ca2+ ions.[1] Sequence analysis has suggested that calcium is not bound in ... raise the magnitude of cell-averaged ICA-induced calcium transients and spontaneous calcium sparks in isolated heart cells.[4] ...
Reid RA, Bronson DD, Young KM, Hemperly JJ (Jan 1994). "Identification and characterization of the human cell adhesion molecule ... domains in neuronal cell functions and identification of the domain interacting with the neuronal recognition molecule F3/11". ... four members of an axon-associated cell adhesion molecule subgroup of the immunoglobulin superfamily". Journal of Neurobiology ... "Signaling events following the interaction of the neuronal adhesion molecule F3 with the N-terminal domain of tenascin-R". ...
... β-neurexin then binds to cell adhesion molecule, neuroligin located on the postsynaptic membrane. Neuroligin then interacts ... Neurotransmitter Release Machinery: Components of the Neuronal SNARE Complex and Their Function. Structural and Functional ... The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... "Synaptic cell adhesion". Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 4 (4): a005694. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a005694. PMC 3312681. PMID ...
single organismal cell-cell adhesion. • cell differentiation. • positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation involved ... apical part of cell. • secretory granule. • neuronal cell body. • cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein granule. • mitotic spindle. • ... regulates neurite extension through association with the TrkA receptor and N-Shc and CrkL/Crk adapter molecules". Molecular and ... cell-cell junction. • focal adhesion. • microtubule organizing center. • spindle midzone. • neuron projection. • storage ...
cell nucleus. • cell projection. • mitochondrial membrane. • keratin filament. • dendritic shaft. • dendritic spine head. • ... neuronal action potential. • signal transduction. • mineralocorticoid receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of ... cell differentiation. • immune system process. • negative regulation of cell cycle process. • positive regulation of release of ... negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. • positive regulation of cell migration. • positive ...
Mechanical forces can be transmitted by focal adhesion sites, integrins, and cell-cell junctions. Changes in the actin ... After secretion from the cell, the cleaved by procollagen N- and C-proteinases, and the tropocollagen molecules spontaneously ... Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions. 6 (2): 181-190. PMID 16849830.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list ( ... There is a three-dimensional network of cell processes associated with collagen in the tendon. The cells communicate with each ...
neuronal cell body membrane. • cell nucleus. • sperm midpiece. Biological process. • response to estradiol. • aging. • ... Khawaja AM, Rogers DF (Jul 1996). "Tachykinins: receptor to effector". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology ...
2004). „HIV-1 Nef control of cell signalling molecules: multiple strategies to promote virus replication.". J. Biosci. 28 (3): ... 2004). „Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activated by epidermal growth factor and cell adhesion interacts with and ... Peruzzi F, Gordon J, Darbinian N, Amini S (2003). „Tat-induced deregulation of neuronal differentiation and survival by nerve ... Cell. United States. 121 (2): 179-93. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 15851026. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.02.031.. ...
Cells in each layer bound together cell-adhesion molecules, but no basement membranes except Homoscleromorpha.[16]. inter-cell ... Satterlie, Richard A (2002-10-01). "Neuronal control of swimming in jellyfish: a comparative story". Canadian Journal of ... Nerve cells. Sensory cells appear between or sometimes on top of the muscle cells,[9] and communicate via synapses (gaps across ... Number of cells in middle "jelly" layer Many. Few. (Not applicable) Cells in outer layers can move inwards and change functions ...
Although some cell-adhesion molecules have been reported to be present at the nodes inconsistently; however, a variety of other ... The first event appears to be the accumulation of cell adhesion molecules such as NF186 or NrCAM. The intra-cellular regions of ... such as tenascin R and the cell-adhesion molecules neurofascin and contactin. Contactin is also present at nodes in the CNS and ... these cell-adhesion molecules interact with ankyrin G, which serves as an anchor for sodium channels. At the same time, the ...
... stereotyped inhibitions may have been caused by the removal of central neuronal processes other than the dopaminergic cells in ... The third, small spine cells, are similar to the pial cells in that they also look like medium-size spine cells except they are ... The most common cell types in the olfactory tubercle are medium-size dense spine cells found predominantly in layer II (dense ... The largest cells, and most striking feature of the olfactory tubercle, are densely packed crescent-shape cell clusters, ...
The KAL1 gene encodes anosmin-1, an extracellular adhesion molecule that plays a role in GnRH neuronal migration and adhesion.[ ... LH acts on Leydig cells in the male testes and theca cells in the female. FSH acts on Sertoli cells in the male and follicular ... The mechanism for this reversal is unknown but there is believed to be some neuronal plasticity within GnRH releasing cells. [4 ... FSH will stimulate granulosa cells for follicular maturation while LH will act on luteal cells to produce steroids aiding ...
neuronal cell body. • plasma membrane. • Golgi cisterna. • cleavage furrow. • midbody. • cell nucleus. • cytoskeleton. • actin ... Citron-K or its fly orthologue Sticky has been suggested to interact with several molecules in cytokinesis such as Kinesin-3 ( ... Husi H, Ward MA, Choudhary JS, Blackstock WP, Grant SG (Jul 2000). "Proteomic analysis of NMDA receptor-adhesion protein ... cell division. • protein phosphorylation. • cell cycle. • G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle. • regulation of actin ...
homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules. • Peyer's patch morphogenesis. • peptidyl-tyrosine ... neuronal cell body. • dendrite. • early endosome. • membrane raft. • endosome membrane. • plasma membrane. • cytosol. • plasma ... positive regulation of cell migration. • neuron cell-cell adhesion. • nervous system development. • neuron maturation. • ... regulation of cell adhesion. • lymphocyte migration into lymphoid organs. • cell adhesion. • positive regulation of gene ...
One particular Drosophila gene (Dscam, the Drosophila homolog of the human Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule DSCAM) can be ... "RNA splicing capability of live neuronal dendrites". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... "Cell. 122 (3): 379-91. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.06.015. PMC 4401993. PMID 16096058.. ... Cell. Biol. 8 (9): 3755-60. PMC 365433. PMID 3065622.. *^ Query CC, Moore MJ, Sharp PA (1994). "Branch nucleophile selection in ...
Cell adhesion molecule. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. IgSF CAM:. *OFC7 ... Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is caused by genetic mutations that cause defects in neuronal proteins. Nerve signals are conducted ... Neurons, Schwann cells, and fibroblasts work together to create a functional nerve. Schwann cells and neurons exchange ... Cell membrane protein disorders (other than Cell surface receptor, enzymes, and cytoskeleton) ...
... neuronal cell adhesion molecule), Authors: Justyna Janik, Barbara Czarnocka. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol ... NRCAM, neuronal cell adhesion molecule, Homo sapiens. - NRCAM, neuronal cell adhesion molecule, Bos taurus. - Nrcam, neuron- ... NRCAM, neuronal cell adhesion molecule, Pan troglodytes. - LOC475881, similar to Neuronal cell adhesion m..., Canis lupus ... Nrcam, neuron-glia-CAM-related cell adhesion molecule, Rattus norvegicus. - NRCAM, neuronal cell adhesion molecule, Gallus ...
Characterization of the 5 and promoter regions of the gene encoding the mouse neuronal cell adhesion molecule F3.. Buttiglione ... non-expressing cells. In addition, a cell type-specific enhancer, only active in F3-expressing cells, was found immediately ... F3 is a 135 kDa neuronal cell surface adhesive glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin supergene family (IgSF) which ... The study of F3 gene exon/intron organization revealed that, like other neural IgSF molecules, each of the first two F3 C2 ...
A Neuronal Form of the Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 Contains a Tyrosine-Based Signal Required for Sorting to the Axonal Growth ... A Neuronal Form of the Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 Contains a Tyrosine-Based Signal Required for Sorting to the Axonal Growth ... A Neuronal Form of the Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 Contains a Tyrosine-Based Signal Required for Sorting to the Axonal Growth ... A Neuronal Form of the Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 Contains a Tyrosine-Based Signal Required for Sorting to the Axonal Growth ...
Functional cross-talk between the cellular prion protein and the neural cell adhesion molecule is critical for neuronal ... Although PrP has been reported to associate with the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), the consequences of concerted PrP- ... NCAM not only fails to promote neuronal differentiation but also induces an accumulation of doublecortin-positive neuronal ... HB-EGF human, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥95% (SDS-PAGE), ≥95% (HPLC), cell culture tested pricing ...
Lierheimer, R; Kunz, B; Vogt, L; Savoca, R; Brodbeck, U; Sonderegger, P (1997). The neuronal cell-adhesion molecule axonin-1 is ... The neuronal cell-adhesion molecule axonin-1 is specifically released by an endogenous glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific ... Axonin-1, a member of the immunoglobulin/fibronectin type-III family of cell-adhesion molecules, occurs both as a ... Axonin-1, a member of the immunoglobulin/fibronectin type-III family of cell-adhesion molecules, occurs both as a ...
Although the two dennexin peptides differed in amino acid sequence, they both modulated cell adhesion, reflected by inhibition ... mediated cell adhesion results in activation of intracellular signaling cascades that lead to cellular responses such as ... Consistent with the effect of dennexinA on NCAM-mediated adhesion in vitro, the peptide impaired long-term memory retention in ... Both dennexins also promoted neuronal survival, and the effect of dennexinA was independent of polysialic acid expression. ...
Biosynthesis of the D2 cell adhesion molecule: pulse-chase studies in cultured fetal rat neuronal cells.. J Cell Biol 1 June ... Biosynthesis of the D2 cell adhesion molecule: pulse-chase studies in cultured fetal rat neuronal cells. J M Lyles, J M Lyles ... D2 is a membrane glycoprotein that is believed to function as a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) in neural cells. We have examined ... Biosynthesis of the D2-cell adhesion molecule: post-translational modifications, intracellular transport, and developmental ...
Targeting vectors, ES Cells Nrcamtm2a(KOMP)Wtsi KO first allele (reporter-tagged insertion with conditional potential) ...
"Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal" was a ... Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal*Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal. *Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecules ... These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION ... "Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ...
"Expression of Cell Adhesion Molecules During Embryogenesis and Regeneration" by Gerald M. Edelman. in Experimental Cell ... The brain thus contains large numbers of different neuronal groups.. Neuronal groups are connected to one another as well as to ... "Cell Adhesion Molecules" by Gerald M. Edelman. in Science, Vol. 219, (February 4, 1983) ... The structure of the cell adhesion molecules themselves is determined by particular genes. And in early development of the ...
Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily. This gene encodes a neuronal cell adhesion ... NRCAM (Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with NRCAM include Autism. Among its ... cDNA FLJ35011 fis, clone OCBBF2013149, highly similar to Neuronal cell adhesion molecule (B3KRX0_HUMAN) ...
Roles of cell adhesion molecules",. abstract = "Neurons contact their neighbors through a diverse array of cell adhesion and ... Neuronal pathfinding and recognition : Roles of cell adhesion molecules. In: Developmental Biology. 1996 ; Vol. 180, No. 2. pp ... Chiba A, Keshishian H. Neuronal pathfinding and recognition: Roles of cell adhesion molecules. Developmental Biology. 1996 Dec ... Neuronal pathfinding and recognition : Roles of cell adhesion molecules. / Chiba, Akira; Keshishian, Haig. ...
... we have now identified a cell adhesion molecule on neurons (Ng-CAM) that mediates the heterotypic adhesion between neuronal ... Two antigenically related neuronal cell adhesion molecules of different specificities mediate neuron-neuron and neuron-glia ... Therefore, these different neuronal cell adhesion molecules with distinct binding specificities share at least one antigenic ... immunologically based cell adhesion assays suggested that they have different specificities in mediating cell adhesion. Whereas ...
Interactions between a neuron and its environment play a major role in neuronal migration. We show here that the cell adhesion ... The cell adhesion molecule Tag1, transmembrane protein Stbm/Vangl2, and Lamininα1 exhibit genetic interactions during migration ... The cell adhesion molecule Tag1, transmembrane protein Stbm/Vangl2, and Lamininα1 exhibit genetic interactions during migration ... The cell adhesion molecule Tag1, transmembrane protein Stbm/Vangl2, and Lamininα1 exhibit genetic interactions during migration ...
The axonal surface glycoproteins neuronglia cell adhesion molecule (NgCAM) and axonin-1 promote cell-cell adhesion, neurite ... Cell adhesion molecules NgCAM and axonin-1 form heterodimers in the neuronal membrane and cooperate in neurite outgrowth ... By expressing NgCAM and axonin-1 in myeloma cells and performing cell aggregation assays, we found that NgCAM and axonin-1 ... on the surface of CV-1 cells coexpressing NgCAM and axonin-1 and the selective chemical cross-linking of the two molecules in ...
Analyzing increasing numbers of cells, however, generates extremely large data sets, extending processing t … ... with the latest techniques capable of processing tens of thousands of cells simultaneously. ... Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) has significantly deepened our insights into complex tissues, ... Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal / genetics * Cell Differentiation / genetics * Cluster Analysis * Extracellular Matrix ...
Although the BMP-2 overexpressing C3H10T1/2 cells failed to form chondrogenic nodules, cells of both models expressed mRNA ... Although the adipogenic lineage-specific marker gene FABP4 was also expressed in micromass cultures, Oil Red O-positive cells ... established from either BMP-2 overexpressing C3H10T1/2 cells or mouse embryonic limb bud-derived chondroprogenitor cells, using ... reflecting on the presence of various mesenchymal lineages as well as undifferentiated cells. This cellular heterogeneity has ...
Cultures of human neural progenitor cells screened on the L1-Fc/polymer biointerfaces showed significantly enhanced neuronal ... Notably, the highest degree of βIII-tubulin expression for cells in 3-D fibrous scaffolds were observed in protein A oriented ... effects of cell attachment to polycationic charged substrates with subcellular topography along with L1-mediated adhesion ... mediating neuronal differentiation. Together, these findings highlight the promise of displays of multimeric neural adhesion ...
... superfamily that has an important function in cell adhesion and motility through the advancement and regeneration of neuronal ... Background/Aims The neural cell adhesion molecule L1CAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein. Background/Aims The neural cell ... a 32-42 kDa molecule and is expressed on naive/resting T cells and on medullart thymocytes. In comparison B cells BI6727 but is ... we previously discovered the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM, Compact disc171) being a differentially portrayed mRNA and ...
... that probably underlie the neuronal migration errors. Furthermore, mutant mice have severely blunted hippocampal long-term ... and aberrant migration of granule cells. Dystroglycan-null brain loses its high-affinity binding to the extracellular matrix ... Trafficking and Activity of Glutamate and GABA Receptors: Regulation by Cell Adhesion Molecules *Ryan Keable ... Muscular dystrophy and neuronal migration disorder caused by mutations in a glycosyltransferase, POMGnT1. Dev. Cell 1, 717-724 ...
These domains include the nodes of Ranvier and the flanking paranodal regions where glial cells closely appose and form ... Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal * Cntnap1 protein, mouse * Drosophila Proteins * Membrane Glycoproteins * Membrane Proteins ... These domains include the nodes of Ranvier and the flanking paranodal regions where glial cells closely appose and form ...
... and a nonsense mutation in the neural cell adhesion molecule gene ,i,Nrcam,/i,. These mutant mice may be useful in studying ... Nrcam, neuronal cell adhesion molecule. Gene Synonym(s). Strain of Origin. C57BL/6J. ... and the neural cell adhesion molecule, neuron-glia-CAM-related cell adhesion molecule (Nrcam) gene. Sequencing of these genes ... and a nonsense mutation in the neural cell adhesion molecule gene, Nrcam. The two single mutations appear to act ...
1998) A neuronal form of the cell adhesion molecule L1 contains a tyrosine-based signal required for sorting to the axonal ... 1999) NrCAM, cerebellar granule cell receptor for the neuronal adhesion molecule F3, displays an actin-dependent mobility in ... 1997) Mutational analysis of the L1 neuronal cell adhesion molecule identifies membrane-proximal amino acids of the cytoplasmic ... 1988) Neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule interacts with neurons and astroglia via different binding mechanisms. J Cell Biol 106 ...
Collapsin-1/semaphorin-III/D is regulated developmentally in Purkinje cells and collapses pontocerebellar mossy fiber neuronal ... Chemorepulsion and cell adhesion molecules in patterning initial trajectories of sensory axons * * MASUDA Tomoyuki ... Cell adhesion molecules regulate guidance of dorsal root ganglion axons in the marginal zone and their invasion into the mantle ... Binding between the neural cell adhesion molecules axonin-1 and Nr-CAM/Bravo is involved in neuron-glia interaction SUTER DM ...
... and NEURONAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES. Several variants of the receptor exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. ... Loosing of fibroblast cell is the main problem in aging and wrinkles and non-healed skin wounds. Therefore proliferation of ... Fibroblasts are cells that synthesize the extracellular matrix and collagen and play a critical role in wound healing and ... A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and ...
Polysialic acid is a developmentally regulated component in the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM which also occurs as the ... Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal / metabolism*. Microscopy, Atomic Force. Sialic Acids / chemistry, metabolism*. ... 0/Biopolymers; 0/Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal; 0/Sialic Acids; 0/polysialic acid ... Polysialic acid is a developmentally regulated component in the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM which also occurs as the ...
... a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule subgroup IgLON, has been implicated in neuronal growth and ... a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule subgroup IgLON, has been implicated in neuronal growth and ... and dentate granule cells. In co-cultures of cortical neurons and NSC-34 cells overexpressing NEGR1, neurite growth of cortical ... In co-cultures of cortical neurons and NSC-34 cells overexpressing NEGR1, neurite growth of cortical neurons was enhanced and ...
Neuronal cell adhesion molecule antibody. *Neuronal surface protein Bravo antibody. *Ng CAM related antibody ... Cell adhesion, ankyrin-binding protein involved in neuron-neuron adhesion. May play a role in the molecular assembly of the ... Cell Biology. Epigenetics. Metabolism. Developmental Biology. By research area. Immunology. Microbiology. Neuroscience. Signal ... Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and biochemical assays. By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. ...
Cytoskeleton-dependent regulation of neuronal network formation Thomas Fath , Alla Kostyukova , ... * Cell Adhesion Molecules ... Trafficking mechanisms of synaptogenic cell adhesion molecules Luís F. Ribeiro , Ben Verpoort , ... ... Dynamics, nanoscale organization, and function of synaptic adhesion molecules Ingrid Chamma , Olivier Thoumine ... A cellular model for sporadic ALS using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells Matthew F. Burkhardt , Fernando J. ...
The neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM simultaneously combines with another N-CAM and a fibroblast growth factor receptor to ... A neurite or neuronal process refers to any projection from the cell body of a neuron. This projection can be either an axon or ... Berezin, Vladimir (2009-12-17). Structure and Function of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NCAM. Springer Science & Business ... a protein in brain that induces the collapse and paralysis of neuronal growth cones". Cell. 75 (2): 217-227. doi:10.1016/0092- ...
  • To study a possible role of the YRSLE sequence in L1 sorting, chick DRG neurons were transfected with human L1 cDNA that codes for full-length L1 (L1 FL ), a non-neuronal form of L1 that lacks the RSLE sequence (L1 ΔRSLE ), mutant L1 with a Y1176A substitution (L1 Y1176A ), or L1 truncated immediately after the RSLE sequence (L1 ΔC77 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Cellular prion protein (PrP) is prominently expressed in brain, in differentiated neurons but also in neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Neurons contact their neighbors through a diverse array of cell adhesion and other surface molecules. (elsevier.com)
  • These molecules can exhibit highly regulated patterns of expression, underscoring their multiple roles in establishing specific interactions between neurons and their environment. (elsevier.com)
  • Previous studies in this laboratory have led to the identification of the neural cell adhesion molecule, N-CAM, a homophilic ligand that mediates adhesion between neurons as well as between neurons and striated muscle precursors. (scripps.edu)
  • By means of a similar immunological approach but with different assays, we have now identified a cell adhesion molecule on neurons (Ng-CAM) that mediates the heterotypic adhesion between neuronal membranes and glial cells. (scripps.edu)
  • We show here that the cell adhesion molecule Transient Axonal Glycoprotein (Tag1) is necessary for the migration of the facial branchiomotor neurons (FBMNs) in the zebrafish hindbrain. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, the cocapping of axonin-1 upon antibody-induced capping of NgCAM on the surface of CV-1 cells coexpressing NgCAM and axonin-1 and the selective chemical cross-linking of the two molecules in low density cultures of dorsal root ganglia neurons indicated a specific and direct binding of axonin-1 and Ng-CAM in the plane of the same membrane. (scripps.edu)
  • Accordingly, index cell clusters identified rare populations, such as reelin ( Reln )-positive Cajal-Retzius neurons, for which we report previously unrecognized heterogeneity associated with distinct differentiation stages, spatial organization, and cellular function. (nih.gov)
  • Different biointerfacial configurations of the human neural cell adhesion molecule L1 were established on two-dimensional films and three-dimensional fibrous scaffolds of synthetic tyrosine-derived polycarbonate polymers and probed for surface concentrations, microscale organization, and effects on cultured primary neurons and neural stem cells. (springeropen.com)
  • In co-cultures of cortical neurons and NSC-34 cells overexpressing NEGR1, neurite growth of cortical neurons was enhanced and distal axons occupied an increased area of cells overexpressing NEGR1. (frontiersin.org)
  • The term is frequently used when speaking of immature or developing neurons, especially of cells in culture , because it can be difficult to tell axons from dendrites before differentiation is complete. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are highly 'plastic', changing the way they transmit information between neurons in response to specific patterns of neuronal activity. (iit.it)
  • Effects of inhibitory molecules on axonal regeneration of CNS and PNS neurons depends on their developmental stage. (europa.eu)
  • They have also shown that PSA-NCAM is required for activity-induced synaptic plasticity and that it can be externalized on the cell surface of neurons by regulated exocytosis. (europa.eu)
  • In addition, they were able to co-immunoprecipitate a tyrosine kinase activity associated with F3 both in aggregated transfected cells and cerebellar neurons, reinforcing the observation that tyrosine kinases are involved in signalling following F3-mediated adhesion. (europa.eu)
  • Using P31 expressing glial cells, engineered by laboratory 1, it has shown that such cells used as a substrate monolayer prevented neurite regeneration of postnatal and adult sensory neurons and retinal ganglion cells but not neurite outgrowth of embryonic neurons. (europa.eu)
  • Contactin mRNA is detectable by in situ hybridization in subsets of neurons in the brain , primary sensory neurons in the spinal cord , and cells along the trigeminal nerves of tailbud embryos. (xenbase.org)
  • Most prominently, cell bodies and peripheral and spinal axons of primary sensory neurons, Rohon-Beard (RB) cells, are strongly contactin positive. (xenbase.org)
  • Injection of the contactin overexpression vector into one blastomere of two-cell stage embryos leads to misdirected elongation of the peripheral axons of RB neurons in the injected half. (xenbase.org)
  • Using cultured primary neurons, we show that specific sulfation in the GAG chains of chondroitin sulfate mediates neuronal guidance cues and axonal growth inhibition. (biologists.org)
  • The cell bodies of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons that are preferentially dying in PD patients are located in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta (cell bodies in the midbrain labeled in blue). (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Addiction affects dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) mainly innervate the ventral striatum, cortex, amygdala and olfactory tubercle compacta (cell bodies in the midbrain labeled in red). (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Having a biomarker for immature stem cells could make it possible to isolate neural stem cells from the adult inner ear in a person with hearing loss, induce their replication and maturation in the laboratory, and then re-introduce them back into the inner ear as functioning neurons. (prweb.com)
  • The article is titled "Expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecules on adult stem cells after neuronal differentiation of inner ear spiral ganglion neurons. (prweb.com)
  • Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) are responsible for action potentials in electrically excitable cells, including neurons and muscle cells. (york.ac.uk)
  • We will use a range of sophisticated ensemble and single-molecule microscopy approaches, e.g. confocal microscopy, TIRF microscopy, FRAP to explore the stoichiometry and cycling of b1 subunits, in neurons and breast cancer cells. (york.ac.uk)
  • It is characterized by a rather selective loss of motor neurons and supporting cells in the brain and spinal cord, resulting in progressive muscle wasting, paresis, and inevitably death from paralysis of the respiratory muscles. (arvojournals.org)
  • NF-κB exerted this effect during a restricted period of development following the phase of naturally occurring neuronal death when the processes and connections of the remaining neurons are extensively modified and refined. (biologists.org)
  • During neocortical development, many neuronally differentiating cells (neurons and intermediate progenitor cells) are generated at the apical/ventricular surface by the division of neural progenitor cells (apical radial glial cells, aRGs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Both soluble and membranous forms promote neurite outgrowth of cerebellar and hippocampal neurons and suppress neuronal cell death. (uniprot.org)
  • Plays a role in neuronal positioning of pyramidal neurons as well as in regulation of both the number of interneurons and the efficacy of GABAergic synapses. (uniprot.org)
  • Such neurons are born from stem-like cells at the bottom of the neocortex, where it wraps around a large, fluid-filled space in the brain called ventricle. (redorbit.com)
  • The newborn neurons then migrate upward, or radially away from the ventricle, being directed to their proper places in the neocortex's six-layered, columnar structure byâ among othersâ special guide cells called Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. (redorbit.com)
  • Decades ago, scientists discovered a key signaling protein, reelin, which CR cells secrete and baby neocortical neurons must detect to migrate properly. (redorbit.com)
  • There have been hints since then that CR cells and baby neocortical neurons exchange other molecular signals, too. (redorbit.com)
  • Reelin, they discovered, guides neuronal migration at least in part by boosting baby neurons' expression of a generic cell-adhesion molecule, cadherin2 (Cdh2). (redorbit.com)
  • Since Cdh2 can be expressed by almost any cell type in the developing neocortex, the team then began to look for other factors that would account for the specificity of the interaction between CR cells and migrating baby neurons. (redorbit.com)
  • We observed that nectin1 is expressed specifically by CR cells and nectin3 by migrating neurons," said Gil-Sanz. (redorbit.com)
  • Gil-Sanz and her colleagues followed up with other experiments and soon confirmed that the hookup of nectin1 on CR cells with nectin3 on baby neurons is essential for proper neuronal migration. (redorbit.com)
  • This showed for the first time the importance of direct contacts between CR cells and migrating neurons," Gil-Sanz said. (redorbit.com)
  • This helps explain how the interaction occurs specifically between neurons and CR cells, and doesn't involve other nearby cells that also express Cdh2," she said. (redorbit.com)
  • Studies like ours provide insight into such findings, by showing that these molecules, in cooperation with nectins, regulate key developmental processes such as the positioning of neurons in the neocortex," said Mueller. (redorbit.com)
  • Traditionally, scientists thought that star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes were steady, quiet supporters of their talkative, wire-like neighbors, called neurons. (nih.gov)
  • The expression of ICAM-5 is confined to the telencephalic neurons of the central nervous system whereas all the other ICAM members are expressed mostly by cells in the immune and blood systems. (hindawi.com)
  • In these studies we utilize we use biochemical, molecular, and cell biological methods to characterize the role of these proteins in signal transduction pathways in striatal neurons. (yale.edu)
  • While CDK5 shares high sequence homology with its family members, it is thought mainly to function in postmitotic neurons, regulating the cytoarchitecture of these cells. (cellsignal.com)
  • In combination with several established studies by Sakano and Yoshihara's group, my study further supports the neural identity model and provides a regulatory mechanism involving MeCP2 in the establishment and maintenance of this combinatory cell adhesion molecule expression in the olfactory sensory neurons. (ukessays.com)
  • Neuronal activity results in long term changes in neurons by regulating gene expression. (ukessays.com)
  • Recent findings have focused attention on amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) as a key element in the pathogenicity of cell stress and, ultimately, cytotoxicity to neurons and the vasculature in Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular amyloid angiopathy. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • NrCAM is engaged in such biological processes as axonal fasciculation, cell-cell adhesion, central nervous system development, clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels, neuron migration, positive regulation of neuron differentiation, regulation of axon extension, and synaptogenesis. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Analysis of the migration of SVZ cells in microexplant cultures from wild-type and PrP-/- mice revealed no differences between genotypes or a role for NCAM in this process. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This gene is also expressed in non-neural tissues and may play a general role in cell-cell communication via signaling from its intracellular domain to the actin cytoskeleton during directional cell migration. (genecards.org)
  • The cell adhesion molecule Tag1, transmembrane protein Stbm/Vangl2, and Lamininalpha1 exhibit genetic interactions during migration of facial branc. (nih.gov)
  • Interactions between a neuron and its environment play a major role in neuronal migration. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore to its physiological function in nervous program advancement, L1 may also promote various other cellular actions by getting together with various other CAMs, extracellular 162808-62-0 manufacture matrix substances, and cell surface area receptors, straight and indirectly regulating cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and invasion [8-10]. (pyr-41.com)
  • Here we show that brain-selective deletion of dystroglycan in mice is sufficient to cause CMD-like brain malformations, including disarray of cerebral cortical layering, fusion of cerebral hemispheres and cerebellar folia, and aberrant migration of granule cells. (nature.com)
  • Dystroglycan-null brain loses its high-affinity binding to the extracellular matrix protein laminin, and shows discontinuities in the pial surface basal lamina (glia limitans) that probably underlie the neuronal migration errors. (nature.com)
  • Muscular dystrophy and neuronal migration disorder caused by mutations in a glycosyltransferase, POMGnT1. (nature.com)
  • PSA-NCAM, a unique permissive element for cell plasticity is involved in cell migration and required for activity-induced synaptic plasticity. (europa.eu)
  • Together with laboratory 4 they have shown, using post-hypophysial tissue explants as a model, that PSA-NCAM is necessary for the migration of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, a population of cells particularly motile in vivo, and that PSA expression is controlled by NMDA receptor activation. (europa.eu)
  • In addition, FIGQY-phosphorylated L1 CAMs are abundantly expressed in regions of neuronal migration and axon extension, including the embryonic cortex, the neonatal cerebellum and the rostral migratory stream, a region of continued neurogenesis and migration throughout adulthood in the rat. (biologists.org)
  • During development cell surface proteins allow to communicate with the surrounding cells and the extracellular matrix for proper proliferation, migration, differentiation and contact formation in the complex network. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • L1-deficient DCs were impaired in adhesion to and transmigration through monolayers of either lymphatic or blood vessel endothelial cells, implicating L1 in transendothelial migration of DCs. (rupress.org)
  • Within the skin, L1 was found in Langerhans cells but not in dermal DCs, and L1 deficiency impaired Langerhans cell migration. (rupress.org)
  • L1 has long been characterized as a cell recognition molecule within the nervous system, where it is involved in neurite fasciculation, synaptogenesis, axonal growth and path finding, and cell migration. (rupress.org)
  • The migration of DCs into and out of tissues depends on a cascade of discrete events including the induction of chemokines, the activation of chemokine receptors, and the regulation of adhesion molecules. (rupress.org)
  • L1-deficient DCs derived from these mice were impaired in both adhesion to the endothelium and in transendothelial migration. (rupress.org)
  • The distribution of tenascin coincides with pathways of neural crest cell migration. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cell recognition molecule L1 (L1) plays an important role in cancer cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and survival, but its mechanism remains unclear. (medsci.org)
  • Our previous study has demonstrated that L1 enhanced cell survival and migration in neural cells by regulating cell surface glycosylation. (medsci.org)
  • In the present study, we show that L1 affected cell migration and survival in CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cell line by modulation of sialylation and fucosylation at the cell surface via the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and Erk (extracellularsignal-regulated kinase) signaling pathways. (medsci.org)
  • Furthermore, activated L1 promoted CHO cells migration and survival as shown by transwell assay and MTT assay. (medsci.org)
  • Inhibitors of sialylation and fucosylation blocked L1-induced cell migration and survival, while decreasing FUT9 and ST6Gal1 expressions via the PI3K-dependent and Erk-dependent signaling pathways. (medsci.org)
  • L1 modulated cell migration and survival by regulation of cell surface sialylation and fucosylation via the PI3K-dependent and Erk-dependent signaling pathways. (medsci.org)
  • L1 promotes cell survival, migration and axon guidance in the nervous system [ 8 ]. (medsci.org)
  • In particular, the b1 subunit regulates action potential firing, neurite outgrowth and neuronal migration during central nervous system development. (york.ac.uk)
  • Interestingly, b1 is also expressed in breast cancer cells, where it regulates cellular migration, invasion and metastasis. (york.ac.uk)
  • The aim of this project is to test the hypothesis that b1 subunits are cleaved by secretases and that this regulates adhesion, neurite outgrowth, cellular migration and electrical activity. (york.ac.uk)
  • Importantly, we will study the effect of proteolytic processing on cellular migration and channel function using cell migration assays and whole cell patch clamp electrophysiological recording. (york.ac.uk)
  • Neurogenic cell delamination, in which these neuronally differentiating cells retract their apical processes and depart from the apical surface, is the first step of their migration. (frontiersin.org)
  • Along with the progression of the cell cycle, aRGs undergo interkinetic nuclear migration (INM) in the ventricular zone (VZ) and divide at the apical surface ( Figure 1B ) to generate cells that differentiate to become an ordered series of neuron types. (frontiersin.org)
  • When the daughter cell is a neuron, this delamination is the first step of neuronal migration, by which the daughter cells escape from the influence of extracellular cues at the apical side of the VZ. (frontiersin.org)
  • May play a role in regulating cell migration in nerve regeneration and cortical development. (uniprot.org)
  • Potentiates integrin-dependent cell migration towards extracellular matrix proteins. (uniprot.org)
  • The new study represents a big step toward the full scientific understanding of neuronal migration in the neocortex, and it is likely to be relevant to the study of developmental brain diseases too. (redorbit.com)
  • Linear stability analysis indicates that the formation of aster-like and banding patterns in these tissues is controlled by a composite ``morphotaxis'' parameter which encapsulates the influence of inhomogeneities in cell shape on collective cell migration and vice versa. (aps.org)
  • Regulation of Cerebral Cortex Folding by Controlling Neuronal Migration via FLRT Adhesion Molecules. (mpg.de)
  • A large body of work has shown that polySia affects neuronal functions as varied as migration ( 8 , 9 ), cytokine response ( 9 , 10 ), and cell contact-dependent differentiation ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • NrCAM is a cell surface protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, L1/neurofascin/NgCAM subgroup. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (genecards.org)
  • L1CAM is normally an extremely conserved transmembrane glycoprotein from the immunoglobulin superfamily that has an important function in cell adhesion and motility through the advancement and regeneration of neuronal tissues [7]. (pyr-41.com)
  • Neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR1), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule subgroup IgLON, has been implicated in neuronal growth and connectivity. (frontiersin.org)
  • A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. (harvard.edu)
  • This gene is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules (Ig-CAMs), and is involved in human central and peripheral nervous system development. (nih.gov)
  • This review provides a brief description of five families of CAMs (cadherins, integrins, CD44, immunoglobulin superfamily, and selectins) and highlights their altered expression in relation both to prognosis and tumour behaviour in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus. (bmj.com)
  • L1 is a type of transmembrane cell adhesion glycoprotein which belongs to a large immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules and mediates interactions between cells [ 7 ]. (medsci.org)
  • The immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) comprises over 100 members are in vertebrates and most of its members expressed at the cell surface. (hindawi.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, and contactin family, which mediate cell surface interactions during nervous system development. (senescence.info)
  • Although PrP has been reported to associate with the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), the consequences of concerted PrP-NCAM action in NPC physiology are unknown. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Moreover, we found that PrP is required for the NPC response to NCAM-induced neuronal differentiation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the absence of PrP, NCAM not only fails to promote neuronal differentiation but also induces an accumulation of doublecortin-positive neuronal progenitors at the proliferation stage. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our data demonstrate that PrP plays a critical role in neuronal differentiation of NPCs and suggest that this function is, at least in part, NCAM-dependent. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The crystal structure of the immunoglobulin (Ig) 1-2-3 fragment of the NCAM ectodomain has revealed novel mechanisms for NCAM homophilic adhesion. (epfl.ch)
  • Although the two dennexin peptides differed in amino acid sequence, they both modulated cell adhesion, reflected by inhibition of NCAM-mediated neurite outgrowth. (epfl.ch)
  • Consistent with the effect of dennexinA on NCAM-mediated adhesion in vitro, the peptide impaired long-term memory retention in rats in the Morris water maze test. (epfl.ch)
  • Laboratory 1 has chosen to work on the NCAM and F3 adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin super-family which are known to play a role in axonal growth during development. (europa.eu)
  • We previously demonstrated that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays an important role in supporting the survival of injured retinal ganglion cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • In the current study, we used light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD) as a model to investigate whether NCAM plays a functional role in neuroprotection and whether NCAM influences p75 NTR signaling in modulating retinal cell survival. (arvojournals.org)
  • 3 The cleavage of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) has been shown to be involved in cortical neuronal death under oxidative stress, 4 and previous results from our laboratory have demonstrated that NCAM is important in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and age-related deterioration in vision. (arvojournals.org)
  • My research group focuses on investigating the cross-talk and function of the glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptors, such as the receptor tyrosine kinase Ret, the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), integrins, N-cadherins, and syndecan 3 in the midbrain dopaminergic system altered in PD patients and drug addicts and in motoneurons innervating the skeletal muscles. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • GDNF can also activate alternative GDNF receptors, such as the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • But when an NCAM becomes modified with polysialic acid (becomes "polysialylated"), the cells gain the ability to migrate to new areas. (prweb.com)
  • Although it was already well known that cells expressing polySia-NCAM exist in the central nervous system, this study is the first to document that they are also in the peripheral nervous system, specifically in the spiral ganglia, groups of nerve cells located in the inner ear that are essential to hearing. (prweb.com)
  • Working with adult cells isolated from the inner ear spiral ganglia of guinea pigs, Troy's team was able to show that they expressed both polySia and NCAM. (prweb.com)
  • The polySia component was abundantly present on neural stem cells but markedly reduced on mature cells, implicating the polySia-NCAM complex as being present on immature cells and able to serve as a biomarker to identify these cells. (prweb.com)
  • Finding polySia-NCAM - a functional biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation - on adult inner ear neural stem cells after differentiation gives researchers a 'handle' to identify and isolate these cells from among the many cells taken from a patient," said Jan Nolta, director of the UC Davis Stem Cell Program and the university's Institute for Regenerative Cures. (prweb.com)
  • The neuronal cell adhesion molecules NCAM and Neuroligin-2 link stress vulnerability and social behavior. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Polysialic acid (polySia) is a large glycan with restricted expression, typically found attached to the protein scaffold neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). (jimmunol.org)
  • Specifically, we found that human NK cells modulate expression of NCAM and the degree of polymerization of its polySia glycans according to activation state. (jimmunol.org)
  • This contrasts with the mouse, where polySia and NCAM expression are restricted to multipotent hematopoietic progenitors and cells developing along a myeloid lineage. (jimmunol.org)
  • Aside from autopolysialylation of the ST8Sia IV and ST8Sia II enzymes, only four other protein carriers have been identified: the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM, also termed CD56), the α-subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, CD36, and neuropilin ( 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The molecule is 200-220kDa transmembrane protein, which contains 5 fibronectin type-III domains, 6 Ig-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domains in the extracellular region and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Functional cross-talk between the cellular prion protein and the neural cell adhesion molecule is critical for neuronal differentiation of neural stem/precursor cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This ankyrin-binding protein is involved in neuron-neuron adhesion and promotes directional signaling during axonal cone growth. (genecards.org)
  • NRCAM (Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include ankyrin binding and protein binding involved in heterotypic cell-cell adhesion . (genecards.org)
  • Cell adhesion protein that is required for normal responses to cell-cell contacts in brain and in the peripheral nervous system. (genecards.org)
  • Cultures of human neural progenitor cells screened on the L1-Fc/polymer biointerfaces showed significantly enhanced neuronal differentiation and neuritogenesis on all protein A oriented substrates. (springeropen.com)
  • Notably, the highest degree of βIII-tubulin expression for cells in 3-D fibrous scaffolds were observed in protein A oriented substrates with PDL pretreatment, suggesting combined effects of cell attachment to polycationic charged substrates with subcellular topography along with L1-mediated adhesion mediating neuronal differentiation. (springeropen.com)
  • Cell adhesion, ankyrin-binding protein involved in neuron-neuron adhesion. (abcam.com)
  • Detailed understanding of pathways that integrate cell adhesion and signaling will ultimately require knowledge of the specific amino acid residue(s) subject to phosphorylation, as well as the precise cellular localization of the relevant regulatory signals, protein kinases, protein phosphatases and adapter proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Cell adhesion molecule 1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CADM1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alterations in cell surface protein signalling have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as motor neuron diseases, PD and Alzheimer disease (AD) but also in diseases such depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • So far our knowledge about neuronal cell surface protein interaction, signalling and their physiological function is still limited. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • During development, certain glycoproteins (carbohydrate-protein linked molecules) that are expressed on cell surfaces serve critical functions essential to the normal growth and organization of the brain. (prweb.com)
  • The landscape of the cell surface of developing cells is decorated with a bewildering array of informational-rich sugar-protein molecules of which polysialylated NCAMs are of chief importance," explained Troy. (prweb.com)
  • Activated L1 upregulated the protein expressions of ST6Gal1 (β-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase 1) and FUT9 (Fucosyltransferase 9) in CHO cells. (medsci.org)
  • Recently, we have demonstrated that L1 upregulated the protein expressions of ST3Gal4 and FUT9 via activation of the PLCɣ (Phospholipase Cγ) pathway, which increased cell surface sialylation and fucosylation [ 14 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Recent advances have added molecules to the latter category: the interphase centrosome protein AKNA affects microtubule dynamics to destabilize the microtubule-actin-AJ complex, and the microtubule-associated protein Lzts1 inhibits microtubule assembly and activates actomyosin systems at the apical endfeet of differentiating cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Extracellular matrix and cell adhesion protein that plays a role in nervous system development and in synaptic plasticity. (uniprot.org)
  • An important component of our research is the development of biochemical methods to interrogate alterations in protein expression and regulation in specific neuronal cell types using novel proteomic approaches. (yale.edu)
  • 1991) The candidate gene for the X‐linked Kallmann syndrome encodes a protein related to adhesion molecules. (els.net)
  • We recently reported a novel neurological syndrome characterized by a unique NREM and REM parasomnia with sleep apnea and stridor, accompanied by bulbar dysfunction and specific association with antibodies against the neuronal cell-adhesion protein IgLON5. (springer.com)
  • It is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored neuronal membrane protein that functions as a cell adhesion molecule. (origene.com)
  • Inside our seek out potential molecular markers of endometriosis, we previously discovered the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM, Compact disc171) being a differentially portrayed mRNA and proteins in endometriotic lesions [5] and demonstrated it facilitates endometriotic cell development, success, motility and invasiveness, in addition to neurite outgrowth [6]. (pyr-41.com)
  • Coating the surface of every cell in the body are specialized proteins, called receptors, that have the capability of selectively binding or adhering to other "signaling" molecules. (nih.gov)
  • There are many cross-talks of different cell surface proteins on neuronal membranes which even can be different concerning their localization in axons, dendrites, synapses and other specialized membrane structures. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Substrate adhesion molecules (SAMs) are proteins that attach cells to specific compounds in the extracellular matrix (a process known as cell adhesion). (wikipedia.org)
  • Distinct proteins known as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) mediate these interactions. (bmj.com)
  • One set of candidates were the nectinsâ cell-adhesion proteins known to work with cadherins in other contexts. (redorbit.com)
  • We know that there are four nectin proteins, plus a slew of nectin-like molecules," said Mueller. (redorbit.com)
  • ICAM-5 (intercellular adhesion molecule-5, telencephalin, TLN) is a member of the ICAM family of adhesion proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • Askew earned his PhD in neuroscience at the University of Virginia and Harvard University while studying the physiology of sensory hair cells in the inner ear, proteins involved in hair cell mechanotransduction, and restoration of mechanotransduction using gene therapy. (american-hearing.org)
  • These same adhesion proteins and proteases play critical roles in axonal growth and synaptogenesis including processes induced by seizure in adult brain. (springer.com)
  • They also specifically compared the function of neuronal channel proteins in both the edited and the unedited versions. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Mice heterozygous for this ENU-induced ( Lpin1 20884 Nrcam 20884 ) mutation possess a missense mutation in the phosphatidate phosphatase gene Lpin1 and a nonsense mutation in the neural cell adhesion molecule gene Nrcam . (jax.org)
  • These double mutant mice possess a missense mutation in the phosphatidate phosphatase gene, Lpin1 , and a nonsense mutation in the neural cell adhesion molecule gene, Nrcam . (jax.org)
  • Using a candidate gene approach two mutations were identified: the phosphatidate phosphatase gene, Lipin1 ( Lpin1 ), and the neural cell adhesion molecule, neuron-glia-CAM-related cell adhesion molecule ( Nrcam ) gene. (jax.org)
  • L1 FL and L1 ΔC77 , both of which possess the YRSLE sequence, were expressed in the axonal growth cone and to a lesser degree in the cell body. (jneurosci.org)
  • These data demonstrate that the neuronal form of L1 carries the tyrosine-based sorting signal YRSLE, which is critical for sorting L1 to the axonal growth cone. (jneurosci.org)
  • A number of processes are thought to contribute to the development of epilepsy including enduring increases in excitatory synaptic transmission, changes in GABAergic inhibition, neuronal cell death and the development of aberrant innervation patterns in part arising from reactive axonal growth. (springer.com)
  • F3 is a 135 kDa neuronal cell surface adhesive glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin supergene family (IgSF) which mediates heterophilic contact formation among neural cells and is involved in the control of neurite growth. (nih.gov)
  • D2 is a membrane glycoprotein that is believed to function as a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) in neural cells. (rupress.org)
  • Background/Aims The neural cell adhesion molecule L1CAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein abnormally expressed in tumors and previously connected with cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion, in addition to neurite outgrowth in endometriosis. (pyr-41.com)
  • L1 (also known as L1CAM or CD171) is a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the Ig superfamily of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs [Ig-CAMs]), which mediate calcium-independent cell-cell adhesion. (rupress.org)
  • Researchers at UC Davis School of Medicine have for the first time shown that a polysialylated glycoprotein that regulates neurodevelopment exists on the surface of cells in the adult inner ear. (prweb.com)
  • Recent studies are beginning to ask how these membrane-bound neural recognition molecules interact with each other and intracellular signaling pathways within an individual neuronal growth cone, and direct the formation of neural connections during development. (elsevier.com)
  • As a result, novel healing 162808-62-0 manufacture strategies have already been lately investigated generally concentrating on the modulation of mobile pathways involved with cell development, invasion and angiogenesis [4]. (pyr-41.com)
  • The bond of L1CAM with several cellular pathways and its own cell surface area localization makes it a fascinating focus on for the monoclonal antibody-based therapy. (pyr-41.com)
  • Activation of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchored neuronal adhesion molecules leads to triggering of intracellular second messenger pathways. (europa.eu)
  • They identified several genes encoding neuronal cell-adhesion molecules and several genes within or surrounding genes involved in the ubiquitin pathways. (doctorslounge.com)
  • Contactin genes CNTN5 and CNTN6 code for neuronal cell adhesion molecules that promote neurite outgrowth in sensory-motor neuronal pathways. (gu.se)
  • In a previous study, we have demonstrated that the upregulation of cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1) in neural cells increased the expressions of sialic acid and fucose on the cell surface, which subsequently, enhanced cell survival [ 3 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Characterization of the 5' and promoter regions of the gene encoding the mouse neuronal cell adhesion molecule F3. (nih.gov)
  • F3 expression is regulated, during critical developmental periods, on neuronal subpopulations thus suggesting that control of F3 gene expression could be of morphogenetic relevance. (nih.gov)
  • The study of F3 gene exon/intron organization revealed that, like other neural IgSF molecules, each of the first two F3 C2 domains is encoded by two exons while the N-terminus, the signal peptide and the 5' untranslated region are each encoded by distinct exons. (nih.gov)
  • A single transcription start site was identified, surrounded by a short 114 bp sequence able to direct reporter gene expression in both F3-expressing and -non-expressing cells. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes a neuronal cell adhesion molecule with multiple immunoglobulin-like C2-type domains and fibronectin type-III domains. (genecards.org)
  • We evaluated the performance of bigSCale using both a biological model of aberrant gene expression in patient-derived neuronal progenitor cells and simulated data sets, which underlines the speed and accuracy in differential expression analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Although the adipogenic lineage-specific marker gene FABP4 was also expressed in micromass cultures, Oil Red O-positive cells along with PPARγ2 transcripts were only detected in C3H10T1/2-derived micromass cultures. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, our results from neuronal growth assays, neuroanatomical analyses and behavioral assessments provide first evidence that deficiency of the psychiatric disease-associated Negr1 gene may affect neuronal growth and behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although these variants may be individually rare, they target genes involved in neuronal cell-adhesion or ubiquitin degradation, indicating that these two important gene networks expressed within the central nervous system may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of autism spectrum disorders," Glessner and colleagues write. (doctorslounge.com)
  • Understanding the basic regulatory mechanisms that control cell phenotype, function and fate with the emphasis on events at the level of gene transcription. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • With studies such as this one, we're starting to understand the normal functions of molecules whose disruption by gene mutations can cause developmental brain disorders," Mueller said. (redorbit.com)
  • 1991) A gene deleted in Kallmann's syndrome shares homology with neural cell adhesion and axonal path‐finding molecules. (els.net)
  • Even though regulation of cell adhesion molecule expression is important for the formation of olfactory axonal converge into glomeruli, the regulatory mechanism of gene expression is undetermined. (ukessays.com)
  • The goal of this research is to develop gene delivery vectors that robustly target cell populations within the inner ear. (american-hearing.org)
  • Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. (rush.edu)
  • Neuronal circuits that ultimately produce coordinated dorso-ventral sinusoidal bends mediate this behavior. (genetics.org)
  • Sulfated glycosaminoglycans mediate the effects of FGF2 on the osteogenic potential of rat calvarial osteoprogenitor cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • Mediate adhesion with fibronectin, two integrins, α 5 β 1 and α v β 3 , which is present in the extracellular matrix. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Exosomes mediate cell contact-independent ephrin-Eph signaling during axon guidance. (mpg.de)
  • Growth cones express various cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that recognize localized guidance cues present on neighboring cells or in the extracellular matrix and translate them into a directed axonal extension ( Tessier-Lavigne and Goodman, 1996 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Fibroblasts are cells that synthesize the extracellular matrix and collagen and play a critical role in wound healing and maintenance of healthy skin. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Some of the amino acids in the SAM bind to components of the extracellular matrix, while others bind to integrins on the surface of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enables external activity in the extracellular matrix to affect the shape and movement of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polysialic acid has been considered as a repulsive element that regulates intermolecular and intercellular adhesion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Based on our results, physiological FIGQY-tyrosine phosphorylation of the L1 family likely regulates adhesion molecule-ankyrin interactions establishing ankyrin-free and ankyrin-containing microdomains and participates in an ankyrin-independent intracellular signaling pathway at specialized sites of intercellular contact in epithelial and nervous tissue. (biologists.org)
  • Leptin signaling in atsrocytes regulates hypothalamic neuronal circuits and feeding. (yale.edu)
  • Heparan sulfate regulates the anabolic activity of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells by induction of Runx2. (umassmed.edu)
  • It also operates as a receptor for several different neuronal recognition molecules. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Based on these and previous results, which implicated NgCAM as the neuronal receptor involved in neurite outgrowth on NgCAM substratum, we concluded that neurite outgrowth on an NgCAM substratum depends on two essential interactions of growth cone NgCAM: a trans-interaction with substratum NgCAM and a cis-interaction with axonin-1 residing in the same growth cone membrane. (scripps.edu)
  • The neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM simultaneously combines with another N-CAM and a fibroblast growth factor receptor to stimulate the tyrosine kinase activity of that receptor to induce the growth of neurites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerebellar Purkinje cell p75 neurotrophin receptor and autistic behavior. (rochester.edu)
  • For example, a cell that has the receptor stem cell antigen -1, on its surface, is identified as Sca-1. (nih.gov)
  • Described here are two approaches of how researchers use the combination of the chemical properties of fluorescence and unique receptor patterns on cell surfaces to identify specific populations of stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • To date, however, no cell-surface receptor capable of mediating APPsα-induced signaling has been identified. (biologists.org)
  • The four members of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family of ligands, which include GDNF, neurturin, artemin, and persephin, are homodimers which bind with high affinity to one of the four members of the GDNF receptor α family (GFRα1-4). (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Expression of the FGF receptor (FGF-R) was significantly reduced in n-ALD cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • They could also alter receptor localization at the membrane or cause receptor internalization, thus reducing cell surface expression of receptors 7 . (scielo.br)
  • Activation of the NMDA receptor or opening of the ion channel allows flow of Na+ and Ca2+ ions into the cell, and K+ out of the cell (1). (cellsignal.com)
  • Ligands that bind the Ret receptor include the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its congeners neurturin, persephin, and artemin (2-4). (cellsignal.com)
  • Dissection of Forebrain Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor 1 Signaling in Stress-Induced Cognitive Deficits -- The Role of Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecules. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity of granule cell spiking in the dentate gyrus of normal and epileptic rats. (springer.com)
  • The Activating NKG2C Receptor Is Significantly Reduced in NK Cells after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Severe Graft-versus-Host Disease. (stembook.org)
  • Activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor by Tranilast, an anti-allergy drug,promotes miR-302 expression and cell reprogramming. (stembook.org)
  • Tiam-Rac signaling mediates trans-endocytosis of ephrin receptor EphB2 and is important for cell repulsion. (mpg.de)
  • The formation of filament bundles is a novel and unexpected property of polysialic acid and of short carbohydrate oligomers in general and represents a previously unrecognized molecular interaction mechanism which impacts both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell-cell adhesions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As postdoctoral fellow, he joined the laboratory of Dr. Yukiko Goda at the MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology (University College London), where he studied the relationship between synaptic structure and function, uncovering the role of cell adhesion molecules in homeostatic synaptic plasticity. (iit.it)
  • Therefore, we use diverse experimental approaches such as molecular biological techniques, cell culture, mouse genetics, histology, as well as behavioural and physiological experiments. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Molecular embryology: how molecules give birth to animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their specific interests cover a broad range of neuroscience research including molecular biophysics, synapses and circuits, neuronal development, integrative neuroscience, brain imaging, neurological disorders and stroke. (nih.gov)
  • Prof. José Antonio del Río, leader of the Molecular and Cellular Neurobiotechnology research line at IBEC, has participated in a study on neural regeneration published in the journal Chemistry and Biology of the Cell group. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • In any biological process, multiple interactions occurring at the molecular level make it impossible to observe live cells in real time, because light microscopes cannot focus light at scales of less than 350 nanometres. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Un equip internacional d'investigadors liderat per Eduard Torrents de l'Intitut de Bioenginyeria de Catalunya (IBEC), ubicat al Parc Científic de Barcelona, i Britt-Marie Sjöberg del Departament de Biologia Molecular i Genòmica Funcional de la Universitat d'Estocolm, en col·laboració amb científics de la Universitat de Western Ontario de Canadà, ha descobert com la síntesi d'algunes molècules precursores del DNA podria haver-se desenvolupat al llarg de l'evolució. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • The in vitro differentiation of ES cells provides new perspectives for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms of early development and the generation of donor cells for transplantation therapies. (google.es)
  • These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. (rush.edu)
  • Adhesion molecule that promotes lamina-specific synaptic connections in the retina: expressed in specific subsets of interneurons and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and promotes synaptic connectivity via homophilic interactions (By similarity). (nih.gov)
  • L1-dependent cell-cell adhesion is mediated by the homophilic binding between L1 molecules located on adjacent cells. (rupress.org)
  • The goal of this project is to provide mechanistic insights on how the interplay between cell adhesion molecules (integrins) and glutamate receptors alters key neuronal circuits in autism. (iit.it)
  • There are many different types of receptors that differ in their structure and affinity for the signaling molecules. (nih.gov)
  • Normally, cells use these receptors and the molecules that bind to them as a way of communicating with other cells and to carry out their proper functions in the body. (nih.gov)
  • These same cell surface receptors are the stem cell markers. (nih.gov)
  • Each cell type, for example a liver cell, has a certain combination of receptors on their surface that makes them distinguishable from other kinds of cells. (nih.gov)
  • Scientists have taken advantage of the biological uniqueness of stem cell receptors and chemical properties of certain compounds to tag or "mark" cells. (nih.gov)
  • Stem cell markers are given short-hand names based on the molecules that bind to the stem cell surface receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers use the signaling molecules that selectively adhere to the receptors on the surface of the cell as a tool that allows them to identify stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • They may have agonistic or antagonistic effects on the receptors, block ion channel pores or disrupt the interaction with neighboring molecules. (scielo.br)
  • Recent findings indicate that adhesion chemistries and, most particularly, activities of integrin class adhesion receptors play roles in each of these processes and thereby are likely to contribute significantly to the cell biology underlying epileptogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Super-complexes of adhesion GPCRs and neural guidance receptors. (mpg.de)
  • Thus, our data indicate that the neuronal D2-CAM glycoproteins are derived from two mRNAs. (rupress.org)
  • The axonal surface glycoproteins neuronglia cell adhesion molecule (NgCAM) and axonin-1 promote cell-cell adhesion, neurite outgrowth and fasciculation, and are involved in growth cone guidance. (scripps.edu)
  • One member of the class of cell-surface glycoproteins is an unusual molecule called polysialic acid (polySia). (prweb.com)
  • The predominant carriers of polySia in the brain are neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs), which are glycoproteins expressed on neuronal cell surfaces. (prweb.com)
  • Metastatic cancer cells usually express high density of sialic acid-rich glycoproteins on cell surfaces and help cancer cells enter the circulatory system [ 1 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Fucosylation of glycoproteins modulates the biological functions of adhesion molecules and plays an important role in cell survival and metastasis [ 6 ]. (medsci.org)
  • CHO cell line was derived from the Chinese hamster ovary and can provide a high expression of recombinant glycoproteins which are equipped with a glycosylation mechanism very similar to that found in humans [ 15 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Sialic acid occupies the terminal end on oligosaccharide chains in these glycoproteins and influences the biological behavior of cells [ 16 ]. (medsci.org)
  • In contrast, expression of both L1 ΔRSLE and L1 Y1176A was restricted to the cell body and proximal axonal shaft. (jneurosci.org)
  • Immunohistochemical analyses of developing mice demonstrated the polarized expression of L1 in pyramidal cells, granule cells, and interneurons in the hippocampus. (jneurosci.org)
  • Both dennexins also promoted neuronal survival, and the effect of dennexinA was independent of polysialic acid expression. (epfl.ch)
  • The framework further includes modules for differential expression analysis, cell clustering, and marker identification. (nih.gov)
  • Although the BMP-2 overexpressing C3H10T1/2 cells failed to form chondrogenic nodules, cells of both models expressed mRNA transcripts for major cartilage-specific marker genes including Sox9 , Acan , Col2a1 , Snorc , and Hapln1 at similar temporal sequence, while notable lubricin expression was only detected in primary cultures. (mdpi.com)
  • BMP-2 in particular) and growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) play important roles in inducing chondrocyte-specific genes as they are known to upregulate type II collagen expression in mesenchymal cells [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Initial expression analysis of NEGR1 mRNA in C57Bl/6 wildtype (WT) mice by in situ hybridization demonstrated marked expression in the entorhinal cortex (EC) and dentate granule cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell Line-Dependent Variability of Coordinate Expression of p75NTR and CRABP1 and Modulation of Effects of Fenretinide on Neuroblastoma Cells. (rochester.edu)
  • Our objectives were - to characterize the structure, the function and the regulation of expression of adhesion molecules and - pinpoint their involvement in the ontogeny and regenerative processes of the mammalian nervous system. (europa.eu)
  • Cell surface expression of adhesion molecules is under the control of neuronal activity, this observation provides a new framework for understanding activity-dependent reorganisation of synaptic networks. (europa.eu)
  • Growth factors up-regulate the expression of adhesion molecules in cultured Schawnn cells. (europa.eu)
  • It has also investigated the expression of molecules characterized by laboratories 1 and 2 on these precursors. (europa.eu)
  • DJ-1 (PARK7) is involved in GDNF/Ret cell survival signaling through the RAS/MAPK pathway and stimulates Ret expression. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • To this goal, we generated conditional knockout mice in which L1 expression was ablated in the hematopoietic precursors as well as in endothelial cells (ECs). (rupress.org)
  • Re-expression of the "anti-adhesive" polySia glycan on the surface of many adult human cancer cells, for example, facilitates their detachment, thus enhancing their metastatic spread. (prweb.com)
  • NGF activates Erk and EGR1, and induces p35 expression in PC12 cells (3). (cellsignal.com)
  • This dissertation study investigated expression, function and the regulatory mechanism of cell adhesion molecules in the formation of olfactory connections. (ukessays.com)
  • Though many cell adhesion molecule expression patterns were described, few of them were correlated with specific ORs. (ukessays.com)
  • Using genetic models and surgical manipulations, it is shown that blocking odorant evoked activity alters the expression of selected cell adhesion molecules. (ukessays.com)
  • Other work has demonstrated that seizures, and in some instances subseizure neuronal activity, modulate the expression of integrins and their matrix ligands and the activities of proteases which regulate them both. (springer.com)
  • Expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in rat brain tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical methods and western blot assays. (termedia.pl)
  • Dyugovskaya L, Lavie P, Lavie L. Increased adhesion molecules expression and production of reactive oxygen species in leukocytes of sleep apnea patients. (termedia.pl)
  • Herein we show the expression of polySia on hematopoietic progenitor cells, and demonstrate a role for this glycan in immune response using both acute inflammatory and tumor models. (jimmunol.org)
  • This is the first demonstration of polySia expression and regulation on myeloid cells, and the results in animal models suggest a role for polySia in immune regulation. (jimmunol.org)
  • First, we investigate how a class of synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), the integrins, contribute to synaptic specificity and to coordinating pre- and postsynaptic activity under physiological and pathological conditions. (iit.it)
  • Intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) are a subset of the IgSF that bind to leukocyte β 2 integrins. (hindawi.com)
  • The adhesion of cells to the various components of their environment is mediated mainly by molecules known as integrins. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Here, we generated NPCs from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of postnatal day 5 wild-type and PrP null (-/-) mice and observed that PrP is essential for proper NPC proliferation and neuronal differentiation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In agreement, we noted an increase in cycling neuronal progenitors in the SVZ of PrP-/- mice compared with PrP+/+ mice, as evidenced by double labeling for the proliferation marker Ki67 and doublecortin as well as by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation experiments. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The main events marking the formation of the embryonic skeleton are cell proliferation and condensation of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, followed by differentiation into chondroblasts and chondrocytes that can undergo hypertrophy and contribute to tissue calcification, and eventually endochondral bone formation. (mdpi.com)
  • Recently, the consequences of anti-L1 mAb on endometriotic epithelial cell proliferation, success, adhesion and invasion are also shown [6]. (pyr-41.com)
  • Therefore proliferation of skin fibroblast along with differentiation of stem cells in the skin tissue is the best method for healing. (bioportfolio.com)
  • During the life of a cell, these surface molecules are critical to cellular proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation and survival - essential processes for normal embryonic development and tissue regeneration in adults. (prweb.com)
  • Activated CD8+ T Lymphocytes Inhibit Neural Stem/Progenitor Cell Proliferation: Role of Interferon-Gamma. (stembook.org)
  • Whereas 0.25 micrograms of Ng-CAM partially neutralized the ability of 0.5 mg of polyspecific antineural Fab' fragments to inhibit the heterotypic binding of neuronal membrane vesicles to glial cells and larger amounts of Ng-CAM completely neutralized this inhibition, 20 micrograms of N-CAM had no neutralization activity in this assay. (scripps.edu)
  • L1 coupling to ankyrin and the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton modulates ethanol inhibition of L1 adhesion and ethanol teratogenesis. (harvard.edu)
  • Effect of lipid raft disruption on ethanol inhibition of l1 adhesion. (harvard.edu)
  • Neuroepithelial (NE) cells have polarized morphology along the radial axis, spanning the apical surface to the basal side at the basement membrane, and behave as neural progenitor cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the early period of mammalian cerebral wall development, neural progenitor cells (NE cells) undergo symmetric, proliferative division to expand the progenitor pool ( Figure 1A ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Recycling L1 from the C-domain to the leading edge provides an effective way to create asymmetric L1-mediated adhesion and therefore would be critical for L1-based growth cone motility. (jneurosci.org)
  • Growth cone interactions with a glial cell line from embryonic Xenopus retina. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Regulation of body weight and energy homeostasis by neuronal cell adhesion molecule 1. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is classically known for its ubiquitous roles in inflammation, immune and stress-related responses and regulation of cell survival in all tissues, including the nervous system. (biologists.org)
  • Although peptide maps of the two cell adhesion molecules differed considerably and despite the differences in binding specificity of these molecules, two independently derived monoclonal antibodies were found to crossreact with both Ng-CAM and N-CAM. (scripps.edu)
  • Therefore, these different neuronal cell adhesion molecules with distinct binding specificities share at least one antigenic determinant, raising the possibility that they arose from a common evolutionary precursor. (scripps.edu)
  • Anti-L1-treated mice also offered a diminished number of intraperitoneal adhesions at implantation sites compared with settings. (pyr-41.com)
  • hGFAP-cre transgenic mice for manipulation of glial and neuronal function in vivo. (nature.com)
  • Synaptic functions of integrin-mediated cell adhesion in physiological conditions and autism-related abnormalities in mice, project supported by the European Research Council (SynAMPAdhesion, FP7-PEOPLE-2012-CIG) and the Italian Institute of Technology. (iit.it)
  • In vivo antitumor activity of huN901-DM1 was then studied in a tumor xenograft model using a CD56 + OPM2 human MM cell line in SCID mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a new study led by Dr. Dorian McGavern , scientists from the National Institutes of Health watched in real-time as different immune cells took on carefully timed jobs to fix the damaged lining of the brain, also known as meninges, in mice. (nih.gov)
  • These domains include the nodes of Ranvier and the flanking paranodal regions where glial cells closely appose and form specialized septate-like junctions with axons. (nih.gov)
  • The neural cell adhesion molecule L1, which is present on axons and growth cones, plays a crucial role in the formation of major axonal tracts such as the corticospinal tract and corpus callosum. (jneurosci.org)
  • L1 is expressed on axons but not on dendrites or cell bodies of these cells ( Persohn and Schachner, 1990 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Plays a role in mediating cell-cell contacts between Schwann cells and axons. (genecards.org)
  • D) At 24 hpf, Tag1 immunostaining labels only cell bodies of FBMNs located in r6 and r7 (arrowhead), and their axons (arrow). (nih.gov)
  • FBMN cell bodies and axons were visualized in Tg(isl1:gfp) embryos using anti-GFP antibody. (nih.gov)
  • Dedicated adhesion molecules on myelinating cells and axons govern node organization. (rupress.org)
  • These data show that proteoglycans have specific roles in peripheral nodes and indicate that peripheral and central axons use similar strategies but different molecules to form nodes of Ranvier. (rupress.org)
  • Phosphorylation of neurofascin, a member of the L1 family of cell adhesion molecules (L1 CAMs), at the conserved FIGQY-tyrosine abolishes the ankyrin-neurofascin interaction. (biologists.org)
  • An essential role of the neuronal cell adhesion molecule contactin in development of the Xenopus primary sensory system . (xenbase.org)
  • Contactin is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored immunoglobulin-like neuronal cell adhesion molecule that has been implicated in cellular interaction during development of the vertebrate central nervous system . (xenbase.org)
  • An arrow and an arrowhead in (E) represent contactin-positive cell bodies of a RB neuron and an EM neuron, respectively. (xenbase.org)
  • Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM or CD166) modulates bone phenotype and hematopoiesis. (stembook.org)
  • Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. (harvard.edu)
  • Journal Article] Mechanisms of splicing-dependent trans-synaptic adhesion by PTPδ-IL1RAPL1/IL-1RAcP for synaptic differentiation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Its directed down-sampling strategy accumulates information from single cells into index cell transcriptomes, thereby defining cellular clusters with improved resolution. (nih.gov)
  • A necessary first step in elucidating a physiologically relevant pathway would be to determine, at high resolution in tissues of an intact organism, the cellular localization of cell adhesion molecules phosphorylated at specific amino acid residues. (biologists.org)
  • Cell adhesion is of utmost importance in normal development and cellular functions. (hindawi.com)
  • Laboratory 2, in collaboration with laboratory 3, has shown that endopeptidase-24.11 is normally present at high levels in all neonatal and early postnatal Schwann cells and is gradually suppressed while myelinisation proceeds. (europa.eu)
  • Laboratory 3 has mainly focused on the characterization and fate of Schwann cell precursors. (europa.eu)
  • The BM88 molecule recently cloned by laboratory 2 is expressed on both precursors and Schwann cells, so it will not be possible to consider it, as previously hoped, as a marker for the transition of the precursors to Schwann cells. (europa.eu)
  • Knowledge of the general principles governing development and function of neuronal connections is fundamental for understanding neurological and psychiatric disorders. (iit.it)
  • It has been established that the initial step in the metastatic cascade is the detachment of tumour cells from the primary tumour via dysregulation of normal cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. (bmj.com)
  • As a somatodendrite-specific adhesion molecule, ICAM-5 not only participates in immune-nervous system interactions, it could also participate in neuronal activity, Dendrites' targeting signals, and cognition. (hindawi.com)
  • Apart from lineage-specific marker genes, pluripotency factors ( Nanog and Sox2 ) were also expressed in these models, reflecting on the presence of various mesenchymal lineages as well as undifferentiated cells. (mdpi.com)
  • A key adhesion ligand for neuronal survival and differentiation is the neural cell adhesion molecule L1. (springeropen.com)
  • HuN901-DM1 treatment selectively decreased survival of CD56 + MM cell lines and depleted CD56 + MM cells from mixed cultures with a CD56 − cell line or adherent bone marrow stromal cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • But also in the mature and aging nervous system they are needed for electrical activity, neuronal communication, survival and even regeneration. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • A direct binding between NgCAM and axonin-1 has been demonstrated using isolated molecules conjugated to the surface of fluorescent microspheres. (scripps.edu)
  • By expressing NgCAM and axonin-1 in myeloma cells and performing cell aggregation assays, we found that NgCAM and axonin-1 cannot bind when present on the surface of different cells. (scripps.edu)
  • Monitoring recycled L1 reveals that it moves retrogradely on the cell surface into the C-domain. (jneurosci.org)
  • With this technique, a suspension of tagged cells (i.e., bound to the cell surface markers are fluorescent tags) is sent under pressure through a very narrow nozzle-so narrow that cells must pass through one at a time. (nih.gov)
  • Cell surface metallo-proteases play a role in peripheral nerve development and regeneration after injury. (europa.eu)
  • Flow cytometry analysis indicated that L1 modulated cell surface sialylation and fucosylation in CHO cells. (medsci.org)
  • Anti-neuronal antibodies are classified into antibodies against cell surface antigens (CSAab), antibodies against synaptic antigens (SyAab) and antibodies against intraneuronal antigens (INAab), also known as onconeural antibodies 6 , 7 . (scielo.br)
  • Although sorting in particle-model simulations is well studied, recent discoveries suggest that in confluent tissues (with no gaps or overlaps between cells), both fluid-solid transitions and surface tension are strongly influenced by cell shapes and topologies. (aps.org)
  • Axonin-1, a member of the immunoglobulin/fibronectin type-III family of cell-adhesion molecules, occurs both as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-(glycosylPtdIns)-anchored membrane-bound and a soluble form. (uzh.ch)
  • are the first to address the physiological occurrence of a specific, functionally important phosphorylation event in a major family of cell adhesion molecules. (biologists.org)
  • The role of L1 in neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells has also been investigated. (springeropen.com)
  • Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. (harvard.edu)
  • Cell adhesion molecules Fibronectin Laminin Schwab, Manfred, ed. (2001). (wikipedia.org)
  • The K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 plays an essential role in neuronal chloride homeostasis, and thereby influences the efficacy and polarity of GABA signaling. (pnas.org)
  • Cell adhesion molecule that plays a role in neuronal self-avoidance. (abcam.com)
  • 2000), An essential role of the neuronal cell adhesion. (xenbase.org)
  • There is very strong evidence SAMs also have a key role in neuronal morphogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also study the role of mitochondrial membrane potential in normal and pathological brain functions with particular emphasis on the acute effect of mitochondria in neuronal transmission and neuroprotection. (yale.edu)
  • Here, we describe the role of a cell adhesion molecule CASY-1 , which functions to maintain this balance at the NMJ. (genetics.org)
  • These findings show an unexpected neuronal role for neuroligins in synapse disassembly. (nih.gov)
  • Cell sorting (the spatial segregation of different cell types in a tissue or co-culture) is thought to play a vital role in development and disease. (aps.org)
  • Using a 2D Self-Propelled Voronoi (SPV) model, we investigate the role of disparity in cell shape and size in cell sorting for bidisperse mixtures. (aps.org)
  • Acute and long-term effects of chronic social stress on cognition: the role of synaptic cell adhesion molecules. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • PolySia is best known for its proposed role in modulating neuronal development. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, our findings show that specific sulfation along the carbohydrate backbone carries instructions to regulate neuronal function. (biologists.org)
  • These results support the concept that distinct sulfation along the carbohydrate backbone carries instructions to regulate neuronal function. (biologists.org)
  • The b subunits regulate channel activity and are unique amongst other ion channel auxiliary subunits because they are also cell adhesion molecules. (york.ac.uk)
  • Mitochondrial dynamics controlled by mitofusins regulate Agrp neuronal activity and diet-induced obesity. (yale.edu)
  • Dietrich MO, Liu Z-W, Horvath TL (2013) Mitochondrial dynamics controlled by mitofusins regulate Agrp neuronal activity and diet-induced obesity. (yale.edu)
  • This process is mediated by transcriptional suppression of AJ-related molecules and multiple cascades to regulate cell adhesion and cytoskeletal architecture in a posttranscriptional manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • Central and peripheral nervous system, and other tissues, endothelial cells, and certain tumor cell lines and human cancers including pancreatic cancer, melanoma, renal and colon carcinoma, adrenal gland, placenta, thyroid and testis (Wang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue. (rush.edu)
  • Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) has significantly deepened our insights into complex tissues, with the latest techniques capable of processing tens of thousands of cells simultaneously. (nih.gov)
  • In recent years, scientists have discovered a wide array of stem cells that have unique capabilities to self-renew, grow indefinitely, and differentiate or develop into multiple types of cells and tissues. (nih.gov)
  • So, how do scientists identify these rare type of cells found in many different cells and tissues-a process that is much akin to finding a needle in a haystack? (nih.gov)
  • A second method uses stem cell markers and their fluorescent tags to visually assess cells as they exist in tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Often researchers want to assess how stem cells appear in tissues and in doing so they use a microscope to evaluate them rather than the FACS instrument. (nih.gov)
  • Indeed, upon microbial contact and stimulation by inflammatory cytokines DCs take up antigens and migrate from peripheral tissues, via the afferent lymphatics, into the T cell area of the draining lymph node where they present the antigens to T lymphocytes, thus triggering the immune response. (rupress.org)
  • Models for densely packed and confluent biological tissues often describe the network formed cells as a triple-junction network, similar to foams. (aps.org)
  • Meanwhile, other work has demonstrated that there is a direct relationship between cell shapes and tissue shear modulus in confluent tissues. (aps.org)
  • Hence, we seek to analyze the behavior of cell sorting in a confluent model of tissues across the fluid-solid transition, and compare to experimental data for a 2D co-culture of breast carcinoma and non-malignant cell lines, which display robust sorting. (aps.org)
  • A clinical application of human ES cells would require the generation of highly purified donor cells for specific tissues and organs. (google.es)
  • Promotes repulsion between specific neuronal processes of either the same cell or the same subtype of cells. (abcam.com)
  • Proteomics of specific neuronal populations. (yale.edu)
  • Variants of neuronal cell-adhesion molecules are associated with autism spectrum disorders, according to two studies published online April 28 in Nature . (doctorslounge.com)
  • THURSDAY, May 7 (HealthDay News) -- Variants of neuronal cell-adhesion molecules are associated with autism spectrum disorders, according to two studies published online April 28 in Nature . (doctorslounge.com)
  • Neuroligins are neuronal cell adhesion molecules that have been associated with autism spectrum disorders. (nih.gov)
  • The adhesion molecule L1, which is extensively characterized in the nervous system, is also expressed in dendritic cells (DCs), but its function there has remained elusive. (rupress.org)
  • Following transplantation into the rodent central nervous system (CNS), ES cell-derived neural precursors have been shown to integrate into the host tissue and, in some cases, yield functional improvement (McDonald, J. W., et al. (google.es)
  • Accordingly, a decreased number of PCNA positive epithelial and stromal cells was recognized in autologously and heterologously induced endometriotic lesions exposed to anti-L1 mAb treatment. (pyr-41.com)
  • FIGQY tyrosine phosphorylation is localized at specialized cell junctions, including paranodes of sciatic nerve, neuromuscular junctions of adult rats and Drosophila embryos, epidermal muscle attachment sites of Drosophila , and adherens junctions of developing epithelial cells of rat and Drosophila . (biologists.org)
  • Chiba, A & Keshishian, H 1996, ' Neuronal pathfinding and recognition: Roles of cell adhesion molecules ', Developmental Biology , vol. 180, no. 2, pp. 424-432. (elsevier.com)
  • Contributors include Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology Iswar Hariharan and former MCB graduate student (Thorner Lab) David Julius. (berkeley.edu)
  • Howard Hughes Investigator and Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structural Biology Christopher Chang and Howard Hughes Investigator and Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology Michael Rape are both among 30 national finalists for the 2014 Blavatnik National Awards for Young Scientists. (berkeley.edu)
  • Assistant Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology Polina Lishko is a 2014 recipient of the Hellman Fellowship. (berkeley.edu)
  • Assistant Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology Lin He is the 2014 recipient of the Carcinogenesis Young Investigator Award. (berkeley.edu)
  • Assistant Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology Gloria Brar has been selected as one of Cell magazines "40 under 40. (berkeley.edu)
  • Cell biology of myofibroblasts and neutrophils. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • The project will therefore expose the student to a range of cutting-edge cell biology techniques in labs that are leading in this field. (york.ac.uk)
  • Although both Ng-CAM and N-CAM have calcium-independent binding mechanisms, immunologically based cell adhesion assays suggested that they have different specificities in mediating cell adhesion. (scripps.edu)