Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules: Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1: A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule: Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.E-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex: A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia: Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. Ng-CAM is immunologically and structurally distinct from NCAM.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Contactin 2: A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Contactins: A family of immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecules that are involved in NERVOUS SYSTEM patterning.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Junctional Adhesion Molecules: A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Mice, Inbred C57BLNeurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mucoproteins: Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Selectins: Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Receptors, Very Late Antigen: Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Leukocyte Rolling: Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ankyrins: A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)alpha Catenin: A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Tenascin: Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Lutheran Blood-Group System: A complex blood group system having pairs of alternate antigens and amorphic genes, but also subject to a dominant independently segregating repressor.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCarcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.Desmoplakins: Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.Receptors, Leukocyte-Adhesion: Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Mice, Inbred BALB CEpithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Receptors, Fibronectin: Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell-Matrix Junctions: Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.GPI-Linked Proteins: A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Desmosomes: A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).PhosphoproteinsFluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).gamma Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
1996). "A unique gene encodes spliceoforms of the B-cell adhesion molecule cell surface glycoprotein of epithelial cancer and ... BCAM has been shown to interact with Laminin, alpha 5. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000187244 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ... Basal cell adhesion molecule is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BCAM gene. BCAM has also recently been designated ... 2005). "Molecular interactions of B-CAM (basal-cell adhesion molecule) and laminin in epithelial skin cancer". Arch. Dermatol. ...
Li W, Guan KL (July 2004). "The Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM) interacts with and activates Pak". J. Biol. Chem. ... Cell aggregation assays show that cell adhesion molecules, such as DSCAM, belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily bind ... "Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule DSCAM mediates homophilic intercellular adhesion". Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 79 (1-2): 118- ... "Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule DSCAM mediates homophilic intercellular adhesion". Molecular Brain Research. 79 (1-2): 118 ...
β-neurexin then binds to cell adhesion molecule, neuroligin located on the postsynaptic membrane. Neuroligin then interacts ... The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... The ribbon synapse is a special type of synapse found in sensory neurons such as photoreceptor cells, retinal bipolar cells, ... Rab3-interacting molecule), Bassoon, Piccolo/aczonin, ELKS, and liprins-α. These scaffold proteins are thought to be the ...
Cell adhesion molecules allow cells to identify each other and interact. For example, proteins involved in immune response. ... Gerald Karp (2009). Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 128-. ISBN 978-0-470-48337-4 ... Transport proteins move molecules and ions across the membrane. They can be categorized according to the Transporter ... Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with, or are part of, biological membranes. They include integral membrane ...
One example is the Ig cell-adhesion molecule (IgCAM) family; this family of adhesion molecules are suggested to interact with ... In addition, several other cell surface molecules have been shown to interact with secreted Semaphorins. ... Shapiro, L; Love, J; Colman, DR (2007). "Adhesion molecules in the nervous system: structural insights into function and ... is required in motile cells responding to UNC-6 netrin cues". Cell. 87 (2): 187-95. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81337-9. PMID ...
Reid RA, Bronson DD, Young KM, Hemperly JJ (Jan 1994). "Identification and characterization of the human cell adhesion molecule ... domains in neuronal cell functions and identification of the domain interacting with the neuronal recognition molecule F3/11". ... It is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored neuronal membrane protein that functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It ... four members of an axon-associated cell adhesion molecule subgroup of the immunoglobulin superfamily". Journal of Neurobiology ...
Retzler C, Göhring W, Rauch U (1996). "Analysis of neurocan structures interacting with the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM ... "The neuronal chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan neurocan binds to the neural cell adhesion molecules Ng-CAM/L1/NILE and N-CAM, ... It is thought to be involved in the modulation of cell adhesion and migration. Neurocan is a significant component of the ... and inhibits neuronal adhesion and neurite outgrowth". J. Cell Biol. 125 (3): 669-80. doi:10.1083/jcb.125.3.669. PMC 2119998 . ...
"Cell-cell adhesion by homophilic interaction of the neuronal recognition molecule axonin-1". European Journal of Biochemistry ... CNTN2 has been shown to interact with CNTNAP2 and NFYB. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000184144 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ... It is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored neuronal membrane protein that functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It ... "The human TAX1 gene encoding the axon-associated cell adhesion molecule TAG-1/axonin-1: genomic structure and basic promoter". ...
... has been shown to interact with YWHAB, YWHAH, YWHAG and Cell adhesion molecule 1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "The 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin domain of the DAL-1/Protein 4.1B tumour suppressor interacts with 14-3-3 proteins". The ... "The 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin domain of the DAL-1/Protein 4.1B tumour suppressor interacts with 14-3-3 proteins". The ... "Suppression of growth and increased cellular attachment after expression of DAL-1 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells". International ...
... of the protocadherin family encode non-classical cadherins that function as calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecules. The ... PCLKC has been shown to interact with MAST2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000074276 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ... Exp Cell Res. 261 (1): 13-8. doi:10.1006/excr.2000.5039. PMID 11082270. Okazaki N, Takahashi N, Kojima S, Masuho Y, Koga H (Jul ... its association with contact inhibition of cell proliferation". Carcinogenesis. 23 (7): 1139-48. doi:10.1093/carcin/23.7.1139. ...
Currently, four desmoglein subfamily members have been identified and all are members of the cadherin cell adhesion molecule ... Desmoglein 3 has been shown to interact with PKP3. Desmoglein List of target antigens in pemphigus List of conditions caused by ... Desmosomes are cell-cell junctions between epithelial, myocardial, and certain other cell types. Desmoglein 3 is a calcium- ... a disease of cell adhesion". Cell. 67 (5): 869-77. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90360-B. PMID 1720352. Roh JY, Stanley JR (1995). " ...
Neurexins are cell adhesion molecules and often contain EGF binding domains, enhancing intracellular junction forming between ... cells. NRXN1 is also proposed to play a role in angiogenesis. Alpha-neurexins interact with neurexophilins and possibly ... protein possibly involved in cell-cell adhesion or in clotting. Protein matches found in Phyre2 comprise an array of proteins ... cell-adhesion, and ECM proteins. Splice variants a, b, and e, in Figures 5 and 6 have >99% structural similarity to the protein ...
2002). "Vascular endothelial-junctional adhesion molecule (VE-JAM)/JAM 2 interacts with T, NK, and dendritic cells through JAM ... Tight junctions represent one mode of cell-to-cell adhesion in endothelial cell sheets, forming continuous seals around cells ... 2004). "The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM) family members JAM-2 and JAM-3 associate with the cell polarity protein PAR-3: a ... Bazzoni G (2004). "The JAM family of junctional adhesion molecules". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 15 (5): 525-30. doi:10.1016/S0955- ...
However, inflammation causes the expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) such as P-selectin on the surface of the blood ... White blood cells present in flowing blood can interact with CAM. The first step in this interaction process is carried out by ... of the white blood cell on the endothelial cell surface followed by stable adhesion and transmigration of the white blood cell ... Selectins are part of the broader family of cell adhesion molecules. PSGL-1 can bind to all three members of the family but ...
... a novel cell adhesion molecule complex with potential involvement in embryo implantation". Genes Dev. 9 (10): 1199-210. doi: ... interacts with trophinin, tastin, and cytokeratin and may be involved in trophinin-mediated cell adhesion between trophoblast ... and cytokeratin and may be involved in trophinin-mediated cell adhesion between trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells". ... Suzuki N, Zara J, Sato T, Ong E, Bakhiet N, Oshima RG, Watson KL, Fukuda MN (1998). "A cytoplasmic protein, bystin, interacts ...
... antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 regulates nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of DNA polymerase delta-interacting protein 38 ... The encoded protein also interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Some transcripts of this gene overlap in a tail-to- ... that interacts with the p50 subunit of DNA polymerase delta and proliferating cell nuclear antigen". J Biol Chem. 278 (12): ... Polymerase delta-interacting protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLDIP2 gene. This gene encodes a protein ...
... where adhesion molecules on one cell interact with identical molecules on the other cell. And also heterophilic interactions, ... L1CAM molecules interact via the Ig (1-4)-like domains, allowing cell to cell adhesion. They are also important in the ... L1 has a static function as a cell adhesion molecule which connects different cells. It is involved in the adhesion between ... This protein, of 200-220 kDa, is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule with a strong implication in cell migration, adhesion, ...
It interacts with components of the cytoskeleton, with cell adhesion molecules, and with several signaling molecules to ... regulate cell morphology and motility. IQGAP2 has been shown to interact with CDC42 and RAC1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Cell Biol. 6 (2): 97-105. doi:10.1038/ncb1086. PMID 14743216. Chew CS, Okamoto CT, Chen X, Qin HY (2005). "IQGAPs are ... Cell. Biol. 16 (9): 4869-78. doi:10.1128/mcb.16.9.4869. PMC 231489 . PMID 8756646. "Entrez Gene: IQGAP2 IQ motif containing ...
"All mammalian Hedgehog proteins interact with cell adhesion molecule, down-regulated by oncogenes (CDO) and brother of CDO (BOC ... Cell adhesion molecule-related/down-regulated by oncogenes is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDON gene. CDON and ... Cell adhesion molecule-related/down-regulated by oncogenes (CDON) is a conserved transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to a ... subgroup of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules. It is highly expressed in both the somites and dorsal ...
Each pore is made of 12 connexin molecules; 6 form a hemichannel on one cell membrane and interact with a hemichannel on an ... Stable cell-cell interactions are required for cell adhesion within a tissue and controlling the shape and function of cells. ... Cell signaling allows cells to communicate with adjacent cells, nearby cells (paracrine) and even distant cells (endocrine). ... Plant cells are surrounded by cell walls which are barriers for cell-cell communication. This barrier is overcome by ...
"The roles of cell adhesion molecules in tumor suppression and cell migration: a new paradox". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 3 (4 ... and is able to induce differentiation of glioblastoma cells. In cell signaling, HEPACAM directly interacts with F-actin and ... "The immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule hepaCAM modulates cell adhesion and motility through direct interaction with the ... "Structural and functional analyses of a novel ig-like cell adhesion molecule, hepaCAM, in the human breast carcinoma MCF7 cells ...
Instead, they are homologous to neural cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and the large family of L1 CAMs. There are four distinct ... Several beta subunits interact with one or more extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Contactin, also known as F3 or F11, ... "Sodium channel beta subunits mediate homophilic cell adhesion and recruit ankyrin to points of cell-cell contact". J. Biol. ... further depolarizing the cell. Thus, the more Na+ channels localized in a region of a cell's membrane the faster the action ...
Different tenascin domains interact with a wide range of cellular receptors, including integrins, cell adhesion molecules and ... large family of cell adhesion molecules) with their cell surface receptors is sterically hindered. Expression of versican is ... Smooth muscle cells of blood vessels, epithelial cells of skin, and the cells of central and peripheral nervous system are a ... and their presentation to specific cell-surface receptors. The binding of versican with leukocyte adhesion molecules L-selectin ...
... binding other L1CAM molecules as well as extracellular cell adhesion molecules, integrins, and proteoglycans or intracellular ... The pathfinding defect occurs via the association of L1CAM with neuropilin-1. Neurophilin-1 interacts with Plexin-A proteins to ... another nerve cell or a muscle). Significant for this mechanism is the L1CAM gene, a cell surface glycoprotein of the ... and other substances through the cell. Long nerve processes (axons) are affected because long distances make nerve cells ...
PTPrho protein mediates homophilic cell-cell adhesion, meaning that when it interacts with a like molecule on an adjacent cell ... 2009). "Synapse formation regulated by protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor T through interaction with cell adhesion molecules ... PTPrho associates with members of the cadherin and catenin family of cell adhesion molecules as demonstrated by GST-fusion ... these cells do not mediate comparable levels of cell-cell aggregation to wild-type PTPrho, demonstrating that the mutations ...
"Substance P enhances cytokine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression on cultured rheumatoid fibroblast- ... Other neurokinin subtypes and neurokinin receptors that interact with SP have been reported as well. Amino acid residues that ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ...
... we assessed their ability to interact with purified MAd using fluorescence energy transfer techniques. The Hermes antigen ... Monoclonal antibodies to human lymphocyte homing receptors define a novel class of adhesion molecules on diverse cell types. / ... Monoclonal antibodies to human lymphocyte homing receptors define a novel class of adhesion molecules on diverse cell types. ... Monoclonal antibodies to human lymphocyte homing receptors define a novel class of adhesion molecules on diverse cell types. ...
JAM4, a junctional cell adhesion molecule interacting with a tight junction protein, MAGI-1.. [Susumu Hirabayashi, Makiko ... MAGI-1 strengthened JAM4-mediated cell adhesion in L cells and sealing effects in CHO cells. These findings suggest that JAM4 ... JAM4 mediated calcium-independent homophilic adhesion and was accumulated at cell-cell contacts when expressed in L cells. MAGI ... It interacts with various molecules and functions as a scaffold protein at cell junctions. We report here a novel MAGI-1- ...
40-kDa cell surface molecule on J45 cells as the VE-JAM/JAM 2-interacting protein. This ∼40-kDa J45 cell surface molecule was ... VE-JAM/JAM 2-interacting cell types are as follows: CD56+ NK cells, CD56+CD3+ NK/T cells, CD56+CD3+CD8+ cytolytic T cells, and ... Vascular Endothelial-Junctional Adhesion Molecule (VE-JAM)/JAM 2 Interacts with T, NK, and Dendritic Cells Through JAM 3. Tony ... VE-JAM/JAM 2 was also confirmed as an adhesion molecule for T cell lines (2) and observed to interact with a very specific ...
The cell adhesion molecule CHL1 interacts with patched-1 to regulate apoptosis during postnatal cerebellar development ... The cell adhesion molecule CHL1 interacts with patched-1 to regulate apoptosis during postnatal cerebellar development ... The cell adhesion molecule CHL1 interacts with patched-1 to regulate apoptosis during postnatal cerebellar development ... The cell adhesion molecule CHL1 interacts with patched-1 to regulate apoptosis during postnatal cerebellar development ...
arrows) Cell-cell adhesion sites between two cells; and (arrowheads) cell-cell adhesion sites where ,2 cells adhere to each ... Cell-cell adhesion sites between two nectin-1α-L cells or between two nectin-1α-ΔC-L cells; (arrowheads) cell-cell adhesion ... arrow) Nectin-2α-based cell-cell adhesion sites; and (arrowhead) nectin-2α-ΔC-based cell-cell adhesion sites. The results shown ... arrows) Nectin-2α-based cell-cell adhesion sites; and (arrowheads) nectin-2α-ΔC-based cell-cell adhesion sites. The results ...
Since E-cadherin expressed by epithelial cells interacts with the exocyst complex and recruits it to the sites of cell-to-cell ... the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays an important role in cell adhesion, cell migration, neural differentiation, ... 2002) Neural cell adhesion molecule promotes accumulation of TGN organelles at sites of neuron-to-neuron contacts. J Cell Biol ... 1997) Neural cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily: role in axon growth and guidance. Annu Rev Cell Dev ...
Possible cell adhesion receptor. It possesses an intrinsic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity (PTPase) and dephosphorylates ... Interacts with PPFIA1, PPFIA2 and PPFIA3. Interacts with PTPRF.By similarity. GO - Molecular functioni. *cell adhesion molecule ... homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules Source: MGI. *negative regulation of cell projection ... cell adhesion molecule binding Source: MGI. *chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan binding Source: MGI ,p>Inferred from Physical ...
... of a viable cell with a phagocyte via the homophilic interaction of PECAM1 on both cell surfaces leads to the viable cells ... During apoptosis, the inside-out signaling of PECAM1 is somehow disabled so that the apoptotic cell does not actively reject ... Prevents phagocyte ingestion of closely apposed viable cells by transmitting detachment signals, and changes function on ... together with the interaction of the eat-me signals and their respective receptors causes the attachment of the apoptotic cell ...
1996). "A unique gene encodes spliceoforms of the B-cell adhesion molecule cell surface glycoprotein of epithelial cancer and ... BCAM has been shown to interact with Laminin, alpha 5. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000187244 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ... Basal cell adhesion molecule is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BCAM gene. BCAM has also recently been designated ... 2005). "Molecular interactions of B-CAM (basal-cell adhesion molecule) and laminin in epithelial skin cancer". Arch. Dermatol. ...
Adhesion properties of adhesion-regulating molecule 1 protein on endothelial cells. Lamerant N, et al. FEBS J, 2005 Apr. PMID ... Adrm1 interacts with Atp6v0d2 and regulates osteoclast differentiation. Kim T, et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2009 Dec 18. ... Title: Adhesion properties of adhesion-regulating molecule 1 protein on endothelial cells. ... Adrm1 adhesion regulating molecule 1 [Mus musculus] Adrm1 adhesion regulating molecule 1 [Mus musculus]. Gene ID:56436 ...
... β-neurexin then binds to cell adhesion molecule, neuroligin located on the postsynaptic membrane. Neuroligin then interacts ... The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... "Synaptic cell adhesion". Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 4 (4): a005694. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a005694. PMC 3312681. PMID ... The ribbon synapse is a special type of synapse found in sensory neurons such as photoreceptor cells, retinal bipolar cells, ...
Cell adhesion molecule 1 has been shown to interact with EPB41L3. Cell adhesion molecule GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 2003). "Implications of nectin-like molecule-2/IGSF4/RA175/SgIGSF/TSLC1/SynCAM1 in cell-cell adhesion and transmembrane protein ... Cell adhesion molecule 1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CADM1 gene. Model organisms have been used in the ... "Entrez Gene: CADM1 cell adhesion molecule 1". "Salmonella infection data for Cadm1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. " ...
... adhesion molecules could contribute to signaling cascades by interacting with and modulating the action of growth factors (39). ... IMMUNOGLOBULIN CELL ADHESION MOLECULE, AND INTEGRIN FUNCTION AND INDEPENDENCE FROM NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULE BINDING OR ... IMMUNOGLOBULIN CELL ADHESION MOLECULE, AND INTEGRIN FUNCTION AND INDEPENDENCE FROM NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULE BINDING OR ... A role for the polysialic acid - neural cell adhesion molecule in PDGF-induced chemotaxis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells ...
Cercam interacts with 148 markers (Mir10a, Mir10b, Mir17, ...) View All .left {text-align: left} .inheritColor {background- ... Click on grid cells to view annotations.. *Blue cells = expressed in wild-type.. Gray triangles = other expression annotations ...
2004) The Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM) interacts with and activates Pak. J Biol Chem 279:32824-32831. ... 2000) Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule DSCAM mediates homophilic intercellular adhesion. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 79:118-126 ... Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM) is required for axon guidance and dendrite arborization. How DSCAM functions in ... Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule (DSCAM) Associates with Uncoordinated-5C (UNC5C) in Netrin-1-mediated Growth Cone Collapse ...
Madcam1 interacts with 36 markers (Mir15a, Mir133b, Mir138-1, ...) View All .left {text-align: left} .inheritColor {background- ... Click on grid cells to view annotations.. *Blue cells = expressed in wild-type.. Gray triangles = other expression annotations ... Mice homozygous for a knock-out allele exhibit small Peyers patches and decreased homing of IgA-secreting plasma cells in the ...
Homophilic adhesion mechanism of neurofascin, a member of the L1 family of neural cell adhesion molecules. (PMID: 21047790) Liu ... Interacts with GLDN/gliomedin (By similarity). Interacts with MYOC.. SequenceCaution:. *Sequence=BAA34476.3; Type=Erroneous ... Among its related pathways are Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and Interaction between L1 and Ankyrins. GO annotations related ... This gene encodes an L1 family immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule with multiple IGcam and fibronectin domains. The protein ...
During this angioinvasion, Aspergillus fumigatus interacts with the endothelial cell lining of the blood vessels. We ... Aspergillus fumigatus stimulates leukocyte adhesion molecules and cytokine production by endothelial cells in vitro and during ... Therefore, the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by endothelial cells in ... Aspergillus fumigatus Stimulates Leukocyte Adhesion Molecules and Cytokine Production by Endothelial Cells In Vitro and during ...
... dimerization aids cancer cell migration and metastasis, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research" on ... JAM2 interacts with alpha4beta1. Facilitation by JAM3. Cunningham, S.A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Arrate, M.P.; Tran, T.M.; Brock, T.A. ... Junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C) dimerization aids cancer cell migration and metastasis. Junctional adhesion molecule C ( ... Homing of human B cells to lymphoid organs and B-cell lymphoma engraftment are controlled by cell adhesion molecule JAM-C ...
DICAM, a novel dual immunoglobulin domain containing cell adhesion molecule interacts with alphavbeta3 integrin. J Cell Physiol ... J Cell Physiol, 2016; 231(1):162-171, 14th winter symposium on Cell and Matrix Research Institute, Pyeongchang, Korea ... J Cell Physiol, 2016; 231(1):162-171. *Che X*, Chi L*, Park CY, Cho GH, Park NR, Kim SG, Lee BH, Choi JY. A Novel Method to ... J Cell Biochem. 2010 May;110(1):97-103.. *Jung YK, Jin JS, Jeong JH, Kim HN, Park NR, Choi JY. ...
Nonstick molecule enables correct neural development. DSCAM interacts with other cell adhesion molecules to prevent their ... The mutation is in the gene encoding Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam). In the absence of Dscam, neurons in the ... they are adhesion molecules that prevent adhesion. Understanding the molecular mechanisms through which Dscams function is ... Cell Rep. 2017 Mar 28; 18(13):3178-3191. * 5 Garrett AM, Tadenev AL, Hammond YT, Fuerst PG, Burgess RW. Replacing the PDZ- ...
Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1-like Protein; CIP4, Cdc42-interacting Protein-4; CML, Chronic Myeloic Leukemia; CRC, ... Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; PDAC, Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma; PSGL-1, P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1; RCC, Renal Cell ... Ectodomain shedding of extracellular and membrane proteins is of fundamental importance for cell-cell communication in ... Focal Adhesion Kinase; GBM, Glioblastoma Multiforme; GC, Gastric cancer; HCC, Hepatocellular Carcinoma; IL, Interleukin; MAPK, ...
... focus on cell adhesion molecules and calcium channels. Brain function critically depends on how neurons interact and ... The goal of this project is to provide mechanistic insights on how the interplay between cell adhesion molecules (integrins) ... First, we investigate how a class of synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), the integrins, contribute to synaptic specificity ... uncovering the role of cell adhesion molecules in homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Since 2012, he is an independent ...
... focus on cell adhesion molecules and calcium channels. Brain function critically depends on how neurons interact and ... First, we investigate how a class of synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), the integrins, contribute to synapse specificity ... Thalhammer, A., and Cingolani, L.A. (2014). Cell adhesion and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Neuropharmacology 78, 23-30. ... Yukiko Goda at the MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology (University College London), where he uncovered the role of cell ...
1988) Neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule interacts with neurons and astroglia via different binding mechanisms. J Cell Biol 106 ... 1995a) The cytoplasmic domain of the cell adhesion molecule L1 is not required for homophilic adhesion. Neurosci Lett 200:155- ... Bravo/Nr-CAM is closely related to the cell adhesion molecules L1 and Ng-CAM and has a similar heterodimer structure. J Cell ... The neural cell adhesion molecule L1, which is present on axons and growth cones, plays a crucial role in the formation of ...
  • The Hermes antigen isolated from both glial cells and fibroblasts - which express a predominant 90-kD form similar in relative molecular mass, isoelectric point, and protease sensitivity to lymphocyte gp90(Hermes) - was able to bind purified MAd. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast, a 140-160-kD form of the Hermes antigen isolated from squamous epithelial cells lacked this capability. (elsevier.com)
  • Consistent with studies using mAbs to CD44 or Pgp-1, mAbs against five different epitopes on lymphocyte gp90(Hermes) reacted with a wide variety of nonhematolymphoid cells in diverse normal human tissues, including many types of epithelium, mesenchymal elements such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle, and a subset of glia in the central nervous system. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we show that DSCAM is expressed on commissural axons and interacts with Netrin-1, a prototypical guidance cue for commissural axons. (pnas.org)
  • In transfected cells, DSCAM by itself, in the absence of DCC, is capable of mediating netrin signaling in activating phosphorylation of Fyn and Pak1. (pnas.org)
  • Recent studies indicate that DSCAM plays an important role in neurite arborization, cell body spacing, and lamina-specific synaptic targeting in vertebrate retina ( , 25 , , 26 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here we report that DSCAM interacts with netrin-1. (pnas.org)
  • In the absence of Dscam , neurons in the retina fail to arborize their processes, and neurons of the same cell type (dopaminergic amacrine cells for example) fasciculate and clump, destroying their normally even lateral mosaic spacing. (jax.org)
  • Metastasis is associated with profound changes in cellular properties, including the disruption of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions and the acquisition of migratory abilities. (aacrjournals.org)
  • May play an important role in prostate cancer metastasis and the infiltration of bone marrow by cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • Several reports have established that low oxygen tension (i.e. hypoxia) is a common feature of the tumour microenvironment often enhancing the process of epithelial‐to‐mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells, thus promoting tumourigenesis and metastasis. (intechopen.com)
  • While the role of exosomes during tumour progression remains to be fully established, we postulate that tumour cells release exosomes loaded with specific molecules in response to the microenvironment to prepare for and promote metastasis to specific organs. (intechopen.com)
  • The miR-200 family of microRNAs, which are molecules essential for laying out the body plan of developing embryos, has previously been shown to play a role in hindering metastasis in its early stages. (healthcanal.com)
  • Using experimental models of breast cancer metastasis, investigators found that miR-200s were over-produced in highly metastatic cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • Adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium represents a fundamental, early event in a wide variety of inflammatory conditions, including atherosclerosis, autoimmune disorders and bacterial and viral infections. (google.es)
  • This figure identifies a blood PMN (step 1) that attaches, rolls (step 2), and arrests, and ultimately transmigrates across the single-cell thick endothelium (step 3) to gain access to the interstitial space (step 4). (jimmunol.org)
  • Netrin requires focal adhesion kinase and Src family kinases for axon outgrowth and attraction. (wikipathways.org)
  • The ability of JAM-A to attenuate cell invasion correlated with the formation of increased numbers of focal adhesions and the formation of functional tight junctions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • KCH was localized to MTs, including at the MT focal point near the tip of protonemal cells, where MT plus ends coalesced with actin filaments. (plantcell.org)
  • Vitronectin is a cell adhesion and spreading factor found in serum and tissues. (genecards.org)
  • An alternative hypothesis is proposed here-namely that the transepithelial egression of infiltrated leucocytes acts to rid diseased airway tissues of proinflammatory cells efficiently and non-injuriously. (bmj.com)
  • However, only some cell types constitutively express IDO, or the expression can only be detected following tissue lesion, infection, and inflammation in these tissues. (mdpi.com)
  • When cells do form tissues, they are essentially clumping together in a very organized manner. (ubc.ca)
  • Contrast that to tissues that make parts of your gut or your skin tissue, where cells generally adhere together into sheets. (ubc.ca)
  • In other words, the architecture, shape and strength of tissues depends a lot on the way cells come together, but beyond that, how cells function (i.e. what they can do) as well as how they keep healthy, will depend not on just how they "meet" but also in how they communicate with each other. (ubc.ca)
  • B cells are the predominant subset in most mucosa‐associated lymphoid tissues, whereas T cells are more frequent in peripheral LNs. (els.net)
  • Effector memory cells migrate preferentially to nonlymphoid tissues. (els.net)
  • As shown in the adjacent diagram, a synapse consists of the presynaptic bouton of one neuron which stores vesicles containing neurotransmitter (uppermost in the picture), and a second, postsynaptic neuron which bears receptors for the neurotransmitter (at the bottom), together with a gap between the two called the synaptic cleft (with synaptic adhesion molecules, SAMs, holding the two together ). (wikipedia.org)
  • L1CAM function has been most extensively studied in the nervous system, where it is known to orchestrate morphogenetic events such as neuron-neuron adhesion, axon guidance, neurite outgrowth, neurite fasciculation, and myelination ( 15 , 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In our functional characterizations of VE-JAM/JAM 2, we discovered that it can function as an adhesive ligand for the T cell line J45 and can interact with GM-CSF/IL-4-derived peripheral blood dendritic cells, circulating CD56 + NK cells, circulating CD56 + CD3 + NK/T cells, and circulating CD56 + CD3 + CD8 + cytolytic T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • VE-JAM/JAM 2 was also confirmed as an adhesion molecule for T cell lines ( 2 ) and observed to interact with a very specific subpopulation of circulating lymphocytes, namely the CD56 + NK cells, the CD56 + CD3 + NK/T cells, the CD56 + CD8 + CD3 + cytolytic T cells, and peripheral blood, GM-CSF/IL-4-derived dendritic cells (PBDC). (jimmunol.org)
  • CD155/PVR was detected in immersion fixed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using Mouse Anti-Human CD155/PVR Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB25301) at 15 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. (novusbio.com)
  • Applications Tested: This P1H12 antibody has been pre-titrated and tested by flow cytometric analysis of normal human peripheral blood cells. (fishersci.com)
  • Analysis of peripheral blood from conditional vcam-1- deficient mice revealed mild leukocytosis, including elevated immature B cell numbers. (rupress.org)
  • oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), are wrapped around the axon, leaving the axolemma relatively uncovered at the regularly spaced nodes of Ranvier. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also confirm that L1CAM is a poor prognostic marker for patients with NSCLC and plays a significant role in promoting invasiveness and motility of NSCLC cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Promotes myogenesis by enhancing CXCR4-dependent cell motility. (nih.gov)
  • Mice homozygous for a knock-out allele exhibit small Peyer's patches and decreased homing of IgA-secreting plasma cells in the lamina propria. (jax.org)
  • In nonneutropenic mice immunosuppressed with corticosteroids, A. fumigatus stimulated earlier pulmonary expression of E-selectin, VCAM-1, and KC, while expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and TNF-alpha was suppressed. (nih.gov)
  • Carcinoma cells expressing mutant JAM-C grew slower than with JAM-C WT and were not able to establish metastatic lung nodules in mice. (deepdyve.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analyses of developing mice demonstrated the polarized expression of L1 in pyramidal cells, granule cells, and interneurons in the hippocampus. (jneurosci.org)
  • In mice, MDSCs express both CD11b and Gr1 markers and consist of two major subsets: granulocytic Ly6G + Ly6C lo and monocytic Ly6G - Ly6C hi cells ( 1 , 5 , 8 ). (jcancer.org)
  • There have been substantial interests in the role of IDO with respect to the mechanism of materno-fetal tolerance during pregnancy since Munn [ 7 ] showed that by exposing pregnant mice to 1-methyl- dl -tryptophan (1-MT), reduced IDO was able to induce a T-cell mediated rejection of allogeneic concepti, while syngeneic concepti remained intact. (mdpi.com)
  • The production by nectin-2 −/− mice of normal numbers of spermatozoa containing wild-type levels of DNA suggests that Nectin-2 functions at a late stage of germ cell development. (asm.org)
  • vcam-1 knock-in mice expressed normal levels of VCAM-1 but showed loss of VCAM-1 on endothelial and hematopoietic cells when interbred with a "TIE2Cre" transgene. (rupress.org)
  • Johns Hopkins researchers have discovered a cell signaling pathway in mice that triggers vision loss in patients with diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion - diseases characterized by the closure of blood vessels in the retina, leading to blindness. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The researchers then stopped overexpressing VEGF in these mice, and 17 days later, they found that the white blood cell clumps had broken up and blood flow returned to areas of the retina that had been cut off. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • When compared to the retinal vessels of mice not treated with the inhibitor, the VCAM-1 inhibitor-treated mice showed significantly less white blood cell clumps and better blood flow in the retinal blood vessels. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The primary inflammatory response involves the activation of dendritic cells in the adventitia of arteries by an unknown antigen, with production of chemokines that recruit CD4 + T helper cells. (medscape.com)
  • Prevents phagocyte ingestion of closely apposed viable cells by transmitting 'detachment' signals, and changes function on apoptosis, promoting tethering of dying cells to phagocytes (the encounter of a viable cell with a phagocyte via the homophilic interaction of PECAM1 on both cell surfaces leads to the viable cell's active repulsion from the phagocyte. (uniprot.org)
  • During apoptosis, the inside-out signaling of PECAM1 is somehow disabled so that the apoptotic cell does not actively reject the phagocyte anymore. (uniprot.org)
  • Honokiol induced apoptosis and autophagy in glioblastoma multiforme cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Honokiol and 5-FU exert a synergistic therapeutic effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma by inducing apoptosis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Although not normally expressed by T cells, VCAM-1 is reportedly expressed by thymocytes and T cells undergoing apoptosis ( 33 ). (rupress.org)
  • NCTD-induced apoptosis in glioblastoma cells 18 and oral cancer cells 15 is dependent on p53. (nature.com)
  • Targeting of FAK by anti-FAK antibody 11 , 12 , FAK dominant negative FAK-CD 9 , 13 , antisense oligonucleotides 14 or siRNA 15 - 17 results in cell rounding, detachment, and apoptosis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, we examined the mechanism of interaction between these two cell-cell adhesion systems at AJs by the use of α-catenin-deficient F9 cell lines and cadherin-deficient L cell lines stably expressing their various components. (rupress.org)
  • Nectin trans-interacted independently of E-cadherin, and the complex of E-cadherin and α- and β-catenins was recruited to nectin-based cell-cell adhesion sites through l-afadin without the trans-interaction of E-cadherin. (rupress.org)
  • PTPmu has been shown previously to interact with the E-cadherin complex. (jove.com)
  • A mutant form of PTPmu that is catalytically inactive was re-expressed, and it also restored adhesion to PTPmu and to E-cadherin. (jove.com)
  • The resulting three-dimensional maps reveal individual cadherin molecules forming discrete groups and interacting through their tips. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, these results remain controversial because some breast cancer cell lines that do not express N-cadherin still posses highly invasive characteristics ( 12 , 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • At this stage, E-cadherin molecules have only weak adhesion activity and do not trans -interact with each other. (biologists.org)