Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.
A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. Ng-CAM is immunologically and structurally distinct from NCAM.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecules that are involved in NERVOUS SYSTEM patterning.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
A complex blood group system having pairs of alternate antigens and amorphic genes, but also subject to a dominant independently segregating repressor.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.
Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.

Expression of trophinin, tastin, and bystin by trophoblast and endometrial cells in human placenta. (1/9582)

Trophinin, tastin, and bystin comprise a complex mediating a unique homophilic cell adhesion between trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells at their respective apical cell surfaces. In this study, we prepared mouse monoclonal antibodies specific to each of these molecules. The expression of these molecules in the human placenta was examined immunohistochemically using the antibodies. In placenta from the 6th week of pregnancy, trophinin and bystin were found in the cytoplasm of the syncytiotrophoblast in the chorionic villi, and in endometrial decidual cells at the utero placental interface. Tastin was exclusively present on the apical side of the syncytiotrophoblast. Tissue sections were also examined by in situ hybridization using RNA probes specific to each of these molecules. This analysis showed that trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells at the utero placental interface express trophinin, tastin, and bystin. In wk 10 placenta, trophinin and bystin were found in the intravillous cytotrophoblast, while tastin was not found in the villi. After wk 10, levels of all three proteins decreased and then disappeared from placental villi.  (+info)

Mycophenolate mofetil prevents the progressive renal failure induced by 5/6 renal ablation in rats. (2/9582)

BACKGROUND: Extensive renal ablation is associated with progressive sclerosis of the remnant kidney. Because lymphocytes and monocytes accumulate in the remnant kidney, it is likely that they play a role in the renal scarring. Therefore, we treated rats with 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx) with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a drug that has an antiproliferative effect and that suppresses the expression of intercellular adhesion molecules. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats with 5/6Nx received MMF (30 mg. kg-1. day-1 by daily gastric gavage, N = 15) or vehicle (N = 16). Ten additional rats were sham operated. All rats were fed a 30% protein diet. Body weight, serum creatinine, and urinary protein excretion were determined weekly. Lipid peroxidation, as a measure of oxidative stress observed by urinary malondialdehyde determinations, was performed every two weeks. Histologic studies were done in the remnant kidney four weeks (9 rats from the vehicle-treated group, 7 rats from the MMF group, and 5 sham-operated rats) and eight weeks after surgery (the remaining rats). Glomerular volume, sclerosis in glomeruli (segmental and global) and interstitium (semiquantitative scale), infiltrating lymphocytes and macrophages (CD43- and ED1-positive cells), and expression of adhesion molecules (CD54, CD18, and CD11b) were analyzed. RESULTS: MMF treatment prevented the progressive increment in serum creatinine and the proteinuria observed in the 5/6 nephrectomized rats during the eight weeks of observation (P < 0.01). Weight gain was comparable in the MMF-treated and sham-operated rats, whereas weight gain was decreased in untreated 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Excretion of malondialdehyde increased after surgery but returned sooner to control levels in the MMF-treated rats. Increments in glomerular size and mean arterial blood pressure induced by renal ablation were not modified by MMF treatment. Eight weeks after surgery, segmental sclerosis was present in 48.4 +/- 8.35% (+/- sd) glomeruli in the vehicle-treated group versus 25 +/- 10.5% in the MMF-treated group (P < 0.001). Interstitial fibrosis was reduced significantly with MMF treatment (P < 0.001). Infiltration with CD43- and ED1-positive cells in glomeruli and interstitium was two to five times lower in MMF-treated rats (P < 0.01). Expression of adhesion molecules CD18 and CD11b was similarly reduced. CONCLUSION: MMF ameliorates the progressive renal damage in the remnant kidney after 5/6Nx. This effect is associated with a reduction in the infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes, whereas glomerular hypertrophy and systemic hypertension are unchanged.  (+info)

A cell-surface superoxide dismutase is a binding protein for peroxinectin, a cell-adhesive peroxidase in crayfish. (3/9582)

Peroxinectin, a cell-adhesive peroxidase (homologous to human myeloperoxidase), from the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, was shown by immuno-fluorescence to bind to the surface of crayfish blood cells (haemocytes). In order to identify a cell surface receptor for peroxinectin, labelled peroxinectin was incubated with a blot of haemocyte membrane proteins. It was found to specifically bind two bands of 230 and 90 kDa; this binding was decreased in the presence of unlabelled peroxinectin. Purified 230/90 kDa complex also bound peroxinectin in the same assay. In addition, the 230 kDa band binds the crayfish beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein. The 230 kDa band could be reduced to 90 kDa, thus showing that the 230 kDa is a multimer of 90 kDa units. The peroxinectin-binding protein was cloned from a haemocyte cDNA library, using immuno-screening or polymerase chain reaction based on partial amino acid sequence of the purified protein. It has a signal sequence, a domain homologous to CuZn-containing superoxide dismutases, and a basic, proline-rich, C-terminal tail, but no membrane-spanning segment. In accordance, the 90 and 230 kDa bands had superoxide dismutase activity. Immuno-fluorescence of non-permeabilized haemocytes with affinity-purified antibodies confirmed that the crayfish CuZn-superoxide dismutase is localized at the cell surface; it could be released from the membrane with high salt. It was thus concluded that the peroxinectin-binding protein is an extracellular SOD (EC-SOD) and a peripheral membrane protein, presumably kept at the cell surface via ionic interaction with its C-terminal region. This interaction with a peroxidase seems to be a novel function for an SOD. The binding of the cell surface SOD to the cell-adhesive/opsonic peroxinectin may mediate, or regulate, cell adhesion and phagocytosis; it may also be important for efficient localized production of microbicidal substances.  (+info)

Interaction of lipopolysaccharide with human small intestinal lamina propria fibroblasts favors neutrophil migration and peripheral blood mononuclear cell adhesion by the production of proinflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules. (4/9582)

Fibroblasts are important effector cells having a potential role in augmenting the inflammatory responses in various diseases. In infantile diarrhea caused by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the mechanism of inflammatory reactions at the mucosal site remains unknown. Although the potential involvement of fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of cryptococcus-induced diarrhea in pigs has been suggested, the precise role of lamina propria fibroblasts in the cellular pathogenesis of intestinal infection and inflammation caused by EPEC requires elucidation. Earlier we reported the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cell proliferation, and collagen synthesis and downregulation of nitric oxide in lamina propria fibroblasts. In this report, we present the profile of cytokines and adhesion molecules in the cultured and characterized human small intestinal lamina propria fibroblasts in relation to neutrophil migration and adhesion in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from EPEC 055:B5. Upon interaction with LPS (1-10 micrograms/ml), lamina propria fibroblasts produced a high level of proinflammatory mediators, interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and cell adhesion molecules (CAM) such as intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM), A-CAM, N-CAM and vitronectin in a time-dependent manner. LPS induced cell-associated IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, and IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha as soluble form in the supernatant. Apart from ICAM, vitronectin, A-CAM, and N-CAM proteins were strongly induced in lamina propria fibroblasts by LPS. Adhesion of PBMC to LPS-treated lamina propria fibroblasts was ICAM-dependent. LPS-induced ICAM expression in lamina propria fibroblasts was modulated by whole blood, PBMC and neutrophils. Conditioned medium of LPS-treated lamina propria fibroblasts remarkably enhanced the neutrophil migration. The migration of neutrophils was inhibited by anti-IL-8 antibody. Co-culture of fibroblasts with neutrophils using polycarbonate membrane filters exhibited time-dependent migration of neutrophils. These findings indicate that the coordinate production of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in lamina propria fibroblasts which do not classically belong to the immune system can influence the local inflammatory reactions at the intestinal mucosal site during bacterial infections and can influence the immune cell population residing in the lamina propria.  (+info)

CD28 ligation induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 but not Fak in Jurkat T cells. (5/9582)

Protein tyrosine kinases are critical for the function of CD28 in T cells. We examined whether the tyrosine kinases Pyk2 and Fak (members of the focal adhesion kinase family) are involved in CD28 signaling. We found that ligating CD28 in Jurkat T cells rapidly increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 but not of Fak. Paxillin, a substrate for Pyk2 and Fak, was not tyrosine-phosphorylated after CD28 ligation. CD28-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 was markedly reduced in the absence of external Ca2+. Previous studies have shown that the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2. In this report, the concurrent ligation of CD28 and TCR increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2; however, the extent of phosphorylation by both receptors was equivalent to the sum of that induced by each receptor alone. The Syk/Zap inhibitor piceatannol blocked CD28, and TCR induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2, suggesting that Syk/Zap is involved in Pyk2 phosphorylation. In contrast, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin blocked TCR- but not CD28-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2, suggesting that CD28 and TCR activate distinct pathways to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2. Notably, depleting phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-sensitive protein kinase C did not block CD28- and CD3-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2. These data provide evidence for the involvement of Pyk2 in the CD28 signaling cascade and suggest that neither Fak nor paxillin is involved in the signaling pathways of CD28.  (+info)

Similarities and differences in RANTES- and (AOP)-RANTES-triggered signals: implications for chemotaxis. (6/9582)

Chemokines are a family of proinflammatory cytokines that attract and activate specific types of leukocytes. Chemokines mediate their effects via interaction with seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Using CCR5-transfected HEK-293 cells, we show that both the CCR5 ligand, RANTES, as well as its derivative, aminooxypentane (AOP)- RANTES, trigger immediate responses such as Ca2+ influx, receptor dimerization, tyrosine phosphorylation, and Galphai as well as JAK/STAT association to the receptor. In contrast to RANTES, (AOP)-RANTES is unable to trigger late responses, as measured by the association of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to the chemokine receptor complex, impaired cell polarization required for migration, or chemotaxis. The results are discussed in the context of the dissociation of the late signals, provoked by the chemokines required for cell migration, from early signals.  (+info)

Expression of intercellular adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 in human endometrium: regulation by interferon-gamma. (7/9582)

The purpose of this study was to localize intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and ICAM-2 in human endometrium and myometrium throughout the menstrual cycle, and to determine whether the expression of these molecules is regulated by interferon (IFN)-gamma. ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 distribution was examined in endometrial biopsies by immunocytochemistry, and Northern blotting was used to quantify ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 mRNA expression in isolated endometrial glands. Stromal fibroblast cultures were exposed to IFN-gamma and the effect on expression of ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 was determined by immunocytochemistry and Northern blotting. ICAM-1 was localized in vivo to the apical surface of the glandular epithelium, the vascular endothelium and endometrial stromal cells throughout the menstrual cycle. Stromal expression of ICAM-1 was up-regulated in menstrual specimens. Northern blotting confirmed the presence of ICAM-1 mRNA in isolated endometrial glands. The expression of ICAM-1 antigen and message was increased in stromal cell culture after incubation with IFN-gamma in a time-dependent manner, suggesting that this cytokine stimulates the expression of ICAM-1 in the endometrial stroma. ICAM-2 antigen expression was restricted to the vascular endothelium. ICAM-2 mRNA was absent in endometrial glands. The widespread distribution of ICAM-1 in human endometrium suggests that this molecule is involved in the process of menstruation, the functioning of glands, blood vessels and stroma, and in regulating leukocyte trafficking into the tissue. ICAM-2 is restricted to the vascular endothelium where it might modulate leukocyte invasion of the stroma and myometrial connective tissue.  (+info)

Characterization of prethymic progenitors within the chicken embryo. (8/9582)

The thymic primordium in both birds and mammals is first colonized by cells emerging from the intra-embryonic mesenchyme but the nature of these precursors is poorly understood. We demonstrate here an early embryonic day 7 prethymic population with T lymphoid potential. Our work is a phenotypic analysis of, to date, the earliest embryonic prethymic progenitors arising in the avian para-aortic area during ontogeny. The phenotype of these cells, expressing the cell surface molecules alpha2beta1 integrin, c-kit, thrombomucin/MEP21, HEMCAM and chL12, reflects functional properties required for cell adhesion, migration and growth factor responsiveness. Importantly, the presence of these antigens was found to correlate with the recolonization of the recipient thymus following intrathymic cell transfers. These intra-embryonic cells were also found to express the Ikaros transcription factor, the molecular function of which is considered to be prerequisite for embryonic lymphoid development.  (+info)

Buy CEACAM18 elisa kit, Canine Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 18 (CEACAM18) ELISA Kit-NP_082512.1 (MBS7211769) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
Ceacam12 (untagged) - Mouse carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 12 (Ceacam12), transcript variant 1, (10ug), 10 µg.
Kakunaga S., Ikeda W., Itoh S., Deguchi-Tawarada M., Ohtsuka T., Mizoguchi A., Takai Y.. Nectins are Ca2+-independent immunoglobulin-like cell-cell adhesion molecules and comprise a family of four members. At the mossy fiber terminals of hippocampus, nectin-1 and nectin-3 localize at the presynaptic and postsynaptic sides of synaptic junctions, respectively, and their trans-interactions play a role in formation of synapses in cooperation with N-cadherin. Nectins are associated with the actin cytoskeleton through afadin, a nectin- and actin-filament-binding protein. Five nectin-like molecules (Necls) which have domain structures similar to those of nectins have been identified and here we characterize Necl-1/TSLL1/SynCAM3, from now on referred to as Necl-1. Tissue distribution analysis showed that Necl-1 was specifically expressed in the neural tissue. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that Necl-1 localized at the contact sites among axons, their terminals, and glia cell ...
Keywords: CEACAM1 Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule-1 apoptosis -catenin Fas T-cell Jurkat cell actin cytoskeleton Launch CEACAM1 is normally a transmembrane cell adhesion molecule that is one of the CEA superfamily. A couple of a lot more than ten splicing isoforms of CEACAM1 with the long or a brief cytoplasmic domains and 1-4 Ig-like extracellular domains. CEACAM1 is normally expressed in a variety of tissue including epithelial endothelial and hematopoietic cells. Unlike generally in most tissue where both lengthy and brief isoforms are portrayed as well as the brief isoform may be the main regulatory molecule in epithelial cells [1] the lengthy cytoplasmic isoforms of CEACAM1 (e.g CEACAM1-4L) however not the brief Amiloride hydrochloride dihydrate isoform is Amiloride hydrochloride dihydrate Amiloride hydrochloride dihydrate normally predominantly portrayed in activated individual T-cells being a co-inhibitory molecule [2]. Prior studies established that recruitment of ...
Creative Biomart offer ceacam2 proteins for life sciences research. All the products are rigorously tested to meet the most demanding research needs. At the same time, lowest prices in the industry are always guaranteed.
We describe a high-throughput screening system to detect interactions between leucocyte surface proteins, taking into account that these interactions are usually of very low affinity. The method involves producing the extracellular regions of leucocyte proteins with tags so that they can be bound to nanoparticles to provide an avid reagent to screen over an array of 36 similar proteins immobilized using the Proteon XPR36 with detection by surface plasmon resonance. The system was tested using established interactions that could be detected without spurious binding. The ability to detect new interactions was shown by identifying a new interaction between carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 and carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 8.
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
Cell adhesion molecule that plays a role in neuronal self-avoidance. Promotes repulsion between specific neuronal processes of either the same cell or the same subtype of cells. Mediates within retinal amacrine and ganglion cell subtypes both isoneuronal self-avoidance for creating an orderly dendritic arborization and heteroneuronal self-avoidance to maintain the mosaic spacing between amacrine and ganglion cell bodies (PubMed:10925149). Receptor for netrin required for axon guidance independently of and in collaboration with the receptor DCC. In spinal chord development plays a role in guiding commissural axons projection and pathfinding across the ventral midline to reach the floor plate upon ligand binding (PubMed:18585357, PubMed:19196994). Enhances netrin-induced phosphorylation of PAK1 and FYN (PubMed:15169762). Mediates intracellular signaling by stimulating the activation of MAPK8 and MAP kinase p38 (PubMed:18585357, PubMed:19196994). Adhesion molecule that promotes lamina-specific ...
A protein encoded by a gene in band 22 of the long arm of human chromosome 21. The gene contains multiple exons which allow multiple mRNAs to be transcribed by alternative splicing (q.v.). The transcripts are differentially expressed in different substructures of the adult brain. The DSCAM is a member of the immunoglobulin domain superfamily (q.v.). These isoforms may be involved in the patterning of neural networks by selective adhesions between axons. See innate immunity. ...
Synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SynCAMs) are crucial for synapse formation and plasticity. However, we have previously demonstrated that SynCAMs are also required during earlier stages of neural circuit formation because SynCAM1 and SynCAM2 (also known as CADM1 and CADM2, respectively) are important for the guidance of post-crossing commissural axons. In contrast to the exclusively homophilic cis-interactions reported by previous studies, our previous in vivo results suggested the existence of heterophilic cis-interactions between SynCAM1 and SynCAM2. Indeed, as we show here, the presence of homophilic and heterophilic cis-interactions modulates the interaction of SynCAMs with trans-binding partners, as observed previously for other immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules. These in vitro findings are in agreement with results from in vivo studies, which demonstrate a role for SynCAMs in the formation of sensory neural circuits in the chicken embryo. In the absence of SynCAMs, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surface Marker Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule and E-cadherin Facilitate the Identification and Selection of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. AU - Chen, Hsin Fu. AU - Chuang, Ching Yu. AU - Lee, Wen Chih. AU - Huang, Hsiang Po. AU - Wu, Han Chung. AU - Ho, Hong Nerng. AU - Chen, Yu Ju. AU - Kuo, Hung Chih. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - The derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) requires not only efficient reprogramming methods, but also reliable markers for identification and purification of iPSCs. Here, we demonstrate that surface markers, epithelial cells adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) can be used for efficient identification and/or isolation of reprogrammed mouse iPSCs. By viral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and n- or c-Myc into mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we observed that the conventional mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) markers, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA1), were expressed in ...
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Background: Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), an immunoglobulin (Ig)-related glycoprotein, serves as cellular receptor for a variety of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens associated with the human mucosa. In particular, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae possess well-characterized CEACAM1-binding adhesins. CEACAM1 is typically involved in cell-cell attachment, epithelial differentiation, neovascularisation and regulation of T-cell proliferation, and is one of the few CEACAM family members with homologues in different mammalian lineages. However, it is unknown whether bacterial adhesins of human pathogens can recognize CEACAM1 orthologues from other mammals.,br /,Results: Sequence comparisons of the amino-terminal Ig-variable-like domain of CEACAM1 reveal that the highest sequence divergence between human, murine, canine and bovine orthologues is found in the β-strands comprising the bacteria-binding ...
Our previous in vitro data suggested that CEACAM1 is involved in angiogenesis. This is supported by a recent proteomic screen for cell membrane components expressed in newly formed tumor vessels and the fact that CEACAM1 expression is upregulated in synergy with other angiogenic factors in cardiac hypoxia (17, 19). To date, however, evidence for a causal implication of CEACAM1 in angiogenesis in vivo was lacking. In the present study, we report on 2 different genetic mouse models in which the angiogenic action of CEACAM1 has been investigated: in CEACAM1endo+ mice, the expression of CEACAM1-L was targeted to endothelia via the Tie2 promoter, and in Ceacam1-/- mice, the Ceacam1 gene was inactivated by targeted disruption (29). In addition, endothelial cells were transfected with cDNAs coding for WT CEACAM1-L and for CEACAM1-L mutants harboring amino acid substitutions in the cytoplasmic domain. In these experimental systems, we provide conclusive evidence that CEACAM1 is involved in angiogenesis ...
PMID: Gut. 2013 Apr 18. Epub 2013 Apr 18. PMID: 23598352. Abstract Title: Western diet induces dysbiosis with increased E coli in CEABAC10 mice, alters host barrier function favouring AIEC colonisation. Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Western diet is a risk factor for Crohns disease (CD). Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) is abnormally expressed in CD patients. This allows adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) to colonise the gut mucosa and leads to inflammation. We assessed the effects of a high fat/high sugar (HF/HS) Western diet on gut microbiota composition, barrier integrity and susceptibility to infection in transgenic CEABAC10 mice expressing human CEACAMs. DESIGN: Colonic microbiota composition and susceptibility of CEABAC10 mice to AIEC LF82 bacteria infection were determined in mice fed a conventional or HF/HS diet. Barrier function and inflammatory response were assessed by studying intestinal permeability, tight junction protein and mucin expression and ...
Soluble cell adhesion molecules (sCAMs) are a class of cell adhesion molecule (CAMs - cell surface binding proteins) that may represent important biomarkers for inflammatory processes involving activation or damage to cells such as platelets and the endothelium. They include soluble forms of the cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and P-selectin (distinguished as sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and sP-selectin). The cellular expression of CAMs is difficult to assess clinically, but these soluble forms are present in the circulation and may serve as markers for CAMs. Research has focused on their role in cardiovascular (particularly atherosclerosis), connective tissue and neoplastic diseases, where blood plasma levels may be a marker of the disease severity or prognosis, and they may be useful in evaluating progress of some treatments. Many studies have postulated that increased production of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) on the vascular endothelium (blood vessel lining) plays a ...
ORF of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 20 (CEACAM20), transcript variant 4L in pENTER vector with CMV promoter and C-terminal FLAG and His tags.
Cell and matrix adhesion of lymphocytes participates in homing, migration and accumulation of these cells in inflamed tissues as well as in the generation of immune and inflammatory responses. In inflamed joints of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, lymphocytes accumulate in the synovial membrane and the synovial fluid. In the present study we have analyzed the expression of integrins and other adhesion molecules in synovial fluid lymphocytes (RA-SFL) and paired peripheral blood lymphocytes (RA-PBL) from 21 RA patients by immunofluorescence flow cytometry. We have also investigated the expression of these adhesion molecules on peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from 13 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (CO-PBL). RA-SFL, which consisted mostly of T cells, showed higher expression of the integrin subunits beta 1 (CD29), VLA-1 alpha, -3 alpha, -4 alpha, -5 alpha and -6 alpha when compared to RA-PBL. In turn, RA-PBL showed lower expression of these molecules than CO-PBL. The expression of the
Gene target information for Dscam3 - Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 3 (fruit fly). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a transmembrane glycoprotein mediating Ca2+-independent homotypic cell-cell adhesion in epithelia. EpCAM is also involved in cell signaling, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Additionally, EpCAM has oncogenic potential via its capacity to upregulate c-myc, e-fabp, and cyclins A & E. Since EpCAM is expressed exclusively in epithelia and epithelial-derived neoplasms, EpCAM can be used as diagnostic marker for various cancers. It appears to play a role in tumorigenesis and metastasis of carcinomas, so it can also act as a potential prognostic marker and as a potential target for immunotherapeutic strategies. First discovered in 1979, EpCAM was initially described as a dominant surface antigen on human colon carcinoma. Because of its prevalence on many carcinomas, it has been discovered many different times. EpCAM therefore has many aliases the most notable of which include TACSTD1 (tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 1), CD326 ...
Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecules (dscam and dscaml1) are essential regulators of neural circuit assembly, but their roles in vertebrate neural circuit function are still mostly unexplored. We investigated the functional consequences of dscaml1 deficiency in the larval zebrafish (sexually undifferentiated) oculomotor system, where behavior, circuit function, and neuronal activity can be precisely quantified. Genetic perturbation of dscaml1 resulted in deficits in retinal patterning and light adaptation, consistent with its known roles in mammals. Oculomotor analyses revealed specific deficits related to the dscaml1 mutation, including severe fatigue during gaze stabilization, reduced saccade amplitude and velocity in the light, greater disconjugacy, and impaired fixation. Two-photon calcium imaging of abducens neurons in control and dscaml1 mutant animals confirmed deficits in saccade-command signals (indicative of an impairment in the saccadic premotor pathway), while abducens activation by ...
Definition of Cell adhesion molecule in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Cell adhesion molecule? Meaning of Cell adhesion molecule as a finance term. What does Cell adhesion molecule mean in finance?
Human being epithelial cell adhesion molecule (HEPCAM) is a tumor-associated antigen frequently expressed in carcinomas, which promotes proliferation after controlled intramembrane proteolysis. which can be connected with mutations from the gene (9). Although Lei (8) reported a particular amount of embryonic lethality, the nice known reasons for these obvious discrepancies in phenotypes stay unknown. Furthermore, molecular systems in charge of the noticed Bay 11-7821 congenital tufting enteropathy phenotypes had been deviating. Guerra (7) suggested a job for adherens junctions having a mislocalization of E-cadherin and -catenin in the developing intestine (7), whereas Lei (8) excluded the participation of E-cadherin and -catenin, which were located properly, and a function was stated by them for mEpcam in the recruitment Bay 11-7821 of claudins to tight junctions. A job for Epcam in the forming of practical adherens junctions via E-cadherin was further referred to during epiboly Rabbit ...
The human pancarcinoma-associated epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) (EGP-2, CO17-1A) is a well-known target for carcinoma-directed immunotherapy. Mouse-derived mAbs directed to EpCAM have been used to treat colon carcinoma patients showing well-tolerable toxic side effects but limited antitu …
Recombinant Human Epithelial cell adhesion molecule(EPCAM),partial von Cusabio bei SZABO-SCANDIC erhältlich. Weiteres zu Proteine & Peptide finden Sie hier.
Recombinant Human Epithelial cell adhesion molecule(EPCAM),partial von Cusabio bei SZABO-SCANDIC erhältlich. Weiteres zu Proteine & Peptide finden Sie hier.
cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA contains a PF00059 domain.. cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA contains a PF00084 domain.. cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA contains a PF00084 domain.. cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA contains a PF00008 domain.. cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA is proteolytically cut by matrix metallopeptidase-3 (M10.005) cleavage... cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA is proteolytically cut by matrix metallopeptidase-1 (M10.001) cleavage... cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA is proteolytically cut by ADAM17 peptidase (M12.217) cleavage. KLDK-SFSM.. ...
In brain, signaling mediated by cell adhesion molecules defines the identity and functional properties of synapses. The specificity of presynaptic and postsynaptic interactions that is presumably mediated by cell adhesion molecules suggests that there exists a logic that could explain neuronal connectivity at the molecular level. Despite its importance, however, the nature of such logic is poorly understood, and even basic parameters, such as the number, identity, and single-cell expression profiles of candidate synaptic cell adhesion molecules, are not known. Here, we devised a comprehensive list of genes involved in cell adhesion, and used single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to analyze their expression in electrophysiologically defined interneurons and projection neurons. We compared the cell type-specific expression of these genes with that of genes involved in transmembrane ion conductances (i.e., channels), exocytosis, and rho/rac signaling, which regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Using these data,
|jats:p| The junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) have been recently described as interendothelial junctional molecules and as integrin ligands. Here we show that JAM-B and JAM-C undergo heterophilic interaction in cell-cell contacts and that JAM-C is recruited and stabilized in junctional complexes by JAM-B. In addition, soluble JAM-B dissociates soluble JAM-C homodimers to form JAM-B/JAM-C heterodimers. This suggests that the affinity of JAM-C monomers to form dimers is higher for JAM-B than for JAM-C. Using antibodies against JAM-C, the formation of JAM-B/JAM-C heterodimers can be abolished. This liberates JAM-C from its vascular binding partner JAM-B and makes it available on the apical side of vessels for interaction with its leukocyte counterreceptor α|jats:sub|M|/jats:sub|β|jats:sub|2|/jats:sub| integrin. We demonstrate that the modulation of JAM-C localization in junctional complexes is a new regulatory mechanism for α|jats:sub|M|/jats:sub|β|jats:sub|2|/jats:sub|-dependent adhesion of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of cellular adhesion molecules in HIV type 1 infection and their impact on virus neutralization. AU - Hioe, C. E.. AU - Bastiani, L.. AU - Hildreth, James. AU - Zolla-Pazner, S.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - While CD4 and several chemokine receptors are the principal receptors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viruses, other cell membrane proteins also play a role in HIV-1 infection. A large array of host cell- derived membrane proteins, including adhesion molecules, are incorporated into the envelope of HIV-1 virions, and the profile of host cell proteins acquired by the virus depends on the cells used to propagate the virus. The major leukocyte adhesion molecules, such as leukocyte-function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and CD44, retain their biological functions when expressed on the virion surface, and have been shown to increase virus-cell interaction, enhance virus infectivity, and extend the host cell range of ...
Cell adhesion molecules are cell surface glycoproteins, the function of which is regulated by neurons at different stages of brain development and in response to a variety of external stimuli, for example during learning.. This project will aim to identify and characterise new endogenous regulators of cell adhesion molecules and test artificial regulators of cell adhesion molecules to analyse their pharmacological potential in various disease models.Recombinant protein production, mass spectrometry, protein-protein interaction assays, various protein analysis tools, and cellular models will be used.. ...
BACKGROUND:Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed neoplasms and also one of the main death causes. Cell adhesion molecules are taking part in specific junctions, contributing to tissue integrality. Lower expression of the cadherins may be correlated with poorer differentiation of the CRC, and its more aggressive phenotype. The aim of the study is to designate the cadherin genes potentially useful for the diagnostics, prognostics, and the treatment of CRC. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Specimens were collected from 28 persons (14 female and 14 male), who were operated for CRC. The molecular analysis was performed using oligonucleotide microarrays, mRNA used was collected from adenocarcinoma, and macroscopically healthy tissue. The results were validated using qRT-PCR technique. RESULTS:Agglomerative hierarchical clustering of normalized mRNA levels has shown 4 groups with statistically different gene expression. The control group was divided into 2 groups, the one was appropriate control
Cell adhesion molecules are a subset of cell adhesion proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix in the process called cell adhesion. In essence, cell adhesion molecules help cells stick to each other and to their surroundings. Cell adhesion is a crucial component in maintaining tissue structure and function. Discover the latest research on adhesion molecule and their role in health and disease here. ...
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Cell adhesion molecules play an important role in the development of several chronic fibroproliferative diseases such as glomerulosclerosis, cirrhosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and atherosclerosis.7 The infiltration of monocytes and T lymphocytes, which initiates the atherosclerotic process, is mediated by adhesion receptors. Once they have entered the vascular wall, leucocytes release a variety of cytokines and other bioactive molecules. This results in the proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells and subsequently promotes the deposition of excess connective tissue.8 These actions are primarily regulated by β1 integrins, although VCAM-1 is also expressed strongly on the surface of activated smooth muscle cells and may help to retain leucocytes within atherosclerotic vessels.9 The αvβ3 integrin has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaques10 and may be a therapeutic target that, if blocked, could prevent the formation of new vessels-reducing plaque growth and the migration of smooth ...
Normal and malignant cells release a variety of different vesicles into their extracellular environment. The most prominent vesicles are the microvesicles (MVs, 100-1 000 nm in diameter), which are shed of the plasma membrane, and the exosomes (70-120 nm in diameter), derivates of the endosomal system. MVs have been associated with intercellular communication processes and transport numerous proteins, lipids and RNAs. As essential component of immune-escape mechanisms tumor-derived MVs suppress immune responses. Additionally, tumor-derived MVs have been found to promote metastasis, tumor-stroma interactions and angiogenesis. Since members of the carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM)-family have been associated with similar processes, we studied the distribution and function of CEACAMs in MV fractions of different human epithelial tumor cells and of human and murine endothelial cells. Here we demonstrate that in association to their cell surface phenotype, MVs released ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kv2 ion channels determine the expression and localization of the associated AMIGO-1 cell adhesion molecule in adult brain neurons. AU - Bishop, Hannahi. AU - Cobb, Melanie M.. AU - Kirmiz, Michael. AU - Parajuli, Laxmi K.. AU - Mandikian, Danielle. AU - Philp, Ashleigh M.. AU - Melnik, Mikhail. AU - Kuja-Panula, Juha. AU - Rauvala, Heikki. AU - Shigemoto, Ryuichi. AU - Murray, Karl D. AU - Trimmer, James. PY - 2018/1/19. Y1 - 2018/1/19. N2 - Voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels play important roles in regulating neuronal excitability. Kv channels comprise four principal α subunits, and transmembrane and/or cytoplasmic auxiliary subunits that modify diverse aspects of channel function. AMIGO-1, which mediates homophilic cell adhesion underlying neurite outgrowth and fasciculation during development, has recently been shown to be an auxiliary subunit of adult brain Kv2.1-containing Kv channels. We show that AMIGO-1 is extensively colocalized with both Kv2.1 and its paralog Kv2.2 in ...
The CD56 antigen is a 140 kDa isoform of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (N-CAM). Post-translational modifications to the polypeptide include N- and O- glycosylations, acylation, sulphation and phosphorylation. The different N-CAM isoforms have molecular weights ranging from 135 to 220 kDa. The CD56 antigen is moderately expressed on a subpopulation of peripheral blood large granular lymphocytes and on all cells with NK activity. It is also expressed by subsets of T lymphocytes. CD56 antibodies do not react with granulocytes, monocytes or B cells.
The crystal structure of a soluble form of the T lymphocyte antigen CD2 provides the first complete view of the extracellular region of a cell adhesion molecule. The topology of the molecule, which comprises two immunoglobulin-like domains, is the same as that of the first two domains of CD4 but the relative domain orientation is altered by a fairly flexible linker region. The putative ligand-binding beta-sheet forms a flat surface towards the top of the molecule. Crystal contacts between these surfaces suggest a plausible model for the adhesive interaction.
Read Cell Adhesion Molecules Cellular Recognition Mechanisms by with Rakuten Kobo. The Fourth Annual Pezcoller Symposium entitled Adhesion Molecules: Cellular Recognition Mechanisms was held in Rovereto,...
The four GPI-anchored cell adhesion molecules that exemplify the IgLON family are most highly expressed in the nervous system and associate to form up to six different heterodimeric Diglons that can modify cell adhesion and inhibit axon migration. Recently, two members, OPCML and LSAMP, were ident …
Cell adhesion molecules are (glyco)proteins expressed on the cell surface and play a critical role in a wide array of biologic processes that include hemostasis, the immune response, inflammation, embryogenesis, and development of neuronal tissue. There are four main groups: the integrin family, the immunoglobulin superfamily, selectins, and cadherins. Membrane proteins that mediate immune cell-cell interactions fall into different categories, namely those involved in antigen recognition, costimulation and cellular adhesion. Furthermore cell-cell adhesions are important for brain morphology and highly coordinated brain functions such as memory and learning. During early development of the nervous system, neurons elongate their axons towards their targets and establish and maintain synapses through formation of cell-cell adhesions. Cell-cell adhesions also underpin axon-axon contacts and link neurons with supporting schwann cells and oligodendrocytes ...
Recombinant Human Cell Adhesion Molecule 3 is produced by our Mammalian expression system and the target gene encoding Asn25-His330 is expressed with a 6His tag at the C-terminus. Bon Opus Cat. #C435
The cell-cell adhesion molecule 1 (C-CAM1) plays an important role as a tumor suppressor for prostate cancer. Decreased expression of C-CAM1 was detected in prostate, breast, and colon carcinoma. Reexpression of C-CAM1 in prostate and breast cancer cell lines was able to suppress tumorigenicity in vivo. These observations suggest that C-CAM1 may be used as a marker for cancer detection or diagnosis. To generate monoclonal antibodies specific to C-CAM1, we have overexpressed full-length human C-CAM1 in Sf9 cells using a baculovirus expression system. The protein was purified 104-fold using nickel affinity chromatography. About 0.4 mg purified C-CAM1 was obtained from 200 mg of infected cells. When the purified protein was digested with peptidyl-N-glycosidase, the apparent mobility of the protein on SDS-PAGE changed from 90 to 58 kDa, which is close to the molecular weight predicted from the cloned cDNA sequence. This observation suggests that C-CAM1 was glycosylated on asparagine residues when expressed
Initially discovered as a dominant antigen on colon carcinomas, the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) was considered a mere cell adhesion molecule and reliable surface-binding site for therapeutic antibodies. Recent findings can better explain the relevance of EpCAMs high-level expression on human cancers and cancer propagating cells, and its negative prognostic potential for survival of patients with certain cancers. EpCAM has oncogenic potential and is activated by release of its intracellular domain, which can signal into the cell nucleus by engagement of elements of the wnt pathway.
The members of the IgLON superfamily of cell adhesion molecules facilitate fundamental cellular communication during brain development, maintain functional brain circuitry, and are associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders. Usage of alternative promoter-specific 1a and 1b mRNA isoforms in Lsamp, Opcml, Ntm and the single promoter of Negr1 in the mouse and human brain has been previously described. To determine the precise spatiotemporal expression dynamics of Lsamp, Opcml, Ntm isoforms and Negr1, in the developing brain, we generated isoform-specific RNA probes and carried out in situ hybridization in the developing (embryonic, E10.5, 13.5, 17; post natal, P0) and adult mouse brains. We show that promoter-specific expression of IgLONs is established early during pallial development (at E10.5), where it remains throughout its differentiation through adulthood. In the diencephalon, midbrain and hindbrain, strong expression patterns are initiated a few days later and begin fading after birth,
The mechanism by which low affinity adhesion molecules function to produce stable cell-cell adhesion is unknown. In solution, the interaction of human CD2 with its ligand CD58 is of low affinity (500 mM-1) and the interaction of rat CD2 with its ligand CD48 is of still lower affinity (40 mM-1). At the molecular level, however, the two systems are likely to be topologically identical. Fluorescently labeled glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored CD48 and CD58 were prepared and incorporated into supported phospholipid bilayers, in which the ligands were capable of free lateral diffusion. Quantitative fluorescence imaging was used to study the binding of cell surface human and rat CD2 molecules to the fluorescent ligands in contact areas between Jurkat cells and the bilayers. These studies provide two major conclusions. First, CD2/ligand interactions cooperate to align membranes with nanometer precision leading to a physiologically effective two-dimensional affinity. This process does not require the intact
[54 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 5 (Carcinoembryonic Antigen or CEA or Meconium Antigen 100 or CD66e or CEACAM5) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 report by Global Markets Direct. Global Markets Directs, Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural model of the catalytic domain of an enzyme with cell adhesion activity: human vascular adhesion protein-1 (HVAP-1) D4 domain is an amine oxidase. AU - Salminen, Tiina. AU - Smith, DJ. AU - Jalkanen, S. AU - Johnson, Mark S. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Human vascular adhesion protein-1 (HVAP-1) is a multifunctional protein having at least two different cellular roles, functioning both as a lymphocyte-endothelial cell adhesion protein and as an enzyme with monoamine oxidase activity. HVAP-1 is a 180 kDa homodimeric glycoprotein consisting of a membrane-spanning domain and three predicted extracellular copper-containing amine oxidase domains. In HVAP-1 the extracellular domains are composed of a large domain DJ, containing the active site and forming the interface of the dimer, while the smaller D2 and D3 domains surround the D4 dimer near the entrance to the active site. The structural model of the catalytic D4 domain of HVAP-1 reveals that all components necessary for ...
|span style=font-family:Times,serif;font-size:9pt;>The CC1 monoclonal antibody specifically recognizes carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1a (CEACAM1a or CEACAM1[a]), an allotypic form of CEACAM1 which is also known as CD66a, Murine hepatitis virus receptor (MHV-R), or Biliary glycoprotein 1 (BGP-1). Four known isoforms of mouse CD66a arise from alternative splicing of RNA transcripts encoded by |/span>|span style=font-style:italic;font-family:Times,serif;font-size:9pt;>Ceacam1|/span>|span style=font-family:Times,serif;font-size:9pt;>, a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family and Ig gene superfamily. These isoforms are type I transmembrane proteins that include a heavily glycosylated extracellular region with an N-terminal IgV-like domain and up to three IgC2-like domains followed by a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic tail of relatively short (10 amino acids) or long (73 amino acids) length. The cytoplasmic tails enable interactions with other intracellular
Human vascular adhesion protein-1 (HVAP-1) is a multifunctional protein having at least two different cellular roles, functioning both as a lymphocyte-endothelial cell adhesion protein and as an enzyme with monoamine oxidase activity. HVAP-1 is a 180 kDa homodimeric glycoprotein consisting of a membrane-spanning domain and three predicted extracellular copper-containing amine oxidase domains. In HVAP-1 the extracellular domains are composed of a large domain DJ, containing the active site and forming the interface of the dimer, while the smaller D2 and D3 domains surround the D4 dimer near the entrance to the active site. The structural model of the catalytic D4 domain of HVAP-1 reveals that all components necessary for enzymatic monoamine oxidase activity are indeed present within the HVAP-1 and pinpoints residues that may be key to substrate entry through a channel to the active site and residues likely to be involved in substrate specificity as well as structural features critical to dimer ...
Background T cell exhaustion has recently been proposed as an alternative mechanism to prevent memory development and tissue damage arising during ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in murine orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), with carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) identified as a key ligand for TIM-3-mediated negative immune regulation in the liver. In our cohort of human OLT patients, IRI+ recipients had a 12-fold higher ratio of TIM-1+:TIM-3+ CD4+ T cells at 3 months post-transplant than IRI-. Aim We sought to investigate donor and recipient contributions to CEACAM1 expression in human OLT-IRI. Methods We compared the cellular expression of CEACAM1 biopsies obtained from the donor organ pre- and post-reperfusion with the recipient's portal blood. Additionally, we evaluated CEACAM1 expression of 3rd party healthy donor monocytes co-cultured for 4 days with recipient portal blood obtained both pre- and post-reperfusion through the donor organ. Results ...
Junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C) is an adhesion molecule involved in transendothelial migration of leukocytes. In this study, we examined JAM-C expression in the synovium and investigated the role of this molecule in two experimental mouse models of arthritis. JAM-C expression was investigated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The effects of a monoclonal anti-JAM-C antibody were assessed in antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) and K/BxN serum transfer-induced arthritis. JAM-C was expressed by synovial fibroblasts in the lining layer and associated with vessels in the sublining layer in human and mouse arthritic synovial tissue. In human tissue, JAM-C expression was increased in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as compared to osteoarthritis synovial samples (12.7 ± 1.3 arbitrary units in RA versus 3.3 ± 1.1 in OA; p | 0.05). Treatment of mice with a monoclonal anti-JAM-C antibody decreased the severity of AIA. Neutrophil infiltration into inflamed joints was
Dr. Blumberg is Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Chief of Gastroenterology, Brigham and Womens Hospital, co-Director of the Harvard Digestive Diseases Center and past-Director of the Brigham Research Institute. He has directed a National Institutes of Health funded laboratory since 1989 which has a particular emphasis on the immunologic functions of the intestinal epithelium; a field that his laboratory has pioneered through the study of non classical MHC class I molecules and more recently the unfolded protein response and Paneth cell function and is a leading authority on carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) and the neonatal crystallizable fragment receptor (FcRn) function. Dr. Blumberg has been the recipient of the an NIH Method to Extend Research in Time (M.E.R.I.T) Award (2005), the William Beaumont Prize (2009), the CCFA Scientific Achievement Award in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Basic Research (2012), a Lifetime Scientific Achievement Award from the ...
Inflammation is related to many diseases, such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and metabolic diseases. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an endothelial adhesion molecule involved in leukocyte trafficking cascades from blood circulation to the sites of inflammation. In normal condition, VAP-1 is stored in intracellular granules. During inflammation it is rapidly translocated from the intracellular storage granules to the endothelial cell surface. Siglec-9 is a leukocyte ligand of VAP-1 and Siglec-9 motif containing peptide can be used as a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for in vivo imaging of inflammation-related diseases ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ENDOTHELIAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES IN PSORIASIS. AU - Lee, May‐Lian ‐L. AU - To, Shing Shun Tony. AU - Nicholson, Ellen. AU - Schrieber, Leslie. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Skin biopsies from patients with psoriasis and normal controls were examined for the expression of cell adhesion molecules including intercellular adhesion molecule‐1 (ICAM‐1) endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule‐1 (ELAM‐1), HECA‐452 and 4D10, using an immunoperoxidase techique. This study demonstrates that psoriatic skin exhibits a wide variety of markers of endothelial cell activation which are either induced or increased expression (ICAM‐1, ELAM‐1 & 4D10). Moreover, ICAM‐1 & HECA‐452 are also on leukocytes. These antigens may facilitate the adhesion of inflammatory cells to endothelium and antigen‐presenting cells in psoriatic skin. Thus, they may play a role in faciliating the infiltration of leukocytes into psoriatic skin.. AB - Skin biopsies from patients with psoriasis ...
In arthropods like Drosophila, Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules (Dscam1) exhibit enormous molecular diversity. A single Dscam1 gene encodes a large superfamily of neuronal cell recognition proteins that control neuronal outgrowth and anatomy. A comparable function is exhibited by the vertebrates DSCAMs of which only few isoforms exist. However, it is largely unknown, if and how this function of Dscams affects neuronal function and the control of behavior by the nervous system. In this thesis, I employed an arsenal of genetic techniques to perturb the expression level of Dscam1 isoforms in directionally selective Lobula Plate Tangential Cells (LPTCs). LPTCs of the Vertical (VS) and the Horizontal System (HS) were chosen as a model system because of their well-documented anatomy, role in information processing and behavior. Though, only little is known about the developmental mechanisms and molecular factors controlling the morphogenesis and wiring of these cells. The central aim of my study ...
Cell Biol Int. 2021 Mar 24. doi: 10.1002/cbin.11598. Online ahead of print.. ABSTRACT. Overexpression of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) plays a crucial role in the acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) in breast cancer. The elucidation of molecular events that confer BCRP-mediated MDR is of major therapeutic importance in breast cancer. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) has been implicated in tumor progression and drug resistance in various types of cancers, including breast cancer. However, the role of EpCAM in BCRP-mediated MDR in breast cancer remains unknown. In the present study, we revealed that EpCAM expression was upregulated in BCRP-overexpressing breast cancer MCF-7/MX cells, and EpCAM knockdown using siRNA reduced BCRP expression and increased the sensitivity of MCF-7/MX cells to mitoxantrone (MX). Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) promoted BCRP-mediated MDR in breast cancer cells, and EpCAM knockdown partially suppressed EMT progression in MCF-7/MX cells. In ...
Purpose Among cell adhesion molecules, serum degrees of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin are regarded as correlated with the metastatic potential of gastric cancer. in gastric cancers tissue and cultured gastric cancers cells were elevated, however, E-selectin in gastric cancers tissue and cells werent elevated. Among 157 gastric malignancy patients, 79 patients (50%) were intercellular adhesion molecule-1 positive and experienced larger tumor FCRL5 size, an increased depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and perineural invasion. The intercellular adhesion molecule-1 positive group showed a higher incidence of tumor recurrence (40.5%), and a poorer 3-12 months survival than the negative group (54.9 vs. 85.9%, respectively). Conclusions Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 is usually overexpressed in gastric malignancy tissues and cultured gastric malignancy cells, whereas E-selectin is not overexpressed. Increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in gastric ...
CEACAM6 (carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 6), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
I have examined the distribution of neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) in cultured C2 myogenic cells and other cell lines to determine if N-CAM accumulates at sites of cell-cell contact. C2 cells growing in log phase display large clusters of neural cell adhesion molecule where they contact each other. These clusters are remarkably stable, do not form at cell-substrate contacts, and appear not to be enriched in a number of other cytoskeletal, membrane, or extracellular proteins. Thus, N-CAM clusters form preferentially in response to cell-cell contact and are specifically enriched in N-CAM. As C2 cultures mature and differentiate, clusters persist at contacts between aligning myoblasts and between myotubes, consistent with a role in myogenesis. N-CAM is also enriched at cell-cell contacts in cultures of PC12, NRK, and CHO cells. These cells have significant amounts of N-CAM as detected on immunoblots. Clusters are not seen in L929 cells, which do not have detectable amounts of N-CAM. ...
HIV pseudotypes bearing native hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoproteins (pressure H and Con1) are infectious for the human hepatoma cell traces Huh-7 and PLC/PR5. Infectivity will depend on coexpression of each E1 and E2 glycoproteins, is pH-dependent, and could be neutralized by mAbs mapping to amino acids 412-447 inside E2. Cell-surface expression of 1 or all the candidate receptor molecules (CD81, low-density lipoprotein receptor, scavenger receptor class B sort 1, and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule three grabbing nonintegrin) didnt confer permissivity to HIV-HCV pseudotype an infection. Nonetheless, HIV-HCV pseudotype infectivity was inhibited by a recombinant soluble type of CD81 and a mAb particular for CD81, suggesting that CD81 could…. ...
HIV pseudotypes bearing native hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoproteins (pressure H and Con1) are infectious for the human hepatoma cell traces Huh-7 and PLC/PR5. Infectivity will depend on coexpression of each E1 and E2 glycoproteins, is pH-dependent, and could be neutralized by mAbs mapping to amino acids 412-447 inside E2. Cell-surface expression of 1 or all the candidate receptor molecules (CD81, low-density lipoprotein receptor, scavenger receptor class B sort 1, and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule three grabbing nonintegrin) didnt confer permissivity to HIV-HCV pseudotype an infection. Nonetheless, HIV-HCV pseudotype infectivity was inhibited by a recombinant soluble type of CD81 and a mAb particular for CD81, suggesting that CD81 could…. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Monoclonal antibodies to human lymphocyte homing receptors define a novel class of adhesion molecules on diverse cell types. AU - Picker, L. J.. AU - Nakache, M.. AU - Butcher, E. C.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - A 90-kD lymphocyte surface glycoprotein, defined by monoclonal antibodies of the Hermes series, is involved in lymphocyte recognition of high endothelial venules (HEV). Lymphocyte gp90(Hermes) binds in a saturable, reversible fashion to the mucosal vascular addressin (MAd), a tissue-specific endothelial cell adhesion molecule for lymphocytes. We and others have recently shown that the Hermes antigen is identical to or includes CD44 (In[Lu]-related p80), human Pgp-1, and extracellular matrix receptor III-molecules reportedly expressed on diverse cell types. Here, we examine the relationship between lymphoid and non-lymphoid Hermes antigens using serologic, biochemical, and, most importantly, functional assays. Consistent with studies using mAbs to CD44 or Pgp-1, mAbs ...
Levels of the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM in muscle are regulated in parallel with the susceptibility of muscle to innervation: N-CAM is abundant on the surface of early embryonic myotubes, declines in level as development proceeds, reappears when adult muscles are denervated or paralyzed, and is lost after reinnervation (Covault, J., and J. R. Sanes, 1985, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 82:4544-4548). Here we used immunocytochemical methods to compare this pattern of expression with those of several other molecules known to be involved in cellular adhesion. Laminin, fibronectin, and a basal lamina-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan accumulate on embryonic myotubes after synapse formation, and their levels change little after denervation. L1, J1, nerve growth factor-inducible large external protein, uvomorulin, and a carbohydrate epitope (L2/HNK-1) shared by several adhesion molecules are undetectable on the surface of embryonic, perinatal, adult, or denervated adult muscle fibers. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex differences in the expression of cell adhesion molecules on microvesicles derived from cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells treated with inflammatory and thrombotic stimuli. AU - Hunter, Larry W.. AU - Jayachandran, Muthuvel. AU - Miller, Virginia M.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by NIH grant NIH P50 AG44170 and the Mayo Foundation. Publisher Copyright: © 2019 The Author(s).. PY - 2019/5/22. Y1 - 2019/5/22. N2 - Background: There are sex differences in risk for stroke and small vessel ischemic disease in the brain. Microvesicles (MV) derived from activated cells vary by cell of origin and the stimulus initiating their release. MV released from cells activated by inflammatory and thrombotic factors have the potential to disrupt endothelial cells of the brain microvasculature. Therefore, experiments were designed to identify sex differences in the phenotype of MV released from cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) in ...
Purchase Recombinant Human Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule(PECAM1),partial. It is produced in Yeast. High purity. Good price.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Innate signaling by the C-type lectin DC-SIGN dictates immune responses. AU - den Dunnen, J.. AU - Gringhuis, S.I.. AU - Geijtenbeek, T.B.H.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Effective immune responses depend on the recognition of pathogens by dendritic cells (DCs) through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). These receptors induce specific signaling pathways that lead to the induction of immune responses against the pathogens. It is becoming evident that C-type lectins are also important PRRs. In particular, the C-type lectin DC-SIGN has emerged as a key player in the induction of immune responses against numerous pathogens by modulating TLR-induced activation. Recent reports have begun to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying these immune responses. Upon pathogen binding, DC-SIGN induces an intracellular signaling pathway with a central role for the serine/threonine kinase Raf-1. For several pathogens that interact with DC-SIGN, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and ...
A new study published in Biological Psychiatry suggests that autism is associated with reductions in the level of cellular adhesion molecules in the blood, where they play a role in immune function.. Cell adhesion molecules are the glue that binds cells together in the body. Deficits in adhesion molecules would be expected to compromise processes at the interfaces between cells, influencing tissue integrity and cell-to-cell signaling. In the brain, deficits in adhesion molecules could compromise brain development and communication between nerve cells.. Over the years, deficits in neural cell adhesion molecules have been implicated in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. One adhesion molecule, neurexin, is strongly implicated in the heritable risk for autism.. Cell adhesion molecules also play a crucial role in regulating immune cell access to the central nervous system. Prior research provided evidence of immune system dysfunction in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder ...
BACKGROUND The cell adhesion between vascular endothelial cells and leukocytes is an important process for the immuno-inflammatory changes. To clarify the basic features of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), studies of in situ localization of the cell adhesion molecules are required. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We analyzed the immunohistochemical localization of the adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, LFA-1, Mac-1, VCAM-1, VLA-4, P- and E-selectins) in IBD, stressing phenotypical changes of endothelial cells. RESULTS In the normal mucosa, ICAM-1 was expressed in capillaries and venules, LFA-1 in some lymphocytes and VLA-4 in most lymphocytes. VCAM-1 was expressed sporadically in venules and constantly in follicular dendritic cells (FDC) in lymphoid follicles. Both E- and P-selectins were sporadically expressed in venules. In actively inflamed mucosa in IBD, a marked increase of all these antigens was observed; ICAM-1+ inflammatory infiltrates (lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages) and ICAM-1+ venules increased
Cadherin cell adhesion molecules play crucial tasks in vertebrate development including the development of the retina. of embryonic zebrafish resulted in similar eye problems. Our results suggest that protocadherin-17 plays an important part in the normal formation of the zebrafish retina. ((MO (MOs sequences showed no significant similarities to any sequences (using BLAST) other than zebrafish (GenBank accession quantity: XM 684743). MOs were microinjected into one- to four-cell stage embryos (1.5-3 ng/embryo) in Daneau buffer (58 mM NaCl, 0.7 mM KCl, 0.4 mM MgSO4, 0.6 mM Ca(NO3)2, 5.0 mM HEPES pH 7.6). The zebrafish coding region was amplified with primers comprising EcoRI (5) and XbaI (3) restriction sites and cloned 1st into pCR2.1-TOPO vector (Existence Systems, Carlsbad, CA), followed by cloning into pCS2+MT vector (Dr. Pamela Raymond, the University of Michigan). The pCS2+MT/pcdh17 was verified by restriction digestion and sequencing (Macrogen, Rockville, MD). Capped mRNA was synthesized ...
Cell adhesion molecule which is required for leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) under most inflammatory conditions. Tyr-660 plays a critical role in TEM and is required for efficient trafficking of PECAM1 to and from the lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC) and is also essential for the LBRC membrane to be targeted around migrating leukocytes. Prevents phagocyte ingestion of closely apposed viable cells by transmitting detachment signals, and changes function on apoptosis, promoting tethering of dying cells to phagocytes (the encounter of a viable cell with a phagocyte via the homophilic interaction of PECAM1 on both cell surfaces leads to the viable cells active repulsion from the phagocyte. During apoptosis, the inside-out signaling of PECAM1 is somehow disabled so that the apoptotic cell does not actively reject the phagocyte anymore. The lack of this repulsion signal together with the interaction of the eat-me signals and their respective receptors causes the attachment of the
Albany, New York, August 9, 2017: Market Research Hub (MRH) has recently highlighted the pipeline landscape of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 in a new report added to its repository, with a title of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (Major Group Rhinovirus Receptor or CD54 or ICAM1) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017. The main purpose of this study is to provide an assessment of the various pipeline targeted therapeutics, together with analysis by indications, stage of development, route of administration (RoA), mechanism of action (MoA) and molecule type. Through this analysis, the readers will gain strategically significant competitor information, analysis and key insights to frame effective R&D strategies.. Request Free Sample Report: Initially, this pipeline guide covers intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) overview along with precise information on its therapeutic development. This section provides data on targeted ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extracellular matrix molecules and cell adhesion molecules induce neurites through different mechanisms. AU - Bixby, J. L.. AU - Jhabvala, P.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - It has recently become clear that both extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins and various cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) can promote neurite outgrowth from primary neurons, though little is known of the intracellular mechanisms through which these signals are transduced. We have previously obtained evidence that protein kinase C function is an important part of the neuronal response to laminin (Bixby, J. L. 1989. Neuron. 3:287-297). Because such CAMs as L1 (Lagenauer, C., and V. Lemmon. 1987. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 84:7753-7757) and N-cadherin (Bixby, J. L. and R. Zhang. 1990. J. Cell Biol. 110:1253-1260) can be purified and used as substrates to promote neurite growth, we have now tested whether the response to CAMs is similarly dependent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The shed ectodomain of Nr-CAM stimulates cell proliferation and motility, and confers cell transformation. AU - Conacci-Sorrell, Maralice. AU - Kaplan, Anna. AU - Raveh, Shani. AU - Gavert, Nancy. AU - Sakurai, Takeshi. AU - Ben-Zeev, Avri. PY - 2005/12/15. Y1 - 2005/12/15. N2 - Nr-CAM, a cell-cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule family, known for its function in neuronal outgrowth and guidance, was recently identified as a target gene of β-catenin signaling in human melanoma and colon carcinoma cells and tissue. Retrovirally mediated transduction of Nr-CAM into fibroblasts induces cell motility and tumorigenesis. We investigated the mechanisms by which Nr-CAM can confer properties related to tumor cell behavior and found that Nr-CAM expression in NIH3T3 cells protects cells from apoptosis in the absence of serum by constitutively activating the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and AKT signaling pathways. We detected a ...
To evaluate the expression and test the clinical significance of the epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to check the suitability of esophageal SCC patients for Ep-CAM directed targeted therapies. The Ep-CAM expression was immunohistochemically investigated in 70 primary esophageal SCCs using the monoclonal antibody Ber-EP4. For the interpretation of the staining results, we used a standardized scoring system ranging from 0 to 3+. The survival analysis was calculated from 53 patients without distant metastasis, with R0 resection and at least 2 months of clinical follow-up. Ep-CAM neo-expression was observed in 79% of the tumors with three expression levels, 1+ (26%), 2+ (11%) and 3+ (41%). Heterogeneous expression was observed at all expression levels. Interestingly, tumors with 3+ Ep-CAM expression conferred a significantly decreased median relapse-free survival period (log rank, p = 0.0001) and median overall survival (log rank, p = 0.0003).
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules in the development of atherosclerosis. AU - Berman, Joan W.. AU - Calderon, Tina M.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - The vascular endothelium serves as a dynamic interface between circulating blood elements and the interstitial tissues. As such, it communicates to cells within the vessel wall as well as to the surrounding tissue, sensing its environment and responding accordingly. The vasculature must maintain a delicate balance when initiating a functional response by producing both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory mediators, vasoconstrictors and vasodilators, growth stimulators and inhibitors, and prothrombogenic and antithrombogenic factors. Any response to injurious agents could lead to pathology. Confounding this complex interplay is the fact that the very response to injury that may have developed to undo the damage may itself be even more deleterious. One response to injury by the endothelium is the new or increased ...
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The adhesion protein junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) regulates epithelial cell morphology and migration, and its over-expression has recently been linked with increased risk of metastasis in breast cancer patients. As cell migration is an early requirement for tumor metastasis, we sought to identify the JAM-A signalling events regulating migration in breast cancer cells. METHODS: MCF7 breast cancer cells (which express high endogenous levels of JAM-A) and primary cultures from breast cancer patients were used for this study. JAM-A was knocked down in MCF7 cells using siRNA to determine the consequences for cell adhesion, cell migration and the protein expression of various integrin subunits. As we had previously demonstrated a link between the expression of JAM-A and β1-integrin, we examined activation of the β1-integrin regulator Rap1 GTPase in response to JAM-A knockdown or functional antagonism. To test whether JAM-A, Rap1 and β1-integrin lie in a linear pathway, we
Cells attach to proteoglycans and glycoproteins on the surface of other cells as well as in the extracellular matrix (ECM) substratum via adhesion molecules to define tissue shape, structure, and function. Making and breaking cellular contacts with other cells and the ECM play critical roles in normal processes such as cell growth, division, differentiation, and migration. Cardiovascular and central nervous system disorders and pathophysiological processes such as fibrosis and inflammation require ECM remodeling. Remodeling involves expression of different cell adhesion molecules, altering cellular processes such as migration and polarity. Key ECM proteins include fibronectin, laminin, and collagens as well as metalloproteinases that remodel the ECM. Important cell adhesion genes include integrins, selectins, celladhesion molecule family members (ICAM, ECAM, NCAM, PECAM, and VCAM), and the catenins which link cell adhesion molecules and the cytoskeleton. Analysis of these essential genes may ...
Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP ...
Phenotype data for mouse gene Epcam. Discover Epcams significant phenotypes, expression, images, histopathology and more. Data for gene Epcam is all freely available for download.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemokine production and adhesion molecule expression by neural cells exposed to IL-1, TNFα and interferon. AU - Chuluyan, H. Eduardo. AU - Lang, Bianca J.. AU - Yoshimura, Teizo. AU - Kenney, John S.. AU - Issekutz, Andrew C.. PY - 1998/10/16. Y1 - 1998/10/16. N2 - We investigated the effect of TNFα, IL-1α and IFNγ on two neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines (SK-N-SH and SK-N-MC). These lines responded differentially to IL-1α, TNFα and IFNγ for MCP-1 and IL-8 production and expression of the ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 adhesion molecules. None of the cytokines induced MCP-1 or 1L-8 on SK-N-MC cells. Both chemokines were produced in response to IL-1α by SK-N-SH cells, while TNFα induced mainly MCP-1 production. Addition of IFNγ decreased IL-8, but not MCP-1 production. These responses correlated with monocyte and neutrophil chemotactic activity in NB culture supernatants. This activity was neutralized by antibodies to IL-8 and MCP-1. The expression of ICAM-1 on SK-N-MC was up-regulated ...
Looking for endothelial leukocyte? Find out information about endothelial leukocyte. : see blood blood, fluid pumped by the heart that circulates throughout the body via the arteries, veins, and capillaries . An adult male of average size... Explanation of endothelial leukocyte
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recognition of the neural chemoattractant netrin-1 by integrins α6β4 and α3β1 regulates epithelial cell adhesion and migration. AU - Yebra, Mayra. AU - Montgomery, Anthony M P. AU - Diaferia, Giuseppe R.. AU - Kaido, Thomas. AU - Silletti, Steve. AU - Perez, Brandon. AU - Just, Margaret L.. AU - Hildbrand, Simone. AU - Hurford, Rosemary. AU - Florkiewicz, Elin. AU - Tessier-Lavigne, Marc. AU - Cirulli, Vincenzo. PY - 2003/11. Y1 - 2003/11. N2 - Netrins, axon guidance cues in the CNS, have also been detected in epithelial tissues. In this study, using the embryonic pancreas as a model system, we show that Netrin-1 is expressed in a discrete population of epithelial cells, localizes to basal membranes, and specifically associates with elements of the extracellular matrix. We demonstrate that α6β4 integrin mediates pancreatic epithelial cell adhesion to Netrin-1, whereas recruitment of α6β4 and α3β1 regulate the migration of CK19+/PDX1+ putative pancreatic progenitors on ...
The diffusion characteristics of BoNT have been well studied in humans7-10 and animals11,12 using a variety of techniques, including compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and motor-evoked potentials,7 histological determination of glycogen-depleted muscles,13 acetylcholine esterase staining,14 muscle fiber diameter variability,15 and quantitative electromyography (EMG) measures of muscle activity.16. Evidence for diffusion comes from both animal and human studies. In a study using muscle biopsy to identify spread, Borodic et al.15 reported a diffusion gradient of BoNT/A over a distance of 30-45 mm from the point of injection into latissimus dorsi muscle of rabbits.14 The extent of denervation gradient or diffusion was dose dependent. Another study used neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) staining to assess the diffusion of activity of equipotent doses of three BoNT/A formulations from the point of injection along the mouse hind limb. The results showed a similar time course of paralysis, ...
Chronic inflammation and reduced blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids (n − 3) are known characteristics of sickle cell disease (SCD).The anti-inflammatory properties of n − 3 fatty acids are well recognized.. Omega-3 treated (n = 24), hydroxyurea (HU) treated (n = 18), and n − 3 untreated (n = 21) homozygous SCD patients (HbSS) and healthy (HbAA) controls (n = 25) matched for age (5-16 years), gender and socioeconomic status were studied. According to age (5-10) or (11-16) years, two or three capsules containing 277.8 mg docosahexaenoic (DHA) and 39.0 mg eicosapentaenoic (EPA) or high oleic acid placebo (41%) were assigned to n − 3 treated and n − 3 untreated groups, respectively. Hydroxyurea treated group was on dosage more than 20 mg/kg/day. The effect of supplementation on systemic and blood cell markers of inflammation was investigated.. The n − 3 treated group had higher levels of DHA and EPA (p , 0.001) and lower white blood cell count and monocyte integrin (p , 0.05) compared ...
Cancer cell metastasis is one of the most critical steps in tumor development and is responsible for more than 80 of cancer related deaths. Among the molecules involved in promoting cancer metastasis, the role of the cell adhesion molecules, CD44 and CD146 are well known in promoting cancer cell motility and metastasis. Despite this knowledge, the molecular mechanism through which CD44 promotes tumor development and cell metastasis is still nascent. CD146 (MUC 18) was, first identified in highly metastatic melanomas. The absence of CD146 in normal melanocytes and its high expression in melanomas suggests its tumor promoting actions. Despite the association between CD146 expression and development of melanoma, its expression patterns and role in normal and metastatic breast tissues still remains controversial. This study aims to elucidate some of these discrepancies by presenting CD146 as a downstream target for CD44, in a way such that CD146 expression is related to CD44 and regulates the tumor ...
View mouse Madcam1 Chr10:79664559-79668537 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
We investigated the expression status of periostin in breast cancer stem cells and its clinical implications in order to lay a foundation for managing breast cancer. CD44+/CD24−/line- tumor cells (CSC) from clinical specimens were sorted using flow cytometry. Periostin expression status was detected in CSC cells and 1,086 breast cancer specimens by Western blot and immunohistochemistry staining, with the CSC ratio determined by immunofluorescence double staining. The relationship between the periostin protein and clinico-pathological parameters and prognosis was subsequently determined. As a result, CSC cells are more likely to generate new tumors in mice and cell microspheres that are deficient in NOD/SCID compared to the control group. Periostin protein was expressed higher in CSC cells compared to the control cells and was found to be related to CSC chemotherapy resistance. Moreover, periostin expression was found to be related to the CSC ratio in 1,086 breast cancer specimens (P = 0.001). In total
... (sCAMs) are a class of cell adhesion molecule (CAMs - cell surface binding proteins) that may ... Soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin (termed sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 ... May 1998). "Soluble cell adhesion molecules in hypertriglyceridemia and potential significance on monocyte adhesion". ... They include soluble isoforms of the cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and P-selectin (distinguished as sICAM- ...
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are a subset of cell surface proteins that are involved in the binding of cells with other cells ... Cell membrane Cell migration Immunological synapse Trogocytosis Cell+Adhesion+Molecules at the US National Library of Medicine ... The process is highly regulated by cell adhesion molecules, particularly, the addressin also known as MADCAM1. This antigen is ... There are four major superfamilies or groups of CAMs: the immunoglobulin super family of cell adhesion molecules (IgCAMs), ...
2003). "Implications of nectin-like molecule-2/IGSF4/RA175/SgIGSF/TSLC1/SynCAM1 in cell-cell adhesion and transmembrane protein ... Cell adhesion molecule 1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CADM1 gene. Model organisms have been used in the ... Cell adhesion molecule 1 has been shown to interact with EPB41L3. Genome-wide association studies identified an association ... "Entrez Gene: CADM1 cell adhesion molecule 1". "Salmonella infection data for Cadm1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. " ...
1996). "A unique gene encodes spliceoforms of the B-cell adhesion molecule cell surface glycoprotein of epithelial cancer and ... Basal cell adhesion molecule, also known as Lutheran antigen, is a plasma membrane glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: BCAM basal cell adhesion molecule (Lutheran blood group)". Parsons SF, Lee G, Spring FA, Willig TN, Peters LL, ... 2005). "Molecular interactions of B-CAM (basal-cell adhesion molecule) and laminin in epithelial skin cancer". Arch. Dermatol. ...
"Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) modulates cell-cell interactions mediated by classic cadherins". The Journal of Cell ... a human epithelial antigen is a homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecule". The Journal of Cell Biology. 125 (2): 437-46. doi: ... "Cytoplasmic tail regulates the intercellular adhesion function of the epithelial cell adhesion molecule". Molecular and ... Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), also known as CD326 among other names, is a transmembrane glycoprotein mediating ...
... also present on subset of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. In cell adhesion, CD56 contributes to cell-cell adhesion or cell- ... The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM1 appears on early embryonic cells and is important in the formation of cell collectives ... Τ cells and activated CD8+ T cells, as well as on dendritic cells. NCAM has been implicated as having a role in cell-cell ... Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), also called CD56, is a homophilic binding glycoprotein expressed on the surface of ...
... is a protein in humans that is encoded by the DSCAML1 gene. DSCAM, Down syndrome ... "DSCAML1 DS cell adhesion molecule like 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". Retrieved 2012-11-29. PDBe-KB provides an overview of all ... the structure information available in the PDB for Human Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule-like protein 1 v t e (Genes on ... cell adhesion molecule Fibronectin type III domain Immunoglobulin superfamily GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000177103 - ...
Cell adhesion molecules Fibronectin Laminin Schwab, Manfred, ed. (2001). "Cell Adhesion Molecules". Encyclopedic reference of ... Substrate adhesion molecules (SAMs) are proteins that attach cells to specific compounds in the extracellular matrix (a process ... ISBN 978-0-387-25615-3.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Ulrich, Klaus (1994). "Cell-Adhesion Molecules ... while others bind to integrins on the surface of the cell. Integrin molecules are composed of two chains of amino acids, one of ...
... s are cell adhesion molecules expressed on lymphocyte cell membranes that recognize addressins on ... J Cell Biol. 196 (1): 131-146. doi:10.1083/jcb.201110023. ISSN 0021-9525. PMC 3255974. PMID 22232704. (Cell adhesion molecules) ... are cells found in secondary lymphoid organs that express large quantities of cell adhesion molecules, enabling ... These diverse tissue-specific adhesion molecules on lymphocytes (homing receptors) and on endothelial cells (vascular ...
This domain is found in mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 proteins (MAdCAM-1). These are cell adhesion ... Bacterial adhesin Cell adhesion Fungal adhesin Tan K, Casasnovas JM, Liu JH, Briskin MJ, Springer TA, Wang JH (June 1998). "The ... In molecular biology, the adhesin molecule (immunoglobulin-like) is a protein domain. ... molecules expressed on the endothelium in mucosa that guide the specific homing of lymphocytes into mucosal tissues. MAdCAM-1 ...
2004). "Ksp-cadherin is a functional cell-cell adhesion molecule related to LI-cadherin". Exp. Cell Res. 294 (2): 345-55. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: CDH17 cadherin 17, LI cadherin (liver-intestine)". Gessner R, Tauber R (2001). "Intestinal cell adhesion molecules ... 2004). "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. ...
In: Structure and Function of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NCAM, Series: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, ... related superfamily of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). It was first identified in the developing grasshopper embryo, seen ... having structural homology to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) found in vertebrates. Alternative splicing of fasII ... mainly glial cells), where it functions as a substrate for growth cones of extending axons, directing adhesion and axon ...
CD44 proteins belong to a family of cell surface adhesion molecules that are involved in both cell-cell and cell-matrix ... CD44 Cell adhesion molecules. Mol Path, 52: 189-196. Ioannidis, P., and T. Trangas., 2006. CRD-BP/IMP1: An RNA Binding Protein ... RNA-binding IMPs promote cell adhesion and invadopodia formation. EMBO 25: 1456-1468. Goodison, S., et al. 1999. ... Upon binding to its transcripts, CRD-BP plays a role in translation by stabilizing and localizing the transcripts in the cell. ...
Johansson MW (1999). "Cell adhesion molecules in invertebrate immunity". Dev. Comp. Immunol. 23 (4-5): 303-15. doi:10.1016/ ... NDR1 is also believed to be involved in cell wall adhesion to the plasma membrane and fluid retention of the cell. In addition ... Hynes, Richard (1992). "Integrins: Versatility, Modulation, and Signaling in Cell Adhesion". Cell. 69 (1): 11-25. doi:10.1016/ ... The extracellular matrix of plant cells, fungi, and some protist is referred to as the cell wall. The plant cell wall is ...
Brümmendorf T, Rathjen FG (1995). "Cell adhesion molecules 1: immunoglobulin superfamily". Protein Profile. 2 (9): 963-1108. ... Williams AF, Barclay AN (1988). "The immunoglobulin superfamily-domains for cell surface recognition". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 6: ...
Axons express patterns of cell-surface adhesion molecules that allow them to match with specific layer targets. An important ... Washbourne, P. (2004-10-20). "Cell Adhesion Molecules in Synapse Formation". Journal of Neuroscience. 24 (42): 9244-9249. doi: ... while both cells start expressing adhesion molecules on their respective membranes to form tight junctions, called "puncta ... family of adhesion molecules is constituted by the cadherins, whose different combination on targeting cells allow the traction ...
A Multigene Family of Putative Cell Adhesion Molecules". Plant Physiology. 133 (4): 1911-1925. doi:10.1104/pp.103.031237. PMC ... Seagrass cell walls contain the same polysaccharides found in angiosperm land plants, such as cellulose However, the cell walls ... However the cell walls of seagrasses are not well understood. In addition to the ancestral traits of land plants one would ... Thus, the cell walls of seagrasses seem to contain combinations of features known from both angiosperm land plants and marine ...
Frijns CJ, Kappelle LJ (Aug 2002). "Inflammatory cell adhesion molecules in ischemic cerebrovascular disease". Stroke: A ... With the roles of ICAM-1 in cell-cell adhesion, extravasation, and infection more fully understood, a potential role for ICAM-1 ... This gene encodes a cell surface glycoprotein which is typically expressed on endothelial cells and cells of the immune system ... ICAM-1 (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1) also known as CD54 (Cluster of Differentiation 54) is a protein that in humans is ...
The structure of PTPmu suggests that it can regulate cell adhesion and migration using its extracellular cell adhesion molecule ... "Regulation of cell adhesion by protein-tyrosine phosphatases: II. Cell-cell adhesion". J Biol Chem. 281 (24): 16189-92. doi: ... Craig SE, Brady-Kalnay SM (2011). "Cancer cells cut homophilic cell adhesion molecules and run". Cancer Res. 71 (2): 303-9. doi ... Burridge K, Sastry SK, Sallee JL (2006). "Regulation of cell adhesion by protein-tyrosine phosphatases. I. Cell-matrix adhesion ...
The fusion requires the regulation of cell adhesion molecules. The neural plate switches from E-cadherin expression to N- ... Neural crest cells will migrate through the embryo and will give rise to several cell populations, including pigment cells and ... The variation in cell shapes is partially determined by the location of the nucleus within the cell, causing bulging in areas ... this is not one set of cells but rather is a constantly changing group of cells that are migrating over the dorsal lip of the ...
... cell-adhesion molecules in synaptic plasticity". Trends in Cell Biology. 10 (11): 473-82. doi:10.1016/S0962-8924(00)01838-9. ... Rikitake Y, Mandai K, Takai Y (August 2012). "The role of nectins in different types of cell-cell adhesion". Journal of Cell ... "Roles and modes of action of nectins in cell-cell adhesion". Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. 15 (6): 643-56. doi: ... For example, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play a large role in synaptic maintenance and stabilization. Gerald Edelman ...
"Entrez Gene: Sidekick cell adhesion molecule 1". Retrieved 2018-05-31. "OMIM: SIDEKICK CELL ADHESION MOLECULE 1; SDK1". ... Sidekick cell adhesion molecule 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SDK1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... "Up-regulation of the homophilic adhesion molecule sidekick-1 in podocytes contributes to glomerulosclerosis". J. Biol. Chem. ... heparin and the cell surface. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016]. ...
... is a cell adhesion molecule. CD24 is a sialoglycoprotein expressed at the surface of most B lymphocytes and ... "Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD24 Marks Bone Marrow-Derived Human Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells with Reduced Proliferative and ... and CD29 define a surface biomarker code for neural lineage differentiation of stem cells". Stem Cells. 27 (12): 2928-40. doi: ... Carl JW, Liu JQ, Joshi PS, El-Omrani HY, Yin L, Zheng X, Whitacre CC, Liu Y, Bai XF (July 2008). "Autoreactive T cells escape ...
SIDEKICK CELL ADHESION MOLECULE 2; SDK2". Yamagata M, Weiner JA, Sanes JR (Sep 2002). "Sidekicks: synaptic adhesion molecules ... heparin and the cell surface. This protein, and a homologous mouse sequence, are very similar to the Drosophila sidekick gene ... that promote lamina-specific connectivity in the retina". Cell. 110 (5): 649-60. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00910-8. PMID ...
ALGAL-CAM: algal cell adhesion molecule. ISG: inversion-specific glycoprotein. FLA: fasciclin like AGP. ENODL: earlt nodulation ... Huber, O.; Sumper, M. (1994-09-15). "Algal-CAMs: isoforms of a cell adhesion molecule in embryos of the alga Volvox with ... A Multigene Family of Putative Cell Adhesion Molecules". Plant Physiology. 133 (4): 1911-1925. doi:10.1104/pp.103.031237. ISSN ... suggests the combination of fasciclin domain and AG glycans can mediate cell-cell adhesion. Gh: Gossypium hirsutum, Dc: Daucus ...
In molecular biology, intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are part of the ... Mammalian intercellular adhesion molecules include: ICAM-1 ICAM2 ICAM3 ICAM4 ICAM5 Gahmberg CG, Tolvanen M, Kotovuori P (April ... In addition, ICAMs may exist in soluble forms in human plasma, due to activation and proteolysis mechanisms at cell surfaces. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR013768 v t e (Cell biology, Protein families, All ...
Protocadherins function as cell adhesion molecules, essential for synaptic specificity. The mechanism for Protocadherin gene ... The hemocyanin molecule is much larger than the hemoglobin molecule, allowing it to bond with 96 O2 or CO2 molecules, instead ... But unlike hemoglobin, which are attached in millions on the surface of a single red blood cell, hemocyanin molecules floats ... 3. Cell. pp. 594-604. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.008. "Cephalopod radula". Tree of Life web project. Nixon, M. (1995). "A ...
... axon guidance molecules (e.g. Epha1, Epha4, Ntng1, Epha8) and cell adhesion molecules (e.g. Cdh6, Cdh8, Cdhr1). Accordingly, a ... cell adhesion molecules and ion channels in the thalamus. The TCF7L2 gene encoding the TCF7L2 transcription factor, exhibits ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. ... It was also shown that in Tcf7l2 knockout mice the number of proliferating cells in cortical neural progenitor cells is reduced ...
Neuronal cell adhesion molecule is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NRCAM gene. Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are ... Grumet M (1997). "Nr-CAM: a cell adhesion molecule with ligand and receptor functions". Cell Tissue Res. 290 (2): 423-8. doi: ... NRCAM neuronal cell adhesion molecule". Marui T, Funatogawa I, Koishi S, et al. (2008). "Association of the neuronal cell ... This gene encodes a neuronal cell adhesion molecule with multiple immunoglobulin-like C2-type domains and fibronectin type-III ...
As cell adhesion molecules, they often bind "homophilically" to themselves; for example L1 on one cell binding to L1 on an ... The L1 family is a family of cell adhesion molecules that includes four different L1-like proteins. They are members of the ... "The L1 Family of neural adhesion molecules". Swarthmore College. Archived from the original on 2005-04-08. Karp G (2008). Cell ... Wei CH, Ryu SE (July 2012). "Homophilic interaction of the L1 family of cell adhesion molecules". Experimental & Molecular ...
Teneurins are homophilic adhesion molecules that bind specifically to other teneurin-family molecules on adjacent cells. The ... cell-cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth using atomic force microscopy-based single-cell force spectroscopy". Nano Letters. 13 ... "tenascin-like molecule accessory" and Ten-m for "tenascin-like molecule major". Around the same time, Levine et al. also ... Ten-m3 molecule is the first to be reported to regulate connectivity in the thalamostriatal pathway. Ten-m3 guides some of the ...
... neural cell adhesion molecule) → ++ S100 → ++ Transthyretin → - Vimentin → +++ Desmin → - SMA (smooth muscle actin) → + The ... Vacuolated, or clear cells are common. Necrosis or cell death is normally observed to some extent in most of these tumors cells ... If the abnormal cells continue to grow, divide, and produce more abnormal cells, the mass of abnormal cells may eventually ... The papilla is meant to be surface cells. The ependymal cells line the inside of the ventricles of the brain. These cells have ...
Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell ... Next, these smaller molecules are taken up by cells and converted to smaller molecules, usually acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA ... A parallel approach is to identify the small molecules in a cell or tissue; the complete set of these molecules is called the ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.039. PMC 5329766. PMID 28187287. Cooper GM (2000). "The Molecular Composition of Cells". The Cell: A ...
... adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, P-selectin) and prostaglandins and nitric oxide (NO). Additionally, the UPS also plays a ... of the proteasome block the degradation of most cell proteins and the generation of peptides presented on MHC class I molecules ... UPS proteolysis plays a major role in responses of cancer cells to stimulatory signals that are critical for the development of ... Goff SP (Aug 2003). "Death by deamination: a novel host restriction system for HIV-1". Cell. 114 (3): 281-3. doi:10.1016/S0092- ...
... s are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... providing the cell with a means of stable cell adhesion. However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ...
... which acts as a signaling and adhesion molecule. MAG can also act as a signaling molecule as a soluble protein after it has ... Gage FH, Temple S (October 2013). "Neural stem cells: generating and regenerating the brain". Neuron. 80 (3): 588-601. doi: ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 138 (6): 1355-66. doi:10.1083/jcb.138.6.1355. PMC 2132563. PMID 9298990. Pronker MF, Lemstra S, ... is a type 1 transmembrane protein glycoprotein localized in periaxonal Schwann cell and oligodendrocyte membranes, where it ...
Adhesion between FDCs and B cells is mediated by ICAM-1 (CD54)-LFA-1 (CD11a) and VCAM-VLA-4 molecules. Activated B-cells with ... Unlike dendritic cells (DC), FDCs are not derived from the bone-marrow hematopoietic stem cell, but are of mesenchymal origin. ... Follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are cells of the immune system found in primary and secondary lymph follicles (lymph nodes) of ... In mice lacking B cells, or with blocked TNF-a and lymphotoxin (LT) production, cells with FDC phenotype are missing. In normal ...
Furthermore these cells express a number of molecules important for the mediation of the cell adhesion, such as cadherin-11, ... These cells, together with other immune cells such as macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, mast cells, dendritic cells and ... These hallmark features of FLS in RA are divided into 7 cell-intrinsic hallmarks and 4 cell-extrinsic hallmarks. The cell- ... In addition, these cells can produce a number of pro-inflammatory signalling molecules, especially Il-6 and IL-8, prostanoids ...
... cell division, cell adhesion, and stress response such as DNA repair. Activity of ABL1 protein is negatively regulated by its ... The BCR-ABL protein can be inhibited by various small molecules. One such inhibitor is imatinib mesylate, which occupies the ... associates with focal adhesion kinase and induces pseudohyphal growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 (7): ... a site for phosphorylation in leukaemia cells". Genes to Cells. 9 (9): 781-90. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2004.00772.x. PMID ...
... is also an important adhesion molecule and is required for T cells to enter lymph nodes. It is expressed on lymph node ... as a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. It may also mediate the attachment of ... Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally found in the umbilical cord and bone marrow as haematopoietic cells, or in ... December 2019). "Single-cell analysis of bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells from children with sickle cell disease and thalassemia ...
Cell. 157 (6): 1380-92. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.05.009. PMC 4144415. PMID 24906154. Anke M. Arsenic. In: Mertz W. ed., Trace ... Loskill P, Zeitz C, Grandthyll S, Thewes N, Müller F, Bischoff M, Herrmann M, Jacobs K (May 2013). "Reduced adhesion of oral ... One element, cobalt, is available for use by animals only after having been processed into complex molecules (e.g., vitamin B12 ...
... cell-cycle regulation, angiogenesis, and cell adhesion. The correlative studies analyzing the expression of galectin-9 and ... "Upregulation of Galectin-9 and PD-L1 Immune Checkpoints Molecules in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia". Asian Pacific ... "Galectin-9 as a regulator of cellular adhesion in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines". International Journal of ... an interaction with CD40 on T-cells induced their proliferation inhibition and cell death. Galectin-9 also has important ...
The protein may play a role in the adhesion of activated T and NK cells to their target cells during the late phase of the ... "Entrez Gene: CD96 molecule". Retrieved 2018-07-03. Fuchs A, Colonna M (October 2006). "The role of NK cell recognition of ... promotes NK cell-target cell adhesion by interacting with the poliovirus receptor (CD155)". Journal of Immunology. 172 (7): ... CD96 is a receptor protein which is expressed on T cells and NK cells and shares sequence similarity with CD226 (also known as ...
1997). "Morphogenesis of epithelial cells". In Paul, Leendert C.; Issekutz, Thomas B. (eds.). Adhesion molecules in health and ... Embryoblast cells also known as the inner cell mass form a compact mass of cells at the embryonic pole on one side of the ... The blastomeres are the daughter cells of the zygote, and when the blastomeres number from 16-32 the ball of cells is called a ... The cells on the outside and inside become differentially fated into trophoblast (outside) and inner cell mass (inside) ...
Bacteria use TAAs in order to infect their host cells via a process called cell adhesion. TAAs also go by another name, ... TAAs are a type of microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs). In other words, they are a ... YadA bacterial adhesin protein domain Type V secretion system Virulence factor Cell adhesion Outer membrane Gram negative ... Then the Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin must adhere to the layer of cells found on the internal surface, the epithelial cells ...
... and specifically the e-cadherin-based stem cell adhesion, is vital in maintaining the Drosophila germline stem cells. These ... Mahowald determined that these amino acid substitutions in Act5C and Act42A did not occur in regions of the actin molecule ... cells continuously duplicate their genetic information without division into two cells. This creates very large cells, but ... "The receptor tyrosine phosphatase Lar regulates adhesion between Drosophila male germline stem cells and the niche". ...
Liquids behave in a comparable manner, but with molecules moving around due to kinetic energy instead of motile cells moving ... Cell sorting Cell adhesion Morphogenesis Wound healing Metastasis Foty, Ramsey A.; Steinberg, Malcolm S. (1 February 2005). " ... where tissues with weaker surface adhesion surround tissues with stronger surface adhesion, the rounding of irregular cell ... cells move to be near other cells of similar adhesive strength in order to maximize the bonding strength between cells and ...
The calcium bound proteins usually play an important role in cell-cell adhesion, hydrolytic processes (such as hydrolytic ... It also lowers the concentration of low molecular weight molecules like sugars and amino acids and increases the concentration ... In animals, potassium also plays a key part along with sodium in maintaining resting cell membrane potential and in cell-cell ... Potassium absorption has a positive correlation with aquaporins and the uptake of water in plant cells via cell membrane ...
"CD151 enhances cell motility and metastasis of cancer cells in the presence of focal adhesion kinase". Int. J. Cancer. 97 (3): ... CD151 molecule (Raph blood group), also known as CD151 (Cluster of Differentiation 151), is a human gene. The protein encoded ... It is involved in cellular processes including cell adhesion and may regulate integrin trafficking and/or function. This ... associates with multiple integrins and modulates cell function". J. Cell Sci. 112 ( Pt 6) (6): 833-44. doi:10.1242/jcs.112.6. ...
Disruption of the cell membrane is another property of alcohols that aid in cell death. Alcohols are cheap and effective ... When a bacterial enzyme comes in contact with a compound containing chlorine, the hydrogen atom in that molecule gets displaced ... Designing effective antimicrobial surfaces demands an in-depth understanding of the initial microbe-surface adhesion mechanisms ... When the concentration of dissolved materials or solute is higher inside the cell than it is outside, the cell is said to be in ...
... chemokines and adhesion and costimulatory molecules, which in turn triggers acute inflammation and stimulation of adaptive ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. ... connecting proteins that receive signals from outside the cell to the proteins that relay signals inside the cell. In innate ... since the immunological phenotype of human cells deficient in MYD88 is similar to cells from MyD88 deficient mice. However, ...
... include chemokines and molecules that act on endothelial cells and cause them to express Intercellular adhesion molecule (such ... by mast cells following the cross-linking of allergen specific IgE molecules bound to mast cell FcεRI receptors. These ... as vascular cell adhesion molecule and selectins), which together result in the recruitment and activation of leukocytes from ... and in plasma cell isotype switching to IgE which will bind to the mast cell FcεRI receptors and prime the individual for ...
... an adhesion molecule on the surface of platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and some types of T-cells This disambiguation page ... a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting and preserving aviation history Platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule, ...
... especially CD8+ T cells, has been proposed. Upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and cytokines associated ... presented on MHC 1 molecules activates CD8+ T cells on keratinocytes or by encounters with activated CD4+ helper T cells or ... The inflammatory infiltrate in oral LP is primarily composed of CD8+ T cells. A potential pathway for CD8+ T cell-mediated ... Chemokines are produced by activated CD8+ T cells that attract additional inflammatory cells, thereby promoting continued ...
... adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, P-selectin) and prostaglandins and nitric oxide (NO). Additionally, the UPS also plays a ... UPS proteolysis plays a major role in responses of cancer cells to stimulatory signals that are critical for the development of ... Goff SP (Aug 2003). "Death by deamination: a novel host restriction system for HIV-1". Cell. 114 (3): 281-3. doi:10.1016/S0092- ... Kleiger G, Mayor T (Jun 2014). "Perilous journey: a tour of the ubiquitin-proteasome system". Trends in Cell Biology. 24 (6): ...
... might additionally function as a cell adhesion molecule. Sodium channel GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000177098 - ... structures of the extracellular domains of the voltage-gated sodium channel β4 subunit explain its role in cell-cell adhesion ... Webb J, Wu FF, Cannon SC (2009). "Slow inactivation of the NaV1.4 sodium channel in mammalian cells is impeded by co-expression ... Shimizu, Hideaki (2016). "Structure-based site-directed photo-crosslinking analyses of multimeric cell-adhesive interactions of ...
... adhesion molecules, cytokines, and stromal cells". Exp Hematol. 30 (9): 973-981. doi:10.1016/s0301-472x(02)00883-4. PMID ... Besides liver cells, A1PI is produced in bone marrow, by lymphocytic and monocytic cells in lymphoid tissue, and by the Paneth ... In addition to binding to neutrophil elastase released by inflammatory cells, A1AT also binds to elastase localized on the cell ... through tissue including immature T cells through the thymus where immature T cells mature to become immunocompetent T cells ...
1994). "Autophosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase, pp125FAK, directs SH2-dependent binding of pp60src". Mol. Cell. Biol ... 1996). "DOCK180, a major CRK-binding protein, alters cell morphology upon translocation to the cell membrane". Mol. Cell. Biol ... alters cell morphology upon translocation to the cell membrane". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 (4): 1770-6. doi:10.1128/MCB.16.4.1770. ... "Differential regulation of cell motility and invasion by FAK". J. Cell Biol. 160 (5): 753-67. doi:10.1083/jcb.200212114. PMC ...
"Microtubule-induced focal adhesion disassembly is mediated by dynamin and focal adhesion kinase". Nature Cell Biology. 7 (6): ... In order to do this, dynein molecules bind organelle membranes via a protein complex that contains a number of elements ... Some cell types, such as plant cells, do not contain well defined MTOCs. In these cells, microtubules are nucleated from ... This interference with microtubule dynamics can have the effect of stopping a cell's cell cycle and can lead to programmed cell ...
Specifically, she assessed the loss of N-cadherin and integrins, two of the three types of adhesion molecules, on the embryonic ... she studied the mechanism in which cells from the retina grow towards and make connections with specific brain cells, ... performing experiments to understand the role of adhesion molecules in axon guidance. ... This process is required for accuracy in brain cell growth proper orientation. In addition to studying N-cadherin and integrins ...
Elevated lavels of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1, thrombomodulin and soluble endothelial cell adhesion molecules in ... thrombomodulin and soluble endothelial cell adhesion molecules in patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever.. WHO Regional Office ... The results suggest that endothelial cells are highly activated in DHF patients and TNF-α is one of the factors which ... High levels of soluble activated endothelial substances suggest that endothelial cells are highly activated. When compared with ...
ET-1 up-regulates cell surface adhesion molecules-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion ... molecule-1 (VCAM-1).The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the detection of ET-1, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in ... ET-1 up-regulates cell surface adhesion molecules-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion ... Keywords: endothelin-1 (ET-1); intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1); systemic sclerosis; vascular cell adhesion molecule- ...
Elevated lavels of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1, thrombomodulin and soluble endothelial cell adhesion molecules in ... thrombomodulin and soluble endothelial cell adhesion molecules in patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever.. WHO Regional Office ... The results suggest that endothelial cells are highly activated in DHF patients and TNF-α is one of the factors which ... High levels of soluble activated endothelial substances suggest that endothelial cells are highly activated. When compared with ...
cell-cell adhesion via plasma-membrane adhesion molecules + The attachment of one cell to another cell via adhesion molecules ... calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules + calcium-independent cell-cell adhesion via ... heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane ... cell-cell adhesion involved in ameboidal cell migration + cell-cell adhesion involved in cerebral cortex tangential migration ...
Cell adhesion molecules including leukocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 ... Targeting of nanoparticles to cell adhesion molecules for potential immune therapy. dc.contributor.advisor. Berkland, Cory J.. ... Clustering of LFA-1 and ICAM-1 by multivalent ligands increases binding avidity of these cell adhesion molecules. In this ... In addition, T-cell adhesion to epithelial cells was inhibited by cIBR-NPs. In chapter 4, nanoparticles capable of blocking LFA ...
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are (glyco)proteins expressed on the cell surface and play a critical role in a wide array of ... Cell-cell adhesions also underpin axon-axon contacts and link neurons with supporting schwann cells and oligodendrocytes. ... Cell adhesion molecules - Felis catus (domestic cat) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ... costimulation and cellular adhesion. Furthermore cell-cell adhesions are important for brain morphology and highly coordinated ...
However we detected the Leishmania antigen in cells in glomeruli in 54, CD4+ T cells in the glomeruli of 44, and CD8+ T cells ... participation of adhesion molecules, and diminished apoptosis of cells contributing to determine the proliferative pattern of ... CD 4+ T cells predominate in proliferative patterns of glomerulonephritis, however the presence of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were ... There was a correlation between the number of Leishmania antigen positive cells and CD4+ T cells, and between the number of ...
... neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM-1) and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM). IgSF-CAMs are a large group of ... activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (Alcam) and neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (Ncam-1), (Fig. 1A). ... In the heart, cell adhesion molecules are essential for normal cardiac function, establishing specialized cell-cell contacts ... Purkinje cell, Cell adhesion molecule, NCAM-1, Polysialic acid, Cardiac conduction system, Ventricular conduction system, Mouse ...
... modulating cell-cell interactions through cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) such as cadherins, neural cell adhesion molecules ( ... Modulation of cell-cell interactions for neural tissue engineering : potential therapeutic applications of cell adhesion ... Modulation of cell-cell interactions for neural tissue engineering : potential therapeutic applications of cell adhesion ... Within the central nervous system, there are considerably more cell-cell communications as compared to cell-ECM interactions, ...
Ankyrin binding activity shared by the neurofascin/L1/NrCAM family of nervous system cell adhesion molecules. ... Ankyrin binding activity shared by the neurofascin/L1/NrCAM family of nervous system cell adhesion molecules. Journal Article ( ... Linkage of these ankyrin-binding cell adhesion molecules to spectrin-based structures may provide a major class of membrane- ... Neurofascin, L1, NrCAM, NgCAM, and neuroglian are membrane-spanning cell adhesion molecules with conserved cytoplasmic domains ...
... of major histocompatibility class I and class II antigens and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on operable non-small cell lung ... Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and adhesion molecules, such as the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 ... Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on bone marrow micrometastases in patients with operable non small cell lung carcinomas. ... Expression of intercellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules and class II major histocompatibility antigens in human lungs ...
The aim of this study was to detect the expression level of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MicroRNA-21 in peripheral ... The aim of this study was to detect the expression level of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MicroRNA-21 in peripheral ... We have proved that the expression level of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MicroRNA-21 in serum of subjects is closely ... We also demonstrated that vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MicroRNA-21 had a positive correlation with weight, body mass ...
The L1 cell adhesion molecule is induced in renal cancer cells and correlates with metastasis in clear cell carcinomas ... L1 cell adhesion molecule as a predictor for recurrence in pulmonary carcinoids and large-cell neuroendocrine tumors ... The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 potentiates integrin-dependent cell migration to extracellular matrix proteins ... The cell adhesion molecule L1 has a specific role in neural cell migration ...
Our results demonstrate the requirement of neuronal synaptobrevin for regulation of cell adhesion molecules and development of ... Neuropil pattern formation and regulation of cell adhesion molecules in Drosophila optic lobe development depend on ... Neuropil pattern formation and regulation of cell adhesion molecules in Drosophila optic lobe development depend on ... Neuropil pattern formation and regulation of cell adhesion molecules in Drosophila optic lobe development depend on ...
Loss of cell adhesion molecule CHL1 improves homeostatic adaptation and survival in hypoxic stress. In: Cell Death & Disease. ... Loss of cell adhesion molecule CHL1 improves homeostatic adaptation and survival in hypoxic stress. Cell Death & Disease. 2013; ... Loss of cell adhesion molecule CHL1 improves homeostatic adaptation and survival in hypoxic stress. Cell Death & Disease, 4(8 ( ... Loss of cell adhesion molecule CHL1 improves homeostatic adaptation and survival in hypoxic stress, Cell Death & Disease, vol ...
The leukocyte CD11/CD18 adhesion molecules (beta 2 integrins) are a family of three heterodimeric glycoproteins each with a ... adhesion to endothelium, aggregation, and cell-mediated cytotoxicity. The enhanced cell adhesion observed upon activation of ... Constitutive and stimulus-induced phosphorylation of CD11/CD18 leukocyte adhesion molecules.. J Cell Biol 1 December 1989; 109 ... Constitutive and stimulus-induced phosphorylation of CD11/CD18 leukocyte adhesion molecules. T A Chatila, T A Chatila ...
... vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)] expression. TNF-α or IL-1β did not change the expression of CD9, CD13, CD16, CD23, ... Demonstration of Inducible Expression of the Adhesion Molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 Academic Article ... was found to enhance intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression (severalfold) and induce de novo CD106 [ ... We have determined the phenotype of the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B by flow cytometry. We confirmed previous ...
深入研究「Tumor necrosis factor-α enhances neutrophil adhesiveness: Induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 via activation of ... Tumor necrosis factor-α enhances neutrophil adhesiveness: Induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 via activation of Akt ... CaM kinase II and modifications of histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase 4 in human tracheal smooth muscle cells」主題 ... CaM kinase II and modifications of histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase 4 in human tracheal smooth muscle cells. ...
Cardiovascular Cell Adhesion Cell Adhesion Molecules Cell adhesion molecules, Kits/ Lysates/ Other Cell Adhesion Proteins Cell ... Adhesion molecules ELISA kits Adhesion molecules ELISA kits, Kits/ Lysates/ Other Alternative Pathway, Immunology Angiogenesis ... Stem Cells Neurology process Neuroscience Other Other, Cardiovascular Signal Transduction Subcellular Markers Surface Molecules ... Other Leukocyte recruitment Mesenchymal Stem Cells Microtubules Microtubules, Tags & Cell Markers Mitochondrial) Motor Proteins ...
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Adhesion Molecules for Microbiology. This is one of many videos provided by Clutch Prep to prepare ... Practice: If the endothelial cells of the blood vessels in the body did not possess adhesion molecules, which of the following ... Practice: Why are adhesion molecules considered a form of cell communication in immune responses? ... Cell Biology. Video Lessons Anatomy & Physiology. Video Lessons Genetics. Video Lessons GOB. Video Lessons Biochemistry. Video ...
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title = "Cell adhesion molecules in Hodgkins disease",. abstract = "The fact that Hodgkins cells are capable of binding ... Cell adhesion molecules in Hodgkins disease. / Paietta, E.. In: Annals of Oncology, Vol. 3, No. SUPPL. 4, 1992, p. S17-S19.. ... including representative molecules from various adhesion molecule families.. AB - The fact that Hodgkins cells are capable of ... Cell adhesion molecules in Hodgkins disease. Annals of Oncology. 1992;3(SUPPL. 4):S17-S19. doi: 10.1093/annonc/3.suppl_4.S17 ...
... the presence of adhesion molecule expression in the valve endothelium we will try to show the level of adhesion molecules in ... A rise in the levels of adhesion molecules such as VCAM-1, ICAM-1and E-selectin in valve disease patients has been reported ... tin Binding Site," Cell, Vol. 60, No. 4, 1990, pp. 577-584. ... lar cell adhesion molecules (VCAM-1) and E-selectin exist in ... Beta-Hemolytic Streptococ Role of Adhesion Molecules Semsi Altaner1, Turhan Kurum2, Muzaffer Demir3, Burhan Turgut4, Turan Ege5 ...
Estimation of the dissociation constant of the cell adhesion molecules srCD2 and srCD48 using analytical ultracentrifugation. ... Estimation of the dissociation constant of the cell adhesion molecules srCD2 and srCD48 using analytical ultracentrifugation. ...
RESULTS: In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which rely on adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 ... METHODS: We compared parasite lines varying in their binding properties to human endothelial cells for their ability to ... Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs), which can bind infected erythrocytes via ICAM-1 and CD36, have a more ... but this is also dependent on adhesive interactions rather than merely contact between cells. CONCLUSIONS: Signaling via ...
Immunoelectron Microscopic Localization Of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules L1, N. by webadmin , Jun 3, 2022 , บทความ ... We have a React Native cell application that uses Mapbox. After zoom, its shifting a bit from the unique location mechanically ...
The EPCAM gene provides instructions for making a protein known as epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM). Learn about ... epithelial cell adhesion molecule To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript.. ... where it helps cells stick to one another (cell adhesion). In addition, the protein in the cell membrane can be cut at a ... The EPCAM gene provides instructions for making a protein known as epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM). This protein ...
Mouse ALCAM (Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule) ELISA Kit. E-EL-M2456 Regular price $580.00. $499.00 You Pay ...
  • Using Northern blot hybridization analysis, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA was detected in BEAS-2B cells stimulated with cytokines. (
  • 16. Mantovani A, Dejana E. Cytokines as communication signals between leukocytes and endothelial cells. (
  • Serum leptin levels in relation to circulating cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and angiogenic factors in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. (
  • We also examine the production of various cytokines and study cytotoxic potential of the different T cell subsets in colon tumors. (
  • This transcription factor governs the expression of target genes that are involved in encoding cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, cell adhesion molecules, and acute-phase proteins that regulate inflammation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. (
  • The molecular changes include increased reactive oxygen species, pro-inflammatory changes: advanced glycation end products, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, Complement 5-9 deposition and cytokines, which result in increased paracellular permeability, tight junction disruption, and increased transcellular permeability. (
  • The molecular changes include increased reactive oxygen species, pro-inflammatory changes: advanced glycation end products, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), Complement 5-9 (C5-9) deposition, cytokines, which result in increased paracellular permeability-small molecules and water: tight junction (TJ) disruption-and increased transcellular permeability-large molecules and water: caveolar transport, aquaporins, plasmalemmal vesicle-associated protein. (
  • Studies have shown that honey has the ability to reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human blood cells. (
  • These cells and others that produce crucial cytokines maintain SLOs in the adult. (
  • In addition to modulating vascular tone and extracellular matrix turnover, ET-1 up-regulates cell surface adhesion molecules-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1).The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the detection of ET-1, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in the diagnosis of systemic sclerosis. (
  • Cell adhesion molecules including leukocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) play an important role in regulating inflammatory responses. (
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and adhesion molecules, such as the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), appear to play an important role in the immunological recognition and destruction of tumour cells. (
  • Culture of BEAS-2B cells with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or interleukin (IL)-1α (1 ng/ml) was found to enhance intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression (severalfold) and induce de novo CD106 [vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)] expression. (
  • Plasmodium falciparum intercellular adhesion molecule-1-based cytoadherence-related signaling in human endothelial cells. (
  • RESULTS: In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which rely on adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 for binding, signaling is related to the avidity of the parasite line for ICAM-1 and can be blocked either through the use of anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies or HUVECs with altered ICAM-1 binding properties (i.e. (
  • Serum was stored for measurement of levels of Angiopoietin (Ang)-1, Ang-2, soluble (s)P-selectin, sE-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and platelet and endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1. (
  • Serum was stored for measurement of levels of Angiopoietin (Ang)-1, Ang-2, soluble (s)P-selectin, sE-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and platelet and endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1.Results: Fifty-one children were included of whom 10 had a positive blood culture. (
  • Constitutive and stimulus-induced phosphorylation of CD11/CD18 leukocyte adhesion molecules. (
  • The leukocyte CD11/CD18 adhesion molecules (beta 2 integrins) are a family of three heterodimeric glycoproteins each with a distinct alpha subunit (CD11a, b, or c) and a common beta subunit (CD18). (
  • CD11/CD18 mediate crucial leukocyte adhesion functions such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, adhesion to endothelium, aggregation, and cell-mediated cytotoxicity. (
  • A small component of phosphothreonine was present in CD11c and CD18 and a minor component of phosphotyrosine was also detected in CD18 upon leukocyte activation may regulate the adhesion functions mediated by the CD11/CD18 family of molecules. (
  • Dysfunctional endothelium leads to increased permeability to lipoproteins and up-regulation of leukocyte and endothelial adhesion molecules. (
  • Other trophic factors, such as IL-2, TNF-α, and granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor, cause activated T cells to produce interferon-γ, TNF-α, and TNF-β, leading to stimulation of macrophages and further up-regulation of leukocyte adhesion molecules. (
  • Similarly, in a leukocyte adhesion assay, naïve cells treated with serum from patients who received CPAP exhibited improved endothelial barrier function than cells treated with OSA control serum. (
  • Adalimumab also modulates biological responses that are induced or regulated by TNF, including changes in the levels of adhesion molecules responsible for leukocyte migration (ELAM-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 with an IC50 of 0.1-0.2 nM). (
  • Elevated lavels of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1, thrombomodulin and soluble endothelial cell adhesion molecules in patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever. (
  • The ability to study the role of specific genes in endothelial cell biology is made possible by our ability to modulate their expression through siRNA or knockout technologies. (
  • These types of analyses are encumbered by the need to repeatedly produce and characterize primary endothelial cell cultures and can be greatly facilitated by the use of immortalized microvascular endothelial cells. (
  • Preeclampsia: an endothelial cell disorder. (
  • Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) functions as a negative regulator of platelet reactivity and thrombosis, at least in part by inhibiting GPVI-FcR-chain signaling via recruitment of SHP-2 to phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs in PECAM-1. (
  • These include endothelial cell (EC) death or dysfunction, pericyte loss or dysfunction, thickened basement membrane, loss or dysfunction of glial cells, and loss/change of EC Glycocalyx. (
  • Diabetes and hyperglycaemia have obvious effects on intraocular vascular endothelial cell (EC) permeability, adhesion to leukocytes, as well as angiogenesis. (
  • Conclusions: The data from this study indicate that in children with severe infection, serum levels of markers of endothelial cell activation are not associated with a positive blood culture. (
  • Research using physiological degrees of PAI-1 uncovered it stimulates endothelial cell (EC) migration and proliferation through its anti-protease activity and its own capability to bind to vitronectin leading to EC to migrate in the vitronectin-rich perivascular space towards fibronectin-rich tumor stroma [6, 7]. (
  • High levels of ET-1 and its receptors are expressed in both endothelial cells and circulating in the blood of SSc patients. (
  • Although a recent study revealed that homologs of netrin and its receptors are required for regeneration and maintenance of the planarian central nervous system (CNS), the roles of cell adhesion in the formation and maintenance of the planarian neural network remain poorly understood. (
  • These results define a novel role for Ia molecules as signal transducing receptors that regulate LFA-1-dependent adhesion via a putative, Ia-coupled protein kinase(s). (
  • The spike (S) glycoprotein of coronaviruses contains protrusions that will only bind to certain receptors on the host cell. (
  • Cell surface receptors ( membrane receptors , transmembrane receptors ) are receptors at the surface of a cell (built into its cell membrane ) that act in cell signaling by receiving (binding to) extracellular molecules . (
  • Adalimumab is a recombinant human IgG1 monoclonal antibody specific for human tumour necrosis factor (TNF).Adalimumab binds specifically to TNF and neutralises the biological function of TNF by blocking its interaction with the p55 and p75 cell surface TNF receptors. (
  • The CD56 is a neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) expressed in natural killer cells. (
  • During regular improvement, the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM changes on the cell-surface from a sialic acid-rich embryonic, or E kind, to a number of adult, or A forms which have much less sialic acid (E-to-A conversion). (
  • More specifically, we are studying the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and chemokines in unaffected and tumor tissues, and how these shape the repertoire of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. (
  • Stimulation of hRVECs with VEGF 165 , TNFα, or IL-1β for 6 to 24 hours caused significant induction of intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 expression. (
  • In addition, the protein in the cell membrane can be cut at a specific location, releasing a piece called the intracellular domain (EpICD), which helps relay signals from outside the cell to the nucleus of the cell. (
  • Comp23 treatment reduced the H 2 O 2 -induced intracellular accumulation of ROS, thus preserving the integrity of the cytoskeleton and also the viability of the FHs74Int cells. (
  • These mechanisms altogether moderate the oxidative damage of intracellular macromolecules, promote repair processes, and enhance the viability of the affected cells. (
  • Stable depletion of L1 led to a significant decrease in GBC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, as well as decreased intracellular signaling through AKT and FAK. (
  • The intracellular (or cytoplasmic ) domain of the receptor interacts with the interior of the cell or organelle, relaying the signal. (
  • Determination of soluble adhesion molecules and ET-1 in serum SSc patients could be one of the laboratory markers for evaluating SSc activity and disease prognosis. (
  • Increased maternal plasma levels of soluble adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin) in preeclampsia. (
  • Significance Selectins and integrins are receptor proteins on cell surfaces responsible for adhesion to extracellular biomolecules, a critical component of physiological processes like white blood cell localization at sites of inflammation. (
  • Instead, we found that dendritic cells residing in the lymph node medulla use the lectin receptor SIGN-R1 to capture lymph-borne influenza virus and promote humoral immunity. (
  • The receptor critical for sickle cell adhesion to laminin. (
  • Previously reported overexpression of B-CAM/LU by epithelial cancer cells suggests that this protein may also serve as a laminin receptor in malignant tumors. (
  • Background: Platelet activation by collagen depends on signals transduced by the glycoprotein (GP)VI-Fc receptor (FcR)-chain collagen receptor complex, which involves recruitment of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) to phosphorylated tyrosines in the linker for activation of T cells (LAT). (
  • It's been reported that 2019-nCoV can infect the human respiratory epithelial cells through interaction with the human ACE2 receptor. (
  • S1 mainly contains a receptor binding domain (RBD), which is responsible for recognizing the cell surface receptor. (
  • attaches the virion to the cell membrane by interacting with host receptor, initiating the infection (By similarity). (
  • Binding to human ACE2 receptor and internalization of the virus into the endosomes of the host cell induces conformational changes in the Spike glycoprotein (PubMed:32142651, PubMed:32075877, PubMed:32155444). (
  • Additionally, a second cleavage leads to the release of a fusion peptide after viral attachment to host cell receptor (By similarity). (
  • Differential expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) by conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DC (pDCs) has been suggested to influence the type of immune response induced by microbial pathogens. (
  • they react with the receptor to induce changes in the metabolism and activity of a cell. (
  • Each cell membrane can have several kinds of membrane receptor, in varying surface distribution. (
  • A specific receptor may also be differently distributed on different membrane surfaces, depending on the membrane sort and cell function. (
  • Rotation Model: Ligand binding to the extracellular part of the receptor induces the rotation of the receptor's transmembrane region inside the cell membrane, in doing so regulate it's activity inside the cell. (
  • Here we describe how we alter gene expression in polyoma middle T antigen immortalized microvascular endothelial cells isolated from wild-type and genetically modified mice to study the role of cell adhesion molecules in downstream assays. (
  • Solid phase assays demonstrate that B-CAM/LU binds laminin on intact sickle red cells and that red cell B-CAM/LU binds immobilized laminin, whereas another putative laminin binding protein, CD44, does not. (
  • We further confirmed that they function as cell adhesion molecules using cell aggregation assays. (
  • Cell viability was measured by MTT, LDH, and Annexin V apoptosis assays. (
  • CHIR 99021 is a small organic molecule that inhibits GSK3α and GSK3β by competing for their ATP-binding sites.In vitro kinase assays reveal that CHIR 99021 specifically inhibits GSK3β (IC50=~5 nM) and GSK3α (IC50=~10 nM), with little effect on other kinases[2]. (
  • Cytokine-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) was assessed by Western blot. (
  • Next, we examined the relative expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in adult goat brain and retina. (
  • We have determined the phenotype of the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B by flow cytometry. (
  • In the present study, we investigated the role of increased PARK7 level on the epithelial cell and mucosal integrity of the small intestine. (
  • Membrane proteins that mediate immune cell-cell interactions fall into different categories, namely those involved in antigen recognition, costimulation and cellular adhesion. (
  • Some S oligomers are transported to the host plasma membrane, where they may mediate cell-cell fusion. (
  • Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. (
  • These cell adhesion molecules (CAM) will mediate the contact between two cells or between cells and the extracellular matrix, an essential process to the success of the implant. (
  • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are (glyco)proteins expressed on the cell surface and play a critical role in a wide array of biologic processes that include hemostasis, the immune response, inflammation, embryogenesis, and development of neuronal tissue. (
  • Expression of tetanus toxin light chain (which cleaves neuronal synaptobrevin) and genetic mosaics were used to analyze neuropil pattern formation and levels of selected neural adhesion molecules in the optic lobe. (
  • Our results demonstrate the requirement of neuronal synaptobrevin for regulation of cell adhesion molecules and development of the fine structure of the optic lobe. (
  • Immunofluorescence staining revealed that approximately 30-40% of cultured cells expressed neuronal markers. (
  • Functional analyses using RNA interference revealed that DjCAM is partly involved in axon formation, and that DjDSCAM plays crucial roles in neuronal cell migration, axon outgrowth, fasciculation and projection. (
  • tein, and neuronal cell adhesion molecule mRNA were also increased in olfactory bulb. (
  • Finally, transfection of murine erythroleukemia cells with human B-CAM cDNA induces binding of both soluble and immobilized laminin. (
  • Engagement of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules induces sustained, lymphocyte function-associated molecule 1-dependent cell adhesion. (
  • Sirtuins might therefore be of therapeutic significance, as they are overexpressed in cancer cells, and sirtuin inhibitors inhibit the development of thymic lymphomas in murine models. (
  • In addition, DCs treated with NPs or with cIBR-NPs stimulated the proliferation of T cells, but DCs treated with LABL-NPs did not stimulate T cell proliferation. (
  • EpICD travels to the nucleus and joins with other proteins, forming a group (complex) that regulates the activity of several genes that are involved in many cell processes, including growth and division (proliferation), maturation (differentiation), and movement (migration), all of which are important processes for the proper development of cells and tissues. (
  • Stress stimuli or growth factor deprivation promotes nuclear localization and activation of FoxO proteins, which-depending on the cellular context-can lead to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. (
  • This paradoxical aftereffect of PAI-1 provides since been described by its pro-angiogenic activity and its own protective influence on cell apoptosis. (
  • Apoptotic cells (early apoptotic Annexin V+/PI- PF-2341066 cells and past due apoptotic Annexin V+/PI+ cells) had been examined using the Annexin V FITC apoptosis recognition package I (BD) based on the producers suggestions. (
  • CHIR99021 treatment significantly blocks crypt apoptosis and accumulation of p-H2AX+ cells, and improves crypt regeneration and villus height. (
  • CHIR99021 treatment increases Lgr5+ cell survival by blocking apoptosis, and effectively prevents the reduction of Olfm4, Lgr5 and CD44 as early as 4 h[4]. (
  • In order to be effective and integrated to the receiving area, the bone graft is required to allow a strong cell adhesion, interacting with several molecules to induce migration, differentiation, and thus the mineralization of the new bone on the graft. (
  • Although TLR ligands induced in situ migration of spleen cDC into the T cell area, spleen pDCs formed clusters in the marginal zone and in the outer T cell area 6 h after injection of TLR9 and TLR7 ligands, respectively. (
  • This family is involved in a wide range of cellular responses, including cytoskeletal reorganization, regulation of transcription, cell migration, cellular transformation and metastasis. (
  • The following parameters were evaluated: cell migration, cytokine profile, IgE levels, lung histological modifications and MAPK activation. (
  • RESULTS: At first, it was observed that ouabain reduced OVA-induced cell migration into the lung, observed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell counting and lung histological analysis (HE stain). (
  • Primary isolates of bronchial epithelial cells produced detectable levels of VCAM-1 protein and mRNA as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. (
  • Specificity: This antibody recognizes a 130kDa protein known as the Melanoma Cell Adhesion Molecule. (
  • Basal cell adhesion molecule/lutheran protein. (
  • Thus, B-CAM/LU appears to be the major laminin-binding protein of sickle red cells. (
  • Adhesion was affected by a qualitative change in LFA-1 molecules and was reversed by the protein kinase C inhibitor sphingosine. (
  • The EPCAM gene provides instructions for making a protein known as epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM). (
  • This protein is found in epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the surfaces and cavities of the body. (
  • The EpCAM protein is found spanning the membrane that surrounds epithelial cells, where it helps cells stick to one another (cell adhesion). (
  • The extra methyl groups attached to the MSH2 promoter reduce the expression of the MSH2 gene, which means that less protein is produced in epithelial cells. (
  • loss of this protein prevents proper DNA repair, and errors accumulate as the cells continue to divide. (
  • Although trans-synaptic adhesion substances induce the forming of glutamatergic CNS synapses [5 6 it really is unclear when these substances 1st accumulate at synapses in accordance with other synaptic protein and what sort of single kind of cell adhesion molecule (CAM) can recruit multiple types of synaptic protein to fresh synapses with specific mechanisms and period courses. (
  • can be regulated by relationships between your trans-synaptic CAMs β-neurexin (β-NRX) and neuroligin (Nlg) [6 18 Although a little percentage of glutamatergic synapses can develop at steady pre-existing Nlg1 clusters connected with scaffolding molecule complexes [13] the dynamics of Nlg1 before synaptogenesis as well as the timing of Nlg1 build up for the most part axodendritic contacts in accordance with other postsynaptic protein remains unfamiliar. (
  • Just like nectin protein, TSLC1 can be indicated in the man testis robustly, where it really is localized to germ cells (Wakayama et al, 2003). (
  • An interaction between the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K and the scaffolding molecule Grb-2-associated binding protein-1 (Gab1), which is regulated by binding of the Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) to Gab1, has been shown in other cell types to sustain PI3K activity to elicit cellular responses. (
  • In an attempt to understand the molecular basis of carcinogenesis induced by these particles, we investigated the potential activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) by crocidolite and freshly fractured or aged crystalline silica in a JB6 P + cell line stably transfected with AP-1-luciferase reporter plasmid (in vitro) and in AP-1-luciferase reporter transgenic mice (in vivo). (
  • S2 contains basic elements needed for the membrane fusion.The S protein plays key parts in the induction of neutralizing-antibody and T-cell responses, as well as protective immunity. (
  • 2B4, the natural killer and T cell immunoglobulin superfamily surface protein, is a ligand for CD48. (
  • Zinc finger (Znf) domains are relatively small protein motifs which contain multiple finger-like protrusions that make tandem contacts with their target molecule. (
  • Therefore, modulating cell-cell interactions through cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) such as cadherins, neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAM) and L1, may be a potential alternative to improve nerve regeneration. (
  • The main reported mechanisms involve cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and extracellular matrix components. (
  • Integrin cell adhesion molecules and colorectal cancer. (
  • An overview of how integrin function is regulated from both a biochemical and a mechanical perspective, affecting integrin cell-surface availability, binding properties, activation or clustering is provided, and how this biomechanical regulation allows integrins to respond to different ECM physicochemical properties and signals. (
  • High levels of soluble activated endothelial substances suggest that endothelial cells are highly activated. (
  • For circulating leukocytes to enter inflamed tissue or peripheral lymphoid organs, the cells must adhere to and transmigrate between endothelial cells lining blood vessel wall by binding of LFA-1 on leukocytes to ICAM-1 on endothelial cells. (
  • In addition, interaction of LFA-1 expressed on T cells and ICAM-1 expressed on antigen presenting cells (APCs) is crucial for immunological synapse formation and hence T cell activation. (
  • Clustering of LFA-1 and ICAM-1 by multivalent ligands increases binding avidity of these cell adhesion molecules. (
  • The cellular uptake of cLABL conjugated NPs (cLABL-NPs) by lung carcinoma epithelial cells upregulating ICAM-1 was significantly more rapid than control NPs. (
  • Cell studies suggested that cLABL-NPs targeted encapsulated doxorubicin to ICAM-1 expressing cells and provided sustained release of doxorubicin. (
  • In chapter 4, nanoparticles capable of blocking LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction were then studied as inhibitors of T cell conjugation to DCs. (
  • LABL-NPs and cIBR-NPs rapidly bound to DCs and inhibited T cell conjugation to DCs to a greater extent than the free peptides, unconjugated NPs, anti-ICAM-1 antibodies and anti-LFA-1 antibodies. (
  • Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs), which can bind infected erythrocytes via ICAM-1 and CD36, have a more complex pattern of signaling behavior, but this is also dependent on adhesive interactions rather than merely contact between cells. (
  • For the SCIP assay, human coronary artery endothelial cells (hCAECs) were incubated with 5% serum in media from individual subjects for 4 h. qPCR was performed to assess endothelial inflammatory transcript (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, IL-8, P-selectin, CCL5, and CXCL12) responses to serum. (
  • Human CD50 (ICAM-3) is an adhesion molecule that interacts with LFA-1 (CD18/CD11a) and provides a costimulatory signal for T cells (1, 2, 3) which is thought to be essential for initiation of immune responses. (
  • Antibody 186-2G9 recognizes the D1 domain of the ICAM-3 molecule of 130 kd (4). (
  • In the present study, we found primitive immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules (IgCAMs) in a planarian that are homologous to vertebrate neural IgCAMs. (
  • Close homologue of L1 (CHL1) is a transmembrane cell adhesion molecule that is critical for brain development and for the maintenance of neural circuits in adults. (
  • Specific depletion or overexpression of L1 in the GBC cell lines JCRB1033 and SNU-308, respectively, was achieved by lentivirus-mediated transduction and expression of an L1 mRNA-specific short hairpin RNA or full-length human L1. (
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Mucosal Addressin Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (MAdCAM1) in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, urine and other biological fluids. (
  • Majority of these approaches only focus on growth factors and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. (
  • In endothelial cells (ECs), they further regulate angiogenesis and may promote inflammation and vessel destabilization implicating a role of FoxOs in vascular diseases. (
  • They regulate self-reactive T cells by inducing anergy and clonal deletion and/or by expanding regulatory T cells ( 1 ). (
  • Immune responses influence patient outcome in most cancer types, and the aim of Marianne Quiding-Järbrink's research is to elucidate the role of different T cell populations in CRC and understand how Treg influence local anti-tumor immunity and lymphocyte recruitment to tumors. (
  • The aim of our project is to elucidate the role of different T cell populations in colorectal carcinoma and understand how Treg influence local anti-tumor immunity and lymphocyte recruitment to tumors. (
  • The ability of regulatory T cells to influence lymphocyte recruitment and T cell effector functions in the tumor microenvironment is determined, and we also perform long-term follow up of patient outcome related to the immunological parameters that we characterize. (
  • We therefore propose that PECAM-1-mediated inhibition of GPVI-dependent platelet responses result, at least in part, from recruitment of SHP-2-p85 complexes to tyrosine-phosphorylated PECAM-1, which diminishes the association of PI3K with activatory signaling molecules, such as Gab1 and LAT. (
  • The enhanced cell adhesion observed upon activation of leukocytes is associated with increased surface membrane expression of CD11/CD18, as well as a qualitative upregulation of CD11/CD18 functions. (
  • We demonstrate here that ligand binding to major histocompatibility complex class II (Ia) molecules also activates LFA-1 function, providing a reciprocal mechanism for the induction of adhesion between T cells and Ia+ APC. (
  • DR+ epidermal macrophage induction, and noma in young women: An evaluation of the Langerhans cell depletion. (
  • Cold Spring Harbor, NY -- Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (CSHLP) announced the release of The Digital Cell: Cell Biology as a Data Science, available on its website in hardcover format. (
  • A major pathway for B cell acquisition of lymph-borne particulate antigens relies on antigen capture by subcapsular sinus macrophages of the lymph node. (
  • These macrophages, in addition to smooth muscle cells, activate T cells by presenting antigens, including oxidized LDL. (
  • Neurofascin, L1, NrCAM, NgCAM, and neuroglian are membrane-spanning cell adhesion molecules with conserved cytoplasmic domains that are believed to play important roles in development of the nervous system. (
  • Live-imaging revealed that retrograde moving APPL vesicles co-traffic with L1-type cell adhesion molecule Neuroglian (Nrg). (
  • Despite evolutions in the field of medicine, head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains to be one of the most common malignancies worldwide and the leading cause of mortality among males in India. (
  • [1] Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a fairly onerous prognosis, with an overall 5-year survival rate ranging from 40% to 58% due to late diagnosis, metastatic behavior and recurrence potential, thus encouraging further research on factors that might modify the disease outcome. (
  • Head and throat squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) may be the 6th most common malignancy worldwide and is generally impervious to curative treatment attempts. (
  • Br J mous cell carcinoma of the skin. (
  • We illuminate the many-body effects underlying the structure, formation, and dissolution of cellular adhesion domains in the presence and absence of forces. (
  • No significant differences in serum levels of the Angiopoietins or soluble cellular adhesion molecules between groups were observed at start of antibiotic treatment nor after 48-72 h. (
  • Regardless of the particular lineage pathway involved, differentiated human ES cells downregulate sirtuin 1, a histone deacetylase. (
  • July 2020 Role of a novel angiogenesis FKBPL-CD44 pathway in preeclampsia risk stratification and mesenchymal stem cell treatment. (
  • Neuropil pattern formation and regulation of cell adhesion molecules in Drosophila optic lobe development depend on synaptobrevin. (
  • The presence and regulation of surface molecules on the airway epithelium, however, is incompletely understood. (
  • Regulation of orientational order or molecular co-alignment of FA proteins as a mechanism able to precisely tune cell sensitivity to the ECM is identified and relative geometric organization of FA components is suggested as an important regulator of mechanotransduction. (
  • In cell lineage-tracing studies, Thomas Graf [The Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Barcelona, Spain] asked how `instructive' transcription factors drive lineage choice in blood cells. (
  • The aim of this study was to detect the expression level of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MicroRNA-21 in peripheral serum of adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome patients and healthy subjects, analyze the correlation between vascular cell adhesion molecule-1/microRNA-21 and the main indicators of polysomnography (apnea-hypopnea index, L-Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen) of subjects. (
  • To explore the relationship between the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1/microRNA-21 and the severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome and its clinical significance. (
  • Enzyme-linked immunoassay was used to detect the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. (
  • Besides, the serum expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MicroRNA-21 were increased significantly in Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome patients, and the level was positively correlated with the degree of the disease. (
  • We also demonstrated that vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MicroRNA-21 had a positive correlation with weight, body mass index and apnea-hypopnea index, whereas a negative correlation with L-Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen. (
  • Finally, there is a significant positive correlation between vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MicroRNA-21. (
  • We have proved that the expression level of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MicroRNA-21 in serum of subjects is closely related to apnea-hypopnea index and L-Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen, which can reflect the severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome and may become a new biological observation index for diagnosis and prognosis evaluation of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome. (
  • Circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, and normal pregnancy: evidence of selective dysregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 homeostasis in pre-eclampsia. (
  • VCAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule. (
  • These studies are particularly important as several immunomodulatory therapies aimed at promoting anti-tumor T cell immunity by reducing Treg activity are currently being implemented, so-called checkpoint blockade therapy. (
  • Immune responses influence patient outcome in most cancer types, and the most important cell types for anti-tumor immunity are cytotoxic and cytokine producing lymphocytes. (
  • Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1: Testing for a role in insect immunity, behaviour and reproduction. (
  • In the process of signal transduction , ligand binding affects a cascading chemical change through the cell membrane. (
  • We discovered that Tslc1 had not been expressed in adult epididymal spermatozoa, recommending it most likely features as an adhesion molecule very important to defining the germ cell-Sertoli cell market required for regular germ cell maturation. (
  • Other possible disease-associated genes are involved in the immune system, particularly in the maturation and function of T cells. (
  • Hypermethylation occurs when too many small molecules called methyl groups are attached to the promoter region. (
  • Antigenic stimulation is associated with enhanced adhesion between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APC). (
  • B rain microvascular endothelial cells also display CD48. (
  • Antioxidants are natural substances that help prevent damage to cells in your body. (
  • The fact that Hodgkin's cells are capable of binding lymphocytes has been observed both in vivo and in vitro. (
  • However, many in vitro protocols, particularly those of a biochemical nature, require large numbers of endothelial cells. (
  • Additional reported applications (for the relevant formats) include: immunoprecipitation 1-3 , complement-dependent cytotoxicity 4 , in vivo and in vitro blocking of adhesion 1-3,5 , and immunohistochemical staining of acetone-fixed frozen sections and zinc-fixed paraffin-embedded sections 6 . (
  • Background The cell adhesion molecule set neuroligin1 (Nlg1) and β-neurexin (β-NRX) is normally a robust inducer of postsynaptic differentiation of glutamatergic synapses in vitro . (
  • In in vitro studies, crocidolite asbestos caused a dose- and time-dependent AP-1 activation in JB6+ cells, which persisted for at least 72 h. (
  • 2012) reported on human skin penetration of cobalt nanoparticles through intact and damaged skin suggesting that Co applied as NPs is able to penetrate the human skin in an in-vitro diffusion cell system. (
  • risk of basal and squamous cell skin cancer. (
  • 2020. Cell Res. (
  • Aug 2020 Mechanisms of Key Innate Immune Cells in Early- and Late-Onset Preeclampsia. (
  • May 2020 Can Stem Cells Beat COVID-19: Advancing Stem Cells and Extracellular Vesicles Toward Mainstream Medicine for Lung Injuries Associated With SARS-CoV-2 Infections. (
  • May 2020 Emerging therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells in preeclampsia. (
  • In conclusion, the co-ordinated expression of immunologically relevant cell surface molecules on primary NSCLC is a frequent event that correlates with distinct parameters of favourable prognosis. (
  • June 2021 Stem cell-based approaches in cardiac tissue engineering: controlling the microenvironment for autologous cells. (
  • March 2021 Simple-to-Operate Approach for Single Cell Analysis Using a Hydrophobic Surface and Nanosized Droplets. (
  • Jan 2021 GSTM1 Modulates Expression of Endothelial Adhesion Molecules in Uremic Milieu. (
  • VCAM-1 on stimulated BEAS-2B was functionally active as determined by adhesion of purified eosinophils and blockade with specific antibodies. (
  • It is expressed on hematopoietic cells include lymphocytes 1,2 , mast cells 3 , neutrophils 2 , eosinophils 4 , NK cells 5 , monocytes 1,2 , some dendritic cells 6 ,some hematopoietic progenitors 7 and macrophages 8 . (
  • There the microbe encounters the alveolar macrophage (AMac) and submucosal dendritic cell (DC). (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) constitutively sample self-Ags and migrate to draining LNs even in the steady state. (
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that the cell adhesion molecule, L1, is expressed in several malignant tumor types and its expression correlates with tumor progression and metastasis. (
  • Regulatory T cells (Treg), on the other hand, can inhibit the function of cells with anti-tumor activity and thereby help the tumor to escape immune recognition. (
  • The mast cell tumor necrosis factor alpha response to FimH-expressing Escherichia coli is mediated by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule CD48. (
  • Right here we tested the experience of TM5275 and TM5441 against a big variety of individual tumor cell lines as well as the pre-clinical efficiency of TM5441 in HT1080 and HCT116 tumor-bearing mice. (
  • Our data show the apoptotic aftereffect of these inhibitors against many tumor cell lines but indicate their present limited activity when utilized alone tests. (
  • The attachment of one cell to another cell via adhesion molecules that are at least partially embedded in the plasma membrane. (
  • This report presents biochemical evidence that the cytoplasmic domains of these molecules associate directly with ankyrins, a family of spectrin-binding proteins located on the cytoplasmic surface of specialized plasma membrane domains. (
  • Linkage of these ankyrin-binding cell adhesion molecules to spectrin-based structures may provide a major class of membrane-cytoskeletal connections in adult brain as well as earlier stages of development. (
  • The anatomic changes include EC damage-death or dysfunction, pericyte loss or dysfunction, thickened basement membrane, loss or dysfunction of glial cells, and loss/change of EC Glycocalyx. (
  • They are specialized integral membrane proteins that allow communication between the cell and the outside world. (
  • As another important component in nerve tissues, the potential of modulating cell-cell interactions as a strategy to promote regeneration has been overlooked. (
  • Within the central nervous system, there are considerably more cell-cell communications as compared to cell-ECM interactions, since the ECM only contributes 10%-20% of the total tissue volume. (
  • In this respect, TSLC1 can be named SynCAM1 predicated on its part in synaptic firm (Biederer et al, 2002) and IGSF4 predicated on its recognition in man gonadal cells (Wakayama et al, 2003). (
  • Benefits of honey- Honey has also been shown to activate enzymes that break down adhesion molecules on mast cells in order to decrease their ability to cause allergic reactions (1). (
  • The hypothesized existence of cancer stem cells (CSC) and its markers aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), CD44, SOX2 and OCT4 in oral dysplastic tissues provides the potential for a more reliable assessment of malignant transformation of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). (
  • The antioxidants in honey help fight free radicals that cause damage to cells and tissues around your body. (
  • Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) or, more accurately, tertiary lymphoid tissues are accumulations of lymphoid cells that arise in the adult. (
  • The new study builds on the lab's discovery in 1999 that C. glabrata sticks to cells that line mucosal tissues and blood vessels thanks to the products of genes dubbed EPAs by Cormack's team. (
  • However, we have no evidence that the immune response facilitated by these molecules can effectively influence the clinical course of the disease. (
  • Another possible explanation is that UC occurs when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the cells of the intestines, causing inflammation. (
  • Researchers at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) studying mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) - a cell type useful in treating immune-related diseases - have uncovered a way to enhance and prolong the cells' therapeutic effects in a preclinical model of type 1 diabetes. (
  • MSCs are a type of adult stem cell with potent immune-suppressing and anti-inflammatory effects. (
  • To get intravenously administered MSCs to the sites of the immune attack, the research team engineered the HCELL homing molecule to steer them toward the inflamed pancreatic islets. (
  • Sackstein, co-corresponding author of the study, concluded that while further studies of the effects of MSCs are warranted, the preclinical study represents an important step in the potential use of mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of type 1 diabetes and other immune-related diseases. (
  • DCs are potent APCs that initiate T cell-dependent immune responses ( 1 ). (
  • Benefits of honey- Honey can be used to treat diarrhea because it contains many trace minerals that help strengthen your immune system by boosting white blood cell production. (
  • The outcome of the ensuing battle will determine whether the infection will remain locally limited within the engulfing cells of the innate immune system, or will continue to spread, causing the individual to become a clinically active TB patient [ 1 , 6 , 7 , 8 ]. (
  • I. Blood methanol concentration and neural cell adhesion molecules. (
  • They bind Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) modifying cellular ion concentration and trigger cell signaling mechanisms without altering ion balance. (
  • HMEC-1 is an endothelial-like cell that was isolated from the endothelium of the foreskin of a male patient. (
  • Thus the adhesion of unnatural ruddy bloodA cellA (RBC) A toA the endothelium has been proposed as the likely initiatingA event of vasoocclusion, however the fluctuations in the endothelium activationA province may modulate the unpredictable happening of the major complications. (