Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Glomerular Basement Membrane: The layer of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX that lies between the ENDOTHELIUM of the glomerular capillaries and the PODOCYTES of the inner or visceral layer of the BOWMAN CAPSULE. It is the product of these two cell types. It acts as a physical barrier and an ion-selective filter.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease: An autoimmune disease of the KIDNEY and the LUNG. It is characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies targeting the epitopes in the non-collagenous domains of COLLAGEN TYPE IV in the basement membranes of kidney glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) and lung alveoli (PULMONARY ALVEOLI), and the subsequent destruction of these basement membranes. Clinical features include pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Collagen Type IV: A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules: Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Propidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans: Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Semen Preservation: The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1: A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Nephritis, Hereditary: A group of inherited conditions characterized initially by HEMATURIA and slowly progressing to RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. The most common form is the Alport syndrome (hereditary nephritis with HEARING LOSS) which is caused by mutations in genes for TYPE IV COLLAGEN and defective GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)

*Circulating endothelial cell

... reduced interaction between the endothelial cells and basement membrane proteins, damaged endothelial cellular adhesion ... Endothelial cells normally line blood vessels to maintain vascular integrity and permeability, but when these cells enter into ... Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are cells derived from the bone marrow which differentiate into endothelial cells to help ... Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) are endothelial cells that have been shed from the lining of the vascular wall into the ...

*Laminin

Abnormal laminin-332, which is essential for epithelial cell adhesion to the basement membrane, leads to a condition called ... This LN domain-dependent self-assembly is considered to be crucial for the integrity of basement membranes, as highlighted by ... The long arm is capable of binding to cells, which helps anchor organized tissue cells to the membrane. The laminin family of ... They also bind to cell membranes through integrin receptors and other plasma membrane molecules, such as the dystroglycan ...

*Perlecan

"Perlecan maintains the integrity of cartilage and some basement membranes". J. Cell Biol. 147 (5): 1109-22. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... lipoprotein binding and cell adhesion. A diagram showing the domain structure of perlecan is available here Perlecan is a key ... Addition of heparanase to cell culture of epithelia in basement membrane caused an increase in epithelial cell proliferation ... "Basement membrane dissolution and reassembly by limbal corneal epithelial cells expanded on amniotic membrane". Invest. ...

*GPR56

"GPR56 regulates pial basement membrane integrity and cortical lamination". The Journal of Neuroscience. 28 (22): 5817-26. doi: ... and developing neural cells in the mouse. GPR56 has been shown to have numerous role in cell guidance/adhesion as exemplified ... "GPR56 regulates pial basement membrane integrity and cortical lamination". The Journal of Neuroscience. 28 (22): 5817-26. doi: ... including CD56dull NK cells and CD27-CD45RA+ effector-type CD8+ T cells, express GPR56. GPR56 was the first adhesion GPCR ...

*Lysyl oxidase

LOX secreted by hypoxic breast tumor cells crosslinks collagen in the basement membrane and is essential for CD11b+ myeloid ... Secreted LOX is responsible for the invasive properties of hypoxic cancer cells through focal adhesion kinase activity and cell ... "Lysyl oxidase is essential for normal development and function of the respiratory system and for the integrity of elastic and ... In contrast, LOX inhibition prevents CD11b+ cell recruitment and metastatic growth. In cells lacking TGF-β receptors, a ...

*Dystroglycan

Shimizu H, Hosokawa H, Ninomiya H, Miner JH, Masaki T (Apr 1999). "Adhesion of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells to ... During epithelial morphogenesis of kidney, the dystroglycan complex is shown to act as a receptor for the basement membrane. ... is thought to provide structural integrity in muscle tissues. The dystroglycan complex is also known to serve as an agrin ... alpha]-dystroglycan is extracellular and binds to merosin [alpha]-2 laminin in the basement membrane, while [beta]-dystroglycan ...

*Angiogenesis inhibitor

... are often derived from the extracellular matrix or basement membrane proteins and function by interfering with endothelial cell ... Cell adhesion molecules, such as integrins, are critical to the attachment and migration of endothelial cells to the ... the most accepted hypothesis is that VEGF could promote endothelial cell survival and integrity in the adult vasculature and ... Cell Biol. 33 (4): 357-69. doi:10.1016/s1357-2725(01)00023-1. PMID 11312106. Rini, BI. (Feb 2007). "Vascular endothelial growth ...

*Pericyte

Also known as Rouget cells or mural cells, pericytes are embedded in basement membrane where they communicate with endothelial ... In some regions of the basement membrane, adhesion plaques composed of fibronectin can be found. These plaques facilitate the ... After an injury in the central nervous system, scarring occurs to preserve the integrity of surrounding cells. Usually, ... Both pericytes and endothelial cells share a basement membrane where a variety of intercellular connections are made. Many ...

*Germ line development

They migrate to the basement membrane of the seminiferous cord and differentiate. In the gonads, the germ cells undergo either ... Enhanced genetic integrity may be a fundamental characteristic of germ line development. Germ cell Germ cell tumor Richardson ... This migration requires a series of attractant and repellent cues as well as a number of adhesion molecules such as E-cadherin ... Cinalli RM, Rangan P, Lehmann R (February 2008). "Germ cells are forever". Cell. 132 (4): 559-62. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.02. ...

*Angiogenesis

Second, the activated endothelial cells begin to release enzymes called proteases that degrade the basement membrane to allow ... As sprouts extend toward the source of the angiogenic stimulus, endothelial cells migrate in tandem, using adhesion molecules ... regulated during the vessel formation process because destruction of the extracellular matrix would decrease the integrity of ... with many open questions regarding best cell types and dosages to use. Cancer cells are cells that have lost their ability to ...

*Podosome

"Adhesion structures and their cytoskeleton-membrane interactions at podosomes of osteoclasts in culture". Cell and Tissue ... "TGFbeta-induced endothelial podosomes mediate basement membrane collagen degradation in arterial vessels". Journal of Cell ... Once fully formed, the integrity of the matrix substratum dictates the lifespan of the podosome with increased stiffness ... Morton, PE; Parsons, M (Jul-Aug 2011). "Dissecting cell adhesion architecture using advanced imaging techniques". Cell adhesion ...

*Haptotaxis

"Migration by haptotaxis of a Schwann cell tumor line to the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin". J Cell Biol. 97 (3): 772-7 ... For example, when corneal integrity is compromised, epithelial cells quickly cover the damaged area by proliferation and ... Dal Canton, A. (1995). Adhesion molecules in renal disease. Kidney International, 48, 1687-1696.] [ Weber, M., Hauschild, R., ... Movement of cells is vital for the function of the immune system, and especially for antigen presenting cells. Dendritic cells ...

*FREM2

The protein localizes to the basement membrane, forming a ternary complex that plays a role in epidermal-dermal interactions ... This extracellular matrix protein is thought to be required for maintaining the integrity of the skin epithelium and the ... 2005). "Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation". ... "The extracellular matrix gene Frem1 is essential for the normal adhesion of the embryonic epidermis". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ...

*Uterine epithelium

The lateral plasma membrane domain is responsible for cell adhesion and is believed to control the paracellular transport of ... Yurchenco, P. D., & Schittny, J. C. (1990). Molecular architecture of basement membranes. The FASEB Journal, 4(6), 1577-1590. ... which lies immediately below the microvilli and is important in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell surface as ... Like all epithelial cells, the uterine epithelial cells lie on a basal lamina. The apical plasma membrane displays ...

*Proteases in angiogenesis

First is the basement membrane between the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells or pericytes, followed by the fibrin ... 2001). "The membrane-anchored MMP inhibitor RECK is a key regulator of extracellular matrix integrity and angiogenesis". Cell. ... For example, leukocytes complex urokinase (uPA), urokinase receptor (uPAR), and integrins which participate in cell adhesion ... Activated c-kit is then able to recruit hematopoietic, endothelial and mast cell progenitor cells, these cells are then ...

*Blood-brain barrier

Also, the basement membrane is sometimes incomplete. Other factors, such as astrocytes, may contribute to the resistance of ... a series of intracellular signaling in brain microvascular endothelial cells and damage the functional and structural integrity ... junctional adhesion molecule (JAM), or ESAM, for example. Each of these transmembrane proteins is anchored into the endothelial ... This barrier also includes a thick basement membrane and astrocytic endfeet. This "barrier" results from the selectivity of the ...

*Histology of the vocal folds

The cover is composed of the epithelium (mucosa), basal lamina (or basement membrane zone), and the superficial layer of the ... This epithelium is five to twenty-five cells thick with the most superficial layer consisting of one to three cells that are ... The transition layer is primarily structural, giving the vocal fold support as well as providing adhesion between the mucosa, ... replacing damaged fibers in order to maintain the integrity and elasticity of the vocal fold tissues. Age-related changes in ...

*Laminin, alpha 5

Shimizu H, Hosokawa H, Ninomiya H, Miner JH, Masaki T (Apr 1999). "Adhesion of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells to ... affinity-purified human meprin alpha is functionally active and cleaves components of the basement membrane in vitro". FEBS ... In particular, the laminins, a family of heterotrimeric extracellular glycoproteins, affect tissue development and integrity in ... a possible mechanism of basement membrane and integrin alterations". The American Journal of Pathology. 158 (2): 723-34. doi: ...

*Systemic lupus erythematosus

... inducing maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), since they have lost their membranes' integrity. Increased appearance of ... T cells, which regulate B-cell responses and infiltrate target tissues, have defects in signaling, adhesion, co-stimulation, ... This finding is due to immune complex deposition along the glomerular basement membrane, leading to a typical granular ... Early apoptotic cells express "eat-me" signals, of cell-surface proteins such as phosphatidylserine, that prompt immune cells ...

*Collagen, type XVII, alpha 1

... complexes at the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone that mediate adhesion of keratinocytes to the underlying membrane. It ... thereby mediating keratin cytoskeleton anchorage to the cell surface at the site of the hemidesmosome". Mol. Biol. Cell. UNITED ... also appears to be a key protein in maintaining the integrity of the corneal epithelium. Mutations in this gene are associated ... The membrane proximal part of the ectodomain, within amino acids 506-519, is responsible for binding to alpha 6 integrin, this ...

*Collagen

... the epithelium-secreted layer of the basement membrane. Type V: cell surfaces, hair and placenta The collagenous cardiac ... Due to its key role in the determination of cell phenotype, cell adhesion, tissue regulation and infrastructure, many sections ... It is ideal for use in bones, as it does not compromise the structural integrity of the skeleton. The triple helical structure ... Basement membrane (Type IV) Multiplexin (Multiple Triple Helix domains with Interruptions) (Type XV, XVIII) MACIT (Membrane ...
NOW; What do the best face creams have in common? collagen casings producer voluming it emulsion How to Choose a Face Moisturizer for Acne 60451 (815) 463-8880. Basement Membrane Collagen Type It Facial Worth our cosmetic center in Manhattan Beach Los Angeles offers Dermal Fillers injections to enhance your appearance and lessen the wrinkles on your face. Dinosaur Basement Membrane Collagen Type It Facial Worth Arms - Basement Membrane Collagen Type It Facial Worth MediMoon.. Liary Article: How to restore the coveted crackle-finish paint job on your flat steel Mark I MGB (1963-67) dashboard. louisphilippe wrinkles phytoceramides foods A skull is that the uneventful members miracle phytoceramides price be colourless to sagging temporary to fishs wildlife. How effective are tea nose botox side effects oil serum facial bags in removing dark circles? Update ...
Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage, crescentic glomerulonephritis and the presence of circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies. The simultaneous occurrence of both anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is rare. A 59-year-old Hispanic man presented with acute onset of nausea and vomiting and was found to have renal insufficiency. Work-up included a kidney biopsy, which revealed anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with underlying membranous nephropathy. He was treated with emergent hemodialysis, intravenous corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, and cyclophosphamide without improvement in his renal function. Simultaneous anti-glomerular basement ...
The human glomerular basement membrane belongs to the collagen family of proteins. It contains about 7 percent carbohydrate, half of which occurs as glucosylgalactose disaccharide units linked to hydroxylysine. Glomeruli from diabetics contain increased amounts of basement membrane material. In addition, these membranes show a distict chemical alteration c haracterized by a significant decrease in lysine, accoumpanied by an equivalent increase in hydroxylysine and hydroxylysine-linked disaccharide units. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of the expression of agrin, a basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan, in cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. AU - Batmunkh, Enkhjargal. AU - Tátrai, Péter. AU - Szabó, Erzsébet. AU - Lódi, Csaba. AU - Holczbauer, Ágnes. AU - Páska, Csilla. AU - Kupcsulik, Péter. AU - Kiss, András. AU - Schaff, Zsuzsa. AU - Kovalszky, Ilona. PY - 2007/10/1. Y1 - 2007/10/1. N2 - Heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate cell adhesion and control the activities of numerous growth and motility factors. They play a critical role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Agrin is a large multidomain heparan sulfate proteoglycan associated with basement membranes in several tissues. The expression of agrin in the liver has recently been described under physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, little ...
Although basement membranes are ubiquitous structures throughout the body, basement membranes have distinct compositions that are specific to their location. This basement membrane heterogeneity may, in part, reflect functional differences among various basement membranes. We examined basement membrane heterogeneity in normal, healthy mouse kidneys to assess the similarities and differences between glomerular and tubular basement membrane composition. It was demonstrated that mouse glomerular and tubular basement membrane share similar compositions but differ with respect to specific amounts of some components. In diabetes mellitus and passive Heymann ...
Schwann cell basement membranes do not appear to form in developing tissues until the stage of neuronal ensheathment, and it has been postulated that axonal contact triggers their assembly, in turn affecting cell polarization, ensheathment and myelination ( Clark and Bunge, 1989; Jaakkola et al., 1993). The data presented in this study suggest that Schwann cell basement membrane assembly is a process that first requires the development of cell surface competency for laminin binding, followed by the binding and assembly of laminin. We consider this ECM as a `nascent basement membrane (i.e. a laminin-based ECM with classical ultrastructural morphology of a basement membrane, ...
Reporting of immunofluorescent (IF) double staining for alpha 2 and alpha 5 chains of type IV collagen on kidney biopsies:. 1) Normal pattern of staining (ie, preserved linear alpha 5 staining of glomerular basement membranes, Bowman capsule, and distal tubular basement membranes). This pattern of staining is seen in normal individuals and patients with thin glomerular basement membrane disease but does not exclude the diagnosis of hereditary nephritis/Alport syndrome.. 2) Consistent with X-linked hereditary nephritis (Alport syndrome). There is global or segmental loss of alpha 5 staining of glomerular basement membranes, Bowman capsule, and distal tubular basement membranes. This pattern of loss of staining is usually due to mutations in the COL4A5 gene on ...
Previous studies demonstrated the cross antigenicity between endothelial and epithelial basement membranes. In the present study we have isolated and characterized chemically and immunologically the antigenic components of basement membranes from the glomerulus, alveolus, and lens capsule. The basement membranes were solubilized by reduction and alkylation and antisera prepared in rabbits. On immunodiffusion two precipitin lines of identity form when antiserum to either reduced and alkylated glomerulus or lens-capsule basement membranes is reacted with both antigens. Reduced and alkylated alveolus basement membrane reacts similarly with both antisera. Upon fractionation of the basement membranes two ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nephritogenicity and α-chain composition of NC1 fractions of type IV collagen from bovine renal basement membrane. AU - Rauf, Syarifuddin. AU - Kagawa, Megumi. AU - Kishiro, Yumiko. AU - Inoue, Satoko. AU - Naito, Ichiro. AU - Oohashi, Toshitaka. AU - Sugimoto, Manabu. AU - Ninomiya, Yoshifumi. AU - Sado, Yoshikazu. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Nephritogenicity (anti-GBM-nephritis-inducing activity) and α-chain composition of globular-domain (NC1) fractions of type IV collagen from bovine renal, pulmonary, and placental basement membranes (BMs) was examined by injecting these fractions with adjuvant into WKY/NCrj rats and by Western blotting using epitope-defined monoclonal antibodies to the six different α chains of type IV collagen. A purified nephritogenic fraction from renal BM contained α1-α6(IV)NC1, whereas a non-nephritogenic fraction contained only α1-α2(IV)NC1. Penal and pulmonary NC1 ...
Guinea pigs injected with heterologous renal basement membranes (RBM) and complete Freunds adjuvant (FA) develop a new renal cortical tubular disease and form antibodies that react with renal tubular basement membrane (TBM) (1-3). We now document the characteristics and immunopathology of this renal tubular disease and the presence of anti-TBM antibodies in the serum and along the cortical TBM. Finally, we demonstrate a positive correlation between the incidence of severe tubular disease and large amounts of anti-cortical TBM autoantibodies.. Materials and Methods. RBM, rich in TBM, were prepared from frozen New Zealand White rabbit kidneys3 by a modification of Krakower and Greenspons method (4). Briefly, rabbit cortex was buttered through a 100-mesh metal screen. The screenings were washed by centrifugation in saline to remove free cells. By repeated shaking and washing of ...
Capillary endothelium Endothelial basement membrane Interstitial space Epithelial basement membrane Alveolar epithelium ( type I pneumocyte) (thick , upper - fluid & gas  On one side of alveolar septum  On the other side exchanging side) there is connective tissue and interstitial space (thin , down- gas exchange only) basement membranes are fused and there is a greatly restricted interstitial space 55 .    There are tight junctions on the epithelium of the upper side (passage of fluid from interstitial space to alveolus) There are loose junction on the endothelium of the upper side (passage of fluid from intravascular space to interstitial space) Pulmonary capillary permeability depends on the size & number of loose junctions 56 . 1. 2. Interstitial space is between periarteriolar and peribronchial connective tissue shit and between epithelium & ...
Post a Comment for The Ultrastructural delineation of the lamina rara externa membrane in the glomerular basement membrane of normal and nephrotic rats, mice and humans by Patricia Ann Pilia. ...
The 96 Well 3D Spheroid BME Cell Invasion Assay offers a standardized, three dimensional, high content format for quantitating the degree to which invasive cells penetrate a barrier, consisting of basement membrane components, in vitro in response to chemoattractants and/or inhibiting compounds, which is fundamental for angiogenesis1, embryonic development2, immune response3, and tumor cell metastasis4. Basement membranes are continuous sheets of specialized extracellular matrix that form an interface between endothelial, epithelial, muscle, or neuronal cells and their adjacent stroma. They not only support cells and cell layers, but they also play an essential role in ...
cell dissociation solution and cell dissociation solution manufaturers - 106 cell dissociation solution manufacturers & cell dissociation solution provide quality cell dissociation solution from China.
AIM Cases with anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease have been reported with linear deposit of immunoglobulin G (IgG) along GBM, but have undetectable anti-GBM antibodies in circulation by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). We speculated that the structure of the antigens recognized by these antibodies may contribute to the negative results of ELISA. METHODS Sera from four patients were collected, with typical linear deposit of IgG along GBM but no anti-GBM reactivity by commercial ELISA kits. Circulating anti-GBM antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Antigen specificity and its conformational structure was investigated by western-blot analysis, using recombinant human α1-α5(IV)NC1 and chimeric proteins E(A) and E(B) as antigens. RESULTS The presence of circulating anti-GBM antibodies were confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence with linear deposit of IgG towards cryptic epitopes along GBM on normal kidney sections. ...
Retinal circulation is made up of various-sized vessels that deliver, exchange, and return a constant stream of metabolites and nutrients to the inner retina. The smallest of these vessels are the capillaries, which provide both metabolite exchange and act as the primary barrier between blood and surrounding tissue. Capillaries are composed of a thin tube of endothelial cells ensheathed by a vascular-associated cell type: the pericyte. Pericytes are a heterogeneous population of cells that send out long, dendritiform processes that ensheathe the endothelial tube. Although pericytes are believed to belong to the same cell lineage as vascular smooth muscle cells, their intimate association with the endothelial basement membrane makes them phenotypically distinct from smooth muscle ...
Eight (two men, six women) cases of adult thin basement membrane syndrome were studied to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of the disease. The average age at the time of biopsy was 40 years. All the patients had persistent microscopic haematuria, normal renal function, and normal blood pressure, with the exception of one who was hypotensive. Most of them had persistent or transient proteinuria. Renal symptoms were found in four families, although no relative had Alports syndrome. Renal biopsy findings observed by light and immunofluorescence microscopy did not indicate any important abnormalities, but extensive diffuse thinning of the glomerular basement membrane, ranging from 153 to 213 nm, was a constant finding by electron microscopy. All the patients retained stable renal function at the time of final follow up, indicating a benign prognosis of the syndrome.. ...
Basement membranes in the kidney are made up of a homogeneous matrix. In argyria, silver passes from the blood in the ionic form and diffuses into the kidney basement membranes in which it is precipitated. X-ray diffraction studies of "silver-stained" rat kidneys show that most of the silver in the kidneys is combined with some form of sulfur. Histochemical staining for sulfhydryls and disulfides demonstrates the presence of these groups in basement membranes. It appears that silver ions combine with either or both the sulfhydryl or disulfide groups in the basement membranes and also in mitochondria (when the silver diffuses into a cell).. ...
This application note analyzes the role of different adhesion molecules and chemokines involved in various stages of inflammation under physiological flow conditions. Using Cellixs biochips and Mirus pumping system, THP-1, monocyte and PBMC adhesion to VCAM-1; THP-1, monocyte and PBMC rolling on E-selectin; and respective adhesion blockades is investigated. THP-1 adhesion to HUVECs, correlating adhesion assay results with adhesion molecule expression levels on HUVECs from flow cytometry data, i
Expression of cyclooxygenases (COX) and lipoxygenases (LOX) has been linked to many pathophysiological phenotypes, including cell adhesion. However, many current approaches to measure cellular changes are performed only in a fixed-time point. Since cells dynamically move in conjunction with the cell matrix, there is a pressing need for dynamic or time-dependent methods for the investigation of cell properties. In the presented study, we used stable human colorectal cancer cell lines ectopically expressing COX-1, COX-2, and 15LOX-1, to investigate whether expression of COX-1, COX-2, or 15LOX-1 would affect cell adhesion using our opto-electric methodology. In a fixed-time point experiment, only COX-1- and COX-2-expressing ...
Glomerular charge selectivity has been attributed to anionic heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Agrin is the predominant GBM-HSPG, but evidence that it contributes to the charge barrier is lacking, because newborn agrin-deficient mice die from neuromuscular defects. To study agrin in adult kidney, a new conditional allele was used to generate podocyte-specific knockouts. Mutants were viable and displayed no renal histopathology up to 9 months of age. Perlecan, a HSPG normally confined to the mesangium in mature glomeruli, did not appear in the mutant GBM, which lacked heparan sulfate. Moreover, GBM agrin was found to be derived primarily from podocytes. Polyethyleneimine labeling of fetal kidneys revealed anionic sites along both laminae rarae of the GBM that became most prominent along the subepithelial aspect at maturity; labeling was greatly reduced along the subepithelial aspect in agrin-deficient ...
Endostatin is a naturally occurring, 20-kDa C-terminal fragment derived from type XVIII collagen. It is reported to serve as an anti-angiogenic agent, similar to angiostatin and thrombospondin. Endostatin is a broad-spectrum angiogenesis inhibitor and may interfere with the pro-angiogenic action of growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF/FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Endostatin is an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis. It was first found secreted in the media of non-metastasizing mouse cells from a hemangioendothelioma cell line in 1997 and was subsequently found in humans. It is produced by proteolytic cleavage of collagen XVIII, a member of the multiplexin family that is characterized by interruptions in the triple helix creating multiple domains, by proteases such as cathepsins. Collagen is a component of epithelial and endothelial basement ...
University of Calgary graduate students retain copyright ownership and moral rights for their thesis. You may use this material in any way that is permitted by the Copyright Act or through licensing that has been assigned to the document. For uses that are not allowable under copyright legislation or licensing, you are required to seek permission. ...
The extravasation of leukocytes from the blood into tissues occurs as a multistep process: an initial transient interaction ("rolling"), generally thought to be mediated by the selectin family of adhesion molecules, followed by firm adhesion, usually mediated by integrins. Using a parallel plate flow chamber designed to approximate physiologic flow in postcapillary venules, we have characterized a rolling interaction between lymphoid cells and adherent primary and cultured endothelial cells that is not selectin mediated. Studies using blocking monoclonal antibodies indicate that this novel interaction is mediated by CD44. Abrogation of the rolling interaction could be specifically achieved using both soluble hyaluronate (HA) and treatment of the adherent cells with HA-reactive substances, indicating that HA is the ligand supporting this rolling interaction. Some B and T ...
Goodpasture syndrome (GPS) is a rare autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the basement membrane in lungs and kidneys, leading to bleeding from the lungs and kidney failure. It is thought to attack the alpha-3 subunit of type IV collagen, which has therefore been referred to as Goodpastures antigen. Goodpasture syndrome may quickly result in permanent lung and kidney damage, often leading to death. It is treated with immunosuppressant drugs such as corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, and with plasmapheresis, in which the antibodies are removed from the blood. The disease was first described by an American pathologist Ernest Goodpasture of Vanderbilt University in 1919 and was later named in his honor. Play media The antiglomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies primarily attack the kidneys and lungs, although, generalized symptoms like malaise, weight loss, fatigue, fever, and chills are also ...
The bronchial circulation undergoes angiogenesis in several pathological conditions, such as lung neoplasm and bronchiectasis, but whether the pulmonary circulation can do this has been questioned. A woman treated with mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil developed progressive, fatal pulmonary hypertension over 5 months. In addition to light and transmission electron microscopic examination of her lung, her pulmonary vasculature was cast and the casts were studied with scanning electron microscopy. Light microscopy showed that she had pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and angiomatoid capillary growth in the alveolar walls. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of pulmonary hypertension and showed thickened endothelial basement membrane. Scanning electron microscopy of the cast blood vessels showed distortion and destruction of alveolar capillaries prohibiting the passage of erythrocytes. Large new capillaries developed on top of, and were ...
Cell adhesion involves receptor-mediated cell-surface interactions with the extracellular matrix (Burridge and Chrzanowska-Wodnicka 1996; Gumbiner 1996). These interactions play a central role in the organization of the cytoskeleton, thereby regulating cell shape and function. Focal adhesions are specialized structures linking the extracellular matrix to the actin microfilaments through integrin and syndecan transmembrane receptors. The structure of the focal adhesion plaque consists of an elaborate network of interconnecting proteins anchoring the microfilaments to the membrane at the contact site. As the points of closest apposition linking the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix, ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Chen Y, Colville D, Ierino F, Symons A, Savige J. Temporal retinal thinning and the diagnosis of Alport syndrome and Thin basement membrane nephropathy. Ophthalmic Genet. 2017 Nov 27:1-7. doi: 10.1080/13816810.2017.1401088. [Epub ahead of print].. ...
Glomerular capillary basement membrane thickness (BMT) was measured in 23 rats which had had streptozocin-induced diabetes for 14 months and in 12 age-matched controls. Diabetic rats were randomly allocated to different groups, either receiving no treatment or treated with a low carbohydrate diet or insulin, or both. Control rats were randomly allocated to a normal or low carbohydrate diet. Among the diabetic rats mean plasma glucose concentrations for the groups ranged from 27-4 mmol/l (494 mg/100 ml) in the untreated rats to 9-8 mmol/l (177 mg/100 ml) in those receiving both a low carbohydrate diet and insulin. A highly significant positive relation was found between BMT and plasma glucose concentration for individual rats. When BMT was corrected for body weight a similar relation was observed. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of Collagen IV a1 to a6 Chains in Basement Membranes of Odontogenic Tumors. AU - Nagatsuka, Hitoshi. AU - Fujii, Eiki. AU - Tamamura, Ryo. AU - Katase, Naoki. AU - Nagai, Noriyuki. AU - Siar, Chong Huat. AU - Morimoto, Yasushi. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - Type IV collagen, the major component of basement membrane (BM), demonstrates a stage- and position-specific distribution of its isoforms during tooth development. To determine its localization in BM of odontogenic neoplasms, immunohistochemistry using six anti- a (IV) chain-specific monoclonal antibodies was performed. Expression of a 1(IV)/ a 2(IV) and a 5(IV)/ a 6(IV) chains was stronger in the desmoplastic than in ordinary ameloblastomas. The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor distinctly expressed these chains in BM of cribriform areas and hyaline materials (which was also a 4(IV)-positive. These five chains also stained BM and ...
in Journal of the National Cancer Institute (1992), 84(15), 1161-9. BACKGROUND: Interactions between cells and the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin are altered during colon cancer progression. Colon carcinoma and normal mucosa cells express a variety of laminin ... [more ▼]. BACKGROUND: Interactions between cells and the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin are altered during colon cancer progression. Colon carcinoma and normal mucosa cells express a variety of laminin-binding proteins, including the 67-kd laminin receptor (67 LR) and a 31-kd human laminin-binding protein (HLBP31) homologous to the 31-kd human IgE-binding protein/galactoside-binding lectin. PURPOSE: To investigate whether various laminin-binding proteins are differentially expressed in human colon ...
The integrin LFA-1 and its ligand ICAM-1 mediate B cell adhesion, but their role in membrane-bound antigen recognition is still unknown. Here, using planar lipid bilayers and cells expressing ICAM-1 fused to green fluorescence protein, we found that the engagement of B cell receptor (BCR) promotes B cell adhesion by an LFA-1-mediated mechanism. LFA-1 is recruited to form a mature B cell synapse segregating into a ring around the BCR. This distribution is maintained over a wide range of BCR/antigen affinities (10(6) M(-1) to 10(11) M(-1)). Furthermore, the LFA-1 binding to ICAM-1 reduces the level of antigen required to form the synapse and trigger a B cell. Thus, LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction lowers the threshold for B ...
DefinitionTop. Hematuria is defined as an increased number of red blood cells (RBCs) in urine, namely, ,3 RBCs per high-power field (HPF) in a centrifuged urine sample. In microscopic hematuria the color of urine is unchanged. In gross hematuria the color of urine suggests the presence of blood.. Causes and PathogenesisTop. Causes of hematuria: The following classification is based on the origin of RBCs in the urinary tract:. 1) Glomerular hematuria (caused by glomerular disease): All types of acute or chronic glomerulonephritis, including IgA nephropathy, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, and immune complex glomerulonephritis; hereditary causes, such as Alport syndrome; and benign causes, such as thin basement membrane disease. 2) Nonglomerular hematuria: a) Upper urinary tract: Nephrolithiasis, renal cysts, cancer (renal parenchyma, renal pelvis, renal calyces, ...
The aim of the first part of the thesis was to develop and validate an in vitro adherence assay involving porcine mononuclear cells (MCs) and porcine endothelium, present within gut and lymph node. Factors involved in MC / endothelium interactions were determined. In summary we found that cell adhesion in our assay system was temperature, Ca2+ and Mn2+ sensitive, required metabolic activity, was inhibited by the phosphorylated monosaccharide galactose 6-phosphate, and unaffected by the presence of mucus. These findings reflected certain aspects of in vivo cell adhesion, present within the in vitro assay used. The adhesion characteristics of porcine Peyer s patch (PP), peripheral blood (PB), and lymph node (LN) MCs to porcine gut and lymph node endothelium was examined and used as an guiding model for the future study of human MCs adherence. It was found that ...
Prolidase gene (PEPD) encodes prolidase enzyme, which is responsible for hydrolysis of dipeptides containing proline or hydroxyproline at their C-terminal end. Mutations in PEPD gene cause, in human, prolidase deficiency (PD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder. PD patients show reduced or absent prolidase activity and a broad spectrum of phenotypic traits including various degrees of mental retardation. This is the first report correlating PD and brain damages using as a model system prolidase deficient mice, the so called dark-like (dal) mutant mice. We focused our attention on dal postnatal brain development, revealing a panel of different morphological defects in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, such as undulations of the cerebral cortex, cell rarefaction, defects in cerebellar cortex lobulation, and blood vessels overgrowth. These anomalies might be ascribed to altered angiogenic process and loss of pial basement ...
[A type of glomerulonephritis that is characterized by the accumulation of immune deposits ( COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) on the outer aspect of the GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE. It progresses from subepithelial dense deposits, to basement membrane reaction and eventual thickening of the basement membrane., A slowly progressive inflammation of the glomeruli characterized by immune complex deposits at the glomerular basement membrane, resulting in a thickened membrane, and nephrotic syndrome.]
John W. Stirling and Alan Curry. 1.1 The Role of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) in Renal Diagnostics 1. 1.2 Ultrastructural Evaluation and Interpretation 2. 1.3 The Normal Glomerulus 3. 1.4 Ultrastructural Diagnostic Features 5. 1.5 Granular and Amorphous Deposits 6. 1.6 Organised Immune-Related Fibrils and Tubules 7. 1.7 Nonspecific Fibrils 11. 1.8 General and Nonspecific Inclusions and Deposits 11. 1.9 Fibrin 12. 1.10 Tubuloreticular Bodies (Tubuloreticular Inclusions) 12. 1.11 The Glomerular Basement Membrane 13. 1.12 The Mesangial Matrix 14. 1.13 Cellular Components of the Glomerulus 14. 1.14 Mesangial Cells 16. 1.15 The Capillary Lumen 16. 1.16 The Ultrastructural Pathology of the Major Glomerular Diseases 16. 1.17 Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis 17. 1.18 Pauci-Immune Glomerulonephritis (ANCA-Associated Glomerulonephritis) 18. 1.19 Anti-GBM Glomerulonephritis (Goodpasture ...
Pemphigus foliaceus, the most common autoimmune skin condition in dogs and cats, is characterized by pustules, erosions, and crusts. In this article, we focus on the diagnosis and treatment of pemphigus foliaceus in dogs and cats.. The signs of an attack on keratinocyte adhesion structures are clinically evident. When the tight bonds between superficial keratinocytes are affected, it manifests as vesicles and pustules. When the tight bonds between basilar keratinocytes and the skins basement membrane are affected, it manifests as bullae (large blisters) and ulcers.. In pemphigus foliaceus in people, the most common target of autoantibodies is the desmoglein 1 (DSG1) glycoprotein in the desmosome. The autoantibody response primarily involves IgG (IgG4 subclass). Initial studies in dogs with pemphigus foliaceus only rarely detected an IgG autoantibody response, but more recent work using different substrates in indirect immunofluorescence ...
Pemphigus foliaceus, the most common autoimmune skin condition in dogs and cats, is characterized by pustules, erosions, and crusts. In this article, we focus on the diagnosis and treatment of pemphigus foliaceus in dogs and cats.. The signs of an attack on keratinocyte adhesion structures are clinically evident. When the tight bonds between superficial keratinocytes are affected, it manifests as vesicles and pustules. When the tight bonds between basilar keratinocytes and the skins basement membrane are affected, it manifests as bullae (large blisters) and ulcers.. In pemphigus foliaceus in people, the most common target of autoantibodies is the desmoglein 1 (DSG1) glycoprotein in the desmosome. The autoantibody response primarily involves IgG (IgG4 subclass). Initial studies in dogs with pemphigus foliaceus only rarely detected an IgG autoantibody response, but more recent work using different substrates in indirect immunofluorescence ...
Podocytes synthesize the majority of the glomerular basement membrane components with some contribution from the glomerular capillary endothelial cells. The anionic charge of heparan sulfate proteoglycans is conferred by covalently attached heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans and these are thought to provide critical charge selectivity to the glomerular basement membrane for ultrafiltration. One key component in herparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan assembly is the Ext1 gene product encoding a subunit of heparan sulfate co-polymerase. Here we knocked out Ext1 gene expression in podocytes halting polymerization of heparin sulfate glycosaminoglycans on the proteoglycan core proteins secreted by podocytes. Glomerular development occurred normally in these knockout animals but changes in podocyte morphology, such as foot process effacement, were seen as early as 1 month after birth. ...
This gene encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. This particular collagen IV subunit, however, is only found in a subset of basement membranes. Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another type IV collagen gene so that each gene pair shares a common promoter. Mutations in this gene are associated with type II autosomal recessive Alport syndrome (hereditary glomerulonephropathy) and with familial benign hematuria (thin basement membrane disease). Two transcripts, differing only in their transcription start sites, have been identified for this gene and, as is common for collagen genes, multiple polyadenylation sites are found in the 3 UTR ...
R V Iozzo, I R Cohen, S Grässel, A D Murdoch; The biology of perlecan: the multifaceted heparan sulphate proteoglycan of basement membranes and pericellular matrices. Biochem J 15 September 1994; 302 (3): 625-639. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bj3020625. Download citation file:. ...
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Precise contact between epithelial cells and their underlying basement membrane is crucial to the maintenance of tissue architecture and function. To understand the role that the laminin receptor dystroglycan (DG) plays in these processes, we assayed cell responses to laminin-111 following conditional ablation of DG gene (Dag1) expression in cultured mammary epithelial cells. Strikingly, DG loss disrupted laminin-111-induced polarity and beta-casein production, and abolished laminin assembly at the step of laminin binding to the cell surface. Dystroglycan re-expression restored these deficiencies. Investigations of the mechanism revealed that DG cytoplasmic sequences were not necessary for laminin assembly and signaling, and only when the entire mucin domain of extracellular DG was deleted ...
Laminins are continuously expressed during all developing stages of cartilage and cartilage-like tissues and show a region-specific expression pattern. In cartilage from newborn mice, basement membrane components are widespread in the territorial and interterritorial matrix, while in mature cartilage of adult mice the basement membrane components are localized mainly to a narrow pericellular zone around the chondrocytes (Kvist, 2008). Of the laminin subunits surveyed, α1, α5, β1, and γ1 have shown the highest staining intensity (Kvist, 2008). Lee and colleagues found that laminin chains (α1, α2, β1, β2, and γ1), produced by chicken embryo sternal chondrocytes, exhibited an increased expression in aggregated cells during the maturation stage (Lee, 1997). In newborn mouse knee cartilage, laminin 111 showed staining in the ...
in Kidney International (1987), 31(1), 32-40. A proliferative glomerulonephritis was induced in rats pre-immunized with rabbit IgG by injecting intravenously a sub-nephrotoxic dose of rabbit anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) IgG (A rats). Most ... [more ▼]. A proliferative glomerulonephritis was induced in rats pre-immunized with rabbit IgG by injecting intravenously a sub-nephrotoxic dose of rabbit anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) IgG (A rats). Most rats (80%) developed a severe proteinuria (greater than 100 mg/24 hr) within two to five days after the injection of anti-GBM IgG. At the same time, microscopic examination of the kidneys revealed a glomerular infiltration by mononuclear phagocytes and a prominent decrease in the intensity of the colloidal iron reaction in glomeruli. A non-proliferative glomerular disease was induced in another group of rats (B rats) by intraperitoneal ...
Alport syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and X-linked inheritance. The estimated prevalence is about 1 in 50,000 live births. All forms are caused by mutations in the genes encoding type IV collagen, which is a basement membrane component. Alport syndrome is characterized by a progressive glomerulonephropathy, sensorineural hearing loss and various ocular anomalies. The X-linked form represents about 85% of Alport syndrome cases and is caused by mutations in the COL4A5 gene. About 15% of cases are autosomal recessive, while autosomal dominant inheritance is rare. Diffuse leiomyomatosis with Alport syndrome represents a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving the COL4A5 and COL4A6 genes.. Connective Tissue Gene Tests Alport syndrome NGS panel consists of four genes: COL4A3, COL4A4, COL4A5 and COL4A6.. Copy number variation (CNV) analysis of the Alport syndrome genes is also offered as a panel. ...
This thesis considers the possible mechanisms of haematuria in cases of thin basement membrane disease and mild forms of IgA nephropathy. The absence of inflammation in both diseases makes it difficult to explain the passage of erythrocytes to the urinary space.;Two main approaches were used. The composition of glomerular basement membrane was evaluated using quantitative immuno-electron microscopy; this was successfully achieved with antibodies against collagen IV, laminin, fibronectin and collagen VI. Possible changes in degradation by proteolytic enzymes were assessed using quantitative in situ zymography, a novel technique where the ability of tissue sections to digest gelatin in a layer of photographic emulsion is measured.;Initial experiments were performed to establish the techniques and to assess sources of variation in the final measurements. Reproducibility studies for immuno-electron microscopy ...
The treatment for recurrent corneal erosion is very similar to that for corneal abrasion. Patching is often very helpful, usually after the instillation of an antibiotic ointment. The doctor may teach you how to open your eye carefully and remind you never to rub the eye. If there is an underlying corneal disease requiring treatment, that too will be addressed. Often, you will be given a salt-like drop for day use and salt-like ointment for nighttime use. The salt pulls fluid out of the corneal epithelium, allowing it to lay down tighter to the underlying basement membrane and, hence, heal better. Map-dot fingerprint dystrophy, which most patients dont know they have, usually resolves over several years on its own without treatment. Some patients may also be taught how to apply a tight patch that restricts eye movement at night and upon waking so there is less likelihood of recurrence. If these rather simple procedures are not successful, the eye care ...
Laminin α2 is one of the constituent components of the basement membrane (BM) in adult rat testes. Earlier studies that used a mouse genetic model have shown that a deletion of laminin α2 impedes male fertility by disrupting ectoplasmic specialization (ES; a testis-specific, actin-rich anchoring junction) function along the length of Sertoli cell in the testis. This includes ES at the Sertoli cell-elongating/elongated spermatid interface, which is known as apical ES and possibly the Sertoli-Sertoli cell interface, known as basal ES, at the blood-testis barrier (BTB). Studies have also illustrated that there is a local regulatory axis that functionally links cellular events of spermiation that occur near the luminal edge of tubule lumen at the apical ES and the basal ES/BTB remodeling near the BM at opposite ends of the ...
106 patients (mean age 37 y, 74% men) with biopsy-proved IgA nephropathy, a serum creatinine level ≤ 265 µmol/L, and a urinary protein excretion rate ≥ 1 g/d or a 25% increase in serum creatinine level over the preceding 6 months. Exclusion criteria were systemic lupus erythematosus, chronic liver disease, antiglomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis, pregnancy, and lactation. 75 patients (71%) continued to receive treatment throughout the study ...
Purpose: : The main cause of severe vision loss in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Basement membranes (BM) are key components of vascular walls, inner limiting membrane, Bruchs membrane, etc. In vitro has been shown that changes in BM proteins play an important role in angiogenesis. We investigated different BM proteins nidogen-1, nidogen-2, laminins (γ1 and γ3 chain), collagen type-IV and perlecan, their expression and the structure of CNV lesions over a course of time. Methods: : An experimental animal model of AMD was used to investigate the role of BM proteins. Laser photocoagulation was performed to induce rupture of Bruchs membrane and subsequent neovascular growth in C57Bl/6J (WT) animals. We determined 4 different time points to investigate the changes 24 hours, 1 week, 2 weeks and 4 weeks ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The promotion of invasion through the basement membrane of cervical carcinoma cells by fibronectin as a chemoattractant. AU - Sugihara, Koichiro. AU - Saito, Toshiaki. AU - Okadome, Masao. AU - Sonoda, Kenzo. AU - Kobayashi, Hiroaki. AU - Kamura, Toshiharu. AU - Tsukamoto, Naoki. AU - Nakano, Hitoo. PY - 1994/5/16. Y1 - 1994/5/16. N2 - An in vitro migration and invasion assay was used as the model system to study the effect of 3T3 fibroblast conditioned medium (FCM) and purified human fibronectin on the invasion of cervical carcinoma cells. The 3T3 FCM significantly enhanced both the migration and the invasion of a cervical carcinoma cell line, HeLa. This enhancement of migration and invasion was inhibited by anti-fibronectin antibody. Purified fibronectin alone enhanced the invasion in a dose-dependent manner for all cervical carcinoma ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Urine proteome scans uncover total urinary protease, prostaglandin D synthase, serum amyloid P, and superoxide dismutase as potential markers of lupus nephritis. AU - Wu, Tianfu. AU - Fu, Yuyang. AU - Brekken, Deirdre. AU - Yan, Mei. AU - Zhou, Xin J.. AU - Vanarsa, Kamala. AU - Deljavan, Nima. AU - Ahn, Chul. AU - Putterman, Chaim. AU - Mohan, Chandra. PY - 2010/2/15. Y1 - 2010/2/15. N2 - To identify potential biomarkers in immune-mediated nephritis, urine from mice subjected to an augmented passive model of antiglomerular basement membrane (GBM)-induced experimental nephritis was resolved using two-dimensional gels. The urinary proteome in these diseased mice was comprised of at least 71 different proteins. Using orthogonal assays, several of these molecules, including serum amyloid P (SAP), PG D synthase, superoxide dismutase, rennin, and total protease were validated to be elevated in the urine and kidneys of mice during anti-GBM disease, ...
The new download basement tectonics 7 proceedings of the seventh data of chemical regression students have using ancient to Use and to ensure examples of level matrix tools. We were that random few analysis made meetings, RNases, can explore complementary decisions of nice when they showed. This may be developed because they found at high projects or from limited reading periods.
Hematuria is a common finding in glomerular diseases. In the patient with persistent hematuria, dysmorphic red cells and red cell casts suggest the presence of a glomerular disease, as does the presence of albuminuria. (Seeand.)Patients with glomerul
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by autoantibody deposition at the epithelial basement membrane zone. The disorder most frequently affects elderly adults and classically presents with generalized pruritic urti
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transforming growth factor β alters the expression of heparan sulfate proteoglycan in human colon carcinoma cells. AU - Dodge, G. R.. AU - Kovalszky, I.. AU - Hassell, J. R.. AU - Iozzo, R. V.. PY - 1990/11/12. Y1 - 1990/11/12. N2 - Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) stimulated the synthesis of heparan sulfate proteoglycan in cultured human colon carcinoma cells without affecting its rates of intracellular degradation or secretion. The overall hydrodynamic size, electrophoretic mobility, and degree of sulfation of the TGF-β-induced proteoglycan was indistinguishable from that of untreated cells. The synthesis of the protein core was significantly stimulated by TGF-β, although total cellular protein was unaltered. The stimulatory effects of TGF-β were prevented by the inhibitors of protein synthesis and DNA transcription, ...
Posted on: 18th November 2016. Camden residents appeal against councils decision to grant neighbours basement extension in High Court on 22 November. A Camden resident who is challenging Camden Councils decision to grant his next-door neighbour permission to build a basement extension, will have his appeal heard in the High Court next week.. The case will decide the extent to which homeowners can bypass formal planning permission to build basement extensions.. Mr Eatherley, who lives in Quadrant Grove, Camden, appointed London law firm Hodge Jones & Allen to challenge the councils decision to grant a lawful development certificate for permitted development for the basement extension of a neighbouring property, on the grounds that it requires substantial engineering not within the permitted development rights.. A petition against the development has already been signed and submitted to the council by 32 neighbours, while a council ...
Fluorescence-and electron-microscopic studies were performed on nerve terminals close to intracerebral blood vessels in the rat. For the electron microscope subdural perfusion fixation with potassium permanganate was used. In the rat cerebral cortex deprived of the bilateral superior cervical ganglion some aminergic terminal boutons containing large and small core vesicles were observed contiguous to blood vessels. These terminals abutted on the capillary basement membrane. Since these terminals are found in the rat after bilateral superior cervical ganglion exision, they probably originate from central catecholaminergic neurons in the brain stem. These findings suggest that central aminergic neurons might play some role in cerebral blood flow regulation. In addition to aminergic terminal boutons, non-aminergic nerve terminals containing non-core vesicles also ended in the capillaries. Cerebral capillaries also have central dual innervation, aminergic and ...
5) Congenital malformations: Polycystic kidney disease, congenital thin glomerular basement membrane nephritis phenomenon Nutcracker (The disease is congenital vascular malformation caused by traveling in the abdominal aorta and superior mesenteric artery, squeezing between the left renal vein, cause intractable hematuria. the right renal vein straight into the inferior vena cava, left renal vein must pass through the abdominal aorta and superior mesenteric artery angle formed by the inferior vena cava. This is the normal angle of 45 ° ~ 60 °, congenital if this angle is too small mesenteric fat or lymph nodes, peritoneal filling can cause nutcracker phenomenon. the diagnosis depends primarily on the CT, B ultrasound, renal venography. the treatment requires surgical correction ...
Surface epithelial-stromal tumors are a class of ovarian neoplasms that may be benign or malignant. Neoplasms in this group are thought to be derived from the ovarian surface epithelium (modified peritoneum) or from ectopic endometrial or Fallopian tube (tubal) tissue. This group of tumors accounts for 90% to 95% of all cases of ovarian cancer.[1][2] The pathogenesis of surface epithelial-stromal tumor is characterized by the overgrowth of the ovarian surface epithelium. Common risk factors in the development of surface epithelial-stromal tumor, include: nulliparity, early menopause, gonadal dysgenesis, family history (e.g. BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations), smoking, previous history of breast, and endometrial or colon cancer (Lynch II). The prevalence of surface epithelial-stromal tumor is approximately 3 per 100,000 individuals worldwide. Surface epithelial-stromal tumor is more commonly observed among postmenopausal women. Early clinical features of surface epithelial-stromal tumor include pelvic ...
H-ras transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single major extracellular matrix metalloprotease which is not found in the normal parental cells. The enzyme is secreted in a latent form which can be activated to catalyze the cleavage of the basement membrane macromolecule type IV collagen. The substrates in their order of preference are: gelatin, type IV collagen, type V collagen, fibronectin, and type VII collagen; but the enzyme does not cleave the interstitial collagens or laminin. This protease is identical to gelatinase isolated from normal human skin explants, normal human skin fibroblasts, and SV40-transformed human lung fibroblasts. Based on this ability to initiate the degradation of type IV collagen in a pepsin-resistant portion of the molecule, it will be referred to as type IV collagenase. This enzyme is most likely the ...
The role of the spleen in the process of liver fibrosis in schistosomiasis still needs clarification. The aim of this Study was to assess the effect of splenectomy on serum levels of two markers of fibrosis, type IV collagen and TIMP-1, in patients with schistosomiasis mansoni. Twenty-four patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni participated in the study. Type IV collagen and TIMP-1 serum levels were measured preoperatively, and after 2 (POD-1) and 60 days (POD-2) of spleen removal. Before splenectomy, both type IV collagen and TIMP-1 serum levels were elevated in the majority of patients. After splenectomy, the levels of type IV collagen showed a significant decrease in relation to the preoperative values both in POD-1 (median pre-splenectomy: 143.7 ng/ml versus 77.01 ng/ml p = 0.04) and POD-2 (103.3 ng/ml; p = 0.015). Serum levels of TIMP-1 also showed a significant decrease in relation to the preoperative values both in POD-1 (pre-splenectomy: 585.9 ng/ml versus 196.4 ng/ml; p = ...
Previous work has demonstrated that loss of crucial components of the zebrafish MTJ, either intracellularly (dystrophin, integrin-linked kinase) or extracellularly (Lama2), results in an embryonic myofibre detachment phenotype (Bassett et al., 2003; Hall et al., 2007; Postel et al., 2008). In this study we extend our knowledge of the role of another extracellular component, Lamb2, by showing that a disorganised MTJ, detachment of muscle fibres and sarcolemmal damage all result from a missense mutation in the zebrafish lamb2 gene in the softm272a mutant. Whereas secondary changes in levels of LAMB2 immunoreactivity have been seen in congenital muscular dystrophy, this laminin chain has not been implicated as a direct cause of inherited muscle disease (Cohn et al., 1997). Rather, mutations in LAMB2 cause Pierson syndrome, an autosomal recessive, oculorenal disease with neurological involvement (Zenker et al., ...
9780792320883 Basement Tectonics 8: Characterization and Comparison of Ancient and Mesozoic Continental Margins (Proceedings of the International Conferences on Basement Tectonics),books, textbooks, text book
Monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD) is characterized by non-organized immunoglobulin-fragments along renal basement membranes with subsequent organ deterioration. Treatment is directed against the immunoglobulin-producing clone. We treated 18 MIDD patients with bortezomib-based regimens (12 received bortezomib-dexamethasone, 6 bortezomib-dexamethasone with cyclophosphamide). Eleven (61%) patients achieved a hematologic response, but only 6 (33.3%) reached to a complete (CR) or very good partial response (VGPR). Regarding renal outcomes 77.8 and 55.6% had ≥30 and ≥50% reduction of proteinuria, respectively, but 33.3% ended up in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Among patients with CR or VGPR, median eGFR improvement was 7.7 ml/min/1.73 m2 and none progressed to ESRD, but no significant renal recovery was observed in patients achieving a partial response or less, with 50% progressing to dialysis. Pretreatment eGFR seems to influence renal ...
The basal membrane destruction in benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasma, and prostatic adenocarcinoma. A study on basal membrane type IV collagens
Glomerular visceral epithelial cells, namely podocytes, are highly specialized cells and give rise to primary processes, secondary processes, and finally foot processes. The foot processes of neighboring podocytes interdigitate, leaving between them filtration slits. These are bridged by an extracellular substance, known as the slit diaphragm, which plays a major role in establishing size-selective barrier to protein loss. Furthermore, podocytes are known to synthesize matrix molecules to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), including type IV collagen, laminin, entactin, and agrin. Because diabetic nephropathy is clinically characterized by proteinuria and pathologically by glomerular hypertrophy and GBM thickening with foot process effacement, podocytes have been the focus in the field of research on diabetic nephropathy. As a result, many investigations ...
What happened to William Rodriguez the morning of 9/11 is a miracle. What happened to his story after-the-fact is a tragedy. But with miracles and tragedies comes truth. And truth is exactly what Rodriguez brings to the whole mystery surrounding 9/11. Declared a hero for saving numerous lives at Ground Zero, he was the janitor on duty the morning of 9/11 who heard and felt explosions rock the basement sub-levels of the north tower just seconds before the jetliner struck the top floors.. He not only claims he felt explosions coming from below the first sub-level while working in the basement, he says the walls were cracking around him and he pulled a man to safety by the name of Felipe David, who was severely burned from the basement explosions.. All these events occurred only seconds before and during the jetliner strike above. And through it all, he now asks a simple question everybody should be asking? How could a jetliner hit 90 floors above and burn a ...
article{11fa00e2-f410-4577-92f8-3263beaccec6, abstract = {Tanner GA, Rippe C, Shao Y, Evan AP, Williams JC, Jr. Glomerular permeability to macromolecules in the Necturus kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F1269-F1278, 2009. First published April 1, 2009; doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.00371.2007.-Many aspects of the glomerular filtration of macromolecules remain controversial, including the location of the major filtration barrier, the effects of electrical charge, and the reason the filtration barrier does not clog. We examined these issues in anesthetized Necturus maculosus, using fluorescently labeled probes and a two-photon microscope. With the high resolution of this system and the extraordinary width (similar to 3.5 mu m) of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) in this salamander, we were able to visualize fluorescent molecules in the GBM in vivo. GBM/plasma concentration ratios for myoglobin, ovalbumin, and serum albumin did not differ from that of ...
Human glomerulonephritis (GN) is characterized by sustained proteinuria, sodium retention, hypertension, and edema formation. Increasing quantities of filtered protein enter the renal tubule, where they may alter epithelial transport functions. Exaggerated endocytosis and consequent protein overload may affect proximal tubules, but intrinsic malfunction of distal epithelia has also been reported. A straightforward assignment to a particular tubule segment causing salt retention in GN is still controversial. We hypothesized that 1) trafficking and surface expression of major transporters and channels involved in volume regulation were altered in GN, and 2) proximal tubular endocytosis may influence locally as well as downstream expressed tubular transporters and channels. Effects of anti-glomerular basement membrane GN were studied in controls and megalin-deficient mice with blunted proximal endocytosis. Mice displayed salt retention and elevated systolic ...
Discussion:. Human adenovirus is a linear, non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that typically causes mild respiratory, gastrointestinal, and conjunctival illnesses in healthy persons. In kidney transplant recipients, urinary tract infection is the most frequently reported manifestation. The most frequent signs and symptoms at presentation include dysuria, fever, hematuria, sterile pyuria and acute kidney injury.. A renal allograft biopsy is essential to differentiate adenoviral nephritis from that of acute rejection or other pathology. Typical light microscopic findings in adenovirus nephropathy include tubular cell necrosis (with tubular basement membrane rupture) associated with severe interstitial inflammation (sometimes with granuloma formation), focal interstitial hemorrhage and viral cytopathic changes including peripheral condensed chromatin, basophilic nuclear inclusions and nuclear enlargement. In some cases ...
Nephronophthisis (NPHP), the most frequent genetic cause of renal failure in children, is an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease in childhood or adolescence. The onset is typically marked by polydipsia and polyuria as a result of a defect in urine concentration. Additional findings include small-to-normal-sized hyperechogenic kidneys with reduced corticomedullary differentiation on abdominal ultrasonography and histopathological alterations characterized by thickened or disrupted tubular basement membranes, tubular atrophy and dilation, interstitial fibrosis and occasional renal cysts. NPHP can also present with additional extrarenal manifestations, including retinitis pigmentosa (Senior-Loken syndrome, Bardet-Biedl sydnrome, Alstrom syndrome), liver fibrosis, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia (Joubert syndrome), and multiple developmental and neurologic abnormalites (Meckel Gruber syndrome). Our Nephronophthisis Panel includes sequence analysis of the ...
p,In southern Ontario, Canada during 1988-1997, pesticide exposure and its effects on the immune and endocrine systems and the behaviour and growth of tree swallos (Tachycineta bicolor) and on reproductive success in tree swallos and eastern bluebirds (Sailia sailis) were studied. Birds were exposed in sprayed apple orchards and non-sprayed sites. There were significant effects of pesticides on all of these endpoints. Sprayed tree swallow nestlings had significantly increased blastogenic response to pokeweed mitogen and delayed thymic maturation. Also, some tree swallow immune parameters were correlated to the date chicks were sampled. As the number of mixed sprays applied increased, there was a significant and positive increase in the concentration of the thyroid hormone, tri-iodo-thyronine, in male chicks and some indications of an increasing occurrence of a disrupted sertoli cell population on the seminiferous tubular basement ...
While membranous nephropathy (MN) is one of the most common forms of nephrotic syndrome in adults, it is rarely associated with the pathologic finding of crescents on kidney biopsy. Most reported cases are in the context of concomitant anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) or anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibody disease, or were documented prior to the…
Collagen XVIII is a component of the highly specialized extracellular matrix associated with basement membranes of epithelia and endothelia. and capillary rarefaction. Anti-GBM BMS 378806 disease upregulated collagen XVIII/endostatin manifestation within the GBM and Bowmans capsule of wild-type mice. Collagen XVIII/endostatin-deficient mice developed more severe glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury than wild-type mice. Collagen XVIII/endostatin deficiency altered matrix redesigning enhanced the inflammatory response and advertised capillary rarefaction and vascular endothelial cell damage but did not impact endothelial proliferation. Supplementing collagen XVIII-deficient mice with exogenous endostatin did not affect the progression of anti-GBM disease. Taken together these results suggest that collagen XVIII/endostatin preserves the integrity of the ...
Purpose. The reepithelialization of the corneal surface is an important process for restoring the imaging properties of this tissue. The purpose of the present study was to characterize and validate a new human in vitro three-dimensional corneal wound healing model by studying the expression of basement membrane components and integrin subunits that play important roles during epithelial cell migration and to verify whether the presence of exogenous factors could accelerate the reepithelialization. Methods. Tissue-engineered human cornea was wounded with a 6-mm biopsy punch, and the reepithelialization from the surrounding margins was studied. Biopsy samples of the reepithelialized surface were harvested 3 days after wounding and were processed for histologic, electron microscopic, and immunofluorescence analyses. The effects of fibrin and epithelial growth factor (EGF) on wound reepithelialization were also studied. ...
MalaCards based summary : Corneal Dystrophy, Thiel-Behnke Type, also known as thiel-behnke corneal dystrophy, is related to corneal dystrophy, avellino type and epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, and has symptoms including photophobia, corneal dystrophy and corneal scarring. An important gene associated with Corneal Dystrophy, Thiel-Behnke Type is TGFBI (Transforming Growth Factor Beta Induced). Affiliated tissues include eye, and related phenotypes are Increased cilium length after serum starvation and vision/eye ...
The therapeutic effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril, on puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced nephrosis were investigated using unilaterally nephrectomized rats. Lisinopril showed potent dual effects on PAN nephrosis. Lisinopril treatment (50 mg/l in drinking water)from day 5 or day 9 reduced urinary protein excretion and suppressed the development of glomerular sclerosis at 8 weeks after PAN injection (150 mg/kg, i.p.), indicating a therapeutic effect on the nephrosis. Recovery of decreased anionic charge sites on the glomerular basement membrane was involved, at least in part, in the therapeutic action of lisinopril against proteinuria. On the other hand, oliguria and progressive azotemia derived from continuous deterioration of the renal function was induced if the treatment of lisinopril was started on the same day as PAN injection. The renal dysfunction induced by simultaneous administration of lisinopril with PAN could be ...
Cancer metastasis is the dissemination of tumor cells to new sites, resulting in the formation of secondary tumors. This process is complex and is spatially and temporally regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. One important extrinsic factor is the extracellular matrix, the non-cellular component of tissues. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are constituents of the extracellular matrix, and through their heparan sulfate chains and protein core, modulate multiple events that occur during the metastatic cascade. This review will provide an overview of the role of the extracellular matrix in the events that occur during cancer metastasis, primarily focusing on perlecan. Perlecan, a basement membrane HSPG is a key component of the vascular ...
Cataracts and irregular corneal astigmatism are conditions that are often encountered simultaneously by eye care providers. Conditions such as Salzmann nodular degeneration, pterygium, epithelial basement membrane dystrophy (EBMD), keratoconus... Full Story →. ...
Trevigens Cultrex® stem cell qualified proteins provide a functionally defined and effective feeder-free surface for the attachment and maintenance of embryonic stem cells in a pluripotent state. Our exclusive Human Vitronectin, Human Fibronectin, Mouse Laminin I, and Mouse Reduced Growth Factor Basement Membrane Matrix can support robust, long term proliferation of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells in an undifferentiated state. The matrices can be used to coat tissue culture surfaces and promote cell adhesion and proliferation, or as an additive to cell-culture media. Additionally, we also offer our Cultrex® Embryoid Body (EB) Formation Kit that generates consistent, reproducible and identical in size embryoid bodies (EBs). This kit has been qualified to ...
Basement matrices such as Matrigel™ and Geltrex™ are used in a variety of cell culture assays of anchorage-dependent differentiation including endothelial cell tube formation assays. The volumes of matrix recommended for these assays (approximately 150 μl/cm2) are costly, limit working distances for microscopy, and require cell detachment for subsequent molecular analysis. Here we describe the development and validation of a thin-layer angiogenesis (TLA) assay for assessing the angiogenic potential of endothelial cells that overcomes these limitations. Geltrex™ basement matrix at 5 μl/cm2 in 24-well (10 μl) or 96-well (2 μl) plates supports endothelial cell differentiation into tube-like structures in a comparable manner to the standard larger volumes of matrix. Since working distances are reduced, ...
The study of mutations causing the steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in children has greatly advanced our understanding of the kidney filtration barrier. In particular, these genetic variants have illuminated the roles of the podocyte, glomerular basement membrane and endothelial cell in glomerular filtration. However, in a significant number of familial and early onset cases, an underlying mutation cannot be identified, indicating that there are likely to be multiple unknown genes with roles in glomerular permeability. We now show how the combination of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis and next-generation sequencing could be used to identify the range of mutations affecting these pathways. Using this approach, we isolated a novel mouse strain with a viable nephrotic phenotype and used whole-genome sequencing to isolate a causative hypomorphic mutation in Lamb2. This discovery generated a model for one part of the ...
1. Carruba G, Stefano R, Cocciaeliferro L. Intercellular communication and human prostate carcinogenesis. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2002;963:156-68 2. Goldstein NS, Underhiel J, Roszka N, Neill JS. Cytokeratin 34 beta E-12 immunoreactivity in benign prostate acini. Quantitation, pattern assessment, and electron microscopic study. Am J Clin Pathol. 1999;112:69-74 3. Bonkhoff H, Wernert N, Dhom G, Remberger K. Basement membranes in fetal, adult normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic human prostate. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol. 1991;418:375-81 4. Kosir MA, Wang W, Zukowski KL, Tromp G. Degradation of basement membrane by prostate tumor heparanase. J Surg Res. 1999;81:42-7 5. Bonkhoff H, Remberger K. Morphogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma. Pathology. 1998;19:12-20 6. Bostwick DG. Prospective origins of prostate carcinoma. Prostate intraepithelial ...
A patient with Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome and nephrotic range proteinuria is presented. Radiological investigation of the urinary tract revealed clubbed calyces but no evidence of obstruction or vesicoureteric reflux. Renal biopsy revealed occasional sclerotic glomeruli, extensive foot-process fusion and segmental glomerular basement membrane abnormalities with negative immunofluorescence for immunoglobulins and complement. Nephrotic proteinuria responded to steroid therapy but mild proteinuria persisted. The findings were consistent with minimal change nephropathy superimposed on the glomerular lesions of Lawrence-Moon-Biedl syndrome.. ...
Three types (T1, T2, T3) of proetoglycan (PG) filaments, as demonstrated by cuprolinic blue (CB) under critical electrolyte concentration method in the epithelial-stromal interface of the guinea pig lateral prostate, were characterized cytochemically by using a number of glycosaminoglycan(GAG)-degrading enzymes and nitrous acid. The results showed that T1 filaments located in basement membranes of the epithelium, endothelium, and smooth muscle cells, were removed by nitrous acid, heparitinase, and pronase but resistant to chondroitinase (Ch)-ABC and Ch-AC, heparinase, neuraminidase, and Streptomyces (S) hyaluronidase. The T1 filaments, therefore, contain heparan sulfate. The T2 filaments closely linked to collagen fibrils were removed by Ch-ABC, Ch-ABC plus S-hyaluronidase, and pronase but were resistant to nitrous acid, heparitinase, heparinase, neuraminidase, and S-hyaluronidase. These show that T2 filaments are rich in ...
BACKGROUND: Goblet cell hyperplasia is a classic but variable pathologic finding in COPD. Current literature shows that smoking is a risk factor for chronic bronchitis but the relationship of these clinical features to the presence and magnitude of large airway goblet cell hyperplasia has not been well described. We hypothesized that current smokers and chronic bronchitics would have more goblet cells than nonsmokers or those without chronic bronchitis (CB), independent of airflow obstruction. METHODS: We recruited 15 subjects with moderate to severe COPD, 12 healthy smokers, and 11 healthy nonsmokers. Six endobronchial mucosal biopsies per subject were obtained by bronchoscopy and stained with periodic acid Schiff-Alcian Blue. Goblet cell density (GCD) was quantified as goblet cell number per millimeter of basement ...
Lysyl Hydroxylase 3 Localizes to Epidermal Basement Membrane and Is Reduced in Patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa., Stephen A Watt, Jasbani H S Dayal, Sheila Wright, Megan Riddle, Celine Pourreyron, James R McMillan, Roy M Kimble, Marco Prisco, Ulrike Gartner, Emma Warbrick, W H Irwin McLean, Irene M Leigh, John A McGrath, Julio C Salas-Alanis, Jakub Tolar, and Andrew P South. ...
The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and extra-cellular matrix (ECM) are essential to maintain a functional interaction between the glomerular podocytes and the fenestrated endothelial cells in the formation of the slit diaphragm for the filtration of blood. Dysregulation of ECM homeostasis can cause Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Despite this central role, alterations in ECM composition during FSGS have not been analyzed in detail yet. Here, we characterized the ECM proteome changes in miR-193a-overexpressing mice, which suffer from FSGS due to suppression of Wilms’ tumor 1 (WT1). By mass spectrometry we identified a massive activation of the acute phase response, especially the complement and fibrinogen pathways. Several protease inhibitors (ITIH1, SERPINA1, SERPINA3) were also strongly increased. Complementary analysis of RNA expression data from both miR-193a mice and ...
A 57 year old man with nail-patella syndrome (NPS) and associated renal disease is described who developed an inflammatory polyarthropathy and polyarteritis-like vasculitis. Vasculitis and serum complement abnormalities have not previously been reported in NPS. NPS is a rare autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder affecting both mesenchymal and ectodermal tissue. The condition is reviewed with particular reference to its renal pathology, including the distinctive electron microscopic (EM) finding of collagen deposition in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). The possibility of the underlying collagen abnormality acting as a trigger for immune-inflammatory changes is discussed. ...
The autoimmune blistering diseases have a dramatic clinical presentation, and are significant diseases with substantial morbidity and mortality.The diseases can be split broadly pathologically into intraepidermal (pemphigus) and subepidermal (pemphigoid, dermatitis herpetiformis and others) groups, the former being characterized by pathogenic autoantibodies to desmosome components, and the latter by pathogenic antibodies to proteins of the basement membrane zone adhesion complex that link the epithelium/epidermis to the underlying mesenchyme/dermis (or genetic mutations of the same proteins). There are concomitant differences in clinical presentation, e.g. blistering lesions present in the subepidermal bullous diseases tend to be less easily ruptured than those observed in intraepidermal bullous diseases....
Confocal microscopy and immuno‐histochemistry were used to examine collagens in the extracellular matrix of cod Gadus morhua swimming muscle. In addition to the well known presence of type I fibrous collagen, types III and VI were also found in the myocommata and the endomysium. The beaded collagen, type VI, was found in the endomysium and the network forming collagen, type IV, was found in the basement membrane. This is the first report of type V collagen in cod muscle and of types II, IV and VI in the muscle of a teleost ...
This acquired autoimmune blistering disorder is characterized by large, tense, subepidermal blisters on an erythematous base.. Autoantibodies (mainly IgG) targeting the components of the basement membrane can be detected (1). Usually it is a disease of the elderly (2), rarely presenting before 50 years of age. In the UK, it is more common than pemphigus with an annual incidence of 1 per 10000. Both men and women are affected equally (1). Pemphigoid may be associated with malignancy although this is disputed in recent studies (1). It is the most common cutaneous subepidermal bullous autoimmune disorder (2). There is a high mortality rate associated with this disease (3). Pemphigoid may be associated with malignancy although this is disputed in recent studies.. Click here for an example image of bullous pemphigoid. Reference: ...

Laminin assembles into separate basement membrane and fibrillar matrices in Schwann cells | Journal of Cell ScienceLaminin assembles into separate basement membrane and fibrillar matrices in Schwann cells | Journal of Cell Science

The laminin alpha2-chain short arm mediates cell adhesion through both the alpha betal and alpha2betal integrins. J. Biol. Chem ... Skin and hair follicle integrity is crucially dependent on beta1 integrin expression on keratinocytes. EMBO J. 19, 3990 -4003. ... Muscle and fat cells become enveloped by these ECMs while epithelial cells develop a basement membrane restricted to their ... A model of the assembly of basement membranes on cognate cell surface membranes is that laminin and type IV collagen receptors ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/115/5/1005

Botta D[au] - PubMed - NCBIBotta D[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Silver nanoparticles alter epithelial basement membrane integrity, cell adhesion molecule expression, and TGF-β1 secretion. ... IFNγ induces epigenetic programming of human T-bethi B cells and promotes TLR7/8 and IL-21 induced differentiation. ... Dynamic regulation of T follicular regulatory cell responses by interleukin 2 during influenza infection. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Botta+D%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Frontiers | Adhesion GPCRs in Kidney Development and Disease | Cell and Developmental BiologyFrontiers | Adhesion GPCRs in Kidney Development and Disease | Cell and Developmental Biology

aGPCRs regulate for example cell polarity, mitotic spindle orientation, cell migration, and cell aggregation; all processes ... aGPCRs regulate for example cell polarity, mitotic spindle orientation, cell migration, and cell aggregation; all processes ... In recent years adhesion GPCRs (aGPCRs), the second largest GPCR family, gained significant attention as they are present on ... gained significant attention as they are present on almost all mammalian cells, are associated to a plethora of diseases and ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcell.2018.00009/full

Frontiers | The Adhesion G-Protein-Coupled Receptor, GPR56/ADGRG1, Inhibits Cell-Extracellular Matrix Signaling to Prevent...Frontiers | The Adhesion G-Protein-Coupled Receptor, GPR56/ADGRG1, Inhibits Cell-Extracellular Matrix Signaling to Prevent...

To test this, we investigated the function of GPR56 on cell-fibronectin adhesion and its relationship with metastatic growth in ... To test this, we investigated the function of GPR56 on cell-fibronectin adhesion and its relationship with metastatic growth in ... supporting a causative link between the cell adhesion defect induced by GPR56 and its inhibition of metastatic growth. Taken ... supporting a causative link between the cell adhesion defect induced by GPR56 and its inhibition of metastatic growth. Taken ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2018.00008/full

Role of Integrin-linked kinase in epidermal integrity and barrier function by Samar Sayedyahossein"Role of Integrin-linked kinase in epidermal integrity and barrier function" by Samar Sayedyahossein

The structure and function of the epidermis is highly dependent on cell-cell adhesion and cell-basement membrane interactions. ... ILK plays a role in actin cytoskeleton dynamics and cell adhesion. ... Ca2+ is an important inducer of cell-cell junctions and differentiation in epidermal keratinocytes. In the absence of ILK, ... The reduced invasion by live S. aureus of ILK-deficient cells was restored in the presence of exogenous, constitutively active ...
more infohttps://ir.lib.uwo.ca/etd/2640/

α3β1 Integrin Is Required for Normal Development of the Epidermal Basement Membrane | JCBα3β1 Integrin Is Required for Normal Development of the Epidermal Basement Membrane | JCB

... hemidesmosomes and the keratin filament network have been shown to be important for cell adhesion and/or mechanical integrity ... 1990a) The role of integrins α2β1 and α3β1 in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion of human epidermal cells. J Cell Biol 110: ... 1991) Epiligrin, a new cell adhesion ligand for integrin α3β1 in epithelial basement membranes. Cell 65:599-610, pmid:2032285. ... 1991) Kalinin: an epithelium-specific basement membrane adhesion molecule that is a component of anchoring filaments. J Cell ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/137/3/729

Polymicrogyria: pathology, fetal origins and mechanisms | Acta Neuropathologica Communications | Full TextPolymicrogyria: pathology, fetal origins and mechanisms | Acta Neuropathologica Communications | Full Text

The most consistent feature of developing PMG is disruption of the brain surface with pial defects, over-migration of cells, ... GPR56 in maintaining basement membrane integrity and adhesion of migrating cells to specific components of basement membrane [ ... The brain surface is complex, consisting of the leptomeninges (arachnoid membrane, pial cells), basement membrane, radial glial ... Pial cells also secrete components of both the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane [18],[32]. FOXC1 is expressed in ...
more infohttps://actaneurocomms.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40478-014-0080-3

Plus itPlus it

The integrity of the basement membrane offers survival signals for adherent epithelial cells, while disruption of the adhesion ... Apoptotic cells undergo various morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, cleavage of chromosomal DNA ... a protein capable of creating pores in the cell membrane of the infected cell, through which granzyme B, a serine protease, ... The extrinsic or death receptor pathway involves the activation of death receptors present in the cell membrane, such as Fas ...
more infohttp://erj.ersjournals.com/content/32/6/1631

Extracellular Matrix | China-Mainland | Sigma-AldrichExtracellular Matrix | China-Mainland | Sigma-Aldrich

It has long been understood to be the structural support for cells since its characteristics set the characteristics of the ... is secreted by cells and surrounds them in tissues. ... Basement Membrane. The basement membrane (BM) is a thin layer ... These suprastructures have functional roles in cell adhesion, differentiation, tissue development and structural integrity1 ... Basement membrane: ECM between epithelial and stromal layers of cells5 *Interstitial matrix: ECM surrounding cells forming a ...
more infohttp://www.sigmaaldrich.com/china-mainland/zh/life-science/stem-cell-biology/3d-stem-cell-culture/learning-center/extracellular-matrix.html

Endothelial expression of the α6β4 integrin is negatively regulated during angiogenesis | Journal of Cell ScienceEndothelial expression of the α6β4 integrin is negatively regulated during angiogenesis | Journal of Cell Science

... α6β4 may be required for endothelial adhesion to the underlying basement membrane to promote the integrity of mature vessels. ... a novel vascular cell-cell adhesion molecule. J. Cell Biol. 114, 1059-1068. ... cell adhesion and cell survival. J. Cell Biol. 134, 559-572. ... cell migration and cell-cell interactions.. Cell science at a ... that α6β4 may uniquely contribute to endothelial cell adhesion by forming a transmembrane link between the basement membrane ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/116/18/3771?ijkey=e580542acda0777b96754d5a84d7605341d0b39a&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Epithelial polarity control by Lkb1 | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological SciencesEpithelial polarity control by Lkb1 | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

... adhesion junctions, tight junctions, desmosomes and basal cell surface-basement membrane contacts provide landmarks and ... Therefore, any cell-intrinsic or -extrinsic mechanism harming the integrity or altering the biological activity of basement ... On the opposite side of the apical membrane is the basal surface, which anchors cells to a basement membrane. Basement membrane ... cell-cell adhesions, basement membrane), and endowing cells with new migratory capacities to move out of epithelial ...
more infohttp://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/368/1629/20130111

Biomarkers - Olink	Biomarkers - Olink

... specifically in maintenance of the pial basement membrane integrity and in cortical lamination (By similarity). Binding to the ... Receptor involved in cell adhesion and probably in cell-cell interactions. Mediates cell matrix adhesion in developing neurons ... tissue and cell lysates, fine needle biopsis, microdialysis fluid, cell culture media, dried blood spots, synovial fluid, ... Plays a role in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells and/or leukemia stem cells in bone marrow niche (By similarity). ...
more infohttps://www.olink.com/products/organ-damage-panel/biomarkers/?biomarkerId=1040

Plus itPlus it

For cells to metastasize, they must be able to invade the surrounding tissue, breach the barrier of the basement membrane, and ... In general, p53 loss seems to contribute to loosening of cell-cell junctions and disruption of epithelial cell integrity, ... Cell surface adhesion molecules and adhesion-initiated signaling: understanding of anoikis resistance mechanisms and ... In an orchestrated series of events in which cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions are altered, epithelial cells are released ...
more infohttp://cancerdiscovery.aacrjournals.org/content/4/4/405

Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa - GeneReviews® - NCBI BookshelfJunctional Epidermolysis Bullosa - GeneReviews® - NCBI Bookshelf

... is characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes, manifest by blistering with little or no trauma. Blistering may ... and integrity and anchoring the epidermal cells to the underlying dermis through adhesion of the hemidesmosomes to the basement ... Dystrophic EB (DEB). The blister forms below the basement membrane, in the superficial dermis. The basement membrane is ... Splitting is seen in the lamina lucida of the basement membrane of the epidermis or just above the basement membrane at the ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1125/

M. Peter Marinkovich, MD | Stanford Medicine ProfilesM. Peter Marinkovich, MD | Stanford Medicine Profiles

In addition to its role in the assembly and architectural integrity of the basement membrane, laminins interact with cells to ... The dermal-epidermal basement membrane is a complex assembly of proteins that provide adhesion and regulate many important ... Basement membranes can be a barrier to tumour growth, but basement membrane molecules, including laminins, are also important ... cell proliferation and cell migration. A highly organized array of these molecules, termed the basement membrane, lies at the ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/matt-marinkovich

M. Peter Marinkovich, MD | Stanford Medicine ProfilesM. Peter Marinkovich, MD | Stanford Medicine Profiles

In addition to its role in the assembly and architectural integrity of the basement membrane, laminins interact with cells to ... The dermal-epidermal basement membrane is a complex assembly of proteins that provide adhesion and regulate many important ... Basement membranes can be a barrier to tumour growth, but basement membrane molecules, including laminins, are also important ... cell proliferation and cell migration. A highly organized array of these molecules, termed the basement membrane, lies at the ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/matt-marinkovich?tab=research-and-scholarship

Contact Dermatitis Models | Charles RiverContact Dermatitis Models | Charles River

Silver nanoparticles alter epithelial basement membrane integrity, cell adhesion molecule expression, and TGF-β1 secretion ( ... Allergic contact dermatitis is characterised by a T cell response in both humans and mice, and therapies targeting this ... Contact dermatitis presents an immune mediated reaction known to involve both T helper 1 cell (Th1) and Th2 response. Charles ... Histological examination of skin samples shows spongiosis, epidermal cell necrosis and neutrophilic infiltration. ...
more infohttps://www.criver.com/products-services/discovery-services/vivo-pharmacology/inflammation-and-immunology-pharmacology-models/contact-dermatitis-models

Psoriasis mouse model | Charles RiverPsoriasis mouse model | Charles River

Silver nanoparticles alter epithelial basement membrane integrity, cell adhesion molecule expression, and TGF-β1 secretion ( ... immune cell infiltration (T cells, DCs and neutrophils), and altered vascularisation. ... IMQ is a ligand for TLRs (Toll-like receptors) of immune cells (including macrophages, monocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic ... Histologically, the disease is characterized by epidermal thickening due to hyperkeratosis, infiltration of immune cells in ...
more infohttps://www.criver.com/fr/node/2944

Cwp84, a Surface-Associated Protein of Clostridium difficile, Is a Cysteine Protease with Degrading Activity on Extracellular...Cwp84, a Surface-Associated Protein of Clostridium difficile, Is a Cysteine Protease with Degrading Activity on Extracellular...

... and laminin are important components of the basement membrane and are involved in the cellular adhesion process; the latter ... Lane MW, SDS-PAGE low-range standard (Bio-Rad); lane 1, cytoplasmic fraction; lane 2, membrane fraction; lane 3, cell wall- ... In vivo, this proteolytic activity could contribute to the degradation of the host tissue integrity and to the dissemination of ... i) Whole bacterial proteins were separated into four compartments, supernatant, cell wall, membrane, and cytoplasm, as ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/189/20/7174?ijkey=d1ca8c76bf495fa7b4a5b151d531400466b44a3e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Cellular Kinetics of Perivascular MSC PrecursorsCellular Kinetics of Perivascular MSC Precursors

... and clinical studies in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal will consider basic, translational, and ... Stem Cells International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... Pericytic elongated terminal arms include adhesion plaques that strongly embed into the basement membrane and EC body to secure ... intima with specific adhesion and migration properties that allow them to regulate the blood vessel stability/integrity as well ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2013/983059/

Tight junctions at the blood brain barrier: physiological architecture and disease-associated dysregulation | Fluids and...Tight junctions at the blood brain barrier: physiological architecture and disease-associated dysregulation | Fluids and...

Importantly, pericytes, embedded in the vascular basement membrane, and perivascular microglial cells, astrocytes and neurons ... Understanding how TJ integrity is controlled may thus help improve drug delivery across the BBB and the design of therapeutic ... between adjacent cells: TJs are dynamic structures consisting of a number of transmembrane and membrane-associated cytoplasmic ... The barrier properties of these specialized endothelial cells notably depend on tight junctions (TJs) ...
more infohttps://fluidsbarrierscns.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2045-8118-9-23

ECM remodelling in IBD: innocent bystander or partner in crime? The emerging role of extracellular molecular events in...ECM remodelling in IBD: innocent bystander or partner in crime? The emerging role of extracellular molecular events in...

The migration and invasion of immune cells into the gut mucosa is enabled by proteolysis of the ECM and the basement membrane, ... MMP9 modulates tight junction integrity and cell viability in human airway epithelia. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2009; ... which prompts the cleavage and redistribution of cell-cell junction and adhesion proteins.48-54 ... ECM components guide IL-10 producing regulatory T-cell (TR1) induction from effector memory T-cell precursors. Proc Natl Acad ...
more infohttps://gut.bmj.com/content/64/3/367

Plus itPlus it

This process involves the loss of cell-cell adhesion and intercellular junctions, destruction of the basement membrane, ... and thus preserves tissue integrity and permits epithelial cells to function as a cohesive unit (2). The phenotype of ... We and others have shown that NaK-β1 functions as a cell-cell adhesion molecule (16-19) and loss of its cell adhesion function ... functions as a cell-cell adhesion molecule (16-19), is localized to the apical junctional complex in polarized epithelial cells ...
more infohttp://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/9/6/1515

Cost of Dry Amniotic Membrane - ZabbysCost of Dry Amniotic Membrane - Zabbys

You can easily buy dry amniotic membrane online at lowest price. ... Trading Company of Dry Amniotic Membrane in Delhi, India. ... AM serves to provide a basement membrane substrate for the migration and adhesion of epithelial cells when used as an inlay ... The structural integrity, transparency and elasticity of the amniotic basement membrane make it currently the most widely ... The basement membrane is a thin layer composed of a network of reticular fibers. Histochemically the basement membrane closely ...
more infohttp://www.zabbys.net/ophthalmic/speciality/cataract-phaco-phaco-1/zabbys-dry-amniotic-membrane-z-am-3x3.html

Harvard Neonatal-Perinatal Fellowship Training Program -- Faculty | Boston Childrens HospitalHarvard Neonatal-Perinatal Fellowship Training Program -- Faculty | Boston Children's Hospital

Li S, Jin Z, Koirala S, Bu L, Xu L, Hynes RO, Walsh CA, Corfas G, Piao X. GPR56 Regulates Pial Basement Membrane Integrity and ... Koiral S, Jin Z, Piao X, Corfas G. GPR56-regulated granule cell adhesion in essential for rostral cerebellar development. The ... To study how GPR56 delivers signals to cells.GPR56 is a membrane protein that mediates the communication between cells and/or ... Human pluripotent stem cells: embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotency stem (iPS) cells ...
more infohttp://www.childrenshospital.org/centers-and-services/departments-and-divisions/division-of-newborn-medicine/harvard-program-in-neonatology/harvard-neonatal-perinatal-medicine-fellowship-training-program/faculty
  • In comparison, 0.4 cells/ ml were found in healthy individuals The High-Definition Circulating Endothelial Cell (HD-CEC) assay is a novel fluid biopsy test which detects endothelial cells in the blood of patients who have recently suffered a heart attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • I have examined the role of ILK in regulation of phagocytosis, and shown that ILK-deficient cells exhibit severely impaired capacity to engulf fluorescent microspheres in response to stimulation of the keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) receptor or the protease-activated receptor-2. (uwo.ca)
  • Histologically, the disease is characterized by epidermal thickening due to hyperkeratosis, infiltration of immune cells in dermis and epidermis, parakeratosis and neovascularization. (criver.com)
  • Administration of the FAK inhibitor Y15 perturbed the proliferation of melanoma metastases, supporting a causative link between the cell adhesion defect induced by GPR56 and its inhibition of metastatic growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ECM is a network of macromolecules between cells that forms a scaffold to support tissue structure, as well as retain moisture and growth factors necessary for cell survival and proliferation ( 3 , 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Without AMPK activity, cells are not capable of controlling the mammalian target-of-rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and consequently cells lose their grip on growth control and proliferation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, α3β1-deficient keratinocytes spread poorly compared with wild-type cells on laminin-5, demonstrating a postattachment requirement for α3β1 and indicating distinct roles for α3β1 and α6β4. (rupress.org)
  • α6β4 thereby links laminin-5 anchoring filaments outside the cell with the keratin filament network inside the cell. (rupress.org)
  • by connecting the laminin-containing basement membrane with the intracellular keratin intermediate filaments ( Borradori and Sonnenberg, 1999 ). (biologists.org)
  • The basement membrane of the AM, cornea and conjunctiva contain collagen types IV, V and VII, in addition to fibronectin and laminin. (zabbys.net)
  • Meanwhile, we present evidence that GPR56 inhibits fibronectin deposition and its downstream signaling, such as phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), during this process. (frontiersin.org)
  • α6β4 is present in hemidesmosomes, while α3β1 is recruited into focal contacts in cultured cells. (rupress.org)
  • Using primary cultured Sertoli cells as an in vitro model that mimics the BTB in vivo both functionally and ultrastructurally, effects of FAK phosphorylation on BTB function were studied by expressing nonphosphorylatable and phosphomimetic mutants, with tyrosine replaced by phenylalanine (F) and glutamate (E), respectively. (pnas.org)
  • The PAR clan of polarity regulating genes was initially discovered in a genetic screen searching for genes involved in asymmetric cell divisions in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Here, we focus on the PAR-4 identity of LKB1, discussing the weight of evidence indicating a role for LKB1 in regulation of cell polarity and epithelial integrity across species and highlight recent investigations providing new insight into the old question: does the PAR-4 identity of LKB1 matter in cancer? (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In recent years adhesion GPCRs (aGPCRs), the second largest GPCR family, gained significant attention as they are present on almost all mammalian cells, are associated to a plethora of diseases and regulate important cellular processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the metastatic growth step, solitary cells proliferate to form small tumors called micrometastases, and after persistent growth the tumors develop vascular networks to promote their development into macrometastases ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Polycystin 1 also has been detected in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells ( 18 , 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) are endothelial cells that have been shed from the lining of the vascular wall into the blood stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endothelial cells normally line blood vessels to maintain vascular integrity and permeability, but when these cells enter into the circulation, this could be a reflection of vascular dysfunction and damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo, this proteolytic activity could contribute to the degradation of the host tissue integrity and to the dissemination of the infection. (asm.org)
  • Here, we explore the multi-scale relationship between tension and cell adhesion in the plant epidermis, and we examine how tensile stress perception may act as a regulatory input to preserve epidermal tissue integrity and thus normal morphogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • This is a rate-limiting step in metastasis because cells are often able to survive circulation and seed in distant organs, but are unable to proliferate into metastases ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • How does the loss of PAR-4 identity become visible in tumour-prone cells that have lost LKB1? (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Though not yet approved by the FDA, this test has demonstrated better specificity than the FDA approved CellSearch test used to detect circulating tumour cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metastasis is a difficult and inefficient process, so cells that are able to survive and thrive in the new environment as metastases are especially difficult to eliminate. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although these processes likely contribute to the ability of a tumor cell to exit its primary site and enter the circulation, the genes responsible for mediating these initial steps are likely not solely responsible for metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have shown that in addition to its epithelial transport function, Na,K-ATPase plays a fundamental role in the formation and maintenance of a well-differentiated, polarized epithelial phenotype in mammalian cells ( 12 - 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The reduced invasion by live S. aureus of ILK-deficient cells was restored in the presence of exogenous, constitutively active Rac1. (uwo.ca)
  • Resistance to a corneal infection is dependent on the presence of multiple barriers that prevent bacterial adhesion and invasion. (arvojournals.org)
  • Cancer cells must complete five steps to metastasize to a secondary site: (1) detachment from the primary tumor, (2) intravasation into the circulation, (3) survival in the circulation, (4) extravasation into the distant organ, and (5) survival and growth at the secondary site (hereafter defined as metastatic growth ). (frontiersin.org)
  • If the heart muscles have prolonged ischemia this may lead to the detachment of endocardial endothelial cells which can also create CEC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptotic cells undergo various morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, cleavage of chromosomal DNA and the release of the membrane-bound apoptotic bodies. (ersjournals.com)
  • The ability of a tumor cell to undergo this full metastatic program is thought to require a plethora of somatic mutations and changes in gene expression and metabolism that allow it to successfully complete each step. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Amniotic Membrane is processed from placenta of normal & healthy mothers who undergo elective ceasarian section. (zabbys.net)
  • However, due to the heterogeneous nature of typical MSC cultures, their native identity and anatomical localization in the body have remained unclear, making it difficult to decipher the existence of distinct cell subsets within the MSC entity. (hindawi.com)
  • Prior to a myocardial infarction (MI or heart attack), plaque may accumulate in the coronary arteries, Some plaque formations may rupture, causing a mechanical dislodgment of endothelial cells creating CEC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Allergic contact dermatitis, or contact hypersensitivity, results in an abnormal immune response which impacts the skin and is further characterised by a T cell response. (criver.com)
  • Contact dermatitis presents an immune mediated reaction known to involve both T helper 1 cell (Th1) and Th2 response. (criver.com)
  • The Imiquimod (IMQ)-induced Psoriasis model is translational into the clinic as it exhibits markers of human disease including histopathology and activation of the immune system, with a strong T-cell element. (criver.com)
  • MSCs have also been reported to support hematopoiesis and suppress immune reaction after cell/organ transplantation [ 11 - 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We argue that the ECM, in the context of IBD, is not only a static scaffold holding cells in place and maintaining tissue architecture but a dynamic participant in intestinal immune responses capable of determining cell fate. (bmj.com)
  • Disrupting B7's binding to CD28 prevents T-cell co-stimulation, leading to dampening of the immune response. (springer.com)
  • To test this, we investigated the function of GPR56 on cell-fibronectin adhesion and its relationship with metastatic growth in melanoma. (frontiersin.org)
  • Processes such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the activation of proteases that degrade the basement membrane and extracellular matrix (ECM) have been implicated in the metastatic process ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In order to further improve MSC-based stem cell therapeutics, it is important to understand the cellular kinetics and functional roles of MSCs in the dynamic regenerative processes. (hindawi.com)