Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. Ng-CAM is immunologically and structurally distinct from NCAM.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
A family of immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecules that are involved in NERVOUS SYSTEM patterning.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A factor identified in the brain that influences the growth and differentiation of NEURONS and NEUROGLIA. Glia maturation factor beta is the 17-kDa polypeptide product of the GMFB gene and is the principal component of GLIA MATURATION FACTOR.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A complex blood group system having pairs of alternate antigens and amorphic genes, but also subject to a dominant independently segregating repressor.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.

Local presentation of substrate molecules directs axon specification by cultured hippocampal neurons. (1/26)

Axon specification is a crucial, early step in neuronal development, but little is known about how this event is controlled in vivo. To test the hypothesis that local presentation of growth-promoting molecules can direct axon specification, we cultured hippocampal neurons on substrates patterned with stripes of poly-L-lysine and either laminin (LN) or the neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (NgCAM). Although undifferentiated neurites contacted both substrates equally, axons formed preferentially on LN or NgCAM. Time-lapse studies revealed that changes in the growth pattern of a cell indicative of axon specification began almost immediately after the growth cone of one of the neurites of the cell contacted LN or NgCAM. When cells were plated on alternating stripes of LN and NgCAM, cells with their somata on LN usually formed axons on NgCAM, whereas those with somata on NgCAM preferentially formed axons on LN. This suggests that the change from one axon-promoting substrate to another also provides a signal sufficient to specify the axon. These results demonstrate that contact with preferred substrate molecules can govern which neurite becomes the axon and thus direct the development of neuronal polarity.  (+info)

Functional interactions of the immunoglobulin superfamily member F11 are differentially regulated by the extracellular matrix proteins tenascin-R and tenascin-C. (2/26)

The axon-associated protein F11 is a GPI-anchored member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that promotes axon outgrowth and that shows a complex binding pattern toward multiple cell surface and extracellular matrix proteins including tenascin-R and tenascin-C. In this study, we demonstrate that tenascin-R and tenascin-C differentially modulate cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth of tectal cells on F11. While soluble tenascin-R increases the number of attached cells and the percentage of cells with neurites on immobilized F11, tenascin-C stimulates cell attachment to a similar extent but decreases neurite outgrowth. The cellular receptor interacting with F11 has been previously identified as NrCAM; however, in the presence of tenascin-R or tenascin-C cell attachment and neurite extension are independent of NrCAM. Antibody perturbation experiments indicate that beta(1) integrins instead of NrCAM function as receptor for neurite outgrowth of tectal cells on an F11.TN-R complex. Cellular binding assays support the possibility that the interaction of F11 to NrCAM is blocked in the presence of tenascin-R and tenascin-C. Furthermore, a sandwich binding assay demonstrates that tenascin-R and tenascin-C are able to form larger molecular complexes and to link F11 polypeptides by forming a molecular bridge. These results suggest that the molecular interactions of F11 might be regulated by the presence of tenascin-R and tenascin-C.  (+info)

The homeodomain protein Barx2 contains activator and repressor domains and interacts with members of the CREB family. (3/26)

Barx1 and Barx2 are homeodomain proteins originally identified using regulatory elements of genes encoding certain cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). In the present study, we characterize regions of Barx2 that bind to regulatory elements of genes encoding three CAMs, L1, neuron-glia CAM (Ng-CAM), and neural CAM (N-CAM), and identify domains of Barx2 that regulate N-CAM transcription. The homeodomain of Barx2 was sufficient for binding to homeodomain binding sites (HBS) from all three CAM genes. The presence of a 17-amino acid Barx basic region resulted in a 2-fold decrease in binding to HBS sequences from the Ng-CAM and L1 genes, whereas it led to a 6.5-fold increase in binding to the HBS from the N-CAM promoter. Thus, the Barx basic region influences the strength and specificity of Barx2 binding to DNA. In co-transfection experiments, Barx2 repressed N-CAM promoter activity. A 24-residue N-terminal region of Barx2 was essential for repression. When this region was absent, Barx2 activated the N-CAM promoter. A 63-residue C-terminal domain was required for this activation. In GST pull-down experiments, Barx2 bound to proteins of the CREB family, CREB1 and ATF2. Overall, these findings provide a framework for understanding developmental and physiological contexts that influence repressor or activator functions of Barx2.  (+info)

A direct interaction of axonin-1 with NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) results in guidance, but not growth of commissural axons. (4/26)

An interaction of growth cone axonin-1 with the floor-plate NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) was shown to play a crucial role in commissural axon guidance across the midline of the spinal cord. We now provide evidence that axonin-1 mediates a guidance signal without promoting axon elongation. In an in vitro assay, commissural axons grew preferentially on stripes coated with a mixture of NrCAM and NgCAM. This preference was abolished in the presence of anti-axonin-1 antibodies without a decrease in neurite length. Consistent with these findings, commissural axons in vivo only fail to extend along the longitudinal axis when both NrCAM and NgCAM interactions, but not when axonin-1 and NrCAM or axonin-1 and NgCAM interactions, are perturbed. Thus, we conclude that axonin-1 is involved in guidance of commissural axons without promoting their growth.  (+info)

The role of selective transport in neuronal protein sorting. (5/26)

To assess whether selective microtubule-based vesicle transport underlies the polarized distribution of neuronal proteins, we expressed green fluorescent protein- (GFP-) tagged chimeras of representative axonal and dendritic membrane proteins in cultured hippocampal neurons and visualized the transport of carrier vesicles containing these proteins in living cells. Vesicles containing a dendritic protein, transferrin receptor (TfR), were preferentially transported into dendrites and excluded from axons. In contrast, vesicles containing the axonal protein NgCAM (neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule) were transported into both dendrites and axons. These data demonstrate that neurons utilize two distinct mechanisms for the targeting of polarized membrane proteins, one (for dendritic proteins) based on selective transport, the other (for axonal proteins) based on a selectivity "filter" that occurs downstream of transport.  (+info)

Distinct subpopulations of sensory afferents require F11 or axonin-1 for growth to their target layers within the spinal cord of the chick. (6/26)

Dorsal root ganglion neurons project axons to specific target layers in the gray matter of the spinal cord, according to their sensory modality. Using an in vivo approach, we demonstrate an involvement of the two immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules axonin-1/TAG-1 and F11/F3/contactin in subpopulation-specific sensory axon guidance. Proprioceptive neurons, which establish connections with motoneurons in the ventral horn, depend on F11 interactions. Nociceptive fibers, which target to layers in the dorsal horn, require axonin-1 for pathfinding. In vitro NgCAM and NrCAM were shown to bind to both axonin-1 and F11. However, despite this fact and despite their ubiquitous expression in the spinal cord, NgCAM and NrCAM are selective binding partners for axonin-1 and F11 in sensory axon guidance. Whereas nociceptive pathfinding depends on NgCAM and axonin-1, proprioceptive fibers require NrCAM and F11.  (+info)

Two distinct mechanisms target membrane proteins to the axonal surface. (7/26)

We have investigated the trafficking of two endogenous axonal membrane proteins, VAMP2 and NgCAM, in order to elucidate the cellular events that underlie their polarization. We found that VAMP2 is delivered to the surface of both axons and dendrites, but preferentially endocytosed from the dendritic membrane. A mutation in the cytoplasmic domain of VAMP2 that inhibits endocytosis abolished its axonal polarization. In contrast, the targeting of NgCAM depends on sequences in its ectodomain, which mediate its sorting into carriers that preferentially deliver their cargo proteins to the axonal membrane. These observations show that neurons use two distinct mechanisms to polarize proteins to the axonal domain: selective retention in the case of VAMP2, selective delivery in the case of NgCAM.  (+info)

Influence of ACE (I/D) and G460W polymorphism of alpha-adducin in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. (8/26)

BACKGROUND: The deleterious effect of the DD genotype of ACE in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) remains controversial. Small sample size, population admixture and lack of consideration of parameters modulating the effects of ACE genotype, such as gender or alpha-adducin (ADD) genotype, might explain the discrepancy. METHODS: We investigated the effect of ACE (I/D) polymorphism on the age at end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in a homogeneous population of 191 ADPKD patients, according to gender and genotype for the G460W polymorphism of ADD. Cumulative renal survival was assessed in 276 patients from the same families. RESULTS: Though no effect was detected in the whole population, analysis of the male subset (n = 97) showed that patients harbouring the DD genotype of ACE had a 5-year lower mean age at ESRD than DI + II patients [47.8 +/- 1.8 (n = 31) vs 52.8 +/- 1.1 (n = 66), respectively] (P = 0.02). Furthermore, cumulative renal survival was lower in the corresponding pedigrees [47 +/- 1 years, 95% confidence interval (CI) 45-49, vs 51 +/- 1 years, 95% CI 48-54]. The G460W polymorphism of ADD had no effect on the age at ESRD and cumulative renal survival, either alone or in combination with the ACE (I/D) polymorphism. CONCLUSIONS: In this large series of ADPKD patients, we found no effect of the ACE (I/D) polymorphism on the age at ESRD, either alone or in combination with the G460W polymorphism of ADD. However, a deleterious effect of the DD genotype of ACE on renal disease progression was observed in ADPKD males.  (+info)

Neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (Ng-CAM) mediates cell adhesion between neurons homophilically and between neurons and glia heterophilically; it also promotes neurite outgrowth. In the chick brain, Ng-CAM is detected as glycoproteins of 190 and 210 kD (Ng-CAM200) with posttranslational cleavage products of 135 kD (F135, which contains most of the extracellular region) and 80 kD (F80, which includes the transmembrane and the cytoplasmic domains). To examine the functions of each of these components, we have expressed Ng-CAM200, F135, and F80 in murine L cells, and F135 and F80 as GST fusion proteins in the pGEX vector in bacteria. Appropriately transfected L cells expressed each of these proteins on their surfaces; F135 was also found in the media of cells transfected with Ng-CAM200 and F135. In addition to binding homophilically, cells transfected with Ng-CAM200 and F135 bound heterophilically to untransfected L cells, suggesting that there is a ligand for Ng-CAM on fibroblasts that may be ...
An interaction of growth cone axonin-1 with the floor-plate NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) was shown to play a crucial role in commissural axon guidance across the midline of the spinal cord. We now provide evidence that axonin-1 mediates a guidance signal without promoting axon elongation. In an in vitro assay, commissural axons grew preferentially on stripes coated with a mixture of NrCAM and NgCAM. This preference was abolished in the presence of anti-axonin-1 antibodies without a decrease in neurite length. Consistent with these findings, commissural axons in vivo only fail to extend along the longitudinal axis when both NrCAM and NgCAM interactions, but not when axonin-1 and NrCAM or axonin-1 and NgCAM interactions, are perturbed. Thus, we conclude that axonin-1 is involved in guidance of commissural axons without promoting their growth. ...
Techniques and devices for detecting and analyzing controlled substances and the like are discussed including highly reactive sensor molecules which are coated on a spectroscopic sample surface (4) and which may chemically react with a given analyte to form a covalently bonded adduct with spectral characteristics unique to the new adduct. The techniques provide the basis of a detection system with high sensitivity and high specificity in which the surface can even be washed to remove interfering or nonreactive compounds. The sensor molecules which comprise the coating (8) may have three major components: a central molecular scaffold (
I started my research path as an organic chemist focused on the synthesis of conjugated chiral molecules. His PhD project was focused on the design and synthesis of novel acetylene- and azido-functionalised precursors and the development of protective groups strategies towards well-defined macromolecular structures. The second part of my PhD project was the study of catalytic activity of macrocycles using dye sensor molecules. Tailor-made changes to the core structure of dye molecules resulted in selective reporter molecules for visualization of catalytic processes. My subsequent research was focused on electrochemical sensors, where specific enzymes embedded in polysaccharide coatings were able to detect trace amounts of analyte such as glucose or lactate and translate this into electrochemical signal. The research was focused on the development and process optimisation of the sensor technology. I am currently working on the study of nano scale interactions of synthetic biomimetic extracellular ...
Plants have multiple physiological and biochemical systems that enable them to tolerate environmental stresses. Water deficit is the most serious factor limiting plant growth and productivity, and it occurs not only during drought but also with high salinity and low temperature. A change in osmotic potential in cells caused by water loss triggers various molecular responses in plants (Bray, 1997). To date, many genes induced by drought, salinity, or cold stress have been identified and studied (Ingram and Bartels, 1996; Shinozaki and Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, 1996, 1997). However, little is known about how plant cells detect water deficits.. In bacteria, histidine kinases function as sensor molecules that transduce extracellular signals (including chemotactic factors, changes in osmolarity, and nutrient deficiency) to the cytoplasm. This transduction is mediated by phosphotransfer to the cognate response regulator (Parkinson and Kofoid, 1992; Parkinson, 1993; Alex and Simon, 1994; Swanson et al., ...
Plants have multiple physiological and biochemical systems that enable them to tolerate environmental stresses. Water deficit is the most serious factor limiting plant growth and productivity, and it occurs not only during drought but also with high salinity and low temperature. A change in osmotic potential in cells caused by water loss triggers various molecular responses in plants (Bray, 1997). To date, many genes induced by drought, salinity, or cold stress have been identified and studied (Ingram and Bartels, 1996; Shinozaki and Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, 1996, 1997). However, little is known about how plant cells detect water deficits.. In bacteria, histidine kinases function as sensor molecules that transduce extracellular signals (including chemotactic factors, changes in osmolarity, and nutrient deficiency) to the cytoplasm. This transduction is mediated by phosphotransfer to the cognate response regulator (Parkinson and Kofoid, 1992; Parkinson, 1993; Alex and Simon, 1994; Swanson et al., ...
Jorunn B. Jorgensen. 8.1 Introduction 85. 8.2 Innate Immunity: A Sensing and an Effector Arm 86. 8.3 Professional Phagocytes: The Macrophages and the Neutrophilic Granulocytes 86. 8.4 Natural Killer (NK)-Like Cells 88. 8.5 The Sensing Arm of Innate Immunity 88. 8.6 TLRs are the Best Studied PRRS in Fish 89. 8.7 NOD-Like and RIG-I Receptors are Found in Fish 90. 8.8 Lectins are Multifunctional Sensor Molecules for Carbohydrate Ligands 91. 8.9 PRRs and the Induction of Immunity 92. 8.10 Cytokines in Innate Immunity 92. 8.11 Interferons 94. 8.12 The Complement System 95. 8.13 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives 97. 9 The Adaptive Immune Response in Fish 104 ...
Epithelial cells and neurons polarize into distinct plasma membrane domains - apical and basolateral domains, and axonal and somatodendritic domains, respectively. Transmembrane proteins are known to be secreted in a polarized manner in such cells, but the molecular bases for this polarized membrane trafficking are unclear. This group previously showed that the cell-adhesion molecule NgCAM, which is largely delivered to axons in neurons and to the apical surface in epithelia, travels to axons through an indirect transcytotic pathway via somatodendritic endosomes. Here, Bettina Winckler and colleagues (p. 1514) identify and characterize the signals that are used by NgCAM as it travels through this pathway. The authors determine that a previously identified basolateral tyrosine-based signal of NgCAM is also a sufficient somatodendritic targeting signal. Moreover, they identify a second, novel, axonal targeting signal in the cytoplasmic tail of NgCAM that is cis-dominant and must be inactivated for ...
This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
In figure 1 there is an oversight of the alkane sensing system as it is found in P. putida. The sensor molecule of this system is AlkS. AlkS can bind to alkanes and form the complex AlkS-HC (HC is short for hydrocarbon). In reality this happens in the membrane and the complex then migrates into the cell and binds to DNA. In the model however everything is assumed to happen in the cytosol. The AlkS has a self-regulation through two promoters, pAlkS1 and pAlkS2. pAlkS1 is inhibited by binding to any form of AlkS and pAlkS2 is induced by binding to AlkS-HC. The promoters are independent of each other. The alkane degradation pathway the AlkBFGHJKLT operon (AlkB for short) is regulated by the pAlkB promoter and is also induced by AlkS-HC. This resulting logic is displayed in table 1. ...
A homologue of the axonally secreted protein axonin-1 is an integral membrane protein of nerve fiber tracts involved in neurite fasciculation.
This protocol presents a novel method for derivation of floor-plate progenitor cells for the later derivation of human dopaminergic neurons that can be efficiently engrafted in vivo. The progenitor cell name reflects the specific growth factor mixture used in the protocol.. ...
Pertubation of neurite fasciculation with species-specific anti-NgCAM antibodies. Cultured mouse DRG explants were infected with the adenoviral vector AdCMV
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuron-glia synapses in the brain. AU - Bergles, Dwight E. AU - Jabs, Ronald. AU - Steinhäuser, Christian. PY - 2010/5. Y1 - 2010/5. N2 - The ability to investigate the electrophysiological properties of individual cells in acute brain tissue led to the discovery that many glial cells have the capacity to respond rapidly to neuronal activity. In particular, a distinct class of neuroglial cells known as NG2 cells, which exhibit many of the properties that have been described for glial subtypes such as complex cells, polydendrocytes, synantocytes and GluR cells, express ionotropic receptors for glutamate and GABA. In both gray and white matter, NG2 cells form direct synaptic junctions with axons, which enable transient activation of these receptors. Electrophysiological analyses have shown that these neuron-glia synapses exhibit all the hallmarks of classical neuron-neuron synapses, including rapid activation, quantized responses, facilitation and depression, and presynaptic ...
We have identified a 95 kd cell surface protein, DM-GRASP, that is expressed on a restricted population of axons. Its expression begins early in chick embryogenesis, and within the spinal cord it is localized to axons in the dorsal funiculus, midline floorplate cells, and motoneurons. Antibodies to …
کنترل زمان گل‌دهی یکی از مهم‌ترین اجزای اثر متقابل بین گیاهان و محیط رشد آن‌ها می‌باشد که نه تنها برای میزان محصول تولیدی بلکه برای کیفیت دانه برنج نیز عامل مهمی به‌-حساب می‌آید. در این تحقیق مطالعات فنوتیپی و مولکولی بر روی 45 رقم برنج محلی و اصلاح شده انجام شد. ابتدا چندشکلی ژن‌های Ehd1 و Ehd3 در بین ارقام و سپس ارتباط این دو ژن با زمان خوشه‌دهی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج مطالعات فنوتیپی حاکی از وجود تنوع بیشتر در ارقام محلی نسبت به ارقام اصلاح شده بود. ارقام محلی به‌طور متوسط 8 روز زودرس‌تر از ارقام اصلاح شده بودند و تفاوت زمان خوشه‌دهی آن‌ها معنی‌دار
The initial strategies for generation of DA neurons from hESCs were based on previous experience with mouse ESCs, which commonly used the developmental cues known at the time (Kawasaki et al., 2000; Kim et al., 2002). Several of these early differentiation protocols did indeed produce a relatively high number of cells expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis and most commonly used marker for DA neurons), yet the midbrain properties of these neurons were not clear and their in vivo performance after grafting in standard animal models of PD was modest. A breakthrough in optimization of the differentiation protocols came when our understanding of how midbrain DA neurons are formed during normal development radically changed. In 2007 and 2008, two ground-breaking studies were published, both reporting that midbrain DA neurons were not derived from neuroepithelial cells (like all other neurons) but were in fact derived from floor-plate cells expressing ...
Neurofascin-155 (NF155) and caspr are transmembrane proteins found at discrete locations early during development of the nervous system. NF155 is present in the oligodendrocyte cell body and processes, whereas caspr is on the axonal surface. In mature nerves, these proteins are clustered at paranode …
Accumulation of glia, gliosis, in various neurological disorders is not a static scar, but actively involved in pathogenesis of various neurological and psychiatric disorders, where glial cells produce both inflammatory and neurotrophic factors. These factors may play a role in neuronal damage, but.... Full description. ...
The arrest of body axis elongation seems intimately associated with the differentiation process, as both involve the downregulation of FGFs and Wnts. A key signalling pathway that regulates both processes is that mediated by RA. During somitogenesis stages, cells are exposed to endogenous RA as they leave the CLE and the NSB or later tail bud. This is provided by the activity of the RA synthesising enzyme Raldh2, which is expressed in the newly segmenting mesoderm. RA signalling drives the expression of neural and mesodermal differentiation genes in axial tissues (Diez del Corral et al., 2003; Molotkova et al., 2005; Moreno and Kintner, 2004; Ribes et al., 2008). This includes neuronal differentiation genes, which promote neuron production, the floor-plate expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh), the key orchestrator of ventral patterning and hence of neuronal cell-type specification (Diez del Corral et al., 2003), and mesodermal differentiation genes such as Mesp2, a key segmentation gene that helps ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurite outgrowth on electrospun nanofibers with uniaxial alignment. T2 - The effects of fiber density, surface coating, and supporting substrate. AU - Xie, Jingwei. AU - Liu, Wenying. AU - Macewan, Matthew R.. AU - Bridgman, Paul C.. AU - Xia, Younan. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2014/2/25. Y1 - 2014/2/25. N2 - Electrospun nanofibers with uniaxial alignment have recently gained its popularity as scaffolds for neural tissue engineering. Many studies have demonstrated that the nanofibers could guide the neurites to extend along the direction of alignment, resembling the native hierarchy of the nerve tissue. However, the contact cues provided by the nanofibers can be far more complicated than just guiding the neurites to extend along them. In the current study, we used dorsal root ganglia as a model system to systematically investigate the interactions between neurites and uniaxially aligned nanofibers. We demonstrated, for the first ...
Not all proteins that accumulate in a specific subcellular compartment undergo processes of selective sorting and transport. Some proteins seem to be localized by a mechanism known as selective retention, which describes that cargoes are transported nonselectively to both axons and dendrites, but are eliminated at one side by selective endocytosis and retained at the other, where endocytosis is prevented. Prominent examples for this process are the proteins VAMP2 and NgCAM. NgCAM is sorted into carriers that preferentially deliver their cargo proteins to the axonal membrane. In contrast, VAMP2 is delivered to the surface of both axons and dendrites; however it is preferentially endocytosed from the dendritic membrane, a process, which also results in an axonal enrichment31. Indeed, VAMP2 harbors an endocytosis signal in its cytoplasmic domain, and mutation of this sequence consistently results in an evenly distribution of VAMP2 to cell body, dendrites, and axon. Although such process initially ...
I have about 3 twitches a day in my tongue. I asked a neurologist if this could be the start of als, or if its too infrequent. He just said als fasciculations could start more infrequent and slowly becomming more frequent. Does anyone know anything about this ...
Author: Medas, A Paulo ; Salins, Veronique ; Danforth, Jeff Series: How-To-Note No. 16/01 Date: September 27, 2016 Subject: Asia and Pacific Canada Capital expenditure Chile Commodity boom Commodity price shocks Commodity prices Expenditure policy Fiscal adjustment Fiscal deficits Malaysia Natural resources Nigeria Sub-Saharan Africa Western Hemisphere ...
If youre feeling and seeing the twitches, its no surprise at all that an EMG would actually record those twitches. Thats why were all here on this board!! The only reason Im guessing that some others have EMGs without fasciculations is that they happened to not fasciculate while the EMG was being performed. I had lots and lots of them (on my legs). When I asked the doctor if he saw fasciculations, he looked at me like I was crazy. With a look that basically said um, isnt that why youre here ...
Rapid signaling between vertebrate neurons occurs primarily at synapses, intercellular junctions where quantal release of neurotransmitter triggers rapid changes in membrane conductance through activation of ionotropic receptors. Glial cells express many of these same ionotropic receptors, yet little is known about how receptors in glial cells become activated in situ. Because synapses were thought to be the sole provenance of neurons, it has been assumed that these receptors must be activated following diffusion of transmitter out of the synaptic cleft, or through nonsynaptic mechanisms such as transporter reversal. Two recent reports show that a ubiquitous class of progenitors that express the proteoglycan NG2 (NG2 cells) engage in rapid signaling with glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons through direct neuron-glia synapses. Quantal release of transmitter from neurons at these sites triggers rapid activation of aminomethylisoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) or GABA(A) ...
I have heard it said that fasciculations appear in ALS some time after the muscle has been damaged due to denervation. As a result, I have been told that an ALS sufferer would experience profound weakn...
Complete information for BARX1 gene (Protein Coding), BARX Homeobox 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
... is a homophilic binding glycoprotein expressed on the surface of neurons, glia and skeletal muscle. Although CD56 is often ... also present on subset of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. In cell adhesion, CD56 contributes to cell-cell adhesion or cell- ... The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM1 appears on early embryonic cells and is important in the formation of cell collectives ... Τ cells and activated CD8+ T cells, as well as on dendritic cells. NCAM has been implicated as having a role in cell-cell ...
NgCAM related cell adhesion molecule). L1 family members are found on neurons, especially on their axons. Sometimes they are ... found on glia, such as Schwann cells, radial glia and Bergmann glia cells and, as such, are important for neural cell migration ... As cell adhesion molecules, they often bind "homophilically" to themselves; for example L1 on one cell binding to L1 on an ... The L1 family is a family of cell adhesion molecules that includes four different L1-like proteins. They are members of the ...
... cell adhesion molecules, neuronal MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.150 - cell adhesion molecules, neuron-glia MeSH D12.776.395.550. ... activated-leukocyte cell adhesion molecule MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.500 - myelin p0 protein MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250. ... 520 - neural cell adhesion molecules MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.520.156 - antigens, cd56 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.250.520.578 ... vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 MeSH D12.776.395.550.550.500 - lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 MeSH D12.776.395.550. ...
... cell adhesion molecules, neuronal MeSH D23.050.301.350.250.150 - cell adhesion molecules, neuron-glia MeSH D23.050.301.350. ... neural cell adhesion molecules MeSH D23.050.301.350.250.520.156 - antigens, cd56 MeSH D23.050.301.350.250.520.578 - neural cell ... adhesion molecule l1 MeSH D23.050.301.350.275 - integrin alphaxbeta2 MeSH D23.050.301.350.450 - intercellular adhesion molecule ... cell adhesion molecules MeSH D23.050.301.350.065 - antigens, cd22 MeSH D23.050.301.350.098 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050. ...
... cell adhesion molecules, neuronal MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.150 - cell adhesion molecules, neuron-glia MeSH D12.776.543.550. ... activated-leukocyte cell adhesion molecule MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.500 - myelin p0 protein MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250. ... 520 - neural cell adhesion molecules MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.520.156 - antigens, cd56 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.250.520.578 ... vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 MeSH D12.776.543.550.425.150 - calcium channels MeSH D12.776.543.550.425.150.400 - calcium ...
"Distribution of the adhesion molecules N-CAM and L1 on peripheral neurons and glia in adult rats". J. Neurocytol. 15 (6): 799- ... Hanani M (February 2010). "Satellite glial cells: more than just 'rings around the neuron'". Neuron Glia Biol. 6 (1): 1-2. doi: ... Satellite glial cells, formerly called amphicytes, are glial cells that cover the surface of neuron cell bodies in ganglia of ... Satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia are laminar cells that wrap around sensory neurons. An envelope of multiple SGCs ...
Cell aggregation assays show that cell adhesion molecules, such as DSCAM, belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily bind ... The neurons express a stochastic array of Dscam1 isoforms on their cell surface. Cells that have the same isoform patterns ... "Interference with the development of early generated neocortex results in disruption of radial glia and abnormal formation of ... "Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule DSCAM mediates homophilic intercellular adhesion". Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 79 (1-2): 118- ...
Additionally, it was identified as a cell adhesion molecule in oligodendrocytes, suggesting it may play a role in neuron ... Glia. 56 (11): 1176-1186. doi:10.1002/glia.20688. PMC 2830273. PMID 18571792. Genomatix Gene2Promoter for TMEM125 https://www. ... TMEM125 was identified as a tetraspanin cell adhesion molecule enriched in oligodendrocytes, suggesting it may play a role in ... Izadi, F. "Identification of key regulators in non-small cell lung cancer based on network topology and modularity analysis" ( ...
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs): Integral membrane proteins mediating adhesion between growing axons and eliciting intracellular ... axons of photoreceptors require glia to exit the eye stalk whereas glia cells rely on signals from neurons to migrate back ... and cadherins or Ig-family cell-adhesion molecules, found on cell surfaces. Tropic cues, that can act as attractants or ... Ephrins: Ephrins are cell surface molecules that activate Eph receptors on the surface of other cells. This interaction can be ...
Therefore, this class of molecules has both a cell-cell adhesion role and a cell-surface receptor role, in axon navigation. ... Studies show that it is difficult to pinpoint the importance of glia on the extension of most follower neurons. In glia ... It is the cell bodies of the follower neurons that follow the axons of the pioneer neurons, instead of what it was thought ... The cadherin superfamily constitutes one of the largest families of cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs). Cadherins mediate neuronal ...
Glial cells function to support neurons and in the PNS, also include satellite cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, enteric glia ... Myelin protein zero (P0) is a cell-adhesion molecule belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily and is the major component of ... "NDF is a neuron-glia signal and regulates survival, proliferation, and maturation of rat Schwann cell precursors". Neuron. 15 ( ... When SOX10 is inactivated in mice, satellite glia and Schwann cell precursors fail to develop, though neurons are generated ...
"Consequences of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Deficiency on Cell Migration in the Rostral Migratory Stream of the Mouse". The ... Neurons that migrate tangentially are typically believed to migrate independently of radial glia but in the RMS researchers ... The developing neurons are identified by their expression of the cell surface molecule, a polysialylated (PSA) embryonic form ... In the RMS, vascular cells are arranged parallel to the route of the migrating cells and provide a scaffolding. Glial cells are ...
Synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play a crucial role in axon pathfinding and synaptic establishment between neurons ... As in the EphA4/ephrinA3-mediated neuron-glia interaction, this process regulates dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton by ... Rikitake Y, Mandai K, Takai Y (August 2012). "The role of nectins in different types of cell-cell adhesion". Journal of Cell ... cell-adhesion molecules in synaptic plasticity". Trends in Cell Biology. 10 (11): 473-82. doi:10.1016/S0962-8924(00)01838-9. ...
... cell-adhesion molecules are also essential to synaptogenesis. Often the binding of pre-synaptic cell-adhesion molecules with ... Role for glia in synaptogenesis. Glia 47(3):209-16. Cao G, Ko CP (June 2007). "Schwann cell-derived factors modulate synaptic ... The synapse itself is composed of three cells: the motor neuron, the myofiber, and the Schwann cell. In a normally functioning ... These changes are thought to be mediated by neurotrophin and cell adhesion molecule release from muscle cells, thereby ...
Mutations in human L1 cell adhesion molecules are reported to cause a number of neuronal disorders. In addition, recent ... Glia. 56 (3): 284-93. doi:10.1002/glia.20612. PMID 18080294. S2CID 26539423. Xu Z, Croslan DR, Harris AE, Ford GD, Ford BD ( ... "Dysregulated expression of neuregulin-1 by cortical pyramidal neurons disrupts synaptic plasticity". Cell Reports. 8 (4): 1130- ... "Endocytic pathways downregulate the L1-type cell adhesion molecule neuroglian to promote dendrite pruning in Drosophila". ...
Chiasm crossing is also promoted by Nr-CAM (Ng-CAM-related cell adhesion molecule) and Semaphorin6D (Sema6D) expressed at the ... Neuron. 70 (5): 951-965. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.02.052. PMC 3114076. PMID 21658587. Kuwajima, T; Yoshida, Y; Pratt, T (2012 ... Ephrin-B2 is expressed at the chiasm midline by radial glia and acts as a repulsive signal to axons originating from the ... Neuron. 74 (4): 676-690. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.03.025. PMC 3361695. PMID 22632726. Janvier, P. (1996). Early vertebrates. ...
Although some cell-adhesion molecules have been reported to be present at the nodes inconsistently; however, a variety of other ... Salzer J. L. (1997). "Clustering sodium channels at the node of Ranvier: close encounters of the axon-glia kind". Neuron. 18 (6 ... The first event appears to be the accumulation of cell adhesion molecules such as NF186 or NrCAM. The intra-cellular regions of ... Complete neuron cell diagram Medullated nerve fibers stained with silver nitrate Internodal segment Schwann cell ...
NAAG then reduces the release of glutamate while stimulating the release of some trophic factors from the glia cells in the ... adhesion and survival of the cells. PSMA is the target of several nuclear medicine imaging agents for prostate cancer. PSMA ... The molecule found the location of primary and metastatic prostate cancer by PET, fluorescence-guided removal of cancer, and ... protection from apoptosis or degradation of brain neurons by elevating the concentrations of NAAG within the synapse of neurons ...
It may also damage ion channels, other enzymes, cell adhesion molecules, and cell surface receptors. This can lead to ... as well as cell-type specific functions such as long-term potentiation in neurons and cell fusion in myoblasts. Under these ... m-calpain is found in glia and a small number in axons. Calpain is also involved in skeletal muscle protein breakdown due to ... while μ-calpain is mainly located in the cell body and dendrites of neurons and to a lesser extent in axons and glial cells, ...
These cells are essential in providing navigational information to pioneer axons. Arrays of pioneer neurons create short ... as well as attract various adhesion molecules to impact their physical state. Some of the various chemotactic cues that have ... The Notch receptor has been shown to interact with interface glia to form a path that longitudinal pioneer neurons can follow. ... In a different study, replacement or removal of the early-born retinal ganglion cells, which function as pioneer neurons, had a ...
A lineage relationship to other cell types has been proposed, including smooth muscle cells, neural cells, NG2 glia, muscle ... increased expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules and microaneurysms. Loss or dysfunction of pericytes is also theorized to ... These cells are also a key component of the neurovascular unit, which includes endothelial cells, astrocytes, and neurons. ... and heterotypic cell-cell interactions mediate endothelial cell-induced recruitment of 10T1/2 cells and their differentiation ...
... contributes to tissue morphogenesis by controlling developing cell migration and cell adhesion in different organs. In ... and unc-40 genes guide circumferential migrations of pioneer axons and mesodermal cells on the epidermis in C. Elegans". Neuron ... Many studies have shown that netrin-1, UNC-40, UNC-6, and UNC-5 are involved in the migration of glia during embryogenesis. ... There are still many unanswered questions regarding the netrin family of molecules. It is still uncertain what role vertebrate ...
Neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) will mediate this attachment via homophilic interactions between molecules of like ... A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the ... Molecules mediating attraction include NrCAM, which is expressed by growing RGCs and the midline glia and acts along with ... Midget cell (parvocellular, or P pathway; P cells) Parasol cell (magnocellular, or M pathway; M cells) Bistratified cell ( ...
The first postmitotic cells to migrate from the preplate which are destined to become Cajal-Retzius cells and subplate neurons ... Examples of neural inducers are the molecules noggin and chordin. When embryonic ectodermal cells are cultured at low density ... Campbell K, Götz M (May 2002). "Radial glia: multi-purpose cells for vertebrate brain development". Trends in Neurosciences. 25 ... forces that interact with the extracellular environment through cell adhesion proteins to cause the movement of these cells. ...
SynCAM is a cell adhesion molecule that is present in both pre- and post-synaptic membranes. The processes of neuronal ... Tamamaki N, Nakamura K, Okamoto K, Kaneko T (September 2001). "Radial glia is a progenitor of neocortical neurons in the ... Neurogenesis is the process by which neurons are generated from neural stem cells and progenitor cells. Neurons are 'post- ... which is destined to become Cajal-Retzius cells and subplate neurons. These cells do so by somal translocation. Neurons ...
... although the specialized cells receive some innervation from outside neurons. Ependymal cells secrete high molecular mass ... This glycoprotein shares molecular domains with axonal pathfinding molecules. The ependymal cells and the SCO-spondin secretion ... being involved in mechanisms of cellular adhesion and axonal pathfinding (a process by which neurons send out axons to reach ... Glia. 32 (2): 177-91. doi:10.1002/1098-1136(200011)32:2. 3.0.CO;2-V. PMID 11008217. S2CID 46625717. Vio K, Rodríguez S, Yulis ...
Apart from that, activated T-Cells can cross a healthy BBB when they express adhesion proteins. (Adhesion molecules could also ... Brosnan CF, Raine CS (2013). "The astrocyte in multiple sclerosis revisited". Glia. 61 (4): 453-465. doi:10.1002/glia.22443. ... 2016). "Nuclear Receptor NR1H3 in Familial Multiple Sclerosis". Neuron. 90 (5): 948-954. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2016.04.039. PMC ... Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule, also called CD166), and is under study as therapeutic target. Another protein ...
Specifically, Silva and his colleagues showed that neural progenitor stem cells could be induced to differentiate into neurons ... New Tools for Probing Neurons and Glia". Journal of Neuroscience. 26 (7): 1893-1895. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3847-05.2006. ISSN ... Silva, Gabriel A. (2007-02-01). "Nanotechnology approaches for drug and small molecule delivery across the blood brain barrier ... "The Role of Abnormal Vitreomacular Adhesion in Age-related Macular Degeneration: Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography and ...
Schwarz Q, Ruhrberg C (January 2010). "Neuropilin, you gotta let me know: should I stay or should I go?". Cell Adhesion & ... Glia. 64 (8): 1314-30. doi:10.1002/glia.23004. PMID 27159043. S2CID 3713077. Mecollari V, Nieuwenhuis B, Verhaagen J (2014). "A ... March 2010). "Small molecule inhibitors of the neuropilin-1 vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) interaction". Journal ... Neuropilin is a protein receptor active in neurons. There are two forms of Neuropilins, NRP-1 and NRP-2. Neuropilins are ...
Purinergic signalling has an essential role at interactions between neurons and glia cells, allowing these to detect action ... These receptors, that recognize the antigen soluble (B cells) or linked to a molecule on Antigen Presenting Cells (T cells), do ... Ischemic cascade Adhesion is an essential process to epithelial cells so that epithelium can be formed and cells can be in ... As a result, either stem cells cannot enter the cell cycle, or cell division slows in many tissues. Extrinsic regulation is ...
PAR and adhesion molecules expression, the infiltration and activation of mast cells and apoptosis. The biological responses to ... a new inroad in the treatment of neuropathic pain and related disorders based on overactivation of glia and glia-related cells ... are protective in a delayed postglutamate paradigm of excitotoxic death in cerebellar granule neurons". Proceedings of the ... Since 1993, at least 25 papers have been published on the various effects of PEA on mast cells. These cells are often found in ...
... receptors are present on both neurons and glial cells. Furthermore, radial glia express the same amount of ApoER2 but ... lack of cell migration response in patient-derived cells were caused by the cell's inability to produce enough focal adhesions ... "The reeler gene-associated antigen on Cajal-Retzius neurons is a crucial molecule for laminar organization of cortical neurons ... For example, zebrafish have no Cajal-Retzius cells at all; instead, the protein is being secreted by other neurons. These cells ...
Cell Communication & Adhesion. 10 (4-6): 451-6. doi:10.1080/cac.10.4-6.451.456. hdl:10533/174413. PMID 14681056. S2CID 33491307 ... which refers to the rapid and transient spiking in well-recognized excitable cells like neurons and myocytes; and from ... Some ions (such as calcium) and molecules (such as hydrogen peroxide) modulate targeted translocators to produce a current or ... Defective neuronal migration secondary to abnormality of Bergmann glia". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
ShK domain and immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule (Ig-CaM) domain. The prodomain traps the voltage-gated potassium ... Glia. 65 (1): 106-121. doi:10.1002/glia.23078. PMC 5113690. PMID 27696527. Nguyen HM, Blomster LV, Christophersen P, Wulff H ( ... Injury is, in part, due to the activation of microglia and microglia-mediated damage of neurons. Neuroprotective therapies for ... When naïve T cells and central memory T cells (TCM) are activated they upregulate KCa3.1 expression to ~500 per cell without ...
Along with neurons, the nervous system contains other specialized cells called glia or glial cells, which provide structural ... Cell membranes are involved in various cellular processes such as cell adhesion, storing electrical energy, and cell signalling ... signaling molecules that move from one group of cells to surrounding cells, creating a morphogen gradient as described by the ... Cells such as neurons or muscle cells may be excited or inhibited upon receiving a signal from another neuron. The connections ...
Additionally, cells destined to become neural plate cells express nerve cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) to further neural plate ... and neural crest cells (connects epidermis and neural tube and will migrate to make neurons, glia, and skin cell pigmentation ... Without BMP4 the ectoderm cells would develop into neural cells. Axial mesoderm cells under the ectoderm secrete inhibitory ... the overlying cells take their normal course and develop into neural cells. The cells in the ectoderm that circumscribe these ...
Instead, they are homologous to neural cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and the large family of L1 CAMs. There are four distinct ... In excitable cells such as neurons, myocytes, and certain types of glia, sodium channels are responsible for the rising phase ... "Sodium channel beta subunits mediate homophilic cell adhesion and recruit ankyrin to points of cell-cell contact". The Journal ... further depolarizing the cell. Thus, the more Na+ channels localized in a region of a cell's membrane the faster the action ...
... junctional adhesion molecule (such as JAM-A). Each of these tight junction proteins is stabilized to the endothelial cell ... Astrocyte cell projections called astrocytic feet (also known as "glia limitans") surround the endothelial cells of the BBB, ... in the circulating blood from non-selectively crossing into the extracellular fluid of the central nervous system where neurons ... while allowing the diffusion of hydrophobic molecules (O2, CO2, hormones) and small non-polar molecules. Cells of the barrier ...
A positive test for inhibin A and inhibin B can indicate a granulosa cell tumor. A blood test for a marker molecule called CA- ... Serum alpha-fetoprotein, neuron-specific enolase, and lactate dehydrogenase can be measured in young girls and adolescents with ... Unlike mature teratomas, immature teratomas form many adhesions, making them less likely to cause ovarian torsion. There is no ... Histologically, they have large amounts of neuroectoderm organized into sheets and tubules along with glia; the amount of ...
... crest cells are initially anchored to neighboring cells by tight junction proteins such as occludin and cell adhesion molecules ... chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, glomus cells type I/II. Peripheral nervous system: Sensory neurons and glia of the ... Schwann cells of all peripheral nerves. Enteric cells: Enterochromaffin cells. Melanocytes and iris muscle and pigment cells, ... Cells migrating through this path differentiate into pigment cells of the dermis. Further neural crest cell differentiation and ...
Neurons within the retina show extensive coupling, both within populations of one cell type, and between different cell types. ... They directly connect the cytoplasm of two cells, which allows various molecules, ions and electrical impulses to directly pass ... "Developmental exposure to estrogens alters epithelial cell adhesion and gap junction proteins in the adult rat prostate". ... Glia. 24 (1): 141-54. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-1136(199809)24:1. 3.0.CO;2-R. PMID 9700496. S2CID 23234120. Francis R, Xu X, Park ...
Our own work implicated NEEP21 in correct trafficking of the axonal cell adhesion molecule L1/neuron-glia cell adhesion ... Downregulation of NEEP21 caused missorting of endocytosed L1/neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (NgCAM; Yap et al., 2008). In ... including neurons. Intriguingly, neurons express cell type-specific proteins that localize to endosomes, but little is known ... 2002) Modulation of receptor cycling by neuron-enriched endosomal protein of 21 kD. J Cell Biol 157:1197-1209, doi:10.1083/jcb. ...
cytokine / neuron / astrocyte / neurotrophic factor / cell adhesion molecule. Research Abstract. We have demonstrated that ... Neurotrophic Effects of Cytokine-activated Astrocytes.-Basic research for Elucidation of Interaction between Neuron and Glia, ... Expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in astrocytic tumors. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts. 22. 1982 (1996). ... Expression of the neural adhesion molecule (NCAM) in the astrocytic tumors : an inverse correlation with malignancy. Society ...
Next, we examined the relative expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in adult goat brain and retina. We also studied the ... The CNS includes neurons and glia of the brain, spinal cord and retina. Neurons in the retina have the advantage of being the ... Next, we examined the relative expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in adult goat brain and retina. We also studied the ... The CNS includes neurons and glia of the brain, spinal cord and retina. Neurons in the retina have the advantage of being the ...
Structure and Function of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NCAM. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 663. New York ... Neuron Glia Biology, 4(3) pp. 169-178. * Download Accepted Manuscript (PDF / 540kB) ... A neural cell adhesion molecule mimetic, FG Loop (FGL), alleviates spine loss induced by beta-amyloid(25-35) in the rat ... A cell adhesion molecule mimetic, FGL peptide, induces alterations in synapse and dendritic spine structure in the dentate ...
neuron cell-cell adhesion neuronal-glial interaction involved in cerebral cortex radial glia guided migration + ... cell-cell adhesion via plasma-membrane adhesion molecules + The attachment of one cell to another cell via adhesion molecules ... calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules + calcium-independent cell-cell adhesion via ... heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane ...
Neuron Glia Adhesion Molecules Neuron Glia Cell Adhesion Molecules Neuron-Glia Adhesion Molecules Neuron-Glia Cell Adhesion ... Neuron Glia Adhesion Molecules. Neuron Glia Cell Adhesion Molecules. Neuron-Glia Adhesion Molecules. Neuron-Glia Cell Adhesion ... Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia Entry term(s). Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron Glia G4 ... Molécules dadhérence cellulaire neurone-glie Entry term(s):. Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia. Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron ...
Functional analysis of posttranslational cleavage products of the neuron- glia cell adhesion molecule, Ng-CAM. Burgoon, M. P., ... Hazan, R. B., Kang, L., Whooley, B. P. & Borgen, P. I., 1997, In: Cell Communication and Adhesion. 4, 6, p. 399-411 13 p.. ... Tracking surface glycans on live cancer cells with single-molecule sensitivity. Jiang, H., English, B. P., Hazan, R. B., Wu, P. ... N-Cadherin Promotes Adhesion between Invasive Breast Cancer Cells and the Stroma. ...
Nerve growth issue enhances expression of neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule in PC12 cells. ... During regular growth, the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM adjustments at the cell-surface from a sialic acid-rich ... Alterations in neural cell adhesion molecules throughout enchancment of varied Omg Sex Cams areas of the nervous system. Dr. ... Alterations in neural cell adhesion molecules all through enchancment of assorted Omg Sex Cams areas of the nervous system. ...
Nerve progress factor enhances expression of neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule in PC12 cells. Tell your physician if youre ... The mechanism of binding of neural cell adhesion molecules. Alterations in neural cell adhesion molecules during growth of ... During regular growth, the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM adjustments on the cell-surface from a sialic acid-rich ... Kinetics of homophilic binding by embryonic and adult types of the neural cell adhesion molecule. Ndulamitsi has an excellent ...
Nerve growth factor enhances expression of neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule in PC12 cells. At the conclusion of this webinar ... Kinetics of homophilic binding by embryonic and adult types of the neural cell adhesion molecule. The neural cell adhesion ... a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily concerned in neuron-neuron and neuron-glia adhesion. Before sharing delicate info, ... During regular growth, the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM modifications at the cell-surface from a sialic acid-rich ...
Nerve growth factor enhances expression of neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule in PC12 cells. ... The mechanism of binding of neural cell adhesion molecules.. The rate of E-to-A conversion and the proportions of the ... Alterations in neural cell adhesion molecules throughout development of various areas of the nervous system. CAMS was ... Kinetics of homophilic binding by embryonic and adult forms of the neural cell adhesion molecule. Received his medical training ...
Nerve growth issue enhances expression of neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule in PC12 cells. Molecular mechanisms of cell ... Alterations in neural cell adhesion molecules throughout development of various regions of the nervous system. ... adhesion in regular and reworked cells. Our ladiess ministry meets on Wednesdays in the Fall for video-driven Bible studies. ...
... glia, and skeletal muscle. Evidence suggests that it plays a role in the cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion, neurite outgrowth ... CD56, also known as a Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM; UniProt Link), is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein discovered ... originally on the surface of neurons, ... Target CD56 (Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule, NCAM) Partnership ... is first expressed as a monomer on the surface of immature B cells as part of the B cell receptor (BCR). IgM+ B cells secrete ...
... in the cocultured glia, of genes that encode synaptic cell adhesion molecules. Both the neuronal and astrocyte gene-expression ... Astrocytic cell adhesion genes linked to schizophrenia correlate with synaptic programs in neurons. ... Here, to study the role of glia-neuron interactions, we analyze the transcriptomes of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)- ... The maturation of neurons and the development of synapses, although emblematic of neurons, also relies on interactions with ...
... cell-cell adhesion, neurite outgrowth, learning, and memory. NCAM is expressed in normal neurons, glia, natural killer cells, ... Cluster of Differentiation 56 (CD56), also known as Neural-Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM), is a glycoprotein involved in ... Cluster of Differentiation 15 (CD15), also known as Leu-M1, is a carbohydrate adhesion molecule. Positive staining for CD15 and ... or T-cell lineage markers helps recognise Reed Sternberg cells (RSC) in classic Hodgkins lymphoma, and distinguishes it from ...
G4 Antigen use Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia G4 Phage use Microvirus ... GA 733 Tumor Associated Antigen use Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule GA 733 Tumor-Associated Antigen use Epithelial Cell ... GA733 Tumor Associated Antigen use Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule GA733 Tumor-Associated Antigen use Epithelial Cell ... GA733 Antigen use Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule ... GABA Cell use GABAergic Neurons GABA Cells use GABAergic ...
... authors observed platelet accumulation in combination with augmented expression of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule ... on cells like neurons and glia. ... leading to adhesion of blood cells and opening of the blood- ... 4) Cell death can also be induced by direct infection of endothelial cells, leading to the expression of the main protease of ... 4) Cell death can also be induced by direct infection of endothelial cells, leading to the expression of the main protease of ...
Altogen CRO offers in vivo RNAi services, tumor xenograft models, toxicology testing, stable cell line generation, and cell ... over 100 pre-optimized in vitro transfection kits for cell lines and primary cells, and electroporation delivery products. ... Cultured astrocytes have been shown to promote neurite outgrowth by producing adhesion molecules found either on the cell ... and the cell line is utilized in biomedical research for studying the interactions between glia and neurons, as well as ...
Cannabinoids modulate Olig2 and polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule expression in the subventricular zone of post- ... Direct suppression of CNS autoimmune inflammation via the cannabinoid receptor CB1 on neurons and CB2 on autoreactive T cells. ... Glia 58, 1017-1030 (2010).. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar *. Hegde, V. L., Nagarkatti, M. & Nagarkatti, P. S. ... Invest. 123, 2816-2831 (2013). This paper identifies microglial cell activation as the non-cell-autonomous mechanism mediating ...
In hypomyelinated white matter, strong immunoreactivity of polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule, a negative regulator ... Degeneration of neurons and glia in the Niemann-Pick C mouse is unrelated to the low-density lipoprotein receptor. *D. German, ... Investigation of Purkinje cell death in two murine models of NPC1, BALB/c npcnih and C57BLKS/J spm finds pattern of cell death ... Sox10, a Novel Transcriptional Modulator in Glial Cells. *K. Kuhlbrodt, B. Herbarth, E. Sock, I. Hermans-Borgmeyer, M. Wegner ...
This protein is an adhesion molecule, which means it acts like molecular glue. It plays a role in tightly packing the myelin ... Myelin protein zero is produced by specialized cells called Schwann cells, which wrap around and insulate peripheral nerves. ... Glia. 2006 Sep;54(4):243-57. doi: 10.1002/glia.20386. Citation on PubMed ... Neuron. 1996 Sep;17(3):451-60. doi: 10.1016/s0896-6273(00)80177-4. Citation on PubMed ...
... and identify a proteome that is enriched at astrocyte-neuron junctions in vivo, which includes neuronal cell adhesion molecule ... Astrocytes are star-shaped cells that form the glue-like framework of the brain. They are one kind of cell called glia, which ... Summary: Astrocytes are involved in regulating inhibitory synapses by binding to neurons through the NrCAM adhesion molecule. ... also found that astrocytes are involved in regulating inhibitory synapses by binding to neurons through an adhesion molecule ...
... cell adhesion molecules, and physiological activity; synaptic changes in response to activity, the physiological environment, ... There is shared interest in the function of glia, particularly in the area of glia-neuron interactions. When the focus is on ... Neurogenesis and Cell Fate (NCF): There is shared interest in neurodevelopment. Applications focused on early determination in ... Mechanisms controlling cell motility, directional migration, and growth cone extension. *Axonal outgrowth, fasciculation, ...
Comparative expression patterns of T-, N-, E-cadherins, beta-catenin, and polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule in rat ... crest cells migrate into the inner ear to give rise to glia cells in the Rosenthals canal and pigmented intermediate cells of ... Cross-regulation of Ngn1 and Math1 coordinates the production of neurons and sensory hair cells during inner ear development ... as differential cadherin expression allows self-sorting of cells in vitro (Nose et al., 1988). Recently, the cell adhesion ...
... that will predominantly generate neurons from those that produce glia is currently hampered by a lack of sufficient cell type- ... as well as surface exposure of the adhesion molecule P-Selectin. These were analysed to identify correlations between ... human cancer cells/red blood cells; and rodent fibroblasts/red blood cells. A single-pass protocol can enrich cells with cell ... cell loss. A two-pass protocol can process 300,000,000 cells in under 30 minutes, with cell recovery of up to 96.4% and cell ...
Like their neighboring neurons, different glial subtypes exist that share many overlapping functions. Despite our recognition ... CCs also share molecular and functional features with the three main glial types in the mammalian visual system: Müller glia, ... These cells, called ommatidial cone cells (or Semper cells), were previously recognized for their role in lens formation. Using ... Here, using the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster, we identify a new glial cell type in one of the most active tissues in ...
... specialized structures that mediate rapid and efficient signal transmission between neurons and are surrounded by glial cells. ... Together with neurons, they shape intercellular space to provide a stable milieu for neuronal activity. Extracellular matrix ( ... ECM) components are synthesized by both neurons and astrocytes and play an important role in the formation, maintenance, and ... discovered by Golgi and represent a molecular scaffold deposited in the interface between the astrocyte and subsets of neurons ...
G4 Antigen use Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia G4 Phage use Microvirus ... GA 733 Tumor Associated Antigen use Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule GA 733 Tumor-Associated Antigen use Epithelial Cell ... GA733 Tumor Associated Antigen use Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule GA733 Tumor-Associated Antigen use Epithelial Cell ... GA733 Antigen use Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule ... GABA Cell use GABAergic Neurons GABA Cells use GABAergic ...
G4 Antigen use Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia G4 Phage use Microvirus ... GA 733 Tumor Associated Antigen use Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule GA 733 Tumor-Associated Antigen use Epithelial Cell ... GA733 Tumor Associated Antigen use Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule GA733 Tumor-Associated Antigen use Epithelial Cell ... GA733 Antigen use Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule ... GABA Cell use GABAergic Neurons GABA Cells use GABAergic ...
G4 Antigen use Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia G4 Phage use Microvirus ... GA 733 Tumor Associated Antigen use Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule GA 733 Tumor-Associated Antigen use Epithelial Cell ... GA733 Tumor Associated Antigen use Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule GA733 Tumor-Associated Antigen use Epithelial Cell ... GA733 Antigen use Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule ... GABA Cell use GABAergic Neurons GABA Cells use GABAergic ...
  • Modulation of NCAM expression in cultured astrocytes and neurons by cytokines. (
  • Astrocytes are the most abundant type of cells in the central nervous system that perform a variety of different functions, including support of brain metabolism, the primary focus of which is on the relationship between astrocytes and neurons. (
  • However, here we were able to show that by simply changing the interaction between astrocytes and neurons - specifically by manipulating the astrocytes - we were able to dramatically alter the wiring of the neurons as well. (
  • Takano designed a new method that allowed scientists to use a virus to insert an enzyme into the brain of a mouse that labeled the proteins connecting astrocytes and neurons. (
  • Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. (
  • Research has shown DI-TNC1 cells exhibit many similarities to neonatal astrocytes, and the cell line is utilized in biomedical research for studying the interactions between glia and neurons, as well as astrocyte cell functions related to energy metabolism. (
  • Altogen Biosystems manufactures a nanoparticle-based transfection reagent kit for the DI-TNC1 rat astrocyte cell line, an essential tool in finding the cure for various brain-related diseases. (
  • Then, Takano teamed up with Katie Baldwin, a postdoctoral associate in Eroglu's lab, to run assays to determine how the adhesion molecule NrCAM plays a role in the connection between astrocyte and inhibitory synapses. (
  • PNNs have originally been discovered by Golgi and represent a molecular scaffold deposited in the interface between the astrocyte and subsets of neurons in the vicinity of the synapse. (
  • Cho S, Muthukumar AK, Stork T, Coutinho-Budd JC, Freeman MR. Focal adhesion molecules regulate astrocyte morphology and glutamate transporters to suppress seizure-like behavior. (
  • The effect of hyperglycemia on CAM interactions, as well as related changes in intracellular signaling pathways in adult retinal neurons warrants further investigation. (
  • There is shared interest in the function of glia, particularly in the area of glia-neuron interactions. (
  • These data define genetically distinct glial signatures in cone/Semper cells that regulate their structural, functional and homeostatic interactions with photoreceptor neurons in the compound eye of Drosophila . (
  • In addition to providing a new high-throughput model to study neuron-glia interactions, the fly eye will further help elucidate glial conserved "support networks" between invertebrates and vertebrates. (
  • To study the interactions between brain EC and neural cells of the developing CNS, a novel three-dimensional (3-D) murine co-culture system was developed. (
  • A novel 3-D co-culture system for analysing the interactions between EC and neural cells of the developing CNS is presented. (
  • Spatiotemporal gradient of oligodendrocyte differentiation in chick optic tectum requires brain integrity and cell-cell interactions. (
  • Hyperglycemia significantly enhances neurite outgrowth in adult retinal neurons in culture. (
  • Evidence suggests that it plays a role in the cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion, neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity, and learning. (
  • Cluster of Differentiation 56 (CD56), also known as Neural-Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM), is a glycoprotein involved in synaptic plasticity, cell-cell adhesion, neurite outgrowth, learning, and memory. (
  • Cultured astrocytes have been shown to promote neurite outgrowth by producing adhesion molecules found either on the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix. (
  • Neurite outgrowth is the development of any projections in young nerve cells. (
  • The cells from the DI-TNC1 cell line have exhibited appreciable neurite outgrowth. (
  • Since endocytosis and postendocytic endosomal trafficking are implicated in many physiologically important processes in neurons (e.g., axon outgrowth) as well as in disease, we need to understand how the neuron-specific machinery impinges on and interfaces with ubiquitously expressed endosomal regulators. (
  • They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. (
  • Similar to the brain, retinal neurons and Müller glia are derived from the neuroepithelium in two temporal phases during embryonic development ( Centanin and Wittbrodt, 2014 ). (
  • Kinetics of homophilic binding by embryonic and adult types of the neural cell adhesion molecule. (
  • During regular growth, the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM adjustments on the cell-surface from a sialic acid-rich embryonic, or E type, to several adult, or A forms that have less sialic acid (E-to-A conversion). (
  • During regular growth, the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM modifications at the cell-surface from a sialic acid-rich embryonic, or E kind, to several adult, or A types which have less sialic acid (E-to-A conversion). (
  • During embryonic development, the otic epithelium and surrounding periotic mesenchymal cells originate from distinct lineages and coordinate to form the mammalian cochlea. (
  • In her presentation, she showed that deletion of ASD risk gene MECP2 in human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons, a model for Rett syndrome, resulted in neurons with smaller somas and dendritic arbors, reduced firing and decreased protein synthesis 3 - a phenotype that is consistent with microcephaly in individuals with Rett syndrome. (
  • Sandström J., Eggermann E., Charvet I., Roux A., Toni N ., Greggio C., Broyer A., Monnet-Tschudi F., Stoppini L. "Development and characterization of a human embryonic stem cell-derived 3D neural tissue model for neurotoxicity testing. (
  • IPSCs are similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs), exhibiting the potential to differentiate into various somatic cells. (
  • Since the end of the 20th century, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have become the focus of research worldwide. (
  • Therefore, using non-embryonic materials to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) directly has become a new direction in the development of stem cell research. (
  • Neurons are replenished in cultures of embryonic chick optic tectum after immunomagnetic depletion. (
  • Here, we cultured primary retinal neurons isolated from adult goat up to 10 days, and established an in vitro model of hyperglycemia for performing morphological and molecular characterization studies. (
  • We also studied the effect of different glucose concentrations and media composition on the growth and expression of CAMs in cultured retinal neurons. (
  • Collectively, our study demonstrates that metabolic environment markedly affects transcriptional regulation of CAMs in adult retinal neurons in culture. (
  • Using cell-specific molecular genetic approaches, we demonstrate that cone cells (CCs) also share molecular, functional, and genetic features with both vertebrate and invertebrate glia to prevent light-induced retinal degeneration and provide structural and physiological support for photoreceptors. (
  • ) use zebrafish retinal ganglion cells as a model to investigate the cell biological basis of radial migration and the consequences for retinal histogenesis when migration is impaired. (
  • However, we unexpectedly detected a large number of cells in the inner nuclear layer expressing retinal ganglion cell (RGC)-specific markers (called displaced RGCs, dRGCs) when at least one allele of Gsk3α is expressed. (
  • Our study thus uncovers a unique role of GSK3 in controlling the production of ganglion cells in the inner nuclear layer, which correspond to dRGCs, a rare and poorly characterized retinal cell type. (
  • Interrestingly, we unexpectedly uncovered a unique role of GSK3s in controlling the genesis of retinal ganglion cells in the inner nuclear layer, which could correspond to a rare and poorly characterized retinal cell type. (
  • Therefore, our mouse models potentially offer a unique and powerful model system to study the visual function of displaced retinal ganglion cells in mammals. (
  • After neurogenesis and gliogenesis neurons have migrated to their final destinations. (
  • Radial migration therefore serves not only to deliver neurons to the appropriate layer but also, through successive waves of neurogenesis and migration, to generate the laminar structure itself. (
  • Migration of newborn neurons is therefore a critical step in nervous system development. (
  • Over 40 years ago, it was discovered that newborn neurons can migrate along the radially oriented stalks of neural progenitor cells, also known as radial glia ( Rakic, 1971 ). (
  • Borcel E., Palczynska M., Krzisch M., Dimitrov M., Ulrich G., Toni N ., Fraering P. "Shedding of neurexin 3betaectodomain by ADAM10 releases a soluble fragment at affects the development of newborn neurons. (
  • The latter includes fast spiking GABAergic interneurons expressing parvalbumin [ 23 , 24 ], and sometimes other types of neurons, for example, excitatory pyramidal neurons, can exhibit these macromolecular structures [ 25 , 26 ]. (
  • Cortical pyramidal neurons of Inka2-/- mice exhibited decreased density and aberrant morphology of dendritic spines with marked activation/phosphorylation of downstream molecules of Pak4 signal cascade, including LIMK and cofilin. (
  • UniProt Link ), is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein discovered originally on the surface of neurons, glia, and skeletal muscle. (
  • The data suggest that the axonal pathologies in the Npc1 mutant spinal cord are strongly correlated with the increase of activated glial cells, which produce IL‐1β and ApoE, resulting in the activation of p38‐MAPK signaling pathway and enhanced phosphorylated tau protein. (
  • Glial cells play structural and functional roles central to the formation, activity and integrity of neurons throughout the nervous system. (
  • Accessory and support glial cells also exist in invertebrates, but which cells play this function in the insect retina is largely undefined. (
  • Synapses are specialized structures that mediate rapid and efficient signal transmission between neurons and are surrounded by glial cells. (
  • Oligodendroglia are specialized glial cells that are crucial for neural networks in the brain and spinal cord to operate at maximum speed and efficiency. (
  • In the retina of vertebrates, the high energetic demand of photoreceptors is sustained in part by Müller glia, an intrinsic, atypical radial glia with features common to many glial subtypes. (
  • Currently, our efforts are focused on understanding the role of Cajal-Retzius cells and intermediate progenitors in the tangential vs. radial expansion of the cerebral cortex, and in the formation of gyri at stereotypic locations in the cerebral cortex during development. (
  • Newborn neuron radial migration is a key force shaping the nervous system. (
  • The most common form of cell transit is known as radial migration. (
  • In many regions of the nervous system (for instance, the cerebral cortex and retina) each cell type settles at a specific radial location, giving rise to a laminar structure in which neurons are arranged according to their type and function. (
  • Because radial migration has such a central role in building the nervous system, there has been great interest in understanding how neurons accomplish their journey. (
  • Radial glia produce and align the ligand fibronectin during neuronal migration in the developing chick brain. (
  • Neurons may possess numerous branching glia dendrites, studded with dendritic spines that glia are the key variable of interest. (
  • Se expresan en las neuronas y en las células de Schwann, pero no en los astrocitos, y participan en la migración neuronal, fasciculación de neuritas y excrecencias. (
  • Myelin protein zero is produced by specialized cells called Schwann cells, which wrap around and insulate peripheral nerves. (
  • Berger P, Niemann A, Suter U. Schwann cells and the pathogenesis of inherited motor and sensory neuropathies (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease). (
  • In vitro studies in Schwann cell cultures showed an increased expression of IL-1 receptor antagonist and reduced expression of Toll-like receptor 4 after incubation with TRIAM as well as a protective effect of TRIAM against oxidative stress after H 2 O 2 exposure. (
  • Intrathecal TRIAM application could be a novel immunomodulatory and potentially neuroprotective option for autoimmune neuropathies with a direct effect on Schwann cells. (
  • The anti-inflammatory effects of TRIAM have been widely investigated and are mediated after binding to the glucocorticoid (GR) nuclear receptors, which is widely expressed in neurons and Schwann cells. (
  • Our own work implicated NEEP21 in correct trafficking of the axonal cell adhesion molecule L1/neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (NgCAM). (
  • These mutations have been consistently linked to defects of cortical development during embryogenesis, and functional studies in rodents have shown that these genes play essential roles in distinct aspects of cortical neuron migration or of cortical folding. (
  • Intriguingly, neurons express cell type-specific proteins that localize to endosomes, but little is known about how these neuronal proteins interface with canonical endosomes and ubiquitously expressed endosomal components, such as EEA1 (Early Endosomal Antigen 1). (
  • In vitro study of adult neurons is a fundamental and indispensable tool for understanding the precise contribution of neuronal genes and proteins toward the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • Once tagged with this label, the scientists could pluck the tagged proteins from the brain tissue and use Duke's mass spectrometry facility to identify the adhesion molecule NrCAM. (
  • Brain angiogenesis is regulated by growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins secreted by cells of the developing CNS. (
  • Neurospheres express the ECM proteins fibronectin and laminin, and brain EC adhesion to neurospheres was inhibited by RGD peptides and antibodies specific for the β1, but not the α6 integrin subunit. (
  • The lab has been uncovering how developing oligodendroglia interact with extracellular matrix proteins, both in their germinal niche as they transition from neural stem cells to specialized glia, as well as in the developing nerve tracts themselves, where final maturation and functional integration takes place. (
  • The laminin family of adhesion proteins are good candidates to regulate oligodendrocytes and the process of myelination: brain defects, including abnormal myelination, occur in the absence of normal laminin signaling. (
  • A whole range of cell adhesion molecules are involved in synapse formation and maturation [ 5 ]. (
  • A pronounced neurodegeneration and glia activation in the olfactory system of NPC1−/− animals is demonstrated, accompanied by sensory deficits, which underlines the critical role and location of the OB as a possible entrance gate for noxious substances. (
  • Vesicular glutamate transporter modulates sex differences in dopamine neuron vulnerability to age-related neurodegeneration. (
  • This study found sex differences in age-related DA neurodegeneration and its associated locomotor behavior, where males exhibit significantly greater decreases in both DA neuron number and locomotion during aging compared with females. (
  • However, little is known regarding the manner by which microglia are activated by injured neurons and how microgliosis participates in neurodegeneration. (
  • Journal of Cell Biology. (
  • Cell growth & differentiation : the molecular biology journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. (
  • We really discovered that the astrocytes are the conductors that orchestrate the notes that make up the music of the brain," said Scott Soderling, PhD, chair of the Department of Cell Biology in the School of Medicine and senior author on the paper. (
  • However, this study shows that astrocytes are running the show in overall brain function, and could be important targets for brain therapies, said co-senior author Cagla Eroglu, PhD, associate professor of cell biology and neurobiology in the School of Medicine. (
  • Applications focused on early determination in the nervous system as well as neural stem cell biology may be reviewed in NCF whereas applications focused on later differentiation in the nervous system and related aspects of plasticity and regeneration may be reviewed in NDPR. (
  • Dr Labeed principally leads research on the applications of dielectrophoresis (cell motion induced by non-uniform electric fields) to cell biology. (
  • To address this question, Holly Stessman studies changes in the biology (e.g., growth, morphology) of isogenic human cell lines and induced pluripotent stem cells) carrying different ASD-linked genetic mutations with the goal to identify phenotypes that are specific to genetically defined 'subtypes' of autism. (
  • The present study improves our awareness of basic mechanisms which relate mTOR activity to the biology of glioblastoma cells. (
  • Cold Spring Harbor, NY -- Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (CSHLP) announced the release of The Digital Cell: Cell Biology as a Data Science, available on its website in hardcover format. (
  • When the focus is on the neuronal function and how it is influenced by glia, the application may be reviewed by NDPR. (
  • [ 6 ] The authors even found morphological signs of neuronophagia in the hindbrain, [ 1 ] suggesting neuronal cell death and phagocytosis by microglia. (
  • Minocycline Alleviates Cluster Formation of Activated Microglia and Age-dependent Dopaminergic Cell Death in the Substantia Nigra of Zitter Mutant Rat. (
  • Here, we examine whether activated microglia participate in age-related dopaminergic (DA) cell death in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of the zitter (zi/zi) rat, a mutant characterized by deletion of the attractin gene. (
  • Confocal microscopy with double-immunohistochemical staining revealed activated microglia-formed cell-clusters surrounding DA neurons in the SNc from 2 weeks after birth. (
  • The CNS includes neurons and glia of the brain, spinal cord and retina. (
  • Peripheral nerves connect the brain and spinal cord to muscles and to sensory cells that detect sensations such as touch, pain, heat, and sound. (
  • We study a specialized glial cell, the oligodendrocyte, which myelinates axons in the brain and spinal cord. (
  • The binding of IL-7 with its receptor is important for the stimulation of mature and immature T cells and immature B cell proliferation and development. (
  • Upon exiting the cell cycle, immature neurons depart the germinal zone, which lines the ventricles at the inner (apical) surface of the neural tube, and migrate radially into the overlying neuropil. (
  • CD45 plays an essential role in the regulation of T- and B-cell antigen receptor signaling. (
  • Positive staining for CD15 and negative staining for leukocyte common antigen or other B- or T-cell lineage markers helps recognise Reed Sternberg cells (RSC) in classic Hodgkin's lymphoma, and distinguishes it from Hodgkin-like neoplasms. (
  • Examination by immunostaining indicated SV40 T antigen was detected in the nuclei of over 95 percent of the cells. (
  • Intriguingly, some DA neurons are more resilient to degeneration than others. (
  • We used molecular markers to characterize a boundary within the optic lobe of the Drosophila brain and found that Slit and the Robo family of receptors, well-known regulators of axon guidance and neuronal migration, inhibit the mixing of adjacent cell populations in the developing optic lobe. (
  • Reza Kalhor described a new in vivo , genetic barcoding approach that he developed to track cell lineages using the evolution of induced genetic mutations, starting from the zygote that gives rise to all the other cells of an organism, 1,2 . (
  • use in vivo live imaging of larval zebrafish retina to investigate the cell biological mechanisms of somal translocation. (
  • Charlton-Perkins MA, Sendler ED, Buschbeck EK, Cook TA (2017) Multifunctional glial support by Semper cells in the Drosophila retina. (
  • Neuron 2017 Feb 8 93(3). (
  • This methodology can be used to map single neuron lineages in the whole brain of developing mice, which was not possible before. (
  • Somatic stem cells, also known as adult stem cells are multipotent cells, that is, a type of somatic stem cell that can differentiate into cells belonging to several different related cell lineages but not into all ultimate body cell types. (
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) which are "multipotent stem cells that give rise to all the blood cell types from the myeloid ( monocytes and macrophages , neutrophils , basophils , eosinophils , erythrocytes , megakaryocytes / platelets , dendritic cells ), and lymphoid lineages ( T-cells , B-cells , NK-cells )( ref ). (
  • Rapamycin suppressed cell migration when exposed to fetal bovine serum (FBS) while increasing the cell adhesion protein phospho-FAK (pFAK). (
  • Despite our recognition of glia as a key component of the brain, the genetic networks that mediate their neuroprotective functions remain relatively poorly understood. (
  • Using cell-restricted transcriptome analysis, here we show that the ommatidial cone cells (aka Semper cells) in the Drosophila compound eye are enriched for glial regulators and effectors, including signature characteristics of the vertebrate visual system. (
  • Specifically, we show that distinct support functions (neuronal activity, structural integrity and sustained neurotransmission) can be genetically separated in cone cells by down-regulating transcription factors associated with vertebrate gliogenesis ( pros/Prox1 , Pax2/5/8 , and Oli/Olig1 , 2 , respectively). (
  • Neurons of the vertebrate nervous system are usually born in a different site than where they will ultimately reside. (
  • Over the last several decades, a neuron-specific isoform of agrin, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, has been identified as playing a central role in synapse formation at all vertebrate skeletal neuromuscular synapses. (
  • Next, we examined the relative expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in adult goat brain and retina. (
  • Altered expression of neuronal cell adhesion molecules induced by nerve hurt and restore. (
  • Nerve growth issue enhances expression of neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule in PC12 cells. (
  • Structure, expression, and performance of Ng-CAM, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily concerned in neuron-neuron and neuron-glia adhesion. (
  • In addition, the authors observed platelet accumulation in combination with augmented expression of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1), as well as increased tissue factor and von Willebrand factor, in COVID-19 patients, suggesting that activation of the coagulation system in the brain vasculature most likely leads to occlusion and damage to small vessels. (
  • Protein expression of Cyclophilin B in DI-TNC1 cells. (
  • At 72 hours post-transfection the cells were analyzed by Western Blot for protein expression levels (normalized by total protein, 10 µg of total protein loaded per each well). (
  • Increasing evidence suggests that vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) expression in DA neurons plays a role in this selective vulnerability. (
  • The beta-galactosidase reporter indicated the preferential Inka2 expression in the dorsal forebrain neurons. (
  • The role of calcium has been well documented in numerous cellular processes, including cell proliferation and inhibition and activation of various intracellular enzymes ( 23 - 25 ). (
  • Clearance of small intestinal crypts involves goblet cell mucus secretion by intracellular granule rupture and enterocyte ion transport. (
  • C. More differentiated stem and progenitor cells (e.g. endothelial progenitor cells , myoblasts or satellite cells in muscle tissue). (
  • Galileo DS, Gray GE, Owens GC, Majors J, Sanes JR. Neurons and glia arise from a common progenitor in chicken optic tectum: demonstration with two retroviruses and cell type-specific antibodies. (
  • We investigated the role of DA neuron VGLUT in sex- and age-related differences in DA neuron vulnerability using the genetically tractable Drosophila model. (
  • Researchers used optogenetics (a method of stimulating genetically engineered neurons with light) to develop a new deep brain stimulation protocol to drive population-specific neuromodulation in the external globus pallidus. (
  • It plays a role in tightly packing the myelin around nerve cells (myelin compaction). (
  • Several mutations in the MPZ gene cause other forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease known as type 2I, type 2J, and dominant intermediate D. These forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, which often do not become evident until adulthood, affect the specialized outgrowths from nerve cells (axons) that transmit impulses to muscles and other nerve cells. (
  • They differentiate into nerve cells by induction, which has the original characteristics of diseases. (
  • After immunization with neuritogenic P2 peptide, we show a dose-dependent therapeutic effect of one intrathecal injection of 0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg TRIAM on clinical and electrophysiological parameters of neuritis with a lower degree of inflammatory infiltrates (T cells and macrophages) and demyelination in the sciatic nerve. (
  • In the orchestra of the brain, the firing of each neuron is controlled by two notes-excitatory and inhibitory- that come from two distinct forms of a cellular structure called synapses. (
  • Previously found to be involved in controlling excitatory synapses, a team of Duke scientists also found that astrocytes are involved in regulating inhibitory synapses by binding to neurons through an adhesion molecule called NrCAM. (
  • Conventional studies on ion channels have primarily focused on the crucial roles these channels perform in excitatory cell types, including neurons, cardiomyocytes and secretory cells ( 1 ). (
  • Alterations in neural cell adhesion molecules throughout enchancment of varied Omg Sex Cams areas of the nervous system. (
  • Alterations in neural cell adhesion molecules during growth of various regions of the nervous system. (
  • Extracellular matrix (ECM) components are synthesized by both neurons and astrocytes and play an important role in the formation, maintenance, and function of synapses in the CNS. (
  • full fulfilment is the interaction of a activation of early work cells in body to yield formation data and RAF esophagus scale. (
  • Epithelial sensory precursors within the cochlear duct first undergo terminal mitosis before differentiating into sensory and non-sensory cells. (
  • Previously, Wnt activation was shown to promote proliferation and differentiation of both otic epithelial and mesenchymal cells. (
  • Here, we fate-mapped Wnt-responsive epithelial and mesenchymal cells in mice and found that Wnt activation resulted in opposing cell fates. (
  • In the post-mitotic cochlear epithelium, Wnt activation via β-catenin stabilization induced clusters of proliferative cells that dedifferentiated and lost epithelial characteristics. (
  • This project, developed in conjunction with the Eastman Dental Institute over many years, uses dielectrophoresis to discriminate between normal and cancerous epithelial cells taken from a brush biopsy of suspicious sites. (
  • Somatic cells such as skin fibroblasts, umbilical cord blood, peripheral blood, urinary epithelial cells, etc., are transformed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by reprogramming technology, a milestone in the stem-cell research field. (
  • D. Normal body somatic cells (e.g. cardiomyocytes , red blood cells , leukocytes , keratinocytes , melanocytes , and Langerhans cells ). (
  • Culture of adult neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) can provide a unique model system to explore neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • Typically, primary cultures utilize fetal rodent neurons, but very rarely adult neurons from larger mammals. (
  • since adult tissue consists of mature neurons which do not undergo cell division. (
  • Amyloid-beta induced CA1 pyramidal cell loss in young adult rats is alleviated by systemic treatment with FGL, a neural cell adhesion molecule-derived mimeticPeptide. (
  • Mossy Cells Control Adult Neural Stem Cell Quiescence and Maintenance through a Dynamic Balance between Direct and Indirect Pathways. (
  • This blog entry is about somatic stem cells, the natural kind that reside in adult bodies, the factors that affect their health and longevity, the changes they undergo in the process of aging, and the roles they possibly play in overall human aging. (
  • Also there are Mammary stem cells , Neural stem cells , Olfactory adult stem cells , Neural crest stem cells and Testicular cells . (
  • Adult stem cells belong to a major category of cells in what I have called the stem cell supply chain . (
  • These multipotent adult stem cells are each capable of differentiating into a variety of kinds of somatic cells. (
  • Adult stem cells of a given type under conditions of youth and health typically differentiate to produce a defined mix of daughter cell types. (
  • As discussed below, aged or damaged adult stem cells may give rise to a skewed mix of daughter cells. (
  • There are a few key topics that I do not treat here though to some extent they have been discussed in past blog entries, including disease therapies based on use of adult stem cells and practical dietary and lifestyle interventions that can contribute to adult stem cell health. (
  • The actin filament is a fundamental part of the cytoskeleton defining cell morphology and regulating various physiological processes, including filopodia formation and dendritic spinogenesis of neurons. (
  • While agrin was initially postulated to be the inductive molecule that initiates synaptogenesis, this model has been modified in response to work showing that postsynaptic differentiation can develop in the absence of innervation, and that synapses can form in transgenic mice in which the agrin gene is ablated. (
  • This activation by quetiapine lowered α-synuclein accumulation in mice and partially rescued pathology in dopaminergic neurons with LRRK2 mutations ( Click here to read more about this and click here to read a SoPD post on this topic). (
  • Analysis of neurons cultured in isolation over time facilitates perturbation of neuron-specific signaling pathways by exposing them to chemical agents, and manipulation of neuronal genes using knock-down or overexpression studies. (
  • The main proposed roles of CD19 are to recruit multimolecular complexes at the surface of mature B cells (e.g., with CD21 and CD81) and lower the signaling pathways threshold for BCRs. (
  • For RNA-seq, we identified 150 differentially expressed genes between air and DE treatment related to natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity per Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. (
  • The term "oncotarget" encompasses all molecules, pathways, cellular functions, cell types, and even tissues that can be viewed as targets relevant to cancer as well as other diseases. (
  • Last, we uncover evidence that functional interference with NEEP21 reduces axon and dendrite growth of primary rat hippocampal neurons on L1 substrate but not on N-cadherin substrate, thus implicating endosomal trafficking through somatodendritic early endosomes in L1-mediated axon growth. (
  • To understand the effects of ASD-linked mutations on brain development, another BTI fellow, Yun Li , uses in vitro assays, such as stem cells and brain organoids. (
  • Some iPSCs are reprogrammed from somatic cells that carry disease-causing mutations. (
  • Glia are the caretakers of the nervous system. (
  • Here, using the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster , we identify a new glial cell type in one of the most active tissues in the nervous system-the retina. (
  • Glia have been recognized as a major and heterogeneous non-neuronal cell type in the nervous system for more than 150 years, but their chief homeostatic and regulatory roles in nervous system development and maintenance have only recently emerged [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • Although Inka2 is dominantly expressed in the nervous system and involved in focal-adhesion dynamics, its molecular role remains unclear. (
  • During angiogenesis in the developing central nervous system (CNS), endothelial cells (EC) detach from blood vessels growing on the brain surface, and migrate into the expanding brain parenchyma. (
  • In these experimental conditions, cell phenotype shifts towards a pyramidal neuron-like shape owing long branches. (
  • The endocannabinoid system controls the activity of molecular and subcellular master regulators of cell metabolism, such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mitochondria, lysosomes and autophagosomes, which are also involved in the correct functioning of the CNS during ageing and neurological conditions. (
  • CCs also share molecular and functional features with the three main glial types in the mammalian visual system: Müller glia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. (
  • Glioblastoma cells feature mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) up-regulation which relates to a variety of effects such as: lower survival, higher infiltration, high stemness and radio- and chemo-resistance. (
  • Among various molecular hallmarks, GBM cells are characterized by up-regulation of the molecular complex known as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). (
  • Olfactory testing may provide useful information to monitor pharmacologic treatment approaches in human NPC1 and observed considerable loss of mature olfactory receptor neurons as well as an increased number of proliferating and apoptotic cells after both therapy approaches. (
  • The neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) inhibits proliferation in main cultures of rat astrocytes. (
  • Stem cells are the source of various tissue cells in the human body and can self-replicate, undergo proliferation, and multi-directional differentiation. (
  • An association between VGCCs, a reduction in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis in prostate cancer cells has also been reported. (
  • The roles of ion channels in various cell functions, including mitogenesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and metastasis are now well recognized ( 2 - 4 ). (
  • The transcript levels of calcium channels may cause different domino effects on specific cell functions, as well as on cell proliferation, motility or even cell apoptosis ( 28 ). (
  • [ 1 ] could contribute to the endothelial cell death that was detected in other studies. (
  • Finally, they used an elaborate technique to examine spatial transcriptomics in the hindbrain, focusing on regions enriched in the endothelial marker PECAM-1 or the immune cell marker CD45, thereby generating a dataset that could be useful for future studies. (
  • According to the authors, immunoglobulin complexes stimulate the classical complement cascade, activate endothelial cells, and subsequently induce blood-brain barrier leakage and immune cell infiltration. (
  • Unique brain endothelial profiles activated by social stress promote cell adhesion, prostaglandin E2 signaling, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis modulation, and anxiety. (
  • Endothelial Stem Cells are one of the three types of Multipotent stem cells found in the bone marrow. (
  • They are a rare and controversial group with the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells, the cells which line blood vessels( ref ). (
  • One mental download of increasing this determining is the envelope of neutral gene disorder to the tyrosine involved dissociation T. The fluid of B damage membrane bubble depending is advanced to Immunoglobulin E Including and activation structure cell yielding. (
  • Astrocytes are involved in regulating inhibitory synapses by binding to neurons through the NrCAM adhesion molecule. (
  • Synapses are essentially the connections between neurons, transmitting information from one cell to the other. (
  • When the music becomes discordant and a person is diagnosed with a brain disease, scientists typically look to the synapses between neurons to determine what went wrong. (