Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules: Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1: A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule: Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.E-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex: A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia: Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. Ng-CAM is immunologically and structurally distinct from NCAM.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Contactin 2: A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Mice, Inbred C57BLProtein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Contactins: A family of immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecules that are involved in NERVOUS SYSTEM patterning.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Nerve Tissue ProteinsImmunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Junctional Adhesion Molecules: A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mucoproteins: Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Selectins: Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Receptors, Very Late Antigen: Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Ankyrins: A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Leukocyte Rolling: Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Glia Maturation Factor: A factor identified in the brain that influences the growth and differentiation of NEURONS and NEUROGLIA. Glia maturation factor beta is the 17-kDa polypeptide product of the GMFB gene and is the principal component of GLIA MATURATION FACTOR.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.alpha Catenin: A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Tenascin: Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Lutheran Blood-Group System: A complex blood group system having pairs of alternate antigens and amorphic genes, but also subject to a dominant independently segregating repressor.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CRetina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Desmoplakins: Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.Receptors, Leukocyte-Adhesion: Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.GABAergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Receptors, Fibronectin: Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.

Local presentation of substrate molecules directs axon specification by cultured hippocampal neurons. (1/26)

Axon specification is a crucial, early step in neuronal development, but little is known about how this event is controlled in vivo. To test the hypothesis that local presentation of growth-promoting molecules can direct axon specification, we cultured hippocampal neurons on substrates patterned with stripes of poly-L-lysine and either laminin (LN) or the neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (NgCAM). Although undifferentiated neurites contacted both substrates equally, axons formed preferentially on LN or NgCAM. Time-lapse studies revealed that changes in the growth pattern of a cell indicative of axon specification began almost immediately after the growth cone of one of the neurites of the cell contacted LN or NgCAM. When cells were plated on alternating stripes of LN and NgCAM, cells with their somata on LN usually formed axons on NgCAM, whereas those with somata on NgCAM preferentially formed axons on LN. This suggests that the change from one axon-promoting substrate to another also provides a signal sufficient to specify the axon. These results demonstrate that contact with preferred substrate molecules can govern which neurite becomes the axon and thus direct the development of neuronal polarity.  (+info)

Functional interactions of the immunoglobulin superfamily member F11 are differentially regulated by the extracellular matrix proteins tenascin-R and tenascin-C. (2/26)

The axon-associated protein F11 is a GPI-anchored member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that promotes axon outgrowth and that shows a complex binding pattern toward multiple cell surface and extracellular matrix proteins including tenascin-R and tenascin-C. In this study, we demonstrate that tenascin-R and tenascin-C differentially modulate cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth of tectal cells on F11. While soluble tenascin-R increases the number of attached cells and the percentage of cells with neurites on immobilized F11, tenascin-C stimulates cell attachment to a similar extent but decreases neurite outgrowth. The cellular receptor interacting with F11 has been previously identified as NrCAM; however, in the presence of tenascin-R or tenascin-C cell attachment and neurite extension are independent of NrCAM. Antibody perturbation experiments indicate that beta(1) integrins instead of NrCAM function as receptor for neurite outgrowth of tectal cells on an F11.TN-R complex. Cellular binding assays support the possibility that the interaction of F11 to NrCAM is blocked in the presence of tenascin-R and tenascin-C. Furthermore, a sandwich binding assay demonstrates that tenascin-R and tenascin-C are able to form larger molecular complexes and to link F11 polypeptides by forming a molecular bridge. These results suggest that the molecular interactions of F11 might be regulated by the presence of tenascin-R and tenascin-C.  (+info)

The homeodomain protein Barx2 contains activator and repressor domains and interacts with members of the CREB family. (3/26)

Barx1 and Barx2 are homeodomain proteins originally identified using regulatory elements of genes encoding certain cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). In the present study, we characterize regions of Barx2 that bind to regulatory elements of genes encoding three CAMs, L1, neuron-glia CAM (Ng-CAM), and neural CAM (N-CAM), and identify domains of Barx2 that regulate N-CAM transcription. The homeodomain of Barx2 was sufficient for binding to homeodomain binding sites (HBS) from all three CAM genes. The presence of a 17-amino acid Barx basic region resulted in a 2-fold decrease in binding to HBS sequences from the Ng-CAM and L1 genes, whereas it led to a 6.5-fold increase in binding to the HBS from the N-CAM promoter. Thus, the Barx basic region influences the strength and specificity of Barx2 binding to DNA. In co-transfection experiments, Barx2 repressed N-CAM promoter activity. A 24-residue N-terminal region of Barx2 was essential for repression. When this region was absent, Barx2 activated the N-CAM promoter. A 63-residue C-terminal domain was required for this activation. In GST pull-down experiments, Barx2 bound to proteins of the CREB family, CREB1 and ATF2. Overall, these findings provide a framework for understanding developmental and physiological contexts that influence repressor or activator functions of Barx2.  (+info)

A direct interaction of axonin-1 with NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) results in guidance, but not growth of commissural axons. (4/26)

An interaction of growth cone axonin-1 with the floor-plate NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) was shown to play a crucial role in commissural axon guidance across the midline of the spinal cord. We now provide evidence that axonin-1 mediates a guidance signal without promoting axon elongation. In an in vitro assay, commissural axons grew preferentially on stripes coated with a mixture of NrCAM and NgCAM. This preference was abolished in the presence of anti-axonin-1 antibodies without a decrease in neurite length. Consistent with these findings, commissural axons in vivo only fail to extend along the longitudinal axis when both NrCAM and NgCAM interactions, but not when axonin-1 and NrCAM or axonin-1 and NgCAM interactions, are perturbed. Thus, we conclude that axonin-1 is involved in guidance of commissural axons without promoting their growth.  (+info)

The role of selective transport in neuronal protein sorting. (5/26)

To assess whether selective microtubule-based vesicle transport underlies the polarized distribution of neuronal proteins, we expressed green fluorescent protein- (GFP-) tagged chimeras of representative axonal and dendritic membrane proteins in cultured hippocampal neurons and visualized the transport of carrier vesicles containing these proteins in living cells. Vesicles containing a dendritic protein, transferrin receptor (TfR), were preferentially transported into dendrites and excluded from axons. In contrast, vesicles containing the axonal protein NgCAM (neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule) were transported into both dendrites and axons. These data demonstrate that neurons utilize two distinct mechanisms for the targeting of polarized membrane proteins, one (for dendritic proteins) based on selective transport, the other (for axonal proteins) based on a selectivity "filter" that occurs downstream of transport.  (+info)

Distinct subpopulations of sensory afferents require F11 or axonin-1 for growth to their target layers within the spinal cord of the chick. (6/26)

Dorsal root ganglion neurons project axons to specific target layers in the gray matter of the spinal cord, according to their sensory modality. Using an in vivo approach, we demonstrate an involvement of the two immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules axonin-1/TAG-1 and F11/F3/contactin in subpopulation-specific sensory axon guidance. Proprioceptive neurons, which establish connections with motoneurons in the ventral horn, depend on F11 interactions. Nociceptive fibers, which target to layers in the dorsal horn, require axonin-1 for pathfinding. In vitro NgCAM and NrCAM were shown to bind to both axonin-1 and F11. However, despite this fact and despite their ubiquitous expression in the spinal cord, NgCAM and NrCAM are selective binding partners for axonin-1 and F11 in sensory axon guidance. Whereas nociceptive pathfinding depends on NgCAM and axonin-1, proprioceptive fibers require NrCAM and F11.  (+info)

Two distinct mechanisms target membrane proteins to the axonal surface. (7/26)

We have investigated the trafficking of two endogenous axonal membrane proteins, VAMP2 and NgCAM, in order to elucidate the cellular events that underlie their polarization. We found that VAMP2 is delivered to the surface of both axons and dendrites, but preferentially endocytosed from the dendritic membrane. A mutation in the cytoplasmic domain of VAMP2 that inhibits endocytosis abolished its axonal polarization. In contrast, the targeting of NgCAM depends on sequences in its ectodomain, which mediate its sorting into carriers that preferentially deliver their cargo proteins to the axonal membrane. These observations show that neurons use two distinct mechanisms to polarize proteins to the axonal domain: selective retention in the case of VAMP2, selective delivery in the case of NgCAM.  (+info)

Influence of ACE (I/D) and G460W polymorphism of alpha-adducin in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. (8/26)

BACKGROUND: The deleterious effect of the DD genotype of ACE in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) remains controversial. Small sample size, population admixture and lack of consideration of parameters modulating the effects of ACE genotype, such as gender or alpha-adducin (ADD) genotype, might explain the discrepancy. METHODS: We investigated the effect of ACE (I/D) polymorphism on the age at end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in a homogeneous population of 191 ADPKD patients, according to gender and genotype for the G460W polymorphism of ADD. Cumulative renal survival was assessed in 276 patients from the same families. RESULTS: Though no effect was detected in the whole population, analysis of the male subset (n = 97) showed that patients harbouring the DD genotype of ACE had a 5-year lower mean age at ESRD than DI + II patients [47.8 +/- 1.8 (n = 31) vs 52.8 +/- 1.1 (n = 66), respectively] (P = 0.02). Furthermore, cumulative renal survival was lower in the corresponding pedigrees [47 +/- 1 years, 95% confidence interval (CI) 45-49, vs 51 +/- 1 years, 95% CI 48-54]. The G460W polymorphism of ADD had no effect on the age at ESRD and cumulative renal survival, either alone or in combination with the ACE (I/D) polymorphism. CONCLUSIONS: In this large series of ADPKD patients, we found no effect of the ACE (I/D) polymorphism on the age at ESRD, either alone or in combination with the G460W polymorphism of ADD. However, a deleterious effect of the DD genotype of ACE on renal disease progression was observed in ADPKD males.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.395)

... cell adhesion molecules, neuronal MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.150 -- cell adhesion molecules, neuron-glia MeSH D12.776.395.550 ... neural cell adhesion molecules MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.520.156 -- antigens, cd56 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.520.578 -- ... activated-leukocyte cell adhesion molecule MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.500 -- myelin p0 protein MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250. ... vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 MeSH D12.776.395.550.550.500 -- lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 MeSH D12.776.395.550. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... cell adhesion molecules, neuronal MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.150 -- cell adhesion molecules, neuron-glia MeSH D12.776.543.550 ... neural cell adhesion molecules MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.520.156 -- antigens, cd56 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.520.578 -- ... activated-leukocyte cell adhesion molecule MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.500 -- myelin p0 protein MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250. ... vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 MeSH D12.776.543.550.425.150 -- calcium channels MeSH D12.776.543.550.425.150.400 -- calcium ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... cell adhesion molecules, neuronal MeSH D23.050.301.350.250.150 --- cell adhesion molecules, neuron-glia MeSH D23.050.301.350. ... cell adhesion molecules MeSH D23.050.301.350.065 --- antigens, cd22 MeSH D23.050.301.350.098 --- antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050. ... neural cell adhesion molecules MeSH D23.050.301.350.250.520.156 --- antigens, cd56 MeSH D23.050.301.350.250.520.578 --- neural ... cell adhesion molecule l1 MeSH D23.050.301.350.275 --- integrin alphaxbeta2 MeSH D23.050.301.350.450 --- intercellular adhesion ...

*Satellite glial cell

"Distribution of the adhesion molecules N-CAM and L1 on peripheral neurons and glia in adult rats". J. Neurocytol. 15 (6): 799- ... Hanani M (February 2010). "Satellite glial cells: more than just 'rings around the neuron'". Neuron Glia Biol. 6 (1): 1-2. doi: ... Both satellite glial cells (SGCs) and Schwann cells (the cells that ensheathe some nerve fibers in the PNS) are derived from ... Satellite glial cells are glial cells that cover the surface of nerve cell bodies in sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic ...

*Synaptogenesis

... cell-adhesion molecules are also essential to synaptogenesis. Often the binding of pre-synaptic cell-adhesion molecules with ... Role for glia in synaptogenesis. Glia 47(3):209-16. Cao G, Ko CP (June 2007). "Schwann cell-derived factors modulate synaptic ... The synapse itself is composed of three cells: the motor neuron, the myofiber, and the Schwann cell. In a normally functioning ... This brain region contains three main neuronal cell types- Purkinje cells, granule cells and mossy fiber cells. Wnt-3 ...

*Follower neuron

Therefore, this class of molecules has both a cell-cell adhesion role and a cell-surface receptor role, in axon navigation. ... being regulated by longitudinal glia. This differential neuron dependence on glia provides the means for axon guidance through ... The cadherin superfamily constitutes one of the largest families of cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs). Cadherins mediate neuronal ... Cadherin domains take part in homophilic cell-cell adhesion. Classical cadherins are characterized by a conserved catenin- ...

*Retinal ganglion cell

Slit is also expressed in a similar pattern, secreted from the cells in the lens. Adhesion molecules, like N-CAM and L1, will ... A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the ... RGCs will grow along glial cell end feet in the optic nerve. These glia will secrete repulsive Semaphorin 5a and Slit in a ... Midget cell (Parvocellular, or P pathway; P cells) Parasol cell (Magnocellular, or M pathway; M cells) Bistratified cell ( ...

*Calpain

It may also damage ion channels, other enzymes, cell adhesion molecules, and cell surface receptors. This can lead to ... leading to an influx of sodium into the cell. This, in turn, leads to the neuron's depolarization and the influx of more Ca2+. ... m-calpain is found in glia and a small number in axons. Calpain is also involved in skeletal muscle protein breakdown due to ... they have been shown to be active participants in processes such as cell mobility and cell cycle progression, as well as cell- ...

*Neuregulin 1

Mutations in human L1 cell adhesion molecules are reported to cause a number of neuronal disorders. In addition, recent ... Glia. 56 (3): 284-93. doi:10.1002/glia.20612. PMID 18080294. Xu Z, Croslan DR, Harris AE, Ford GD, Ford BD (2006). "Extended ... These isoforms include heregulins (HRGs), glial growth factors (GGFs) and sensory and motor neuron-derived factor (SMDF). They ... Neuregulin 1 or NRG1 is a cell adhesion molecule that in humans is encoded by the NRG1 gene. NRG1 is one of four proteins in ...

*Axon guidance

Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs): Integral membrane proteins mediating adhesion between growing axons and eliciting intracellular ... For instance, in the fly visual system, axons of photoreceptors require glia to exit the eye stalk whereas glia cells rely on ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.12.008. PMC 3689199 . PMID 16423696. Brittis, Perry A.; Lu, Qiang; Flanagan, John G. (2002). "Axonal ... and cadherins or Ig-family cell-adhesion molecules, found on cell surfaces. Tropic cues, that can act as attractants or ...

*Pioneer axon

... as well as attract various adhesion molecules to impact their physical state. Some of the various chemotactic cues that have ... Guidepost cells are specialized early differentiating sensory cells. These cells are essential in providing navigational ... Ablation of the interface glia leads to a complete loss of longitudinal pioneer axon tracts. In addition, ablation of glia in ... Neuron, 14(4), 707-715. Patel, C. K., Rodriguez, L. C., & Kuwada, J. Y. (1994). Axonal outgrowth within the abnormal scaffold ...

*Pericyte

A lineage relationship to other cell types has been proposed, including smooth muscle cells, neural cells, NG2 glia, muscle ... In animal models with lower pericyte coverage, trafficking of molecules across endothelial cells occurs at a higher frequency, ... Neuron. 87 (1): 95-110. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2015.06.001. ISSN 1097-4199. PMC 4487786 . PMID 26119027. Attwell, David; Mishra, ... In some regions of the basement membrane, adhesion plaques composed of fibronectin can be found. These plaques facilitate the ...

*Reelin

It promotes the differentiation of progenitor cells into radial glia and affects the orientation of its fibers, which serve as ... D'Arcangelo G (Aug 2005). "Apoer2: a reelin receptor to remember". Neuron. 47 (4): 471-3. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.08.001. ... affecting the proportion of integrin receptors on the cell surface, which leads to the change in adhesion. Phosphorylation of ... Reelin molecules have been shown to form a large protein complex, a disulfide-linked homodimer. If the homodimer fails to form ...

*Schwann cell

"NDF is a neuron-glia signal and regulates survival, proliferation, and maturation of rat Schwann cell precursors". Neuron. 15: ... Myelin protein zero (P0) is a cell adhesion molecule belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily and is the major component of ... Abnormal Expression of Recognition Molecules, and Degeneration of Myelin and Axons". Cell. 71: 565-576. doi:10.1016/0092-8674( ... also include satellite cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, enteric glia and glia that reside at sensory nerve endings, such as ...

*Subcommissural organ

This glycoprotein shares molecular domains with axonal pathfinding molecules. The ependymal cells and the SCO-spondin secretion ... Herz J (March 2001). "The LDL receptor gene family: (un)expected signal transducers in the brain". Neuron. 29 (3): 571-81. doi: ... This spondin may recognize the classic protein on the uterine wall, facilitating the adhesion. Given that the subcommissural ... Glia. 32 (2): 177-91. doi:10.1002/1098-1136(200011)32:2. 3.0.CO;2-V. PMID 11008217. Vio K, Rodríguez S, Yulis CR, Oliver C, ...

*Blood-brain barrier

... "glia limitans") surround the endothelial cells of the BBB, providing biochemical support to those cells. The BBB is distinct ... Endothelial cells restrict the diffusion of microscopic objects (e.g., bacteria) and large or hydrophilic molecules into the ... These findings have led to the hypotheses that (1) breakdown of the blood-brain barrier allows access of neuron-binding ... junctional adhesion molecule (JAM), or ESAM, for example. Each of these transmembrane proteins is anchored into the endothelial ...

*Netrin

... contributes to tissue morphogenesis by controlling developing cell migration and cell adhesion in different organs. In ... and unc-40 genes guide circumferential migrations of pioneer axons and mesodermal cells on the epidermis in C. Elegans". Neuron ... Many studies have shown that netrin-1, UNC-40, UNC-6, and UNC-5 are involved in the migration of glia during embryogenesis. ... There are still many unanswered questions regarding the netrin family of molecules. It is still unsure what role vertebrate ...

*Biochemical cascade

Adhesion is an essential process to epithelial cells so that epithelium can be formed and cells can be in permanent contact ... Fields, RD; Burnstock, G (Jun 2006). "Purinergic signalling in neuron-glia interactions". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 7 (6): ... This response is quick, as it involves regulation of molecules that are already present in the cell. On the other hand, the ... As a result, either stem cells cannot enter the cell cycle, or cell division slows in many tissues. Extrinsic regulation is ...

*DSCAM

Cell aggregation assays show that cell adhesion molecules, such as DSCAM, belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily bind ... melanogaster allows every neuron in the fly to display a unique set of Dscam proteins on its cell surface. Dscam interaction ... "Interference with the development of early generated neocortex results in disruption of radial glia and abnormal formation of ... Diverse glycoproteins of cell surfaces and extracellular matrices, operationally termed as 'adhesion molecules' are important ...

*Sodium channel

Instead, they are homologous to neural cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and the large family of L1 CAMs. There are four distinct ... In excitable cells such as neurons, myocytes, and certain types of glia, sodium channels are responsible for the rising phase ... 2012) "From Neuron to Brain," 5th ed. pg. 86 Isom LL (2001). "Sodium channel beta subunits: anything but auxiliary". ... "Sodium channel beta subunits mediate homophilic cell adhesion and recruit ankyrin to points of cell-cell contact". J. Biol. ...

*Pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis

Apart from that, activated T-Cells can cross a healthy BBB when they express adhesion proteins. (Adhesion molecules could also ... 2016). "Nuclear Receptor NR1H3 in Familial Multiple Sclerosis". Neuron. 90 (5): 948-954. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2016.04.039. PMC ... doi:10.1002/glia.22357. Tejera-Alhambra, Marta; Casrouge, Armanda; De Andrés, Clara; Seyfferth, Ansgar; Ramos-Medina, Rocío; ... April 2000). "Adhesion molecules in multiple sclerosis: relation to subtypes of disease and methylprednisolone therapy". Arch. ...

*Rostral migratory stream

"Consequences of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Deficiency on Cell Migration in the Rostral Migratory Stream of the Mouse". The ... It is possible that lack of NCAM results in agitation of neuron-glia interactions, and modifications in these interactions ... Beating of the cilia of ependymal cells appears to set up concentration gradients of guidance molecules, such as cytokines TNF- ... In the RMS, vascular cells are arranged parallel to the route of the migrating cells and provide a scaffolding. Glial cells are ...

*Development of the nervous system

SynCAM is a cell adhesion molecule that is present in both pre- and post-synaptic membranes. The processes of neuronal ... Examples of neural inducers are the molecules noggin and chordin. When embryonic ectodermal cells are cultured at low density ... Neuron. 54: 105-120. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2007.03.007. PMID 17408581. Watt, A.J; Cuntz, H; Mori, M; Nusser, Z; Sjostrom, P.J; ... Tamamaki N, Nakamura K, Okamoto K, Kaneko T (September 2001). "Radial glia is a progenitor of neocortical neurons in the ...

*Development of the nervous system in humans

Campbell K, Götz M (May 2002). "Radial glia: multi-purpose cells for vertebrate brain development". Trends Neurosci. 25 (5): ... forces that interact with the extracellular environment through cell adhesion proteins to cause the movement of these cells. ... Neurotrophic factors are molecules which promote and regulate neuronal survival in the developing nervous system. They are ... the neuron pruning that occurs in adolescence, and finally the lifelong changes in synapses which are thought to underlie ...

*Notch signaling pathway

... and Notch1 promote the formation of Muller glia by postnatal retinal progenitor cells". Neuron. 26: 383-394. doi:10.1016/S0896- ... Siekmann AF, Lawson ND (2007). "Notch signalling and the regulation of angiogenesis". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 1 (2): 104-6. ... "Notch pathway molecules are essential for the maintenance, but not the generation, of mammalian neural stem cells". Genes & ... The receptor is normally triggered via direct cell-to-cell contact, in which the transmembrane proteins of the cells in direct ...

*Gap junction

There has been some observation of weak neuron to glial cell coupling in the locus coeruleus, and in the cerebellum between ... They directly connect the cytoplasm of two cells, which allows various molecules, ions and electrical impulses to directly pass ... "Developmental exposure to estrogens alters epithelial cell adhesion and gap junction proteins in the adult rat prostate". ... Glia. 24 (1): 141-54. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-1136(199809)24:1. 3.0.CO;2-R. PMID 9700496. Francis R, Xu X, Park H; Xu; Park; Wei ...
An interaction of growth cone axonin-1 with the floor-plate NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) was shown to play a crucial role in commissural axon guidance across the midline of the spinal cord. We now provide evidence that axonin-1 mediates a guidance signal without promoting axon elongation. In an in vitro assay, commissural axons grew preferentially on stripes coated with a mixture of NrCAM and NgCAM. This preference was abolished in the presence of anti-axonin-1 antibodies without a decrease in neurite length. Consistent with these findings, commissural axons in vivo only fail to extend along the longitudinal axis when both NrCAM and NgCAM interactions, but not when axonin-1 and NrCAM or axonin-1 and NgCAM interactions, are perturbed. Thus, we conclude that axonin-1 is involved in guidance of commissural axons without promoting their growth. ...
Techniques and devices for detecting and analyzing controlled substances and the like are discussed including highly reactive sensor molecules which are coated on a spectroscopic sample surface (4) and which may chemically react with a given analyte to form a covalently bonded adduct with spectral characteristics unique to the new adduct. The techniques provide the basis of a detection system with high sensitivity and high specificity in which the surface can even be washed to remove interfering or nonreactive compounds. The sensor molecules which comprise the coating (8) may have three major components: a central molecular scaffold (
Jorunn B. Jorgensen. 8.1 Introduction 85. 8.2 Innate Immunity: A Sensing and an Effector Arm 86. 8.3 Professional Phagocytes: The Macrophages and the Neutrophilic Granulocytes 86. 8.4 Natural Killer (NK)-Like Cells 88. 8.5 The Sensing Arm of Innate Immunity 88. 8.6 TLRs are the Best Studied PRRS in Fish 89. 8.7 NOD-Like and RIG-I Receptors are Found in Fish 90. 8.8 Lectins are Multifunctional Sensor Molecules for Carbohydrate Ligands 91. 8.9 PRRs and the Induction of Immunity 92. 8.10 Cytokines in Innate Immunity 92. 8.11 Interferons 94. 8.12 The Complement System 95. 8.13 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives 97. 9 The Adaptive Immune Response in Fish 104 ...
Epithelial cells and neurons polarize into distinct plasma membrane domains - apical and basolateral domains, and axonal and somatodendritic domains, respectively. Transmembrane proteins are known to be secreted in a polarized manner in such cells, but the molecular bases for this polarized membrane trafficking are unclear. This group previously showed that the cell-adhesion molecule NgCAM, which is largely delivered to axons in neurons and to the apical surface in epithelia, travels to axons through an indirect transcytotic pathway via somatodendritic endosomes. Here, Bettina Winckler and colleagues (p. 1514) identify and characterize the signals that are used by NgCAM as it travels through this pathway. The authors determine that a previously identified basolateral tyrosine-based signal of NgCAM is also a sufficient somatodendritic targeting signal. Moreover, they identify a second, novel, axonal targeting signal in the cytoplasmic tail of NgCAM that is cis-dominant and must be inactivated for ...
This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
This protocol presents a novel method for derivation of floor-plate progenitor cells for the later derivation of human dopaminergic neurons that can be efficiently engrafted in vivo. The progenitor cell name reflects the specific growth factor mixture used in the protocol.. ...
Pertubation of neurite fasciculation with species-specific anti-NgCAM antibodies. Cultured mouse DRG explants were infected with the adenoviral vector AdCMV
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuron-glia synapses in the brain. AU - Bergles, Dwight E. AU - Jabs, Ronald. AU - Steinhäuser, Christian. PY - 2010/5. Y1 - 2010/5. N2 - The ability to investigate the electrophysiological properties of individual cells in acute brain tissue led to the discovery that many glial cells have the capacity to respond rapidly to neuronal activity. In particular, a distinct class of neuroglial cells known as NG2 cells, which exhibit many of the properties that have been described for glial subtypes such as complex cells, polydendrocytes, synantocytes and GluR cells, express ionotropic receptors for glutamate and GABA. In both gray and white matter, NG2 cells form direct synaptic junctions with axons, which enable transient activation of these receptors. Electrophysiological analyses have shown that these neuron-glia synapses exhibit all the hallmarks of classical neuron-neuron synapses, including rapid activation, quantized responses, facilitation and depression, and presynaptic ...
کنترل زمان گل‌دهی یکی از مهم‌ترین اجزای اثر متقابل بین گیاهان و محیط رشد آن‌ها می‌باشد که نه تنها برای میزان محصول تولیدی بلکه برای کیفیت دانه برنج نیز عامل مهمی به‌-حساب می‌آید. در این تحقیق مطالعات فنوتیپی و مولکولی بر روی 45 رقم برنج محلی و اصلاح شده انجام شد. ابتدا چندشکلی ژن‌های Ehd1 و Ehd3 در بین ارقام و سپس ارتباط این دو ژن با زمان خوشه‌دهی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج مطالعات فنوتیپی حاکی از وجود تنوع بیشتر در ارقام محلی نسبت به ارقام اصلاح شده بود. ارقام محلی به‌طور متوسط 8 روز زودرس‌تر از ارقام اصلاح شده بودند و تفاوت زمان خوشه‌دهی آن‌ها معنی‌دار
The initial strategies for generation of DA neurons from hESCs were based on previous experience with mouse ESCs, which commonly used the developmental cues known at the time (Kawasaki et al., 2000; Kim et al., 2002). Several of these early differentiation protocols did indeed produce a relatively high number of cells expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis and most commonly used marker for DA neurons), yet the midbrain properties of these neurons were not clear and their in vivo performance after grafting in standard animal models of PD was modest. A breakthrough in optimization of the differentiation protocols came when our understanding of how midbrain DA neurons are formed during normal development radically changed. In 2007 and 2008, two ground-breaking studies were published, both reporting that midbrain DA neurons were not derived from neuroepithelial cells (like all other neurons) but were in fact derived from floor-plate cells expressing ...
Accumulation of glia, gliosis, in various neurological disorders is not a static scar, but actively involved in pathogenesis of various neurological and psychiatric disorders, where glial cells produce both inflammatory and neurotrophic factors. These factors may play a role in neuronal damage, but.... Full description. ...
The arrest of body axis elongation seems intimately associated with the differentiation process, as both involve the downregulation of FGFs and Wnts. A key signalling pathway that regulates both processes is that mediated by RA. During somitogenesis stages, cells are exposed to endogenous RA as they leave the CLE and the NSB or later tail bud. This is provided by the activity of the RA synthesising enzyme Raldh2, which is expressed in the newly segmenting mesoderm. RA signalling drives the expression of neural and mesodermal differentiation genes in axial tissues (Diez del Corral et al., 2003; Molotkova et al., 2005; Moreno and Kintner, 2004; Ribes et al., 2008). This includes neuronal differentiation genes, which promote neuron production, the floor-plate expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh), the key orchestrator of ventral patterning and hence of neuronal cell-type specification (Diez del Corral et al., 2003), and mesodermal differentiation genes such as Mesp2, a key segmentation gene that helps ...
Not all proteins that accumulate in a specific subcellular compartment undergo processes of selective sorting and transport. Some proteins seem to be localized by a mechanism known as selective retention, which describes that cargoes are transported nonselectively to both axons and dendrites, but are eliminated at one side by selective endocytosis and retained at the other, where endocytosis is prevented. Prominent examples for this process are the proteins VAMP2 and NgCAM. NgCAM is sorted into carriers that preferentially deliver their cargo proteins to the axonal membrane. In contrast, VAMP2 is delivered to the surface of both axons and dendrites; however it is preferentially endocytosed from the dendritic membrane, a process, which also results in an axonal enrichment31. Indeed, VAMP2 harbors an endocytosis signal in its cytoplasmic domain, and mutation of this sequence consistently results in an evenly distribution of VAMP2 to cell body, dendrites, and axon. Although such process initially ...
I have about 3 twitches a day in my tongue. I asked a neurologist if this could be the start of als, or if its too infrequent. He just said als fasciculations could start more infrequent and slowly becomming more frequent. Does anyone know anything about this ...
If youre feeling and seeing the twitches, its no surprise at all that an EMG would actually record those twitches. Thats why were all here on this board!! The only reason Im guessing that some others have EMGs without fasciculations is that they happened to not fasciculate while the EMG was being performed. I had lots and lots of them (on my legs). When I asked the doctor if he saw fasciculations, he looked at me like I was crazy. With a look that basically said um, isnt that why youre here ...
Rapid signaling between vertebrate neurons occurs primarily at synapses, intercellular junctions where quantal release of neurotransmitter triggers rapid changes in membrane conductance through activation of ionotropic receptors. Glial cells express many of these same ionotropic receptors, yet little is known about how receptors in glial cells become activated in situ. Because synapses were thought to be the sole provenance of neurons, it has been assumed that these receptors must be activated following diffusion of transmitter out of the synaptic cleft, or through nonsynaptic mechanisms such as transporter reversal. Two recent reports show that a ubiquitous class of progenitors that express the proteoglycan NG2 (NG2 cells) engage in rapid signaling with glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons through direct neuron-glia synapses. Quantal release of transmitter from neurons at these sites triggers rapid activation of aminomethylisoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) or GABA(A) ...
I have heard it said that fasciculations appear in ALS some time after the muscle has been damaged due to denervation. As a result, I have been told that an ALS sufferer would experience profound weakn...
Complete information for BARX1 gene (Protein Coding), BARX Homeobox 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium

Vigabatrin-Induced Retinal Functional Alterations and Second-Order Neuron Plasticity in C57BL/6J Mice.Vigabatrin-Induced Retinal Functional Alterations and Second-Order Neuron Plasticity in C57BL/6J Mice.

Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-glia. Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion ... The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS. ... They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. ... How can we relate processing in the retina to an animals behavior? In this issue of Neuron, Smeds et al. (2019) report that ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2616866/Vigabatrin-Induced-Retinal-Functional-Alterations-and-Second-Order-Neuron-Plasticity-in-C57BL.html

DeCS Ingl s+escopoDeCS Ingl s+escopo

D23.050.301.350.250 Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal .. D23.050.301.350.250.150 Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia .. ... D12.776.395.550.200.250 Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal .. D12.776.395.550.200.250.150 Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia . ... D12.776.543.550.200.250 Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal .. D12.776.543.550.200.250.150 Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia . ... Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule .. Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule .. Alcam protein, Zebrafish .. ...
more infohttp://trigramas.bireme.br/cgi-bin/mx/[email protected]?collection=DeCSxi&lang=i&minsim=0.30&maxrel=10&text=Kindling%20

DeCS Ingl s+escopoDeCS Ingl s+escopo

D23.050.301.350.250 Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal .. D23.050.301.350.250.150 Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia .. ... D12.776.395.550.200.250 Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal .. D12.776.395.550.200.250.150 Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia . ... D12.776.543.550.200.250 Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal .. D12.776.543.550.200.250.150 Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia . ... Cell, Nerve .. Cells, Nerve .. Nerve Cell .. Neuron .. Nerve Cells .. The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron ...
more infohttp://trigramas.bireme.br/cgi-bin/mx/[email protected]?collection=DeCSxi&lang=i&minsim=0.30&maxrel=10&text=Neurologist

The cell adhesion molecule Tag1, transmembrane protein Stbm/Vangl2, and Lamininalpha1 exhibit genetic interactions during...The cell adhesion molecule Tag1, transmembrane protein Stbm/Vangl2, and Lamininalpha1 exhibit genetic interactions during...

We show here that the cell adhesion molecule Transient Axonal Glycoprotein (Tag1) is necessary for the migration of the facial ... Interactions between a neuron and its environment play a major role in neuronal migration. ... Binding between the neural cell adhesion molecules axonin-1 and Nr- CAM/Bravo is involved in neuron-glia interaction. *Daniel M ... Interactions between a neuron and its environment play a major role in neuronal migration. We show here that the cell adhesion ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-cell-adhesion-molecule-Tag1%2C-transmembrane-and-Sittaramane-Sawant/ea91e4bd771fd5ac75817134742ec8833ed7ec25

Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule | Profiles RNSActivated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule | Profiles RNS

Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal [D12.776.395.550.200.250]. *Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia [D12.776.395.550.200.250.150 ... Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal [D12.776.543.550.200.250]. *Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia [D12.776.543.550.200.250.150 ... Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia [D23.050.301.350.250.150]. *Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule [D23.050.301.350. ... Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule*Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule. *Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/117417

Frontiers | Mechanical and Biological Interactions of Implants with the Brain and Their Impact on Implant Design | NeuroscienceFrontiers | Mechanical and Biological Interactions of Implants with the Brain and Their Impact on Implant Design | Neuroscience

Aspects of the chronic cell-implant interaction will be discussed in view of the chronic local inflammation and the ways of ... Aspects of the chronic cell-implant interaction will be discussed in view of the chronic local inflammation and the ways of ... While the fields understanding of the cell biology of interactions at the biotic-abiotic interface has improved, relatively ... While the fields understanding of the cell biology of interactions at the biotic-abiotic interface has improved, relatively ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2016.00011/full

CiNii Articles - 
 		
			Chemorepulsion and cell adhesion molecules in patterning initial trajectories of sensory axonsCiNii Articles - Chemorepulsion and cell adhesion molecules in patterning initial trajectories of sensory axons

Binding between the neural cell adhesion molecules axonin-1 and Nr-CAM/Bravo is involved in neuron-glia interaction SUTER DM ... Chemorepulsion and cell adhesion molecules in patterning initial trajectories of sensory axons * * MASUDA Tomoyuki ... Cell adhesion molecules regulate guidance of dorsal root ganglion axons in the marginal zone and their invasion into the mantle ... Neural crest cell-cell adhesion controlled by sequential and subpopulation-specific expression of novel cadherins NAKAGAWA S. ...
more infohttps://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10015451571

Alterations in neural cell adhesion molecules during development of different regions of the nervous system | Journal of...Alterations in neural cell adhesion molecules during development of different regions of the nervous system | Journal of...

Several cell adhesion molecules involved in neuron-neuron and neuron- glia interactions have been identified in our laboratory ... Alterations in neural cell adhesion molecules during development of different regions of the nervous system. CM Chuong and GM ... Alterations in neural cell adhesion molecules during development of different regions of the nervous system ... Alterations in neural cell adhesion molecules during development of different regions of the nervous system ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/4/9/2354

Pertubation of neurite  fasciculation with species-spec | Open-iPertubation of neurite fasciculation with species-spec | Open-i

Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia/chemistry*/genetics/physiology*. *Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal/chemistry*/genetics/ ... Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia/chemistry*/genetics/physiology*. *Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal/chemistry*/genetics/ ... Neural cell adhesion molecules composed of immunoglobulin and fibronectin type III-like domains have been implicated in cell ... Neural cell adhesion molecules composed of immunoglobulin and fibronectin type III-like domains have been implicated in cell ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2132982_JCB9807058.f12&req=4

List of MeSH codes (D12.776.395) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D12.776.395) - Wikipedia

... cell adhesion molecules, neuronal MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.150 -- cell adhesion molecules, neuron-glia MeSH D12.776.395.550 ... neural cell adhesion molecules MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.520.156 -- antigens, cd56 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.520.578 -- ... activated-leukocyte cell adhesion molecule MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.500 -- myelin p0 protein MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250. ... vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 MeSH D12.776.395.550.550.500 -- lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 MeSH D12.776.395.550. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D12.776.395)

List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D12.776.543) - Wikipedia

... cell adhesion molecules, neuronal MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.150 -- cell adhesion molecules, neuron-glia MeSH D12.776.543.550 ... neural cell adhesion molecules MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.520.156 -- antigens, cd56 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.520.578 -- ... activated-leukocyte cell adhesion molecule MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.500 -- myelin p0 protein MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250. ... vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 MeSH D12.776.543.550.425.150 -- calcium channels MeSH D12.776.543.550.425.150.400 -- calcium ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D12.776.543)

Expression of the axonal cell adhesion molecules axonin-1 and Ng-CAM during the development of the chick retinotectal system.  ...Expression of the axonal cell adhesion molecules axonin-1 and Ng-CAM during the development of the chick retinotectal system. ...

We have analyzed axonin-1 and the neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (Ng-CAM), two axonal surface molecules that promote ... We have analyzed axonin-1 and the neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (Ng-CAM), two axonal surface molecules that promote ... Rager, G; Morino, P; Schnitzer, J; Sonderegger, P (1996). Expression of the axonal cell adhesion molecules axonin-1 and Ng-CAM ... Expression of the axonal cell adhesion molecules axonin-1 and Ng-CAM during the development of the chick retinotectal system. ...
more infohttps://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/1056/

Neurofascin assembles a specialized extracellular matrix at the axon initial segment | JCBNeurofascin assembles a specialized extracellular matrix at the axon initial segment | JCB

... these domains are characterized by cell adhesion molecules (CAMs; neurofascin-186 [NF-186] and neuron glia-related CAM [NrCAM ... Tyrosine phosphorylation at a site highly conserved in the L1 family of cell adhesion molecules abolishes ankyrin binding and ... mechanisms orchestrate axonal compartmentalization of L1 family members neurofascin and L1/neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule. ... Ankyrin-binding proteins related to nervous system cell adhesion molecules: candidates to provide transmembrane and ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/178/5/875

Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Caren NordenProtocols and Video Articles Authored by Caren Norden

... we focused on two L1 family of cell adhesion molecules (L1-CAMs) [L1/neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (L1/NgCAM) and ... Mechanisms Orchestrate Axonal Compartmentalization of L1 Family Members Neurofascin and L1/neuron-glia Cell Adhesion Molecule ... horizontal cells (HCs), inner nuclear layer amacrine cells (iACs) and displaced amacrine cells (dACs)--reach their specific ... Since the axonal cell adhesion molecule L1/NgCAM can partition into membrane rafts biochemically, we asked whether correct ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/author/Caren_Norden

Eshed Y[au] - PubMed - NCBIEshed Y[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Identification of novel cell-adhesion molecules in peripheral nerves using a signal-sequence trap. ... Neuron Glia Biol. 2006 Feb;2(1):27-38.. PMID:. 16721426. Free PMC Article ... Cell. 2017 Jun 1;169(6):1142-1155.e12. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.04.032. Epub 2017 May 18. ... Gliomedin mediates Schwann cell-axon interaction and the molecular assembly of the nodes of Ranvier. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?access_num=Eshed+Y&link_type=AUTHORSEARCH&cmd=search&term=Eshed+Y%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Deposition of the NG2 Proteoglycan at Nodes of Ranvier in the Peripheral Nervous System | Journal of NeuroscienceDeposition of the NG2 Proteoglycan at Nodes of Ranvier in the Peripheral Nervous System | Journal of Neuroscience

Cell adhesion molecules such as neural cell adhesion molecule, neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule, and NrCam, which are ... Louis, MO); neuron-glia related cell adhesion molecule (NrCaM), rabbit antisera 837 (M. Grumet, Rutgers State University of New ... 1986) Neuronal cell adhesion molecules and cytotactin are colocalized at nodes of Ranvier. J Cell Biol 103:379-391. ... 2000) Sodium channel β subunits mediate homophilic cell adhesion and recruit ankyrin to points of cell-cell contact. J Biol ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/21/20/8119?ijkey=d2e24694750f5f9b75212b8b8f76765fe56ee4c1&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

News & Headlines | Research in Neuroscience - McGill UniversityNews & Headlines | Research in Neuroscience - McGill University

Peng H, Carbonetto S. Astrocyte polarization and wound healing in culture: studying cell adhesion molecules. Methods Mol Biol. ... Longitudinal glia in the fly CNS: pushing the envelope on glial diversity and neuron-glial interactions Neuron-Glia Biology ... BRaIN Seminar: Celullar and molecular mechanisms of neuron-glia interactions at neuronal cell bodies. ... Reshaping neuron-glial communication at hippocampal synapses. Neuron Glia Biology 2006 Jan;2:59-66. ...
more infohttps://www.mcgill.ca/crn/news

Contactin-2, a synaptic and axonal protein, is reduced in cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue in Alzheimers disease |...Contactin-2, a synaptic and axonal protein, is reduced in cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue in Alzheimer's disease |...

Binding between the neural cell adhesion molecules axonin-1 and Nr-CAM/Bravo is involved in neuron-glia interaction. J Cell ... Neural circuit formation in the cerebellum is controlled by cell adhesion molecules of the contactin family. Cell Adhes Migr. ... Contactin-2 is a soluble cell-adhesion protein primarily expressed on the axonal and synaptic membranes [23-29]. It belongs to ... Traka M, Dupree JL, Popko B, Karagogeos D. The neuronal adhesion protein TAG-1 is expressed by Schwann cells and ...
more infohttps://alzres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13195-018-0383-x

Amitriptyline Suppresses Neuroinflammation-dependent Interleukin-10-p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-Heme Oxygenase-1...Amitriptyline Suppresses Neuroinflammation-dependent Interleukin-10-p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-Heme Oxygenase-1...

Communication between neurons and glia involves ion flux, neurotransmitters, cell adhesion molecules, and specialized signaling ... 52 Theses results suggest that morphine indirectly affects glia via chemokines conducting neuron-glia communication. Activated ... Fields RD, Stevens-Graham B: New insights into neuron-glia communication. Science 2002; 298:556-62Fields, RD Stevens-Graham, B ... and this neuron-glia communication may be responsible for the development of morphine tolerance.53 In the current study, we ...
more infohttp://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1940915

Talk:3187043 - CellBiologyTalk:3187043 - CellBiology

Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) family: N-CAM = Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Ng-CAM = Neuron-glia Cell Adhesion Molecule ... In the control B35 cells, the majority of cells were of stumped or prolonged phenotypes, with all other phenotypes,(besides fan ... However, changes were seen when observing the phenotypes of the Tm4 over-expressing B35 cells, with the majority of cells ... "If youve seen differences in the distribution of phenotypes in Tm4 over-expressing B35 cells versus control B35 cells, ...
more infohttps://cellbiology.med.unsw.edu.au/cellbiology/index.php?title=Talk:3187043&oldid=6836

Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal | Profiles RNSCell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal | Profiles RNS

"Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal".. *Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal. *Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia ... "Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal" was a ... These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION ... "Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ...
more infohttps://profiles.rush.edu/display/17425

Foundations of Neural Development - Hardcover - S. Marc Breedlove - Oxford University PressFoundations of Neural Development - Hardcover - S. Marc Breedlove - Oxford University Press

Neural Crest Cells migrate to Positions throughout the Body. 3.9. Cell Adhesion Molecules Attract and Repel Migrating Cells. ... Several Factors Influence Whether a Cell Will Become a Neuron or a Glia. 4.3. The Molecular Differentiation of Motor Neurons Is ... Shortly after Division, Neural Cells Diverge to Become Neurons or Glia. Researchers at Work: Labeling of Dividing Cells ... Cerebellar Granule Cells Parachute Down from Above. Researchers at Work: Weaver Neurons Fail to Grasp Glial Fibers. 3.11. Cells ...
more infohttps://global.oup.com/ushe/product/foundations-of-neural-development-9781605355795?cc=us&lang=en

Interaction of amyloid precursor protein with contactins and NgCAM in the retinotectal system | DevelopmentInteraction of amyloid precursor protein with contactins and NgCAM in the retinotectal system | Development

Hortsch, M. (1996). The L1 family of neural cell adhesion molecules: old proteins performing new tricks. Neuron 17,587 -593. ... Structure of the chicken neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule, Ng-CAM: origin of the polypeptides and relation to the Ig ... Vaughn, D. E. and Bjorkman, P. J. (1996). The (Greek) key to structures of neural adhesion molecules. Neuron 16,261 -273. ... Hoffman, K. B. (1998). The relationship between adhesion molecules and neuronal plasticity. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 18,461 -475. ...
more infohttps://dev.biologists.org/content/135/6/1189

Brain Basics: The Life and Death of a Neuron | National Institute of Neurological Disorders and StrokeBrain Basics: The Life and Death of a Neuron | National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Request free mailed brochure Introduction The Architecture of the Neuron Birth Migration Differentiation Death Hope Through ... adhesion molecules -- that bind with similar molecules on nearby glial cells or nerve axons. These chemical signals guide the ... Some neurons migrate by following the long fibers of cells called radial glia. These fibers extend from the inner layers to the ... This new cell has the potential to make more stem cells.. When a stem cell divides to produce an early progenitor cell, it is ...
more infohttps://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/patient-caregiver-education/life-and-death-neuron

Molecular dissection of the myelin-associated glycoprotein receptor complex reveals cell type-specific mechanisms for neurite...Molecular dissection of the myelin-associated glycoprotein receptor complex reveals cell type-specific mechanisms for neurite...

Sialoadhesin, myelin-associated glycoprotein and CD22 define a new family of sialic acid-dependent adhesion molecules of the ... Immunological, morphological, and electrophysiological variation among retinal ganglion cells purified by panning. Neuron. 1: ... an Ig superfamily member expressed by myelinating glia (Filbin, 2003). In the central nervous system (CNS), MAG is localized to ... Bound cells were lifted using 0.125% trypsin/EDTA and were washed three times in DME/10% FBS. Cells were resuspended in SATO+ ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/177/3/393
  • Vigabatrin-Induced Retinal Functional Alterations and Second-Order Neuron Plasticity in C57BL/6J Mice. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Congratulations to Dr. Keith Murai and Dr. Jesper Sjöström for being awarded CIHR Project Grants, titled Harnessing Neuron-Astrocyte Communication for Promoting Brain Health and Unconventional NMDA Receptor Signalling in Neocortical Plasticity , respectively. (mcgill.ca)
  • For glial cells to take an active part in plastic alterations under physiological conditions and pathological disturbances, extensive specific signaling, both within single cells and between cells, is required. (microglia.net)
  • Pubmed ID: 12663481 During vascular remodeling in adult organisms, new capillary growth is often coupled with the adaptation of arterioles and venules, a process that requires the recruitment and differentiation of precursor cells into smooth muscle. (jove.com)
  • The septate junctions between myelinating glial cells and the axolemma may function to restrict the distribution of channels ( Rosenbluth, 1976 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Everything we think and feel and do would be impossible without the work of neurons and their support cells, the glial cells called astrocytes (4) and oligodendrocytes (6). (nih.gov)
  • Glial cells participate in formation and rebuilding of synaps es and play a prominent role in protection and repair of nervous tissue after damage. (microglia.net)
  • In adult sciatic nerve, NG2 is (1) associated with thin, elongated fibroblast-like cells, (2) on some but not all basal laminae, and (3) at nodes of Ranvier. (jneurosci.org)
  • Because tissues such as sciatic nerve possess both conducive substrates and trophic molecules, it is difficult to access the minimum requirement for the regeneration of adult CNS axons. (springer.com)
  • Regulation of synaptic adhesion complexes by alternative splicing Peter Scheiffele, Columbia University, NY. (slideserve.com)
  • In this study, we use Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCN) and mouse genetics to probe the molecular composition of the MAG receptor complex in postnatal retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). (rupress.org)
  • When cells are placed in culture, however, changes in cell structure, receptor populations, and gene expression occur that alter cellular responses from their normal in vivo state. (ajnr.org)
  • One well-characterized inhibitor of axonal growth is myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), an Ig superfamily member expressed by myelinating glia ( Filbin, 2003 ). (rupress.org)
  • Adaptation of retinal ganglion cell function during flickering light in the mouse. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Cunningham, L.A., Hansen, J.T., Short, M.P., and Bohn, M.C., 1991a, Rat astrocytes containing a mouse NGF transgene enhance the survival of both young postnatal and adult adrenal chromaffin cells grafted into the adult rat striatum. (springer.com)
  • we also know there is intense signaling between astrocytes, Microglia , oligodendrocytes, and neurons, with an array of molecules acting as signaling substances. (microglia.net)
  • To directly evaluate the role of PDZ domain proteins in the function of Caspr2, we examined the ability of transgenic Caspr2 molecules lacking either their cytoplasmic domain (Caspr2dCT), or their PDZ-binding sequence (Caspr2dPDZ), to restore Kv1 channel clustering in Caspr2 null mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Collectively, our experiments reveal distinct and cell type-specific mechanisms for MAG-elicited growth inhibition. (rupress.org)
  • At stage 18, both axonin-like (A-LI) and Ng-CAM-like immunoreactivity (Ng-CAM-LI) are clearly present in the area where first retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are generated. (uzh.ch)