Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules: Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1: A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule: Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.E-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex: A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia: Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. Ng-CAM is immunologically and structurally distinct from NCAM.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Contactin 2: A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Contactins: A family of immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecules that are involved in NERVOUS SYSTEM patterning.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Mice, Inbred C57BLEndothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Junctional Adhesion Molecules: A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Nerve Tissue ProteinsIntegrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Mucoproteins: Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Selectins: Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Receptors, Very Late Antigen: Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ankyrins: A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.Leukocyte Rolling: Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.alpha Catenin: A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Tenascin: Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Lutheran Blood-Group System: A complex blood group system having pairs of alternate antigens and amorphic genes, but also subject to a dominant independently segregating repressor.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Mice, Inbred BALB CCerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Desmoplakins: Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Receptors, Leukocyte-Adhesion: Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Receptors, Fibronectin: Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.GPI-Linked Proteins: A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Cell-Matrix Junctions: Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.

Engrailed negatively regulates the expression of cell adhesion molecules connectin and neuroglian in embryonic Drosophila nervous system. (1/1624)

Engrailed is expressed in subsets of interneurons that do not express Connectin or appreciable Neuroglian, whereas other neurons that are Engrailed negative strongly express these adhesion molecules. Connectin and Neuroglian expression are virtually eliminated in interneurons when engrailed expression is driven ubiquitously in neurons, and greatly increased when engrailed genes are lacking in mutant embryos. The data suggest that Engrailed is normally a negative regulator of Connectin and neuroglian. These are the first two "effector" genes identified in the nervous system of Drosophila as regulatory targets for Engrailed. We argue that differential Engrailed expression is crucial in determining the pattern of expression of cell adhesion molecules and thus constitutes an important determinant of neuronal shape and perhaps connectivity.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and developmental expression of a zebrafish axonal glycoprotein similar to TAG-1. (2/1624)

TAG-1 is a mammalian cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed transiently by a subset of neurons and serves as a fertile substrate for neurite outgrowth in vitro (Furley, A.H., Morton, S.B., Manalo, D., Karagogeos, S., Dodd, H., Jessell, T.M., 1990 The axonal glycoprotein TAG-1 is an immunoglobulin superfamily member with neurite outgrowth promoting activity. Cell 61, 157-170). In order to examine the in vivo function of this molecule, we have cloned a zebrafish tag1-like cDNA and analyzed its expression patterns. tag1 Is expressed transiently by specific subsets of neurons when they are projecting their axons or when they are migrating. The specific and dynamic pattern of expression of zebrafish tag1 is consistent with its proposed role in axon guidance and cell migration.  (+info)

Characterization of a novel rat brain glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (Kilon), a member of the IgLON cell adhesion molecule family. (3/1624)

In the central nervous system, many cell adhesion molecules are known to participate in the establishment and remodeling of the neural circuit. Some of the cell adhesion molecules are known to be anchored to the membrane by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) inserted to their C termini, and many GPI-anchored proteins are known to be localized in a Triton-insoluble membrane fraction of low density or so-called "raft." In this study, we surveyed the GPI-anchored proteins in the Triton-insoluble low density fraction from 2-week-old rat brain by solubilization with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. By Western blotting and partial peptide sequencing after the deglycosylation with peptide N-glycosidase F, the presence of Thy-1, F3/contactin, and T-cadherin was shown. In addition, one of the major proteins, having an apparent molecular mass of 36 kDa after the peptide N-glycosidase F digestion, was found to be a novel protein. The result of cDNA cloning showed that the protein is an immunoglobulin superfamily member with three C2 domains and has six putative glycosylation sites. Since this protein shows high sequence similarity to IgLON family members including LAMP, OBCAM, neurotrimin, CEPU-1, AvGP50, and GP55, we termed this protein Kilon (a kindred of IgLON). Kilon-specific monoclonal antibodies were produced, and Western blotting analysis showed that expression of Kilon is restricted to brain, and Kilon has an apparent molecular mass of 46 kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in its expressed form. In brain, the expression of Kilon is already detected in E16 stage, and its level gradually increases during development. Kilon immunostaining was observed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, in which the strongly stained puncta were observed on dendrites and soma of pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

Cortical bitufted, horizontal, and Martinotti cells preferentially express and secrete reelin into perineuronal nets, nonsynaptically modulating gene expression. (4/1624)

Reelin (Reln) is a protein with some structural analogies with other extracellular matrix proteins that functions in the regulation of neuronal migration during the development of cortical laminated structures. In the cortex of adult animals, Reln is expressed primarily in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons and is secreted into perineuronal nets. However, only 50-60% of GABAergic interneurons express Reln. We have characterized this subpopulation of cortical GABAergic neurons that expresses Reln by using two strategies: (i) a double immunolabeling procedure to determine the colocalization of Reln with neuropeptides and Ca2+-binding proteins and (ii) a combination of Golgi staining and Reln immunolabeling to determine the morphology of the rat cortical cells that store Reln. Many interneurons that express Neuropeptide Y (NPY) or somatostatin (but none of those that express parvalbumin) are Reln-immunopositive. A small population of calbindin-positive interneurons and very few calretinin-positive cells express Reln immunopositivity. Golgi staining revealed that layer I horizontal cells, layer II-V bitufted neurons, and some deep cortical layer Martinotti cells express Reln. Basket and chandelier cells are often immunopositive to parvalbumin, but never to Reln. Although Reln is secreted by GABAergic neurons, its target are not the GABA receptors, but rather may be extrasynaptically located in perineuronal nets and concerned with the modulation of neuronal plasticity. Dab1, the target adapter protein that presumably mediates transcription regulation via the extrasynaptic actions of Reln, is expressed predominantly in pyramidal neurons, but it can also be detected in a small population of GABAergic neurons that are neither horizontal nor bitufted neurons.  (+info)

Reelin-induced tyrosine [corrected] phosphorylation of disabled 1 during neuronal positioning. (5/1624)

The reelin (reln) and disabled 1 (dab1) genes both ensure correct neuronal positioning during brain development. We have found that the intracellular Dab1 protein receives a tyrosine phosphorylation signal from extracellular Reln protein. Genetic analysis shows that reln function depends on dab1, and vice versa, as expected if both genes are in the same pathway. Dab1 is expressed at a higher level, yet phosphorylated at a lower level, in reln mutant embryo brains. In primary neuronal cultures, Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation is stimulated by exogenous Reln. These results suggest that Reln regulates neuronal positioning by stimulating Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation.  (+info)

Discs Lost, a novel multi-PDZ domain protein, establishes and maintains epithelial polarity. (6/1624)

Polarization of epithelial cells depends on a hierarchical process whereby specific membrane-associated proteins become targeted to specialized membrane domains. Here, we describe a novel Drosophila protein, Discs Lost (DLT), that plays a crucial role in the polarization of embryonic epithelia during cellular blastoderm formation. At subsequent stages of development, DLT interacts with the apical determinant Crumbs (CRB) and the laterally localized protein Neurexin IV (NRX IV). Mutations in dlt or double-stranded RNA interference lead to aberrant localization of CRB and NRX IV and cause a concomitant loss of epithelial cell polarity. Hence, DLT is required to establish and maintain cell polarity and participates in different molecular complexes that define apical and lateral membrane domains.  (+info)

Neural development: The semantics of axon guidance. (7/1624)

Recent studies of the semaphorin family of axon guidance signals and their receptors have revealed a surprising versatility in the ways that they can be used solve problems in neural development, and provided new opportunities for understanding how guidance information is interpreted beneath the cell surface.  (+info)

Watching a synapse grow: noninvasive confocal imaging of synaptic growth in Drosophila. (8/1624)

The glutamatergic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in Drosophila adds new boutons and branches during larval development. We generated transgenic fruit flies that express a novel green fluorescent membrane protein at the postsynaptic specialization, allowing for repeated noninvasive confocal imaging of synapses in live, developing larvae. As synapses grow, existing synaptic boutons stretch apart and new boutons insert between them; in addition, new boutons are added at the ends of existing strings of boutons. Some boutons are added de novo, while others bud from existing boutons. New branches form as multiple boutons bud from existing boutons. Nascent boutons contain active zones, T bars, and synaptic vesicles; we observe no specialized growth structures. Some new boutons exhibit a lower level of Fasciclin II, suggesting that the levels of this synaptic cell adhesion molecule vary locally during synaptic growth.  (+info)

*NRCAM

Neuronal cell adhesion molecule is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NRCAM gene. Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are ... NRCAM neuronal cell adhesion molecule". Marui T, Funatogawa I, Koishi S, et al. (2008). "Association of the neuronal cell ... This gene encodes a neuronal cell adhesion molecule with multiple immunoglobulin-like C2-type domains and fibronectin type-III ... Grumet M (1997). "Nr-CAM: a cell adhesion molecule with ligand and receptor functions". Cell Tissue Res. 290 (2): 423-8. doi: ...

*Protein isoform

An unusual glycoform variation is seen in neuronal cell adhesion molecule, NCAM involving polysialic acids, PSA.*** G-actin: ... G6PDA: normal ratio of active isoforms in cells of any tissue is 1:1 shared with G6PDG. This is precisely the normal isoform ... The specificity of produced proteins is derived by protein structure/function, development stage and even the cell type. It ... For example, the 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme, which performs different roles in human cells, has 3 ...

*Neuregulin 1

Mutations in human L1 cell adhesion molecules are reported to cause a number of neuronal disorders. In addition, recent ... Neuregulin 1 or NRG1 is a cell adhesion molecule that in humans is encoded by the NRG1 gene. NRG1 is one of four proteins in ... "Endocytic pathways downregulate the L1-type cell adhesion molecule neuroglian to promote dendrite pruning in Drosophila". ... neuronal, glial, and other types of cells. Neuregulin 1 is thought to play a role in synaptic plasticity. It has been shown ...

*NFASC

"Genes for the neuronal immunoglobulin domain cell adhesion molecules neurofascin and Nr-CAM map to mouse chromosomes 1 and 12 ... 2002). "FIGQY phosphorylation defines discrete populations of L1 cell adhesion molecules at sites of cell-cell contact and in ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.10.004. PMID 15479642. Hortsch M (1996). "The L1 family of neural cell adhesion molecules: old proteins ... Neurofascin is an L1 family immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule (see L1CAM) involved in axon subcellular targeting and ...

*L1 (protein)

This protein, of 200-220 kDa, is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule with a strong implication in cell migration, adhesion, ... L1 has a static function as a cell adhesion molecule which connects different cells. It is involved in the adhesion between ... There are a wide variety of cells which express the protein L1, not only neuronal cells but also some non-neuronal ones. Cells ... where an adhesion molecule on one cell works as a receptor that connects with a different molecule on the other cell. These ...

*CUB domain

Neuropilin (A5 antigen), a calcium-independent cell adhesion molecule that functions during the formation of certain neuronal ... gene in colorectal tumour cells". FEBS Letters. 581 (6): 1137-42. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2007.02.025. PMID 17335815. Romero A, ... cell signalling, fertilisation, haemostasis, inflammation, neurotransmission, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and tumour ...

*Contactin 1

It is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored neuronal membrane protein that functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It ... Reid RA, Bronson DD, Young KM, Hemperly JJ (Jan 1994). "Identification and characterization of the human cell adhesion molecule ... domains in neuronal cell functions and identification of the domain interacting with the neuronal recognition molecule F3/11". ... "Signaling events following the interaction of the neuronal adhesion molecule F3 with the N-terminal domain of tenascin-R". ...

*Contactin 6

It is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored neuronal membrane protein that functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It ... "Molecular genetic analysis of a cell adhesion molecule with homology to L1CAM, contactin 6, and contactin 4 candidate ... "cDNA cloning and chromosomal localization of neural adhesion molecule NB-3 in human". Journal of Neuroscience Research. 51 (3 ... Walsh FS, Doherty P (November 1991). "Glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored recognition molecules that function in axonal ...

*Contactin 2

"Cell-cell adhesion by homophilic interaction of the neuronal recognition molecule axonin-1". European Journal of Biochemistry ... It is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored neuronal membrane protein that functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It ... "The human TAX1 gene encoding the axon-associated cell adhesion molecule TAG-1/axonin-1: genomic structure and basic promoter". ... "The gene for the axonal cell adhesion molecule TAX-1 is amplified and aberrantly expressed in malignant gliomas". Cancer ...

*Contactin 4

It is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored neuronal membrane protein that functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It ... 1997). "A novel splice variant of the cell adhesion molecule BIG-2 is expressed in the olfactory and vomeronasal neuroepithelia ... 2004). "Cloning and characterization of the human neural cell adhesion molecule, CNTN4 (alias BIG-2)". Cytogenet. Genome Res. ... "A novel splice variant of the cell adhesion molecule contactin 4 ( CNTN4) is mainly expressed in human brain". J Hum Genet. 47 ...

*PTPRZ1

"Soluble forms of NCAM and F3 neuronal cell adhesion molecules promote Schwann cell migration: identification of protein ... Kawachi H, Fujikawa A, Maeda N, Noda M (2001). "Identification of GIT1/Cat-1 as a substrate molecule of protein tyrosine ... Expression of this gene is induced in gastric cancer cells, in the remyelinating oligodendrocytes of multiple sclerosis lesions ... Both the protein and transcript are overexpressed in glioblastoma cells, promoting their haptotactic migration. GRCh38: Ensembl ...

*IQGAP1

For example, IQGAP1 expression is necessary for neuronal process outgrowth on the cell adhesion molecule PTPmu (PTPRM). ... with cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and with several signaling molecules to regulate cell morphology and motility. ... weakening these junctions and thus decreasing cell-cell adhesion. IQGAP weakens cell adhesion by displacing a-catenin from the ... a negative regulator of cell-cell adhesion, is upregulated by gene amplification at 15q26 in gastric cancer cell lines HSC39 ...

*Zona glomerulosa

... and reported by several authors and it was suggested that the expression of proteins like the neuronal cell adhesion molecule ( ... NCAM) in the cells of the zona glomerulosa reflects the regenerative feature of these cells, which would lose NCAM ... "Basal Steroidogenic Activity of Adrenocortical Cells is Increased 10-Fold by Coculture with Chromaffin Cells". Endocrinology. ... Its cells are ovoid and arranged in clusters or arches (glomus is Latin for "ball"). In response to increased potassium levels ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.395)

... cell adhesion molecules, neuronal MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.150 -- cell adhesion molecules, neuron-glia MeSH D12.776.395.550 ... activated-leukocyte cell adhesion molecule MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.500 -- myelin p0 protein MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250. ... neural cell adhesion molecules MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.520.156 -- antigens, cd56 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.520.578 -- ... vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 MeSH D12.776.395.550.550.500 -- lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 MeSH D12.776.395.550. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... cell adhesion molecules, neuronal MeSH D23.050.301.350.250.150 --- cell adhesion molecules, neuron-glia MeSH D23.050.301.350. ... cell adhesion molecules MeSH D23.050.301.350.065 --- antigens, cd22 MeSH D23.050.301.350.098 --- antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050. ... activated-leukocyte cell adhesion molecule MeSH D23.050.301.350.250.500 --- myelin p0 protein MeSH D23.050.301.350.250.520 --- ... neural cell adhesion molecules MeSH D23.050.301.350.250.520.156 --- antigens, cd56 MeSH D23.050.301.350.250.520.578 --- neural ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... cell adhesion molecules, neuronal MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.150 -- cell adhesion molecules, neuron-glia MeSH D12.776.543.550 ... activated-leukocyte cell adhesion molecule MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.500 -- myelin p0 protein MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250. ... neural cell adhesion molecules MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.520.156 -- antigens, cd56 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.520.578 -- ... vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 MeSH D12.776.543.550.425.150 -- calcium channels MeSH D12.776.543.550.425.150.400 -- calcium ...

*Adrenal cortex

... and reported by several authors and it was suggested that the expression of proteins like the neuronal cell adhesion molecule ( ... by principal cells) and hydrogen ions (by intercalated cells of the collecting duct). Sodium retention is also a response of ... by principal cells) and hydrogen ions (by intercalated cells of the collecting duct). Sodium retention is also a response of ... NCAM) in the cells of the zona glomerulosa reflects the regenerative feature of these cells, which would lose NCAM ...

*Substrate adhesion molecules

There is very strong evidence SAMs also have a key role in neuronal morphogenesis. Cell adhesion molecules Fibronectin Laminin ... Substrate adhesion molecules (SAMs) are proteins that attach cells to specific compounds in the extracellular matrix (a process ... 2001). "Cell Adhesion Molecules". Encyclopedic reference of cancer, Volume 1. Springer. p. 183. ISBN 978-3-540-66527-4. Barry, ... ISBN 978-0-387-25615-3. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Ulrich, Klaus (1994). "Cell-Adhesion Molecules of Vertebrates ...

*Synaptogenesis

... cell-adhesion molecules are also essential to synaptogenesis. Often the binding of pre-synaptic cell-adhesion molecules with ... This brain region contains three main neuronal cell types- Purkinje cells, granule cells and mossy fiber cells. Wnt-3 ... These changes are thought to be mediated by neurotrophin and cell adhesion molecule release from muscle cells, thereby ... Indeed, a defect in genes encoding neuroligin, a cell-adhesion molecule found in the post-synaptic membrane, has been linked to ...

*ICAM5

2000). "Neuronal adhesion molecule telencephalin induces rapid cell spreading of microglia". Brain Res. 849 (1-2): 58-66. doi: ... 2000). "Intercellular adhesion molecule-5 induces dendritic outgrowth by homophilic adhesion". J. Cell Biol. 150 (1): 243-52. ... Intercellular adhesion molecule 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ICAM5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... "Entrez Gene: ICAM5 intercellular adhesion molecule 5, telencephalin". Annaert, W G; Esselens C; Baert V; Boeve C; Snellings G; ...

*Neurocan

"The neuronal chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan neurocan binds to the neural cell adhesion molecules Ng-CAM/L1/NILE and N-CAM, ... Retzler C, Göhring W, Rauch U (1996). "Analysis of neurocan structures interacting with the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM ... and inhibits neuronal adhesion and neurite outgrowth". J. Cell Biol. 125 (3): 669-80. doi:10.1083/jcb.125.3.669. PMC 2119998 . ... It is thought to be involved in the modulation of cell adhesion and migration. Neurocan is a significant component of the ...

*Index of biochemistry articles

... neuronal cell adhesion molecule - neuropeptide - neuropeptide receptor - neuropeptide Y - neuropeptide Y receptor - ... cell - cell adhesion molecule - Cell biology - cell cycle protein - cell membrane - cell membrane transport - cell nucleus - ... intercellular adhesion molecule-1 - interferon receptor - interferon type I - interferon type II - interferon-alpha - ... T cell - T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence - taste bud - ...

*Cerebral cortex

... there is evidence suggesting that an improper formation of interneuronal connections and cell adhesion molecule malformation ... The cerebral cortex contains a large number of neuronal and glial cell bodies, as well as their intricate dendritic formations ... Hu, X.L.; Wang, Y.; Shen, Q. (2012). "Epigenetic control on cell fate choice in neural stem cells". Protein & Cell. 3 (4): 278- ... Staining cross-sections of the cortex to reveal the position of neuronal cell bodies and the intracortical axon tracts allowed ...

*Development of the nervous system

SynCAM is a cell adhesion molecule that is present in both pre- and post-synaptic membranes. The processes of neuronal ... where the principal neural stem cell is the radial glial cell. The first postmitotic cells must leave the stem cell niche and ... They do not resemble the cells migrating by locomotion or somal translocation. Instead these multipolar cells express neuronal ... In explant cultures (which allow direct cell-cell interactions) the same cells differentiate into epidermis. This is due to the ...

*Neurite

The neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM simultaneously combines with another N-CAM and a fibroblast growth factor receptor to ... A neurite or neuronal process refers to any projection from the cell body of a neuron. This projection can be either an axon or ... Berezin, Vladimir (2009-12-17). Structure and Function of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NCAM. Springer Science & Business ... a protein in brain that induces the collapse and paralysis of neuronal growth cones". Cell. 75 (2): 217-227. doi:10.1016/0092- ...

*TENM3

Teneurins are homophilic adhesion molecules that bind specifically to other teneurin-family molecules on adjacent cells. The ... They are also expressed in some non-neuronal tissues that regulate pattern formation and sites of cell migration. Some Ten-m3 ... cell-cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth using atomic force microscopy-based single-cell force spectroscopy". Nano Letters. 13 ... Rubin BP, Tucker RP, Martin D, Chiquet-Ehrismann R (December 1999). "Teneurins: A Novel Family of Neuronal Cell Surface ...
OBJECTIVE: The authors goals were to establish the cellular origin of the reduced cortical reelin expression that occurs in schizophrenia and to relate it to markers of synaptic pathology. METHOD: In situ hybridization was used to quantify reelin mRNA in the hippocampal formation and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of brains from 13 subjects with schizophrenia and 12 subjects without schizophrenia. Results were correlated with the expression of three synaptic protein genes in the dentate gyrus. RESULTS: Reelin mRNA was expressed by layer I neurons, interneurons, and interstitial white matter neurons. In subjects with schizophrenia, less reelin mRNA was expressed by interstitial white matter neurons in the hippocampal formation and by all three cell types in the prefrontal cortex. Reelin and synaptic protein expression correlated positively. CONCLUSIONS: Interstitial white matter neurons, presumed remnants of the cortical subplate, contribute to the reduction in reelin mRNA in schizophrenia. Down
The surface of the mammalian brain (the neocortex) contains six distinct layers of neurons. The extracellular matrix protein reelin regulates the migration of the neurons that form these layers. Reelin has two receptors: very low density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr) and apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2). Now, Hack and colleagues reveal divergent roles for these two receptors in the migration of cortical neurons (see p. 3883). In mice, the order of the cortical layers is inverted in reelin-knockout mutants and in ApoER2 Vldlr double-knockout mutants; the phenotype of single-receptor knockouts is much milder. To determine the specific role of each reelin receptor in neuronal migration, the researchers mapped the fate of newly generated cortical neurons in single and double receptor mutants. Their results indicate that the proper migration of late-generated neurons, which form the superficial layers of the neocortex, requires ApoER2. Vldlr, by contrast, mediates a reelin stop signal that ...
Mammalian cell membranes provide an interface between the intracellular and extracellular compartments. It is currently thought that cytoplasmic signaling adapter proteins play no functional role within the extracellular tumor environment. Here, by selecting combinatorial random peptide libraries in tumor-bearing mice, we uncovered a direct, specific, and functional interaction between CRKL, an adapter protein [with Src homology 2 (SH2)- and SH3-containing domains], and the plexin-semaphorin-integrin domain of beta(1) integrin in the extracellular milieu. Through assays in vitro, in cellulo, and in vivo, we show that this unconventional and as yet unrecognized protein-protein interaction between a regulatory integrin domain (rather than a ligand-binding one) and an intracellular adapter (acting outside of the cells) triggers an alternative integrin-mediated cascade for cell growth and survival. Based on these data, here we propose that a secreted form of the SH3/SH2 adaptor protein CRKL may act ...
MDGA1 consists of six Ig-like domains, fibronectin type III repeat domain, and MAM domain . The crystal structure of MDGA1/Neuroligin-2 complex reveals that they form the 2:2 hetero-tetrameric complex and only the Ig1-Ig2 domains of MDGA1 are involved in interactions with Neuroligin-2. The structural comparison between the MDGA1/Neuroligin-2 and Neurexin-1β/Neuroligin-1 complexes intriguingly indicates that the Neuroligin-2 region binding to MDGA1 largely overlaps with that of Neurexin-1β, but the interaction interface of the MDGA1/Neuroligin-2 complex is much larger than that of the Neurexin-1β/Neuroligin-1 complex. This explains why Neuroligin-2 binds stronger to MDGA1 than Neurexin-1β, and how the favored MDGA1 binding to Neuroligin-2 sterically blocks the interaction between Neuroligin-2 and Neurexin-1β, which is critical for the suppression of inhibitory synapse development ...
L1, also known as L1CAM, is a transmembrane protein; it is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule, member of the L1 protein family, of 200-220 kDa, and…
The outcome of signaling events of ligand receptor systems that consist of multiple receptors and/or ligands is complex; such multicomponent systems can yield different biological responses and the individual components can add different layers of regulation. Because these systems enable diverse biological responses, they are very common. Examples include the vascular endothelial growth factor ligand receptor system, the fibroblast growth factor, or the TRAIL ligand receptor systems (2, 4, 8).. Extrapolation of kinetic and equilibrium constants from in vitro measurements of purified recombinant ligands and receptors to in vivo conditions is challenging when dealing with such complex cases as the molecule that triggers the signal can be trapped in nonproductive interactions that equilibrate slowly with the productive complex. This is not only the case with the aforementioned multiple receptor/ligand systems but in principle also extends to promiscuous intracellular adaptor proteins that can be ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a membrane glycoprotein that is a member of the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family. This family forms a subset of the larger CD2 cell-surface receptor Ig superfamily. The encoded protein is a homophilic adhesion molecule that is expressed in numerous immune cells types and is involved in regulating receptor-mediated signaling in those cells. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011 ...
Complete information for NLGN1 gene (Protein Coding), Neuroligin 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for NRXN2 gene (Protein Coding), Neurexin 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Neurexin 1山羊多克隆抗体(ab77596)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, ICC/IF实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SynCAMs) are crucial for synapse formation and plasticity. However, we have previously demonstrated that SynCAMs are also required during earlier stages of neural circuit formation because SynCAM1 and SynCAM2 (also known as CADM1 and CADM2, respectively) are important for the guidance of post-crossing commissural axons. In contrast to the exclusively homophilic cis-interactions reported by previous studies, our previous in vivo results suggested the existence of heterophilic cis-interactions between SynCAM1 and SynCAM2. Indeed, as we show here, the presence of homophilic and heterophilic cis-interactions modulates the interaction of SynCAMs with trans-binding partners, as observed previously for other immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules. These in vitro findings are in agreement with results from in vivo studies, which demonstrate a role for SynCAMs in the formation of sensory neural circuits in the chicken embryo. In the absence of SynCAMs, ...
A. Growth cone motility and neurite branch formation are activated (+) by Rac1 and Cdc42 and negatively regulated (-) by RhoA. Reelin participates in the regulation of growth cone motility and branching by regulating Rho GTPase activity (B). Filopodia formation and the formation of neuronal transport vesicles, both known to be mediated by Cdc42, are triggered by Reelin. B. Binding of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin to its transmembrane receptors Apoer2 and Vldlr triggers Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation by Src-family-kinases (SFK). This leads to the activation of several downstream signals, including phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), which activates Cdc42 via an unknown intermediate effector. There is evidence that Reelin also might locally activate Rac1. N-WASP and WAVE link Cdc42 and Rac1 activity to changes of the actin cytoskeleton, leading to increased growth cone motility, filopodia and vesicle formation, and dendritic branching (A). Cdc42 and Rac1 also contribute to activation of ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
In complex nervous systems neuron-glia interactions play pivotal roles in forming and maintaining neuronal circuits. From early developmental stages onwards, reciprocal signaling between neurons and glial cells ensures the balanced formation of correct cell numbers and cell types and their subsequent differentiation. During neuronal differentiation, glial cells often act as intermediate targets or guidepost cells, instructing neuronal growth cones on their path towards their final destination (Bastiani and Goodman, 1986; Bentley and Caudy, 1983; Whitington et al., 2004). Subsequently, once the axonal trajectories are established, glial cells migrate along these tracts to ensure that all axons are regularly covered with glial cells. Using signals that remain largely elusive, the glia starts to differentiate into the different insulating glial cell layers (Birchmeier and Nave, 2008; Brinkmann et al., 2008).. The CNS midline of Drosophila, which comprises only 22 cells with known lineage and ...
Synaptic cell-adhesion molecules and their interactions with other molecular pathways affect both synapse formation and its function (Varoqueaux et al., 2006; Sudhof, 2008; Bemben et al., 2015a). Neurexins are presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that interact with neuroligins and other postsynaptic partners. Neurexins are encoded by three genes, each of which encodes a long and short isoform, termed α- and β-neurexins, respectively (Sudhof, 2008). Interestingly, despite studies linking neurexins to autism and other neuropsychiatric disorders (Leone et al., 2010; Rabaneda et al., 2014), the precise cellular mechanisms underlying the role of neurexins in cognition remain poorly understood.Since most biochemical studies of neurexins have focused on β-neurexins, investigating the synaptic actions of β-neurexins is particularly imperative. In their timely Cell article, Anderson et al reported that β-neurexins selectively modulate synaptic strength at excitatory synapses by regulating postsynaptic
In brain, signaling mediated by cell adhesion molecules defines the identity and functional properties of synapses. The specificity of presynaptic and postsynaptic interactions that is presumably mediated by cell adhesion molecules suggests that there exists a logic that could explain neuronal connectivity at the molecular level. Despite its importance, however, the nature of such logic is poorly understood, and even basic parameters, such as the number, identity, and single-cell expression profiles of candidate synaptic cell adhesion molecules, are not known. Here, we devised a comprehensive list of genes involved in cell adhesion, and used single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to analyze their expression in electrophysiologically defined interneurons and projection neurons. We compared the cell type-specific expression of these genes with that of genes involved in transmembrane ion conductances (i.e., channels), exocytosis, and rho/rac signaling, which regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Using these data,
Much of our understanding of synaptogenesis comes from studies that deal with the development of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Although well studied, it is not clear how far the NMJ represents an adequate model for the formation of synapses within the CNS. Here we investigate the role of Fasciclin II (Fas II) in the development of synapses between identified motor neurons and cholinergic interneurons in the CNS of Drosophila. Fas II is a neural cell adhesion molecule homolog that is involved in both target selection and synaptic plasticity at the NMJ in Drosophila. In this study, we show that levels of Fas II are critical determinants of synapse formation and growth in the CNS. The initial establishment of synaptic contacts between these identified neurons is seemingly independent of Fas II. The subsequent proliferation of these synaptic connections that occurs postembryonically is, in contrast, significantly retarded by the absence of Fas II. Although the initial formation of synaptic ...
Neural connections require precise organization of the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. Neuroligins are transmembrane proteins expressed on the postsynaptic cell that bind to β-neurexins, which are presynaptic transmembrane proteins. Graf et al. report that β-neurexin is present in both excitatory (glutamatergic) and inhibitory (GABAergic) presynaptic neurons of the hippocampus. When these cells were plated with COS cells transfected to express neuroligin-1 or neuroligin-2, the presynaptic specializations that contained synaptic vesicles were induced in both types of axons. Coculture of fibroblasts expressing neurexin-1β with hippocampal neurons triggered the formation of PSD-95-positive or gephyrin-positive postsynaptic clusters in contacting dendrites (PSD-95 is an excitatory postsynaptic organizing protein and gephyrin is an inhibitory postsynaptic organizing protein). In addition, neurexin-1β stimulated clustering of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor subunits and ...
We focused on changes in the exons of DNA-protein-coding areas in which deletions or duplications are more likely to directly disrupt biological functions," said study leader Hakon Hakonarson, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Center for Applied Genomics at The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia and associate professor of Pediatrics at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. "We identified additional autism susceptibility genes, many of which, as we previously found, belong to the neuronal cell adhesion molecule family involved in the development of brain circuitry in early childhood." He added that the team discovered many "private" gene mutations, those found only in one or a few individuals or families-an indication of genetic complexity, in which many different gene changes may contribute to an autism spectrum disorder ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CHL1 gene acts as a tumor suppressor in human neuroblastoma. AU - Ognibene, Marzia. AU - Pagnan, Gabriella. AU - Marimpietri, Danilo. AU - Cangelosi, Davide. AU - Cilli, Michele. AU - Benedetti, Maria Chiara. AU - Boldrini, Renata. AU - Garaventa, Alberto. AU - Frassoni, Francesco. AU - Eva, Alessandra. AU - Varesio, Luigi. AU - Pistoia, Vito. AU - Pezzolo, Annalisa. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Neuroblastoma is an aggressive, relapse-prone childhood tumor of the sympathetic nervous system that accounts for 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. A distal portion of human chromosome 3p is often deleted in neuroblastoma, this region may contain one or more putative tumor suppressor genes. A 2.54 Mb region at 3p26.3 encompassing the smallest region of deletion pinpointed CHL1 gene, the locus for neuronal cell adhesion molecule close homolog of L1. We found that low CHL1 expression predicted poor outcome in neuroblastoma patients. Here we have used two inducible cell models to analyze ...
Purpose: Reeler mice appear to be a good model for exploring the cross-talk between NGF and Reelin in development/maintenance of a physiological retinal function. Therefore, we sought to characterize NGF and trkANGFR/p75NTR expression in retinal cells from Reeler-L7-EGFPreln-/- transgenic mice (E-Reeler, n=2) and C57BL/6J-L7-EGFPreln+/+ transgenic mice (E-control, n=7), both expressing EGFP positivity in Rod Bipolar Cells (RBC).. Methods: Retinas were dissected from not pooled whole eyes. Single cell were obtained by DispaseII and/or Trypsin digestion, in the presence of DNAseI, equilibrated in HBSS-EDTA and fixed in 1% PFA. Cells were probed with specific antibodies (NGF, p75NTR and trkANGFR) and at least 10000 cells were acquired/analysed by flow cytometry, according to the MACSquant technology. Apoptosis was also estimated by AnnexinV.. Results: Both treatments were successful to obtain single cells from dissected retinas, albeit trypsin allowed a better side-scatter definition/resolution of ...
Browse Item # 75-001, CASPR/Neurexin IV in the Antibodies, Inc. catalog including Item #,Item Name,Description,Target,Applications,Clone,IgG Isotype,Species Reactivity,Validation,Type,Format,Cross Reactivity,Expected Banding Pattern,Host,Label,Antibo
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
LSAMP Undergraduate Program The LSAMP Undergraduate Program offers various activities and benefits throughout the year. Once a students initial application is approved, the student is responsible for submitting a continuing application each academic year. In order to continue receiving benefits of the LSAMP Undergraduate program, participants must do the following (1) Retain
The present studies were to determine whether the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib or its type regorafenib interacted with the ERBB1/ERBB2 inhibitor lapatinib to kill CNS tumor cells. fetal calf serum and 10% (v/v) Non-essential amino acids. All main human being glioblastoma cells were cultured at 37 C (5% (v/v CO2) using RPMI supplemented with 2% 16679-58-6 … Continue reading The present studies were to determine whether the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib. ...
A blog post discussing research examining an interaction between loss of reelin expression and organophosphate exposure in a mouse model
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The Ig-like domains of L1 can consider component in homophilic and heterophilic interactions ... condition models and human patients of Advertisement.
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マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab78540 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,ICC,IHC (PFA fixed)…Reelin抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
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An altered expression of the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is associated with cancer progression in various cancer types. In some cancers ALCAM has a prognostic value or is predictive for the benefit of therapeutic interventions. To date there are no data on the role of ALCAM in cervical cancer available. In this study, ALCAM expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissue samples of 233 patients with cervical cancer, among them 178 with complete follow-up information. In addition, soluble (s-)ALCAM was measured in sera of a subset of the included patients (n = 55) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ALCAM overexpression was detected (immunoreactive score (IRS) 2-12) in 58.4% of the cervical cancer samples. The normal ectocervical or endocervical epithelium showed no ALCAM reactivity. In untreated patients, ALCAM overexpression in tumor tissue tended to be associated with shorter cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Patients,
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Our purpose was assess the impact of Activated Leucocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) on Human Vascular Endothelial Cells (HECV), these cell are important in angiogenesis and hence wound healing. HECV line positive for ALCAM were used. Anti-ALCAM transgenes were constructed based on the secondary structure of the ALCAM mRAN. After transfection of HECV cells with the transgene and control vectors, the following cell sublines were created; a control (HECVpEF) endothelial cell line and a ALCAM-knockdown (HECVALCAM/KD) cell line. We then assessed the impact of ALCAM on cellular migration of the endothelial cells by way of electric wounding using Electrical Cell Impedence Sensing (ECIS) zy model. We successfully suppressed the expression of ALCAM in HECV cells by using the anti-ALCAM transgene. HECV rapidly migrated after wounding. It recovered at a rapid pace (0.57/min). Interestingly, after losing ALCAM transcript, the HECVALCAM/KD cells migrated at a substantially reduced rate. Finally, the ...
An interaction of growth cone axonin-1 with the floor-plate NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) was shown to play a crucial role in commissural axon guidance across the midline of the spinal cord. We now provide evidence that axonin-1 mediates a guidance signal without promoting axon elongation. In an in vitro assay, commissural axons grew preferentially on stripes coated with a mixture of NrCAM and NgCAM. This preference was abolished in the presence of anti-axonin-1 antibodies without a decrease in neurite length. Consistent with these findings, commissural axons in vivo only fail to extend along the longitudinal axis when both NrCAM and NgCAM interactions, but not when axonin-1 and NrCAM or axonin-1 and NgCAM interactions, are perturbed. Thus, we conclude that axonin-1 is involved in guidance of commissural axons without promoting their growth. ...
In the central nervous system, cellular prion proteins are found in astrocytes and neurons. There has been evidence showing that they prolong the survival9 as well as affect the differentiation of these structures. Scientists have found that cellular prions interact with NCAM, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, in astrocytes and this causes neurogenesis. Another role that the cellular prions might be involved in is the differentiation process of neurons. Scientists have found that when the ligand, STI1 (secreted from astrocytes) binds a receptor on the cellular prion glycoprotein membrane, the neurons differentiate. There were much lower levels of neurogenesis in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures, when they did not express the Prnp gene. Furthermore, they suggested that the interaction between cellular prion proteins and STI1 may play a role in protecting against apoptosis, as they have seen in neurons located in the hippocampus and the retina8 . It is likely that there are other molecular factors in ...
Attractants and repellents shunt neurons into their correct final location. But now Iris Hack, Harold Cremer (Université Mediterranée, Marseille, France), and colleagues have found evidence that reelin fits into neither of these categories. They propose, instead, that reelin converts cells that are migrating in association with each other into individual cells that can strike out alone to find their final position.. This conclusion comes over fifty years after the locomoter abnormality of reeler mice was first described. Loss of reelin, the product of the reeler gene, causes a failure of older neurons to migrate through the layers of younger neurons in the cortex. But, says Cremer, "the available data gave no clear idea of what reelin was doing.". Cremer studied not the cortex but the adult olfactory bulb, where he found that reelin was required for the ongoing arrival of new interneurons. Without reelin, incoming chains of migrating interneurons piled up at the entrance to the olfactory bulb, ...
Bio: I was born at Seoul, Korea in 1971 and served as a soldier in the army from 1991 to 1994. I received Ph.D. in neuroscience in 2004 from Dep. of Physiology and Biophysics, Inha University, school of medicine, Korea. Research topic was "Effects of Caveolin-1 on the Na+-Ca2+ Exchanger Activity in Soma of Rat Cerebellar Purkinje Neuron" that was supervised by Chang Kook Suh. I had been trained as a postdoctoral fellow in Dep. of Life Science, Pohang University of science and technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Korea since 2005 and was promoted to research assistant professor from the same institute in 2007. In POSTECH, research topic was that synaptic adhesion protein, neuroligin-1 (synaptic adhesion molecule) affected synaptic plasticity and the fear memory in amygdala. To study on vesicle dynamics, I came to Max-Planck-Institut für Experimentelle Medizin in Germany in 2009 with Korea government supported grant. Research topic was the measurement of calcium cooperativity on vesicle release in ...
The brains circuitry is established by directed migration and synaptogenesis of neurons during development. Although neurons mature and migrate in specific patterns, little is known about how neurons exit their germinal zone niche. We found that cerebellar granule neuron germinal zone exit is regulated by proteasomal degradation of Pard3A by the Seven in Absentia homolog (Siah) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Pard3A gain-of-function and Siah loss-of-function induce precocious radial migration. Time-lapse imaging using a probe to measure neuronal cell contact reveals that Pard3A promotes adhesive interactions needed for germinal zone exit by recruiting the JAM-C epithelial tight junction adhesion molecule to the neuronal cell surface. Our findings define a Siah-Pard3A signaling pathway that controls adhesion-dependent exit of neuronal progenitors or immature neurons from a germinal zone niche.. ...
The proliferation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells requires communication with the lymphoid organ microenvironment. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a multifunctional intracellular adaptor protein that transmits extracellular signals to regulate malignant cell motility, metastasis, and cell cycle progression, but is poorly characterized in hematological malignancies. In this study, we investigated the role of ILK in the context of CLL and observed high ILK expression in patient samples, particularly in tumor cells harboring prognostic high risk markers such as unmutated IGHV genes, high Zap70 or CD38 expression, or a signature of recent proliferation. We also found increased numbers of Ki67 (MKI67)-positive cells in regions of enhanced ILK expression in lymph nodes (LNs) from CLL patients. Using co-culture conditions mimicking the proliferative LN microenvironment, we detected a parallel induction of ILK and cyclin D1 (CCND1) expression in CLL cells that was dependent on the activation ...
Specific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting viral pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Non-self RNA appearing in a cell as a result of intracellular viral replication is recognized by a family of cytosolic RNA helicases termed RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs). The RLR proteins include RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2 and are expressed in both immune and nonimmune cells. Upon recognition of viral nucleic acids, RLRs recruit specific intracellular adaptor proteins to initiate signaling pathways that lead to the synthesis of type I interferon and other inflammatory cytokines, which are important for eliminating viruses ...
Specific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting viral pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Non-self RNA appearing in a cell as a result of intracellular viral replication is recognized by a family of cytosolic RNA helicases termed RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs). The RLR proteins include RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2 and are expressed in both immune and nonimmune cells. Upon recognition of viral nucleic acids, RLRs recruit specific intracellular adaptor proteins to initiate signaling pathways that lead to the synthesis of type I interferon and other inflammatory cytokines, which are important for eliminating viruses ...
3.3.CO;2-7. PMID 9671277. Schiffmann SN, Bernier B, Goffinet AM (May 1997). "Reelin mRNA expression during mouse brain development". The European Journal of Neuroscience. 9 (5): 1055-71. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.1997.tb01456.x. PMID 9182958. Pesold C, Impagnatiello F, Pisu MG, Uzunov DP, Costa E, Guidotti A, Caruncho HJ (Mar 1998). "Reelin is preferentially expressed in neurons synthesizing gamma-aminobutyric acid in cortex and hippocampus of adult rats". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 95 (6): 3221-6. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.6.3221. PMC 19723 . PMID 9501244. Alcántara S, Ruiz M, DArcangelo G, Ezan F, de Lecea L, Curran T, Sotelo C, Soriano E (Oct 1998). "Regional and cellular patterns of reelin mRNA expression in the forebrain of the developing and adult mouse". The Journal of Neuroscience. 18 (19): 7779-99. PMID 9742148. Pesold C, Liu WS, Guidotti A, Costa E, Caruncho HJ (Mar 1999). "Cortical bitufted, horizontal, and Martinotti cells ...
To investigate the effects of hippocampal microenvironment, especially Reelin on cell differentiation and cell polarization, mouse (wild type and reeler) hippocampal slices were co-cultured with various kinds of cells with different degrees of differentiation, such as the stem cells (undifferentiated cells), tumor cells (poorly differentiated cells) and terminal differentiated cells (mature somatic cells).
ALCAM - ALCAM (untagged)-Human activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Langley, K. und Gratzl, Manfred (1991): Neural Cells adhesion Molecule NCAM in neural and endocrine cells. In: Gratzl, Manfred und Langley, K. (Hrsg.): Markers for Neural and Endocrine Cells : molecular and cell biology, diagnostic applications. Winheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag. S. 133-178 [PDF, 6MB] ...
I. Introduction .............................................................................................212 II. Long-term effects of postnatal inorganic
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Botella-Lopez A. , Burgaya, F; Gavin, R; Garcia-Ayllon, MS; Gomez-Tortosa, E; Peña-Casanova, J; Ureña, JM; Del Rio, JA; Blesa, R; Soriano, E; Saez-Valero, J. " Reelin expression and glycosylation patterns are altered in Alzheimers disease. " Proc Natl Acad Sci USA . 103 , 5573 - 5578 ( 2006 ) ...
Purpose: To examine mRNA expression level of angiogenic growth factors, VEGF and TGFb1, in macrophages and ocular fibroblasts derived from a tenascin X-null mouse. We previously reported that the loss of tenascin X suppress neocvascularization with reduction of in vivo expression of angiogenic growth factors in a mouse cornea (ARVO 2014).. Methods: Peritoneal macrophages were obtained from tenascin X-null and wild types mice by using macrophage induction by oyster glycogen i.p. injection. Ocular fibroblasts were cultured from eye-shells of post-natal day 1 or 2 mice. The cultures were maintained for 24 hrs with or without exogenous TGFb1 and processed for RNA extraction. Real-time RT-PCR was ran to examine the expression level of VEGF and TGFb1.. Results: Loss of tenascin X supprsss mRNA expression of VEGF in macrophages and of TGFb1 in fibroblasts in the absence of TGFb1. Loss of tenascin X did not attenuate the TGFb1 induction of VEGF and TGFb1 in these cell types.. Conclusions: Tenascin X is ...
Many studies have supported a genetic etiology for autism. Here we report mutations in two X-linked genes encoding neuroligins NLGN3 and NLGN4 in siblings with autism-spectrum disorders. These mutations affect cell-adhesion molecules localized at the synapse and suggest that a defect of synaptogenesis may predispose to autism. ...
Accumulation of glia, gliosis, in various neurological disorders is not a static scar, but actively involved in pathogenesis of various neurological and psychiatric disorders, where glial cells produce both inflammatory and neurotrophic factors. These factors may play a role in neuronal damage, but.... Full description. ...
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Reelin labeling is not present in all endothelial cells. A) Low magnification image of an unlabeled brain capillary in the cortex. The wall of this brain capill
View mouse Cntnap4 Chr8:112570043-112882717 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Scientists have decoded the molecular details of a genetic defect that disrupts signal transmission in the brain and causes autism. In mice without neuroligins the synapses do not mature.
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We developed a method for labeling individual recombinant biotinylated neurexin and neuroligin molecules using monomeric streptavidin (mSA) conjugated to photostable Atto dyes. These small (...). ...
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We describe here the cloning of mouse complementary DNAs encoding a novel protein, Rb-8 neural cell adhesion molecule (RNCAM), with a predicted extracellular region of five immunoglobulin Ca-type domains followed by two fibronectin type III domains, Alternative splicing is likely to generate two RNCAM isoforms, which are differently attached to the cell membrane, These structural features and overall sequence identity identify this protein as a novel member of a cell adhesion molecule subgroup together with vertebrate neural cell adhesion molecule, Aplysia cell adhesion molecule, and Drosophila fasciclin II, In insects, fasciclin II is present on a restricted subset of embryonic central nervous system axons where it controls selective axon fasciculation. Intriguingly, RNCAM likewise is expressed in subsets of olfactory and vomeronasal neurons with topographically defined axonal projections, The spatial expression RNCAM corresponds precisely to that of certain odorant receptor expression zones of ...
I have examined the distribution of neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) in cultured C2 myogenic cells and other cell lines to determine if N-CAM accumulates at sites of cell-cell contact. C2 cells growing in log phase display large clusters of neural cell adhesion molecule where they contact each other. These clusters are remarkably stable, do not form at cell-substrate contacts, and appear not to be enriched in a number of other cytoskeletal, membrane, or extracellular proteins. Thus, N-CAM clusters form preferentially in response to cell-cell contact and are specifically enriched in N-CAM. As C2 cultures mature and differentiate, clusters persist at contacts between aligning myoblasts and between myotubes, consistent with a role in myogenesis. N-CAM is also enriched at cell-cell contacts in cultures of PC12, NRK, and CHO cells. These cells have significant amounts of N-CAM as detected on immunoblots. Clusters are not seen in L929 cells, which do not have detectable amounts of N-CAM. ...
Aims To test the incidence of the expression of the immunohistochemical markers that aid diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract small cell carcinoma (GI-SmCC) and to evaluate the incidence of mixed endocrine-exocrine carcinomas in GI-SmCC.. Methods Immunohistochemical studies of three antibodies against epithelial markers (CK8, AE1/AE3, EMA), four neuroendocrine differentiation markers (synaptophysin (Syn), neuron specific enolase (NSE), neuronal cell adhesion molecules (CD56), chromogranin A (CgA)), and a transcription factor (thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1)) were performed. The incidence of non-endocrine carcinoma component was evaluated in 42 GI-SmCCs (11 in the oesophagus, 15 in the stomach, 15 in the colon, and 1 in the small intestine).. Results The percentages of GI-SmCC with positive immunoreactivity were: CK8 92.9%, AE1/AE3 76.2%, EMA 71.4%, Syn 100%, NSE 100%, CD56 90.5%, CgA 61.9%, TTF-1 21.4%. The low molecular weight cytokeratin CK8 is more commonly expressed in GI-SmCC than is ...
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Intrinsic programs and extrinsic factors imposed by the local extracellular environment tightly control the fate determination of NSCs (Barnabé-Heider et al., 2005; Ma et al., 2008; Seuntjens et al., 2009; Shen et al., 2006; Tanentzapf et al., 2007). In the present study we identified TNR, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that is expressed in the developing and adult nervous system, as an important factor in regulating the generation of GABAergic interneurons and granule neurons in the developing and adult murine dentate gyrus.. The majority of GABAergic neurons in rodents arise from the medial and caudal eminence (Danglot et al., 2006). We show that during embryonic development TNR is not only strongly expressed in the developing murine cortex, but also in the medial and caudal ganglionic eminence in close proximity to proliferating cells. Notably, TNR is also expressed in the developing human cerebral cortex in a spatio-temporally controlled pattern (El Ayachi et al., 2011). Ablation of ...
Autism is a common and frequently disabling neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic basis. Human genetic studies have discovered mutations disrupting exons of the NRXN2 gene, which encodes the synaptic adhesion protein α-neurexin II (Nrxn2α), in two unrelated individuals with autism, but a causal link between NRXN2 and the disorder remains unclear. To begin to test the hypothesis that Nrxn2α deficiency contributes to the symptoms of autism, we employed Nrxn2α knockout (KO) mice that genetically model Nrxn2α deficiency in vivo. We report that Nrxn2α KO mice displayed deficits in sociability and social memory when exposed to novel conspecifics. In tests of exploratory activity, Nrxn2α KO mice displayed an anxiety-like phenotype in comparison with wild-type littermates, with thigmotaxis in an open field, less time spent in the open arms of an elevated plus maze, more time spent in the enclosure of an emergence test and less time spent exploring novel objects. However, Nrxn2α KO ...
CD6 (Cluster of Differentiation 6) is a human protein encoded by the CD6 gene. This gene encodes a protein found on the outer membrane of T-lymphocytes as well as some other immune cells. The encoded protein contains three scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains and a binding site for an activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule. The gene product is important for continuation of T cell activation. Certain alleles of this gene may be associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000013725 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000024670 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: CD6 CD6 molecule". Bowen MA, Patel DD, Li X, Modrell B, Malacko AR, Wang WC, Marquardt H, Neubauer M, Pesando JM, Francke U (1995). "Cloning, mapping, and characterization of activated leukocyte-cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), a CD6 ligand". J. Exp. Med. 181 (6): 2213-20. ...
Decreased Reelin Expression and Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure Alters Mouse Behavior and Brain Morphology. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23298182 Genetic and environmental factors are both likely to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders. In this study, we examined the combinatorial effect of two factors thought to be involved in autism - reduction in the expression of the extracellular…
The mechanisms underlying the neurodevelopmental deficits associated with CHARGE syndrome, which include cerebellar hypoplasia, developmental delay, coordination problems, and autistic features, have not been identified. CHARGE syndrome has been associated with mutations in the gene encoding the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler CHD7. CHD7 is expressed in neural stem and progenitor cells, but its role in neurogenesis during brain development remains unknown. Here we have shown that deletion of ...
In this thesis several important proteins are investigated from a structural perspective. Some of the proteins are disease related while other have important but not completely characterised functions. The techniques used are general as demonstrated by applications on metabolic proteins (CYP21, CYP11B1, IAPP, ADH3), regulatory proteins (p53, GDNF) and a transporter protein (ANTR1).. When the protein CYP21 (steroid 21-hydroxylase) is deficient it causes CAH (congenital adrenal hyperplasia). For this protein, there are about 60 known mutations with characterised clinical phenotypes. Using manual structural analysis we managed to explain the severity of all but one of the mutations. By observing the properties of these mutations we could perform good predictions on, at the time, not classified mutations.. For the cancer suppressor protein p53, there are over thousand mutations with known activity. To be able to analyse such a large number of mutations we developed an automated method for evaluation ...
Bonds between adhesion molecules are often mechanically stressed. A striking example is the tensile force applied to selectin-ligand bonds, which mediate the tethering and rolling of flowing leukocytes on vascular surfaces(1-3). It has been suggested ...
CNTNAP2 no more. While TTN is the largest gene in the human genome, CNTNAP2, coding for contactin-associated protein-like 2 is the gene that occupies the largest space on a human chromosome, basically covering much of the chromosomal band 7q35. It is also known as CASPR2 or NRNX4 and codes for a synaptic adhesion protein. Deletions in CNTNAP2 are known to be risk factors for various neurodevelopmental disorders and accordingly, also rare variants in this gene have been suggested to predispose to autism, intellectual disability, or epilepsy. In a recent publication in PLoS Genetics, Murdoch and collaborators demonstrate that this assumption is false - in a large cohort of more than 2000 patients with autism compared to controls, they do not find evidence for an association of this gene with the autism phenotype ...
Several cell adhesion molecules involved in neuron-neuron and neuron- glia interactions have been identified in our laboratory and have been shown to undergo cell surface modulation. In the case of the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM), it has been found that during development the molecule is converted from a microheterogeneous embryonic (E) form containing 30 gm of sialic acid/100 gm of polypeptide to several distinct adult (A) forms containing one third as much of this sugar. In vitro analyses indicate that this change is accompanied by a 4-fold increase in the rate of N-CAM homophilic binding. In the present study of the mouse and the chick, alterations of N-CAMs occurring as a result of E----A conversion, prevalence modulation, and changes in antigenic state during the development of different neural regions were analyzed by the use of highly specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies combined with anatomical dissection and several new quantitative assays. We made the following ...
Read Cell Adhesion Molecules Cellular Recognition Mechanisms by with Rakuten Kobo. The Fourth Annual Pezcoller Symposium entitled Adhesion Molecules: Cellular Recognition Mechanisms was held in Rovereto,...
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Nature Neuroscience has a nice special focus on glia and disease. The featured reviews and perspective articles discuss multiple aspects of neuron-glia interactions and their role in disease. The reason why I am highlighting this collection here is that I have the feeling that this field could potentially be a nice playground for systems biology.. For example, Rossi and colleagues (2007) review the various metabolic processes affected during brain ischemia. Several of the examples discussed illustrate very well how the extent of brain damage is determined by the concurrent dynamics of both harmful and protective processes engaging complex interactions between neurons and astrocytes. A critical determinant for ischemic damage is the catastrophic loss of ATP levels caused by deficient glucose and oxygen delivery. Astrocytes have glycogen stores that can normally be converted to lactate which is exported to neurons to provide energy during phases of high activity. In absence of oxygen however, ...
This work provides experimental evidence that VRK1 plays an essential role in development of the cerebral cortex. Recessive VRK1 mutations cause SMA-PCH (Renbaum et al., 2009), a disease associated with severe congenital microcephaly, and limited to the nervous system. We hypothesized a role for VRK1 in neuronal migration based on brain MRIs of affected children (Fig. 1A-D; Gonzaga-Jauregui et al., 2013) and the observed effect of the mutation on expression of genes associated with the Reelin pathway. Our results also suggested that VRK1 R358X is a null allele, and furthermore, any residual mutant protein that may be produced will not enter the nucleus (Sanz-García et al., 2011). Therefore, we proposed to model the effects of the human disease in the developing mouse brain by knockdown experiments. Our results show that Vrk1 knockdown strongly impairs neuronal migration, and human VRK1 (resistant to the shRNA) significantly rescues migration deficits when expressed in neural progenitors or in ...
Predicted to have calcium-dependent phospholipid binding activity; calcium-dependent protein binding activity; and phospholipase A2 inhibitor activity. Predicted to be involved in several processes, including homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules; positive regulation of endothelial cell migration; and regulation of NMDA receptor activity. Predicted to localize to the plasma membrane. Orthologous to human ANXA3 (annexin A3 ...
Stanfield, B B.; Caviness, V S.; and Cowan, W M., "The organization of certain afferents to the hippocampus and dentate gyrous in normal and reeler mice." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 478 ...
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Scrambler therapy is a pain management approach that uses a machine to block the transmission of pain signals by providing non-pain information to nerve fibers that have been receiving pain messages. The first study on scrambler therapy was published in 2003 by a team of researchers led by Giuseppe Marineo, professor in delta research and development at University of Rome Tor Vergata in Italy. He
Rat anti Human SI-CLP antibody, clone 1C11 detects human Stabilin-interacting chitinase like protein (SI-CLP), a novel member of the Glyco
Epidermal junctions can be maintained in cell-adhesion mutants and RNAi treated animals.We used an AJM-1::GFP transgene (jcIs1) to examine epidermal morphology
High-grade gliomas, a group of aggressive brain tumors, cease growing in mice if a signaling molecule called neuroligin-3 is absent or its activity is blocked with drugs, a Stanford team has shown.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The genetically modified polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule-positive cells for potential treatment of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. AU - Jang, Jiho. AU - Kim, Han Soo. AU - Kang, Joon Won. AU - Kang, Hoon Chul. PY - 2013/1. Y1 - 2013/1. N2 - Purpose: Cell transplantation of myelin-producing exogenous cells is being extensively explored as a means of remyelinating axons in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. We determined whether 3,3,5-Triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) overexpresses the ABCD2 gene in the polysialylated (PSA) form of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-positive cells and promotes cell proliferation and favors oligodendrocyte lineage differentiation. Materials and Methods: PSA-NCAM+ cells from newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were grown for five days on uncoated dishes in defined medium with or without supplementation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and/or T3. Then, PSA-NCAM+ spheres were prepared in single cells and transferred to ...
A cDNA library prepared from the mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 was screened for the presence of specifically expressed genes by employing a combined subtraction hybridization/differential screening approach. A cDNA was identified and sequenced which encodes a protein designated osteoblast-specific factor 2 (OSF-2) comprising 811 amino acids. OSF-2 has a typical signal sequence, followed by a cysteine-rich domain, a fourfold repeated domain and a C-terminal domain. The protein lacks a typical transmembrane region. The fourfold repeated domain of OSF-2 shows homology with the insect protein fasciclin I. RNA analyses revealed that OSF-2 is expressed in bone and to a lesser extent in lung, but not in other tissues. Mouse OSF-2 cDNA was subsequently used as a probe to clone the human counterpart. Mouse and human OSF-2 show a high amino acid sequence conservation except for the signal sequence and two regions in the C-terminal domain in which in-frame insertions or deletions are observed, ...
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International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
The extracellular matrix glycoprotein, tenascin, is associated in vivo with mesenchyme undergoing osteogenesis and chondrogenesis, but is absent from mature bone and cartilage matrix. The expression of tenascin by osteoblastic cells in vitro has been investigated by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Tenascin was secreted into the medium and deposited in the matrix by human and rat osteoblast-like cell lines, as well as by primary osteoblast-enriched cultures from chick embryo calvarial bones. In primary osteoblast-enriched cultures, extracellular tenascin was found only in cell aggregates expressing the osteoblast marker alkaline phosphatase. Chicken osteoblast cultures synthesized almost exclusively the largest tenascin subunit, whereas fibroblast cultures from periostea of chicken calvariae synthesized approximately equal amounts of all three subunits. In situ hybridization studies of developing chicken bones, using a cDNA probe that hybridizes to all chicken tenascin splice variants, ...
In my undergrad, I was in the neural tissue engineering laboratory where I helped design PEG hydrogel to improve cell transplant therapy for Alzheimer disease. As a Masters student, I was a part of the laboratory of behavioral neuroscience where we studied cocaine-cue extinction learning in rats using an operant conditioning chamber. Currently, my research is on the synaptic adhesion molecule SynCAM and its contributions to Cocaine effects on synapses structure and behavior. Also, I am characterizing SynCAM 2 KO mice.. ...
Clone REA442 recognizes the human CD166 antigen, a single-pass type I membrane protein also known as activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM). CD166, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and a ligand for the lymphocyte antigen CD6, mediates homophilic and heterophilic adhesion. It is expressed on activated leukocytes T cells, B cells, monocytes, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), metastasizing melanoma, neuronal cells, endothelial cells, hematopoiesis-supporting osteoblastic cell lines, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). CD166 expression is pathologically correlated with aggressive disease in a variety of cancers including melanoma, prostate, breast, ovarian, esophageal, and bladder cancers. It is also a universal functional marker of murine and human HSCs and osteoblasts within the hematopoietic niche and it is involved in modulating HSC-niche interactions and HSC fate. Additional information: Clone REA442 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Sverige
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The proper formation of synapses-specialized unitary structures formed between two neurons-is critical to mediating information flow in the brain. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are thought to participate in the initiation of the synapse formation process. However, functional analysis demonstrates that most well known synaptic CAMs regulate synaptic maturation and plasticity rather than synapse formation, suggesting that either CAMs work synergistically in the process of forming synapses or more CAMs remain to be found. By screening for unknown CAMs using a co-culture system, we revealed that protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type O (PTPRO) is a potent CAM that induces the formation of artificial synapse clusters in co-cultures of human embryonic kidney 293 cells and hippocampal neurons cultured from newborn mice regardless of gender. PTPRO was enriched in the mouse brain and localized to postsynaptic sites at excitatory synapses. The overexpression of PTPRO in cultured hippocampal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of the Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I-binding protein as a unique glycoform of the neural cell adhesion molecule in the olfactory sensory axons of adult rats. AU - Pestean, Aurelian. AU - Krizbai, István. AU - Böttcher, Herma. AU - Párducz, Árpád. AU - Joó, Ferenc. AU - Wolff, Joachim R.. PY - 1995/8/4. Y1 - 1995/8/4. N2 - Histochemical localization of two lectins, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) and Tetragonolobus purpureus (TPA), was studied in the olfactory bulb of adult rats. In contrast to TPA, UEA-I detected a fucosylated glycoprotein that is only present in the surface membranes of olfactory sensory cells including the whole course of their neurites up to the final arborization in glomeruli. Immunoblotting revealed that UEA-I binds specifically to a protein of 205 kDa, while TPA stains several other glycoproteins. Affinity chromatography with the use of a UEA-I column identified the 205 kDa protein as a glycoform of neural cell adhesion molecule ...
Skeletal muscle satellite cells located between the plasma membrane and the basal lamina of muscle fibres, could for many years, only be studied in situ by electron microscopy. The introduction of immunohistochemistry and the discovery of molecular markers of satellite cells then made them accessible for light microscopic studies and a wealth of information is today available. Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells that can be activated from a quiescent state to proliferate for self-renewal or differentiate into myogenic cells. The satellite cells are involved in muscle growth during fetal and postnatal development and play a key role in repair and regeneration of damaged muscle fibres. The satellite cells are also essential for muscle fibre hypertrophy and maintenance of muscle mass in the adult. When the present thesis was initiated, studies on satellite cells in human skeletal muscle relied on the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) as a marker for satellite cell identification. The ...
Ectodermal appendages such as skin, hair, teeth, and sweat glands are affected in patients with hypohidrotic (anhydrotic) ectodermal dysplasia (HED). It has been established that mutations in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of molecules, i.e., ectodysplasin (EDA), EDA receptor (EDAR), and EDAR-associated death domain (EDARADD; the intracellular adaptor for EDAR), are responsible for several forms of HED in humans and mice. We show here by in situ hybridisation that another TNF family (orphan) receptor, TROY (also known TAJ, TAJ-alpha, TRADE, and TNFRSF19), is strongly coexpressed with Edar in the epithelial enamel knot signalling centres that are believe to regulate cuspal morphogenesis during murine tooth development. Traf6 is known to function as an intracellular adaptor protein for Troy and examination of Traf6 mutant mice revealed abnormalities in molar teeth that are similar but more severe than those produced by mutations in Eda signalling molecules. This finding suggests that, ...
The Djungarian hamster displays photoperiodic variations in gonadal size synchronized to the seasons by the nightly secretion of the pineal hormone melatonin. In short photoperiod (SP), the gonads regress in size, and circulating sex steroids levels decline. Thus, the brain is subject to seasonal variations of both melatonin and sex steroids. Tanycytes are specialized glial cells located in the ependymal lining of the third ventricle. They send processes either to the meninges or to blood vessels of the medio-basal hypothalamus. Furthermore, they are known to locally modulate GnRH release in the median eminence and to display seasonal structural changes. Seasonal changes in tanycyte morphology might be mediated either through melatonin or sex steroids. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of photoperiod, melatonin, and sex steroids 1) on tanycyte vimentin expression by immunohistochemistry and 2) on the expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and polysialic acid as markers of brain ...

Characterization of the 5 and promoter regions of the gene encoding the mouse neuronal cell adhesion molecule F3.  - PubMed -...Characterization of the 5' and promoter regions of the gene encoding the mouse neuronal cell adhesion molecule F3. - PubMed -...

Characterization of the 5 and promoter regions of the gene encoding the mouse neuronal cell adhesion molecule F3.. Buttiglione ... non-expressing cells. In addition, a cell type-specific enhancer, only active in F3-expressing cells, was found immediately ... F3 is a 135 kDa neuronal cell surface adhesive glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin supergene family (IgSF) which ... The study of F3 gene exon/intron organization revealed that, like other neural IgSF molecules, each of the first two F3 C2 ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7609617?dopt=Abstract

Functional cross-talk between the cellular prion protein and the neural cell adhesion molecule is critical for neuronal...Functional cross-talk between the cellular prion protein and the neural cell adhesion molecule is critical for neuronal...

Functional cross-talk between the cellular prion protein and the neural cell adhesion molecule is critical for neuronal ... Although PrP has been reported to associate with the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), the consequences of concerted PrP- ... NCAM not only fails to promote neuronal differentiation but also induces an accumulation of doublecortin-positive neuronal ... HB-EGF human, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥95% (SDS-PAGE), ≥95% (HPLC), cell culture tested pricing ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/24497115

A Neuronal Form of the Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 Contains a Tyrosine-Based Signal Required for Sorting to the Axonal Growth...A Neuronal Form of the Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 Contains a Tyrosine-Based Signal Required for Sorting to the Axonal Growth...

A Neuronal Form of the Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 Contains a Tyrosine-Based Signal Required for Sorting to the Axonal Growth ... A Neuronal Form of the Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 Contains a Tyrosine-Based Signal Required for Sorting to the Axonal Growth ... A Neuronal Form of the Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 Contains a Tyrosine-Based Signal Required for Sorting to the Axonal Growth ... A Neuronal Form of the Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 Contains a Tyrosine-Based Signal Required for Sorting to the Axonal Growth ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/18/10/3749

Dennexin peptides modeled after the homophilic binding sites of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) promote neuronal...Dennexin peptides modeled after the homophilic binding sites of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) promote neuronal...

Although the two dennexin peptides differed in amino acid sequence, they both modulated cell adhesion, reflected by inhibition ... mediated cell adhesion results in activation of intracellular signaling cascades that lead to cellular responses such as ... Consistent with the effect of dennexinA on NCAM-mediated adhesion in vitro, the peptide impaired long-term memory retention in ... Both dennexins also promoted neuronal survival, and the effect of dennexinA was independent of polysialic acid expression. ...
more infohttps://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/150222/export/hm

Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal | Profiles RNSCell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal | Profiles RNS

"Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal" was a ... Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal*Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal. *Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecules ... These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION ... "Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ...
more infohttps://profiles.rush.edu/display/17425

Oriented, Multimeric Biointerfaces of the L1 Cell Adhesion Molecule: An Approach to Enhance Neuronal and Neural Stem Cell...Oriented, Multimeric Biointerfaces of the L1 Cell Adhesion Molecule: An Approach to Enhance Neuronal and Neural Stem Cell...

Cultures of human neural progenitor cells screened on the L1-Fc/polymer biointerfaces showed significantly enhanced neuronal ... Notably, the highest degree of βIII-tubulin expression for cells in 3-D fibrous scaffolds were observed in protein A oriented ... effects of cell attachment to polycationic charged substrates with subcellular topography along with L1-mediated adhesion ... mediating neuronal differentiation. Together, these findings highlight the promise of displays of multimeric neural adhesion ...
more infohttps://biointerphases.springeropen.com/articles/10.1007/s13758-012-0022-1

NRCAM Gene - GeneCards | NRCAM Protein | NRCAM AntibodyNRCAM Gene - GeneCards | NRCAM Protein | NRCAM Antibody

Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily. This gene encodes a neuronal cell adhesion ... NRCAM (Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with NRCAM include Autism. Among its ... cDNA FLJ35011 fis, clone OCBBF2013149, highly similar to Neuronal cell adhesion molecule (B3KRX0_HUMAN) ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?id_type=entrezgene&id=4897

The polysialic acid units of the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM form filament bundle networks.The polysialic acid units of the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM form filament bundle networks.

Polysialic acid is a developmentally regulated component in the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM which also occurs as the ... Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal / metabolism*. Microscopy, Atomic Force. Sialic Acids / chemistry, metabolism*. ... 0/Biopolymers; 0/Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal; 0/Sialic Acids; 0/polysialic acid ... Polysialic acid is a developmentally regulated component in the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM which also occurs as the ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/polysialic-acid-units-neural-cell/9786844.html

Autologous Fibroblast Transplantation in Facial DeformitiesAutologous Fibroblast Transplantation in Facial Deformities

... and NEURONAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES. Several variants of the receptor exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. ... Loosing of fibroblast cell is the main problem in aging and wrinkles and non-healed skin wounds. Therefore proliferation of ... Fibroblasts are cells that synthesize the extracellular matrix and collagen and play a critical role in wound healing and ... A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/65378/Autologous-Fibroblast-Transplantation-in-Facial-Deformities.html

Anti-NrCAM antibody [S364-51] (HRP) (ab186239) | AbcamAnti-NrCAM antibody [S364-51] (HRP) (ab186239) | Abcam

Neuronal cell adhesion molecule antibody. *Neuronal surface protein Bravo antibody. *Ng CAM related antibody ... Cell adhesion, ankyrin-binding protein involved in neuron-neuron adhesion. May play a role in the molecular assembly of the ... Cell Biology. Epigenetics. Metabolism. Developmental Biology. By research area. Immunology. Microbiology. Neuroscience. Signal ... Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and biochemical assays. By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/nrcam-antibody-s364-51-hrp-ab186239.html

NRCAM (rat)NRCAM (rat)

Neuronal cell adhesion molecule Show on y-axis - References (HTP + LTP). References (LTP). References (HTP). Mutation Frequency ... PhosphoSite, created by Cell Signaling Technology is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 ...
more infohttps://www.phosphosite.org/proteinAction.action?id=24337&showAllSites=true

IGDCC3 Gene - GeneCards | IGDC3 Protein | IGDC3 AntibodyIGDCC3 Gene - GeneCards | IGDC3 Protein | IGDC3 Antibody

Putative Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule 2 3 4 * PUNC 3 4 * HsT18880 3 ... span" data-trigger="SectionLoaded"> Inner Cell Mass (Early Embryonic Tissues) * Induced pluripotent stem cell line 1 ... mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery. *span" data-trigger="SectionLoaded"> Skeletal ... Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for IGDCC3 Gene ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=IGDCC3

Chondroitin-4-sulfation negatively regulates axonal guidance and growth | Journal of Cell ScienceChondroitin-4-sulfation negatively regulates axonal guidance and growth | Journal of Cell Science

Walsh, F. S. and Doherty, P. (1996). Cell adhesion molecules and neuronal regeneration. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 8, 707-713. ... cell adhesion molecules and growth factors (Lu et al., 2007; McKeon et al., 1995; Walsh and Doherty, 1996). In addition, ... Dissociated CGNs were seeded onto the coverslips at a density of 6×104 cells/well and cultured for 2 days. Cells were fixed and ... The splicing co-factor Barricade/Tat-SF1 is required for cell cycle and lineage progression in Drosophila neural stem cells. ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/121/18/3083

Mechanisms of vertebrate segmentation. - Semantic ScholarMechanisms of vertebrate segmentation. - Semantic Scholar

... through cells and their interactions, to morphogenesis and whole body pattern; and there is no compelling reason for thinking ... It can be studied at many levels, ranging from molecule and genome, ... Neuronal cell adhesion molecule contactin/F11 binds to tenascin via its immunoglobulin-like domains. *Andreas Hugo Zisch, Laura ... It can be studied at many levels, ranging from molecule and genome, through cells and their interactions, to morphogenesis and ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Mechanisms-of-vertebrate-segmentation.-Keynes-Stern/e30391e516ecf15be87f7e7457226298148305dc

KAKEN - Research Projects | Neocortical layer structure and function (KAKENHI-PLANNED-22123008)KAKEN - Research Projects | Neocortical layer structure and function (KAKENHI-PLANNED-22123008)

Presentation] Interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein functions as a neuronal cell adhesion molecule to organize ... Journal Article] Molecular mechanism of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse formation.2012. *. Author(s). Masayoshi Mishina, ... Journal Article] Remodeling of Monoplanar Purkinje Cell Dendrites during Cerebellar Circuit Formation2011. *. Author(s). Kaneko ... Journal Article] Remodeling of monoplanar Purkinje cell dendrites during cerebellar circuit formation2011. *. Author(s). Kaneko ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/en/grant/KAKENHI-PLANNED-22123008/

Ingolf Bachs research topics | Profiles RNSIngolf Bach's research topics | Profiles RNS

Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal. 1. 2002. 10. 0.080. Why? Multienzyme Complexes. 1 ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/133506/network/researchareas/details

Selective receptor-mediated impairment of growth factor activity in neonatal- and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients.Selective receptor-mediated impairment of growth factor activity in neonatal- and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients.

... and NEURONAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES. Several variants of the receptor exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. ... A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR ... bFGF and IGF-1 was significantly lower in n-ALD as compared to control and X-ALD cells. X-ALD cells showed significant ... Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2396840/Selective-receptor-mediated-impairment-of-growth-factor-activity-in-neonatal-and-X.html

In Vitro and in Vivo Activity of the Maytansinoid Immunoconjugate huN901-N2′-Deacetyl-N2′-(3-Mercapto-1-Oxopropyl)-Maytansine...In Vitro and in Vivo Activity of the Maytansinoid Immunoconjugate huN901-N2′-Deacetyl-N2′-(3-Mercapto-1-Oxopropyl)-Maytansine...

HuN901 is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity to CD56, the neuronal cell adhesion molecule. HuN901 ... Adhesion among neural cells of the chick embryo. II. Purification and characterization of a cell adhesion molecule from neural ... MM Cell Lines and Patient MM Cells Adherent to BMSCs.. Because adhesion of MM cells to BMSC protects MM cells from drug-induced ... CD56 antigen, identified as neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM; Ref. 23 ), is a membrane glycoprotein belonging to the ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/64/13/4629.long

Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1 | Profiles RNSReceptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1 | Profiles RNS

... and NEURONAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES. Several variants of the receptor exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. ... Heparan sulfate regulates the anabolic activity of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells by induction of Runx2. J Cell Physiol. 2007 Jan ... Sulfated glycosaminoglycans mediate the effects of FGF2 on the osteogenic potential of rat calvarial osteoprogenitor cells. J ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/107835

Sex differences in gene regulation in the dorsal root ganglion after nerve injury | BMC Genomics | Full TextSex differences in gene regulation in the dorsal root ganglion after nerve injury | BMC Genomics | Full Text

Neuronal cell adhesion molecule 1.05 0.09 7.15E-32 ENSRNOG00000047466 Bdnf Brain-derived neurotrophic factor 1.34 0.11 8.21E-32 ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-019-5512-9/tables/1

D-Amino acid oxidase: new findings - Semantic ScholarD-Amino acid oxidase: new findings - Semantic Scholar

Substrate specificity of Glycine Oxidase and protein interaction specificity of the neuronal cell adhesion molecule TAG1. *2008 ... Induction of cytotoxic oxidative stress by D-alanine in brain tumor cells expressing Rhodotorula gracilis D-amino acid oxidase ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/D-Amino-acid-oxidase%3A-new-findings-Pilone/e25c92ed4e4ff2647160aa8922f2cb20ef2ceb22

Similar articles for PubMed (Select 18434370) - PubMed - NCBISimilar articles for PubMed (Select 18434370) - PubMed - NCBI

NrCAM, a neuronal system cell-adhesion molecule, is induced in papillary thyroid carcinomas. ... Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is upregulated in aggressive papillary thyroid carcinoma. ... High prevalence of BRAF gene mutation in papillary thyroid carcinomas and thyroid tumor cell lines. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?linkname=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=18434370

The neuronal K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 influences postsynaptic AMPA receptor content and lateral diffusion in dendritic spines |...The neuronal K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 influences postsynaptic AMPA receptor content and lateral diffusion in dendritic spines |...

Increased diffusion was also observed for transmembrane but not membrane-anchored recombinant neuronal cell adhesion molecules ... The neuronal K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 influences postsynaptic AMPA receptor content and lateral diffusion in dendritic spines. ... The neuronal K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 influences postsynaptic AMPA receptor content and lateral diffusion in dendritic spines ... The neuronal K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 influences postsynaptic AMPA receptor content and lateral diffusion in dendritic spines ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/08/29/1107893108

T cells become licensed in the lung to enter the central nervous system  - University of Regensburg Publication ServerT cells become licensed in the lung to enter the central nervous system - University of Regensburg Publication Server

Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal/metabolism. MESH. Cell Movement. MESH. Cerebrovascular Circulation. MESH. ... The adhesion receptors include ninjurin 1, which participates in T-cell intravascular crawling on cerebral blood vessels. We ... T-cell blasts do not efficiently enter the CNS and are not required to prepare the BBB for immune-cell recruitment. Instead, ... guard the nervous tissue from peripheral immune cells. In the autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis, myelin-reactive T-cell ...
more infohttps://epub.uni-regensburg.de/30594/

Disturbances of the Wnt signalling pathway in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia
	Disturbances of the Wnt signalling pathway in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia

... and environmental events occurring during the critical early period of brain development may negatively influence neuronal ... neuronal cell adhesion molecule), białko związane z mikrotubulami (MAP1B, ang. microtubule associated protein), synapsyna I, ... Decreased expression of the embryonic form of the neural cell adhesion molecule in schizophrenic brains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ... Identification of two protein kinases that phosphorylate the neural cell-adhesion molecule, N-CAM. J Neurosci 1989; 9: 1883- ...
more infohttps://www.termedia.pl/Disturbances-of-the-Wnt-signalling-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-schizophrenia,46,11380,1,1.html
  • Both dennexins also promoted neuronal survival, and the effect of dennexinA was independent of polysialic acid expression. (epfl.ch)
  • HuN901-DM1 treatment selectively decreased survival of CD56 + MM cell lines and depleted CD56 + MM cells from mixed cultures with a CD56 − cell line or adherent bone marrow stromal cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell replacement therapy with human pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons has the potential to ameliorate neurodegenerative dysfunction and central nervous system injuries, but reprogrammed neurons are dissociated and spatially disorganized during transplantation, rendering poor cell survival, functionality and engraftment in vivo . (nature.com)
  • Transplantation of scaffold-supported neuronal networks into mouse brain striatum improved survival ∼ 38-fold at the injection site relative to injected isolated cells, and allowed delivery of multiple neuronal subtypes. (nature.com)
  • An alternative approach using biomaterial scaffolds can provide structural support to cells during transplantation, which could improve cell engraftment and survival. (nature.com)
  • But also in the mature and aging nervous system they are needed for electrical activity, neuronal communication, survival and even regeneration. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • DJ-1 (PARK7) is involved in GDNF/Ret cell survival signaling through the RAS/MAPK pathway and stimulates Ret expression. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • L1 FL and L1 ΔC77 , both of which possess the YRSLE sequence, were expressed in the axonal growth cone and to a lesser degree in the cell body. (jneurosci.org)
  • These data demonstrate that the neuronal form of L1 carries the tyrosine-based sorting signal YRSLE, which is critical for sorting L1 to the axonal growth cone. (jneurosci.org)
  • Characterization of the 5' and promoter regions of the gene encoding the mouse neuronal cell adhesion molecule F3. (nih.gov)
  • F3 expression is regulated, during critical developmental periods, on neuronal subpopulations thus suggesting that control of F3 gene expression could be of morphogenetic relevance. (nih.gov)
  • The study of F3 gene exon/intron organization revealed that, like other neural IgSF molecules, each of the first two F3 C2 domains is encoded by two exons while the N-terminus, the signal peptide and the 5' untranslated region are each encoded by distinct exons. (nih.gov)
  • A single transcription start site was identified, surrounded by a short 114 bp sequence able to direct reporter gene expression in both F3-expressing and -non-expressing cells. (nih.gov)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include ankyrin binding and protein binding involved in heterotypic cell-cell adhesion . (genecards.org)
  • Notably, the highest degree of βIII-tubulin expression for cells in 3-D fibrous scaffolds were observed in protein A oriented substrates with PDL pretreatment, suggesting combined effects of cell attachment to polycationic charged substrates with subcellular topography along with L1-mediated adhesion mediating neuronal differentiation. (springeropen.com)
  • These results motivate the interfacing of microscale fibrous scaffolds with human induced neuronal cells for in vitro and in vivo applications. (nature.com)
  • The K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 plays an essential role in neuronal chloride homeostasis, and thereby influences the efficacy and polarity of GABA signaling. (pnas.org)
  • These findings show an unexpected neuronal role for neuroligins in synapse disassembly. (nih.gov)
  • Cell adhesion protein that is required for normal responses to cell-cell contacts in brain and in the peripheral nervous system. (genecards.org)
  • The blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the environment of the central nervous system (CNS) guard the nervous tissue from peripheral immune cells. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Following head injury, the protective lining that surrounds the brain may get a little help from its friends: immune cells that spring into action to assist with repairs. (nih.gov)
  • In a new study led by Dr. Dorian McGavern , scientists from the National Institutes of Health watched in real-time as different immune cells took on carefully timed jobs to fix the damaged lining of the brain, also known as meninges, in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Their specific interests cover a broad range of neuroscience research including molecular biophysics, synapses and circuits, neuronal development, integrative neuroscience, brain imaging, neurological disorders and stroke. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we present the design of three-dimensional (3D) microtopographic scaffolds, using tunable electrospun microfibrous polymeric substrates that promote in situ stem cell neuronal reprogramming, neural network establishment and support neuronal engraftment into the brain. (nature.com)
  • Here, we generated NPCs from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of postnatal day 5 wild-type and PrP null (-/-) mice and observed that PrP is essential for proper NPC proliferation and neuronal differentiation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In agreement, we noted an increase in cycling neuronal progenitors in the SVZ of PrP-/- mice compared with PrP+/+ mice, as evidenced by double labeling for the proliferation marker Ki67 and doublecortin as well as by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation experiments. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Therefore proliferation of skin fibroblast along with differentiation of stem cells in the skin tissue is the best method for healing. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analyses of developing mice demonstrated the polarized expression of L1 in pyramidal cells, granule cells, and interneurons in the hippocampus. (jneurosci.org)
  • Heparan sulfate regulates the anabolic activity of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells by induction of Runx2. (umassmed.edu)
  • Therefore, we use diverse experimental approaches such as molecular biological techniques, cell culture, mouse genetics, histology, as well as behavioural and physiological experiments. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • In vivo antitumor activity of huN901-DM1 was then studied in a tumor xenograft model using a CD56 + OPM2 human MM cell line in SCID mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunocompromised mice injected s.c . with LP-1K or LP-1D1b cells develop tumors at the site of injection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both isoforms are present in MM cell lines and primary cells but their relative role in the tumorigenic process is still elusive. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together, these findings highlight the promise of displays of multimeric neural adhesion ligands via biointerfacially engineered substrates to "cooperatively" enhance neuronal phenotypes on polymers of relevance to tissue engineering. (springeropen.com)
  • Thus, our findings show that specific sulfation along the carbohydrate backbone carries instructions to regulate neuronal function. (biologists.org)
  • However, effective approaches to generate these cells in three-dimensional (3D) configurations and to deliver these cells therapeutically in vivo have yet to be established. (nature.com)
  • To test the tumorigenic potential of cyclin D1b in vivo , we generated cell clones derived from the non- CCND1 expressing MM LP-1 cell line, synthesizing either cyclin D1b or cyclin K, a structural homolog and viral oncogenic form of cyclin D1a. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report here that cyclin D1b- and cyclin K-expressing LP-1 cells are tumorigenic in vivo in xenograft models. (biomedcentral.com)