Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. Ng-CAM is immunologically and structurally distinct from NCAM.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
A family of immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecules that are involved in NERVOUS SYSTEM patterning.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A factor identified in the brain that influences the growth and differentiation of NEURONS and NEUROGLIA. Glia maturation factor beta is the 17-kDa polypeptide product of the GMFB gene and is the principal component of GLIA MATURATION FACTOR.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A complex blood group system having pairs of alternate antigens and amorphic genes, but also subject to a dominant independently segregating repressor.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.

Local presentation of substrate molecules directs axon specification by cultured hippocampal neurons. (1/26)

Axon specification is a crucial, early step in neuronal development, but little is known about how this event is controlled in vivo. To test the hypothesis that local presentation of growth-promoting molecules can direct axon specification, we cultured hippocampal neurons on substrates patterned with stripes of poly-L-lysine and either laminin (LN) or the neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (NgCAM). Although undifferentiated neurites contacted both substrates equally, axons formed preferentially on LN or NgCAM. Time-lapse studies revealed that changes in the growth pattern of a cell indicative of axon specification began almost immediately after the growth cone of one of the neurites of the cell contacted LN or NgCAM. When cells were plated on alternating stripes of LN and NgCAM, cells with their somata on LN usually formed axons on NgCAM, whereas those with somata on NgCAM preferentially formed axons on LN. This suggests that the change from one axon-promoting substrate to another also provides a signal sufficient to specify the axon. These results demonstrate that contact with preferred substrate molecules can govern which neurite becomes the axon and thus direct the development of neuronal polarity.  (+info)

Functional interactions of the immunoglobulin superfamily member F11 are differentially regulated by the extracellular matrix proteins tenascin-R and tenascin-C. (2/26)

The axon-associated protein F11 is a GPI-anchored member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that promotes axon outgrowth and that shows a complex binding pattern toward multiple cell surface and extracellular matrix proteins including tenascin-R and tenascin-C. In this study, we demonstrate that tenascin-R and tenascin-C differentially modulate cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth of tectal cells on F11. While soluble tenascin-R increases the number of attached cells and the percentage of cells with neurites on immobilized F11, tenascin-C stimulates cell attachment to a similar extent but decreases neurite outgrowth. The cellular receptor interacting with F11 has been previously identified as NrCAM; however, in the presence of tenascin-R or tenascin-C cell attachment and neurite extension are independent of NrCAM. Antibody perturbation experiments indicate that beta(1) integrins instead of NrCAM function as receptor for neurite outgrowth of tectal cells on an F11.TN-R complex. Cellular binding assays support the possibility that the interaction of F11 to NrCAM is blocked in the presence of tenascin-R and tenascin-C. Furthermore, a sandwich binding assay demonstrates that tenascin-R and tenascin-C are able to form larger molecular complexes and to link F11 polypeptides by forming a molecular bridge. These results suggest that the molecular interactions of F11 might be regulated by the presence of tenascin-R and tenascin-C.  (+info)

The homeodomain protein Barx2 contains activator and repressor domains and interacts with members of the CREB family. (3/26)

Barx1 and Barx2 are homeodomain proteins originally identified using regulatory elements of genes encoding certain cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). In the present study, we characterize regions of Barx2 that bind to regulatory elements of genes encoding three CAMs, L1, neuron-glia CAM (Ng-CAM), and neural CAM (N-CAM), and identify domains of Barx2 that regulate N-CAM transcription. The homeodomain of Barx2 was sufficient for binding to homeodomain binding sites (HBS) from all three CAM genes. The presence of a 17-amino acid Barx basic region resulted in a 2-fold decrease in binding to HBS sequences from the Ng-CAM and L1 genes, whereas it led to a 6.5-fold increase in binding to the HBS from the N-CAM promoter. Thus, the Barx basic region influences the strength and specificity of Barx2 binding to DNA. In co-transfection experiments, Barx2 repressed N-CAM promoter activity. A 24-residue N-terminal region of Barx2 was essential for repression. When this region was absent, Barx2 activated the N-CAM promoter. A 63-residue C-terminal domain was required for this activation. In GST pull-down experiments, Barx2 bound to proteins of the CREB family, CREB1 and ATF2. Overall, these findings provide a framework for understanding developmental and physiological contexts that influence repressor or activator functions of Barx2.  (+info)

A direct interaction of axonin-1 with NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) results in guidance, but not growth of commissural axons. (4/26)

An interaction of growth cone axonin-1 with the floor-plate NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) was shown to play a crucial role in commissural axon guidance across the midline of the spinal cord. We now provide evidence that axonin-1 mediates a guidance signal without promoting axon elongation. In an in vitro assay, commissural axons grew preferentially on stripes coated with a mixture of NrCAM and NgCAM. This preference was abolished in the presence of anti-axonin-1 antibodies without a decrease in neurite length. Consistent with these findings, commissural axons in vivo only fail to extend along the longitudinal axis when both NrCAM and NgCAM interactions, but not when axonin-1 and NrCAM or axonin-1 and NgCAM interactions, are perturbed. Thus, we conclude that axonin-1 is involved in guidance of commissural axons without promoting their growth.  (+info)

The role of selective transport in neuronal protein sorting. (5/26)

To assess whether selective microtubule-based vesicle transport underlies the polarized distribution of neuronal proteins, we expressed green fluorescent protein- (GFP-) tagged chimeras of representative axonal and dendritic membrane proteins in cultured hippocampal neurons and visualized the transport of carrier vesicles containing these proteins in living cells. Vesicles containing a dendritic protein, transferrin receptor (TfR), were preferentially transported into dendrites and excluded from axons. In contrast, vesicles containing the axonal protein NgCAM (neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule) were transported into both dendrites and axons. These data demonstrate that neurons utilize two distinct mechanisms for the targeting of polarized membrane proteins, one (for dendritic proteins) based on selective transport, the other (for axonal proteins) based on a selectivity "filter" that occurs downstream of transport.  (+info)

Distinct subpopulations of sensory afferents require F11 or axonin-1 for growth to their target layers within the spinal cord of the chick. (6/26)

Dorsal root ganglion neurons project axons to specific target layers in the gray matter of the spinal cord, according to their sensory modality. Using an in vivo approach, we demonstrate an involvement of the two immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules axonin-1/TAG-1 and F11/F3/contactin in subpopulation-specific sensory axon guidance. Proprioceptive neurons, which establish connections with motoneurons in the ventral horn, depend on F11 interactions. Nociceptive fibers, which target to layers in the dorsal horn, require axonin-1 for pathfinding. In vitro NgCAM and NrCAM were shown to bind to both axonin-1 and F11. However, despite this fact and despite their ubiquitous expression in the spinal cord, NgCAM and NrCAM are selective binding partners for axonin-1 and F11 in sensory axon guidance. Whereas nociceptive pathfinding depends on NgCAM and axonin-1, proprioceptive fibers require NrCAM and F11.  (+info)

Two distinct mechanisms target membrane proteins to the axonal surface. (7/26)

We have investigated the trafficking of two endogenous axonal membrane proteins, VAMP2 and NgCAM, in order to elucidate the cellular events that underlie their polarization. We found that VAMP2 is delivered to the surface of both axons and dendrites, but preferentially endocytosed from the dendritic membrane. A mutation in the cytoplasmic domain of VAMP2 that inhibits endocytosis abolished its axonal polarization. In contrast, the targeting of NgCAM depends on sequences in its ectodomain, which mediate its sorting into carriers that preferentially deliver their cargo proteins to the axonal membrane. These observations show that neurons use two distinct mechanisms to polarize proteins to the axonal domain: selective retention in the case of VAMP2, selective delivery in the case of NgCAM.  (+info)

Influence of ACE (I/D) and G460W polymorphism of alpha-adducin in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. (8/26)

BACKGROUND: The deleterious effect of the DD genotype of ACE in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) remains controversial. Small sample size, population admixture and lack of consideration of parameters modulating the effects of ACE genotype, such as gender or alpha-adducin (ADD) genotype, might explain the discrepancy. METHODS: We investigated the effect of ACE (I/D) polymorphism on the age at end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in a homogeneous population of 191 ADPKD patients, according to gender and genotype for the G460W polymorphism of ADD. Cumulative renal survival was assessed in 276 patients from the same families. RESULTS: Though no effect was detected in the whole population, analysis of the male subset (n = 97) showed that patients harbouring the DD genotype of ACE had a 5-year lower mean age at ESRD than DI + II patients [47.8 +/- 1.8 (n = 31) vs 52.8 +/- 1.1 (n = 66), respectively] (P = 0.02). Furthermore, cumulative renal survival was lower in the corresponding pedigrees [47 +/- 1 years, 95% confidence interval (CI) 45-49, vs 51 +/- 1 years, 95% CI 48-54]. The G460W polymorphism of ADD had no effect on the age at ESRD and cumulative renal survival, either alone or in combination with the ACE (I/D) polymorphism. CONCLUSIONS: In this large series of ADPKD patients, we found no effect of the ACE (I/D) polymorphism on the age at ESRD, either alone or in combination with the G460W polymorphism of ADD. However, a deleterious effect of the DD genotype of ACE on renal disease progression was observed in ADPKD males.  (+info)

Neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (Ng-CAM) mediates cell adhesion between neurons homophilically and between neurons and glia heterophilically; it also promotes neurite outgrowth. In the chick brain, Ng-CAM is detected as glycoproteins of 190 and 210 kD (Ng-CAM200) with posttranslational cleavage products of 135 kD (F135, which contains most of the extracellular region) and 80 kD (F80, which includes the transmembrane and the cytoplasmic domains). To examine the functions of each of these components, we have expressed Ng-CAM200, F135, and F80 in murine L cells, and F135 and F80 as GST fusion proteins in the pGEX vector in bacteria. Appropriately transfected L cells expressed each of these proteins on their surfaces; F135 was also found in the media of cells transfected with Ng-CAM200 and F135. In addition to binding homophilically, cells transfected with Ng-CAM200 and F135 bound heterophilically to untransfected L cells, suggesting that there is a ligand for Ng-CAM on fibroblasts that may be ...
An interaction of growth cone axonin-1 with the floor-plate NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) was shown to play a crucial role in commissural axon guidance across the midline of the spinal cord. We now provide evidence that axonin-1 mediates a guidance signal without promoting axon elongation. In an in vitro assay, commissural axons grew preferentially on stripes coated with a mixture of NrCAM and NgCAM. This preference was abolished in the presence of anti-axonin-1 antibodies without a decrease in neurite length. Consistent with these findings, commissural axons in vivo only fail to extend along the longitudinal axis when both NrCAM and NgCAM interactions, but not when axonin-1 and NrCAM or axonin-1 and NgCAM interactions, are perturbed. Thus, we conclude that axonin-1 is involved in guidance of commissural axons without promoting their growth. ...
Techniques and devices for detecting and analyzing controlled substances and the like are discussed including highly reactive sensor molecules which are coated on a spectroscopic sample surface (4) and which may chemically react with a given analyte to form a covalently bonded adduct with spectral characteristics unique to the new adduct. The techniques provide the basis of a detection system with high sensitivity and high specificity in which the surface can even be washed to remove interfering or nonreactive compounds. The sensor molecules which comprise the coating (8) may have three major components: a central molecular scaffold (
I started my research path as an organic chemist focused on the synthesis of conjugated chiral molecules. His PhD project was focused on the design and synthesis of novel acetylene- and azido-functionalised precursors and the development of protective groups strategies towards well-defined macromolecular structures. The second part of my PhD project was the study of catalytic activity of macrocycles using dye sensor molecules. Tailor-made changes to the core structure of dye molecules resulted in selective reporter molecules for visualization of catalytic processes. My subsequent research was focused on electrochemical sensors, where specific enzymes embedded in polysaccharide coatings were able to detect trace amounts of analyte such as glucose or lactate and translate this into electrochemical signal. The research was focused on the development and process optimisation of the sensor technology. I am currently working on the study of nano scale interactions of synthetic biomimetic extracellular ...
Plants have multiple physiological and biochemical systems that enable them to tolerate environmental stresses. Water deficit is the most serious factor limiting plant growth and productivity, and it occurs not only during drought but also with high salinity and low temperature. A change in osmotic potential in cells caused by water loss triggers various molecular responses in plants (Bray, 1997). To date, many genes induced by drought, salinity, or cold stress have been identified and studied (Ingram and Bartels, 1996; Shinozaki and Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, 1996, 1997). However, little is known about how plant cells detect water deficits.. In bacteria, histidine kinases function as sensor molecules that transduce extracellular signals (including chemotactic factors, changes in osmolarity, and nutrient deficiency) to the cytoplasm. This transduction is mediated by phosphotransfer to the cognate response regulator (Parkinson and Kofoid, 1992; Parkinson, 1993; Alex and Simon, 1994; Swanson et al., ...
Plants have multiple physiological and biochemical systems that enable them to tolerate environmental stresses. Water deficit is the most serious factor limiting plant growth and productivity, and it occurs not only during drought but also with high salinity and low temperature. A change in osmotic potential in cells caused by water loss triggers various molecular responses in plants (Bray, 1997). To date, many genes induced by drought, salinity, or cold stress have been identified and studied (Ingram and Bartels, 1996; Shinozaki and Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, 1996, 1997). However, little is known about how plant cells detect water deficits.. In bacteria, histidine kinases function as sensor molecules that transduce extracellular signals (including chemotactic factors, changes in osmolarity, and nutrient deficiency) to the cytoplasm. This transduction is mediated by phosphotransfer to the cognate response regulator (Parkinson and Kofoid, 1992; Parkinson, 1993; Alex and Simon, 1994; Swanson et al., ...
Jorunn B. Jorgensen. 8.1 Introduction 85. 8.2 Innate Immunity: A Sensing and an Effector Arm 86. 8.3 Professional Phagocytes: The Macrophages and the Neutrophilic Granulocytes 86. 8.4 Natural Killer (NK)-Like Cells 88. 8.5 The Sensing Arm of Innate Immunity 88. 8.6 TLRs are the Best Studied PRRS in Fish 89. 8.7 NOD-Like and RIG-I Receptors are Found in Fish 90. 8.8 Lectins are Multifunctional Sensor Molecules for Carbohydrate Ligands 91. 8.9 PRRs and the Induction of Immunity 92. 8.10 Cytokines in Innate Immunity 92. 8.11 Interferons 94. 8.12 The Complement System 95. 8.13 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives 97. 9 The Adaptive Immune Response in Fish 104 ...
Epithelial cells and neurons polarize into distinct plasma membrane domains - apical and basolateral domains, and axonal and somatodendritic domains, respectively. Transmembrane proteins are known to be secreted in a polarized manner in such cells, but the molecular bases for this polarized membrane trafficking are unclear. This group previously showed that the cell-adhesion molecule NgCAM, which is largely delivered to axons in neurons and to the apical surface in epithelia, travels to axons through an indirect transcytotic pathway via somatodendritic endosomes. Here, Bettina Winckler and colleagues (p. 1514) identify and characterize the signals that are used by NgCAM as it travels through this pathway. The authors determine that a previously identified basolateral tyrosine-based signal of NgCAM is also a sufficient somatodendritic targeting signal. Moreover, they identify a second, novel, axonal targeting signal in the cytoplasmic tail of NgCAM that is cis-dominant and must be inactivated for ...
This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
In figure 1 there is an oversight of the alkane sensing system as it is found in P. putida. The sensor molecule of this system is AlkS. AlkS can bind to alkanes and form the complex AlkS-HC (HC is short for hydrocarbon). In reality this happens in the membrane and the complex then migrates into the cell and binds to DNA. In the model however everything is assumed to happen in the cytosol. The AlkS has a self-regulation through two promoters, pAlkS1 and pAlkS2. pAlkS1 is inhibited by binding to any form of AlkS and pAlkS2 is induced by binding to AlkS-HC. The promoters are independent of each other. The alkane degradation pathway the AlkBFGHJKLT operon (AlkB for short) is regulated by the pAlkB promoter and is also induced by AlkS-HC. This resulting logic is displayed in table 1. ...
A homologue of the axonally secreted protein axonin-1 is an integral membrane protein of nerve fiber tracts involved in neurite fasciculation.
This protocol presents a novel method for derivation of floor-plate progenitor cells for the later derivation of human dopaminergic neurons that can be efficiently engrafted in vivo. The progenitor cell name reflects the specific growth factor mixture used in the protocol.. ...
Pertubation of neurite fasciculation with species-specific anti-NgCAM antibodies. Cultured mouse DRG explants were infected with the adenoviral vector AdCMV
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuron-glia synapses in the brain. AU - Bergles, Dwight E. AU - Jabs, Ronald. AU - Steinhäuser, Christian. PY - 2010/5. Y1 - 2010/5. N2 - The ability to investigate the electrophysiological properties of individual cells in acute brain tissue led to the discovery that many glial cells have the capacity to respond rapidly to neuronal activity. In particular, a distinct class of neuroglial cells known as NG2 cells, which exhibit many of the properties that have been described for glial subtypes such as complex cells, polydendrocytes, synantocytes and GluR cells, express ionotropic receptors for glutamate and GABA. In both gray and white matter, NG2 cells form direct synaptic junctions with axons, which enable transient activation of these receptors. Electrophysiological analyses have shown that these neuron-glia synapses exhibit all the hallmarks of classical neuron-neuron synapses, including rapid activation, quantized responses, facilitation and depression, and presynaptic ...
We have identified a 95 kd cell surface protein, DM-GRASP, that is expressed on a restricted population of axons. Its expression begins early in chick embryogenesis, and within the spinal cord it is localized to axons in the dorsal funiculus, midline floorplate cells, and motoneurons. Antibodies to …
کنترل زمان گل‌دهی یکی از مهم‌ترین اجزای اثر متقابل بین گیاهان و محیط رشد آن‌ها می‌باشد که نه تنها برای میزان محصول تولیدی بلکه برای کیفیت دانه برنج نیز عامل مهمی به‌-حساب می‌آید. در این تحقیق مطالعات فنوتیپی و مولکولی بر روی 45 رقم برنج محلی و اصلاح شده انجام شد. ابتدا چندشکلی ژن‌های Ehd1 و Ehd3 در بین ارقام و سپس ارتباط این دو ژن با زمان خوشه‌دهی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج مطالعات فنوتیپی حاکی از وجود تنوع بیشتر در ارقام محلی نسبت به ارقام اصلاح شده بود. ارقام محلی به‌طور متوسط 8 روز زودرس‌تر از ارقام اصلاح شده بودند و تفاوت زمان خوشه‌دهی آن‌ها معنی‌دار
The initial strategies for generation of DA neurons from hESCs were based on previous experience with mouse ESCs, which commonly used the developmental cues known at the time (Kawasaki et al., 2000; Kim et al., 2002). Several of these early differentiation protocols did indeed produce a relatively high number of cells expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis and most commonly used marker for DA neurons), yet the midbrain properties of these neurons were not clear and their in vivo performance after grafting in standard animal models of PD was modest. A breakthrough in optimization of the differentiation protocols came when our understanding of how midbrain DA neurons are formed during normal development radically changed. In 2007 and 2008, two ground-breaking studies were published, both reporting that midbrain DA neurons were not derived from neuroepithelial cells (like all other neurons) but were in fact derived from floor-plate cells expressing ...
Neurofascin-155 (NF155) and caspr are transmembrane proteins found at discrete locations early during development of the nervous system. NF155 is present in the oligodendrocyte cell body and processes, whereas caspr is on the axonal surface. In mature nerves, these proteins are clustered at paranode …
Accumulation of glia, gliosis, in various neurological disorders is not a static scar, but actively involved in pathogenesis of various neurological and psychiatric disorders, where glial cells produce both inflammatory and neurotrophic factors. These factors may play a role in neuronal damage, but.... Full description. ...
The arrest of body axis elongation seems intimately associated with the differentiation process, as both involve the downregulation of FGFs and Wnts. A key signalling pathway that regulates both processes is that mediated by RA. During somitogenesis stages, cells are exposed to endogenous RA as they leave the CLE and the NSB or later tail bud. This is provided by the activity of the RA synthesising enzyme Raldh2, which is expressed in the newly segmenting mesoderm. RA signalling drives the expression of neural and mesodermal differentiation genes in axial tissues (Diez del Corral et al., 2003; Molotkova et al., 2005; Moreno and Kintner, 2004; Ribes et al., 2008). This includes neuronal differentiation genes, which promote neuron production, the floor-plate expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh), the key orchestrator of ventral patterning and hence of neuronal cell-type specification (Diez del Corral et al., 2003), and mesodermal differentiation genes such as Mesp2, a key segmentation gene that helps ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurite outgrowth on electrospun nanofibers with uniaxial alignment. T2 - The effects of fiber density, surface coating, and supporting substrate. AU - Xie, Jingwei. AU - Liu, Wenying. AU - Macewan, Matthew R.. AU - Bridgman, Paul C.. AU - Xia, Younan. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2014/2/25. Y1 - 2014/2/25. N2 - Electrospun nanofibers with uniaxial alignment have recently gained its popularity as scaffolds for neural tissue engineering. Many studies have demonstrated that the nanofibers could guide the neurites to extend along the direction of alignment, resembling the native hierarchy of the nerve tissue. However, the contact cues provided by the nanofibers can be far more complicated than just guiding the neurites to extend along them. In the current study, we used dorsal root ganglia as a model system to systematically investigate the interactions between neurites and uniaxially aligned nanofibers. We demonstrated, for the first ...
Not all proteins that accumulate in a specific subcellular compartment undergo processes of selective sorting and transport. Some proteins seem to be localized by a mechanism known as selective retention, which describes that cargoes are transported nonselectively to both axons and dendrites, but are eliminated at one side by selective endocytosis and retained at the other, where endocytosis is prevented. Prominent examples for this process are the proteins VAMP2 and NgCAM. NgCAM is sorted into carriers that preferentially deliver their cargo proteins to the axonal membrane. In contrast, VAMP2 is delivered to the surface of both axons and dendrites; however it is preferentially endocytosed from the dendritic membrane, a process, which also results in an axonal enrichment31. Indeed, VAMP2 harbors an endocytosis signal in its cytoplasmic domain, and mutation of this sequence consistently results in an evenly distribution of VAMP2 to cell body, dendrites, and axon. Although such process initially ...
I have about 3 twitches a day in my tongue. I asked a neurologist if this could be the start of als, or if its too infrequent. He just said als fasciculations could start more infrequent and slowly becomming more frequent. Does anyone know anything about this ...
Author: Medas, A Paulo ; Salins, Veronique ; Danforth, Jeff Series: How-To-Note No. 16/01 Date: September 27, 2016 Subject: Asia and Pacific Canada Capital expenditure Chile Commodity boom Commodity price shocks Commodity prices Expenditure policy Fiscal adjustment Fiscal deficits Malaysia Natural resources Nigeria Sub-Saharan Africa Western Hemisphere ...
If youre feeling and seeing the twitches, its no surprise at all that an EMG would actually record those twitches. Thats why were all here on this board!! The only reason Im guessing that some others have EMGs without fasciculations is that they happened to not fasciculate while the EMG was being performed. I had lots and lots of them (on my legs). When I asked the doctor if he saw fasciculations, he looked at me like I was crazy. With a look that basically said um, isnt that why youre here ...
Rapid signaling between vertebrate neurons occurs primarily at synapses, intercellular junctions where quantal release of neurotransmitter triggers rapid changes in membrane conductance through activation of ionotropic receptors. Glial cells express many of these same ionotropic receptors, yet little is known about how receptors in glial cells become activated in situ. Because synapses were thought to be the sole provenance of neurons, it has been assumed that these receptors must be activated following diffusion of transmitter out of the synaptic cleft, or through nonsynaptic mechanisms such as transporter reversal. Two recent reports show that a ubiquitous class of progenitors that express the proteoglycan NG2 (NG2 cells) engage in rapid signaling with glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons through direct neuron-glia synapses. Quantal release of transmitter from neurons at these sites triggers rapid activation of aminomethylisoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) or GABA(A) ...
I have heard it said that fasciculations appear in ALS some time after the muscle has been damaged due to denervation. As a result, I have been told that an ALS sufferer would experience profound weakn...
Complete information for BARX1 gene (Protein Coding), BARX Homeobox 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
NgCAM related cell adhesion molecule). L1 family members are found on neurons, especially on their axons. Sometimes they are ... found on glia, such as Schwann cells, radial glia and Bergmann glia cells and, as such, are important for neural cell migration ... As cell adhesion molecules, they often bind "homophilically" to themselves; for example L1 on one cell binding to L1 on an ... The L1 family is a family of cell adhesion molecules that includes four different L1-like proteins. They are members of the ...
... cell adhesion molecules, neuronal MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.150 - cell adhesion molecules, neuron-glia MeSH D12.776.395.550. ... activated-leukocyte cell adhesion molecule MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.500 - myelin p0 protein MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250. ... 520 - neural cell adhesion molecules MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.520.156 - antigens, cd56 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.520.578 ... vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 MeSH D12.776.395.550.550.500 - lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 MeSH D12.776.395.550. ...
... cell adhesion molecules, neuronal MeSH D23.050.301.350.250.150 - cell adhesion molecules, neuron-glia MeSH D23.050.301.350. ... neural cell adhesion molecules MeSH D23.050.301.350.250.520.156 - antigens, cd56 MeSH D23.050.301.350.250.520.578 - neural cell ... adhesion molecule l1 MeSH D23.050.301.350.275 - integrin alphaxbeta2 MeSH D23.050.301.350.450 - intercellular adhesion molecule ... cell adhesion molecules MeSH D23.050.301.350.065 - antigens, cd22 MeSH D23.050.301.350.098 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050. ...
... cell adhesion molecules, neuronal MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.150 - cell adhesion molecules, neuron-glia MeSH D12.776.543.550. ... activated-leukocyte cell adhesion molecule MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.500 - myelin p0 protein MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250. ... 520 - neural cell adhesion molecules MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.520.156 - antigens, cd56 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.520.578 ... vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 MeSH D12.776.543.550.425.150 - calcium channels MeSH D12.776.543.550.425.150.400 - calcium ...
... is a homophilic binding glycoprotein expressed on the surface of neurons, glia and skeletal muscle. Although CD56 is often ... also present on subset of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. In cell adhesion, CD56 contributes to cell-cell adhesion or cell- ... The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM1 appears on early embryonic cells and is important in the formation of cell collectives ... Τ cells and activated CD8+ T cells, as well as on dendritic cells. NCAM has been implicated as having a role in cell-cell ...
Cell aggregation assays show that cell adhesion molecules, such as DSCAM, belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily bind ... The neurons express a stochastic array of Dscam1 isoforms on their cell surface. Cells that have the same isoform patterns ... "Interference with the development of early generated neocortex results in disruption of radial glia and abnormal formation of ... "Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule DSCAM mediates homophilic intercellular adhesion". Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 79 (1-2): 118- ...
Additionally, it was identified as a cell adhesion molecule in oligodendrocytes, suggesting it may play a role in neuron ... Glia. 56 (11): 1176-1186. doi:10.1002/glia.20688. PMC 2830273. PMID 18571792. Genomatix Gene2Promoter for TMEM125 https://www. ... TMEM125 was identified as a tetraspanin cell adhesion molecule enriched in oligodendrocytes, suggesting it may play a role in ... Izadi, F. "Identification of key regulators in non-small cell lung cancer based on network topology and modularity analysis" ( ...
"Consequences of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Deficiency on Cell Migration in the Rostral Migratory Stream of the Mouse". The ... Neurons that migrate tangentially are typically believed to migrate independently of radial glia but in the RMS researchers ... The developing neurons are identified by their expression of the cell surface molecule, a polysialylated (PSA) embryonic form ... In the RMS, vascular cells are arranged parallel to the route of the migrating cells and provide a scaffolding. Glial cells are ...
Mutations in human L1 cell adhesion molecules are reported to cause a number of neuronal disorders. In addition, recent ... Glia. 56 (3): 284-93. doi:10.1002/glia.20612. PMID 18080294. S2CID 26539423. Xu Z, Croslan DR, Harris AE, Ford GD, Ford BD ( ... "Dysregulated expression of neuregulin-1 by cortical pyramidal neurons disrupts synaptic plasticity". Cell Reports. 8 (4): 1130- ... "Endocytic pathways downregulate the L1-type cell adhesion molecule neuroglian to promote dendrite pruning in Drosophila". ...
Although some cell-adhesion molecules have been reported to be present at the nodes inconsistently; however, a variety of other ... Salzer J. L. (1997). "Clustering sodium channels at the node of Ranvier: close encounters of the axon-glia kind". Neuron. 18 (6 ... The first event appears to be the accumulation of cell adhesion molecules such as NF186 or NrCAM. The intra-cellular regions of ... Complete neuron cell diagram Medullated nerve fibers stained with silver nitrate Internodal segment Schwann cell ...
NAAG then reduces the release of glutamate while stimulating the release of some trophic factors from the glia cells in the ... adhesion and survival of the cells. PSMA is the target of several nuclear medicine imaging agents for prostate cancer. PSMA ... The molecule found the location of primary and metastatic prostate cancer by PET, fluorescence-guided removal of cancer, and ... protection from apoptosis or degradation of brain neurons by elevating the concentrations of NAAG within the synapse of neurons ...
It may also damage ion channels, other enzymes, cell adhesion molecules, and cell surface receptors. This can lead to ... as well as cell-type specific functions such as long-term potentiation in neurons and cell fusion in myoblasts. Under these ... m-calpain is found in glia and a small number in axons. Calpain is also involved in skeletal muscle protein breakdown due to ... while μ-calpain is mainly located in the cell body and dendrites of neurons and to a lesser extent in axons and glial cells, ...
These cells are essential in providing navigational information to pioneer axons. Arrays of pioneer neurons create short ... as well as attract various adhesion molecules to impact their physical state. Some of the various chemotactic cues that have ... The Notch receptor has been shown to interact with interface glia to form a path that longitudinal pioneer neurons can follow. ... In a different study, replacement or removal of the early-born retinal ganglion cells, which function as pioneer neurons, had a ...
... contributes to tissue morphogenesis by controlling developing cell migration and cell adhesion in different organs. In ... and unc-40 genes guide circumferential migrations of pioneer axons and mesodermal cells on the epidermis in C. Elegans". Neuron ... Many studies have shown that netrin-1, UNC-40, UNC-6, and UNC-5 are involved in the migration of glia during embryogenesis. ... There are still many unanswered questions regarding the netrin family of molecules. It is still uncertain what role vertebrate ...
Neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) will mediate this attachment via homophilic interactions between molecules of like ... A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the ... Molecules mediating attraction include NrCAM, which is expressed by growing RGCs and the midline glia and acts along with ... Midget cell (parvocellular, or P pathway; P cells) Parasol cell (magnocellular, or M pathway; M cells) Bistratified cell ( ...
SynCAM is a cell adhesion molecule that is present in both pre- and post-synaptic membranes. The processes of neuronal ... Tamamaki N, Nakamura K, Okamoto K, Kaneko T (September 2001). "Radial glia is a progenitor of neocortical neurons in the ... Neurogenesis is the process by which neurons are generated from neural stem cells and progenitor cells. Neurons are 'post- ... which is destined to become Cajal-Retzius cells and subplate neurons. These cells do so by somal translocation. Neurons ...
... although the specialized cells receive some innervation from outside neurons. Ependymal cells secrete high molecular mass ... This glycoprotein shares molecular domains with axonal pathfinding molecules. The ependymal cells and the SCO-spondin secretion ... being involved in mechanisms of cellular adhesion and axonal pathfinding (a process by which neurons send out axons to reach ... Glia. 32 (2): 177-91. doi:10.1002/1098-1136(200011)32:2. 3.0.CO;2-V. PMID 11008217. Vio K, Rodríguez S, Yulis CR, Oliver C, ...
Corticogenesis: younger neurons migrate past older ones using radial glia as a scaffolding. Cajal-Retzius cells (red) release ... SynCAM is a cell adhesion molecule that is present in both pre- and post-synaptic membranes. ... Neurogenesis is the process by which neurons are generated from neural stem cells and progenitor cells. Neurons are 'post- ... which is destined to become Cajal-Retzius cells and subplate neurons. These cells do so by somal translocation. Neurons ...
Specifically, Silva and his colleagues showed that neural progenitor stem cells could be induced to differentiate into neurons ... New Tools for Probing Neurons and Glia". Journal of Neuroscience. 26 (7): 1893-1895. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3847-05.2006. ISSN ... Silva, Gabriel A. (2007-02-01). "Nanotechnology approaches for drug and small molecule delivery across the blood brain barrier ... "The Role of Abnormal Vitreomacular Adhesion in Age-related Macular Degeneration: Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography and ...
Schwarz Q, Ruhrberg C (January 2010). "Neuropilin, you gotta let me know: should I stay or should I go?". Cell Adhesion & ... Glia. 64 (8): 1314-30. doi:10.1002/glia.23004. PMID 27159043. S2CID 3713077. Mecollari V, Nieuwenhuis B, Verhaagen J (2014). "A ... March 2010). "Small molecule inhibitors of the neuropilin-1 vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) interaction". Journal ... Neuropilin is a protein receptor active in neurons. There are two forms of Neuropilins, NRP-1 and NRP-2. Neuropilins are ...
Additionally, cells destined to become neural plate cells express nerve cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) to further neural plate ... and neural crest cells (connects epidermis and neural tube and will migrate to make neurons, glia, and skin cell pigmentation). ... Cell grafting[edit]. Cell grafting in the early stages of embryo development has provided crucial information on cell fates and ... Without BMP4 the ectoderm cells would develop into neural cells. Axial mesoderm cells under the ectoderm secrete inhibitory ...
... crest cells are initially anchored to neighboring cells by tight junction proteins such as occludin and cell adhesion molecules ... chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, glomus cells type I/II. Peripheral nervous system: Sensory neurons and glia of the ... Schwann cells of all peripheral nerves. Enteric cells: Enterochromaffin cells. Melanocytes and iris muscle and pigment cells, ... Cells migrating through this path differentiate into pigment cells of the dermis. Further neural crest cell differentiation and ...
... junctional adhesion molecule. Each of these transmembrane proteins is anchored into the endothelial cells by another protein ... Astrocyte cell projections called astrocytic feet (also known as "glia limitans") surround the endothelial cells of the BBB, ... in the circulating blood from non-selectively crossing into the extracellular fluid of the central nervous system where neurons ... while allowing the diffusion of hydrophobic molecules (O2, CO2, hormones) and small non-polar molecules. Cells of the barrier ...
... a new inroad in the treatment of neuropathic pain and related disorders based on overactivation of glia and glia-related cells ... PAR and adhesion molecules expression, the infiltration and activation of mastcells and apoptosis. The biological responses to ... are protective in a delayed postglutamate paradigm of excitotoxic death in cerebellar granule neurons". Proceedings of the ... Since 1993, at least 25 papers have been published on the various effects of PEA on mast cells. These cells are often found in ...
ShK domain and immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule (Ig-CaM) domain. The prodomain traps the voltage-gated potassium ... Glia. 65 (1): 106-121. doi:10.1002/glia.23078. PMC 5113690. PMID 27696527. Nguyen HM, Blomster LV, Christophersen P, Wulff H ( ... Injury is, in part, due to the activation of microglia and microglia-mediated damage of neurons. Neuroprotective therapies for ... When naïve T cells and central memory T cells (TCM) are activated they upregulate KCa3.1 expression to ~500 per cell without ...
11] Chiasm crossing is also promoted by Nr-CAM (Ng-CAM-related cell adhesion molecule) and Semaphorin6D (Sema6D) expressed at ... "Neuron. 70 (5): 951-965. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.02.052. PMC 3114076. PMID 21658587.. ... Ephrin-B2 is expressed at the chiasm midline by radial glia and acts as a repulsive signal to axons originating from the ... "Neuron. 74 (4): 676-690. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.03.025. PMC 3361695. PMID 22632726.. ...
Neurons within the retina show extensive coupling, both within populations of one cell type, and between different cell types.[ ... which allows various molecules, ions and electrical impulses to directly pass through a regulated gate between cells.[4][5] ... "Developmental exposure to estrogens alters epithelial cell adhesion and gap junction proteins in the adult rat prostate". ... Glia. 24 (1): 141-54. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-1136(199809)24:1,141::AID-GLIA13,3.0.CO;2-R. PMID 9700496.. ...
neuronal cell body. • dendrite. • neuron projection. Biological process. • negative regulation of nitric-oxide synthase ... "Cannabinoid CB2 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase are selectively overexpressed in neuritic plaque-associated glia in ... These receptors were primarily localized on immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, B-cells, and T-cells.[6][10][22][23][ ... CB2Rs are expressed on some rat retinal cell types.[29] Functional CB2 receptors are expressed in neurons of the ventral ...
... neurons, glia, endothelia of capillaries and lymphatics, fibroblasts, stem cells, white blood cells) in many tissues and organs ... "Substance P enhances cytokine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression on cultured rheumatoid fibroblast- ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ...
negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process. • synapse assembly. • cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain- ... BDNF mediates more pathways involved in these enrichment-induced processes than any other molecule and is strongly regulated by ... with focal adhesion kinase and suppression of the extracellular matrix-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt cell ... Glia maturation factor (GMF). *Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). *Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead) ...
negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process. • synapse assembly. • cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain- ... Tamura M, Gu J, Danen EH, Takino T, Miyamoto S, Yamada KM (July 1999). "PTEN interactions with focal adhesion kinase and ... BDNF mediates more pathways involved in these enrichment-induced processes than any other molecule and is strongly regulated by ... Glia maturation factor (GMF). *Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). *Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead) ...
positive regulation of cell migration. • neuron cell-cell adhesion. • nervous system development. • neuron maturation. • ... homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules. • Peyer's patch morphogenesis. • peptidyl-tyrosine ... Glia maturation factor (GMF). *Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). *Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead) ... regulation of cell adhesion. • lymphocyte migration into lymphoid organs. • cell adhesion. • positive regulation of gene ...
A positive test for inhibin A and inhibin B can indicate a granulosa cell tumor. A blood test for a marker molecule called CA- ... Serum alpha-fetoprotein, neuron-specific enolase, and lactate dehydrogenase can be measured in young girls and adolescents with ... Unlike mature teratomas, immature teratomas form many adhesions, making them less likely to cause ovarian torsion. There is no ... Histologically, they have large amounts of neuroectoderm organized into sheets and tubules along with glia; the amount of ...
Neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (Ng-CAM) mediates cell adhesion between neurons homophilically and between neurons and glia ... Functional-analysis of posttranslational cleavage products of the neuron-glia cell-adhesion molecule, ng-cam Academic Article ... for F135 on L cells (and presumably on neurons). In contrast to the cell binding results, the F80 but not the F135 fusion ... Appropriately transfected L cells expressed each of these proteins on their surfaces; F135 was also found in the media of cells ...
Two antigenically related neuronal cell adhesion molecules of different specificities mediate neuron-neuron and neuron-glia ... we have now identified a cell adhesion molecule on neurons (Ng-CAM) that mediates the heterotypic adhesion between neuronal ... immunologically based cell adhesion assays suggested that they have different specificities in mediating cell adhesion. Whereas ... Previous studies in this laboratory have led to the identification of the neural cell adhesion molecule, N-CAM, a homophilic ...
Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-glia. Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion ... The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS. ... They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite ... They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. ...
Aspects of the chronic cell-implant interaction will be discussed in view of the chronic local inflammation and the ways of ... Aspects of the chronic cell-implant interaction will be discussed in view of the chronic local inflammation and the ways of ... While the fields understanding of the cell biology of interactions at the biotic-abiotic interface has improved, relatively ... While the fields understanding of the cell biology of interactions at the biotic-abiotic interface has improved, relatively ...
... these domains are characterized by cell adhesion molecules (CAMs; neurofascin-186 [NF-186] and neuron glia-related CAM [NrCAM ... mechanisms orchestrate axonal compartmentalization of L1 family members neurofascin and L1/neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule. ... secreted by Schwann cells, and the axonal cell adhesion molecule (CAM) neurofascin-186 (NF-186; Eshed et al., 2005, 2007; ... Oligodendrocytes regulate formation of nodes of Ranvier via the recognition molecule OMgp. Neuron Glia Biol. 2:151-164. ...
1988) Neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule interacts with neurons and astroglia via different binding mechanisms. J Cell Biol 106 ... 1994) Impaired neurite outgrowth of src-minus cerebellar neurons on the cell adhesion molecule L1. Neuron 12:873-884. ... Growth cones express various cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that recognize localized guidance cues present on neighboring cells ... 1996) Neuroglian-mediated cell adhesion induces assembly of the membrane skeleton at cell contact sites. J Cell Biol 133:647- ...
2004) Axonal cell adhesion molecule L1 in myelination. Neuron Glia Biol 1:65-72. ... 2006) Endocytosis of beta1 integrins is an early event in migration promoted by the cell adhesion molecule L1. Exp Cell Res 312 ... 2001) Ectodomain shedding of L1 adhesion molecule promotes cell migration by autocrine binding to integrins. J Cell Biol 155: ... 2002) The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 potentiates integrin-dependent cell migration to extracellular matrix proteins. J ...
... of cleavage of neural cell adhesion molecule in neuronal death under oxidative stress conditions in cultured cortical neurons. ... in glia potentiates TrkA-mediated survival of injured retinal ganglion cells. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009; 40: 410-420. ... The neural cell adhesion molecule is necessary for normal adult retinal ganglion cell number and survival. Mol Cell Neurosci. ... Endogenous polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule enhances the survival of retinal ganglion cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis ...
Neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (Ng-CAM) Show on y-axis - References (HTP + LTP). References (LTP). References (HTP). ... PhosphoSite, created by Cell Signaling Technology is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 ...
... and inadequate expression of growth-promoting factors and/or cell-cell adhesion molecules among neurons and glia. These ... Seilheimer, B., and Schachner, M., 1987, Regulation of neural cell adhesion molecule expression on cultured mouse Schwann cells ... since they express a varied array of surface molecules that are important for cell-cell adhesion (Seilheimer and Schachner, ... synthesis in non-neuronal cells: Comparison of Schwann cells with other cell types. J. Neurosci. 11: 3165-3177.PubMedGoogle ...
Peng H, Carbonetto S. Astrocyte polarization and wound healing in culture: studying cell adhesion molecules. Methods Mol Biol. ... Longitudinal glia in the fly CNS: pushing the envelope on glial diversity and neuron-glial interactions Neuron-Glia Biology ... Brian Chen for their recent publication in Nature Neuroscience entitled Overexpression of Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule ... Overexpression of Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule impairs precise synaptic targeting. Nat Neurosci. 2013 Jun;16(6):677-82 ...
Binding between the neural cell adhesion molecules axonin-1 and Nr-CAM/Bravo is involved in neuron-glia interaction SUTER DM ... Chemorepulsion and cell adhesion molecules in patterning initial trajectories of sensory axons * * MASUDA Tomoyuki ... Cell adhesion molecules regulate guidance of dorsal root ganglion axons in the marginal zone and their invasion into the mantle ... Neural crest cell-cell adhesion controlled by sequential and subpopulation-specific expression of novel cadherins NAKAGAWA S. ...
Cell adhesion molecules such as selectins, integrins, and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) permit endothelial- ... Inflammatory cells, ischemic neurons, and glia produce free radicals that contribute to cell damage and death (11). HMG-CoA ... Anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 antibody reduces ischemic cell damage after transient but not permanent middle cerebral ... and vascular cell adhesion molecules after stroke, although these results are not consistent (129). Contributing to both ...
Silencer elements modulate the expression of the gene for the neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule, Ng-CAM.J. Biol. Chem. 270 ... Cell lines and cell culture.The cell lines used in this study were a wild-type parental PC12 cell line and a PC12 mutant cell ... PKA activity and ChAT activity in control cells and cells transfected with the PKA catalytic β subunit. A126.1B2 cells stably ... channel genes binds a factor present in nonneuronal cells but not in neuronal cells.Neuron 9 1992 45 54 ...
... is a homophilic binding glycoprotein expressed on the surface of neurons, glia and skeletal muscle. Although CD56 is often ... also present on subset of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. In cell adhesion, CD56 contributes to cell-cell adhesion or cell- ... The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM1 appears on early embryonic cells and is important in the formation of cell collectives ... Τ cells and activated CD8+ T cells, as well as on dendritic cells. NCAM has been implicated as having a role in cell-cell ...
Rutishauser U, Acheson A, Hall A, Mann D, Sunshine J. The neural cell adhesion molecule as a regulator of cell-cell ... Both neurons and glia are more sensitive to lactic acid exposure than to HCl exposure. Neither neurons nor glia are able to ... J Cell Biol. 1982;95:42a.. *Goldman SA, Pulsinelli W, Kraig R, Plum F. Tolerance of neurons and glia to acid exposure in vitro ... Both neurons and glia were more tolerant of HCl than of lactic acid. Each cell type was able to survive 10-min incubation in ...
... by degrading cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) designed to provide stability to those extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that ... form scaffolding supporting neurons and glia. It is presumed that while these ECM proteins are weakened, and/or detached, ...
... chemokines and adhesion molecules that recruit immune cells, and activate glia and microglia. Cerebral ischaemia triggers acute ... There are many cell types that are affected including neurons, astrocytes, microglia and endothelial cells, all responding to ... Yilmaz G, Granger DN (2008). Cell adhesion molecules and ischemic stroke. Neurol Res 30: 783-793. *CrossRef , ... T cells. The attraction of T cells to the site of injury has been suggested to be a double edged sword. Cytotoxic T cells are ...
NgCAM related cell adhesion molecule). L1 family members are found on neurons, especially on their axons. Sometimes they are ... found on glia, such as Schwann cells, radial glia and Bergmann glia cells and, as such, are important for neural cell migration ... As cell adhesion molecules, they often bind "homophilically" to themselves; for example L1 on one cell binding to L1 on an ... The L1 family is a family of cell adhesion molecules that includes four different L1-like proteins. They are members of the ...
... related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM), also known as Bravo, is an ankyrin-binding protein that modulates neuronal adhesion. ... NgCAM (Neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule)-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM), also known as Bravo, is an ankyrin-binding ... Cell Type Neurons Biology Area Cell Biology, Neuroscience, Synaptic Biology Molecular Family Adhesion Molecules Gene ID 319504 ... Neuronal cell adhesion molecule, mBravo, nr-CAM, ng-CAM-related, neuronal surface protein Bravo, ngCAM-related cell adhesion ...
During development, glial cells are involved in the guidance of neuronal precursors and in extending neuronal fiber projections ... Neuron-astrocyte interactions play a crucial role during development and in the adult brain. ... following the counteraction of neuron-neuron/neuron-glia interactions through addition of neuronal cell adhesion molecule (N- ... On the other hand, the importance of adhesion molecules in cell-to-cell communication was underscored by the significant ...
... with neurons, glia, and neural cell adhesion molecules. Milev, P., Friedlander, D.R., Sakurai, T., Karthikeyan, L., Flad, M., ... glia, and neural cell adhesion molecules [1].. *When dissociated neurons were incubated on dishes coated with combinations of ... Phosphacan, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of brain that interacts with neurons and neural cell-adhesion molecules, is an ... Our studies suggest that by binding to neural cell adhesion molecules, and possibly also by competing for ligands of the ...
N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor independent changes in expression of polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule despite ... Neuron Glia Biology, 3(S1) S119. Rodríguez, J. J.; Dallérac, G. M.; Tabuchi, M.; Davies, H. A.; Colyer, F. M.; Stewart, M. G. ... Increased GFAP immunoreactivity by astrocytes in response to contact with dorsal root ganglia cells in a 3D culture model.. ...
Communication between neurons and glia involves ion flux, neurotransmitters, cell adhesion molecules, and specialized signaling ... 52 Theses results suggest that morphine indirectly affects glia via chemokines conducting neuron-glia communication. Activated ... molecules released from synaptic and nonsynaptic regions of neurons.51 Morphine-induced glia activation and proinflammatory ... IL-10 is a key molecule in controlling inflammation with a wide spectrum of biologic effects on lymphoid and myeloid cells.15 ...
... intercellular adhesion molecule-5, telencephalin, TLN) is a member of the ICAM family of adhesion proteins. As a novel cell ... to the telencephalic neurons of the central nervous system whereas all the other ICAM members are expressed mostly by cells in ... As a somatodendrite-specific adhesion molecule, ICAM-5 not only participates in immune-nervous system interactions, it could ... adhesion molecule, ICAM-5 shares many structural similarities with the other members of IgSF, especially the ICAM subgroup; ...
Binding between the neural cell adhesion molecules axonin-1 and nr-cam/bravo is involved in neuron-glia interaction. J. Cell ... Binding between the neural cell adhesion molecules axonin-1 and nr-cam/bravo is involved in neuron-glia interaction. J. Cell ... Bravo/Nr-CAM is closely related to the cell adhesion molecules L1 and Ng-CAM and has a similar heterodimer structure. J. Cell ... Bravo/Nr-CAM is closely related to the cell adhesion molecules L1 and Ng-CAM and has a similar heterodimer structure. J. Cell ...
Compare and order L1 Cell Adhesion Molecule ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more ... neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (Ng-CAM) , neuronal-glial cell adhesion molecule , ng-CAM ... More product categories related to L1 Cell Adhesion Molecule ELISA Kit * 288 anti-L1 Cell Adhesion Molecule Primary Antibodies ... Search L1 Cell Adhesion Molecule ELISA Kits for other reactivities: Dog (Canine),. Guinea Pig,. Pig (Porcine),. Rabbit,. Cow ( ...
1999). A binding site for homeodomain and Pax proteins is necessary for L1 cell adhesion molecule gene expression by Pax-6 and ... 1998). Pax6 controls radial glia differentiation in the cerebral cortex. Neuron 21, 1031-1044. ... Postmitotic Ey-positive cells (green), ap-positive cells (blue), Dll-positive cells (red) and other cell types (white) are ... 1997). A binding site for Pax proteins regulates expression of the gene for the neural cell adhesion molecule in the embryonic ...
... we focused on two L1 family of cell adhesion molecules (L1-CAMs) [L1/neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (L1/NgCAM) and ... Mechanisms Orchestrate Axonal Compartmentalization of L1 Family Members Neurofascin and L1/neuron-glia Cell Adhesion Molecule ... Since the axonal cell adhesion molecule L1/NgCAM can partition into membrane rafts biochemically, we asked whether correct ... We investigated the pathways underlying the subcellular targeting of NgCAM, a cell adhesion molecule residing on the axonal ...
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) are known to be involved in a variety of events during ... Ig-SUPERFAMILY MOLECULES IN NEURAL REGENERATION IN THE CNS. Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the immunoglobulin superfamily ( ... including the phenotypic differentiation of specific neurons or glial cells, axon growth and fasciculation, axonal pathfinding ... axon-glia and axon-target interactions as well as synapse formation and synapse stabilization (overview in Brümmendorf and ...
  • In addition to binding homophilically, cells transfected with Ng-CAM200 and F135 bound heterophilically to untransfected L cells, suggesting that there is a ligand for Ng-CAM on fibroblasts that may be related to the glial ligand. (
  • By means of a similar immunological approach but with different assays, we have now identified a cell adhesion molecule on neurons (Ng-CAM) that mediates the heterotypic adhesion between neuronal membranes and glial cells. (
  • Whereas 0.25 micrograms of Ng-CAM partially neutralized the ability of 0.5 mg of polyspecific antineural Fab' fragments to inhibit the heterotypic binding of neuronal membrane vesicles to glial cells and larger amounts of Ng-CAM completely neutralized this inhibition, 20 micrograms of N-CAM had no neutralization activity in this assay. (
  • The understanding of how adhesion molecules mediate the axon-glial interactions in the CNS that ensure target-dependent survival of oligodendrocytes and initiate myelination remains incomplete. (
  • During development, glial cells are involved in the guidance of neuronal precursors and in extending neuronal fiber projections. (
  • Furthermore, glial cells can secrete immunoregulatory molecules that influence immune cells, as well as the glial cells themselves. (
  • Since bFGF is expressed in GT1-1 neurons and glial cells a possible paracrine/autocrine regulatory loop is suggested. (
  • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) are known to be involved in a variety of events during vertebrate nervous system development, including the phenotypic differentiation of specific neurons or glial cells, axon growth and fasciculation, axonal pathfinding, axon-glia and axon-target interactions as well as synapse formation and synapse stabilization (overview in Brümmendorf and Rathjen, 1994). (
  • 97% cell viability and were virtually exclusively comprised of astrocytes expressing a combination of the intermediate filament proteins glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and nestin. (
  • These defects result from disorganization of the cortical marginal zone, where beta1-class integrins regulate glial endfeet anchorage, meningeal basement membrane remodeling, and formation of the Cajal-Retzius cell layer. (
  • Neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (Ng-CAM) has beforehand been proven to be current completely on neurons and to mediate adhesion between neuronal membranes and glial cells. (
  • Everything we think and feel and do would be impossible without the work of neurons and their support cells, the glial cells called astrocytes (4) and oligodendrocytes (6). (
  • During neocortical development, many neuronally differentiating cells (neurons and intermediate progenitor cells) are generated at the apical/ventricular surface by the division of neural progenitor cells (apical radial glial cells, aRGs). (
  • Finally, while studying the signaling pathways that stimulate CMZ and Müller glia-derived progenitors, serendipity led to the discovery of a novel type of glial cell that is scattered across the inner retinal layers. (
  • An important function of foetal radial glial cells is to provide the scaffolding along which neural precursors migrate (Figure 7.2). (
  • Figure 7.2 Radial glial cells form a scaffold that assists neuronal migration in the developing nervous system. (
  • Radial glial cells extend their processes from the ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ), where neural progenitors reside, towards the pia. (
  • Neuronal precursors attach to the radial glial cells and migrate along their processes towards their final destination. (
  • The present study induced BM-MSCs to transdifferentiate into neural-like cells (either neurons or glial cells) using Cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) in vitro . (
  • Several in vitro studies described conditions affecting on BM-MSCs to transdifferentiate into neural cells, either neurons or glial. (
  • in the central nervous system (CNS), the positions of neuronal cell bodies and glial cells are abnormal and normal axonal pathways do not form. (
  • In particular, we discuss the commonalities and differences in the way axons and glial cells degenerate to find out which mechanistic concepts can be transferred from one cell type to the other. (
  • Molecular mechanisms underlying the dystroglycan-mediated targeting and polarization of proteins in glial cells. (
  • Osthole Furthermore to suppressing the creation of proinflammatory cytokines, noradrenaline raises neurotrophin manifestation in FA-H glia cells, including brain-derived neurotrophic element (BDNF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic element and fibroblast development element-2 (21C23). (
  • APC/C(Fzr/Cdh1)-dependent regulation of cell adhesion controls glial migration in the Drosophila PNS. (
  • During development, glial cells often follow extending axons, implying that axonal outgrowth and glial migration are precisely coordinated. (
  • We found that the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) co-activator fizzy-related/Cdh1 (Fzr/Cdh1) is involved in the non-autonomous control of peripheral glial migration in postmitotic Drosophila neurons. (
  • NCAM is a glycoprotein (a protein that has sugar attached to it) and is found on the surface of nerve cells (neurons) and glial cells (protect neurons). (
  • Glial cells have been shown to harbor receptors for estradiol and progesterone (102 , 105 , 106) , and estradiol is able to induce the appearance of progesterone receptors. (
  • This hormonal effect results in natural fluctuations in the ensheathing of the arcuate neurons by glial processes and these glial changes are linked to a remodeling of inhibitory GABAergic synapses during the estrous cycle (see 97 , 98) . (
  • Hormonally induced glial and synaptic changes appear to be dependent on specific recognition or adhesion molecules on the neural and/or glial membranes (see 103) . (
  • Nerve tissue damage is accompanied by the activation of glial cells, primarily microglia and astroglia, and such activation is responsible for the release of cytokines and chemokines that maintain the local inflammatory response and actively recruit lymphocytes and monocytes to the damaged areas. (
  • Alongside, glial cells transform their cell body, become larger and develop higher number of branches adopting an active morphological phenotype. (
  • In this particular crosstalk there is a two-way communication in which glial cells and target cells come together establishing interfaces with specific information exchange. (
  • This way, glial cells orchestrate the particular response recruiting cellular subsets within the central nervous system and organizing the resolution of the brain damage. (
  • The pathophysiology of this disease is still poorly understood but growing evidence suggests that impaired neuron and glial plasticity may be a key underlying mechanism for the precipitation of the disorder. (
  • One of the most surprising findings in this field was the involvement of glial cells in the pathophysiology of major depression and in the action of antidepressants, namely in mechanisms related with adult neurogenesis imbalances or dendritic arborization impairments. (
  • Neuronal and glial Neurofascins are the key cell adhesion molecules required for the correct clustering of sodium channels at the node. (
  • Although at a gross level, the distribution of C9orf72 promoter activity largely follows overall cellular density, we found that it is selectively enriched in subsets of neurons and glial cells that degenerate in ALS. (
  • NG2(+) glial cells are a dynamic population of non-neuronal cells that give rise to myelinating oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. (
  • These cells express numerous ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors, which endow them with a complex electrophysiological profile that is unique among glial cells. (
  • Rolf B1.T cells support the regrowth of neurites from adult retinal ganglion cells in vitro in a heterologous co-culture system and will have potential value in investigations into the mechanisms of glial support for axonal regeneration from adult mammalian central neurons. (
  • H-CAM is widely expressed in human CNS white matter by subsets of glial cells, and within the neuropil of several grey matter structures. (
  • Astrocytes, a major type of glial cell, are important regulators of synapse formation and function during development. (
  • The cells retain characteristics of type 1 astrocytes including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity. (
  • We first demonstrate that the Ig superfamily molecule contactin is associated in oligodendrocytes with integrins, extracellular matrix receptors that regulate target-dependent survival by amplification of growth factor signaling. (
  • When neural crest cells stop making N-CAM and N-cadherin, and start displaying integrin receptors, cells separate and migrate. (
  • This review examines the involvement of these cells in the progression of neural injury and proposes that the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are likely to be an integral component in the communication between the CNS and the periphery. (
  • CNTNAP2 encodes a member of the neurexin family which functions in the vertebrate nervous system as cell adhesion molecules and receptors. (
  • We conclude that MAG engages membrane-domain resident neuronal receptors to protect neurons from excitotoxicity, and that soluble MAG mitigates excitotoxic damage in vivo. (
  • Differential cellular expression of isoforms of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors in neurons and glia in brain. (
  • Then, we focus on several antibody-mediated encephalitis disorders that associate with seizures and review the synaptic alterations caused by patients' antibodies, with emphasis on those that have been modeled in animals (e.g., antibodies against NMDA, AMPA receptors, LGI1 protein) or in cultured neurons (e.g., antibodies against the GABAb receptor). (
  • Axons grow on surfaces and they are attracted to cell adhesion molecules for which they have receptors. (
  • In particular, oligodendrocytes, are known to be capable of synthesizing steroids such as pregnenolone and progesterone, and evidences have been presented for the presence of receptors for these hormones on cultured cells (104-106) . (
  • In contrast, oligodendrocytes prepared from both male and female animals possessed PRs and, although more abundant in culture from females, receptors in cells from both sexes were increased by exposure to estrogens (105) . (
  • There is abundant evidence that cultured glia possess corticosteroid receptors. (
  • Despite extensive analysis of the electrophysiological properties of these cells, relatively little was known about the molecular identity of the channels and receptors that they express. (
  • In this review, we systematically compare the results obtained through RNA-Seq transcriptional analysis of purified NG2(+) cells to previous physiological and molecular studies of these cells to define the complement of ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors expressed by NG2(+) cells in the mammalian brain and discuss the potential significance of the unique physiological properties of these cells. (
  • The Ig superfamily constitutes a major group of cell surface receptors involved in recognition and/or communication ( 1 ). (
  • Coating the surface of every cell in the body are specialized proteins, called receptors, that have the capability of selectively binding or adhering to other "signaling" molecules. (
  • There are many different types of receptors that differ in their structure and affinity for the signaling molecules. (
  • Normally, cells use these receptors and the molecules that bind to them as a way of communicating with other cells and to carry out their proper functions in the body. (
  • These same cell surface receptors are the stem cell markers. (
  • Each cell type, for example a liver cell, has a certain combination of receptors on their surface that makes them distinguishable from other kinds of cells. (
  • Scientists have taken advantage of the biological uniqueness of stem cell receptors and chemical properties of certain compounds to tag or "mark" cells. (
  • Stem cell markers are given short-hand names based on the molecules that bind to the stem cell surface receptors. (
  • Researchers use the signaling molecules that selectively adhere to the receptors on the surface of the cell as a tool that allows them to identify stem cells. (
  • Glioma-cell-specific genetic perturbation of AMPA receptors reduces calcium-related invasiveness of tumour-microtube-positive tumour cells and glioma growth. (
  • Blockage of Ca 2+ -permeable AMPA receptors suppresses migration and induces apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells. (
  • The cell adhesion molecule (CAM) L1 plays crucial roles in axon growth in vitro and in the formation of major axonal tracts in vivo . (
  • Growth cones express various cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that recognize localized guidance cues present on neighboring cells or in the extracellular matrix and translate them into a directed axonal extension ( Tessier-Lavigne and Goodman, 1996 ). (
  • Uncovering Multiple Axonal Targeting Pathways in Hippocampal Neurons The Journal of Cell Biology. (
  • We investigated the pathways underlying the subcellular targeting of NgCAM, a cell adhesion molecule residing on the axonal plasma membrane. (
  • Therefore, our results suggest that multiple distinct pathways operate in hippocampal neurons to achieve axonal accumulation of membrane proteins. (
  • Neurotrauma and neurodegenerative disease often result in lasting neurological deficits due to the limited capacity of the central nervous system (CNS) to replace lost neurons and regenerate axonal pathways. (
  • The central nervous system (CNS) has a limited capacity to counteract the loss and/or dysfunction of neurons and axonal pathways that accompany conditions such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI), and neurodegenerative disease 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 . (
  • Schwann cells (SCs), the myelinating glia of the peripheral nervous system, ensheath individual axons, promote axonal growth and maintain normal electric conductivity. (
  • During peripheral nervous system regeneration, SCs can express various types of neurotrophic factors and adhesion molecules that support axonal regrowth and myelin sheath reconstruction. (
  • In particular, we investigate whether EHD1 is required for polarized trafficking of the dendritically targeted transferrin and the axonal adhesion molecule L1/NgCAM (neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule) and, if so, in what compartment it is required. (
  • This ankyrin-binding protein is involved in neuron-neuron adhesion and promotes directional signaling during axonal cone growth. (
  • Fasciclin I is an insect neural cell adhesion molecule involved in axonal guidance that is attached to the membrane by a GPI-anchored protein. (
  • We conclude that fas encodes a protein that, in the developing nervous system, is present on the surface of neurons and is essential for nerve cell migration and the establishment of axonal pathways. (
  • However, much data now suggest that several other class of molecules may inhibit axonal growth. (
  • The injury site may be bereft of molecules that support axonal growth. (
  • Schwann cells likewise express laminin and L1 and therefore provide attractive substrates for axonal growth across the injury site. (
  • In motor neurons Fzr/Cdh1 is crucial for the establishment of a graded axonal distribution of Fas2. (
  • They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. (
  • Schwann cells in sciatic nerve, laminin in amniotic membrane, and immature astrocytes in fetal hippocampus. (
  • Cunningham, L.A., Hansen, J.T., Short, M.P., and Bohn, M.C., 1991a, Rat astrocytes containing a mouse NGF transgene enhance the survival of both young postnatal and adult adrenal chromaffin cells grafted into the adult rat striatum. (
  • There are many cell types that are affected including neurons, astrocytes, microglia and endothelial cells, all responding to the resultant neuroinflammation in different ways. (
  • Increased GFAP immunoreactivity by astrocytes in response to contact with dorsal root ganglia cells in a 3D culture model. (
  • Astrocytes typically have diverse functions in assisting neurons with ion homeostasis, neurotransmitter clearance, synapse formation, and neurovascular coupling 11 . (
  • f , High magnification of the area outlined in e . g , At 14 d after injury, the fibers are still associated with NG2+ cells (green) in the lesion, but not with astrocytes labeled with GFAP (green) at the caudal end of the lesion ( h ), where the majority of the fibers have stabilized. (
  • Astrocytes produce a number of membrane bound and extracellular matrix molecules that serve as molecular cues for axon growth. (
  • In response to estrogens, astrocytes appear to participate in the remodeling of synaptic contacts on hypothalamic neurons that control the release of pituitary secretions in rodents and primates (99-103) . (
  • Astroglial cell proliferation was determined by the incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine and results depict a dose-response curve of estradiol 17ß (E 2 , 10 -11 - 10 -8 M) on 12 DIV primary rat astrocytes. (
  • In this process, microglia and astrocytes communicates with other cells by the formation of specific intercellular connections that are still poorly understood. (
  • For many years astrocytes were considered important, yet passive supporters of neurons, providing metabolic support, neurotransmitter precursors and ion buffering. (
  • Due to this inability of neurons to survive without astrocytes, the role of astrocytes in several aspects of neuronal function, such as synapse formation and activity was not assessed until more recently. (
  • Astrocytes are the most abundant type of cells in the central nervous system that perform a variety of different functions, including support of brain metabolism, the primary focus of which is on the relationship between astrocytes and neurons. (
  • Astrocytes are cells that promote the growth of neurons by providing nourishment and support. (
  • Cultured astrocytes have been shown to promote neurite outgrowth by producing adhesion molecules found either on the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix. (
  • The DI-TNC1 cell line produces alpha 2 macroglobulin similar to amounts found in primary astrocytes but produces transferrin in much lesser amounts. (
  • Research has shown DI-TNC1 cells exhibit many similarities to neonatal astrocytes, and the cell line is utilized in biomedical research for studying the interactions between glia and neurons, as well as astrocyte cell functions related to energy metabolism. (
  • The DI-TNC1 cells resemble astrocytes found in human infants. (
  • NCAM has been implicated as having a role in cell-cell adhesion, neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory. (
  • The premise of this paper is that increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) permits the reconfiguration of synaptic connections (i.e., neural plasticity) by degrading cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) designed to provide stability to those extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that form scaffolding supporting neurons and glia. (
  • In neurons, the endosomal system is essential for membrane receptor trafficking to dendrites and axons and thereby participates in various neuronal functions, such as neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity. (
  • Entrapment via synaptic-like connections between NG2 proteoglycan+ cells and dystrophic axons in the lesion plays a role in regeneration failure af. (
  • Once dystrophic axons become stabilized upon NG2+ cells, they form synaptic-like connections both in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Hippocampus-dependent learning and memory relies on synaptic plasticity as well as network adaptations provided by the addition of adult-born neurons. (
  • α- and β-neurexins are presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules whose general importance for synaptic transmission is well documented. (
  • Regulation of synaptic adhesion complexes by alternative splicing Peter Scheiffele, Columbia University, NY. (
  • Whereas the involvement of MMP-3 in shaping synapse morphology upon induction of synaptic plasticity awaits determination, it has been demostrated that MMP-3 knockout results in clearly altered apical dendrite morphology in pyramidal neurons in mouse visual cortex. (
  • 1995 ) Fasciclin III as a synaptic target recognition molecule in Drosophila . (
  • The connectivity of a neuron (its unique constellation of synaptic inputs and outputs) is essential for its function. (
  • How each neuron finds its synaptic partners has been a central question in developmental neurobiology. (
  • In vivo neuron-wide analysis of synaptic vesicle precursor trafficking. (
  • Moreover, neuronal activity can foster malignant behaviour of glioma cells by non-synaptic paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. (
  • These findings reveal a biologically relevant direct synaptic communication between neurons and glioma cells with potential clinical implications. (
  • In the mammalian cerebral cortex neurons are arranged in specific layers and form connections both within the cortex and with other brain regions, thus forming a complex mesh of specialized synaptic connections comprising distinct circuits. (
  • Schwann cells initiate peripheral nervous system node formation by clustering NF-186, which then recruits ankyrinG and Nav channels. (
  • Schwann cells appear to be the predominant reason for this robust regeneration peripherally. (
  • Schwann cells also produce nerve growth factor (NGF), the most potent growth-promoting substance found within the nervous system (Heumann et al. (
  • Sometimes they are found on glia, such as Schwann cells, radial glia and Bergmann glia cells and, as such, are important for neural cell migration during development. (
  • Cell transplantation therapy of Schwann cells (SCs) is a promising therapeutic strategy after spinal cord injury. (
  • We examined the protective effects of aqueous O. gratissimum extract (OGE) against cell damage caused by H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress in RSC96 Schwann cells. (
  • Studies of adhesion molecules mediating interactions between cells of peripheral nervous system indicate a major role for L1 in mediating sensory neuron growth on Schwann cells in culture. (
  • We prepared Schwann cells and fibroblasts (from sciatic nerves) and neurons (from dorsal root ganglia) from 1-d mice. (
  • We also measured outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion neurons on Schwann cell and fibroblast monolayers. (
  • Schwann cells (which express L1, N-CAM, and J1) adhered most strongly to dorsal root ganglion neurons by an L1-dependent mechanism and less by N-CAM and J1. (
  • Schwann cell-Schwann cell adhesion was mediated by L1 and N-CAM, but not J1. (
  • Adhesion of fibroblasts (which express N-CAM, but not L1 or J1) to neurons or Schwann cells was mediated by L1 and N-CAM and not J1. (
  • However, inhibition by L1 and N-CAM antibodies was found to be less pronounced with fibroblasts than with Schwann cells. (
  • Neurite outgrowth was most extensive on Schwann cells and less on fibroblasts. (
  • L1 antibodies interfered most strikingly with neurite outgrowth on Schwann cells (inhibition of 88% for small and 76% for large neurons), while no inhibition was detectable on fibroblasts. (
  • Similarly, although to a smaller extent than L1, N-CAM appeared to be involved in neurite outgrowth on Schwann cells and not on fibroblasts. (
  • Antibodies to J1 only showed a very small effect on neurite outgrowth of large neurons on Schwann cells. (
  • These observations show for the first time that identified adhesion molecules are potent mediators of glia-dependent neurite formation and attribute to L1 a predominant role in neurite outgrowth on Schwann cells which may be instrumental in regeneration. (
  • Plays a role in mediating cell-cell contacts between Schwann cells and axons. (
  • Finally, recent studies indicate the increasing cAMP levels in the spinal cord with a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor Rolipram and injecting a cAMP analog into the spinal cord will markedly stimulate regeneration in the spinal cord, when combined with Schwann cell or bone marrow stem cell transplants. (
  • DRG neurons purified from these mice are co-cultured with myelinating glia (either Schwann cells or Oligodendrocytes) in microfluidic chambers, and the trafficking and delivery of fluorescently tagged β1Nav and Nfasc186 to the NoR and axon initial segment (AIS) is recorded by live cell imaging as myelination progresses. (
  • invasion of peripheral myelinating (P0+) Schwann cells made only a limited contribution. (
  • neurofascin-186 [NF-186] and neuron glia-related CAM [NrCAM]), cytoskeletal proteins (ankyrinG and βIV spectrin), and the extracellular chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycan brevican. (
  • By analogy with nodes, the CAMs NF-186 and neuron glia-related CAM (NrCAM) may initiate ion channel clustering at the AIS through as-yet-unknown extrinsic mechanisms. (
  • The members of the L1-family in humans are called L1 or L1cam, CHL1 (close homologue of L1), Neurofascin and NRCAM (NgCAM related cell adhesion molecule). (
  • NgCAM (Neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule)-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM), also known as Bravo, is an ankyrin-binding protein that modulates neuronal adhesion. (
  • The NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) is an immunoglobulin superfamily member of the L1 subgroup that interacts intracellularly with ankyrins. (
  • Furthermore, analysis of lenses of ankyrin-B mutant mice also reveals a disorganization of lens fibers at postnatal day 1, indistinguishable from that generated by the absence of NrCAM, indicating that NrCAM and ankyrin-B are required to maintain contact between lens fiber cells. (
  • The transmembrane glycoprotein NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) * is a member of the L1 subgroup of immunoglobulin (Ig)-like cell adhesion proteins. (
  • NRCAM (Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • In this study I characterise a variety of established tanycyte markers across the anterior-posterior axis of the hypothalamus, describe the cell adhesion molecule NrCAM as a new tanycyte marker, and show, for the first time, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) expression in a tanycyte subset around the adult mouse 3rd ventricle. (
  • These cells support neurite extension of most types of neurons in vitro (Noble et al. (
  • In vitro systems may be most useful for studying fundamental cell biology that is less likely to be altered by culture systems. (
  • Animal models have advantages over in vitro systems because the observed cells are in their natural state. (
  • Thus, to compare the abilities of neurons and glia to tolerate extracellular acidosis, we evaluated their thresholds for irreversible damage following exposure to selected organic and inorganic acids in vitro. (
  • The sleep inducing brain lipid cis-oleamide (cOA) does not modulate serotonergic transmission in the CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus in vitro. (
  • Therefore, controlling the BM-MSCs in vitro to differentiate toward the neural lineage becomes an important source of cells used for cell therapy [ 5 ] . (
  • 1991 ) Cerebellar granule cell neurogenesis is regulated by cell-cell interaction in vitro. (
  • Progressive activation of adult microglial cells in vitro. (
  • To examine the functions of each of these components, we have expressed Ng-CAM200, F135, and F80 in murine L cells, and F135 and F80 as GST fusion proteins in the pGEX vector in bacteria. (
  • Detailed studies using the transfected cells and the fusion proteins indicated that both the homophilic and the heterophilic binding activities of Ng-CAM are localized in the F135 fragment of the molecule. (
  • The L1 family is a family of cell adhesion molecules that includes four different L1-like proteins. (
  • L1 family members bind to many cytoplasmic proteins such as Ankyrins, ezrin-moesin-radixin (ERM) proteins, signaling molecules like src (src gene) and erk (Extracellular signal-regulated kinases) and proteins important in trafficking, such as AP-2. (
  • ICAM-5 (intercellular adhesion molecule-5, telencephalin, TLN) is a member of the ICAM family of adhesion proteins. (
  • Pubmed ID: 15228528 Although many proteins can be overexpressed several fold without much effect on cell viability and morphology, some become toxic upon a slight increase in their intracellular level. (
  • By contrast, the nectin family comprises only four members, and these proteins form both homophilic and heterophilic trans-interactions (i.e. interactions between the same and different nectin members on opposing cells). (
  • Hippocampal neurons plated on proteins extracted from wild-type rat or mouse myelin were resistant to kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity, whereas neurons plated on proteins from Mag-null myelin were not. (
  • Liu Y, Liu Y, Elly C, Yoshida H, Lipkowitz S, Altman A. Serine phosphorylation of Cbl induced by phorbol ester enhances its association with 14-3-3 proteins in T cells via a novel serine-rich 14-3-3-binding motif. (
  • We made recombinant betaig-h3 proteins, which were highly active in mediating human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell adhesion and spreading. (
  • These results, therefore, establish the essential motifs within the 2nd and the 4th domains of betaig-h3, which interact with alpha(3)beta(1) integrin to mediate HCE cell adhesion to betaig-h3 and suggest that other proteins containing Asp-Ile in their fas-1 domains could possibly function as cell adhesion molecules. (
  • APC/C(Fzr/Cdh1) is a cell-cycle regulator that targets proteins that are required for G1 arrest for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. (
  • The nervous system is a highly integrated network of neurons and glia that work together to generate, propagate, and modulate action potentials. (
  • The expression of ICAM-5 is confined to the telencephalic neurons of the central nervous system whereas all the other ICAM members are expressed mostly by cells in the immune and blood systems. (
  • As a somatodendrite-specific adhesion molecule, ICAM-5 not only participates in immune-nervous system interactions, it could also participate in neuronal activity, Dendrites' targeting signals, and cognition. (
  • The SCs ability to promote nerve regeneration has increased interest in cell transplantation therapy for nervous system repair. (
  • The involvement of the adhesion molecules L1, N-CAM, and J1 in adhesion and neurite outgrowth in the peripheral nervous system was investigated. (
  • Neural stem cells exist not only in the developing mammalian nervous system but also in the adult nervous system of all mammalian organisms, including humans. (
  • The term "neural stem cell" is used loosely to describe cells that (i) can generate neural tissue or are derived from the nervous system, (ii) have some capacity for self-renewal, and (iii) can give rise to cells other than themselves through asymmetric cell division. (
  • A pluripotent stem cell is restricted in that it can give rise to every cell of the organism, including cells of the nervous system, except the trophoblasts of the placenta. (
  • In mammals, the diversity of structures, functions, and cell types in the nervous system makes the study of stem cells more difficult than in organisms like Drosophila ( 2 ). (
  • For the mammalian nervous system, it is unknown whether or not stem cells from different regions of the brain carry different constraints. (
  • The nervous system is unlike the hematopoietic system, wherein the functional requirements of self-renewal and multipotency of the stem cell during development are assumed to be similar to those of the adult, because of the need for constant replenishment of the blood system. (
  • The observation of stem cells in the adult nervous system has not been adequately integrated into our ideas of the function of the adult brain, which had long been thought to be entirely postmitotic. (
  • The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. (
  • In this study, we report that inhibition of the PIR-B signaling cascades in neurons enhances axon regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). (
  • The central nervous system (which includes the brain and spinal cord) is made up of two basic types of cells: neurons (1) and glia (4) & (6). (
  • the theory that the nervous system is formed of numerous separate NEURONS that contact only through synapses and not through a continuity of protoplasm. (
  • Cell adhesion protein that is required for normal responses to cell-cell contacts in brain and in the peripheral nervous system. (
  • 1992 ) Molecular markers for identified neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells in the Drosophila nervous system. (
  • Immune cells enter the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) in several neurological conditions of infectious or autoimmune origin. (
  • Lab research: The molecular interactions between glia and neurons that occuring during development of the nervous system of Drosophila. (
  • Interactions between neurons and glia are a key feature during the assembly of the nervous system. (
  • Each of the progeny cells, however, adopts a specific fate, and will proceed to fulfill a very specific role, identical for each segment, in the structuring and function of the central nervous system. (
  • To better understand the involvement of different cell types in the pathogenesis of ALS, we systematically analyzed the distribution of promoter activity of the mouse ortholog of C9orf72 in the central nervous system. (
  • Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) originate in the ventricular zones (VZs) of the brain and spinal cord and migrate throughout the developing central nervous system (CNS) before differentiating into myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs). (
  • These findings indicate the dynamic regulation of H-CAM expression in the developing human nervous system, and suggest the hyaluronate-binding activity and potentially other cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesive functions of H-CAM may play an important role in development of the nervous system. (
  • In turn, neuronal cells can respond to astrocyte-derived growth factors and control astrocyte function via a common set of signaling molecules and intracellular transducing pathways. (
  • Before the full potential of neural stem cells can be realized, we need to learn what controls their proliferation, as well as the various pathways of differentiation available to their daughter cells. (
  • As children we might produce some new neurons to help build the pathways - called neural circuits - that act as information highways between different areas of the brain. (
  • In sensory pathways, gene expression profiles are modified by age and sensory experience in a manner that differs between brain regions and cell types. (
  • An early responder to neuronal injury, the endocannabinoid system has been described as an endogenous neuroprotective system that once activated can prevent glutamate excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium accumulation, activation of cell death pathways, microglia activation, neurovascular reactivity and infiltration of circulating leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier. (
  • In particular, MMP-mediated proteolysis of extracellular matrix components, other proteases or cell adhesion molecules have been implicated as important components of signaling pathways underlying various types of neuroplasticity (Brzdak et al. (
  • Our findings indicate that On-Off direction-selective retinal neurons may have evolutionarily diverged in primates and more generally provide novel insight into the identity and organization of primate parallel visual pathways. (
  • In addition to the implication of glia in the pathophysiology of depression, a number of studies is ascribing glia pathways to classically accepted antidepressant mechanisms. (
  • Comparative transcriptomics between differentiating human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and developing mouse neurons offers a powerful approach to compare genetic and epigenetic pathways in human and mouse neurons. (
  • In this study, we evaluated the expression of extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules genes in the brain of VEEV infected mice. (
  • Several cell to cell adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix protein genes such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1, CD44, Cadherins, integrins, MMPs and Timp1 were differentially regulated post-VEEV infection. (
  • The observations that a protein corresponding to F135 contains the cell aggregation sites whereas one corresponding to the F80 has the ability to promote neurite outgrowth suggest that proteolytic cleavage may be an important event in regulating these Ng-CAM activities during embryonic development and neural regeneration. (
  • The role of protein kinase A in regulating transcription of the cholinergic gene locus, which contains both the vesicular acetylcholine transporter gene and the choline acetyltransferase gene, was investigated in PC12 cells and a protein kinase A-deficient PC12 mutant, A126.1B2, in which transcription of the gene is reduced. (
  • The site of action of protein kinase A was localized to a neuron-restrictive silencer element/repressor element 1 (NRSE/RE-1) sequence within the cholinergic gene. (
  • Thus, in PC12 cells, protein kinase A promotes the production of REST4, which inhibits repression of the cholinergic gene locus by NRSF/REST. (
  • Nagata, Koh‐ichi 2018-01-01 00:00:00 Migfilin, encoded by FBLIM1 at the 1p36 locus, is a multi‐domain adaptor protein essential for various cellular processes such as cell morphology and migration. (
  • Migfilin, encoded by FBLIM1 at the 1p36 locus, is a multi‐domain adaptor protein essential for various cellular processes such as cell morphology and migration. (
  • Emerging data suggest that exosomes play an important role in intercellular communication by transferring exosomal protein and RNA cargo between source and target cells in the brain. (
  • In non-neuronal cells, EHD1 (Eps15 homology-domain containing protein 1) functions in the recycling endosome and is required for endosome-to-plasma membrane transport of multiple cargos. (
  • Arachidonic acid activates mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase 2 and mediates adhesion of a human breast carcinoma cell line to collagen type IV through a p38 MAP kinase-dependent pathway. (
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for bryostatin 1-induced differentiation of the human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Reh. (
  • CD45 negatively regulates monocytic cell differentiation by inhibiting phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-dependent activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of protein kinase Cdelta. (
  • Recent advances have added molecules to the latter category: the interphase centrosome protein AKNA affects microtubule dynamics to destabilize the microtubule-actin-AJ complex, and the microtubule-associated protein Lzts1 inhibits microtubule assembly and activates actomyosin systems at the apical endfeet of differentiating cells. (
  • Pines J, Hunter T. Isolation of a human cyclin cDNA: evidence for cyclin mRNA and protein regulation in the cell cycle and for interaction with p34cdc2. (
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include ankyrin binding and protein binding involved in heterotypic cell-cell adhesion . (
  • Midline Fasciclin: a Drosophila Fasciclin-I-related membrane protein localized to the CNS midline cells and trachea. (
  • Antiserum directed against Fas protein was found to stain neurons but not glia in the CNS. (
  • GFAP-positive neural stem cells detect blood-derived information via sensory protein TRPV1 and TLR4 and thereafter send information to adjacent neurons. (
  • Based on these findings mannan-binding protein cannot be used as a binding matrix to immunoprecipitate antigen-loaded IgM molecules 35. (
  • All mAbs were purified from supernatants from hybridoma cells cultured in RPMI 1640 containing 5% low IgG FCS (Life Technologies, Gaithersberg, MD) on protein A-Sepharose (Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden). (
  • Protein expression of Cyclophilin B in DI-TNC1 cells. (
  • At 72 hours post-transfection the cells were analyzed by Western Blot for protein expression levels (normalized by total protein, 10 µg of total protein loaded per each well). (
  • Because tissues such as sciatic nerve possess both conducive substrates and trophic molecules, it is difficult to access the minimum requirement for the regeneration of adult CNS axons. (
  • Recently, it was reported that several NRSF/REST splice variants were expressed in mature neurons of adult brain, albeit at low levels ( 21 ). (
  • Neuron-astrocyte interactions play a crucial role during development and in the adult brain. (
  • White and Kankel, 1978 ), generate the correct number of cells present in the adult optic lobe: the IPC gives rise to neurons of the lobula complex and proximal medulla (presumably cells from the medulla rim), while the OPC generates most medulla neurons (presumably cells from the medulla cortex) as well as cells that will generate the lamina ( Meinertzhagen and Hanson, 1993 ). (
  • The medulla represents the largest structure in the adult optic lobe with an estimated 40,000 neurons ( Hofbauer and Campos-Ortega, 1990 ), the cell bodies of which are located either in the medulla cortex, the region between the lamina and the medulla neuropil, or the medulla rim, the region between the medulla and the lobula plate. (
  • In the adult medulla, their expression is mostly non-overlapping and covers over 90% of all medulla neurons ( Morante and Desplan, 2008 ). (
  • ey -positive cells are present only in the adult medulla cortex, whereas ap - and dll -expressing cells are both present in the adult medulla cortex and medulla rim ( Morante and Desplan, 2008 ). (
  • Therefore, at least five different cell populations marked by ey, ap or Dll coexist in the adult medulla. (
  • For instance, stress is thought to downregulate the expression in the hippocampus of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which promotes the growth and development of immature neurons and enhances the survival of adult neurons. (
  • The location of the adult stem cells and the brain regions to which their progeny migrate in order to differentiate remain unresolved, although the number of viable locations is limited in the adult. (
  • In fact, it is not clear whether stem cells obtained from a given region of the embryonic brain are different from those derived from the structure in the adult brain that the embryonic region gave rise to. (
  • In the adult avian forebrain, neurons continue to be produced in the subependymal zone (SZ), from which they migrate upon radial fibers. (
  • Thus, the departure of new neurons from the adult SZ may require their suppression of N-cadherin, whereas their subsequent migration and survival may depend upon neuronal expression of Ng-CAM/8D9 and its interaction with a heterophilic radial cell receptor. (
  • Studies using varying ratios of CSPGs and adhesion molecules along with chondroitinase ABC, as well as purified adult cord-derived NG2 glia, demonstrate that CSPGs are involved in entrapping neurons. (
  • Balancing quiescence, self-renewal, and differentiation in adult stem cells is critical for tissue homeostasis. (
  • In 1962, scientist Joseph Altman challenged this belief when he saw evidence of neurogenesis (the birth of neurons) in a region of the adult rat brain called the hippocampus. (
  • In 1979, another scientist, Michael Kaplan, confirmed Altman's findings in the rat brain, and in 1983 he found neural precursor cells in the forebrain of an adult monkey. (
  • Other scientists believed these findings could not apply to mammals, but Elizabeth Gould later found evidence of newborn neurons in a distinct area of the brain in monkeys, and Fred Gage and Peter Eriksson showed that the adult human brain produced new neurons in a similar area. (
  • But others think the evidence offers intriguing possibilities about the role of adult-generated neurons in learning and memory. (
  • SVZ) immediately surrounding the lumen of the neural tube migrate to their final destinations and give rise to the enormously diverse range of neurones and glia found in the adult brain (Figure 7.2). (
  • remnants of radial glia persist in the adult brain where they can generate olfactory and hippocampal neurones. (
  • Research showed that adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) differentiate into mesodermal cell types and also reprogram to transdifferentiate into endodermal and ectodermal cell types. (
  • Neurons from the anterior subventricular zone (SVZ) of the cerebral cortex migrate tangentially to become interneurons in the olfactory bulb during development and in adult rodents. (
  • Adult OPCs respond to injury or disease by accelerating their cell cycle and increasing production of OLs to replace lost myelin. (
  • Spontaneous immortalisation of ensheathing cells from adult rat olfactory nerve. (
  • In this report, we describe the isolation of a cell line, Rolf B1.T, from cultures of adult rat olfactory nerve cells. (
  • Recent studies show that tanycytes in adult mice include a subset of neurogenic stem/progenitor cells, though reports conflict when identifying which subset is neurogenic. (
  • Based on the localisation of fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10) and Shh in the adult posterior median eminence, I propose this region be further investigated as the site of a potential hypothalamic stem cell population. (
  • This is complemented by a decrease in hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in adult mice, and an increase in the embryo. (
  • Kai Liu, a graduate student of Dr. Wise Young, developed many methods which showed that OEG cells myelinate axons in the contused rat spinal cord and Dr. Martin Grumet's lab showed that adult OEG also myelinate axons but at a slower rate than neonatal OEG. (
  • The immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) comprises over 100 members are in vertebrates and most of its members expressed at the cell surface. (
  • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (
  • 1990 ) The cell adhesion molecule Cell-CAM 105 is an ecto-ATPase and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (
  • We found that Fzr/Cdh1 function is mediated by the immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin2 (Fas2). (
  • JAM-1 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of adhesion molecules that form tight junctions between adjacent endothelial cells and, therefore, form a part of the blood-brain barrier. (
  • Symmetric homotypic cell-cell adhesion refers to symmetric junctions that are formed between the same cell type, which is observed, for example, between intestinal absorptive epithelial cells, between vascular endothelial cells and between fibroblasts. (
  • Adhesion molecules expressed on microvascular endothelial cells in the brain have been implicated in the modulation of the blood brain barrier (BBB) and inflammation in brain but their role in VEEV pathogenesis is not very well understood. (
  • Junctional adhesion molecule-1 (JAM-1) forms part of the tight junction between adjacent endothelial cells. (
  • It is an important cell surface receptor of hyaluronate, and has been implicated in the binding of circulating lymphocytes of endothelial cells in the process of lymphocyte homing. (
  • In the developing Drosophila optic lobe, eyeless, apterous and distal-less , three genes that encode transcription factors with important functions during development, are expressed in broad subsets of medulla neurons. (
  • 1991 ) Genetic analysis of growth cone guidance in Drosophila -Fasciclin II functions as a neuronal recognition molecule. (
  • NCAM exhibits glycoforms as it can be posttranslationally modified by the addition of polysialic acid (PSA) to the fifth Ig domain, which is thought to abrogate its homophilic binding properties and can lead to reduced cell adhesion important in cell migration and invasion. (
  • A specific synergy/cooperation between bFGF and other growth factors was also revealed at specific stages of LHRH neuron differentiation, indicating that the sequential expression of specific growth factors may participate in the processes of LHRH neuron migration, differentiation and functional regulation. (
  • eyeless , which encodes a Pax6 transcription factor, is expressed early in progenitors and controls aspects of this cell migration. (
  • Its loss in medulla neurons leads to overgrowth and a failure of lateral migration during pupation. (
  • These defects in cell migration among medulla cortex cells can be rescued by removing D E-Cadherin. (
  • We also show that one of the genes, ey / Pax6 , is expressed in OPC neuroblasts and controls migration of a subpopulation of cells in the optic lobe. (
  • Surprisingly, beta1-class integrins are not essential for neuron-glia interactions and neuronal migration during corticogenesis. (
  • Pathway analysis of the modulated ECM and adhesion molecules genes using DAVID software [ 9 , 10 ] indicated their involvement in leukocyte migration at BBB (Additional file 1 Figure S1). (
  • Further, exposure to a JNK inhibitor (SP600125) decreased migration and invasion of EGI-1 cells. (
  • Neurogenic cell delamination, in which these neuronally differentiating cells retract their apical processes and depart from the apical surface, is the first step of their migration. (
  • Along with the progression of the cell cycle, aRGs undergo interkinetic nuclear migration (INM) in the ventricular zone (VZ) and divide at the apical surface ( Figure 1B ) to generate cells that differentiate to become an ordered series of neuron types. (
  • When the daughter cell is a neuron, this delamination is the first step of neuronal migration, by which the daughter cells escape from the influence of extracellular cues at the apical side of the VZ. (
  • This gene is also expressed in non-neural tissues and may play a general role in cell-cell communication via signaling from its intracellular domain to the actin cytoskeleton during directional cell migration. (
  • A new role of the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 16 (MMP16/MT3-MMP) in neural crest cell migration. (
  • 9-O-acGD3 is also present in migrating chains that form in the absence of radial glia, typical of the neuronophilic chain migration of the SVZ. (
  • We previously demonstrated that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays an important role in supporting the survival of injured retinal ganglion cells. (
  • In the current study, we used light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD) as a model to investigate whether NCAM plays a functional role in neuroprotection and whether NCAM influences p75 NTR signaling in modulating retinal cell survival. (
  • 3 The cleavage of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) has been shown to be involved in cortical neuronal death under oxidative stress, 4 and previous results from our laboratory have demonstrated that NCAM is important in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and age-related deterioration in vision. (
  • Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), also called CD56, is a homophilic binding glycoprotein expressed on the surface of neurons, glia and skeletal muscle. (
  • Homophilic binding occurs between NCAM molecules on opposing surfaces (trans-) and NCAM molecules on the same surface (cis-)1. (
  • Current models suggest trans- homophilic binding occurs between two NCAM molecules binding antiparallel between all five Ig domains or just IgI and IgII. (
  • Removal of PSA from NCAM by the enzyme endoneuraminidase (EndoN) has been shown to abolish long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM1 appears on early embryonic cells and is important in the formation of cell collectives and their boundaries at sites of morphogenesis. (
  • The present invention discloses peptide fragments derived from neuropeptide Y (NPY), which are capable of selective binding to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and inducing neuroplastic and neuroprotective effects, and the use of said peptide fragments as neuritogenic agents for treatment of pathological conditions in which neuroprotection and neuroplastic changes are desired, such as brain and retina disorders. (
  • The present inventors have now surprisingly found that not only NPY/NPY1-36 (SEQ ID NO:22) but in particular specified peptide fragments thereof not comprising Tyr36, including fragments such as NPY3-35 (SEQ ID NO:1), bind to NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule), an interaction that has not previously been identified. (
  • Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM, also the cluster of differentiation CD56 ) is a homophilic binding glycoprotein expressed on the surface of neurons, glia, skeletal muscle and natural killer cells. (
  • 12-14 and focuses on polysialic acidity (PSA) mounted on the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) 15,16. (
  • The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) can be a glycoprotein from the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily indicated for the cell surface area of neurons, glia, skeletal muscle tissue, and organic killer cells 19-25. (
  • FG loop peptide is derived from the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). (
  • Research shows that NCAM activates FGL which in turn stimulates the production of new projections of developing neurons. (
  • An illustration proposing the classes of mammalian stem cells that can give rise to neurons, presented as a hierarchy beginning with the most primitive and multipotent stem cell and progressing to the most restricted. (
  • Mesectoderm cells give rise to neurons as well as glia cells. (
  • 2) Mesectoderm cells invaginate from the surface ectoderm as a coherent group and uniformly give rise to neurons or glia cells, but not epidermis, whereas neuroblasts forming in the lateral neurectoderm are surrounded by cells that stay at the surface and later form the epidermis (Dumstrei, 1998 and references). (
  • Because of these unique properties, nectins have crucial roles in asymmetric homotypic cell-cell adhesion at neuronal synapses and in various types of heterotypic cell-cell adhesions. (
  • FGL also plays an integral role in the formation of synapses between neurons and proliferation of stem cells - both of these important mechanisms enhance cognitive capacities and protect against stroke and other chronic, debilitating brain diseases. (
  • Here we report a direct communication channel between neurons and glioma cells in different disease models and human tumours: functional bona fide chemical synapses between presynaptic neurons and postsynaptic glioma cells. (
  • To analyze human Purkinje cell (PC) differentiation, we optimized a protocol to generate human pluripotent stem cell-derived Purkinje cells (hPSC-PCs) that formed synapses when cultured with mouse cerebellar glia and granule cells and fired large calcium currents, measured with the genetically encoded calcium indicator jRGECO1a. (
  • To ensure proper brain function developing cortical neurons must find the right partner and form the right connections: the synapses, a crucial step in correct circuit formation. (
  • Studies designed to assess the impact of the ablation of different types of neurons on vision-guided ocular growth led to the finding of numerous proliferating cells within damaged retinas. (
  • Neuronal connections are made with exquisite accuracy between specific types of neurons. (
  • Congratulations to Dr. Keith Murai and Dr. Jesper Sjöström for being awarded CIHR Project Grants, titled Harnessing Neuron-Astrocyte Communication for Promoting Brain Health and Unconventional NMDA Receptor Signalling in Neocortical Plasticity , respectively. (
  • Normal cells that stain positively for CD56 include NK cells, activated T cells, the brain and cerebellum, and neuroendocrine tissues. (
  • Over the past 20 years, researchers examining brain tissue at various time intervals after stroke observed the presence of inflammatory cells, neutrophils and monocytes at the site of injury, as well as the activation of endogenous glia and microglia. (
  • From the bulk of this information, it seems likely that interactions between astroglia and LHRH neurons play a major role in the integration of the multiplicity of brain signals converging on the LHRH neurons that govern reproduction. (
  • Finally, heterotypic cell-cell adhesions form between two different cell types, and they are observed, for example, between Sertoli cells and germ cells in the testis, auditory hair cells and supporting cells in the auditory epithelium of the inner ear, and neurons and glia cells in the brain. (
  • Shp2 is thus likely an important mediator of SIRPα signaling in neurons, but the functional relevance of the SIRPα-Shp2 complex in the brain has remained unknown. (
  • SIRPα and CD47 thus constitute a cell-cell communication system that likely plays an important role in the brain. (
  • Neurogenesis in the CNS is restricted to a limited number of areas in the brain, hampering the restoration of lost neurons 6 , 7 . (
  • Mice that lack all beta1-class integrins in neurons and glia die prematurely after birth with severe brain malformations. (
  • The major cell classes of the brain differ in their developmental processes, metabolism, signaling, and function. (
  • The brain and its borders create a highly dynamic microenvironment populated with immune cells. (
  • He later reported that newborn neurons migrated from their birthplace in the hippocampus to other parts of the brain. (
  • Nottebohm believed it was because fresh neurons helped store new song patterns within the neural circuits of the forebrain, the area of the brain that controls complex behaviors. (
  • Glia outnumber neurons in some parts of the brain, but neurons are the key players in the brain. (
  • Sensory neurons carry information from the sense organs (such as the eyes and ears) to the brain. (
  • Motor neurons control voluntary muscle activity such as speaking and carry messages from nerve cells in the brain to the muscles. (
  • The extent to which new neurons are generated in the brain is a controversial subject among neuroscientists. (
  • Typical manifestations of these conditions are the presence of glutamate excitoxicity, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, the combination of which can potentially result in apoptotic-necrotic cell death, generation of brain lesions and long-lasting functional impairment. (
  • The notochord induces neuroectodermal cells to generate neural stem cells and form the neural plate, which in turn forms the neural tube, from which the brain and spinal cord are derived. (
  • Neurons in the brain and lower spinal cord send axons that respectively descend and ascend in the spinal cord. (
  • Regenerated axons must not only cross the injury site but they must grow all the way from the injury site to neurons present in the lower spinal cord in the case of motor axons and to neruons in the brainstem or brain in the case of sensory axons. (
  • A 2008 study published in the Neuroscience Letters found that adolescent rats with traumatic brain injury that were treated with FGL had reduced inflammatory markers and regulators of programmed cell death (apoptosis). (
  • In primary rat neurons, FGL induced growth and survival of brain neurons. (
  • A cell study found that FGL treatment protected mouse brain cells against lipopolysaccharide-induced changes by reducing the levels of inflammatory markers. (
  • In oxygen-deprived rat brain neurons, 24-hour pretreatment with a single injection of FGL significantly protected the neurons against death, suggesting that the peptide can protect against stroke. (
  • In a rat model of Alzheimer's disease, systemic treatment with FGL alleviated loss of brain neurons. (
  • A 2016 study published in the Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology found that FGL promotes regenerative capacity of brain neurons by amplifying remyelination (formation of protective covering around neurons) and modulating inflammation. (
  • A cell study also found that FGL promotes the growth and recovery of brain neurons by activating the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). (
  • A cell study found that FGL improves cognitive health by promoting formation of new brain neurons (neurogenesis). (
  • A cell study found that treatment of rat brain cells with FGL prevented the death of brain neurons. (
  • A study also found that FGL has the ability to stimulate the growth of brain neurons. (
  • Studies in animal models of chronic stress have shown that FGL enhances memory by protecting brain neurons. (
  • Neuropharmacology, OASI Institute for Research and Care (IRCCS) on Mental Retardation and Brain Aging (IRCCS) Troina, (EN), Italy. (
  • Primary cultures of astroglial cells were prepared from different brain regions including the hypothalamus, olfactory bulbs, cortex and striatum (43) . (
  • These changes are related with the search of interactions with other cells, such as bystander resident cells of the brain parenchyma, but also cells homing from the blood stream. (
  • Specifically, we show that C9orf72 promoter activity is enriched in corticospinal and spinal motor neurons as well as in oligodendrocytes in brain regions that are affected in ALS. (
  • 1. Any of the impulse-conducting cells that constitute the brain, spinal column, and nerves in vertebrates, consisting of a nucleated cell body with one or more dendrites and a single axon. (
  • Brain tumour cells interconnect to a functional and resistant network. (
  • Targeting self-renewal in high-grade brain tumors leads to loss of brain tumor stem cells and prolonged survival. (
  • Altogen Biosystems manufactures a nanoparticle-based transfection reagent kit for the DI-TNC1 rat astrocyte cell line, an essential tool in finding the cure for various brain-related diseases. (
  • Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the neurons that connect the eyes to the brain, fail to regenerate after damage, eventually leading to blindness. (
  • Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. (
  • Considerable preliminary progress has been made in outlining the organization of coding by populations of cells in cortical areas, and there has been recent progress in the hippocampus as well. (
  • Cell populations in sensory and motor cortical areas in- volve a succession of sequential (as well as parallel) areas constituting a hierarchy of processing stages in which early encoded detail is combined (or filtered) in successive stages to achieve the identification of complex objects at the highest stages. (
  • In the earliest stage of cortical processing, the main principles for the population code are the specificity of single-cell responses characterized as feature detection or filtering, and topographical organization of these representations along multiple orthogonal dimensions. (
  • Ultimately, the outputs of all the cortical modalities converge on the hippocampal region, where the response properties of the cell population are strikingly di¤erent. (
  • Note the marked stimulation of DNA labeling in hypothalamic and olfactory bulb astroglia compared to cortical and striatum glia. (
  • H-CAM + cells and processes are first detected at 20 weeks gestation in a diffuse subependymal pattern, and staining of the anchoring processes but not the cortical extensions of radial glia is seen by 24 weeks. (
  • While the field's understanding of the cell biology of interactions at the biotic-abiotic interface has improved, relatively little attention has been paid on the mechanical factors (stress, strain), and hence on the geometry that can modulate it. (
  • Cell and molecular Biology: Concepts and experiments (5th ed. (
  • Neuron Glia Biology , 3(S1) S119. (
  • Neuron Glia Biology , 4(3) pp. 169-178. (
  • We summarize recent progress in our understanding of the biology of nectins and discuss their roles in heterotypic cell-cell adhesions, whose formation cannot be solely explained by the action of cadherins. (
  • Division of Anatomy and Cell Biology, United Medical and Dental Schools of Guys and St. Thomas's, London, United Kingdom. (
  • Schwab and Caroni, 1988), and inadequate expression of growth-promoting factors and/or cell-cell adhesion molecules among neurons and glia. (
  • Later in development, NCAM1 (CD56) expression is found on various differentiated tissues and is a major CAM mediating adhesion among neurons and between neurons and muscle. (
  • In particular, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was identified as a major differentiation factor for the immortalized hypothalamic LHRH neuronal cell line. (
  • The human cerebral cortex depends for its normal development and size on a precisely controlled balance between self-renewal and differentiation of diverse neural progenitor cells. (
  • Induction of neuronal differentiation by a peptide corresponding to the homophilic binding site of the second Ig module of the neural cell adhesion molecule. (
  • Lab research: Control of neuronal cell death and differentiation during embryonic neurogenesis and regeneration. (
  • Deletion mapping demonstrated single copy loss of a contiguous 1p36 terminal region encompassing many important neurodevelopmental genes, among them four HES genes implicated in regulating neural stem cell differentiation, and TP73 , a monoallelically expressed gene. (
  • Previous studies in this laboratory have led to the identification of the neural cell adhesion molecule, N-CAM, a homophilic ligand that mediates adhesion between neurons as well as between neurons and striated muscle precursors. (
  • L1 mediates cell-cell adhesion by a trans-homophilic binding mechanism. (
  • A network of communicating tumour cells that is connected by tumour microtubes mediates the progression of incurable gliomas. (
  • In the early period of mammalian cerebral wall development, neural progenitor cells (NE cells) undergo symmetric, proliferative division to expand the progenitor pool ( Figure 1A ). (
  • Not all neurones migrate along radial glia, but it is always the case where neurones are organized in layers, such as the cerebellum, hippocampus, cerebral cortex and spinal cord. (
  • the cerebral cortex is formed inside out, whereby the innermost layers are formed first, and the superficial layers are formed later by neurones that migrate through the older cells. (
  • Neuroepithelial (NE) cells have polarized morphology along the radial axis, spanning the apical surface to the basal side at the basement membrane, and behave as neural progenitor cells. (
  • In general, plasma membrane interactions are prevented by repulsive forces generated by steric and electrostatic repulsion of large and negatively charged oligosaccharide polymers present at the cell surface. (
  • Moreover, the basement membrane and GFAP-positive neural stem cells function as barrier instead of usual BBB. (
  • Nogo is usually expressed in normal myelin (the membrane that surrounds axons and is made by a cell called oligodendroglia). (
  • Neurons communicate with each other by sending chemicals, called neurotransmitters, across a tiny space, called a synapse, between the axons and dendrites of adjacent neurons. (
  • Role of cell adhesion molecules at the synapse. (
  • Among others, these include impairments in the cross-talk between glia and neurons, changes in the level of neurotransmitter or immunoactive substances, myelination status, synapse formation, maintenance, or elimination. (
  • Indeed, neutralization experiments aimed at counteracting endogenous bFGF during neuron-glia interactions dramatically inhibited astroglia neurotrophic effects. (
  • The mechanisms that regulate endogenous stem cells are poorly understood. (
  • Potential uses of stem cells in repair include transplantation to repair missing cells and the activation of endogenous cells to provide "self-repair. (
  • The endogenous neurotransmitter, noradrenaline, exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects and Libosch, which exerts a neuroprotective effect in multiple sclerosis (MS). the citizen immune cells from the CNS. (
  • Additionally, neurite elongation was impaired when migfilin was silenced in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. (
  • For example 100mg kamagra gold erectile dysfunction tools, as rats performed a spatial DNMS task purchase kamagra gold 100 mg free shipping alcohol and erectile dysfunction statistics, some hippocampal cells were activated when the rat pressed one of two levers only during the sample phase or only during the test phase of the task (Hampson et al. (
  • Di¤erent hippocampal cells fired as the rats passed through the sequence of locations within the maze during each trial. (
  • The typical cell-cell adhesion apparatus comprises adherens junctions (AJs), which contain the main cell-cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) cadherins ( Takeichi, 1991 ). (
  • When cells are placed in culture, however, changes in cell structure, receptor populations, and gene expression occur that alter cellular responses from their normal in vivo state. (
  • Most often, stem cells are defined by the organ from which they are derived or by where they are observed in vivo. (
  • The NRSE/RE-1, which comprises ∼23 nucleotides, is found in a number of neuron-specific genes, including the type II sodium channel ( 7 ), synapsin I ( 15 ), SCG10 ( 20 ), Ng-CAM ( 13 ), and the m4 muscarinic receptor ( 17 ), to name but a few. (
  • It was reported that NRSF/REST bound to the NRSE and repressed the expression of neuron-specific genes in nonneuronal cell lines ( 24 ). (
  • Separate sites in The Inter active Fly link to the genes involved in glia morphogenesis and axonogenesis . (
  • The generation of new RNA-Seq datasets for NG2(+) cells has provided the means to explore how distinct genes contribute to the physiological properties of these progenitors. (
  • In contrast, the presence of L1-Fc, the extracellular portion of a contactin ligand expressed on axons, enhanced survival and additionally promoted myelination in cocultures of neurons and oligodendrocytes. (
  • PDGFRα+) produced oligodendrocytes responsible for de novo ensheathment of ∼30% of myelinated spinal axons at injury epicenter 3 months after SCI, demonstrating that these resident cells are a major contributor to oligodendrocyte regeneration. (
  • We demonstrate that C9orf72 promoter activity is widespread in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons as well as in oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. (
  • Mammalian tissues and organs are composed of different types of cells that adhere to each other homotypically (i.e. interactions between cells of the same cell type) or heterotypically (i.e. interactions between different cell types), forming a variety of cellular patterns, including mosaic patterns. (
  • Mammalian tissues and organs are composed of two or more cell types that can adhere homotypically (i.e. interactions between cells of the same type) or heterotypically (i.e. interactions between cells of different types). (
  • Sensorineural hearing loss is most commonly caused by the death of hair cells in the organ of Corti, and once lost, mammalian hair cells do not regenerate. (
  • Cell-cell adhesions can be categorized into at least three groups: symmetric homotypic, asymmetric homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell adhesions ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • Cadherins on neighboring or opposing cells trans-interact almost exclusively homophilically (i.e. interactions between the same cadherin members), which means that they do not account for the formation of asymmetric homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell adhesions that are found in a variety of tissues and organs ( Fig. 1C ). (
  • In the cerebellum, granule cells migrate along Bergmann glia , which are derived from radial glia. (
  • Moreover, Lzts1 induces the oblique division of aRGs, and loss of Lzts1 reduces the generation of outer radial glia (oRGs, also called basal radial glia, bRGs), another type of neural progenitor cell in the subventricular zone. (
  • The first neural cells to develop are radial glia . (
  • For example, olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) cells obtained from the nose or the olfactory bulb express a variety of cell adhesion molecules such as laminin and L1. (
  • Rolf B1.T cells have an antigenic phenotype which closely resembles that of olfactory ensheathing cells. (
  • Olfactory ensheathing glia. (
  • Dr. Hungyun Huang trained in this laboratory where he learned to grow olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) cells. (
  • 2015) High Salt Intake Increases Blood Pressure via BDNF-Mediated Downregulation of KCC2 and Impaired Baroreflex Inhibition of Vasopressin Neurons. (
  • On the other hand, the importance of adhesion molecules in cell-to-cell communication was underscored by the significant inhibition of GT1-1 LHRH production and cell proliferation following the counteraction of neuron-neuron/neuron-glia interactions through addition of neuronal cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) antiserum. (
  • The risk of epilepsy is higher for disorders in which the antigens are intracellular (often T cell-mediated) compared with disorders in which the antigens are on the cell surface (antibody-mediated). (
  • The CNS can exhibit features of inflammation in response to injury, infection or disease, whereby resident cells generate inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, prostaglandins, free radicals and complement, chemokines and adhesion molecules that recruit immune cells, and activate glia and microglia. (
  • Demyelination and axon loss are pathological hallmarks of the neuroinflammatory disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). Although we have an increasingly detailed understanding of how immune cells can damage axons and myelin individually, we lack a unified view of how the axon-myelin unit as a whole is affected by immune-mediated attack. (
  • It was also found that NRSF/REST could act as a silencer of neuron-specific gene expression in undifferentiated neuronal progenitor cells ( 6 , 7 , 24 ). (
  • Noradrenaline additionally offers beneficial results within the maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, which might activate the myelination of axons and promote the recovery of MS (24). (
  • For example, a cell that has the receptor stem cell antigen -1, on its surface, is identified as Sca-1. (
  • H-CAM (CD44/Hermes antigen) is an 85-95 kDa widely-distributed cell surface adhesion molecule that participates in diverse cellular interactions. (
  • Examination by immunostaining indicated SV40 T antigen was detected in the nuclei of over 95 percent of the cells. (
  • The suppression of L1CAM expression (using a specific lentivirus-delivered shRNA) significantly decreased the migratory and invasive properties of EGI-1 cells, without altering their proliferation or survival. (
  • We formulated a hypothesis that growth-regulating glucagonergic cells may regulate both overall eye size (scleral growth) and the growth of the retina (proliferation of CMZ cells). (
  • these cells use visual cues to control equatorial ocular growth and the proliferation of CMZ cells. (
  • 1993 ) The Drosophilaanachronism locus: a glycoprotein secreted by glia inhibits neuroblast proliferation. (
  • a variable proportion of the cells also express cadherin, which is regulated by local culture conditions and is associated positively with cell proliferation status. (
  • The cells retain many characteristics of normal cells, are dependent on serum growth factors for their proliferation, and fail to grow in semi-solid agar. (
  • In order to elucidate this, we employ live cell imaging in cerebellar slice culture in combination with lentiviral injection of fluorescently tagged Nfasc186. (
  • In multicellular organisms, cell-cell adhesion is essential for ontogenesis and for the regeneration and maintenance of tissues and organs. (
  • We asked if proteoglycans play a role in this tight cell-cell interaction and whether overadhesion upon these cells might participate in regeneration failure in rodents. (
  • Our studies suggest that proteoglycan-mediated entrapment upon NG2+ cells is an additional obstacle to CNS axon regeneration. (
  • It seems to me that there is some confusion concerning spinal cord regeneration and cell replacement. (
  • In general, when scientists talk about neural regeneration, they are talking about regrowing part of a neuron that is still alive. (
  • Therefore, the process of regeneration is the regrowth of the axon across the injury site and all the way to the neurons that it originally made contact with. (
  • Many other therapies have been reported to stimulate regeneration, including inosine, alternating electrical currents, cell adhesion molecules such as L1. (
  • Growing axons express a cell adhesion molecule called L1 and this molecule has been shown to stimulate regeneration in contused spinal cords. (
  • In addition, we discovered that lithium stimulates cord blood cells to produce large amounts of neurotrophins, specifically NGF, NT-3, and GDNF, the growth factors reported by many scientists to stimulate regeneration in the spinal cord. (
  • Therefore, these different neuronal cell adhesion molecules with distinct binding specificities share at least one antigenic determinant, raising the possibility that they arose from a common evolutionary precursor. (
  • The disorganization of fiber cells becomes histologically distinct during late embryonic development and includes abnormalities of the cytoskeleton and of connexin50-containing gap junctions. (
  • Strausfeld, 1976 ), and identified at least 63 distinct neuronal cell types that express these transcription factors in the medulla and might be involved in processing of visual information ( Morante and Desplan, 2008 ). (
  • We show that in macaque monkeys the retinal ganglion cells that express this marker comprise a single type and are morphologically distinct from mouse and rabbit direction-selective retinal ganglion cells. (
  • These functions include organizational roles for subcellular domains in neurons including the axon initial segment and nodes of Ranvier, through which ankyrin G orchestrates the localization of key ion channels and GABAergic presynaptic terminals, as well as creating a diffusion barrier that limits transport into the axon and helps define axo-dendritic polarity. (
  • In recent years, a bi-directional flow of informational molecules between LHRH neurons, subserving the neuroendocrine control of reproductive function, and astroglia cells has been disclosed. (
  • Growth factors are key players in LHRH neuron-astroglia crosstalk. (
  • N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor independent changes in expression of polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule despite blockade of homosynaptic long-term potentiation and heterosynaptic long-term depression in the awake freely behaving rat dentate gyrus. (
  • Chronic fluoxetine differentially affects 5-hydroxytryptamine (2A) receptor signaling in frontal cortex, oxytocin- and corticotropin-releasing factor-containing neurons in rat paraventricular nucleus. (
  • We assessed the cellular origin of new myelin by fate mapping platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα), Olig2+, and P0+ cells following contusion SCI in mice. (
  • Described here are two approaches of how researchers use the combination of the chemical properties of fluorescence and unique receptor patterns on cell surfaces to identify specific populations of stem cells. (
  • Ng-CAM was localized by specific antibodies on neurons but not on glia, and double-staining methods showed that individual neurons contained both Ng-CAM and N-CAM. (
  • Although peptide maps of the two cell adhesion molecules differed considerably and despite the differences in binding specificity of these molecules, two independently derived monoclonal antibodies were found to crossreact with both Ng-CAM and N-CAM. (
  • To investigate how each of these medulla cortex cell types is first determined in the OPC and comes to occupy its final position, we followed the early expression patterns of ey, ap and dll during larval and pupal development using reporter constructs or antibodies. (
  • Fab fragments of polyclonal L1, N-CAM, and J1 antibodies exerted slightly different inhibitory effects on neurite outgrowth, depending on whether the neurites were derived from small or large neurons. (
  • One category of therapies include drugs or antibodies that inhibit a family of molecules called Nogo. (
  • Vigabatrin-Induced Retinal Functional Alterations and Second-Order Neuron Plasticity in C57BL/6J Mice. (
  • In general, it is believed that functional plasticity of neurons is associated with morphological alterations. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are major inhibitory molecules for neural plasticity under both physiological and pathological conditions. (
  • A difference in extent of neurite elongation was seen between small- (10-20 microns) and large- (20-35 microns) diameter neurons, with the larger neurons tending to exhibit longer neurites. (
  • Neurite outgrowth is the development of any projections in young nerve cells. (
  • The cells from the DI-TNC1 cell line have exhibited appreciable neurite outgrowth. (
  • Stroke recovery is orchestrated by a set of highly interactive processes that involve the neurovascular unit and neural stem cells. (
  • Polaris propels functional cell exploration, emboldening scientists to dive deeper into contextual biological processes. (
  • Then, the newborn, neuronally differentiating daughter cells retract their apical processes to delaminate from the cadherin-based adherens junction (AJ) belt ( Hatta and Takeichi, 1986 ) that packs the apical endfeet of VZ cells together ( Figure 1B ). (
  • Nissl bodies observed in the soma usingcresyl violet stain, and cell bodies' processes (axons and dendrites) usingsilver impregnation, proved that BM-MSCs differentiated into neuronal cells. (
  • Adaptation of retinal ganglion cell function during flickering light in the mouse. (
  • Congenital, often bilateral, retinal abnormality characterized by the arrangement of outer nuclear retinal cells in a palisading or radiating pattern surrounding a central ocular space. (
  • The removal of PSA prior to LIRD induced earlier onset of retinal cell death, an effect delayed by the coadministration of endoneuraminidase-N and the p75 NTR function-blocking antibody antiserum. (
  • The retina has the ability to capture photons of light efficiently and enact visual transduction, but excessive or continuous light exposure has been shown to result in cumulative oxidative stress, photo-transduction impairment, and photoreceptor cell death, leading to retinal damage, vision impairment, and blindness. (
  • These proliferating cells were Müller glia-derived retinal progenitors with a capacity to produce new neurons. (
  • Molecular fingerprinting of On-Off direction selective retinal ganglion cells across species and relevance to primate visual circuits. (
  • For instance, it is unknown whether direction-selective retinal ganglion cells (DSGCs) exist in primates, and if so, whether they are the equivalent to mouse and rabbit DSGCs. (
  • Here we identify a novel marker for retinal ganglion cells encoding directional motion that is evolutionarily conserved in mice and rabbits, but not in primates. (
  • Transplantation and gene therapy may serve to replace or resurrect dead or injured retinal neurons. (
  • In the visual system, specific retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) project to designated midbrain targets connected to downstream circuits driving visuomotor reflexes. (
  • In cell adhesion, CD56 contributes to cell-cell adhesion or cell-matrix adhesion during embryonic development. (
  • Neural stem cells can also be derived from more primitive embryonic stem cells. (
  • One of the major risks and fears of embryonic stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell transplantation is the likelihood of teratoma formation by the pluripotent cells. (
  • In rat models of contused spinal cord, the dramatic losses of implanted SCs via necrotic and apoptotic cell deaths occur largely 3 weeks post-implantation [ 9 - 11 ]. (
  • Injury to the spinal cord damages the axons but usually leaves the neurons of origin intact. (
  • Spontaneous remyelination occurs after spinal cord injury (SCI), but the extent of myelin repair and identity of the cells responsible remain incompletely understood and contentious. (
  • Nerve cell network derived from dissociated murine spinal tissue growing on a 64-electrode recording matrix. (
  • In 2006, when ChinaSCINet decided to study umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells as cells to transplant into people with chronic spinal cord injury , we carried out development studies to discover the best preparation and transplantation methods. (
  • We found that lithium strongly stimulates mononuclear cells to proliferate (produce more cells), increasing the number of cells in culture and when transplanted into the spinal cord by 3-4 fold. (
  • Neural stem cells in the repair of lumbosacral spinal cord injury. (
  • During larval development, the progeny of each medulla cortex neuroblast forms columns where newly born neurons displace older neurons away from their neuroblast. (
  • In mice, repeated administration of FGL enhanced survival of the newly born neurons. (
  • Asymmetric homotypic cell-cell adhesion refers to the formation of asymmetric junctions between the same cell type, which is observed between the axons and dendrites of neurons. (
  • In this study we investigate the functional significance of L1CAM in ECC cells with activating KRAS mutation. (
  • and other investigators (see 97-106) , demonstrating that the steroid background is crucial in inducing morphological as well as functional changes of the astroglial cell compartment. (
  • Increasing evidence support the viewpoint that soluble factors from lymphoid/mononuclear cells modulate the growth and function of cells found in the CNS, specifically macroglia and microglia cells. (