Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. Ng-CAM is immunologically and structurally distinct from NCAM.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
A family of immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecules that are involved in NERVOUS SYSTEM patterning.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A factor identified in the brain that influences the growth and differentiation of NEURONS and NEUROGLIA. Glia maturation factor beta is the 17-kDa polypeptide product of the GMFB gene and is the principal component of GLIA MATURATION FACTOR.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A complex blood group system having pairs of alternate antigens and amorphic genes, but also subject to a dominant independently segregating repressor.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.

Local presentation of substrate molecules directs axon specification by cultured hippocampal neurons. (1/26)

Axon specification is a crucial, early step in neuronal development, but little is known about how this event is controlled in vivo. To test the hypothesis that local presentation of growth-promoting molecules can direct axon specification, we cultured hippocampal neurons on substrates patterned with stripes of poly-L-lysine and either laminin (LN) or the neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (NgCAM). Although undifferentiated neurites contacted both substrates equally, axons formed preferentially on LN or NgCAM. Time-lapse studies revealed that changes in the growth pattern of a cell indicative of axon specification began almost immediately after the growth cone of one of the neurites of the cell contacted LN or NgCAM. When cells were plated on alternating stripes of LN and NgCAM, cells with their somata on LN usually formed axons on NgCAM, whereas those with somata on NgCAM preferentially formed axons on LN. This suggests that the change from one axon-promoting substrate to another also provides a signal sufficient to specify the axon. These results demonstrate that contact with preferred substrate molecules can govern which neurite becomes the axon and thus direct the development of neuronal polarity.  (+info)

Functional interactions of the immunoglobulin superfamily member F11 are differentially regulated by the extracellular matrix proteins tenascin-R and tenascin-C. (2/26)

The axon-associated protein F11 is a GPI-anchored member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that promotes axon outgrowth and that shows a complex binding pattern toward multiple cell surface and extracellular matrix proteins including tenascin-R and tenascin-C. In this study, we demonstrate that tenascin-R and tenascin-C differentially modulate cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth of tectal cells on F11. While soluble tenascin-R increases the number of attached cells and the percentage of cells with neurites on immobilized F11, tenascin-C stimulates cell attachment to a similar extent but decreases neurite outgrowth. The cellular receptor interacting with F11 has been previously identified as NrCAM; however, in the presence of tenascin-R or tenascin-C cell attachment and neurite extension are independent of NrCAM. Antibody perturbation experiments indicate that beta(1) integrins instead of NrCAM function as receptor for neurite outgrowth of tectal cells on an F11.TN-R complex. Cellular binding assays support the possibility that the interaction of F11 to NrCAM is blocked in the presence of tenascin-R and tenascin-C. Furthermore, a sandwich binding assay demonstrates that tenascin-R and tenascin-C are able to form larger molecular complexes and to link F11 polypeptides by forming a molecular bridge. These results suggest that the molecular interactions of F11 might be regulated by the presence of tenascin-R and tenascin-C.  (+info)

The homeodomain protein Barx2 contains activator and repressor domains and interacts with members of the CREB family. (3/26)

Barx1 and Barx2 are homeodomain proteins originally identified using regulatory elements of genes encoding certain cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). In the present study, we characterize regions of Barx2 that bind to regulatory elements of genes encoding three CAMs, L1, neuron-glia CAM (Ng-CAM), and neural CAM (N-CAM), and identify domains of Barx2 that regulate N-CAM transcription. The homeodomain of Barx2 was sufficient for binding to homeodomain binding sites (HBS) from all three CAM genes. The presence of a 17-amino acid Barx basic region resulted in a 2-fold decrease in binding to HBS sequences from the Ng-CAM and L1 genes, whereas it led to a 6.5-fold increase in binding to the HBS from the N-CAM promoter. Thus, the Barx basic region influences the strength and specificity of Barx2 binding to DNA. In co-transfection experiments, Barx2 repressed N-CAM promoter activity. A 24-residue N-terminal region of Barx2 was essential for repression. When this region was absent, Barx2 activated the N-CAM promoter. A 63-residue C-terminal domain was required for this activation. In GST pull-down experiments, Barx2 bound to proteins of the CREB family, CREB1 and ATF2. Overall, these findings provide a framework for understanding developmental and physiological contexts that influence repressor or activator functions of Barx2.  (+info)

A direct interaction of axonin-1 with NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) results in guidance, but not growth of commissural axons. (4/26)

An interaction of growth cone axonin-1 with the floor-plate NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) was shown to play a crucial role in commissural axon guidance across the midline of the spinal cord. We now provide evidence that axonin-1 mediates a guidance signal without promoting axon elongation. In an in vitro assay, commissural axons grew preferentially on stripes coated with a mixture of NrCAM and NgCAM. This preference was abolished in the presence of anti-axonin-1 antibodies without a decrease in neurite length. Consistent with these findings, commissural axons in vivo only fail to extend along the longitudinal axis when both NrCAM and NgCAM interactions, but not when axonin-1 and NrCAM or axonin-1 and NgCAM interactions, are perturbed. Thus, we conclude that axonin-1 is involved in guidance of commissural axons without promoting their growth.  (+info)

The role of selective transport in neuronal protein sorting. (5/26)

To assess whether selective microtubule-based vesicle transport underlies the polarized distribution of neuronal proteins, we expressed green fluorescent protein- (GFP-) tagged chimeras of representative axonal and dendritic membrane proteins in cultured hippocampal neurons and visualized the transport of carrier vesicles containing these proteins in living cells. Vesicles containing a dendritic protein, transferrin receptor (TfR), were preferentially transported into dendrites and excluded from axons. In contrast, vesicles containing the axonal protein NgCAM (neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule) were transported into both dendrites and axons. These data demonstrate that neurons utilize two distinct mechanisms for the targeting of polarized membrane proteins, one (for dendritic proteins) based on selective transport, the other (for axonal proteins) based on a selectivity "filter" that occurs downstream of transport.  (+info)

Distinct subpopulations of sensory afferents require F11 or axonin-1 for growth to their target layers within the spinal cord of the chick. (6/26)

Dorsal root ganglion neurons project axons to specific target layers in the gray matter of the spinal cord, according to their sensory modality. Using an in vivo approach, we demonstrate an involvement of the two immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules axonin-1/TAG-1 and F11/F3/contactin in subpopulation-specific sensory axon guidance. Proprioceptive neurons, which establish connections with motoneurons in the ventral horn, depend on F11 interactions. Nociceptive fibers, which target to layers in the dorsal horn, require axonin-1 for pathfinding. In vitro NgCAM and NrCAM were shown to bind to both axonin-1 and F11. However, despite this fact and despite their ubiquitous expression in the spinal cord, NgCAM and NrCAM are selective binding partners for axonin-1 and F11 in sensory axon guidance. Whereas nociceptive pathfinding depends on NgCAM and axonin-1, proprioceptive fibers require NrCAM and F11.  (+info)

Two distinct mechanisms target membrane proteins to the axonal surface. (7/26)

We have investigated the trafficking of two endogenous axonal membrane proteins, VAMP2 and NgCAM, in order to elucidate the cellular events that underlie their polarization. We found that VAMP2 is delivered to the surface of both axons and dendrites, but preferentially endocytosed from the dendritic membrane. A mutation in the cytoplasmic domain of VAMP2 that inhibits endocytosis abolished its axonal polarization. In contrast, the targeting of NgCAM depends on sequences in its ectodomain, which mediate its sorting into carriers that preferentially deliver their cargo proteins to the axonal membrane. These observations show that neurons use two distinct mechanisms to polarize proteins to the axonal domain: selective retention in the case of VAMP2, selective delivery in the case of NgCAM.  (+info)

Influence of ACE (I/D) and G460W polymorphism of alpha-adducin in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. (8/26)

BACKGROUND: The deleterious effect of the DD genotype of ACE in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) remains controversial. Small sample size, population admixture and lack of consideration of parameters modulating the effects of ACE genotype, such as gender or alpha-adducin (ADD) genotype, might explain the discrepancy. METHODS: We investigated the effect of ACE (I/D) polymorphism on the age at end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in a homogeneous population of 191 ADPKD patients, according to gender and genotype for the G460W polymorphism of ADD. Cumulative renal survival was assessed in 276 patients from the same families. RESULTS: Though no effect was detected in the whole population, analysis of the male subset (n = 97) showed that patients harbouring the DD genotype of ACE had a 5-year lower mean age at ESRD than DI + II patients [47.8 +/- 1.8 (n = 31) vs 52.8 +/- 1.1 (n = 66), respectively] (P = 0.02). Furthermore, cumulative renal survival was lower in the corresponding pedigrees [47 +/- 1 years, 95% confidence interval (CI) 45-49, vs 51 +/- 1 years, 95% CI 48-54]. The G460W polymorphism of ADD had no effect on the age at ESRD and cumulative renal survival, either alone or in combination with the ACE (I/D) polymorphism. CONCLUSIONS: In this large series of ADPKD patients, we found no effect of the ACE (I/D) polymorphism on the age at ESRD, either alone or in combination with the G460W polymorphism of ADD. However, a deleterious effect of the DD genotype of ACE on renal disease progression was observed in ADPKD males.  (+info)

Neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (Ng-CAM) mediates cell adhesion between neurons homophilically and between neurons and glia heterophilically; it also promotes neurite outgrowth. In the chick brain, Ng-CAM is detected as glycoproteins of 190 and 210 kD (Ng-CAM200) with posttranslational cleavage products of 135 kD (F135, which contains most of the extracellular region) and 80 kD (F80, which includes the transmembrane and the cytoplasmic domains). To examine the functions of each of these components, we have expressed Ng-CAM200, F135, and F80 in murine L cells, and F135 and F80 as GST fusion proteins in the pGEX vector in bacteria. Appropriately transfected L cells expressed each of these proteins on their surfaces; F135 was also found in the media of cells transfected with Ng-CAM200 and F135. In addition to binding homophilically, cells transfected with Ng-CAM200 and F135 bound heterophilically to untransfected L cells, suggesting that there is a ligand for Ng-CAM on fibroblasts that may be ...
An interaction of growth cone axonin-1 with the floor-plate NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) was shown to play a crucial role in commissural axon guidance across the midline of the spinal cord. We now provide evidence that axonin-1 mediates a guidance signal without promoting axon elongation. In an in vitro assay, commissural axons grew preferentially on stripes coated with a mixture of NrCAM and NgCAM. This preference was abolished in the presence of anti-axonin-1 antibodies without a decrease in neurite length. Consistent with these findings, commissural axons in vivo only fail to extend along the longitudinal axis when both NrCAM and NgCAM interactions, but not when axonin-1 and NrCAM or axonin-1 and NgCAM interactions, are perturbed. Thus, we conclude that axonin-1 is involved in guidance of commissural axons without promoting their growth. ...
Techniques and devices for detecting and analyzing controlled substances and the like are discussed including highly reactive sensor molecules which are coated on a spectroscopic sample surface (4) and which may chemically react with a given analyte to form a covalently bonded adduct with spectral characteristics unique to the new adduct. The techniques provide the basis of a detection system with high sensitivity and high specificity in which the surface can even be washed to remove interfering or nonreactive compounds. The sensor molecules which comprise the coating (8) may have three major components: a central molecular scaffold (
Plants have multiple physiological and biochemical systems that enable them to tolerate environmental stresses. Water deficit is the most serious factor limiting plant growth and productivity, and it occurs not only during drought but also with high salinity and low temperature. A change in osmotic potential in cells caused by water loss triggers various molecular responses in plants (Bray, 1997). To date, many genes induced by drought, salinity, or cold stress have been identified and studied (Ingram and Bartels, 1996; Shinozaki and Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, 1996, 1997). However, little is known about how plant cells detect water deficits.. In bacteria, histidine kinases function as sensor molecules that transduce extracellular signals (including chemotactic factors, changes in osmolarity, and nutrient deficiency) to the cytoplasm. This transduction is mediated by phosphotransfer to the cognate response regulator (Parkinson and Kofoid, 1992; Parkinson, 1993; Alex and Simon, 1994; Swanson et al., ...
Jorunn B. Jorgensen. 8.1 Introduction 85. 8.2 Innate Immunity: A Sensing and an Effector Arm 86. 8.3 Professional Phagocytes: The Macrophages and the Neutrophilic Granulocytes 86. 8.4 Natural Killer (NK)-Like Cells 88. 8.5 The Sensing Arm of Innate Immunity 88. 8.6 TLRs are the Best Studied PRRS in Fish 89. 8.7 NOD-Like and RIG-I Receptors are Found in Fish 90. 8.8 Lectins are Multifunctional Sensor Molecules for Carbohydrate Ligands 91. 8.9 PRRs and the Induction of Immunity 92. 8.10 Cytokines in Innate Immunity 92. 8.11 Interferons 94. 8.12 The Complement System 95. 8.13 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives 97. 9 The Adaptive Immune Response in Fish 104 ...
Epithelial cells and neurons polarize into distinct plasma membrane domains - apical and basolateral domains, and axonal and somatodendritic domains, respectively. Transmembrane proteins are known to be secreted in a polarized manner in such cells, but the molecular bases for this polarized membrane trafficking are unclear. This group previously showed that the cell-adhesion molecule NgCAM, which is largely delivered to axons in neurons and to the apical surface in epithelia, travels to axons through an indirect transcytotic pathway via somatodendritic endosomes. Here, Bettina Winckler and colleagues (p. 1514) identify and characterize the signals that are used by NgCAM as it travels through this pathway. The authors determine that a previously identified basolateral tyrosine-based signal of NgCAM is also a sufficient somatodendritic targeting signal. Moreover, they identify a second, novel, axonal targeting signal in the cytoplasmic tail of NgCAM that is cis-dominant and must be inactivated for ...
This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
A homologue of the axonally secreted protein axonin-1 is an integral membrane protein of nerve fiber tracts involved in neurite fasciculation.
This protocol presents a novel method for derivation of floor-plate progenitor cells for the later derivation of human dopaminergic neurons that can be efficiently engrafted in vivo. The progenitor cell name reflects the specific growth factor mixture used in the protocol.. ...
Pertubation of neurite fasciculation with species-specific anti-NgCAM antibodies. Cultured mouse DRG explants were infected with the adenoviral vector AdCMV
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuron-glia synapses in the brain. AU - Bergles, Dwight E. AU - Jabs, Ronald. AU - Steinhäuser, Christian. PY - 2010/5. Y1 - 2010/5. N2 - The ability to investigate the electrophysiological properties of individual cells in acute brain tissue led to the discovery that many glial cells have the capacity to respond rapidly to neuronal activity. In particular, a distinct class of neuroglial cells known as NG2 cells, which exhibit many of the properties that have been described for glial subtypes such as complex cells, polydendrocytes, synantocytes and GluR cells, express ionotropic receptors for glutamate and GABA. In both gray and white matter, NG2 cells form direct synaptic junctions with axons, which enable transient activation of these receptors. Electrophysiological analyses have shown that these neuron-glia synapses exhibit all the hallmarks of classical neuron-neuron synapses, including rapid activation, quantized responses, facilitation and depression, and presynaptic ...
We have identified a 95 kd cell surface protein, DM-GRASP, that is expressed on a restricted population of axons. Its expression begins early in chick embryogenesis, and within the spinal cord it is localized to axons in the dorsal funiculus, midline floorplate cells, and motoneurons. Antibodies to …
کنترل زمان گل‌دهی یکی از مهم‌ترین اجزای اثر متقابل بین گیاهان و محیط رشد آن‌ها می‌باشد که نه تنها برای میزان محصول تولیدی بلکه برای کیفیت دانه برنج نیز عامل مهمی به‌-حساب می‌آید. در این تحقیق مطالعات فنوتیپی و مولکولی بر روی 45 رقم برنج محلی و اصلاح شده انجام شد. ابتدا چندشکلی ژن‌های Ehd1 و Ehd3 در بین ارقام و سپس ارتباط این دو ژن با زمان خوشه‌دهی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج مطالعات فنوتیپی حاکی از وجود تنوع بیشتر در ارقام محلی نسبت به ارقام اصلاح شده بود. ارقام محلی به‌طور متوسط 8 روز زودرس‌تر از ارقام اصلاح شده بودند و تفاوت زمان خوشه‌دهی آن‌ها معنی‌دار
The initial strategies for generation of DA neurons from hESCs were based on previous experience with mouse ESCs, which commonly used the developmental cues known at the time (Kawasaki et al., 2000; Kim et al., 2002). Several of these early differentiation protocols did indeed produce a relatively high number of cells expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis and most commonly used marker for DA neurons), yet the midbrain properties of these neurons were not clear and their in vivo performance after grafting in standard animal models of PD was modest. A breakthrough in optimization of the differentiation protocols came when our understanding of how midbrain DA neurons are formed during normal development radically changed. In 2007 and 2008, two ground-breaking studies were published, both reporting that midbrain DA neurons were not derived from neuroepithelial cells (like all other neurons) but were in fact derived from floor-plate cells expressing ...
Neurofascin-155 (NF155) and caspr are transmembrane proteins found at discrete locations early during development of the nervous system. NF155 is present in the oligodendrocyte cell body and processes, whereas caspr is on the axonal surface. In mature nerves, these proteins are clustered at paranode …
Accumulation of glia, gliosis, in various neurological disorders is not a static scar, but actively involved in pathogenesis of various neurological and psychiatric disorders, where glial cells produce both inflammatory and neurotrophic factors. These factors may play a role in neuronal damage, but.... Full description. ...
The arrest of body axis elongation seems intimately associated with the differentiation process, as both involve the downregulation of FGFs and Wnts. A key signalling pathway that regulates both processes is that mediated by RA. During somitogenesis stages, cells are exposed to endogenous RA as they leave the CLE and the NSB or later tail bud. This is provided by the activity of the RA synthesising enzyme Raldh2, which is expressed in the newly segmenting mesoderm. RA signalling drives the expression of neural and mesodermal differentiation genes in axial tissues (Diez del Corral et al., 2003; Molotkova et al., 2005; Moreno and Kintner, 2004; Ribes et al., 2008). This includes neuronal differentiation genes, which promote neuron production, the floor-plate expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh), the key orchestrator of ventral patterning and hence of neuronal cell-type specification (Diez del Corral et al., 2003), and mesodermal differentiation genes such as Mesp2, a key segmentation gene that helps ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurite outgrowth on electrospun nanofibers with uniaxial alignment. T2 - The effects of fiber density, surface coating, and supporting substrate. AU - Xie, Jingwei. AU - Liu, Wenying. AU - Macewan, Matthew R.. AU - Bridgman, Paul C.. AU - Xia, Younan. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2014/2/25. Y1 - 2014/2/25. N2 - Electrospun nanofibers with uniaxial alignment have recently gained its popularity as scaffolds for neural tissue engineering. Many studies have demonstrated that the nanofibers could guide the neurites to extend along the direction of alignment, resembling the native hierarchy of the nerve tissue. However, the contact cues provided by the nanofibers can be far more complicated than just guiding the neurites to extend along them. In the current study, we used dorsal root ganglia as a model system to systematically investigate the interactions between neurites and uniaxially aligned nanofibers. We demonstrated, for the first ...
Not all proteins that accumulate in a specific subcellular compartment undergo processes of selective sorting and transport. Some proteins seem to be localized by a mechanism known as selective retention, which describes that cargoes are transported nonselectively to both axons and dendrites, but are eliminated at one side by selective endocytosis and retained at the other, where endocytosis is prevented. Prominent examples for this process are the proteins VAMP2 and NgCAM. NgCAM is sorted into carriers that preferentially deliver their cargo proteins to the axonal membrane. In contrast, VAMP2 is delivered to the surface of both axons and dendrites; however it is preferentially endocytosed from the dendritic membrane, a process, which also results in an axonal enrichment31. Indeed, VAMP2 harbors an endocytosis signal in its cytoplasmic domain, and mutation of this sequence consistently results in an evenly distribution of VAMP2 to cell body, dendrites, and axon. Although such process initially ...
I have about 3 twitches a day in my tongue. I asked a neurologist if this could be the start of als, or if its too infrequent. He just said als fasciculations could start more infrequent and slowly becomming more frequent. Does anyone know anything about this ...
Author: Medas, A Paulo ; Salins, Veronique ; Danforth, Jeff Series: How-To-Note No. 16/01 Date: September 27, 2016 Subject: Asia and Pacific Canada Capital expenditure Chile Commodity boom Commodity price shocks Commodity prices Expenditure policy Fiscal adjustment Fiscal deficits Malaysia Natural resources Nigeria Sub-Saharan Africa Western Hemisphere ...
If youre feeling and seeing the twitches, its no surprise at all that an EMG would actually record those twitches. Thats why were all here on this board!! The only reason Im guessing that some others have EMGs without fasciculations is that they happened to not fasciculate while the EMG was being performed. I had lots and lots of them (on my legs). When I asked the doctor if he saw fasciculations, he looked at me like I was crazy. With a look that basically said um, isnt that why youre here ...
Rapid signaling between vertebrate neurons occurs primarily at synapses, intercellular junctions where quantal release of neurotransmitter triggers rapid changes in membrane conductance through activation of ionotropic receptors. Glial cells express many of these same ionotropic receptors, yet little is known about how receptors in glial cells become activated in situ. Because synapses were thought to be the sole provenance of neurons, it has been assumed that these receptors must be activated following diffusion of transmitter out of the synaptic cleft, or through nonsynaptic mechanisms such as transporter reversal. Two recent reports show that a ubiquitous class of progenitors that express the proteoglycan NG2 (NG2 cells) engage in rapid signaling with glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons through direct neuron-glia synapses. Quantal release of transmitter from neurons at these sites triggers rapid activation of aminomethylisoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) or GABA(A) ...
I have heard it said that fasciculations appear in ALS some time after the muscle has been damaged due to denervation. As a result, I have been told that an ALS sufferer would experience profound weakn...
Complete information for BARX1 gene (Protein Coding), BARX Homeobox 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
... is a homophilic binding glycoprotein expressed on the surface of neurons, glia and skeletal muscle. Although CD56 is often ... also present on subset of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. In cell adhesion, CD56 contributes to cell-cell adhesion or cell- ... The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM1 appears on early embryonic cells and is important in the formation of cell collectives ... Τ cells and activated CD8+ T cells, as well as on dendritic cells. NCAM has been implicated as having a role in cell-cell ...
Glial cells function to support neurons and in the PNS, also include satellite cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, enteric glia ... Myelin protein zero (P0) is a cell-adhesion molecule belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily and is the major component of ... "NDF is a neuron-glia signal and regulates survival, proliferation, and maturation of rat Schwann cell precursors". Neuron. 15 ( ... When SOX10 is inactivated in mice, satellite glia and Schwann cell precursors fail to develop, though neurons are generated ...
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs): Integral membrane proteins mediating adhesion between growing axons and eliciting intracellular ... axons of photoreceptors require glia to exit the eye stalk whereas glia cells rely on signals from neurons to migrate back ... and cadherins or Ig-family cell-adhesion molecules, found on cell surfaces. Tropic cues, that can act as attractants or ... Ephrins: Ephrins are cell surface molecules that activate Eph receptors on the surface of other cells. This interaction can be ...
Chiasm crossing is also promoted by Nr-CAM (Ng-CAM-related cell adhesion molecule) and Semaphorin6D (Sema6D) expressed at the ... Neuron. 70 (5): 951-965. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.02.052. PMC 3114076. PMID 21658587. Kuwajima, T; Yoshida, Y; Pratt, T (2012 ... Ephrin-B2 is expressed at the chiasm midline by radial glia and acts as a repulsive signal to axons originating from the ... Neuron. 74 (4): 676-690. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.03.025. PMC 3361695. PMID 22632726. Janvier, P. (1996). Early vertebrates. ...
The first postmitotic cells to migrate from the preplate which are destined to become Cajal-Retzius cells and subplate neurons ... Examples of neural inducers are the molecules noggin and chordin. When embryonic ectodermal cells are cultured at low density ... Campbell K, Götz M (May 2002). "Radial glia: multi-purpose cells for vertebrate brain development". Trends in Neurosciences. 25 ... forces that interact with the extracellular environment through cell adhesion proteins to cause the movement of these cells. ...
A lineage relationship to other cell types has been proposed, including smooth muscle cells, neural cells, NG2 glia, muscle ... These cells are also a key component of the neurovascular unit, which includes endothelial cells, astrocytes, and neurons. ... which allow the pericytes and neighboring cells to exchange ions and other small molecules. Important molecules in these ... In some regions of the basement membrane, adhesion plaques composed of fibronectin can be found. These plaques facilitate the ...
... although the specialized cells receive some innervation from outside neurons. Ependymal cells secrete high molecular mass ... This glycoprotein shares molecular domains with axonal pathfinding molecules. The ependymal cells and the SCO-spondin secretion ... being involved in mechanisms of cellular adhesion and axonal pathfinding (a process by which neurons send out axons to reach ... Glia. 32 (2): 177-91. doi:10.1002/1098-1136(200011)32:2. 3.0.CO;2-V. PMID 11008217. Vio K, Rodríguez S, Yulis CR, Oliver C, ...
Schwarz Q, Ruhrberg C (January 2010). "Neuropilin, you gotta let me know: should I stay or should I go?". Cell Adhesion & ... Glia. 64 (8): 1314-30. doi:10.1002/glia.23004. PMID 27159043. S2CID 3713077. Mecollari V, Nieuwenhuis B, Verhaagen J (2014). "A ... March 2010). "Small molecule inhibitors of the neuropilin-1 vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) interaction". Journal ... Neuropilin is a protein receptor active in neurons. There are two forms of Neuropilins, NRP-1 and NRP-2. Neuropilins are ...
... a new inroad in the treatment of neuropathic pain and related disorders based on overactivation of glia and glia-related cells ... PAR and adhesion molecules expression, the infiltration and activation of mastcells and apoptosis. The biological responses to ... are protective in a delayed postglutamate paradigm of excitotoxic death in cerebellar granule neurons". Proceedings of the ... Since 1993, at least 25 papers have been published on the various effects of PEA on mast cells. These cells are often found in ...
Corticogenesis: younger neurons migrate past older ones using radial glia as a scaffolding. Cajal-Retzius cells (red) release ... SynCAM is a cell adhesion molecule that is present in both pre- and post-synaptic membranes. ... Neurogenesis is the process by which neurons are generated from neural stem cells and progenitor cells. Neurons are 'post- ... which is destined to become Cajal-Retzius cells and subplate neurons. These cells do so by somal translocation. Neurons ...
Additionally, cells destined to become neural plate cells express nerve cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) to further neural plate ... and neural crest cells (connects epidermis and neural tube and will migrate to make neurons, glia, and skin cell pigmentation). ... Cell grafting[edit]. Cell grafting in the early stages of embryo development has provided crucial information on cell fates and ... Without BMP4 the ectoderm cells would develop into neural cells. Axial mesoderm cells under the ectoderm secrete inhibitory ...
Although some cell-adhesion molecules have been reported to be present at the nodes inconsistently; however, a variety of other ... "Neuron Glia Biology. 2 (3): 165-174. doi:10.1017/S1740925X06000275. PMC 1855224. PMID 17460780.. ... The first event appears to be the accumulation of cell adhesion molecules such as NF186 or NrCAM. The intra-cellular regions of ... such as tenascin R and the cell-adhesion molecules neurofascin and contactin. Contactin is also present at nodes in the CNS and ...
11] Chiasm crossing is also promoted by Nr-CAM (Ng-CAM-related cell adhesion molecule) and Semaphorin6D (Sema6D) expressed at ... "Neuron. 70 (5): 951-965. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.02.052. PMC 3114076. PMID 21658587.. ... Ephrin-B2 is expressed at the chiasm midline by radial glia and acts as a repulsive signal to axons originating from the ... "Neuron. 74 (4): 676-690. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.03.025. PMC 3361695. PMID 22632726.. ...
Lateral/cell-cell. *Cell adhesion molecules: Adherens junction *Cadherin. *Desmosome *Desmoglein. *Ion channels: Gap junction/ ... Neurons within the retina show extensive coupling, both within populations of one cell type, and between different cell types. ... Glia. 24 (1): 141-54. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-1136(199809)24:1,141::AID-GLIA13,3.0.CO;2-R. PMID 9700496.. ... "eat-5 and unc-7 represent a multigene family in Caenorhabditis elegans involved in cell-cell coupling". J. Cell Biol. 134 (2): ...
Neurons within the retina show extensive coupling, both within populations of one cell type, and between different cell types.[ ... which allows various molecules, ions and electrical impulses to directly pass through a regulated gate between cells.[4][5] ... "Developmental exposure to estrogens alters epithelial cell adhesion and gap junction proteins in the adult rat prostate". ... Glia. 24 (1): 141-54. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-1136(199809)24:1,141::AID-GLIA13,3.0.CO;2-R. PMID 9700496.. ...
neuronal cell body. • dendrite. • neuron projection. Biological process. • negative regulation of nitric-oxide synthase ... "Cannabinoid CB2 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase are selectively overexpressed in neuritic plaque-associated glia in ... These receptors were primarily localized on immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, B-cells, and T-cells.[6][10][22][23][ ... CB2Rs are expressed on some rat retinal cell types.[29] Functional CB2 receptors are expressed in neurons of the ventral ...
"Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator alters adhesion molecule expression in the ischemic rat brain". Department of ... di glia dan heart-type (H-FABP) di neuron. ... "Stroke and T-cells". Laboratory of Neurosciences, National ... Neuron-specific enolase (NSE)[sunting , sunting sumber]. Bagian ini tidak memiliki referensi atau sumber tepercaya sehingga ... sickle cell anemia. Trombositemia dan sejenisnya. *Hypercoaguable states-puerperium. oral contraceptive use. 'sticky platelet ...
negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process. • synapse assembly. • cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain- ... Tamura M, Gu J, Danen EH, Takino T, Miyamoto S, Yamada KM (July 1999). "PTEN interactions with focal adhesion kinase and ... BDNF mediates more pathways involved in these enrichment-induced processes than any other molecule and is strongly regulated by ... Glia maturation factor (GMF). *Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). *Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead) ...
negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process. • synapse assembly. • cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain- ... BDNF mediates more pathways involved in these enrichment-induced processes than any other molecule and is strongly regulated by ... with focal adhesion kinase and suppression of the extracellular matrix-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt cell ... Glia maturation factor (GMF). *Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). *Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead) ...
... neurons, glia, endothelia of capillaries and lymphatics, fibroblasts, stem cells, white blood cells) in many tissues and organs ... "Substance P enhances cytokine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression on cultured rheumatoid fibroblast- ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ...
positive regulation of cell migration. • neuron cell-cell adhesion. • nervous system development. • neuron maturation. • ... homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules. • Peyer's patch morphogenesis. • peptidyl-tyrosine ... Glia maturation factor (GMF). *Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). *Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead) ... regulation of cell adhesion. • lymphocyte migration into lymphoid organs. • cell adhesion. • positive regulation of gene ...
Neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (Ng-CAM) mediates cell adhesion between neurons homophilically and between neurons and glia ... Functional-analysis of posttranslational cleavage products of the neuron-glia cell-adhesion molecule, ng-cam Academic Article ... for F135 on L cells (and presumably on neurons). In contrast to the cell binding results, the F80 but not the F135 fusion ... Appropriately transfected L cells expressed each of these proteins on their surfaces; F135 was also found in the media of cells ...
Two antigenically related neuronal cell adhesion molecules of different specificities mediate neuron-neuron and neuron-glia ... we have now identified a cell adhesion molecule on neurons (Ng-CAM) that mediates the heterotypic adhesion between neuronal ... immunologically based cell adhesion assays suggested that they have different specificities in mediating cell adhesion. Whereas ... Previous studies in this laboratory have led to the identification of the neural cell adhesion molecule, N-CAM, a homophilic ...
... but that activity-dependent effects on myelinating glia could provide one of the cellular mechanisms contributing to the ... but that activity-dependent effects on myelinating glia could provide one of the cellular mechanisms contributing to the ... raising the possibility that myelinating glia may not only contribute to such disorders, ... raising the possibility that myelinating glia may not only contribute to such disorders, ...
Identification of novel cell-adhesion molecules in peripheral nerves using a signal-sequence trap. ... Neuron Glia Biol. 2006 Feb;2(1):27-38.. PMID:. 16721426. Free PMC Article ... Cell. 2017 Jun 1;169(6):1142-1155.e12. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.04.032. Epub 2017 May 18. ... Gliomedin mediates Schwann cell-axon interaction and the molecular assembly of the nodes of Ranvier. ...
Aspects of the chronic cell-implant interaction will be discussed in view of the chronic local inflammation and the ways of ... Aspects of the chronic cell-implant interaction will be discussed in view of the chronic local inflammation and the ways of ... While the fields understanding of the cell biology of interactions at the biotic-abiotic interface has improved, relatively ... While the fields understanding of the cell biology of interactions at the biotic-abiotic interface has improved, relatively ...
Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-glia. Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion ... The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS. ... They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite ... They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. ...
2004) Axonal cell adhesion molecule L1 in myelination. Neuron Glia Biol 1:65-72. ... 2006) Endocytosis of beta1 integrins is an early event in migration promoted by the cell adhesion molecule L1. Exp Cell Res 312 ... 2001) Ectodomain shedding of L1 adhesion molecule promotes cell migration by autocrine binding to integrins. J Cell Biol 155: ... 2002) The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 potentiates integrin-dependent cell migration to extracellular matrix proteins. J ...
... these domains are characterized by cell adhesion molecules (CAMs; neurofascin-186 [NF-186] and neuron glia-related CAM [NrCAM ... mechanisms orchestrate axonal compartmentalization of L1 family members neurofascin and L1/neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule. ... secreted by Schwann cells, and the axonal cell adhesion molecule (CAM) neurofascin-186 (NF-186; Eshed et al., 2005, 2007; ... Oligodendrocytes regulate formation of nodes of Ranvier via the recognition molecule OMgp. Neuron Glia Biol. 2:151-164. ...
... is a homophilic binding glycoprotein expressed on the surface of neurons, glia and skeletal muscle. Although CD56 is often ... also present on subset of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. In cell adhesion, CD56 contributes to cell-cell adhesion or cell- ... The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM1 appears on early embryonic cells and is important in the formation of cell collectives ... Τ cells and activated CD8+ T cells, as well as on dendritic cells. NCAM has been implicated as having a role in cell-cell ...
1988) Neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule interacts with neurons and astroglia via different binding mechanisms. J Cell Biol 106 ... 1995) The expression of cell adhesion molecules on the growth cones of chick cutaneous and muscle sensory neurons. Dev Biol 167 ... 1996) The L1 family of neural cell adhesion molecules: old proteins performing new tricks. Neuron 17:587-593. ... 1995a) The cytoplasmic domain of the cell adhesion molecule L1 is not required for homophilic adhesion. Neurosci Lett 200:155- ...
... of cleavage of neural cell adhesion molecule in neuronal death under oxidative stress conditions in cultured cortical neurons. ... in glia potentiates TrkA-mediated survival of injured retinal ganglion cells. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009; 40: 410-420. ... The neural cell adhesion molecule is necessary for normal adult retinal ganglion cell number and survival. Mol Cell Neurosci. ... Endogenous polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule enhances the survival of retinal ganglion cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis ...
... and inadequate expression of growth-promoting factors and/or cell-cell adhesion molecules among neurons and glia. These ... Seilheimer, B., and Schachner, M., 1987, Regulation of neural cell adhesion molecule expression on cultured mouse Schwann cells ... since they express a varied array of surface molecules that are important for cell-cell adhesion (Seilheimer and Schachner, ... synthesis in non-neuronal cells: Comparison of Schwann cells with other cell types. J. Neurosci. 11: 3165-3177.PubMedGoogle ...
... neuronal cell adhesion molecule), Authors: Justyna Janik, Barbara Czarnocka. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol ... Nrcam, neuron-glia-CAM-related cell adhesion molecule, Mus musculus. - Nrcam, neuron-glia-CAM-related cell adhesion molecule, ... NRCAM, neuronal cell adhesion molecule, Homo sapiens. - NRCAM, neuronal cell adhesion molecule, Bos taurus. - ... positive regulation of neuron differentiation protein binding involved in heterotypic cell-cell adhesion cell-cell adhesion ...
Neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule interacts with neurons and astroglia via different binding mechanisms. J Cell Biol 1988;106: ... L1 Cell Adhesion Molecule Promotes Tumorigenicity and Metastatic Potential in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Josephine Hai, Chang- ... Ectodomain shedding of L1 adhesion molecule promotes cell migration by autocrine binding to integrins. J Cell Biol 2001;155:661 ... L1 Cell Adhesion Molecule Promotes Tumorigenicity and Metastatic Potential in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer ...
Binding between the neural cell adhesion molecules axonin-1 and Nr-CAM/Bravo is involved in neuron-glia interaction SUTER DM ... Chemorepulsion and cell adhesion molecules in patterning initial trajectories of sensory axons * * MASUDA Tomoyuki ... Cell adhesion molecules regulate guidance of dorsal root ganglion axons in the marginal zone and their invasion into the mantle ... Neural crest cell-cell adhesion controlled by sequential and subpopulation-specific expression of novel cadherins NAKAGAWA S. ...
Peng H, Carbonetto S. Astrocyte polarization and wound healing in culture: studying cell adhesion molecules. Methods Mol Biol. ... Longitudinal glia in the fly CNS: pushing the envelope on glial diversity and neuron-glial interactions Neuron-Glia Biology ... Brian Chen for their recent publication in Nature Neuroscience entitled Overexpression of Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule ... Overexpression of Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule impairs precise synaptic targeting. Nat Neurosci. 2013 Jun;16(6):677-82 ...
Cell adhesion molecules such as selectins, integrins, and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) permit endothelial- ... Inflammatory cells, ischemic neurons, and glia produce free radicals that contribute to cell damage and death (11). HMG-CoA ... Anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 antibody reduces ischemic cell damage after transient but not permanent middle cerebral ... and vascular cell adhesion molecules after stroke, although these results are not consistent (129). Contributing to both ...
... is necessary for the migration of the facial branchiomotor neurons (FBMNs) in the zebrafish hindbrain. In tag1 morphant embryos ... We show here that the cell adhesion molecule Transient Axonal Glycoprotein (Tag1) ... FBMN migration is specifically blocked, with no effect on organization or patterning of other hindbrain neurons. Furthermore, ... Interactions between a neuron and its environment play a major role in neuronal migration. ...
Silencer elements modulate the expression of the gene for the neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule, Ng-CAM.J. Biol. Chem. 270 ... Cell lines and cell culture.The cell lines used in this study were a wild-type parental PC12 cell line and a PC12 mutant cell ... PKA activity and ChAT activity in control cells and cells transfected with the PKA catalytic β subunit. A126.1B2 cells stably ... channel genes binds a factor present in nonneuronal cells but not in neuronal cells.Neuron 9 1992 45 54 ...
Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia [D23.050.301.350.250.150]. *Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule [D23.050.301.350. ... Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia [D12.776.395.550.200.250.150]. *Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule [D12.776. ... Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia [D12.776.543.550.200.250.150]. *Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule [D12.776. ... Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule*Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule. *Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion ...
Rutishauser U, Acheson A, Hall A, Mann D, Sunshine J. The neural cell adhesion molecule as a regulator of cell-cell ... Both neurons and glia are more sensitive to lactic acid exposure than to HCl exposure. Neither neurons nor glia are able to ... J Cell Biol. 1982;95:42a.. *Goldman SA, Pulsinelli W, Kraig R, Plum F. Tolerance of neurons and glia to acid exposure in vitro ... Both neurons and glia were more tolerant of HCl than of lactic acid. Each cell type was able to survive 10-min incubation in ...
Previous studies in AS mice reported an elongated axon initial segment (AIS) in pyramidal neurons (PNs) of the hippocampal CA1 ... mechanisms orchestrate axonal compartmentalization of L1 family members neurofascin and L1/neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule. ... Selective alterations in postsynaptic markers of chandelier cell inputs to cortical pyramidal neurons in subjects with ... Tian C, Wang K, Ke W, Guo H, Shu Y. Molecular identity of axonal sodium channels in human cortical pyramidal cells. Front Cell ...
... mechanisms orchestrate axonal compartmentalization of L1 family members neurofascin and L1/neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule. ... cell adhesion molecules neurofascin-186 (NF-186), and neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM; Davis et al., 1996; Basak et al ... Molecular composition of the node of Ranvier: identification of ankyrin-binding cell adhesion molecules neurofascin (mucin+/ ... The nucleation of cell adhesion molecules in turn induces ankyrin G, βIV spectrin, and sodium channel recruitment (Eshed et al ...
Structure of the chicken neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule, Ng-CAM: origin of the polypeptides and relation to the Ig ... Hortsch, M. (1996). The L1 family of neural cell adhesion molecules: old proteins performing new tricks. Neuron 17,587 -593. ... a neuronal cell adhesion molecule implicated in axogenesis and myelination. Biol. Cell 94,327 -334. ... Vaughn, D. E. and Bjorkman, P. J. (1996). The (Greek) key to structures of neural adhesion molecules. Neuron 16,261 -273. ...
... by degrading cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) designed to provide stability to those extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that ... form scaffolding supporting neurons and glia. It is presumed that while these ECM proteins are weakened, and/or detached, ...
During development, glial cells are involved in the guidance of neuronal precursors and in extending neuronal fiber projections ... Neuron-astrocyte interactions play a crucial role during development and in the adult brain. ... following the counteraction of neuron-neuron/neuron-glia interactions through addition of neuronal cell adhesion molecule (N- ... On the other hand, the importance of adhesion molecules in cell-to-cell communication was underscored by the significant ...
N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor independent changes in expression of polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule despite ... Neuron Glia Biology, 3(S1) S119. Rodríguez, J. J.; Dallérac, G. M.; Tabuchi, M.; Davies, H. A.; Colyer, F. M.; Stewart, M. G. ... Increased GFAP immunoreactivity by astrocytes in response to contact with dorsal root ganglia cells in a 3D culture model.. ...
... and a nonsense mutation in the neural cell adhesion molecule gene ,i,Nrcam,/i,. These mutant mice may be useful in studying ... and the neural cell adhesion molecule, neuron-glia-CAM-related cell adhesion molecule (Nrcam) gene. Sequencing of these genes ... and a nonsense mutation in the neural cell adhesion molecule gene, Nrcam. The two single mutations appear to act ... a missense mutation in the phosphatidate phosphatase gene Lpin1 and a nonsense mutation in the neural cell adhesion molecule ...
... with neurons, glia, and neural cell adhesion molecules. J. Cell Biol. 127:1703-1715. ... cells) derived from RPTPα knockout mice have greatly reduced c-Src PTK activity and are defective in cell adhesion and ... of FL RPTPα molecules are localized to the cell surface in transfected 293 cells. This result is consistent with our previous ... CELL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase α Homodimerizes on the Cell Surface. Guoqiang Jiang, ...
... neurons, and glia in the gut.. Cell Adhesion Molecules at the Intersection of Cell Type Identity and Neural Circuit ... Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play critical roles in neural circuit assembly and are frequently associated with ... neurons, and spines change over time, and manipulating neurons and glia to test their involvement in long-term memory. ... Many neurons signal through multiple small-molecule neurotransmitters, adding an additional layer of complexity to our ...
  • The observations that a protein corresponding to F135 contains the cell aggregation sites whereas one corresponding to the F80 has the ability to promote neurite outgrowth suggest that proteolytic cleavage may be an important event in regulating these Ng-CAM activities during embryonic development and neural regeneration. (
  • In addition to binding homophilically, cells transfected with Ng-CAM200 and F135 bound heterophilically to untransfected L cells, suggesting that there is a ligand for Ng-CAM on fibroblasts that may be related to the glial ligand. (
  • Detailed studies using the transfected cells and the fusion proteins indicated that both the homophilic and the heterophilic binding activities of Ng-CAM are localized in the F135 fragment of the molecule. (
  • The results also indicated that proteolytic cleavage of Ng-CAM200 is not required either for its expression on the cell surface or for cell adhesion and that there is an "anchor" for F135 on L cells (and presumably on neurons). (
  • F135 was also found in the media of cells transfected with Ng-CAM200 and F135. (
  • By means of a similar immunological approach but with different assays, we have now identified a cell adhesion molecule on neurons (Ng-CAM) that mediates the heterotypic adhesion between neuronal membranes and glial cells. (
  • Whereas 0.25 micrograms of Ng-CAM partially neutralized the ability of 0.5 mg of polyspecific antineural Fab' fragments to inhibit the heterotypic binding of neuronal membrane vesicles to glial cells and larger amounts of Ng-CAM completely neutralized this inhibition, 20 micrograms of N-CAM had no neutralization activity in this assay. (
  • During development, glial cells are involved in the guidance of neuronal precursors and in extending neuronal fiber projections. (
  • Furthermore, glial cells can secrete immunoregulatory molecules that influence immune cells, as well as the glial cells themselves. (
  • Since bFGF is expressed in GT1-1 neurons and glial cells a possible paracrine/autocrine regulatory loop is suggested. (
  • Myelin is the multilayered compacted cell membrane wrapped around axons by glial cells to form electrical insulation that speeds conduction of nerve impulses. (
  • Over the past two decades, yet two additional crucial players in neuroplastic phenomena started to be intensely investigated - glial cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). (
  • Growing awareness that glial cells, especially astrocytes, are important regulators of synaptic functions gave rise to a novel concept of a tri-partite synapse. (
  • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) are known to be involved in a variety of events during vertebrate nervous system development, including the phenotypic differentiation of specific neurons or glial cells, axon growth and fasciculation, axonal pathfinding, axon-glia and axon-target interactions as well as synapse formation and synapse stabilization (overview in Brümmendorf and Rathjen, 1994). (
  • Glial cells, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system, control synaptic transmission, and regulate neuronal function by releasing bioactive molecules called gliotransmitters. (
  • Given that glial cell functions are disturbed in various metabolic diseases, we hypothesize that progression of MS may relies on hemichannel-dependent impairment of glial-to-neuron communication by a mechanism related to dysfunction of inflammatory response and mitochondrial metabolism of glial cells. (
  • In this manuscript, we discuss how glial cells may contribute to the enhanced sympathetic drive observed in MS, and shed light about the possible role of hemichannels in this process. (
  • Glial cells release gliotransmitters (e.g., glutamate, D-serine, and ATP) through Ca2+- and SNARE-dependent exocytosis (1) in addition to the release that occurs through alternative non-exocytotic pathways (see below). (
  • Within the last decade, a growing body of evidence has indicated that glial cells can also communicate with neurons via the release of vesicles (e.g., exosomes, microparticles, and apoptotic bodies), containing different cellular messengers (e.g., mRNA, viruses, and organelles) (7). (
  • Adjacent glial cells and neurons can communicate directly through F-actin-based transient tubular connections known as tunneling nanotubes (8), via cell-to-cell contacts between membrane-bound ligand molecules and their receptors (9) or aggregates of intercellular channels known as gap junctions, which allow the exchange of small molecules (10). (
  • Everything we think and feel and do would be impossible without the work of neurons and their support cells, the glial cells called astrocytes (4) and oligodendrocytes (6). (
  • Results - NMDA-lesioned animals that were not treated with triflusal showed activation of NF-κB in neuronal cells at first and in glial cells subsequently. (
  • An important function of foetal radial glial cells is to provide the scaffolding along which neural precursors migrate (Figure 7.2). (
  • Figure 7.2 Radial glial cells form a scaffold that assists neuronal migration in the developing nervous system. (
  • Radial glial cells extend their processes from the ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ), where neural progenitors reside, towards the pia. (
  • Neuronal precursors attach to the radial glial cells and migrate along their processes towards their final destination. (
  • In the cerebellum of newborn S100B -EGFP mice, we had previously noted the presence of a large population of S100B-expressing cells, which we assumed to be immature Bergmann glial cells. (
  • The present study induced BM-MSCs to transdifferentiate into neural-like cells (either neurons or glial cells) using Cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) in vitro . (
  • Glial cells function to support neurons and in the PNS, also include satellite cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, enteric glia and glia that reside at sensory nerve endings, such as the Pacinian corpuscle. (
  • Schwann cells are a variety of glial cells that keep peripheral nerve fibres (both myelinated and unmyelinated) alive. (
  • Molecular mechanisms underlying the dystroglycan-mediated targeting and polarization of proteins in glial cells. (
  • Abstract: Glial cells are known to interact extensively with neuronal elements in the brain, influencing their activity. (
  • Glial cells participate in formation and rebuilding of synaps es and play a prominent role in protection and repair of nervous tissue after damage. (
  • For glial cells to take an active part in plastic alterations under physiological conditions and pathological disturbances, extensive specific signaling, both within single cells and between cells, is required. (
  • They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. (
  • Schwann cells in sciatic nerve, laminin in amniotic membrane, and immature astrocytes in fetal hippocampus. (
  • Cunningham, L.A., Hansen, J.T., Short, M.P., and Bohn, M.C., 1991a, Rat astrocytes containing a mouse NGF transgene enhance the survival of both young postnatal and adult adrenal chromaffin cells grafted into the adult rat striatum. (
  • Increased GFAP immunoreactivity by astrocytes in response to contact with dorsal root ganglia cells in a 3D culture model. (
  • There are many cell types that are affected including neurons, astrocytes, microglia and endothelial cells, all responding to the resultant neuroinflammation in different ways. (
  • 97% cell viability and were virtually exclusively comprised of astrocytes expressing a combination of the intermediate filament proteins glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and nestin. (
  • Astrocytes typically have diverse functions in assisting neurons with ion homeostasis, neurotransmitter clearance, synapse formation, and neurovascular coupling 11 . (
  • f , High magnification of the area outlined in e . g , At 14 d after injury, the fibers are still associated with NG2+ cells (green) in the lesion, but not with astrocytes labeled with GFAP (green) at the caudal end of the lesion ( h ), where the majority of the fibers have stabilized. (
  • 2013). Recently, it was shown that Panx1 hemichannels might mediate this permeability for large molecules in astrocytes (4) (Iglesias et al. (
  • We further show which the dorsal glial progenitor cells could be produced de novo from the dorsal telencephalon and we show their capacity for in vivo production of both myelin-forming oligodendrocytes and astrocytes upon transplantation. (
  • Their ability to generate two antigenically unique populations of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes has been founded both in vitro and in vivo (for review observe [1 2 GRP cells are recognized with the A2B5 antibody and don't communicate the Polysialylated form of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (PSA-NCAM). (
  • Additional characteristics distinguishing GRP cells from OPCs are the ability of GRP cells to generate two types of astrocytes (that have been designated type-1 and type-2 [7]) in vitro and to generate both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in vivo . (
  • Type-1 astrocytes are thought to arise from GRP cells through intermediate astrocyte progenitor cells (APC) [9] while type-2 astrocytes may require prior generation of OPCs as an intermediate step [4]. (
  • Unlike OPCs GRP cells readily generate astrocytes following transplantation into the adult CNS [10] while main OPCs thus far only generate oligodendrocytes in such transplantations [11]. (
  • Astrocytes produce a number of membrane bound and extracellular matrix molecules that serve as molecular cues for axon growth. (
  • Loss of astrocytic polarity suggests that the polarized secretion of various astrocytic-derived factors (e.g., sonic hedgehog (Hh)) is also compromised in experimental and clinical MS. Astrocytes secrete Hh and bind Hh receptors expressed on BBB endothelial cells to promote BBB formation and integrity [18]. (
  • Because S100B is commonly used as a marker of Bergmann glia and white matter astrocytes in the Cb of adult mice [ 12 ], we assumed that its presence in the embryonic Cb marked their precursors. (
  • The identification of OPCs generated from multiple regions of the developing telencephalon, together with the need of the embryonic telencephalon to provide precursor cells for oligodendrocytes as well as astrocytes in ventral and dorsal areas, raises questions concerning the identity of the precursor cell populations capable of generating macroglial subtypes during multiple developmental windows and in differing locations. (
  • We further demonstrate that the dorsal glial progenitor cells can be generated de novo from the dorsal telencephalon and we demonstrate their capacity for in vivo production of both myelin-forming oligodendrocytes and astrocytes upon transplantation. (
  • we also know there is intense signaling between astrocytes, Microglia , oligodendrocytes, and neurons, with an array of molecules acting as signaling substances. (
  • Cells subjected to elevated hydrostatic pressure demonstrated morphological differences characterised by a more rounded shape and a redistribution of actin stress fibres that was most prominent in lamina cribrosa astrocytes. (
  • The understanding of how adhesion molecules mediate the axon-glial interactions in the CNS that ensure target-dependent survival of oligodendrocytes and initiate myelination remains incomplete. (
  • NrCAM is engaged in such biological processes as axonal fasciculation, cell-cell adhesion, central nervous system development, clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels, neuron migration, positive regulation of neuron differentiation, regulation of axon extension, and synaptogenesis. (
  • L1CAM function has been most extensively studied in the nervous system, where it is known to orchestrate morphogenetic events such as neuron-neuron adhesion, axon guidance, neurite outgrowth, neurite fasciculation, and myelination ( 15 , 17 ). (
  • Axon tracts guide zebrafish facial branchiomotor neuron migration through the hindbrain. (
  • Structure/function relationships of axon-associated adhesion receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (
  • Previous studies in AS mice reported an elongated axon initial segment (AIS) in pyramidal neurons (PNs) of the hippocampal CA1 region. (
  • Cell-culture studies have identified molecular mechanisms regulating myelination by electrical activity, and myelin also limits the critical period for learning through inhibitory proteins that suppress axon sprouting and synaptogenesis. (
  • Neurons have high densities of voltage-gated Na + channels that are restricted to axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier, where they are responsible for initiating and propagating action potentials. (
  • Nevertheless, an unequivocal description of the mechanism by which such molecules exert control over the pathway of a growing axon has not been done. (
  • Nonetheless, once the severed axon tips dieback from the lesion core into the penumbra they closely associate with NG2+ cells. (
  • Our studies suggest that proteoglycan-mediated entrapment upon NG2+ cells is an additional obstacle to CNS axon regeneration. (
  • 1. Any of the impulse-conducting cells that constitute the brain, spinal column, and nerves in vertebrates, consisting of a nucleated cell body with one or more dendrites and a single axon. (
  • Neurons have three basic parts: a cell body and two extensions called an axon (5) and a dendrite (3). (
  • The axon looks like a long tail and transmits messages from the cell. (
  • Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. (
  • In this study, we report that inhibition of the PIR-B signaling cascades in neurons enhances axon regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). (
  • We report here that MAG protection extends beyond the axon to the neurons from which those axons emanate, protecting them from excitotoxicity. (
  • A neurone is a single cell having a very long, fibre-like extension, called an axon, and one or many short extensions called dendrites. (
  • The axon may be 100,000 times as long as the diameter of the cell body-some are as long as 1 m. (
  • Nerve impulses are moving zones of electrical depolarization and these travel outwards along the axon from the cell body. (
  • Neurones interconnect with each other at specialized junctions called SYNAPSES , situated mainly between the end of an axon of one neurone and the cell body or the dendrites of another. (
  • Individual myelinating Schwann cells cover about 1 mm of an axon-equating to about 1000 Schwann cells along a 1-m length of the axon. (
  • However, unlike oligodendrocytes, each myelinating Schwann cell provides insulation to only one axon (see image). (
  • Myelinating Schwann cells begin to form the myelin sheath in mammals during fetal development and work by spiraling around the axon, sometimes with as many as 100 revolutions. (
  • The stump of the damaged axon is able to sprout, and those sprouts that grow through the Schwann-cell "tunnel" do so at the rate around 1 mm/day in good conditions. (
  • The axon and myelin loss, as well as immune cell infiltration were examined using immunohistochemistry. (
  • These functions include organizational roles for subcellular domains in neurons including the axon initial segment and nodes of Ranvier, through which ankyrin G orchestrates the localization of key ion channels and GABAergic presynaptic terminals, as well as creating a diffusion barrier that limits transport into the axon and helps define axo-dendritic polarity. (
  • Oligodendrocytes at various stages of development have ion channels, purinergic and other membrane receptors that allow myelinating glia to detect impulse activity through the activity-dependent release of molecules from axons (Figures 1 B,D,E). Thus activity-dependent regulation of oligodendrocytes could contribute to cellular mechanisms promoting recovery through environmental interventions and other non-drug treatments of psychiatric illnesses. (
  • Oligodendrocytes have neurotransmitter receptors for glutamate, serotonin, and dopamine, making it likely that antipsychotic drugs acting through these neurotransmitter systems would also have actions on myelinating glia that may be detrimental or beneficial in psychiatric disorders. (
  • We first demonstrate that the Ig superfamily molecule contactin is associated in oligodendrocytes with integrins, extracellular matrix receptors that regulate target-dependent survival by amplification of growth factor signaling. (
  • When neural crest cells stop making N-CAM and N-cadherin, and start displaying integrin receptors, cells separate and migrate. (
  • This review examines the involvement of these cells in the progression of neural injury and proposes that the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are likely to be an integral component in the communication between the CNS and the periphery. (
  • We conclude that MAG engages membrane-domain resident neuronal receptors to protect neurons from excitotoxicity, and that soluble MAG mitigates excitotoxic damage in vivo. (
  • Differential cellular expression of isoforms of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors in neurons and glia in brain. (
  • To examine the functions of each of these components, we have expressed Ng-CAM200, F135, and F80 in murine L cells, and F135 and F80 as GST fusion proteins in the pGEX vector in bacteria. (
  • Detailed studies using the transfected cells and the fusion proteins indicated that both the homophilic and the heterophilic binding activities of Ng-CAM are localized in the F135 fragment of the molecule. (
  • neurofascin-186 [NF-186] and neuron glia-related CAM [NrCAM]), cytoskeletal proteins (ankyrinG and βIV spectrin), and the extracellular chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycan brevican. (
  • The extracellular region of L1CAM binds to a diverse range of proteins that include L1CAMs themselves, other cell surface proteins such as integrins and axonin1, and extracellular matrix proteins such as laminin and neurocan ( 15, 16 ). (
  • The premise of this paper is that increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) permits the reconfiguration of synaptic connections (i.e., neural plasticity) by degrading cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) designed to provide stability to those extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that form scaffolding supporting neurons and glia. (
  • ICAM-5 (intercellular adhesion molecule-5, telencephalin, TLN) is a member of the ICAM family of adhesion proteins. (
  • Therefore, our results suggest that multiple distinct pathways operate in hippocampal neurons to achieve axonal accumulation of membrane proteins. (
  • Pubmed ID: 15228528 Although many proteins can be overexpressed several fold without much effect on cell viability and morphology, some become toxic upon a slight increase in their intracellular level. (
  • The transmembrane glycoprotein NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) * is a member of the L1 subgroup of immunoglobulin (Ig)-like cell adhesion proteins. (
  • Detailed understanding of pathways that integrate cell adhesion and signaling will ultimately require knowledge of the specific amino acid residue(s) subject to phosphorylation, as well as the precise cellular localization of the relevant regulatory signals, protein kinases, protein phosphatases and adapter proteins. (
  • The cross-talk between neuron-glia-ECM system involves enzymatic degradation of proteins or peptides and amino acids occurring in each of these brain constituents by means of a variety of proteases. (
  • By contrast, the nectin family comprises only four members, and these proteins form both homophilic and heterophilic trans-interactions (i.e. interactions between the same and different nectin members on opposing cells). (
  • Hippocampal neurons plated on proteins extracted from wild-type rat or mouse myelin were resistant to kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity, whereas neurons plated on proteins from Mag-null myelin were not. (
  • Liu Y, Liu Y, Elly C, Yoshida H, Lipkowitz S, Altman A. Serine phosphorylation of Cbl induced by phorbol ester enhances its association with 14-3-3 proteins in T cells via a novel serine-rich 14-3-3-binding motif. (
  • The BBB prevents the passive entry of water, charged solutes, soluble mediators (including circulating neurotransmitters), proteins (immunoglobulins, cytokines, chemokines), and immune cells in the peripheral circulation into the CNS, protecting it from unintended immune activation and excitotoxic stress. (
  • We made recombinant betaig-h3 proteins, which were highly active in mediating human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell adhesion and spreading. (
  • These results, therefore, establish the essential motifs within the 2nd and the 4th domains of betaig-h3, which interact with alpha(3)beta(1) integrin to mediate HCE cell adhesion to betaig-h3 and suggest that other proteins containing Asp-Ile in their fas-1 domains could possibly function as cell adhesion molecules. (
  • Single membrane channels formed by these proteins serve as aqueous pores permeable to ions and small molecules, allowing the diffusional exchange between the intra- and extracellular milieu. (
  • By analogy with nodes, the CAMs NF-186 and neuron glia-related CAM (NrCAM) may initiate ion channel clustering at the AIS through as-yet-unknown extrinsic mechanisms. (
  • NrCAM is a cell surface protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, L1/neurofascin/NgCAM subgroup. (
  • 2001). Moreover, NrCAM induces neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia neurons. (
  • Mice heterozygous for this ENU-induced ( Lpin1 20884 Nrcam 20884 ) mutation possess a missense mutation in the phosphatidate phosphatase gene Lpin1 and a nonsense mutation in the neural cell adhesion molecule gene Nrcam . (
  • These double mutant mice possess a missense mutation in the phosphatidate phosphatase gene, Lpin1 , and a nonsense mutation in the neural cell adhesion molecule gene, Nrcam . (
  • Using a candidate gene approach two mutations were identified: the phosphatidate phosphatase gene, Lipin1 ( Lpin1 ), and the neural cell adhesion molecule, neuron-glia-CAM-related cell adhesion molecule ( Nrcam ) gene. (
  • NgCAM (Neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule)-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM), also known as Bravo, is an ankyrin-binding protein that modulates neuronal adhesion. (
  • The NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) is an immunoglobulin superfamily member of the L1 subgroup that interacts intracellularly with ankyrins. (
  • Furthermore, analysis of lenses of ankyrin-B mutant mice also reveals a disorganization of lens fibers at postnatal day 1, indistinguishable from that generated by the absence of NrCAM, indicating that NrCAM and ankyrin-B are required to maintain contact between lens fiber cells. (
  • NRCAM (Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • NCAM has been implicated as having a role in cell-cell adhesion, neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory. (
  • This minisymposium will investigate the machinery of each compartment and how compartments are integrated by synaptic adhesion molecules and by glial- and neuron-secreted factors. (
  • Many neurons signal through multiple small-molecule neurotransmitters, adding an additional layer of complexity to our understanding of synaptic transmission. (
  • Neurons process and encode information through synaptic activity that results in the generation and propagation of action potentials (APs). (
  • Also, over the last two decades, a growing body of evidence has accumulated that the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the brain is strongly involved in regulation of neurons, in particular, in synaptic plasticity. (
  • Entrapment via synaptic-like connections between NG2 proteoglycan+ cells and dystrophic axons in the lesion plays a role in regeneration failure af. (
  • Once dystrophic axons become stabilized upon NG2+ cells, they form synaptic-like connections both in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Moreover, a growing amount of evidence indicates that uncontrolled hemichannel opening could impair glial cell functions, affecting synaptic transmission and neuronal survival. (
  • Hippocampus-dependent learning and memory relies on synaptic plasticity as well as network adaptations provided by the addition of adult-born neurons. (
  • α- and β-neurexins are presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules whose general importance for synaptic transmission is well documented. (
  • In neurons, the endosomal system is essential for membrane receptor trafficking to dendrites and axons and thereby participates in various neuronal functions, such as neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity. (
  • Schwann cells are involved in many important aspects of peripheral nerve biology-the conduction of nervous impulses along axons, nerve development and regeneration, trophic support for neurons, production of the nerve extracellular matrix, modulation of neuromuscular synaptic activity, and presentation of antigens to T-lymphocytes. (
  • Regulation of synaptic adhesion complexes by alternative splicing Peter Scheiffele, Columbia University, NY. (
  • The connectivity of a neuron (its unique constellation of synaptic inputs and outputs) is essential for its function. (
  • How each neuron finds its synaptic partners has been a central question in developmental neurobiology. (
  • In vivo neuron-wide analysis of synaptic vesicle precursor trafficking. (
  • In vitro systems may be most useful for studying fundamental cell biology that is less likely to be altered by culture systems. (
  • Animal models have advantages over in vitro systems because the observed cells are in their natural state. (
  • Thus, to compare the abilities of neurons and glia to tolerate extracellular acidosis, we evaluated their thresholds for irreversible damage following exposure to selected organic and inorganic acids in vitro. (
  • Support for the participation of cell adhesion molecules in intracellular signaling is based largely on experiments performed in vitro and in cell culture. (
  • The sleep inducing brain lipid cis-oleamide (cOA) does not modulate serotonergic transmission in the CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus in vitro. (
  • By using an established in vitro organotypic brain stem (BS) slice culture we screen for candidate donor cells, some of them being further functionally assessed in in vivo models of sensorineural hearing loss. (
  • Both in vitro and in vivo systems show that implanted cells face challenges of survival, targeted migration, differentiation and functional integration with the host tissue. (
  • These findings further suggest that OECs may enhance survival and targeted migration of candidate donor cells suitable for cell therapy in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Therefore, controlling the BM-MSCs in vitro to differentiate toward the neural lineage becomes an important source of cells used for cell therapy [ 5 ] . (
  • Several in vitro studies described conditions affecting on BM-MSCs to transdifferentiate into neural cells, either neurons or glial. (
  • CONCLUSION These observations demonstrate that cell lines from different ocular tissues are sensitive to changes in external pressure in vitro. (
  • NCAM exhibits glycoforms as it can be posttranslationally modified by the addition of polysialic acid (PSA) to the fifth Ig domain, which is thought to abrogate its homophilic binding properties and can lead to reduced cell adhesion important in cell migration and invasion. (
  • The cell adhesion molecule Tag1, transmembrane protein Stbm/Vangl2, and Lamininalpha1 exhibit genetic interactions during migration of facial branchiomotor neurons in zebrafish. (
  • Interactions between a neuron and its environment play a major role in neuronal migration. (
  • We show here that the cell adhesion molecule Transient Axonal Glycoprotein (Tag1) is necessary for the migration of the facial branchiomotor neurons (FBMNs) in the zebrafish hindbrain. (
  • In tag1 morphant embryos, FBMN migration is specifically blocked, with no effect on organization or patterning of other hindbrain neurons. (
  • Frizzled3a and Celsr2 function in the neuroepithelium to regulate migration of facial motor neurons in the developing zebrafish hindbrain. (
  • A specific synergy/cooperation between bFGF and other growth factors was also revealed at specific stages of LHRH neuron differentiation, indicating that the sequential expression of specific growth factors may participate in the processes of LHRH neuron migration, differentiation and functional regulation. (
  • eyeless , which encodes a Pax6 transcription factor, is expressed early in progenitors and controls aspects of this cell migration. (
  • Its loss in medulla neurons leads to overgrowth and a failure of lateral migration during pupation. (
  • These defects in cell migration among medulla cortex cells can be rescued by removing D E-Cadherin. (
  • We also show that one of the genes, ey / Pax6 , is expressed in OPC neuroblasts and controls migration of a subpopulation of cells in the optic lobe. (
  • Nagata, Koh‐ichi 2018-01-01 00:00:00 Migfilin, encoded by FBLIM1 at the 1p36 locus, is a multi‐domain adaptor protein essential for various cellular processes such as cell morphology and migration. (
  • Migfilin, encoded by FBLIM1 at the 1p36 locus, is a multi‐domain adaptor protein essential for various cellular processes such as cell morphology and migration. (
  • Pathway analysis of the modulated ECM and adhesion molecules genes using DAVID software [ 9 , 10 ] indicated their involvement in leukocyte migration at BBB (Additional file 1 Figure S1). (
  • Surprisingly, beta1-class integrins are not essential for neuron-glia interactions and neuronal migration during corticogenesis. (
  • Thus, the departure of new neurons from the adult SZ may require their suppression of N-cadherin, whereas their subsequent migration and survival may depend upon neuronal expression of Ng-CAM/8D9 and its interaction with a heterophilic radial cell receptor. (
  • Retrovirally Induced Antisense Integrin RNA Inhibits Neuroblast Migration _In Vivo_ Deni S. Galileo, John Majors, Alan F. Horwitz and Joshua R. Sanes Neuron 9:1117-1131, 1992. (
  • Further, exposure to a JNK inhibitor (SP600125) decreased migration and invasion of EGI-1 cells. (
  • This gene is also expressed in non-neural tissues and may play a general role in cell-cell communication via signaling from its intracellular domain to the actin cytoskeleton during directional cell migration. (
  • Lineage, migration, and morphogenesis of longitudinal glia in the Drosophila CNS as revealed by a molecular lineage marker. (
  • A new role of the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 16 (MMP16/MT3-MMP) in neural crest cell migration. (
  • An increasing body of evidence has revealed that connexin hemichannels and pannexons play a crucial role in a plethora of brain processes including blood flow regulation, Ca2+ wave propagation, memory consolidation, glucosensing and cell migration and adhesion. (
  • In contrast, the presence of L1-Fc, the extracellular portion of a contactin ligand expressed on axons, enhanced survival and additionally promoted myelination in cocultures of neurons and oligodendrocytes. (
  • Early proposals of exclusive ventral oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) generation have been challenged recently with studies revealing the potential of the dorsal telencephalon to also generate oligodendrocytes. (
  • The immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) comprises over 100 members are in vertebrates and most of its members expressed at the cell surface. (
  • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (
  • Drosophila neuroglian: a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily with extensive homology to the vertebrate neural adhesion molecule L1. (
  • In particular, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was identified as a major differentiation factor for the immortalized hypothalamic LHRH neuronal cell line. (
  • Balancing quiescence, self-renewal, and differentiation in adult stem cells is critical for tissue homeostasis. (
  • The human cerebral cortex depends for its normal development and size on a precisely controlled balance between self-renewal and differentiation of diverse neural progenitor cells. (
  • Induction of neuronal differentiation by a peptide corresponding to the homophilic binding site of the second Ig module of the neural cell adhesion molecule. (
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for bryostatin 1-induced differentiation of the human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Reh. (
  • CD45 negatively regulates monocytic cell differentiation by inhibiting phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-dependent activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of protein kinase Cdelta. (
  • Birth' involves a final cell division (which always occurs at the ventricular surface) and differentiation away from the stem cell type In tectum, this pattern is 'outside-out': cells which differentiate earliest end up in the most lateral part of the tectum * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Eric [to TJ]: Ouch! (
  • Lab research: Control of neuronal cell death and differentiation during embryonic neurogenesis and regeneration. (
  • Studies designed to assess the impact of the ablation of different types of neurons on vision-guided ocular growth led to the finding of numerous proliferating cells within damaged retinas. (
  • Neuronal connections are made with exquisite accuracy between specific types of neurons. (
  • Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), also called CD56, is a homophilic binding glycoprotein expressed on the surface of neurons, glia and skeletal muscle. (
  • Homophilic binding occurs between NCAM molecules on opposing surfaces (trans-) and NCAM molecules on the same surface (cis-)1. (
  • Current models suggest trans- homophilic binding occurs between two NCAM molecules binding antiparallel between all five Ig domains or just IgI and IgII. (
  • Removal of PSA from NCAM by the enzyme endoneuraminidase (EndoN) has been shown to abolish long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM1 appears on early embryonic cells and is important in the formation of cell collectives and their boundaries at sites of morphogenesis. (
  • We previously demonstrated that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays an important role in supporting the survival of injured retinal ganglion cells. (
  • In the current study, we used light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD) as a model to investigate whether NCAM plays a functional role in neuroprotection and whether NCAM influences p75 NTR signaling in modulating retinal cell survival. (
  • 3 The cleavage of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) has been shown to be involved in cortical neuronal death under oxidative stress, 4 and previous results from our laboratory have demonstrated that NCAM is important in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and age-related deterioration in vision. (
  • The present invention discloses peptide fragments derived from neuropeptide Y (NPY), which are capable of selective binding to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and inducing neuroplastic and neuroprotective effects, and the use of said peptide fragments as neuritogenic agents for treatment of pathological conditions in which neuroprotection and neuroplastic changes are desired, such as brain and retina disorders. (
  • The present inventors have now surprisingly found that not only NPY/NPY1-36 (SEQ ID NO:22) but in particular specified peptide fragments thereof not comprising Tyr36, including fragments such as NPY3-35 (SEQ ID NO:1), bind to NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule), an interaction that has not previously been identified. (
  • The influence of neurons on glial inflammation was partly due to the cell-cell contacts between neurons and glia via neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAM) because NCAM significantly reduced LPS-stimulated nitrite production. (
  • GRP cells are identified with the A2B5 antibody and do not express the Polysialylated form of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (PSA-NCAM). (
  • We recently reported that polysialic acid (PSA) attached to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is one of the cellular antigens for HIgM12. (
  • HigM2 is a remyelinating antibody that we have been hearing about for years and years but I'm not sure I have heard of how it is supposed to work so now it is said that it works via Polysialic acid is an unusual posttranslational modification that occurs on neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAM). (
  • 12-14 and focuses on polysialic acidity (PSA) mounted on the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) 15,16. (
  • The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) can be a glycoprotein from the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily indicated for the cell surface area of neurons, glia, skeletal muscle tissue, and organic killer cells 19-25. (
  • Intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) are a subset of the IgSF that bind to leukocyte β 2 integrins. (
  • Based on our results, physiological FIGQY-tyrosine phosphorylation of the L1 family likely regulates adhesion molecule-ankyrin interactions establishing ankyrin-free and ankyrin-containing microdomains and participates in an ankyrin-independent intracellular signaling pathway at specialized sites of intercellular contact in epithelial and nervous tissue. (
  • Emerging data suggest that exosomes play an important role in intercellular communication by transferring exosomal protein and RNA cargo between source and target cells in the brain. (
  • These results and the examination of the coclustering of axonin-1 and NgCAM at cell contacts, suggest that intercellular contact is mediated by a symmetric axonin-12/NgCAM2 tetramer, in which homophilic NgCAM binding across the extracellular space occurs simultaneously with a cis-heterophilic interaction of axonin-1 and NgCAM. (
  • The "decision" for immune cells to either pathway reflects the level of expression and context for presentation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) [1]. (
  • Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule" by people in this website by year, and whether "Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
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  • We also found that L1 ΔRSLE and L1 Y1176A were integrated into the plasma membrane in the cell body after missorting. (
  • have shown that NgCAM, a chick homolog of L1, is transported directly to the axonal growth cone of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and inserted exclusively in the growth cone membrane. (
  • We investigated the pathways underlying the subcellular targeting of NgCAM, a cell adhesion molecule residing on the axonal plasma membrane. (
  • These defects result from disorganization of the cortical marginal zone, where beta1-class integrins regulate glial endfeet anchorage, meningeal basement membrane remodeling, and formation of the Cajal-Retzius cell layer. (
  • Axonin-1 and Ng cell adhesion molecule (NgCAM), two molecules with predominantly axonal expression exhibit homophilic interactions across the extracellular space (axonin- 1/axonin-1 and NgCAM/NgCAM) and a heterophilic interaction (axonin-1-NgCAM) that occurs exclusively in the plane of the same membrane (cis-interaction). (
  • The lateral sealing of apical and basolateral membrane domains ("fence" function) [7, 8] segregates luminal and abluminal adhesion molecules, transporter and matrix binding, and cell contact domains. (
  • Moreover, the basement membrane and GFAP-positive neural stem cells function as barrier instead of usual BBB. (
  • In turn, neuronal cells can respond to astrocyte-derived growth factors and control astrocyte function via a common set of signaling molecules and intracellular transducing pathways. (
  • Uncovering Multiple Axonal Targeting Pathways in Hippocampal Neurons The Journal of Cell Biology. (
  • As children we might produce some new neurons to help build the pathways - called neural circuits - that act as information highways between different areas of the brain. (
  • Finally, while studying the signaling pathways that stimulate CMZ and Müller glia-derived progenitors, serendipity led to the discovery of a novel type of glial cell that is scattered across the inner retinal layers. (
  • An early responder to neuronal injury, the endocannabinoid system has been described as an endogenous neuroprotective system that once activated can prevent glutamate excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium accumulation, activation of cell death pathways, microglia activation, neurovascular reactivity and infiltration of circulating leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier. (
  • In certain neuromuscular disorders, defective signaling pathways that converge on these molecules cause failure to produce or mantain an healthy myelin Finally, in collaborations with scientists and clinicians in the Hunter J. Kelly Research Institute, we are generating transgenic forms of GalC, an enzyme deficient in Krabbe leukodystrophy, to investigate which cells requires the enzyme. (
  • Intracellular mediator pathways by which cells respond to biomechanical deformation are widely explored in biology. (
  • L1 belongs to the L1 subfamily of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and is comprised of an extracellular region having six Ig-like domains and five fibronectin type III domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. (
  • The viability of the cells was examined using their intracellular esterase activity. (
  • Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. (
  • While the field's understanding of the cell biology of interactions at the biotic-abiotic interface has improved, relatively little attention has been paid on the mechanical factors (stress, strain), and hence on the geometry that can modulate it. (
  • Neuron Glia Biology , 3(S1) S119. (
  • Neuron Glia Biology , 4(3) pp. 169-178. (
  • This minisymposium will highlight the latest advances in enteric neurobiology and focus on new model systems for investigating ENS development, mechanisms of adult neurogenesis, enteric glial biology, and the impact of aging on the ENS, as well as the dynamic interactions among microbiota, immune cells, neurons, and glia in the gut. (
  • We summarize recent progress in our understanding of the biology of nectins and discuss their roles in heterotypic cell-cell adhesions, whose formation cannot be solely explained by the action of cadherins. (
  • NgCAM-conjugated microspheres were tested for binding to COS cells expressing domain deletion mutants of axonin-1. (
  • In particular, we investigate whether EHD1 is required for polarized trafficking of the dendritically targeted transferrin and the axonal adhesion molecule L1/NgCAM (neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule) and, if so, in what compartment it is required. (
  • Symmetric homotypic cell-cell adhesion refers to symmetric junctions that are formed between the same cell type, which is observed, for example, between intestinal absorptive epithelial cells, between vascular endothelial cells and between fibroblasts. (
  • Adhesion molecules expressed on microvascular endothelial cells in the brain have been implicated in the modulation of the blood brain barrier (BBB) and inflammation in brain but their role in VEEV pathogenesis is not very well understood. (
  • This BBB restriction to cells and solute exchange is achieved by cooperative interactions between tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) between apposed endothelial cells. (
  • Hh is upregulated in active demyelinating lesions and is correlated with increased Hh receptor expression in BBB endothelial cells, indicating a possible compensatory mechanism to promote BBB repair. (
  • For example, in endothelial cells exposed to elevated hydrostatic pressure, release of bFGF can be induced independently of cell injury or death and may account for subsequent morphological and proliferative responses. (
  • Congratulations to Dr. Keith Murai and Dr. Jesper Sjöström for being awarded CIHR Project Grants, titled Harnessing Neuron-Astrocyte Communication for Promoting Brain Health and Unconventional NMDA Receptor Signalling in Neocortical Plasticity , respectively. (
  • It also operates as a receptor for several different neuronal recognition molecules. (
  • When cells are placed in culture, however, changes in cell structure, receptor populations, and gene expression occur that alter cellular responses from their normal in vivo state. (
  • The NRSE/RE-1, which comprises ∼23 nucleotides, is found in a number of neuron-specific genes, including the type II sodium channel ( 7 ), synapsin I ( 15 ), SCG10 ( 20 ), Ng-CAM ( 13 ), and the m4 muscarinic receptor ( 17 ), to name but a few. (
  • To date, however, no cell-surface receptor capable of mediating APPsα-induced signaling has been identified. (
  • N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor independent changes in expression of polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule despite blockade of homosynaptic long-term potentiation and heterosynaptic long-term depression in the awake freely behaving rat dentate gyrus. (
  • Freshly isolated GRP cells depend on fundamental fibroblast growth element (bFGF) for survival and proliferation but unlike oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs [3]) are not defined from the manifestation of Mouse monoclonal to ABCG2 platelet-derived growth element receptor-alpha (PDGFR-alpha) or Olig2 [2]. (
  • Chronic fluoxetine differentially affects 5-hydroxytryptamine (2A) receptor signaling in frontal cortex, oxytocin- and corticotropin-releasing factor-containing neurons in rat paraventricular nucleus. (
  • Sensory neurons carry information from the sense organs (such as the eyes and ears) to the brain. (
  • Later in development, NCAM1 (CD56) expression is found on various differentiated tissues and is a major CAM mediating adhesion among neurons and between neurons and muscle. (
  • Schwab and Caroni, 1988), and inadequate expression of growth-promoting factors and/or cell-cell adhesion molecules among neurons and glia. (
  • Because tissues such as sciatic nerve possess both conducive substrates and trophic molecules, it is difficult to access the minimum requirement for the regeneration of adult CNS axons. (
  • Recently, it was reported that several NRSF/REST splice variants were expressed in mature neurons of adult brain, albeit at low levels ( 21 ). (
  • Neuron-astrocyte interactions play a crucial role during development and in the adult brain. (
  • White and Kankel, 1978 ), generate the correct number of cells present in the adult optic lobe: the IPC gives rise to neurons of the lobula complex and proximal medulla (presumably cells from the medulla rim), while the OPC generates most medulla neurons (presumably cells from the medulla cortex) as well as cells that will generate the lamina ( Meinertzhagen and Hanson, 1993 ). (
  • The medulla represents the largest structure in the adult optic lobe with an estimated 40,000 neurons ( Hofbauer and Campos-Ortega, 1990 ), the cell bodies of which are located either in the medulla cortex, the region between the lamina and the medulla neuropil, or the medulla rim, the region between the medulla and the lobula plate. (
  • In the adult medulla, their expression is mostly non-overlapping and covers over 90% of all medulla neurons ( Morante and Desplan, 2008 ). (
  • ey -positive cells are present only in the adult medulla cortex, whereas ap - and dll -expressing cells are both present in the adult medulla cortex and medulla rim ( Morante and Desplan, 2008 ). (
  • Therefore, at least five different cell populations marked by ey, ap or Dll coexist in the adult medulla. (
  • FIGQY tyrosine phosphorylation is localized at specialized cell junctions, including paranodes of sciatic nerve, neuromuscular junctions of adult rats and Drosophila embryos, epidermal muscle attachment sites of Drosophila , and adherens junctions of developing epithelial cells of rat and Drosophila . (
  • For instance, stress is thought to downregulate the expression in the hippocampus of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which promotes the growth and development of immature neurons and enhances the survival of adult neurons. (
  • Studies using varying ratios of CSPGs and adhesion molecules along with chondroitinase ABC, as well as purified adult cord-derived NG2 glia, demonstrate that CSPGs are involved in entrapping neurons. (
  • In 1962, scientist Joseph Altman challenged this belief when he saw evidence of neurogenesis (the birth of neurons) in a region of the adult rat brain called the hippocampus. (
  • In 1979, another scientist, Michael Kaplan, confirmed Altman's findings in the rat brain, and in 1983 he found neural precursor cells in the forebrain of an adult monkey. (
  • Other scientists believed these findings could not apply to mammals, but Elizabeth Gould later found evidence of newborn neurons in a distinct area of the brain in monkeys, and Fred Gage and Peter Eriksson showed that the adult human brain produced new neurons in a similar area. (
  • But others think the evidence offers intriguing possibilities about the role of adult-generated neurons in learning and memory. (
  • In the adult avian forebrain, neurons continue to be produced in the subependymal zone (SZ), from which they migrate upon radial fibers. (
  • SVZ) immediately surrounding the lumen of the neural tube migrate to their final destinations and give rise to the enormously diverse range of neurones and glia found in the adult brain (Figure 7.2). (
  • Research showed that adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) differentiate into mesodermal cell types and also reprogram to transdifferentiate into endodermal and ectodermal cell types. (
  • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play critical roles in neural circuit assembly and are frequently associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. (
  • This minisymposium will present the most recent insight into the role of CAMs in defining cell type identity, circuit connectivity, and function. (
  • Phosphorylation of neurofascin, a member of the L1 family of cell adhesion molecules (L1 CAMs), at the conserved FIGQY-tyrosine abolishes the ankyrin-neurofascin interaction. (
  • The typical cell-cell adhesion apparatus comprises adherens junctions (AJs), which contain the main cell-cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) cadherins ( Takeichi, 1991 ). (
  • Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have been shown to express a number of neurotrophic factors and to promote axonal growth through cell to cell interactions. (
  • Conditionally immortalized temperature sensitive cell lines were generated from the embryonic mouse olfactory placode. (
  • Two of these, OP6 and OP27 were chosen for further characterization and confirmed to be olfactory neuron-like in nature. (
  • Because of these unique properties, nectins have crucial roles in asymmetric homotypic cell-cell adhesion at neuronal synapses and in various types of heterotypic cell-cell adhesions. (
  • Most synapses are interneurones connecting with other nerve cells, rather than with muscles or glands. (
  • the cerebral cortex is formed inside out, whereby the innermost layers are formed first, and the superficial layers are formed later by neurones that migrate through the older cells. (
  • Among the cells forming the BBB, CEC lines the intimal surface of larger cerebral vessels and are the major component of brain capillaries. (
  • Since cerebral inflammation is important in many neurological disorders, this study might provide insight about the role of glia-neuron interactions in inflammatory responses in the brain. (
  • In rat models of contused spinal cord, the dramatic losses of implanted SCs via necrotic and apoptotic cell deaths occur largely 3 weeks post-implantation [ 9 - 11 ]. (
  • In the rat spinal cord E10.5 cells PF299804 have been shown to symbolize a homogenous population of multipotent neuroepithelial stem cells (NEPs) capable of generating cells of both the neuronal and glial lineage. (
  • The cells comprising the earliest intermediate precursor human population restricted to oligodendrocyte and astrocyte formation called glial restricted precursor cells (GRPs) can be isolated from your embryonic spinal cord as early as E12. (
  • To day GRP cells isolated from your spinal cord possess failed to generate neurons in numerous paradigms including transplantation into the embryonic spinal cord [5-7]. (
  • The recognition of GRP cells in the spinal cord offered rise to a generalized model of gliogenesis consistent with the majority of experimental data available. (
  • The notochord induces neuroectodermal cells to generate neural stem cells and form the neural plate, which in turn forms the neural tube, from which the brain and spinal cord are derived. (
  • Cell-cell adhesions can be categorized into at least three groups: symmetric homotypic, asymmetric homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell adhesions ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • Finally, heterotypic cell-cell adhesions form between two different cell types, and they are observed, for example, between Sertoli cells and germ cells in the testis, auditory hair cells and supporting cells in the auditory epithelium of the inner ear, and neurons and glia cells in the brain. (
  • Cadherins on neighboring or opposing cells trans-interact almost exclusively homophilically (i.e. interactions between the same cadherin members), which means that they do not account for the formation of asymmetric homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell adhesions that are found in a variety of tissues and organs ( Fig. 1C ). (
  • Growth factors are key players in LHRH neuron-astroglia crosstalk. (
  • Increasing evidence support the viewpoint that soluble factors from lymphoid/mononuclear cells modulate the growth and function of cells found in the CNS, specifically macroglia and microglia cells. (
  • The CNS can exhibit features of inflammation in response to injury, infection or disease, whereby resident cells generate inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, prostaglandins, free radicals and complement, chemokines and adhesion molecules that recruit immune cells, and activate glia and microglia. (
  • Over the past 20 years, researchers examining brain tissue at various time intervals after stroke observed the presence of inflammatory cells, neutrophils and monocytes at the site of injury, as well as the activation of endogenous glia and microglia. (
  • Immunocytochemical analysis of glia-neuron co-cultures revealed the morphological changes in the activated microglia. (
  • As a direct test of the requirement for IL-1 in tau phosphorylation and synaptophysin expression, IL-1 actions in neuron- Microglia cocultures were manipulated. (
  • When such activated Microglia were placed in coculture with primary neocortical neurons, a significant increase in the phosphorylation of neuronal tau was accompanied by a decline in synaptophysin levels. (
  • It was reported that NRSF/REST bound to the NRSE and repressed the expression of neuron-specific genes in nonneuronal cell lines ( 24 ). (
  • In the developing Drosophila optic lobe, eyeless, apterous and distal-less , three genes that encode transcription factors with important functions during development, are expressed in broad subsets of medulla neurons. (
  • In this study, we evaluated the expression of extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules genes in the brain of VEEV infected mice. (
  • Stroke recovery is orchestrated by a set of highly interactive processes that involve the neurovascular unit and neural stem cells. (
  • Polaris propels functional cell exploration, emboldening scientists to dive deeper into contextual biological processes. (
  • The major cell classes of the brain differ in their developmental processes, metabolism, signaling, and function. (
  • 10-12 However, other studies have suggested that it represents a cytoprotective response preventing apoptosis, 13-15 indicating that NF-κB actions in death processes may be dependent on the type of stimulus and the specific conditions, either promoting or preventing cell death. (
  • Nissl bodies observed in the soma usingcresyl violet stain, and cell bodies' processes (axons and dendrites) usingsilver impregnation, proved that BM-MSCs differentiated into neuronal cells. (
  • Similarly, we found that molecules such as integrins and RhoGTPAses are required for glia to extend large processes that will become myelin around axons. (
  • Normal cells that stain positively for CD56 include NK cells, activated T cells, the brain and cerebellum, and neuroendocrine tissues. (
  • From the bulk of this information, it seems likely that interactions between astroglia and LHRH neurons play a major role in the integration of the multiplicity of brain signals converging on the LHRH neurons that govern reproduction. (
  • An emerging body of research has uncovered diverse roles for Sonic Hedgehog signaling in a wide range of neurodevelopmental contexts affecting the function of brain circuits, including the production and maintenance of diverse cell types and the establishment of cell-specific wiring. (
  • Cell surface glycoproteins expressed on growth cones and axons during brain development have been postulated to be involved in the cell-cell interactions that guide axons into their target area. (
  • Neurogenesis in the CNS is restricted to a limited number of areas in the brain, hampering the restoration of lost neurons 6 , 7 . (
  • Shp2 is thus likely an important mediator of SIRPα signaling in neurons, but the functional relevance of the SIRPα-Shp2 complex in the brain has remained unknown. (
  • SIRPα and CD47 thus constitute a cell-cell communication system that likely plays an important role in the brain. (
  • Mice that lack all beta1-class integrins in neurons and glia die prematurely after birth with severe brain malformations. (
  • A team of scientists from the Allen Institute for Brain Science dubbed the newly discovered brain cells 'rosehip neurons ,' on account of their appearance that resembled a rose after all the petals had fallen out, according to a statement. (
  • Lively and engaging, with the finest illustrations, Foundations of Neural Development is the perfect book to help any undergraduate student understand how a single microscopic cell, a human zygote, can develop into the most complex machine on earth, the brain. (
  • The brain and its borders create a highly dynamic microenvironment populated with immune cells. (
  • He later reported that newborn neurons migrated from their birthplace in the hippocampus to other parts of the brain. (
  • Nottebohm believed it was because fresh neurons helped store new song patterns within the neural circuits of the forebrain, the area of the brain that controls complex behaviors. (
  • Glia outnumber neurons in some parts of the brain, but neurons are the key players in the brain. (
  • Motor neurons control voluntary muscle activity such as speaking and carry messages from nerve cells in the brain to the muscles. (
  • The extent to which new neurons are generated in the brain is a controversial subject among neuroscientists. (
  • Although limited immune cell exchange across the BBB is normal, a low continuous level of immune cell surveillance protects the brain against viral (e.g. (
  • Typical manifestations of these conditions are the presence of glutamate excitoxicity, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, the combination of which can potentially result in apoptotic-necrotic cell death, generation of brain lesions and long-lasting functional impairment. (
  • Considering the multiple cell signaling functions of these channels, their dysregulation is proposed not only as potential pathological biomarker, but it has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of diverse brain diseases (e.g., meningitis, Alzheimer's disease and stroke). (
  • Our group previously identified L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) expression as a member of a prognostic multigene expression signature for NSCLC patients. (
  • However, there is little information on the biologic function of L1CAM in lung cancer cells. (
  • L1CAM expression was suppressed by short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated silencing in human NSCLC cell lines. (
  • L1CAM downregulation significantly decreased cell motility and invasiveness in lung cancer cells and reduced tumor formation and growth in mice. (
  • Cells with L1CAM downregulation were deficient in constitutive extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation. (
  • Orthotopic studies showed that L1CAM suppression in highly metastatic lung cancer cells significantly decreases spread to distant organs, including bone and kidney. (
  • We also confirm that L1CAM is a poor prognostic marker for patients with NSCLC and plays a significant role in promoting invasiveness and motility of NSCLC cells. (
  • One such molecule, L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM), is aberrantly expressed in several cancer types, including ovarian ( 9 ), melanoma ( 10 ), breast ( 11 ), pancreatic ( 12 ), and colon cancers ( 13 ). (
  • L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is expressed in ECC cells and acts as an independent poor prognostic factor in predicting patient survival. (
  • In this study we investigate the functional significance of L1CAM in ECC cells with activating KRAS mutation. (
  • We selected an ECC cell line, EGI-1, with activating KRAS mutation, and then confirmed its expression of L1CAM by RT-PCR, western blot analysis, and flow cytometry. (
  • The suppression of L1CAM expression (using a specific lentivirus-delivered shRNA) significantly decreased the migratory and invasive properties of EGI-1 cells, without altering their proliferation or survival. (
  • Analyses of signaling effectors in L1CAM-depleted and control EGI-1 cells indicated that L1CAM suppression decreased the levels of both phosphorylated MKK4 and total MKK4, together with c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. (
  • Given that KRAS is the most commonly mutated oncogene in ECC, L1CAM may serve as an attractive therapeutic target for ECC cells with activating KRAS mutation. (
  • The combined effect is an enhanced activity of Fyn and also a dynamic regulation of the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation balance of Fyn, as required for normal cell adhesion and spreading. (
  • Although the mechanism of transcriptional regulation controlling the cholinergic gene locus is poorly understood, a neuron-restrictive silencer element/repressor element 1, (NRSE/RE-1) sequence is implicated in silencing the cholinergic gene locus in nonneuronal cells ( 16 ). (
  • Deregulated expression of members of all major cell adhesion molecule families [integrins, selectins, cadherins, and the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily] is frequently reported in human cancers ( 8 ). (
  • Tests in culture showed that the progeny of cells infected by these vectors were identifiable by expression of LacZ and had reduced levels of beta 1 integrins on their surfaces. (
  • In vivo, most living cells are exposed to a variety of biomechanical forces by virtue of their relation with the microenvironment. (
  • Vigabatrin-Induced Retinal Functional Alterations and Second-Order Neuron Plasticity in C57BL/6J Mice. (
  • Immunohistochemical analyses of d