Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules: Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1: A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule: Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.E-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex: A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia: Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. Ng-CAM is immunologically and structurally distinct from NCAM.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Contactin 2: A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Contactins: A family of immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecules that are involved in NERVOUS SYSTEM patterning.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Junctional Adhesion Molecules: A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Mice, Inbred C57BLNeurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mucoproteins: Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Selectins: Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Receptors, Very Late Antigen: Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Leukocyte Rolling: Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ankyrins: A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)alpha Catenin: A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Tenascin: Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Lutheran Blood-Group System: A complex blood group system having pairs of alternate antigens and amorphic genes, but also subject to a dominant independently segregating repressor.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCarcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.Desmoplakins: Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.Receptors, Leukocyte-Adhesion: Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Mice, Inbred BALB CEpithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Receptors, Fibronectin: Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell-Matrix Junctions: Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.GPI-Linked Proteins: A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Desmosomes: A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).PhosphoproteinsFluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).gamma Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.

Expression of trophinin, tastin, and bystin by trophoblast and endometrial cells in human placenta. (1/9582)

Trophinin, tastin, and bystin comprise a complex mediating a unique homophilic cell adhesion between trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells at their respective apical cell surfaces. In this study, we prepared mouse monoclonal antibodies specific to each of these molecules. The expression of these molecules in the human placenta was examined immunohistochemically using the antibodies. In placenta from the 6th week of pregnancy, trophinin and bystin were found in the cytoplasm of the syncytiotrophoblast in the chorionic villi, and in endometrial decidual cells at the utero placental interface. Tastin was exclusively present on the apical side of the syncytiotrophoblast. Tissue sections were also examined by in situ hybridization using RNA probes specific to each of these molecules. This analysis showed that trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells at the utero placental interface express trophinin, tastin, and bystin. In wk 10 placenta, trophinin and bystin were found in the intravillous cytotrophoblast, while tastin was not found in the villi. After wk 10, levels of all three proteins decreased and then disappeared from placental villi.  (+info)

Mycophenolate mofetil prevents the progressive renal failure induced by 5/6 renal ablation in rats. (2/9582)

BACKGROUND: Extensive renal ablation is associated with progressive sclerosis of the remnant kidney. Because lymphocytes and monocytes accumulate in the remnant kidney, it is likely that they play a role in the renal scarring. Therefore, we treated rats with 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx) with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a drug that has an antiproliferative effect and that suppresses the expression of intercellular adhesion molecules. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats with 5/6Nx received MMF (30 mg. kg-1. day-1 by daily gastric gavage, N = 15) or vehicle (N = 16). Ten additional rats were sham operated. All rats were fed a 30% protein diet. Body weight, serum creatinine, and urinary protein excretion were determined weekly. Lipid peroxidation, as a measure of oxidative stress observed by urinary malondialdehyde determinations, was performed every two weeks. Histologic studies were done in the remnant kidney four weeks (9 rats from the vehicle-treated group, 7 rats from the MMF group, and 5 sham-operated rats) and eight weeks after surgery (the remaining rats). Glomerular volume, sclerosis in glomeruli (segmental and global) and interstitium (semiquantitative scale), infiltrating lymphocytes and macrophages (CD43- and ED1-positive cells), and expression of adhesion molecules (CD54, CD18, and CD11b) were analyzed. RESULTS: MMF treatment prevented the progressive increment in serum creatinine and the proteinuria observed in the 5/6 nephrectomized rats during the eight weeks of observation (P < 0.01). Weight gain was comparable in the MMF-treated and sham-operated rats, whereas weight gain was decreased in untreated 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Excretion of malondialdehyde increased after surgery but returned sooner to control levels in the MMF-treated rats. Increments in glomerular size and mean arterial blood pressure induced by renal ablation were not modified by MMF treatment. Eight weeks after surgery, segmental sclerosis was present in 48.4 +/- 8.35% (+/- sd) glomeruli in the vehicle-treated group versus 25 +/- 10.5% in the MMF-treated group (P < 0.001). Interstitial fibrosis was reduced significantly with MMF treatment (P < 0.001). Infiltration with CD43- and ED1-positive cells in glomeruli and interstitium was two to five times lower in MMF-treated rats (P < 0.01). Expression of adhesion molecules CD18 and CD11b was similarly reduced. CONCLUSION: MMF ameliorates the progressive renal damage in the remnant kidney after 5/6Nx. This effect is associated with a reduction in the infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes, whereas glomerular hypertrophy and systemic hypertension are unchanged.  (+info)

A cell-surface superoxide dismutase is a binding protein for peroxinectin, a cell-adhesive peroxidase in crayfish. (3/9582)

Peroxinectin, a cell-adhesive peroxidase (homologous to human myeloperoxidase), from the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, was shown by immuno-fluorescence to bind to the surface of crayfish blood cells (haemocytes). In order to identify a cell surface receptor for peroxinectin, labelled peroxinectin was incubated with a blot of haemocyte membrane proteins. It was found to specifically bind two bands of 230 and 90 kDa; this binding was decreased in the presence of unlabelled peroxinectin. Purified 230/90 kDa complex also bound peroxinectin in the same assay. In addition, the 230 kDa band binds the crayfish beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein. The 230 kDa band could be reduced to 90 kDa, thus showing that the 230 kDa is a multimer of 90 kDa units. The peroxinectin-binding protein was cloned from a haemocyte cDNA library, using immuno-screening or polymerase chain reaction based on partial amino acid sequence of the purified protein. It has a signal sequence, a domain homologous to CuZn-containing superoxide dismutases, and a basic, proline-rich, C-terminal tail, but no membrane-spanning segment. In accordance, the 90 and 230 kDa bands had superoxide dismutase activity. Immuno-fluorescence of non-permeabilized haemocytes with affinity-purified antibodies confirmed that the crayfish CuZn-superoxide dismutase is localized at the cell surface; it could be released from the membrane with high salt. It was thus concluded that the peroxinectin-binding protein is an extracellular SOD (EC-SOD) and a peripheral membrane protein, presumably kept at the cell surface via ionic interaction with its C-terminal region. This interaction with a peroxidase seems to be a novel function for an SOD. The binding of the cell surface SOD to the cell-adhesive/opsonic peroxinectin may mediate, or regulate, cell adhesion and phagocytosis; it may also be important for efficient localized production of microbicidal substances.  (+info)

Interaction of lipopolysaccharide with human small intestinal lamina propria fibroblasts favors neutrophil migration and peripheral blood mononuclear cell adhesion by the production of proinflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules. (4/9582)

Fibroblasts are important effector cells having a potential role in augmenting the inflammatory responses in various diseases. In infantile diarrhea caused by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the mechanism of inflammatory reactions at the mucosal site remains unknown. Although the potential involvement of fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of cryptococcus-induced diarrhea in pigs has been suggested, the precise role of lamina propria fibroblasts in the cellular pathogenesis of intestinal infection and inflammation caused by EPEC requires elucidation. Earlier we reported the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cell proliferation, and collagen synthesis and downregulation of nitric oxide in lamina propria fibroblasts. In this report, we present the profile of cytokines and adhesion molecules in the cultured and characterized human small intestinal lamina propria fibroblasts in relation to neutrophil migration and adhesion in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from EPEC 055:B5. Upon interaction with LPS (1-10 micrograms/ml), lamina propria fibroblasts produced a high level of proinflammatory mediators, interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and cell adhesion molecules (CAM) such as intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM), A-CAM, N-CAM and vitronectin in a time-dependent manner. LPS induced cell-associated IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, and IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha as soluble form in the supernatant. Apart from ICAM, vitronectin, A-CAM, and N-CAM proteins were strongly induced in lamina propria fibroblasts by LPS. Adhesion of PBMC to LPS-treated lamina propria fibroblasts was ICAM-dependent. LPS-induced ICAM expression in lamina propria fibroblasts was modulated by whole blood, PBMC and neutrophils. Conditioned medium of LPS-treated lamina propria fibroblasts remarkably enhanced the neutrophil migration. The migration of neutrophils was inhibited by anti-IL-8 antibody. Co-culture of fibroblasts with neutrophils using polycarbonate membrane filters exhibited time-dependent migration of neutrophils. These findings indicate that the coordinate production of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in lamina propria fibroblasts which do not classically belong to the immune system can influence the local inflammatory reactions at the intestinal mucosal site during bacterial infections and can influence the immune cell population residing in the lamina propria.  (+info)

CD28 ligation induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 but not Fak in Jurkat T cells. (5/9582)

Protein tyrosine kinases are critical for the function of CD28 in T cells. We examined whether the tyrosine kinases Pyk2 and Fak (members of the focal adhesion kinase family) are involved in CD28 signaling. We found that ligating CD28 in Jurkat T cells rapidly increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 but not of Fak. Paxillin, a substrate for Pyk2 and Fak, was not tyrosine-phosphorylated after CD28 ligation. CD28-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 was markedly reduced in the absence of external Ca2+. Previous studies have shown that the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2. In this report, the concurrent ligation of CD28 and TCR increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2; however, the extent of phosphorylation by both receptors was equivalent to the sum of that induced by each receptor alone. The Syk/Zap inhibitor piceatannol blocked CD28, and TCR induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2, suggesting that Syk/Zap is involved in Pyk2 phosphorylation. In contrast, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin blocked TCR- but not CD28-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2, suggesting that CD28 and TCR activate distinct pathways to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2. Notably, depleting phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-sensitive protein kinase C did not block CD28- and CD3-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2. These data provide evidence for the involvement of Pyk2 in the CD28 signaling cascade and suggest that neither Fak nor paxillin is involved in the signaling pathways of CD28.  (+info)

Similarities and differences in RANTES- and (AOP)-RANTES-triggered signals: implications for chemotaxis. (6/9582)

Chemokines are a family of proinflammatory cytokines that attract and activate specific types of leukocytes. Chemokines mediate their effects via interaction with seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Using CCR5-transfected HEK-293 cells, we show that both the CCR5 ligand, RANTES, as well as its derivative, aminooxypentane (AOP)- RANTES, trigger immediate responses such as Ca2+ influx, receptor dimerization, tyrosine phosphorylation, and Galphai as well as JAK/STAT association to the receptor. In contrast to RANTES, (AOP)-RANTES is unable to trigger late responses, as measured by the association of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to the chemokine receptor complex, impaired cell polarization required for migration, or chemotaxis. The results are discussed in the context of the dissociation of the late signals, provoked by the chemokines required for cell migration, from early signals.  (+info)

Expression of intercellular adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 in human endometrium: regulation by interferon-gamma. (7/9582)

The purpose of this study was to localize intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and ICAM-2 in human endometrium and myometrium throughout the menstrual cycle, and to determine whether the expression of these molecules is regulated by interferon (IFN)-gamma. ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 distribution was examined in endometrial biopsies by immunocytochemistry, and Northern blotting was used to quantify ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 mRNA expression in isolated endometrial glands. Stromal fibroblast cultures were exposed to IFN-gamma and the effect on expression of ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 was determined by immunocytochemistry and Northern blotting. ICAM-1 was localized in vivo to the apical surface of the glandular epithelium, the vascular endothelium and endometrial stromal cells throughout the menstrual cycle. Stromal expression of ICAM-1 was up-regulated in menstrual specimens. Northern blotting confirmed the presence of ICAM-1 mRNA in isolated endometrial glands. The expression of ICAM-1 antigen and message was increased in stromal cell culture after incubation with IFN-gamma in a time-dependent manner, suggesting that this cytokine stimulates the expression of ICAM-1 in the endometrial stroma. ICAM-2 antigen expression was restricted to the vascular endothelium. ICAM-2 mRNA was absent in endometrial glands. The widespread distribution of ICAM-1 in human endometrium suggests that this molecule is involved in the process of menstruation, the functioning of glands, blood vessels and stroma, and in regulating leukocyte trafficking into the tissue. ICAM-2 is restricted to the vascular endothelium where it might modulate leukocyte invasion of the stroma and myometrial connective tissue.  (+info)

Characterization of prethymic progenitors within the chicken embryo. (8/9582)

The thymic primordium in both birds and mammals is first colonized by cells emerging from the intra-embryonic mesenchyme but the nature of these precursors is poorly understood. We demonstrate here an early embryonic day 7 prethymic population with T lymphoid potential. Our work is a phenotypic analysis of, to date, the earliest embryonic prethymic progenitors arising in the avian para-aortic area during ontogeny. The phenotype of these cells, expressing the cell surface molecules alpha2beta1 integrin, c-kit, thrombomucin/MEP21, HEMCAM and chL12, reflects functional properties required for cell adhesion, migration and growth factor responsiveness. Importantly, the presence of these antigens was found to correlate with the recolonization of the recipient thymus following intrathymic cell transfers. These intra-embryonic cells were also found to express the Ikaros transcription factor, the molecular function of which is considered to be prerequisite for embryonic lymphoid development.  (+info)

Kakunaga S., Ikeda W., Itoh S., Deguchi-Tawarada M., Ohtsuka T., Mizoguchi A., Takai Y.. Nectins are Ca2+-independent immunoglobulin-like cell-cell adhesion molecules and comprise a family of four members. At the mossy fiber terminals of hippocampus, nectin-1 and nectin-3 localize at the presynaptic and postsynaptic sides of synaptic junctions, respectively, and their trans-interactions play a role in formation of synapses in cooperation with N-cadherin. Nectins are associated with the actin cytoskeleton through afadin, a nectin- and actin-filament-binding protein. Five nectin-like molecules (Necls) which have domain structures similar to those of nectins have been identified and here we characterize Necl-1/TSLL1/SynCAM3, from now on referred to as Necl-1. Tissue distribution analysis showed that Necl-1 was specifically expressed in the neural tissue. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that Necl-1 localized at the contact sites among axons, their terminals, and glia cell ...
We describe a high-throughput screening system to detect interactions between leucocyte surface proteins, taking into account that these interactions are usually of very low affinity. The method involves producing the extracellular regions of leucocyte proteins with tags so that they can be bound to nanoparticles to provide an avid reagent to screen over an array of 36 similar proteins immobilized using the Proteon XPR36 with detection by surface plasmon resonance. The system was tested using established interactions that could be detected without spurious binding. The ability to detect new interactions was shown by identifying a new interaction between carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 and carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 8.
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Cell adhesion molecule that plays a role in neuronal self-avoidance. Promotes repulsion between specific neuronal processes of either the same cell or the same subtype of cells. Mediates within retinal amacrine and ganglion cell subtypes both isoneuronal self-avoidance for creating an orderly dendritic arborization and heteroneuronal self-avoidance to maintain the mosaic spacing between amacrine and ganglion cell bodies (PubMed:10925149). Receptor for netrin required for axon guidance independently of and in collaboration with the receptor DCC. In spinal chord development plays a role in guiding commissural axons projection and pathfinding across the ventral midline to reach the floor plate upon ligand binding (PubMed:18585357, PubMed:19196994). Enhances netrin-induced phosphorylation of PAK1 and FYN (PubMed:15169762). Mediates intracellular signaling by stimulating the activation of MAPK8 and MAP kinase p38 (PubMed:18585357, PubMed:19196994). Adhesion molecule that promotes lamina-specific ...
A protein encoded by a gene in band 22 of the long arm of human chromosome 21. The gene contains multiple exons which allow multiple mRNAs to be transcribed by alternative splicing (q.v.). The transcripts are differentially expressed in different substructures of the adult brain. The DSCAM is a member of the immunoglobulin domain superfamily (q.v.). These isoforms may be involved in the patterning of neural networks by selective adhesions between axons. See innate immunity. ...
Synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SynCAMs) are crucial for synapse formation and plasticity. However, we have previously demonstrated that SynCAMs are also required during earlier stages of neural circuit formation because SynCAM1 and SynCAM2 (also known as CADM1 and CADM2, respectively) are important for the guidance of post-crossing commissural axons. In contrast to the exclusively homophilic cis-interactions reported by previous studies, our previous in vivo results suggested the existence of heterophilic cis-interactions between SynCAM1 and SynCAM2. Indeed, as we show here, the presence of homophilic and heterophilic cis-interactions modulates the interaction of SynCAMs with trans-binding partners, as observed previously for other immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules. These in vitro findings are in agreement with results from in vivo studies, which demonstrate a role for SynCAMs in the formation of sensory neural circuits in the chicken embryo. In the absence of SynCAMs, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surface Marker Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule and E-cadherin Facilitate the Identification and Selection of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. AU - Chen, Hsin Fu. AU - Chuang, Ching Yu. AU - Lee, Wen Chih. AU - Huang, Hsiang Po. AU - Wu, Han Chung. AU - Ho, Hong Nerng. AU - Chen, Yu Ju. AU - Kuo, Hung Chih. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - The derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) requires not only efficient reprogramming methods, but also reliable markers for identification and purification of iPSCs. Here, we demonstrate that surface markers, epithelial cells adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) can be used for efficient identification and/or isolation of reprogrammed mouse iPSCs. By viral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and n- or c-Myc into mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we observed that the conventional mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) markers, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA1), were expressed in ...
Background: Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), an immunoglobulin (Ig)-related glycoprotein, serves as cellular receptor for a variety of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens associated with the human mucosa. In particular, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae possess well-characterized CEACAM1-binding adhesins. CEACAM1 is typically involved in cell-cell attachment, epithelial differentiation, neovascularisation and regulation of T-cell proliferation, and is one of the few CEACAM family members with homologues in different mammalian lineages. However, it is unknown whether bacterial adhesins of human pathogens can recognize CEACAM1 orthologues from other mammals.,br /,Results: Sequence comparisons of the amino-terminal Ig-variable-like domain of CEACAM1 reveal that the highest sequence divergence between human, murine, canine and bovine orthologues is found in the β-strands comprising the bacteria-binding ...
Our previous in vitro data suggested that CEACAM1 is involved in angiogenesis. This is supported by a recent proteomic screen for cell membrane components expressed in newly formed tumor vessels and the fact that CEACAM1 expression is upregulated in synergy with other angiogenic factors in cardiac hypoxia (17, 19). To date, however, evidence for a causal implication of CEACAM1 in angiogenesis in vivo was lacking. In the present study, we report on 2 different genetic mouse models in which the angiogenic action of CEACAM1 has been investigated: in CEACAM1endo+ mice, the expression of CEACAM1-L was targeted to endothelia via the Tie2 promoter, and in Ceacam1-/- mice, the Ceacam1 gene was inactivated by targeted disruption (29). In addition, endothelial cells were transfected with cDNAs coding for WT CEACAM1-L and for CEACAM1-L mutants harboring amino acid substitutions in the cytoplasmic domain. In these experimental systems, we provide conclusive evidence that CEACAM1 is involved in angiogenesis ...
Soluble cell adhesion molecules (sCAMs) are a class of cell adhesion molecule (CAMs - cell surface binding proteins) that may represent important biomarkers for inflammatory processes involving activation or damage to cells such as platelets and the endothelium. They include soluble forms of the cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and P-selectin (distinguished as sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and sP-selectin). The cellular expression of CAMs is difficult to assess clinically, but these soluble forms are present in the circulation and may serve as markers for CAMs. Research has focused on their role in cardiovascular (particularly atherosclerosis), connective tissue and neoplastic diseases, where blood plasma levels may be a marker of the disease severity or prognosis, and they may be useful in evaluating progress of some treatments. Many studies have postulated that increased production of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) on the vascular endothelium (blood vessel lining) plays a ...
Cell and matrix adhesion of lymphocytes participates in homing, migration and accumulation of these cells in inflamed tissues as well as in the generation of immune and inflammatory responses. In inflamed joints of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, lymphocytes accumulate in the synovial membrane and the synovial fluid. In the present study we have analyzed the expression of integrins and other adhesion molecules in synovial fluid lymphocytes (RA-SFL) and paired peripheral blood lymphocytes (RA-PBL) from 21 RA patients by immunofluorescence flow cytometry. We have also investigated the expression of these adhesion molecules on peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from 13 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (CO-PBL). RA-SFL, which consisted mostly of T cells, showed higher expression of the integrin subunits beta 1 (CD29), VLA-1 alpha, -3 alpha, -4 alpha, -5 alpha and -6 alpha when compared to RA-PBL. In turn, RA-PBL showed lower expression of these molecules than CO-PBL. The expression of the
Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a transmembrane glycoprotein mediating Ca2+-independent homotypic cell-cell adhesion in epithelia. EpCAM is also involved in cell signaling, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Additionally, EpCAM has oncogenic potential via its capacity to upregulate c-myc, e-fabp, and cyclins A & E. Since EpCAM is expressed exclusively in epithelia and epithelial-derived neoplasms, EpCAM can be used as diagnostic marker for various cancers. It appears to play a role in tumorigenesis and metastasis of carcinomas, so it can also act as a potential prognostic marker and as a potential target for immunotherapeutic strategies. First discovered in 1979, EpCAM was initially described as a dominant surface antigen on human colon carcinoma. Because of its prevalence on many carcinomas, it has been "discovered" many different times. EpCAM therefore has many aliases the most notable of which include TACSTD1 (tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 1), CD326 ...
Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecules (dscam and dscaml1) are essential regulators of neural circuit assembly, but their roles in vertebrate neural circuit function are still mostly unexplored. We investigated the functional consequences of dscaml1 deficiency in the larval zebrafish (sexually undifferentiated) oculomotor system, where behavior, circuit function, and neuronal activity can be precisely quantified. Genetic perturbation of dscaml1 resulted in deficits in retinal patterning and light adaptation, consistent with its known roles in mammals. Oculomotor analyses revealed specific deficits related to the dscaml1 mutation, including severe fatigue during gaze stabilization, reduced saccade amplitude and velocity in the light, greater disconjugacy, and impaired fixation. Two-photon calcium imaging of abducens neurons in control and dscaml1 mutant animals confirmed deficits in saccade-command signals (indicative of an impairment in the saccadic premotor pathway), while abducens activation by ...
cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA contains a PF00059 domain.. cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA contains a PF00084 domain.. cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA contains a PF00084 domain.. cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA contains a PF00008 domain.. cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA is proteolytically cut by matrix metallopeptidase-3 (M10.005) cleavage... cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA is proteolytically cut by matrix metallopeptidase-1 (M10.001) cleavage... cDNA, FLJ93066, Homo sapiens selectin L (lymphocyte adhesion molecule 1) (SELL),mRNA is proteolytically cut by ADAM17 peptidase (M12.217) cleavage. KLDK-SFSM.. ...
In brain, signaling mediated by cell adhesion molecules defines the identity and functional properties of synapses. The specificity of presynaptic and postsynaptic interactions that is presumably mediated by cell adhesion molecules suggests that there exists a logic that could explain neuronal connectivity at the molecular level. Despite its importance, however, the nature of such logic is poorly understood, and even basic parameters, such as the number, identity, and single-cell expression profiles of candidate synaptic cell adhesion molecules, are not known. Here, we devised a comprehensive list of genes involved in cell adhesion, and used single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to analyze their expression in electrophysiologically defined interneurons and projection neurons. We compared the cell type-specific expression of these genes with that of genes involved in transmembrane ion conductances (i.e., channels), exocytosis, and rho/rac signaling, which regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Using these data,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of cellular adhesion molecules in HIV type 1 infection and their impact on virus neutralization. AU - Hioe, C. E.. AU - Bastiani, L.. AU - Hildreth, James. AU - Zolla-Pazner, S.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - While CD4 and several chemokine receptors are the principal receptors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viruses, other cell membrane proteins also play a role in HIV-1 infection. A large array of host cell- derived membrane proteins, including adhesion molecules, are incorporated into the envelope of HIV-1 virions, and the profile of host cell proteins acquired by the virus depends on the cells used to propagate the virus. The major leukocyte adhesion molecules, such as leukocyte-function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and CD44, retain their biological functions when expressed on the virion surface, and have been shown to increase virus-cell interaction, enhance virus infectivity, and extend the host cell range of ...
Cell adhesion molecules are cell surface glycoproteins, the function of which is regulated by neurons at different stages of brain development and in response to a variety of external stimuli, for example during learning.. This project will aim to identify and characterise new endogenous regulators of cell adhesion molecules and test artificial regulators of cell adhesion molecules to analyse their pharmacological potential in various disease models.Recombinant protein production, mass spectrometry, protein-protein interaction assays, various protein analysis tools, and cellular models will be used.. ...
Cell adhesion molecules are a subset of cell adhesion proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix in the process called cell adhesion. In essence, cell adhesion molecules help cells stick to each other and to their surroundings. Cell adhesion is a crucial component in maintaining tissue structure and function. Discover the latest research on adhesion molecule and their role in health and disease here. ...
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Antibody Panel to Epithelial Cell Surface Antigen EpCAMAcris Antibodies offers a full range of thoroughly evaluated antibodies for specific detection…
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Cell adhesion molecules play an important role in the development of several chronic fibroproliferative diseases such as glomerulosclerosis, cirrhosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and atherosclerosis.7 The infiltration of monocytes and T lymphocytes, which initiates the atherosclerotic process, is mediated by adhesion receptors. Once they have entered the vascular wall, leucocytes release a variety of cytokines and other bioactive molecules. This results in the proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells and subsequently promotes the deposition of excess connective tissue.8 These actions are primarily regulated by β1 integrins, although VCAM-1 is also expressed strongly on the surface of activated smooth muscle cells and may help to retain leucocytes within atherosclerotic vessels.9 The αvβ3 integrin has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaques10 and may be a therapeutic target that, if blocked, could prevent the formation of new vessels-reducing plaque growth and the migration of smooth ...
The CD56 antigen is a 140 kDa isoform of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (N-CAM). Post-translational modifications to the polypeptide include N- and O- glycosylations, acylation, sulphation and phosphorylation. The different N-CAM isoforms have molecular weights ranging from 135 to 220 kDa. The CD56 antigen is moderately expressed on a subpopulation of peripheral blood large granular lymphocytes and on all cells with NK activity. It is also expressed by subsets of T lymphocytes. CD56 antibodies do not react with granulocytes, monocytes or B cells.
Read Cell Adhesion Molecules Cellular Recognition Mechanisms by with Rakuten Kobo. The Fourth Annual Pezcoller Symposium entitled Adhesion Molecules: Cellular Recognition Mechanisms was held in Rovereto,...
Cell adhesion molecules are (glyco)proteins expressed on the cell surface and play a critical role in a wide array of biologic processes that include hemostasis, the immune response, inflammation, embryogenesis, and development of neuronal tissue. There are four main groups: the integrin family, the immunoglobulin superfamily, selectins, and cadherins. Membrane proteins that mediate immune cell-cell interactions fall into different categories, namely those involved in antigen recognition, costimulation and cellular adhesion. Furthermore cell-cell adhesions are important for brain morphology and highly coordinated brain functions such as memory and learning. During early development of the nervous system, neurons elongate their axons towards their targets and establish and maintain synapses through formation of cell-cell adhesions. Cell-cell adhesions also underpin axon-axon contacts and link neurons with supporting schwann cells and oligodendrocytes ...
The cell-cell adhesion molecule 1 (C-CAM1) plays an important role as a tumor suppressor for prostate cancer. Decreased expression of C-CAM1 was detected in prostate, breast, and colon carcinoma. Reexpression of C-CAM1 in prostate and breast cancer cell lines was able to suppress tumorigenicity in vivo. These observations suggest that C-CAM1 may be used as a marker for cancer detection or diagnosis. To generate monoclonal antibodies specific to C-CAM1, we have overexpressed full-length human C-CAM1 in Sf9 cells using a baculovirus expression system. The protein was purified 104-fold using nickel affinity chromatography. About 0.4 mg purified C-CAM1 was obtained from 200 mg of infected cells. When the purified protein was digested with peptidyl-N-glycosidase, the apparent mobility of the protein on SDS-PAGE changed from 90 to 58 kDa, which is close to the molecular weight predicted from the cloned cDNA sequence. This observation suggests that C-CAM1 was glycosylated on asparagine residues when expressed
The mechanism by which low affinity adhesion molecules function to produce stable cell-cell adhesion is unknown. In solution, the interaction of human CD2 with its ligand CD58 is of low affinity (500 mM-1) and the interaction of rat CD2 with its ligand CD48 is of still lower affinity (40 mM-1). At the molecular level, however, the two systems are likely to be topologically identical. Fluorescently labeled glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored CD48 and CD58 were prepared and incorporated into supported phospholipid bilayers, in which the ligands were capable of free lateral diffusion. Quantitative fluorescence imaging was used to study the binding of cell surface human and rat CD2 molecules to the fluorescent ligands in contact areas between Jurkat cells and the bilayers. These studies provide two major conclusions. First, CD2/ligand interactions cooperate to align membranes with nanometer precision leading to a physiologically effective two-dimensional affinity. This process does not require the intact
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. PVR cell adhesion molecule - Immunoglobulin like domain containing proteins. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
Compare cell adhesion molecule ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Elucidation of the role of ectoenzymes in leukocyte extravasation has opened new possibilities to design antiinflammatory drugs. As the catalytic centers of enzymes are often easily accessible to analogues of known substrates and inhibitors and the crystal structures of many enzymes are resolved, ecto-enzymes are optimal targets for rational drug design. Furthermore, small molecule enzyme inhibitors can often be administered orally. This is a clear benefit in comparison to antibodies against other adhesion molecules (eg, natalizumab and efalizumab), which need to be injected intravenously or subcutaneously.76,77. Silencing of VAP-1 appears to be desirable for antiinflammatory purposes. Several animal models with antibodies and inhibitors have demonstrated the potential of VAP-1 as a drug target (see above). Importantly, the first clinical Phase I/IIa trials with a prototype murine monoclonal antibody against human VAP-1 have shown that VAP-1 can be targeted safely.29 Further clinical trials with ...
Plays a role in cell-cell adhesion through heterophilic trans-interactions with nectins-like or other nectins, such as trans-interaction with NECTIN2 at Sertoli-spermatid junctions. Trans-interaction with PVR induces activation of CDC42 and RAC small G proteins through common signaling molecules such as SRC and RAP1. Also involved in the formation of cell-cell junctions, including adherens junctions and synapses. Induces endocytosis-mediated down-regulation of PVR from the cell surface, resulting in reduction of cell movement and proliferation. Plays a role in the morphology of the ciliary body.
How do you keep track of basic information on the proteins you work with? Where do you find details of their physicochemical properties, amino acid sequences, gene organization? Are you tired of scanning review articles, primary papers and databases to locate that elusive fact? The new Academic Press FactsBook series will satisfy scientists and clinical researchers suffering from information overload. Each volume provides a catalogue of the essential properties of families of molecules. Gene organization, amino acid sequences, physiochemical properties, and biological activity are presented using a common, easy to follow format. Taken together they compile everything you wanted to know about proteins but were too busy to look for. The Adhesion Molecule FactsBookcontains over 50 entries on all currently cloned and characterized cell adhesion molecules, including the families of * integrins * cadherins * selectins * members of the immunoglobulin superfamily * and other relevant receptors Provides ...
Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is highly expressed in advanced epithelial cancers and tumor-initiated cells (TICs), but its roles in cancer progression remain to be elucidated. Here, we showed that the extracellular domain of EpCAM (EpEX) could bind to EGFR through EGF-like domain I, and subsequently activated its downstream molecules, ERK1/2 and Akt. EGFR inhibitor and knockdown of EGFR by shRNA ablated EpEX-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) of EpCAM was induced similarly by EpEX and EGF through EGFR-dependent activation of ERK pathway. MEK inhibitor, U0126, could abolish ADAM17 and PS2 phosphorylation induced by EpEX. EpAb2-6, an anti-EpEX neutralizing monoclonal antibody, inhibits EpEX-activated EGFR-PI3K-AKT pathway in detached colon cancer cells. Moreover, intracellular domain of EpCAM (EpICD), the product of RIP-induced cleavage of EpCAM, is necessary for nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and their target gene expressions in vitro and in ...
Cell adhesion molecule (CADM) genes encode immunoglobulin superfamily molecules, which are involved in cell‑cell adhesion in a number of human epithelia. Through the maintenance of epithelia, CADM genes protect against malignant conversion and metastasis. Whilst numerous in vitro studies have investigated the molecular characteristics of CADM1 and CADM4 and in vivo studies have investigated CADM1 and CADM4 expression in a number of tumor types, the roles of CADM1 and CADM4 have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, CADM1 and CADM4 expression levels were evaluated using immunohistochemistry staining in 208 patients with breast cancer and compared with clinicopathological factors. CADM1 and CADM4 expression levels were negative in 160 (76.9%) and 166 (79.8%) of the 208 cases, respectively. The lack of expression in these cases was associated with advanced tumor stage, suggesting that inactivation of CADM1 and CADM4 promotes breast cancer development. The prognostic role of CADM1 ...
Adhesion molecules in atherosclerosis.Adhesion molecules, ICAM-1, ICAM-1 and atherosclerosis, Circulating ICAM-1 in coronary artery disease
Broekema M, Harmsen MC, Koerts JA, van Kooten TG, Navis G, van Luyn MJ, and Popa ER. (2007). Tubular engraftment and myofibroblast differentiation of recipient-derived cells after experimental kidney transplantation. Transplantation 84: 1003-11. PubMed. Broekema M, Harmsen MC, van Luyn MJ, Koerts JA, Petersen AH, van Kooten TG, van GH, Navis G, and Popa ER. (2007). Bone marrow-derived myofibroblasts contribute to the renal interstitial myofibroblast population and produce procollagen I after ischemia/reperfusion in rats. J Am Soc Nephrol 18: 165-75. PubMed. Kosterink JG, McLaughlin PM, Lub-de Hooge MN, Hendrikse HH, van ZJ, van GE, Harmsen MC, and de Leij LF. (2007). Biodistribution studies of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-directed monoclonal antibodies in the EpCAM-transgenic mouse tumor model. J Immunol 179: 1362-8. PubMed. Krenning G, Dankers PY, Jovanovic D, van Luyn MJ, and Harmsen MC. (2007). Efficient differentiation of CD14+ monocytic cells into endothelial cells on ...
Bonds between adhesion molecules are often mechanically stressed. A striking example is the tensile force applied to selectin-ligand bonds, which mediate the tethering and rolling of flowing leukocytes on vascular surfaces(1-3). It has been suggested ...
Goat polyclonal Cell adhesion molecule 4 antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
The pathogenesis of glaucoma apparently involves the same cell adhesion molecule that is implicated in the development of vascular diseases. Scientists have discovered that the "endothelial leucocyte cell adhesion molecule 1" (ELAM-1) is present in the eyes of patients with glaucoma but not in healthy eyes. This is the first known molecular marker for glaucoma and may lead to an early genetic screening test (Nature Medicine 2001;7:304-9).. Dr … ...
Principal Investigator:MASUDA Michitaka, Project Period (FY):1998 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Experimental pathology
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Gene target information for ESAM - endothelial cell adhesion molecule (human). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
CD62P, 0.5 ml. CD62P is a member of the small selectin family of cellular adhesion molecules, which also includes CD62E and CD62L.
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L1CAM antibody [2H5] (L1 cell adhesion molecule) for FACS, ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-L1CAM mAb (GTX84240) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
زمان: 92/07/02 ساعت 8 صبح. مکان: بيمارستان شريعتي - مرکز تحقيقات روماتولوژي. ژورنال کلاب: دکتر آل سعيدي. رئيس جلسه: دکتر محسن سروش. معرفي به استاد: دکتر کاوسي. کنفرانس دهنده: دکتر فرساد. ...
CEACAM6小鼠单克隆抗体[9A6](ab78029)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用并得到2个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
There are currently 135 detected interstellar molecules. The following table lists all currently detected molecular species (as of 06 Jan 2014 ...
[54 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 5 (Carcinoembryonic Antigen or CEA or Meconium Antigen 100 or CD66e or CEACAM5) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 report by Global Markets Direct. Global Markets Directs, Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule...
Background T cell exhaustion has recently been proposed as an alternative mechanism to prevent memory development and tissue damage arising during ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in murine orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), with carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) identified as a key ligand for TIM-3-mediated negative immune regulation in the liver. In our cohort of human OLT patients, IRI+ recipients had a 12-fold higher ratio of TIM-1+:TIM-3+ CD4+ T cells at 3 months post-transplant than IRI-. Aim We sought to investigate donor and recipient contributions to CEACAM1 expression in human OLT-IRI. Methods We compared the cellular expression of CEACAM1 biopsies obtained from the donor organ pre- and post-reperfusion with the recipient's portal blood. Additionally, we evaluated CEACAM1 expression of 3rd party healthy donor monocytes co-cultured for 4 days with recipient portal blood obtained both pre- and post-reperfusion through the donor organ. Results ...
Dr. Blumberg is Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Chief of Gastroenterology, Brigham and Womens Hospital, co-Director of the Harvard Digestive Diseases Center and past-Director of the Brigham Research Institute. He has directed a National Institutes of Health funded laboratory since 1989 which has a particular emphasis on the immunologic functions of the intestinal epithelium; a field that his laboratory has pioneered through the study of non classical MHC class I molecules and more recently the unfolded protein response and Paneth cell function and is a leading authority on carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) and the neonatal crystallizable fragment receptor (FcRn) function. Dr. Blumberg has been the recipient of the an NIH Method to Extend Research in Time (M.E.R.I.T) Award (2005), the William Beaumont Prize (2009), the CCFA Scientific Achievement Award in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Basic Research (2012), a Lifetime Scientific Achievement Award from the ...
Inflammation is related to many diseases, such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and metabolic diseases. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an endothelial adhesion molecule involved in leukocyte trafficking cascades from blood circulation to the sites of inflammation. In normal condition, VAP-1 is stored in intracellular granules. During inflammation it is rapidly translocated from the intracellular storage granules to the endothelial cell surface. Siglec-9 is a leukocyte ligand of VAP-1 and Siglec-9 motif containing peptide can be used as a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for in vivo imaging of inflammation-related diseases ...
In arthropods like Drosophila, Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules (Dscam1) exhibit enormous molecular diversity. A single Dscam1 gene encodes a large superfamily of neuronal cell recognition proteins that control neuronal outgrowth and anatomy. A comparable function is exhibited by the vertebrates DSCAMs of which only few isoforms exist. However, it is largely unknown, if and how this function of Dscams affects neuronal function and the control of behavior by the nervous system. In this thesis, I employed an arsenal of genetic techniques to perturb the expression level of Dscam1 isoforms in directionally selective Lobula Plate Tangential Cells (LPTCs). LPTCs of the Vertical (VS) and the Horizontal System (HS) were chosen as a model system because of their well-documented anatomy, role in information processing and behavior. Though, only little is known about the developmental mechanisms and molecular factors controlling the morphogenesis and wiring of these cells. The central aim of my study ...
I have examined the distribution of neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) in cultured C2 myogenic cells and other cell lines to determine if N-CAM accumulates at sites of cell-cell contact. C2 cells growing in log phase display large clusters of neural cell adhesion molecule where they contact each other. These clusters are remarkably stable, do not form at cell-substrate contacts, and appear not to be enriched in a number of other cytoskeletal, membrane, or extracellular proteins. Thus, N-CAM clusters form preferentially in response to cell-cell contact and are specifically enriched in N-CAM. As C2 cultures mature and differentiate, clusters persist at contacts between aligning myoblasts and between myotubes, consistent with a role in myogenesis. N-CAM is also enriched at cell-cell contacts in cultures of PC12, NRK, and CHO cells. These cells have significant amounts of N-CAM as detected on immunoblots. Clusters are not seen in L929 cells, which do not have detectable amounts of N-CAM. ...
A new study published in Biological Psychiatry suggests that autism is associated with reductions in the level of cellular adhesion molecules in the blood, where they play a role in immune function.. Cell adhesion molecules are the glue that binds cells together in the body. Deficits in adhesion molecules would be expected to compromise processes at the interfaces between cells, influencing tissue integrity and cell-to-cell signaling. In the brain, deficits in adhesion molecules could compromise brain development and communication between nerve cells.. Over the years, deficits in neural cell adhesion molecules have been implicated in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. One adhesion molecule, neurexin, is strongly implicated in the heritable risk for autism.. Cell adhesion molecules also play a crucial role in regulating immune cell access to the central nervous system. Prior research provided evidence of immune system dysfunction in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder ...
BACKGROUND The cell adhesion between vascular endothelial cells and leukocytes is an important process for the immuno-inflammatory changes. To clarify the basic features of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), studies of in situ localization of the cell adhesion molecules are required. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We analyzed the immunohistochemical localization of the adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, LFA-1, Mac-1, VCAM-1, VLA-4, P- and E-selectins) in IBD, stressing phenotypical changes of endothelial cells. RESULTS In the normal mucosa, ICAM-1 was expressed in capillaries and venules, LFA-1 in some lymphocytes and VLA-4 in most lymphocytes. VCAM-1 was expressed sporadically in venules and constantly in follicular dendritic cells (FDC) in lymphoid follicles. Both E- and P-selectins were sporadically expressed in venules. In actively inflamed mucosa in IBD, a marked increase of all these antigens was observed; ICAM-1+ inflammatory infiltrates (lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages) and ICAM-1+ venules increased
Albany, New York, August 9, 2017: Market Research Hub (MRH) has recently highlighted the pipeline landscape of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 in a new report added to its repository, with a title of "Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (Major Group Rhinovirus Receptor or CD54 or ICAM1) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017". The main purpose of this study is to provide an assessment of the various pipeline targeted therapeutics, together with analysis by indications, stage of development, route of administration (RoA), mechanism of action (MoA) and molecule type. Through this analysis, the readers will gain strategically significant competitor information, analysis and key insights to frame effective R&D strategies.. Request Free Sample Report: http://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=S&repid=1256874. Initially, this pipeline guide covers intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) overview along with precise information on its therapeutic development. This section provides data on targeted ...
To evaluate the expression and test the clinical significance of the epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to check the suitability of esophageal SCC patients for Ep-CAM directed targeted therapies. The Ep-CAM expression was immunohistochemically investigated in 70 primary esophageal SCCs using the monoclonal antibody Ber-EP4. For the interpretation of the staining results, we used a standardized scoring system ranging from 0 to 3+. The survival analysis was calculated from 53 patients without distant metastasis, with R0 resection and at least 2 months of clinical follow-up. Ep-CAM neo-expression was observed in 79% of the tumors with three expression levels, 1+ (26%), 2+ (11%) and 3+ (41%). Heterogeneous expression was observed at all expression levels. Interestingly, tumors with 3+ Ep-CAM expression conferred a significantly decreased median relapse-free survival period (log rank, p = 0.0001) and median overall survival (log rank, p = 0.0003).
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules in the development of atherosclerosis. AU - Berman, Joan W.. AU - Calderon, Tina M.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - The vascular endothelium serves as a dynamic interface between circulating blood elements and the interstitial tissues. As such, it communicates to cells within the vessel wall as well as to the surrounding tissue, sensing its environment and responding accordingly. The vasculature must maintain a delicate balance when initiating a functional response by producing both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory mediators, vasoconstrictors and vasodilators, growth stimulators and inhibitors, and prothrombogenic and antithrombogenic factors. Any response to injurious agents could lead to pathology. Confounding this complex interplay is the fact that the very response to injury that may have developed to undo the damage may itself be even more deleterious. One response to injury by the endothelium is the new or increased ...
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The adhesion protein junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) regulates epithelial cell morphology and migration, and its over-expression has recently been linked with increased risk of metastasis in breast cancer patients. As cell migration is an early requirement for tumor metastasis, we sought to identify the JAM-A signalling events regulating migration in breast cancer cells. METHODS: MCF7 breast cancer cells (which express high endogenous levels of JAM-A) and primary cultures from breast cancer patients were used for this study. JAM-A was knocked down in MCF7 cells using siRNA to determine the consequences for cell adhesion, cell migration and the protein expression of various integrin subunits. As we had previously demonstrated a link between the expression of JAM-A and β1-integrin, we examined activation of the β1-integrin regulator Rap1 GTPase in response to JAM-A knockdown or functional antagonism. To test whether JAM-A, Rap1 and β1-integrin lie in a linear pathway, we
Cells attach to proteoglycans and glycoproteins on the surface of other cells as well as in the extracellular matrix (ECM) substratum via adhesion molecules to define tissue shape, structure, and function. Making and breaking cellular contacts with other cells and the ECM play critical roles in normal processes such as cell growth, division, differentiation, and migration. Cardiovascular and central nervous system disorders and pathophysiological processes such as fibrosis and inflammation require ECM remodeling. Remodeling involves expression of different cell adhesion molecules, altering cellular processes such as migration and polarity. Key ECM proteins include fibronectin, laminin, and collagens as well as metalloproteinases that remodel the ECM. Important cell adhesion genes include integrins, selectins, celladhesion molecule family members (ICAM, ECAM, NCAM, PECAM, and VCAM), and the catenins which link cell adhesion molecules and the cytoskeleton. Analysis of these essential genes may ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemokine production and adhesion molecule expression by neural cells exposed to IL-1, TNFα and interferon. AU - Chuluyan, H. Eduardo. AU - Lang, Bianca J.. AU - Yoshimura, Teizo. AU - Kenney, John S.. AU - Issekutz, Andrew C.. PY - 1998/10/16. Y1 - 1998/10/16. N2 - We investigated the effect of TNFα, IL-1α and IFNγ on two neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines (SK-N-SH and SK-N-MC). These lines responded differentially to IL-1α, TNFα and IFNγ for MCP-1 and IL-8 production and expression of the ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 adhesion molecules. None of the cytokines induced MCP-1 or 1L-8 on SK-N-MC cells. Both chemokines were produced in response to IL-1α by SK-N-SH cells, while TNFα induced mainly MCP-1 production. Addition of IFNγ decreased IL-8, but not MCP-1 production. These responses correlated with monocyte and neutrophil chemotactic activity in NB culture supernatants. This activity was neutralized by antibodies to IL-8 and MCP-1. The expression of ICAM-1 on SK-N-MC was up-regulated ...
Looking for endothelial leukocyte? Find out information about endothelial leukocyte. : see blood blood, fluid pumped by the heart that circulates throughout the body via the arteries, veins, and capillaries . An adult male of average size... Explanation of endothelial leukocyte
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recognition of the neural chemoattractant netrin-1 by integrins α6β4 and α3β1 regulates epithelial cell adhesion and migration. AU - Yebra, Mayra. AU - Montgomery, Anthony M P. AU - Diaferia, Giuseppe R.. AU - Kaido, Thomas. AU - Silletti, Steve. AU - Perez, Brandon. AU - Just, Margaret L.. AU - Hildbrand, Simone. AU - Hurford, Rosemary. AU - Florkiewicz, Elin. AU - Tessier-Lavigne, Marc. AU - Cirulli, Vincenzo. PY - 2003/11. Y1 - 2003/11. N2 - Netrins, axon guidance cues in the CNS, have also been detected in epithelial tissues. In this study, using the embryonic pancreas as a model system, we show that Netrin-1 is expressed in a discrete population of epithelial cells, localizes to basal membranes, and specifically associates with elements of the extracellular matrix. We demonstrate that α6β4 integrin mediates pancreatic epithelial cell adhesion to Netrin-1, whereas recruitment of α6β4 and α3β1 regulate the migration of CK19+/PDX1+ putative pancreatic progenitors on ...
Chronic inflammation and reduced blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids (n − 3) are known characteristics of sickle cell disease (SCD).The anti-inflammatory properties of n − 3 fatty acids are well recognized.. Omega-3 treated (n = 24), hydroxyurea (HU) treated (n = 18), and n − 3 untreated (n = 21) homozygous SCD patients (HbSS) and healthy (HbAA) controls (n = 25) matched for age (5-16 years), gender and socioeconomic status were studied. According to age (5-10) or (11-16) years, two or three capsules containing 277.8 mg docosahexaenoic (DHA) and 39.0 mg eicosapentaenoic (EPA) or high oleic acid placebo (41%) were assigned to n − 3 treated and n − 3 untreated groups, respectively. Hydroxyurea treated group was on dosage more than 20 mg/kg/day. The effect of supplementation on systemic and blood cell markers of inflammation was investigated.. The n − 3 treated group had higher levels of DHA and EPA (p , 0.001) and lower white blood cell count and monocyte integrin (p , 0.05) compared ...
Cancer cell metastasis is one of the most critical steps in tumor development and is responsible for more than 80 of cancer related deaths. Among the molecules involved in promoting cancer metastasis, the role of the cell adhesion molecules, CD44 and CD146 are well known in promoting cancer cell motility and metastasis. Despite this knowledge, the molecular mechanism through which CD44 promotes tumor development and cell metastasis is still nascent. CD146 (MUC 18) was, first identified in highly metastatic melanomas. The absence of CD146 in normal melanocytes and its high expression in melanomas suggests its tumor promoting actions. Despite the association between CD146 expression and development of melanoma, its expression patterns and role in normal and metastatic breast tissues still remains controversial. This study aims to elucidate some of these discrepancies by presenting CD146 as a downstream target for CD44, in a way such that CD146 expression is related to CD44 and regulates the tumor ...
View mouse Madcam1 Chr10:79664559-79668537 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
We investigated the expression status of periostin in breast cancer stem cells and its clinical implications in order to lay a foundation for managing breast cancer. CD44+/CD24−/line- tumor cells (CSC) from clinical specimens were sorted using flow cytometry. Periostin expression status was detected in CSC cells and 1,086 breast cancer specimens by Western blot and immunohistochemistry staining, with the CSC ratio determined by immunofluorescence double staining. The relationship between the periostin protein and clinico-pathological parameters and prognosis was subsequently determined. As a result, CSC cells are more likely to generate new tumors in mice and cell microspheres that are deficient in NOD/SCID compared to the control group. Periostin protein was expressed higher in CSC cells compared to the control cells and was found to be related to CSC chemotherapy resistance. Moreover, periostin expression was found to be related to the CSC ratio in 1,086 breast cancer specimens (P = 0.001). In total
RecName: Full=E-selectin;AltName: Full=CD62 antigen-like family member E;AltName: Full=Endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 {ECO:0000303,PubMed:1375914}; Short=ELAM-1;AltName: Full=Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 2; Short ...
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TNF-α-induced adhesion molecules expression is reduced by sodium casein-derived peptides in EC. (A) VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin gene expression was performed
Several laboratories have begun to characterize the interactions between MSCs and cells of the immune system. hMSCs have a number of surface molecules that would predict interaction with T cells. MHC I, Thy-1 (CD90), vascular cell adhesion molecule (CD106, VCAM), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and ICAM-2, activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (CD166, ALCAM), lymphocyte functional antigen-3, and integrins α1 to α3, α5, α6, β1, β3, and β4 (CD49 a, b, c, e, and f) are surface molecules expressed on hMSCs that have cognate ligands on T cells.21,28,50,51 Additionally, although not expressed at appreciable levels on hMSCs, MHC II expression is upregulated by incubating the cells with interferon-γ. However, the hMSCs lack the B7 costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, and these are not expressed after interferon treatment.52,53. Intuitively, one might expect allogeneic MSCs (allo-MSCs) would stimulate T cell proliferation and that donor MSCs would be recognized by responder T ...
CD2, also known as T-cell surface antigen CD2, is a cell adhesion molecule found on the surface of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. It interacts with other adhesion molecules, such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 (LFA-3/CD58) in hum ...
CD2, also known as T-cell surface antigen CD2, is a cell adhesion molecule found on the surface of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. It interacts with other adhesion molecules, such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 (LFA-3/CD58) in hum ...
The ability to generate a large number of tumor-reactive T lymphocytes is the most critical requirement for adoptive immunotherapy. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that cells from tumor-draining lymph nodes (LNs) are an excellent source of tumor-reactive T lymphocytes. After activation with anti-CD3, these cells readily proliferate in low concentrations of interleukin 2 and acquire effector functions. The adoptive transfer of these cells is capable of mediating the regression of tumors established in the lung as well as in the brain. Here, we analyzed several adhesion molecules on the tumor-draining LN T cells and separated them based on l-selectin expression. The homing receptor l-selectin mediates adhesion to the luminal surface of specialized high endothelial venules, thus regulating lymphocyte recirculation through peripheral LNs. In response to progressive tumor growth, a small population of draining LN T cells down-regulated l-selectin and increased the expression of CD44 and ...
Definition of cell adhesion molecule. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Alt. Names/Synonyms: ACSTD1; Adenocarcinoma-associated antigen; carcinoma-associated antigen GA733-2; Cell surface glycoprotein Trop-1; CO-17A; CO17-1A; DIAR5; EGP; EGP-2; EGP314; EGP34; EGP40; Ep-CAM; EPCAM; Epithelial cell adhesion molecule; Epithelial cell surface antigen; Epithelial glycoprotein; Epithelial glycoprotein 314; ESA; GA733-2; hEGP-2; hEGP314; HNPCC8; human epithelial glycoprotein-2; KS 1/4 antigen; KS1/4; KSA; M1S2; M4S1; Major gastrointestinal tumor-associated protein GA733-2; membrane component, chromosome 4, surface marker (35kD glycoprotein); MIC18; MK-1; TACST-1; TACSTD1; TROP1; Tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 1 ...
|p|ICAM-1 is a type of intercellular adhesion molecule continuously present in low concentrations in the membranes of leukocytes and endothelial cells. Upon cytokine stimulation, the concentrations greatly increase. ICAM-1 can be induced by interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and is expressed by the vascular endothelium, macrophages, and lymphocytes. ICAM-1 is a ligand for LFA-1 (integrin), a receptor found on leukocytes.|/p||p|When activated, leukocytes bind to endothelial cells via ICAM-1/LFA-1 and then transmigrate into tissues.ICAM-1 has been implicated in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Levels of ICAM-1 are shown to be significantly elevated in patients with SAH over control subjects in many studies.|/p|
We described recently that DNAM-1 is involved in NK cell-mediated target cell killing of tumor cells by interacting specifically with PVR and Nectin-2 (2). Although PVR and Nectin-2 are expressed on tumor cell lines, they are also widely expressed on normal cells that are protected from NK cell-mediated lysis by their expression of HLA class I molecules. The aim of our analysis was to clarify the role of DNAM-1 interactions with its ligands in a normal setting. Nectins are homophilic and heterophilic cell adhesion molecules involved in several cell recognition processes, including the formation of cell junctions between epithelial cells and between neurons (10). For the first time, we demonstrate that PVR is the major ligand of DNAM-1 on endothelial cells. Our results highlight a role for DNAM-1 and PVR during leukocyte extravasation because they appear to be crucial for monocyte migration through endothelial junctions during the diapedesis step. This hypothesis is supported by the following ...
L-selectin mediates lymphocyte migration to peripheral lymph nodes and leukocyte rolling on vascular endothelium during inflammation. One unique feature that distinguishes L-selectin from other adhesion molecules is that it is rapidly cleaved from th
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... Cancer (2015) 15:Page 6 ofTable 3 The associations of ALDH1 expression levels in stromal cells and the clinical and pathologic characteristicsALDH1 IHC score in stromal cells 1 (negative) Number Age (years old): 39 40?9 50?9 60?9 70 missing Histological subtype: Serous carcinoma Mucinous carcinoma Endometrioid carcinoma Cle
Affiliation:自治医科大学,医学部,教授, Research Field:Laboratory medicine,Laboratory medicine,Collagenous pathology/Allergology,Orthopaedic surgery,Neurology, Keywords:アミロイドーシス,血清アミロイドA,HDL,SAA,炎症,単球,Carcinoembryonic antigen,Nonspecific cross-reacting antigen,臨床化学,表面プラズモン共鳴, # of Research Projects:15, # of Research Products:52, Ongoing Project:AAアミロイドの重合と組織沈着機構の解明
Clone REA428 recognizes an epitope shared by the human CD66a, c, d, and e antigens, which are also known as the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family. The CEA family has 7 genes belonging to the CEACAM subgroup. These subgroup members are mainly associated with the cell membrane and show a complex expression pattern in normal and cancerous tissues. CD66a (CEACAM1) is an adhesion molecule that is involved in many immune responses associated with infection, inflammation, and cancer. It interacts homophilically with CD66a and heterophilically with CD66e (CEACAM5), but not with other CEACAM proteins. CD66a is expressed on a variety of cells, e.g., some epithelial cells, melanoma, and activated lymphocytes. Within the hematopoietic system, CD66c (CEACAM6) expression is limited to granulocytes and its precursors, where it serves homotypic and heterotypic adhesion and Ca2+ mediated signaling. It is markedly upregulated from intracellular stores after activatio and is also found in epithelia of various
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Clone REA678 recognizes the mouse CD97 antigen variant 2 (CD97v2).CD97 is a member of the EGF-TM7 family, which is a group of class II seven-span transmembrane receptors expressed ubiquitously, but mainly expressed by cells of the immune system. CD97 has seven putative transmembrane domains. It has an extended extracellular segment containing several adhesion molecule structure motifs, and has been shown to interact with the human DAF (CD55). The variant 2 of CD97 exhibits a 94 aa deletion that results in loss of the third EGF-like repeat. Additional information: Clone REA678 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - USA
Tissue immunostaining is critically essential in clinical applications, and antibodies have already been used as the molecular probes extensively. tumor areas occurred. Weighed against regular antibody staining, our EpCAM aptamer SYL3C process is very simple to put into action using a shorter response time. Moreover, SYL3C may bind with either frozen or paraffin-embedded tissues areas specifically. Because the histopathology of iced tissue is nearer to that of clean tissues and since iced areas can be created quicker than paraffin-embedded areas, SYL3C immunostaining of iced areas is an instant process that is simple to put into action. Cancer histopathology happens to be the preferred way for discovering microscopic anatomical adjustments in tissue areas, producing the breakthrough of cancers biomarkers crucial for early treatment and medical diagnosis, and antibodies have already been used as the molecular probes extensively.1 Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a transmembrane ...
http://gty.im/157321849. "We can attain a healthy body, orderly life, cheerful personality and a in-cooperating exercise into our daily routines"…ANDREW OKPETU. Exercise is medically acclaimed as a cost effective measure at combating stress and attaining sound health in that it is cost free and requires little time daily for optimum results.Stress,both the type that induces a fight-fright-flight response and the chronic burnout types in the workplace are strongly associated with the entry of non specific immune response into the circulation eg.NK Cells.. Recent research strongly suggest that adhesion molecule expression and leucocyte adhesiveness are significantly induced by chronic psycological stress like workplace burnout and anxiety which are concomitantly associated with immunological decrements and increased cardiovascular disease.. Relatedly hence,stress-mediated effects on adhesion molecules have clinical relevance having seen the scientific effects of adhesion molecules on circulating ...
CD4 (T4) is a single chain transmembrane glycoprotein and belongs to immunoglobulin supergene family. In extracellular region there are 4 immunoglobulin-like domains (1 Ig-like V-type and 3 Ig-like C2-type). Transmembrane region forms 25 aa, cytoplasmic tail consists of 38 aa. Domains 1,2 and 4 are stabilized by disulfide bonds. The intracellular domain of CD4 is associated with p56Lck, a Src-like protein tyrosine kinase. It was described that CD4 segregates into specific detergent-resistant T-cell membrane microdomains ...
Cell adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon vital for all multicellular organisms. Recognition of and adhesion to specific macromolecules is a crucial task of leukocytes to initiate the immune response. To gain statistically reliable information of cell adhesion, large numbers of cells should be measured. However, direct measurement of the adhesion force of single cells is still challenging and todays techniques typically have an extremely low throughput (5-10 cells per day). Here, we introduce a computer controlled micropipette mounted onto a normal inverted microscope for probing single cell interactions with specific macromolecules. We calculated the estimated hydrodynamic lifting force acting on target cells by the numerical simulation of the flow at the micropipette tip. The adhesion force of surface attached cells could be accurately probed by repeating the pick-up process with increasing vacuum applied in the pipette positioned above the cell under investigation. Using the introduced methodology
Introduction: Atherosclerosis is the complex lesion that consists of endothelial inflammation, macrophage foam cell formation, vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, and extracellular matrix production. Tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6), an anti-inflammatory protein, was shown to be localized in the artery injury-induced rat neointima. However, the modulatory effect of TSG-6 on atherogenesis has not been reported.. Objective and Methods: This study was performed to evaluate the atheroprotective effects of TSG-6 on human endothelial cells (ECs), human monocyte-derived macrophages, human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs), and aortic lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice.. Results: TSG-6 was expressed at higher levels in human ECs than monocytes, macrophages, and HASMCs. TSG-6 significantly suppressed oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation associated with reduced expression levels of CD36 and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 ...
Definition of Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1? Meaning of Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 as a legal term. What does Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 mean in law?
BACKGROUND: To better understand the mechanisms of eosinophil recruitment into the upper airways, we examined human nasal polyps for the expression of the chemotactic cytokine RANTES and the endothelial adhesion molecules E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1).. METHODS: Routine histologic examination and immunostaining with antibodies to RANTES, E-selectin, and VCAM-1 were performed on three types of tissues: nasal polyps, sinus mucosa, or turbinates from patients undergoing other elective procedures (S/T), and nasal biopsy specimens from nonallergic volunteers (NA). To further quantify the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules, some tissue samples were homogenized, and the resulting supernatants were assayed with sandwich ELISAs for VCAM-1 and E-selectin.. RESULTS: Polyp eosinophil counts ranged from 19/mm2 to 1818/mm2 (763 +/- 120/mm2, mean +/- SEM) and were significantly higher than those found in the control tissues (5 +/- 2 in S/T samples and 20 +/- 9 in NA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - E-selectin and very late activation antigen-4 mediate adhesion of hematopoietic progenitor cells to bone marrow endothelium. AU - Rood, P. M L. AU - Dercksen, M. W.. AU - Cazemier, H.. AU - Kerst, J. M.. AU - Von dem Borne, A. E G K. AU - Gerritsen, W. R.. AU - Van der Schoot, C. E.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Adhesion of CD34 + hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) to sinusoidal endothelium probably plays a key role in homing of transplanted CD34+ HPCs to the bone marrow (BM). We have investigated the role of various adhesion molecules in the interaction of purified CD34+ HPCs derived from BM or peripheral blood (PB) and a human BM-derived endothelial cell line. Adhesion of CD34+ HPCs to endothelial cells was measured with the use of a double-color flow microfluorimetric adhesion assay. In this assay, adhesion is measured under stirring conditions, simulating blood flow in sinusoidal marrow vessels. Adhesion of PB CD34+ cells to human BM endothelial cells (HBMECs) was observed ...
Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) is a treatment option for patients with resistant arterial hypertension, but in some patients it is not successful. Predictive parameters on the success of RSD remain unknown. The angiogenic factors soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are known to be associated with endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling, and hypertension. We evaluated whether sFLT-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 are predictive markers for blood pressure reduction after RSD. Consecutive patients (n=55) undergoing renal denervation were included. Venous serum samples for measurement of sFlt-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were collected before and 6 months after RSD. A therapeutic response was defined as an office systolic blood pressure reduction of ,10 mm Hg 6 months after RSD. A significant mean office systolic blood pressure reduction of 31.2 mm Hg was observed in 46 patients 6 months after RSD. Nine ...
Human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells were isolated from the livers of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and from normal livers and established in primary culture. The in vitro expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, HLA class I, and HLA class II on biliary epithelial cells was studied in response to tumour necrosis factor-alpha (0-500 U/ml), interferon-gamma (0-500 U/ml), and interleukin-1 (0-5 U/ml) by immunohistochemical staining and a semiquantitative scoring system validated by spectrophotometry and previously validated by laser confocal microscopy. The non-stimulated expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and HLA class II was higher on cells derived from the primary biliary cirrhosis liver than on cells from normal liver, a difference not seen with HLA class I expression. A statistically significant increase in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression was seen with all three cytokines in cells derived from both primary biliary cirrhosis and normal liver. ...
The Djungarian hamster displays photoperiodic variations in gonadal size synchronized to the seasons by the nightly secretion of the pineal hormone melatonin. In short photoperiod (SP), the gonads regress in size, and circulating sex steroids levels decline. Thus, the brain is subject to seasonal variations of both melatonin and sex steroids. Tanycytes are specialized glial cells located in the ependymal lining of the third ventricle. They send processes either to the meninges or to blood vessels of the medio-basal hypothalamus. Furthermore, they are known to locally modulate GnRH release in the median eminence and to display seasonal structural changes. Seasonal changes in tanycyte morphology might be mediated either through melatonin or sex steroids. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of photoperiod, melatonin, and sex steroids 1) on tanycyte vimentin expression by immunohistochemistry and 2) on the expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and polysialic acid as markers of brain ...
Sphingolipids have been accorded numerous biological functions however, the effects of feeding a western diet (diet rich in cholesterol and fat) on skin phenotypes, and color is not known. Here, we observed that chronic high-fat and high-cholesterol diet intake in a mouse model of atherosclerosis (ApoE−/−) decreases the level of ceramides and glucosylceramide. At the expense of increased levels of lactosylceramide due to an increase in the expression of lactosylceramide synthase (GalT-V). This is accompanied with neutrophil infiltration into dermis, and enrichment of tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) protein. This causes skin inflammation, hair discoloration and loss, in ApoE−/− mice. Conversely, inhibition of glycosphingolipid synthesis, by D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (D-PDMP), unbound or encapsulated in a biodegradable polymer (BPD) reversed these phenotypes. Thus, inhibition of glycosphingolipid synthesis represents a unique therapeutic approach
Cells in each layer bound together cell-adhesion molecules, but no basement membranes except Homoscleromorpha.[16]. inter-cell ... Nerve cells. Sensory cells appear between or sometimes on top of the muscle cells,[9] and communicate via synapses (gaps across ... Number of cells in middle "jelly" layer Many. Few. (Not applicable) Cells in outer layers can move inwards and change functions ... Main cell layers[edit]. Cnidaria are diploblastic animals; in other words, they have two main cell layers, while more complex ...
Jansen S, Ekhlasi-Hundrieser M, Töpfer-Petersen E (2001). "Sperm adhesion molecules: structure and function". Cells Tissues ... cell adhesion. • binding of sperm to zona pellucida. • sperm-egg recognition. • carbohydrate metabolic process. ... SPAM1, HEL-S-96n, HYA1, HYAL1, HYAL3, HYAL5, PH-20, PH20, SPAG15, sperm adhesion molecule 1. ... "Entrez Gene: SPAM1 sperm adhesion molecule 1 (PH-20 hyaluronidase, zona pellucida binding)".. ...
The two LAMP molecules act as ligands for the cell-adhesion molecules. ... are activation-dependent cell surface glycoproteins in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells which mediate cell adhesion to ... It may play a role in tumor cell metastasis. It may also function in the protection, maintenance, and adhesion of the lysosome ... LAMP2, along with LAMP1, interact with E-selectin and galectins to mediate the adhesion of some cancer cells to the ECM. ...
heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • response to hypoxia. • response to nutrient. • ... cell-cell adhesion. • cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. • heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • innervation. • cardiac neuron ... Vascular cell adhesion protein 1 also known as vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) or cluster of differentiation 106 ( ... "Entrez Gene: VCAM1 vascular cell adhesion molecule 1".. *^ a b Barreiro O, Yanez-Mo M, Serrador JM, Montoya MC, Vicente- ...
High levels of the adhesion molecule CD44 on leukemic cells are essential to generate leukemia.[24] Furthermore, because ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. In humans, the ... CD44 is a multistructural and multifunctional cell surface molecule involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell ... wound healing, spreading of cells. • regulation of lamellipodium morphogenesis. • cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... homotypic cell-cell adhesion. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • negative regulation of anoikis. • negative ... Cell. Biol. 10 (6): 2738-48. PMC 360634 . PMID 2342461.. *. Kamarck ME, Elting JJ, Hart JT, et al. (1987). "Carcinoembryonic ...
The neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM simultaneously combines with another N-CAM and a fibroblast growth factor receptor to ... Berezin, Vladimir (2009-12-17). Structure and Function of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NCAM. Springer Science & Business ... A neurite or neuronal process refers to any projection from the cell body of a neuron. This projection can be either an axon or ... The term is frequently used when speaking of immature or developing neurons, especially of cells in culture, because it can be ...
2004). "Ksp-cadherin is a functional cell-cell adhesion molecule related to LI-cadherin". Exp. Cell Res. 294 (2): 345-55. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: CDH17 cadherin 17, LI cadherin (liver-intestine)". Gessner R, Tauber R (2001). "Intestinal cell adhesion molecules ... 2004). "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. ...
CD44 proteins belong to a family of cell surface adhesion molecules that are involved in both cell-cell and cell-matrix ... CD44 Cell adhesion molecules. Mol Path, 52: 189-196. Ioannidis, P., and T. Trangas., 2006. CRD-BP/IMP1: An RNA Binding Protein ... RNA-binding IMPs promote cell adhesion and invadopodia formation. EMBO 25: 1456-1468. Goodison, S., et al. 1999. ... Upon binding to its transcripts, CRD-BP plays a role in translation by stabilizing and localizing the transcripts in the cell. ...
Reid RA, Bronson DD, Young KM, Hemperly JJ (1994). «Identification and characterization of the human cell adhesion molecule ... four members of an axon-associated cell adhesion molecule subgroup of the immunoglobulin superfamily.». J. Neurobiol. 28 (1): ... 1998). «Regulated expression of the cell adhesion glycoprotein F3 in adult hypothalamic magnocellular neurons.». J. Neurosci. ... 2001). «Mobilization of the cell adhesion glycoprotein F3/contactin to axonal surfaces is activity dependent.». Eur. J. ...
Johansson, Mats (1999). "Cell adhesion molecules in invertebrate immunity". Developmental and Comparative Immunology. 23: 303- ... NDR1 is also believed to be involved in cell wall adhesion to the plasma membrane and fluid retention of the cell. In addition ... Hynes, Richard (1992). "Integrins: Versatility, Modulation, and Signaling in Cell Adhesion". Cell. 69 (1): 11-25. Reuzeau, C.; ... The extracellular matrix of plant cells, fungi, and some protist is referred to as the cell wall. The plant cell wall is ...
Brümmendorf T, Rathjen FG (1995). "Cell adhesion molecules 1: immunoglobulin superfamily". Protein Profile. 2 (9): 963-1108. ... Williams AF, Barclay AN (1988). "The immunoglobulin superfamily-domains for cell surface recognition". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 6: ...
... s are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... providing the cell with a means of stable cell adhesion. However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ...
of Cell and Dev. Biol. 13: 425-456. *↑ Colman R. D. ja Filbin T. M. (2006). Cell adhesion molecules, lk 111-121. George J. ... Walsh, F. S., Doherty, P. (1997). Neural cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily: Role in Axon Growth and ... opioid-binding cell adhesion molecule) ja Kilon/Neurotractin (vastavalt roti ja kana ortoloogid)[4]. Lisaks kolmele Ig domeeni ... of positive and negative regulatory elementsgoverning cell-type-specific expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule gene. ...
Cell adhesion molecules allow cells to identify each other and interact. For example proteins involved in immune response. ... A membrane protein is a protein molecule that is attached to, or associated with the membrane of a cell or an organelle. ... Membrane receptor proteins relay signals between the cell's internal and external environments. ...
Frijns CJ, Kappelle LJ (Aug 2002). "Inflammatory cell adhesion molecules in ischemic cerebrovascular disease". Stroke: A ... With the roles of ICAM-1 in cell-cell adhesion, extravasation, and infection more fully understood, a potential role for ICAM-1 ... This gene encodes a cell surface glycoprotein which is typically expressed on endothelial cells and cells of the immune system ... ICAM-1 (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1) also known as CD54 (Cluster of Differentiation 54) is a protein that in humans is ...
A Multigene Family of Putative Cell Adhesion Molecules". Plant Physiology. 133 (4): 1911-1925. doi:10.1104/pp.103.031237. ISSN ... Showalter, A. M. (1993-01-01). "Structure and function of plant cell wall proteins". The Plant Cell. 5 (1): 9-23. doi:10.1105/ ... programmed cell death, cell expansion, salt tolerance, host-pathogen interactions, and cellular signaling AGPs contains protein ... In some plant cells, the length of the mature protein backbone is only 10-13 residues long and they are therefore called as ...
... β-neurexin then binds to cell adhesion molecule, neuroligin located on the postsynaptic membrane. Neuroligin then interacts ... The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... "Synaptic cell adhesion". Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 4 (4): a005694. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a005694. PMC 3312681. PMID ... The ribbon synapse is a special type of synapse found in sensory neurons such as photoreceptor cells, retinal bipolar cells, ...
"Direct observation of catch bonds involving cell-adhesion molecules". Nature. 423: 190-93. Bibcode:2003Natur.423..190M. doi: ... The mechanism behind catch bonds helps to explain the biophysics behind cell-cell adhesion. According to the researchers, " ... "Direct observation of catch bonds involving cell-adhesion molecules". Nature. 423 (6936): 190-3. Bibcode:2003Natur.423..190M. ... "Bacterial adhesion to target cells enhanced by shear force". Cell. 109 (7): 913-23. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00796-1. PMID ...
The structure of PTPmu suggests that it can regulate cell adhesion and migration using its extracellular cell adhesion molecule ... "Regulation of cell adhesion by protein-tyrosine phosphatases: II. Cell-cell adhesion". J Biol Chem. 281 (24): 16189-92. doi: ... Craig SE, Brady-Kalnay SM (2011). "Cancer cells cut homophilic cell adhesion molecules and run". Cancer Res. 71 (2): 303-9. doi ... Burridge K, Sastry SK, Sallee JL (2006). "Regulation of cell adhesion by protein-tyrosine phosphatases. I. Cell-matrix adhesion ...
The fusion requires the regulation of cell adhesion molecules. The neural plate switches from E-cadherin expression to N- ... Neural crest cells will migrate through the embryo and will give rise to several cell populations, including pigment cells and ... The variation in cell shapes is partially determined by the location of the nucleus within the cell, causing bulging in areas ... this is not one set of cells but rather is a constantly changing group of cells that are migrating over the dorsal lip of the ...
... is a cell adhesion molecule. CD24 is a glycoprotein expressed at the surface of most B lymphocytes and differentiating ... 2009). "CD15, CD24, and CD29 define a surface biomarker code for neural lineage differentiation of stem cells". Stem Cells. 27 ... 2008). "Autoreactive T cells escape clonal deletion in the thymus by a CD24-dependent pathway". J. Immunol. 181 (1): 320-8. doi ... This gene encodes a sialoglycoprotein that is expressed on mature granulocytes and in many B cells. The encoded protein is ...
leukocyte cell-cell adhesion. • heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • positive ... calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • leukocyte tethering or rolling. ... "Endothelial cell E- and P-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 function as signaling receptors". J. Cell Biol. 142 ... P-selectin functions as a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) on the surfaces of activated endothelial cells, which line the inner ...
Reid RA, Bronson DD, Young KM, Hemperly JJ (Jan 1994). "Identification and characterization of the human cell adhesion molecule ... four members of an axon-associated cell adhesion molecule subgroup of the immunoglobulin superfamily". Journal of Neurobiology ... cell adhesion. • positive regulation of gene expression. • neuron projection development. • positive regulation of sodium ion ... Pierre K, Dupouy B, Allard M, Poulain DA, Theodosis DT (Aug 2001). "Mobilization of the cell adhesion glycoprotein F3/contactin ...
Cell adhesion molecules allow cells to identify each other and interact. For example, proteins involved in immune response. ... Gerald Karp (2009). Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 128-. ISBN 978-0-470-48337-4 ... Von Heijne, G. (2006). "Membrane-protein topology". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 7 (12): 909-918. doi:10.1038/nrm2063 ... Transport proteins move molecules and ions across the membrane. They can be categorized according to the Transporter ...
"Detection of cell-adhesion molecules on human liver-associated lymphocytes.". Immunology 82 (1): 95-8. PMC 1414860. PMID ... Identification of a gene cluster involved in cell adhesion.". J. Exp. Med. 167 (5): 1597-607. PMC 2188934. PMID 3284962. doi: ... Steinman RM, Pack M, Inaba K (1997). "Dendritic cells in the T-cell areas of lymphoid organs.". Immunol. Rev. 156 (1): 25-37. ... 1995). "CD23 regulates monocyte activation through a novel interaction with the adhesion molecules CD11b-CD18 and CD11c-CD18 ...
... epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in the stomatal complex; guard cells and subsidiary cells. The epidermal cells are the ... Waxy micro- and nanostructures on the surface reduce wetting by rain and adhesion of contamination (See Lotus effect). ... The sugars are then stored as starch, further processed by chemical synthesis into more complex organic molecules such as ... Cells that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf.. Phloem. Cells that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose( ...
... s are cell adhesion molecules which target addressins. Lymphocyte homing refers to adhesion of the ... facilitated by diverse tissue-specific adhesion molecules on lymphocytes (homing receptors) and on endothelial cells (vascular ... circulating lymphocytes in blood to specialized endothelial cells within lymphoid organs, ...
Click on grid cells to view annotations.. *Blue cells = expressed in wild-type.. Gray triangles = other expression annotations ... Mice homozygous for a knock-out allele exhibit small Peyers patches and decreased homing of IgA-secreting plasma cells in the ...
What is Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1? Meaning of Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 as a legal ... What does Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 mean in law? ... Definition of Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and ... Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 legal definition of Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 https://legal ...
Mouse carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 12 (Ceacam12), transcript variant 1, (10ug), 10 µg. ... Home » cDNA » Mouse cDNA » Ceacam12 (untagged) - Mouse carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 12 (Ceacam12), ... MC210519 Ceacam12 (untagged) - Mouse carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 12 (Ceacam12), transcript variant ... Properties for Ceacam12 (untagged) - Mouse carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 12 (Ceacam12), transcript ...
Global Markets Directs, Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule... ... 54 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 5 (Carcinoembryonic Antigen or ... Assessment by Molecule Type 19 Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 5 (Carcinoembryonic Antigen or CEA or ... Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 5 (Carcinoembryonic Antigen or CEA or Meconium Antigen 100 or CD66e or ...
An altered expression of the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is associated with cancer progression in ... Relevance of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) in tumor tissue and sera of cervical cancer patients. Last ...
Cavy Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule ELISA Kit-AAB59499.1 (MBS046317) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) Pathway Diagram. Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) Pathway antibodies. Cell Adhesion Molecules ( ... Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM), ELISA Kit. Also Known As Cavy Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule ... Cell adhesion. Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 3q13.1. Cellular Component: focal adhesion; cell soma; axon; integral to ...
Purchase Recombinant Human Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule(PECAM1),partial. It is produced in Yeast. High purity. ... Recombinant Human Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule(PECAM1),partial. Recombinant Human Platelet endothelial cell ... Cell adhesion molecule which is required for leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) under most inflammatory conditions. ... Recombinant Human Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule(PECAM1) ( in vitro E.coli expression system-CSB-CF017767HU ) ...
Studies in the expression and modulation of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1). Doctoral thesis , UCL ( ... Introduction: The endothelial mucosal cell adhesion molecule (MAdCAM-1) is considered to be critically important in recruiting ... Studies in the expression and modulation of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) ... Studies in the expression and modulation of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1). ...
... form of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-positive cells and promotes cell proliferation and favors oligodendrocyte lineage ... form of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-positive cells and promotes cell proliferation and favors oligodendrocyte lineage ... form of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-positive cells and promotes cell proliferation and favors oligodendrocyte lineage ... form of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-positive cells and promotes cell proliferation and favors oligodendrocyte lineage ...
Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) - biological impact on vascular endothelial cells [Abstract]. Wound Repair ... Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) - biological impact on vascular endothelial cells [Abstract] ... Our purpose was assess the impact of Activated Leucocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) on Human Vascular Endothelial Cells ( ... the following cell sublines were created; a control (HECVpEF) endothelial cell line and a ALCAM-knockdown (HECVALCAM/KD) cell ...
Journal of Cell Biology Journal abstract * Neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (Ng-CAM) mediates cell adhesion between neurons ... Functional-analysis of posttranslational cleavage products of the neuron-glia cell-adhesion molecule, ng-cam Academic Article ... Appropriately transfected L cells expressed each of these proteins on their surfaces; F135 was also found in the media of cells ... that proteolytic cleavage of Ng-CAM200 is not required either for its expression on the cell surface or for cell adhesion and ...
C Rahuel, C Le Van Kim, MG Mattei, JP Cartron, Y Colin; A unique gene encodes spliceoforms of the B-cell adhesion molecule cell ... A unique gene encodes spliceoforms of the B-cell adhesion molecule cell surface glycoprotein of epithelial cancer and of the ... Two new members of the Ig superfamily, the Lutheran (Lu) blood group glycoprotein and the B-cell adhesion molecule (B-CAM) ... These spliceoforms corresponded to 2.5 kb and 4.0 kb mRNA species detectable by Northern blot in all tissues and cell lines in ...
"Distribution of cell adhesion molecules on CD56++, CD3-, CD16- large granular lymphocytes and endothelial cells in first- ... cell motility. • inflammatory response. • cell adhesion. • signal transduction. • integrin-mediated signaling pathway. • ... "Differential expression of cell adhesion molecules by human hematopoietic progenitor cells from bone marrow and mobilized adult ... Berman PW, Nakamura GR (1994). "Adhesion mediated by intercellular adhesion molecule 1 attenuates the potency of antibodies ...
... is local tumor cell invasion. HNSCC invasion is a necessary component of metastasis where tumor... ... The primary reason for treatment failure in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) ... These cell-cell adhesions are responsible for forming stratifying cell layers, but also influence the differentiated state of ... Kang HG, Jenabi JM et al (2007) E-cadherin cell-cell adhesion in ewing tumor cells mediates suppression of anoikis through ...
... cell adhesion molecules zebrafish , , Dear all, , , I am trying to do a whole mount immunostaining for beta-catenin. , The ... Zbrafish] cell adhesion molecules zebrafish. Burdine, Rebecca D via zbrafish%40net.bio.net (by rburdine from princeton.edu). ...
Definition of cell adhesion molecule. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... cell adhesion molecule. Definition: proteins that hold cells together, uvomorulin, and hold them to their substrates, laminin. ...
Endothelial cell adhesion molecules in inflammation and postischemic reperfusion injury.. Beekhuizen H1, van de Gevel JS. ...
... the expression of specific adhesion molecules within human cancer tissues are highlighted. The expression signatures from ... Defining the minimal adhesion receptors preserved on cancer cells during tumor progression will define the metastatic adhesion ... CELL ADHESION-MEDIATED RADIATION RESISTANCE: THE ROLE OF INTEGRINS AND INTEGRIN PROXIMAL PROTEIN ... In this volume, the expression of specific adhesion molecules within human cancer tissues are highlighted. The expression ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Also disclosed is a method for detecting binding between cell adhesion membrane proteins and cells having a potential to be ... The DNA molecules encoding these proteins have use in gene therapy regimes. ... The present invention relates to proteins associated with human bone marrow cell membranes for adhering hematopoietic cells to ... human bone marrow cell membranes. These proteins are soluble in lithium dodecyl sulfate but insoluble in 2% nonaethylene glycol ...
cell-cell adhesion via plasma-membrane adhesion molecules ISS Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity. more info ... homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules ISS Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity. more info ... homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules NAS Non-traceable Author Statement. more info ... Subsequently, it was found to be a cell-cell adhesion molecule detected on leukocytes, epithelia, and endothelia. The encoded ...
Immunoglobulin molecules such as the intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, 2, and 3), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 ( ... Cell adhesion molecules and cardiovascular pathology. Although adhesion molecules are vital for the normal development and ... 1993) Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and smooth muscle cell activation during atherogenesis. J Clin Invest 92:538-539. ... Several cell adhesion molecules are found in soluble form within the serum, shed principally from endothelial cells and, in the ...
Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Alpha Inhibitor, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 ... Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Inhibitor ... 32 Abstracts with Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Inhibitor Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Pharmacological Actions : Neuroprotective Agents, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Inhibitor Additional Keywords : Blood Brain ...
Compare cell adhesion molecule ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews ... Human Platelet/Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (PECAM1) ELISA Kit *Detection Target: Platelet/Endothelial Cell Adhesion ... Detection Target: carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5. *Detection Range: Detect Range: 5 ng/ml-120 ng/ml ... Human Carcinoembryonic Antigen-related Cell Adhesion Molecule 6 (non-specific cross reacting antigen), CEACAM6 ELISA Kit ...
Goat polyclonal Cell adhesion molecule 4 antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to ... Lane 1 : Anti-Cell adhesion molecule 4 antibody (ab109767) at 0.1 µg/ml. Lane 2 : Anti-Cell adhesion molecule 4 antibody ( ... Anti-Cell adhesion molecule 4 antibody. See all Cell adhesion molecule 4 primary antibodies. ... Involved in the cell-cell adhesion. Has calcium- and magnesium-independent cell-cell adhesion activity. May have tumor- ...
  • This protein binds to T-cell differentiation antigene CD6, and is implicated in the processes of cell adhesion and migration. (mybiosource.com)
  • The observations that a protein corresponding to F135 contains the cell aggregation sites whereas one corresponding to the F80 has the ability to promote neurite outgrowth suggest that proteolytic cleavage may be an important event in regulating these Ng-CAM activities during embryonic development and neural regeneration. (scripps.edu)
  • However, the 4.0 kb transcript was very poorly expressed as compared to the 2.5 kb species except in the colon carcinoma HT29 cell line, suggesting a differential regulation of the Lu/B-CAM messenger RNA in some tumor tissues. (ashpublications.org)
  • Materials and Methods: PSA-NCAM + cells from newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were grown for five days on uncoated dishes in defined medium with or without supplementation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and/or T3. (elsevier.com)
  • Then, PSA-NCAM + spheres were prepared in single cells and transferred to polyornithine/fibronectin-coated glass coverslips for five days to determine the fate of the cells according to the supplementation of these molecules. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: Results demonstrated that T3 induces overexpression of the ABCD2 gene in PSA-NCAM + cells, and can enhance PSA-NCAM + cell growth in the presence of bFGF, favoring an oligodendrocyte fate. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion: These results may provide new insights into investigation of PSA-NCAM + cells for therapeutic application to X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. (elsevier.com)
  • Purpose: Cell transplantation of myelin-producing exogenous cells is being extensively explored as a means of remyelinating axons in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. (elsevier.com)
  • Detailed studies using the transfected cells and the fusion proteins indicated that both the homophilic and the heterophilic binding activities of Ng-CAM are localized in the F135 fragment of the molecule. (scripps.edu)
  • MBS046317 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
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