Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)
Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.
A 235-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is also found in platelets. It has been localized to regions of cell-substrate adhesion. It binds to INTEGRINS; VINCULIN; and ACTINS and appears to participate in generating a transmembrane connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. Ng-CAM is immunologically and structurally distinct from NCAM.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A genetically related subfamily of RAP GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that share homology with RAS PROTEINS. They bind to Ras effectors but do not activate them, therefore they may antagonize the effects of RAS PROTEINS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
A family of immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecules that are involved in NERVOUS SYSTEM patterning.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
A family of cytoskeletal proteins that play essential roles in CELL ADHESION at ADHERENS JUNCTIONS by linking CADHERINS to the ACTIN FILAMENTS of the CYTOSKELETON.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
Pathological processes involving the PERITONEUM.
Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.
A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A ubiquitously expressed syndecan that is found in all stages of embryonic development and in most adult tissues. Syndecan-4 is found localized to focal adhesion sites in fibronectin-adherent cells and may play a role the process of CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
An alpha integrin with a molecular weight of 160-kDa that is found in a variety of cell types. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. Integrin alphaV can combine with several different beta subunits to form heterodimers that generally bind to RGD sequence-containing extracellular matrix proteins.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the INTEGRIN ALPHA2BETA1 heterodimer. It contains a domain which has homology to collagen-binding domains found in von Willebrand factor.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A family of related, adhesive glycoproteins which are synthesized, secreted, and incorporated into the extracellular matrix of a variety of cells, including alpha granules of platelets following thrombin activation and endothelial cells. They interact with a number of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS and anticoagulant factors. Five distinct forms have been identified, thrombospondin 1, -2, -3, -4, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). They are involved in cell adhesion, platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE growth, and tissue repair.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (1/22844)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins. (2/22844)

Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Phenotypic analysis of human glioma cells expressing the MMAC1 tumor suppressor phosphatase. (3/22844)

MMAC1, also known as PTEN or TEP-1, was recently identified as a gene commonly mutated in a variety of human neoplasias. Sequence analysis revealed that MMAC1 harbored sequences similar to those found in several protein phosphatases. Subsequent studies demonstrated that MMAC1 possessed in vitro enzymatic activity similar to that exhibited by dual specificity phosphatases. To characterize the potential cellular functions of MMAC1, we expressed wild-type and several mutant variants of MMAC1 in the human glioma cell line, U373, that lacks endogenous expression. While expression of wild-type MMAC1 in these cells significantly reduced their growth rate and saturation density, expression of enzymatically inactive MMAC1 significantly enhanced growth in soft agar. Our observations indicate that while wild-type MMAC1 exhibits activities compatible with its proposed role as a tumor suppressor, cellular expression of MMAC1 containing mutations in the catalytic domain may yield protein products that enhance transformation characteristics.  (+info)

Cell growth inhibition by farnesyltransferase inhibitors is mediated by gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB. (4/22844)

Recent results have shown that the ability of farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) to inhibit malignant cell transformation and Ras prenylation can be separated. We proposed previously that farnesylated Rho proteins are important targets for alternation by FTIs, based on studies of RhoB (the FTI-Rho hypothesis). Cells treated with FTIs exhibit a loss of farnesylated RhoB but a gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB (RhoB-GG), which is associated with loss of growth-promoting activity. In this study, we tested whether the gain of RhoB-GG elicited by FTI treatment was sufficient to mediate FTI-induced cell growth inhibition. In support of this hypothesis, when expressed in Ras-transformed cells RhoB-GG induced phenotypic reversion, cell growth inhibition, and activation of the cell cycle kinase inhibitor p21WAF1. RhoB-GG did not affect the phenotype or growth of normal cells. These effects were similar to FTI treatment insofar as they were all induced in transformed cells but not in normal cells. RhoB-GG did not promote anoikis of Ras-transformed cells, implying that this response to FTIs involves loss-of-function effects. Our findings corroborate the FTI-Rho hypothesis and demonstrate that gain-of-function effects on Rho are part of the drug mechanism. Gain of RhoB-GG may explain how FTIs inhibit the growth of human tumor cells that lack Ras mutations.  (+info)

The LIM-only protein PINCH directly interacts with integrin-linked kinase and is recruited to integrin-rich sites in spreading cells. (5/22844)

PINCH is a widely expressed and evolutionarily conserved protein comprising primarily five LIM domains, which are cysteine-rich consensus sequences implicated in mediating protein-protein interactions. We report here that PINCH is a binding protein for integrin-linked kinase (ILK), an intracellular serine/threonine protein kinase that plays important roles in the cell adhesion, growth factor, and Wnt signaling pathways. The interaction between ILK and PINCH has been consistently observed under a variety of experimental conditions. They have interacted in yeast two-hybrid assays, in solution, and in solid-phase-based binding assays. Furthermore, ILK, but not vinculin or focal adhesion kinase, has been coisolated with PINCH from mammalian cells by immunoaffinity chromatography, indicating that PINCH and ILK associate with each other in vivo. The PINCH-ILK interaction is mediated by the N-terminal-most LIM domain (LIM1, residues 1 to 70) of PINCH and multiple ankyrin (ANK) repeats located within the N-terminal domain (residues 1 to 163) of ILK. Additionally, biochemical studies indicate that ILK, through the interaction with PINCH, is capable of forming a ternary complex with Nck-2, an SH2/SH3-containing adapter protein implicated in growth factor receptor kinase and small GTPase signaling pathways. Finally, we have found that PINCH is concentrated in peripheral ruffles of cells spreading on fibronectin and have detected clusters of PINCH that are colocalized with the alpha5beta1 integrins. These results demonstrate a specific protein recognition mechanism utilizing a specific LIM domain and multiple ANK repeats and suggest that PINCH functions as an adapter protein connecting ILK and the integrins with components of growth factor receptor kinase and small GTPase signaling pathways.  (+info)

Exposure of human vascular endothelial cells to sustained hydrostatic pressure stimulates proliferation. Involvement of the alphaV integrins. (6/22844)

The present study investigated the effects of sustained hydrostatic pressure (SHP; up to 4 cm H2O) on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, focal adhesion plaque (FAP) organization, and integrin expression. Exposure of HUVECs to SHP stimulated cell proliferation and a selective increase in the expression of integrin subunit alphaV. The increase in alphaV was observed as early as 4 hours after exposure to pressure and preceded detectable increases in the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index. Laser confocal microscopy studies demonstrated colocalization of the alphaV integrin to FAPs. The individual FAPs in pressure-treated cells demonstrated a reduced area and increased aspect ratio and were localized to both peripheral and more central regions of the cells, in contrast to the predilection for the cell periphery in cells maintained under control pressure conditions. The pressure-induced changes in alphaV distribution had functional consequences on the cells: adhesivity of the cells to vitronectin was increased, and alphaV antagonists blocked the pressure-induced proliferative response. Thus, the present study suggests a role for alphaV integrins in the mechanotransduction of pressure by endothelial cells.  (+info)

Fluorimetric multiparameter cell assay at the single cell level fabricated by optical tweezers. (7/22844)

A fluorimetric multi-parameter cell sensor at the single cell level is presented which makes it possible to observe the physiological behavior of different cell lines, different physiological parameters, and statistical data at the same time. Different cell types were immobilized at predefined positions with high accuracy using optical tweezers and adhesion promoting surface layers. The process is applicable to both adherent and non-adherent cells. Coating of the immobilization area with mussel adhesive protein was shown to be essential for the process. Intracellular proton and calcium concentrations in different cell classes were simultaneously imaged and the specific activation of T lymphocytes was demonstrated. This method should be especially useful for drug screening due to the small sample volume and high information density.  (+info)

Cell adhesion regulates the interaction between the docking protein p130(Cas) and the 14-3-3 proteins. (8/22844)

Integrin ligand binding induces a signaling complex formation via the direct association of the docking protein p130(Cas) (Cas) with diverse molecules. We report here that the 14-3-3zeta protein interacts with Cas in the yeast two-hybrid assay. We also found that the two proteins associate in mammalian cells and that this interaction takes place in a phosphoserine-dependent manner, because treatment of Cas with a serine phosphatase greatly reduced its ability to bind 14-3-3zeta. Furthermore, the Cas-14-3-3zeta interaction was found to be regulated by integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Thus, when cells are detached from the extracellular matrix, the binding of Cas to 14-3-3zeta is greatly diminished, whereas replating the cells onto fibronectin rapidly induces the association. Consistent with these results, we found that the subcellular localization of Cas and 14-3-3 is also regulated by integrin ligand binding and that the two proteins display a significant co-localization during cell attachment to the extracellular matrix. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that 14-3-3 proteins participate in integrin-activated signaling pathways through their interaction with Cas, which, in turn, may contribute to important biological responses regulated by cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix.  (+info)

Osteopontin (OPN) is an extracellular glycosylated phosphoprotein that promotes cell adhesion by interacting with several integrin receptors. We previously reported that an OPN mutant lacking five O-glycosylation sites (Thr134/Thr138/Thr143/Thr147/Thr152) in the threonine/proline-rich region increased cell adhesion activity and phosphorylation compared with the wild type. However, the role of O-glycosylation in cell adhesion activity and phosphorylation of OPN remains to be clarified. Here, we show that site-specific O-glycosylation in the threonine/proline-rich region of OPN affects its cell adhesion activity and phosphorylation independently and/or synergistically. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we found that OPN mutants with substitution sets of Thr134/Thr138 or Thr143/Thr147/Thr152 had decreased and increased cell adhesion activity, respectively. In contrast, the introduction of a single mutation into the O-glycosylation sites had no effect on OPN cell adhesion activity. An adhesion assay ...
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This application note analyzes the role of different adhesion molecules and chemokines involved in various stages of inflammation under physiological flow conditions. Using Cellixs biochips and Mirus pumping system, THP-1, monocyte and PBMC adhesion to VCAM-1; THP-1, monocyte and PBMC rolling on E-selectin; and respective adhesion blockades is investigated. THP-1 adhesion to HUVECs, correlating adhesion assay results with adhesion molecule expression levels on HUVECs from flow cytometry data, i
Expression of cyclooxygenases (COX) and lipoxygenases (LOX) has been linked to many pathophysiological phenotypes, including cell adhesion. However, many current approaches to measure cellular changes are performed only in a fixed-time point. Since cells dynamically move in conjunction with the cell matrix, there is a pressing need for dynamic or time-dependent methods for the investigation of cell properties. In the presented study, we used stable human colorectal cancer cell lines ectopically expressing COX-1, COX-2, and 15LOX-1, to investigate whether expression of COX-1, COX-2, or 15LOX-1 would affect cell adhesion using our opto-electric methodology. In a fixed-time point experiment, only COX-1- and COX-2-expressing cells enhanced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, but all the transfected cells showed invasion activity. However, in a real-time experiment using opto-electric approaches, transmitted cellular morphology was much different with tight adhesion being shown in COX-2 expressing
The extravasation of leukocytes from the blood into tissues occurs as a multistep process: an initial transient interaction (rolling), generally thought to be mediated by the selectin family of adhesion molecules, followed by firm adhesion, usually mediated by integrins. Using a parallel plate flow chamber designed to approximate physiologic flow in postcapillary venules, we have characterized a rolling interaction between lymphoid cells and adherent primary and cultured endothelial cells that is not selectin mediated. Studies using blocking monoclonal antibodies indicate that this novel interaction is mediated by CD44. Abrogation of the rolling interaction could be specifically achieved using both soluble hyaluronate (HA) and treatment of the adherent cells with HA-reactive substances, indicating that HA is the ligand supporting this rolling interaction. Some B and T cell lines, as well as normal lymphocytes, either constitutively exhibit rolling or can be induced to do so by phorbol ester or ...
Cell adhesion involves receptor-mediated cell-surface interactions with the extracellular matrix (Burridge and Chrzanowska-Wodnicka 1996; Gumbiner 1996). These interactions play a central role in the organization of the cytoskeleton, thereby regulating cell shape and function. Focal adhesions are specialized structures linking the extracellular matrix to the actin microfilaments through integrin and syndecan transmembrane receptors. The structure of the focal adhesion plaque consists of an elaborate network of interconnecting proteins anchoring the microfilaments to the membrane at the contact site. As the points of closest apposition linking the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix, focal adhesions are ideally positioned for regulating the adhesive strength of the cell. It may help to think of the cell as having three grades of adhesiveness: (1) weak adherence, meaning that the cell is attached but not spread; (2) intermediate adherence, characterized by a spread cell that lacks stress ...
L-Arginine reduces human monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and decreases expression of certain endothelial cell adhesion molecules.
The integrin LFA-1 and its ligand ICAM-1 mediate B cell adhesion, but their role in membrane-bound antigen recognition is still unknown. Here, using planar lipid bilayers and cells expressing ICAM-1 fused to green fluorescence protein, we found that the engagement of B cell receptor (BCR) promotes B cell adhesion by an LFA-1-mediated mechanism. LFA-1 is recruited to form a mature B cell synapse segregating into a ring around the BCR. This distribution is maintained over a wide range of BCR/antigen affinities (10(6) M(-1) to 10(11) M(-1)). Furthermore, the LFA-1 binding to ICAM-1 reduces the level of antigen required to form the synapse and trigger a B cell. Thus, LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction lowers the threshold for B cell activation by promoting B cell adhesion and synapse formation.
The aim of the first part of the thesis was to develop and validate an in vitro adherence assay involving porcine mononuclear cells (MCs) and porcine endothelium, present within gut and lymph node. Factors involved in MC / endothelium interactions were determined. In summary we found that cell adhesion in our assay system was temperature, Ca2+ and Mn2+ sensitive, required metabolic activity, was inhibited by the phosphorylated monosaccharide galactose 6-phosphate, and unaffected by the presence of mucus. These findings reflected certain aspects of in vivo cell adhesion, present within the in vitro assay used. The adhesion characteristics of porcine Peyer s patch (PP), peripheral blood (PB), and lymph node (LN) MCs to porcine gut and lymph node endothelium was examined and used as an guiding model for the future study of human MCs adherence. It was found that PP MCs adhered significantly better to gut endothelium than to LN endothelium and similarly LN MCs adhered significantly better to LN ...
Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical to various cellular processes like cell spreading, migration, growth and apoptosis. At the tissue level, cell adhesion is important in the pathological and physiological processes that regulate the tissue morphogenesis. Cell adhesion to the ECM is primarily mediated by the integrin family of receptors. The receptors that are recruited to the surface are reinforced by structural and signaling proteins at the adhesive sites forming focal adhesions that connect the cytoskeleton to further stabilize the adhesions. The functional roles of these focal adhesions extend beyond stabilizing adhesions and transduce mechanical signals at the cell-ECM interface in various signaling events. The objective of this research is to analyze the role of the spatial distribution of the focal adhesions in stabilizing the cell adhesion to the ECM in relation to cells internal force balance. The central hypothesis was that peripheral focal adhesions stabilize cell
Static adhesion of transfectants to immobilized ligands. Adhesion of various integrin transfectants to MAdCAM-1 (top) and ICAM-1 (bottom) was measured in
The modification of medical device surface with adhesive ligands has been recently shown to be an effective means for making a bioselective surface which can inhibit bacterial adhesion while promoting host cell adhesion on device materials. Currently, the lack of quantitative correlation between the adhesion strength of bacteria, nature of adhesive ligand and adhesion kinetics of mammalian cells hinders the development of such device surface. In this study, the biophysical responses of bacteria and mammalian cells towards adhesive ligand on model device surfaces formed by the chemisorption of dopamine (a moderate antibiotic) on glass are elucidated. The effects of RGD, collagen and dopamine modification on the adhesion strength of two clinically significant bacteria including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were investigated by the determination of minimum lateral forces for bacterial detachment and the density of adhering bacteria. The result indicates that RGD ...
Antioxidants have been proposed to be anti-atherosclerotic agents; however, the mechanisms underlying their beneficial effects are poorly understood. We have examined the effect of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-tcp) on one cellular event in atherosclerotic plaque development, monocyte adhesion to stimulated endothelial cells (ECs). Human umbilical vein ECs were pretreated with alpha-tcp before stimulation with known agonists of monocyte adhesion: IL-1 (10 ng/ml), LPS (10 ng/ml), thrombin (30 U/ml), or PMA (10 nM). Agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion, but not basal adhesion, was inhibited in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by alpha-tcp. The IC50 of alpha-tcp on an IL-1-induced response was 45 microM. The inhibition correlated with a decrease in steady state levels of E-selectin mRNA and cell surface expression of E-selectin which is consistent with the ability of a monoclonal antibody to E-selectin to inhibit monocytic cell adhesion in this system. Probucol (50 microM) and ...
In the 9 years since the last review on leukocyte and endothelial interactions was published in this journal many of the critical structures involved in leukocyte adherence to and migration across endothelium have been elucidated. With the advent of cell and molecular biology approaches, investigations have progressed from the early descriptions by intravital microscopy and histology, to functional and immunologic characterization of adhesion molecules, and now to the development of genetically deficient animals and the first phase I trial of anti-adhesion therapy in humans. The molecular cloning and definition of the adhesive functions of the leukocyte integrins, endothelial members of the Ig gene superfamily, and the selectins has already provided sufficient information to construct an operative paradigm of the molecular basis of leukocyte emigration. The regulation of these adhesion molecules by chemoattractants, cytokines, or chemokines, and the interrelationships of adhesion pathways need ...
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The integrin subunit beta 1B, a beta 1 isoform with a unique sequence at the cytoplasmic domain, forms heterodimers with integrin alpha chains and binds fibronectin, but it does not localize to focal adhesion sites (Balzac, F., A. Belkin, V. Koteliansky, Y. Balabanow, F. Altruda, L. Silengo, and G. Tarone. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 121:171-178). Here we analyze the functional properties of human beta 1B by expressing it in hamster CHO cells. When stimulated by specific antibodies, beta 1B does not trigger tyrosine phosphorylation of a 125-kD cytosolic protein, an intracellular signalling pathway that is activated both by the endogenous hamster or the transfected human beta 1A. Moreover, expression of beta 1B results in reduced spreading on fibronectin and laminin, but not on vitronectin. Expression of beta 1B also results in severe reduction of cell motility in the Boyden chamber assay. Reduced cell spreading and motility could not be accounted for by preferential association of beta 1B with a given ...
Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix is required to execute growth factor (GF)-mediated cell behaviors, such as proliferation. A major underlying mechanism is that cell adhesion enhances GF-mediated intracellular signals, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk). However, because GFs use distinct mechanisms to activate Ras-Erk signaling, it is unclear whether adhesion-mediated enhancement of Erk signaling is universal to all GFs. We examined this issue by quantifying the dynamics of Erk signaling induced by epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. Adhesion to fibronectin-coated surfaces enhances Erk signaling elicited by epidermal growth factor but not by bFGF or PDGF. Unexpectedly, adhesion is not always a positive influence on GF-mediated signaling. At critical subsaturating doses of PDGF or bFGF, cell adhesion ablates Erk signaling; that is, adhesion desensitizes the cell to GF ...
Cell adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon vital for all multicellular organisms. Recognition of and adhesion to specific macromolecules is a crucial task of leukocytes to initiate the immune response. To gain statistically reliable information of cell adhesion, large numbers of cells should be measured. However, direct measurement of the adhesion force of single cells is still challenging and todays techniques typically have an extremely low throughput (5-10 cells per day). Here, we introduce a computer controlled micropipette mounted onto a normal inverted microscope for probing single cell interactions with specific macromolecules. We calculated the estimated hydrodynamic lifting force acting on target cells by the numerical simulation of the flow at the micropipette tip. The adhesion force of surface attached cells could be accurately probed by repeating the pick-up process with increasing vacuum applied in the pipette positioned above the cell under investigation. Using the introduced methodology
Hematogenous metastasis requires the arrest and extravasation of blood-borne tumor cells, possibly involving direct adhesive interactions with vascular endothelium. Cytokine activation of cultured human endothelium increases adhesion of melanoma and carcinoma cell lines. An inducible 110-kD endothelial cell surface glycoprotein, designated INCAM-110, appears to mediate adhesion of melanoma cells. In addition, an inducible endothelial receptor for neutrophils, ELAM-1, supports the adhesion of a human colon carcinoma cell line. Thus, activation of vascular endothelium in vivo that results in increased expression of INCAM-110 and ELAM-1 may promote tumor cell adhesion and affect the incidence and distribution of metastases.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Control of integrin αIIbβ3 outside-in signaling and platelet adhesion by sensing the physical properties of fibrin(ogen) substrates. AU - Podolnikova, Nataly. AU - Yermolenko, Ivan S.. AU - Fuhrmann, Alexander. AU - Lishko, Valeryi K.. AU - Magonov, Sergei. AU - Bowen, Benjamin. AU - Enderlein, Joerg. AU - Podolnikov, Andriy V.. AU - Ros, Robert. AU - Ugarova, Tatiana. PY - 2010/1/12. Y1 - 2010/1/12. N2 - The physical properties of substrates are known to control cell adhesion via integrin-mediated signaling. Fibrin and fibrinogen, the principal components of hemostatic and pathological thrombi, may represent biologically relevant substrates whose variable physical properties control adhesion of leukocytes and platelets. In our previous work, we have shown that binding of fibrinogen to the surface of fibrin clot prevents cell adhesion by creating an antiadhesive fibrinogen layer. Furthermore, fibrinogen immobilized on various surfaces at high density supports weak cell adhesion ...
The broad tissue distribution and evolutionary conservation of the GPI-anchored protein PrP suggests that it plays a role in cellular homeostasis. Since integrin adhesion determines cell behavior, the proposed role of PrP in cell adhesion may underlie the various in vitro and in vivo effects associated to PrP loss-of-function, including the immune phenotypes described in PrP−/- mice. We have investigated the role of PrP in the adhesion and (transendothelial) migration of human (pro)monocytes. We found that PrP regulates β1 integrin-mediated adhesion of monocytes. Additionally, PrP controls cell morphology and migratory behavior of monocytes: PrP-silenced cells show deficient uropod formation on immobilized VCAM and display bleb-like protrusions on the endothelium. Our data further show that PrP regulates ligand-induced integrin activation. Finally, we found that PrP controls the activation of several proteins involved in cell adhesion and migration, including RhoA and its effector cofilin as ...
University of Turku. Professor Johanna Ivaskas (University of Turku) research focus is on the changes that occur in cells with the development of cancer metastases. Integrins are important cell adhesion receptors that regulate the division of cells and their movement in tissue. Changes in cell adhesion properties are a key factor in the formation of cancer metastases. The aim of Professor Ivaskas research is to reach a fundamentally new mechanical understanding of how integrins work in cancer cells and to produce a roadmap of integrin receptor operation and communication chains.. The research combines different methods, including in vivo models, high-throughput screening and applications of synthetic biology. These innovative approaches will yield significant new information about the pathways of cancer cells and their movement in tissue. The project is expected to result in major scientific breakthroughs in this topical field of biomedicine.. Johanna Ivaska is a highly merited researcher. For ...
The idea that cells adhere to one another in a specific manner, such that cells of one type stick only to cells of the same type, appears to have had its origin from the work of Wilson (1907). He found that when cell suspensions from two species of marine sponge were mixed and allowed to aggregate, each individual aggregate body was composed of cells of one species alone. This conclusion has been supported by the results obtained by Humphreys (1963) amongst others, though some workers, who have used different species of sponge, have failed to detect signs of specific adhesion of the cells (Sara, Liaci & Melone, 1966). Until recently there has been little evidence in favour or against the idea that specific adhesion occurs between the cells of higher animals.. ...
Project leader: Prof. Dr. T. Chavakis. Integrin-dependent adhesive interactions between leukocytes and the endothelium contribute to inflammatory processes. In addition, similar adhesive events between haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and bone marrow stromal cells, including endothelial cells, play a major role for the mobilisation of HSC into peripheral blood and for the homing of HSC to the bone marrow, both processes being relevant for bone marrow transplantation. The beta2-integrin LFA-1, exclusively expressed on cells of haematopoietic origin, is a major adhesion receptor in this context. We recently identified developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1 or Edil3), secreted by endothelial cells, as an endogenous inhibitor of LFA-1-dependent leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in vitro and leukocyte recruitment in vivo as well as of interleukin-17 (IL-17)-dependent inflammation in the context of aging-associated inflammatory bone loss. Since LFA-1 can regulate adhesive functions of HSC and ...
The invention discloses a cell culture support which provides for the adhesion and culturing of one or more adhesive cells using a photoresist in which to provide a particular patterned design on a surface of the support. The patterned design is provided by the photoresist which is partially removed by photolithography during the making of the support which in turn imparts a striped, checkerboard or dotted pattern on the surface of the support. Further, the cell culture support is produced by pretreating the support surface with a reagent to provide hydrophobicity to the support surface. Also a reagent can be added to pretreat the support surface in order to facilitate adhesion at the photoresist prior to applying the photoresist into the cell culture support. Collagen is applied in the form of a solution, containing in addition thereto albumin and a crosslinking agent, in order to form a film. Collagen specifically affects the cell adhesion rate or the morphology of the cells to be adhered to the
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Cells exert actomyosin contractility and cytoskeleton-dependent force in response to matrix stiffness cues. Cells dynamically adapt to force by modifying their behavior and remodeling their microenvironment. This adaptation is favored by integrin activation switch and their ability to modulate their clustering and the assembly of an intracellular hub in response to force. Indeed integrins are mechanoreceptors and mediate mechanotransduction by transferring forces to specific adhesion proteins into focal adhesions which are sensitive to tension and activate intracellular signals. α(5)β(1) integrin is considered of major importance for the formation of an elaborate meshwork of fibronectin fibrils and for the extracellular matrix deposition and remodeling. Here we summarize recent progress in the study of mechanisms regulating the activation cycle of β(1) integrin and the specificity of α(5)β(1) integrin in mechanotransduction.
Nano-scale or micro-scale adhesive structures comprising an array of nano-fabricated, pillars, the pillars having coated upon, or having disposed on a working surface thereof, a protein-mimetic, marine-adhesive coating. Methods of fabricating the nano-scale pillars, synthesis of the protein-mimetic coating or wet adhesive and application of the adhesive to the pillars are described.
The functionalization of hydrogels for receptor-mediated cell adhesion is one approach for targeted cell and tissue engineering applications. In this study, polyacrylamide gel surfaces were functionalized with specific cell adhesion ligands via the self-assembly of a peptide-based heterodimer. The s …
The CD2 receptor on T lymphocytes is essential for T cell adhesion and stimulation by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Blockade of CD2 function is immunosuppressive in both model systems and humans, indicating the importance of CD2 for the cellular immune response. Although the affinity of the molecular interaction between CD2 and its counter-receptor, CD58, is relatively low when measured in solution, this interaction mediates tight adhesion within the 2D cell-cell interface. To understand the mechanisms responsible for regulating the avidity of the CD2-CD58 interaction, we measured the number, affinity, and lateral mobility of CD2 molecules on resting and activated T cells. Cell activation caused a 1.5-fold increase in the number of CD2 sites on the cell surface, and the 2D affinity of CD2 for CD58 increased by 2.5-fold. The combination of T cell activation and CD2 ligation to CD58 decreased the laterally mobile fraction of the ligated CD2. Together, these changes would substantially enhance CD2
The integrin VLA-3 is a cell surface receptor, which binds to fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I and VI (Takada, Y., E. A. Wayner, W. G. Carter, and M. E. Hemler. 1988. J. Cell. Biochem. 37:385-393) and is highly expressed in substrate adherent cultures of almost all human cell types. The ligand specificity of VLA-3 and the inhibition of cell adhesion by anti-VLA-3 monoclonal antibodies suggest its involvement in cell-substrate interaction. In normal tissues, VLA-3 is restricted to few cell types, notably the kidney glomeruli and basal cells of the epidermis. In the epidermis, VLA-3 is generally strongly expressed on the entire plasma membrane of basal cells and is not polarized towards the basement membrane (Klein, C. E., C. Cardon-Cardo, R. Soehnchen, R. J. Cote, H. F. Oettgen, M. Eisinger, and L. J. Old. 1987. J. Invest. Dermatol. 89:500-507). Based on this finding we speculated that, in addition to a role of VLA-3 for adhesion of cells to substrate, it could also be relevant for cell-cell ...
Colorectal tumors originate and develop within intestinal crypts. Even though some of the essential phenomena that characterize crypt structure and dynamics have been effectively described in the past, the relation between the differentiation process and the overall crypt homeostasis is still partially understood. We here investigate this relation and other important biological phenomena by introducing a novel multiscale model that combines a morphological description of the crypt with a gene regulation model: the emergent dynamical behavior of the underlying gene regulatory network drives cell growth and differentiation processes, linking the two distinct spatio-temporal levels. The model relies on a few a priori assumptions, yet accounting for several key processes related to crypt functioning, such as: dynamic gene activation patterns, stochastic differentiation, signaling pathways ruling cell adhesion properties, cell displacement, cell growth, mitosis, apoptosis and the presence of ...
The role of the mesothelial layer in the peritoneal spreading of cancer cells is only partially clarified. Here we attempted to better define the mesothelial contribution to the tumor cell adhesion using a direct adhesion test applied to human primary cultures of mesothelial cells (HPMCs) derived from the peritoneal washes of patients with gastric and colorectal cancers. Gastric and colon carcinoma cells were seeded on different mesothelial monolayers and quantitative fluorescence analysis was performed to analyze their growth and adhesive properties. The adhesion of the cancer cells was not affected by the origin of the HPMCs when derived from patients with different cancers or with benign disease. In contrast, the high levels of ICAM1 expression and ROS production, which characterize these senescent mesothelial cells, enhanced the tumor cell adhesion. These results suggest that the mesothelial adhesive properties are dependent on the cell senescence, while are not affected by the tumor ...
My recent research has focused on how leukocytes control their adhesiveness and has resulted in a discovery of a novel regulatory pathway, Rogelj relates. Its a Rube Goldberg kind of sequence: Biochemical events that occur along this pathway determine the expression of a critical cell surface adhesion molecule, which in turn determines the ability of a leukocyte to recognize its target. Signals that lead to a loss of cell adhesiveness, therefore, result in suppression of the immune response. And, suppression of the immune system may or may not be a good thing ...
Our laboratory consists of 5 Research Fellows and a Junior Faculty member who are physician scientists or research scientists and two senior research technicians. who use a combination of immunological, biochemical and molecular biological strategies to study leukocyte recruitment in various in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation. We have developed a valuable in vitro model that allows direct microscopic examination of live leukocyte Ð endothelial interactions under defined laminar fluid shear stress conditions that mimic blood flow in small venules. Areas of focus using this model are three-fold: first, dissection of the adhesion mechanisms that support blood monocyte and specific T cell subset adhesive interactions with endothelium under flow, or specific recombinant endothelial cell adhesion molecules; second, characterization of endothelial-dependent mechanisms involved in regulation of endothelial cell borders (lateral junctions) during leukocyte transmigration, permeability function ...
The Ly-6 locus on mouse chromosome 15 encodes a family of 10-12 kDa proteins that are linked to the cell surface by a glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol anchor and have cell signaling and cell adhesion properties. Expression of Ly-6 proteins is tightly regulated during development; these proteins continu.... Full description. ...
The leukocyte adhesion cascade is an important paradigm of immunity and mediates leukocyte recruitment in acute or chronic inflammatory responses. Leukocyte recruitment requires several adhesive interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells. The adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelial cell surface is mediated by interactions between leukocyte integrins, such as the beta1-integrin family member VLA-4 (a4b1) or the beta2-integrin family members LFA-1 (aLb2, CD11a/CD18), Mac-1 (aMb2, CD11b/CD18, complement receptor-3), and their endothelial counter-receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) (1). Our lab has made significant contributions to the leukocyte adhesion cascade, including the recent identification of a novel endogenous inhibitor of leukocyte recruitment, the endothelial-derived molecule Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1, Edil3) (2-4).. Mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) from the bone marrow to the periphery takes place upon infection. HSC ...
Prostate Cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men.. The inflammatory tumor microenvironment is a fertile niche that releases reactive oxygen species, which accelerates the malignant transformation and appears as a fine tuner of the adhesive behavior of cells. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, represents an essential event in cellular responses to pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory insults. As we previously reported that HO-1 over-expression impaired tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo we sought to assess whether HO-1 could regulate the adhesive properties and the morphology of PCa cells. A bioinformatics enrichment analysis using Metacore, GeneMANIA and DAVID was performed; rendering a significant association of the HO-1 regulated genes with several proteins located in the extracellular space and cell membrane; compartments highly correlated with the adhesive behavior of cells. In an effort to understand the molecular ...
Effect of Ni addition on the microstructures of melt-spun CuCr ribbons. YU, M.; WANGI, Y.; WANG, Y.; SUN, Z. // Materials Science (0137-1339);2008, Vol. 26 Issue 3, p675 The microstructures and resistivities of melt-spun Cu75Cr25 and Cu(75-x)Cr25Nix (x = 1 or 3 wt. %) ribbons were studied. The size of the Cr-rich phase from liquid phase separation in the Cu75Cr25 microstructure can be decreased from the micrometer-scale to about 250 nm by using melt spinning.... ...
Sample preparation has always been a notoriously time consuming task that tends to detract from the more essential functions of collecting and analyzing data. A few key factors come in to play with improving the process of plating cells for imaging and the time that it takes. Cell adhesion, media re-equilibration, an unobstructed path for free migration of cells are some of the important factors to improve plating efficiency. Cell adhesion is pendant on the surface the cells are being plated on. The chemical composition of the glass affects cell adhesion and all glass surfaces are not created equal. It is best to use glass that is alkaline free and designed for cell adhesion (check out the Bioptechs Delta T Culture Dishes, FCS2 coverslips, 30mm ICD coverslips, and Microaquaduct slides). Sometimes an ECM is required depending on the cell type and protocol, however, in all cases cell plating is improved with the use of Culture Cylinders. A unique attribute of using a Culture Cylinder for plating ...
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Here, we investigated molecular and biophysical mechanisms through which GBM cells adhere to HA matrix. We find that GBM cells interact with HA via McTNs, which are long, thin protrusions rich in the HA receptor CD44, which we show is necessary for cell adhesion and McTN stability. Motility assays and laser ablation indicate that McTNs are stabilized by a balance of actomyosin-driven contraction, microtubule-driven protrusion, and CD44-mediated adhesion. Mechanical coupling of actin and microtubules with McTNs appears to be reinforced by a complex of IQGAP1 and CLIP170, and loss of IQGAP1 specifically disrupts adhesion and motility on HA.. McTNs, which can be functionally defined as microtubule-positive protrusions that elongate following actin depolymerization, have been observed in circulating tumor cells (CTCs), where they are believed to facilitate endothelial adhesion prior to extravasation (30⇓-32). However, to our knowledge, these structures have not been previously appreciated in the ...
Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is necessary for fundamental cellular processes such as survival, migration, and differentiation. Adhesion is mediated by integrin receptors, which recruit multiprotein adhesion complexes to sites of attachment to the ECM. Adhesion complexes provide a structural connection between the ECM and cytoskeleton, transmit mechanical force, and act as signaling hubs to control cell behavior. Recent high-resolution imaging studies of adhesion sites reveal some aspects of their spatial organization and provide insights into their function at the molecular level.. ...
In this study, we have investigated whether SHIP plays a role in PMA- or cytokine-mediated LFA-1 activation by overexpressing both WT and phosphatase dead forms of SHIP in DA-ER cells. Our results show that 1) overexpression of WT-SHIP in unstimulated DA-ER cells increases LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion to ICAM-1, and this adhesion is further augmented by the addition of PMA, IL-3, or Epo; 2) SHIP requires a functional 5′-phosphatase domain for these effects, and overexpression of a phosphatase dead form actually leads to a slight inhibition of LFA-1-mediated adhesion to ICAM-1; 3) SHIP overexpression most likely enhances adhesion via its effect on inside-out signaling because its overexpression has no effect on the external activation of LFA-1 by Mn2+; 4) LFA-1 activation on cells overexpressing WT-SHIP does not involve activation of Erk-1 and Erk-2; and 5) LFA-1 activation in response to PMA in SHIP-overexpressing cells is via its effects on a PKC-stimulated pathway, while LFA-1 activation in ...
We have designed a lightly crosslinked PEG based copolymer coating with compositional flexibility as well as extended stability for studying human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Copolymers contain a majority of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEMA) as a cytophobic background with poly(et
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A diverse family of cell surface and extracellular glycoproteins involved in cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, recognition, and activation. There are four main classes of cell adhesion molecules: integrins, selectins, cadherins, and immunoglobulin-like adhesion molecules. [National Cancer Institute Thesaurus].. ...
Cell adhesion[edit]. Many cells produce specific carbohydrate-binding proteins known as lectins, which mediate cell adhesion ... mediate certain cell-cell adhesion processes, including those of leukocytes to endothelial cells.[7] In an immune response, ... Cell recognition[edit]. 1 All cells are coated in either glycoproteins or glycolipids, both of which help determine cell types. ... Feizi T (1993). "Oligosaccharides that mediate mammalian cell-cell adhesion". Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 3 (5): 701 ...
Cell adhesion[edit]. Many cells bind to components of the extracellular matrix. Cell adhesion can occur in two ways; by focal ... This cell-to-ECM adhesion is regulated by specific cell-surface cellular adhesion molecules (CAM) known as integrins. Integrins ... Plopper G (2007). The extracellular matrix and cell adhesion, in Cells (eds Lewin B, Cassimeris L, Lingappa V, Plopper G). ... Cell adhesion proteins[edit]. Fibronectin[edit]. Fibronectins are glycoproteins that connect cells with collagen fibers in the ...
Cell adhesion molecule. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. IgSF CAM:. *OFC7 ... Cell membrane protein disorders (other than Cell surface receptor, enzymes, and cytoskeleton) ... Among the methods thought to hold promise for treatment include gene transfer therapy,[13] which works by inserting in cells of ...
"Synaptic cell adhesion". Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 4: a005694. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a005694. PMC 3312681 . PMID ... The function of neurons depends upon cell polarity. The distinctive structure of nerve cells allows action potentials to travel ... Synapses are essential to neuronal function: neurons are cells that are specialized to pass signals to individual target cells ... and for these signals to then be received and carried on by post-synaptic neurons or received by effector cells. Nerve cells ...
The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... "Synaptic cell adhesion". Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 4 (4): a005694. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a005694. PMC 3312681. PMID ... The ribbon synapse is a special type of synapse found in sensory neurons such as photoreceptor cells, retinal bipolar cells, ... β-neurexin then binds to cell adhesion molecule, neuroligin located on the postsynaptic membrane. Neuroligin then interacts ...
cell adhesion. • cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation. • platelet formation. • leukocyte migration. • establishment ... cell cortex. • brush border. • actomyosin. • myosin complex. • integrin complex. • ruffle. • cell nucleus. • cell leading edge ... S100A4 expression is associated with enhanced cell migration through maintenance of cell polarization and inhibition of cell ... "Non-muscle myosin II takes centre stage in cell adhesion and migration". Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology. 10 (11): 778- ...
Cell adhesion molecule. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. IgSF CAM:. *OFC7 ... Neurons, Schwann cells, and fibroblasts work together to create a functional nerve. Schwann cells and neurons exchange ... Cell membrane protein disorders (other than Cell surface receptor, enzymes, and cytoskeleton) ... X-linked CMT and Schwann cells[edit]. CMT can also be produced by X-linked mutations, and is named X-linked CMT (CMTX). In CMTX ...
Cell adhesion molecule. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. IgSF CAM:. *OFC7 ... Cell membrane protein disorders (other than Cell surface receptor, enzymes, and cytoskeleton) ...
cell-cell junction assembly. • calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • cell-cell ... cell-cell adherens junction. • cell surface. • catenin complex. Biological process. • response to cold. • cell adhesion. • ... homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules. • chemical synaptic transmission. • regulation of synapse ... integral membrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Mature cadherin proteins are composed of a large ...
cell adhesion. • binding of sperm to zona pellucida. • sperm-egg recognition. • carbohydrate metabolic process. ... Jansen S, Ekhlasi-Hundrieser M, Töpfer-Petersen E (2001). "Sperm adhesion molecules: structure and function". Cells Tissues ... cell membrane. • membrane. Biological process. • fusion of sperm to egg plasma membrane involved in single fertilization. • ... "J. Cell Biol. 111 (6 Pt 2): 2939-49. doi:10.1083/jcb.111.6.2939. PMC 2116349. PMID 2269661.. ...
Lectins, selectins (cell adhesion lectins), antibodies Receptor Various proteins involved in hormone and drug action ... Cell attachment-recognition site Various proteins involved in cell-cell (e.g., sperm-oocyte), virus-cell, bacterium-cell, and ... Glycoproteins are also often important integral membrane proteins, where they play a role in cell-cell interactions. It is ... "Cell Reports. 11 (10): 1604-1613. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.05.017. ISSN 2211-1247. PMC 4555872. PMID 26051934.. ...
Fibronectins are involved in a number of important functions e.g., wound healing; cell adhesion; blood coagulation; cell ... "The receptor DEC-205 expressed by dendritic cells and thymic epithelial cells is involved in antigen processing". Nature. 375 ( ... K441 and R443 together make up a membrane-binding motif that allows EphA2 receptors to attach to the cell membrane. BSPH1; ... Pankov R, Yamada KM (2002). "Fibronectin at a glance". J Cell Sci. 115 (20): 3861-3863. doi:10.1242/jcs.00059. PMID 12244123. ...
ligands). Evans and Calderwood used single cell force microscopy to study cell adhesion forces, bond kinetics/dynamic bond ... In cellular biology, AFM can be used to attempt to distinguish cancer cells and normal cells based on a hardness of cells, and ... Evans, Evan A.; Calderwood, David A. (25 May 2007). "Forces and Bond Dynamics in Cell Adhesion". Science. 316 (5828): 1148-1153 ... AFM can also be used to indent cells, to study how they regulate the stiffness or shape of the cell membrane or wall. ...
"A male contraceptive targeting germ cell adhesion". Nature Medicine. 12 (11): 1323-8. doi:10.1038/nm1420. PMID 17072312. S2CID ... "Cell. 150 (4): 673-684. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.06.045. PMC 3420011. PMID 22901802.. ... The drug disrupts the junctions between nurse cells (Sertoli cells) in the testes and forming spermatids. The sperm are ... "Sertoli-Sertoli and Sertoli-germ cell interactions and their significance in germ cell movement in the seminiferous epithelium ...
Cell adhesionEdit. Many cells bind to components of the extracellular matrix. Cell adhesion can occur in two ways; by focal ... This cell-to-ECM adhesion is regulated by specific cell-surface cellular adhesion molecules (CAM) known as integrins. Integrins ... Plopper G (2007). The extracellular matrix and cell adhesion, in Cells (eds Lewin B, Cassimeris L, Lingappa V, Plopper G). ... cell adhesion, cell-to-cell communication and differentiation are common functions of the ECM.[4] ...
"The roles of cell adhesion molecules in tumor suppression and cell migration: a new paradox". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 3 (4 ... "The immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule hepaCAM modulates cell adhesion and motility through direct interaction with the ... April 2008). "GlialCAM, an immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule is expressed in glial cells of the central nervous system ... modulating cell-matrix adhesion and migration, and b) inhibiting cancer cell growth. (Note: *HEPACAM, gene name; **hepaCAM, ...
Cell Communication & Adhesion. 10 (1): 27-36. doi:10.1080/15419060302063. PMID 12881038. S2CID 225894. Wang WH, Yang JJ, Lin YC ... However, Cx29, which is highly expressed in myelin-forming glial cells of the CNS and PNS, has not been documented to form gap ... "Identification of novel variants in the Cx29 gene of nonsyndromic hearing loss patients using buccal cells and restriction ... "Connexin29 is uniquely distributed within myelinating glial cells of the central and peripheral nervous systems". The Journal ...
Cell Adhesion & Migration. 1 (4): 185-95. doi:10.4161/cam.1.4.5448. PMC 2634105. PMID 19262140. Zhu Y, Cuevas IC, Gabriel RA, ... "HOXA3 induces cell migration in endothelial and epithelial cells promoting angiogenesis and wound repair". Journal of Cell ... HoxA3 induces endothelial cell (EC) migration by upregulating MMP14 and uPAR. Conversely, HoxD10 and HoxA5 have the opposite ... Dunn J, Simmons R, Thabet S, Jo H (October 2015). "The role of epigenetics in the endothelial cell shear stress response and ...
"Regulation of cell adhesion by protein-tyrosine phosphatases: II. Cell-cell adhesion". J Biol Chem. 281 (24): 16189-92. doi: ... The structure of PTPmu suggests that it can regulate cell adhesion and migration using its extracellular cell adhesion molecule ... Burridge K, Sastry SK, Sallee JL (2006). "Regulation of cell adhesion by protein-tyrosine phosphatases. I. Cell-matrix adhesion ... and therefore keeps cells stationary. Cadherins regulate cell-cell adhesion during development of the body and in adult tissue ...
... form focal adhesions with the substratum, linking them to the cell surface. Many types of migrating cells display ... Viruses were shown to be transported along filopodia toward the cell body, leading to cell infection. Directed transport of ... Filopodia have roles in sensing, migration and cell-cell interaction. To close a wound in vertebrates, growth factors stimulate ... June 28, 2020). "The Global Phosphorylation Landscape of SARS-CoV-2 Infection". Cell. 182 (3): 685-712.e19. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
Cell Communication & Adhesion. 10 (4-6): 451-6. doi:10.1080/cac.10.4-6.451.456. hdl:10533/174413. PMID 14681056. S2CID 33491307 ... In non-excitable cells, the resting potential across the plasma membrane (Vmem) of individual cells propagate across distances ... Civitelli, R (2008). "Cell-cell communication in the osteoblast/osteocyte lineage". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. ... Robinson, K. R (1985). "The responses of cells to electrical fields: A review". The Journal of Cell Biology. 101 (6): 2023-7. ...
Kos J, Jevnikar Z, Obermajer N (April-June 2009). "The role of cathepsin X in cell signaling". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 3 (2 ... It is also shown to bind cell surface heparin sulphate proteoglycans, indicating possible functions in cellular adhesion and ... This gene is expressed ubiquitously in cancer cell lines and primary tumors and, like other members of this family, may be ... Obermajer N, Svajger U, Bogyo M, Jeras M, Kos J (November 2008). "Maturation of dendritic cells depends on proteolytic cleavage ...
Cell Communication & Adhesion. 16 (1-3): 15-27. doi:10.1080/15419060903009329. PMID 19533476. S2CID 19077857. Kirchner F, ... Plakophilin-2 over time has shown to be more than components of cell-cell junctions; rather the plakophilins are emerging as ... which was coordinate with decreased electrical coupling of cells and decreased adhesion strength. These studies were further ... Cell. Proteomics. 4 (6): 785-95. doi:10.1074/mcp.M500021-MCP200. PMID 15778465. Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, ...
Cell Adhesion & Migration. 3 (4): 402-411. doi:10.4161/cam.3.4.8690. ISSN 1933-6926. PMC 2802756. PMID 19421003. "Newcomb ... but after this metamorphosis-induced cell death, the surviving nest cells can then differentiate. These cells become functional ... vast cell death sweeps through nests of larvae that are at the end of larval life. These nest cells were previously in an ... Venken, Koen J.T.; Simpson, Julie H.; Bellen, Hugo J. (October 2011). "Genetic Manipulation of Genes and Cells in the Nervous ...
Park JB, Kwak HJ, Lee SH (2008). "Role of hyaluronan in glioma invasion". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 2 (3): 202-7. doi:10.4161/ ... HA's interaction with CD44 activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an important molecule in the process of cell motility by ... This role of HA has been shown in other cell types, but has not yet been researched in cancer cells. The HA produced by HAS up- ... Finally, in the formation of a metastatic lesion, HAS produces HA to allow the cancer cell to interact with native cells at the ...
... cannot be applied for single-cell analyses as it is insensitive to analyze such small amounts of a ... Adhesion. 13 (5-6): 249-62. doi:10.1080/15419060601077917. PMC 2185548. PMID 17162667. Thompson A, Schäfer J, Kuhn K, Kienle S ... TMT reagents can be used to simultaneously analyze 2 to 11 different peptide samples prepared from cells, tissues or biological ... Fragments observed by EISA have higher signal intensity than traditional fragments which suffer losses in the collision cells ...
Cell Adhesion & Migration. 12 (5): 1-8. doi:10.1080/19336918.2018.1471322. PMC 6363031. PMID 29733749. Lämmermann T, Germain RN ... In addition, proximal cells to the inflammation site showed chemotaxis similar to the control cells while distant cells were ... but because of the additional cell death that they can cause in infection sites. When cells are lysed in an infection site, ... The exact mechanisms of this are unknown but it is believed that neutrophil proteases from the cell clusters play a role in ...
... in muscle targeting to tendon cells". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 4 (3): 368-71. doi:10.4161/cam.4.3.11606. PMC 2958611. PMID ... Protein-protein interactions of LRRC24 implicate the protein with cell signaling, cell migration, and axon guidance. ROBO2 was ... IGFBP7 is also involved in the stimulation of cell adhesion. To date, no study has specifically implicated LRRC24 or the LRRC24 ... The structure of the protein suggests that it localizes to the cell membrane. LRRC24 is conserved in Euteleostomi with the ...
Cell Communication & Adhesion. 10 (4-6): 201-205. doi:10.1080/cac.10.4-6.201.205. PMID 14681016. Andrew L Harris and Darren ... Furthermore, GJA1 is expressed in many immune cells, such as eosinophils and T cells, where its gap junction function promotes ... In addition, GJA1 can be found in the Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules between Sertoli cells and spermatogonia or primary ... between cells to regulate cell death, proliferation, and differentiation. As a result of its function, GJA1 is implicated in ...
F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... providing the cell with a means of stable cell adhesion. However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ... "Knockdown of Sec6 improves cell-cell adhesion by increasing α-E-catenin in oral cancer cells". FEBS Lett. 586 (6): 924-33. doi: ...
Bax DV, Rodgers UR, Bilek MM, Weiss AS (2009). «Cell adhesion to tropoelastin is mediated via the C-terminal GRKRK motif and ... cell proliferation. •organ morphogenesis. •extracellular matrix organization. •regulation of actin filament polymerization. • ... Bertram C, Hass R (2009). «Cellular senescence of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) is associated with an altered MMP-7/HB- ...
... epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in the stomatal complex; guard cells and subsidiary cells. The epidermal cells are the ... Waxy micro- and nanostructures on the surface reduce wetting by rain and adhesion of contamination (See Lotus effect). ... Cells that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf.. Phloem. Cells that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose( ... Its cells contain many more chloroplasts than the spongy layer. Cylindrical cells, with the chloroplasts close to the walls of ...
... which reduces the availability of specific integrins responsible for cell adhesion to the intercellular structure and causes ... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ... liver cells, and several types of immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells are the main targets of ...
... and Th1 cells.[45] IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ... for the treatment of superficial atrophic acne scars and involves the use of a small needle to loosen the fibrotic adhesions ... and accumulation of skin cells in the hair follicle.[1] In healthy skin, the skin cells that have died come up to the surface ... the increased production of oily sebum causes the dead skin cells to stick together.[10] The accumulation of dead skin cell ...
... has a general regulatory effect on the cell cycle.. *It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 ( ... cells in destroying these B cells. When an NK cell latched onto the cap, it had an 80% success rate at killing the cell. In ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... It induces apoptosis of CD20+ cells.. The combined effect results in the elimination of B cells (including the cancerous ones) ...
Polymorphonuclear cells also infiltrate the epithelium, and chronic inflammatory cells infiltrate the lamina propria. Atrophic ... This adhesion involves adhesins (e.g., hyphal wall protein 1), and extracellular polymeric materials (e.g., mannoprotein). ... Apart from true hyphae, Candida can also form pseudohyphae - elongated filamentous cells, lined end to end. As a general rule, ... In vitro and studies show that Candidal growth, adhesion and biofilm formation is enhanced by the presence of carbohydrates ...
"Substance P enhances cytokine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression on cultured rheumatoid fibroblast- ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ... stem cells, white blood cells) in many tissues and organs. SP amplifies or excites most cellular processes.[15][16] ...
The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting ... The infundibulum provides adhesion while the acetabulum remains free, and muscle contractions allow for attachment and ... Other colour-changing cells are reflective iridophores and white leucophores.[93] This colour-changing ability is also used to ... The lens is suspended behind the pupil and photoreceptive retinal cells cover the back of the eye. The pupil can be adjusted in ...
... cell polarity and transport, cell motility and adhesion.[8] ... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other ... regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation. • cell differentiation. • mesonephric tubule ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ... cell-cycle processes). PAX8 is shown to be involved in tumor cell proliferation and differentiation, signal transduction, ...
focal adhesion. • transcription factor complex. • cell-cell adherens junction. • Z disc. • stress fiber. • filamentous actin. ... cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of nucleic acid-templated transcription. • heart development. • actin cytoskeleton ... cadherin binding involved in cell-cell adhesion. • actin binding. • muscle alpha-actinin binding. ... Pitx2 pathway mediating cell-type-specific proliferation during development.". Cell. 111 (5): 673-85. PMID 12464179. doi: ...
of Cell and Dev. Biol. 13: 425-456. *↑ Colman R. D. ja Filbin T. M. (2006). Cell adhesion molecules, lk 111-121. George J. ... Identification of positive and negative regulatory elementsgoverning cell-type-specific expression of the neural cell adhesion ... Walsh, F. S., Doherty, P. (1997). Neural cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily: Role in Axon Growth and ... opioid-binding cell adhesion molecule) ja Kilon/Neurotractin (vastavalt roti ja kana ortoloogid)[4]. Lisaks kolmele Ig domeeni ...
cell-cell adhesion. • cellular response to amyloid-beta. • negative regulation of core promoter binding. • negative regulation ... single organismal cell-cell adhesion. • smooth endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion homeostasis. • synaptic vesicle targeting. • ... cell adhesion. • hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation. • neuron differentiation. • cerebral cortex development. • ... cell nucleus. • kinetochore. • centrosome. • rough endoplasmic reticulum. • dendritic shaft. • aggresome. • cell surface. • ...
"Cell. 157 (6): 1380-1392. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.05.009. PMC 4144415 . PMID 24906154.. ... "Reduced Adhesion of Oral Bacteria on Hydroxyapatite by Fluoride Treatment". Langmuir. doi:10.1021/la4008558. Retrieved 2017-06 ... Boron is an essential plant nutrient, required primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls.[45][46][47] Boron has ... A component of bones (see apatite), cells, in energy processing, in DNA and ATP (as phosphate) and many other functions Red ...
Some types of cell adhesion proteins or cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) such as integrins, cadherins, NCAMs, or selectins ... and proteins responsible for cell adhesion. Classification of transporters can be found in Transporter Classification Database. ... The C terminal end of the protein is in the cytosol while the N terminal region is in the outside of the cell. A membrane that ... Steven R. Goodman (2008). Medical cell biology. Academic Press. pp. 37-. ISBN 978-0-12-370458-0. . Retrieved 24 November 2010. ...
Yang J, Ye Y, Carroll A, Yang W, Lee H (2001). "Structural biology of the cell adhesion protein CD2: alternatively folded ... Wilkins A, Yang W, Yang J (2003). "Structural biology of the cell adhesion protein CD2: from molecular recognition to protein ... 2002). "Structural biology of the cell adhesion protein CD2: alternatively folded states and structure-function relation.". ... 1997). "CD2 induced apoptosis of peripheral T cells.". Transplant. Proc. 29 (5): 2377-8. PMID 9270771. doi:10.1016/S0041-1345( ...
His work in 2005 on the regulation of adhesion, migration and polarity of the cell cytoskeleton was awarded the Louis Jeantet ... DNA from a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line and a fibrosarcoma cell line transformed a NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. After ... cells. Downregulation of RhoA in the HBE cell lines using siRNAs showed a lack of apical junction formation in contrast with ... made seminal contributions to our understanding of cell signalling in animal cells, in particular the role of Rho and Ras small ...
... and form a multicellular fruiting body in which some cells sacrifice themselves to promote the survival of other cells in the ... and how the will of God was to bring creation into perfection and adhesion with this upper force.[59] ...
cell maturation. • Wnt signaling pathway. • embryonic camera-type eye development. • multicellular organism development. • cell ... T cell differentiation in thymus. • chorionic trophoblast cell differentiation. • positive regulation of protein targeting to ... negative regulation of cell proliferation. • signal transduction. • Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • Wnt ... cell surface. • early endosome. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • integral component of membrane. ...
Adhesion - Holding together cells and tissues.. *Cell movement - Chemotaxis, contraction, cilia and flagella. ... Cell signaling - Regulation of cell behavior by signals from outside.. *Division - By which cells reproduce either by mitosis ( ... Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells, making prokaryotic cells the smallest form of life.[11] Cytologists ... The growth process of the cell does not refer to the size of the cell, but instead the density of the number of cells present ...
... to improve cell adhesion or study the properties of biofilms. An example of Langmuir-Blodgett troughs' utility in ...
"Transcriptional heterogeneity in the lactase gene within cell-type is linked to the epigenome". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): ... "Transcriptional heterogeneity in the lactase gene within cell-type is linked to the epigenome". Scientific Reports. 7: 41843. ...
... parietal cell) இரையகக்காடியைச் (ஐதரோகுளோரிக் காடி) சுரப்பதற்கு காசுத்திரினின் தூண்டல் தேவையானதாகும். ... Intestinal adhesions. Rectum ...
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency. *Familial cold urticaria. *Leukemia (chronic myelogenous (CML)) and other myeloproliferative ... T cells: *CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ... B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... Natural killer cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. Deeply staining, eccentric. NK-cells and cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cells. Years ...
cell volume homeostasis. • nucleocytoplasmic transport. • protein localization. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • ... focal adhesion. • spindle pole centrosome. • intracellular ribonucleoprotein complex. • cariolinfa. • centro organizador dos ... J Cell Biol. 183 (4): 589-95. PMC 2582899. . PMID 19015314. doi:10.1083/jcb.200807185. !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et al. ( ... Cell. Biol. 11 (5): 2567-75. PMC 360026. . PMID 2017166. !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et al. (link) !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos ...
heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • cell recognition. • homophilic cell adhesion via ... heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of transforming growth factor beta production. • cell-cell adhesion. • ... cell adhesion molecule binding. • protein binding involved in heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • glycosylated region protein ... cell-cell adherens junction. • мембрана. • клеточная мембрана. • поверхность клетки. • аксон. • neuron projection. • neuronal ...
... cell responses to mitogens and allogeneic cells, cytokine production by cells Tests for B cell function: antibodies to routine ... P14 deficiency Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 2 Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 3 ... natural killer cells and monocytes (CD15+), as well as activation markers (HLA-DR, CD25, CD80 (B cells). Tests for T cell ... Normal numbers of B cells with decreased IgG and IgA and increased IgM: Hyper-IgM syndromes Normal numbers of B cells with ...
adhesion *Bernard-Soulier syndrome. *aggregation *Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. *platelet storage pool deficiency *Hermansky- ...
... with focal adhesion kinase and suppression of the extracellular matrix-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt cell ... cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • collateral ... regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor activity. • activation of phospholipase C activity ... BDNF binds at least two receptors on the surface of cells that are capable of responding to this growth factor, TrkB ( ...
a b c Øster J. Further fate of the foreskin: incidence of preputial adhesions, phimosis, and smegma among Danish schoolboys. ... Skin that is under tension expands by growing additional cells.. Surgical[edit]. ... Incidence of preputial adhesions, phimosis, and smegma among Danish schoolboys". Arch. Dis. Child. 43 (228): 200-203. doi: ... Score 2: partial exposure of glans, prepuce (not congenital adhesions) limiting factor. ...
Interplay between cell-adhesion molecules governs synaptic wiring of cone photoreceptors Yan Cao, Yuchen Wang, Henry A. Dunn, ... On the adhesion-velocity relation and length adaptation of motile cells on stepped fibronectin lanes Christoph Schreiber, ... β-Catenin is required for radial cell patterning and identity in the developing mouse cochlea Lina Jansson, Michael Ebeid, ... Photothermal modulation of human stem cells using light-responsive 2D nanomaterials James K. Carrow, Kanwar Abhay Singh, Manish ...
Investigations in a variety of systems have shown that dissociated single cells will, under appropriate conditions, aggregate ... Glaser L., Merrell R., Gottlieb D.I., Littman D., Pulliam M.W., Bradshaw R.A. (1976) Neuronal Cell Adhesion. In: Bradshaw R.A ... This simple view is probably an oversimplification, because not only do cells migrate to be adjacent to homologous cells, but ... The simplest explanation for this observation is that cells have a preferential or higher affinity for homologous cells, and if ...
... cell-cell interactions, cell-matrix interactions, cell biomechanics, cell fusion & cell adhesion complexes. ... cell biology cell-cell interactions cell-matrix interactions cell biomechanics cell fusion cell adhesion complexes ...
Cell Adhesion on Surface-Functionalized Magnesium.. Wagener V1, Schilling A2, Mainka A2, Hennig D1, Gerum R2, Kelch ML1, Keim S ... These coatings also showed improved cell adhesion and spreading after 24 h of culture comparable to tissue-treated plastic ... Endothelial cells (DH1+/+) and osteosarcoma cells (MG63) were cultured on coated samples for up to 20 days. To quantify Mg ... On AV-coated cp Mg, a confluent layer of endothelial cells formed after 5 days and remained intact for up to 20 days. Together ...
... is local tumor cell invasion. HNSCC invasion is a necessary component of metastasis where tumor... ... The primary reason for treatment failure in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) ... These cell-cell adhesions are responsible for forming stratifying cell layers, but also influence the differentiated state of ... Kang HG, Jenabi JM et al (2007) E-cadherin cell-cell adhesion in ewing tumor cells mediates suppression of anoikis through ...
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a key component of cell-substratum adhesions, known as focal adhesion complexes. Growing ... such as endothelial cells. Basal FAK activity in non-stimulated endothelial cells is important in maintaining cell adhesion to ... The cells were immunofluorescently stained for focal adhesion complex-associated protein, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and ... Focal adhesion kinase and endothelial cell apoptosis.. Lu Q1, Rounds S. ...
Hello I´m about to start some studies on cell adhesion on surfaces coated with different substances such as cell culture flasks ... cell adhesion on coated coated. Sofie Ludwig Sofie.Ludwig at Thu Nov 9 04:49:07 EST 2000 *Previous message: Newest ... Does anyone has any ideas how I can test the stickiness (adherence forces) of the cells. Thanks Sofie *Previous message: Newest ...
... cell adhesion molecules zebrafish , , Dear all, , , I am trying to do a whole mount immunostaining for beta-catenin. , The ... Zbrafish] cell adhesion molecules zebrafish. Burdine, Rebecca D via (by rburdine from ...
Dysfunction of cell adhesion occurs during cancer metastasis. Loss of cell-cell adhesion in metastatic tumour cells allows them ... Cell adhesion is the process by which cells interact and attach to neighbouring cells through specialised molecules of the cell ... Cell-cell junctionsEdit. Cell-cell junctions can occur in different forms. In anchoring junctions between cells such as ... Overview diagram of different types of cell junctions present in epithelial cells, including cell-cell junctions and cell- ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Viable cells can be adhered in vivo or in vitro to the biocompatible material with the cell adhesion stimulating protein. ... The cell adhesion stimulating protein can be a structural protein or a polypeptide growth factor, such as vascular endothelial ... A prosthesis is formed from a biocompatible material having one or more associated cell adhesion stimulating proteins. The ... Cell adhesion stimulating protein can be mixed with a solution containing fibrinogen to yield a solution with a cell adhesion ...
Cadherins are Ca2+ dependent cell-cell adhesion molecules that mediate adhesion between cells and tissues in organisms. They ... Cadherins are Ca2+ dependent cell-cell adhesion molecules that mediate adhesion between cells and tissues in organisms. They ... The non-clustered group have functions in early development, axon growth and patterning, synapses, cell-cell adhesion, and cell ... (accessed September 22, 2019). ...
... Guest Editors: Claudia D. Andl, Ala-Eddin Al Moustafa, Therese B. ... Cell Adhesion Signaling and Its Impact on Tumorigenesis, Claudia D. Andl, Ala-Eddin Al Moustafa, Therese B. Deramaudt, and ... The Misregulation of Cell Adhesion Components during Tumorigenesis: Overview and Commentary, Claudia D. Andl Volume 2010 (2010 ... How Do Cells Make Decisions: Engineering Micro- and Nanoenvironments for Cell Migration, Siti Hawa Ngalim, Astrid Magenau, ...
... this signal regulates cell-fate choices in embryos of the fruit fly Drosophila and vertebrates. Armadillo/beta-catenin is als … ... Cell adhesion and signal transduction: the Armadillo connection Trends Cell Biol. 1995 Jun;5(6):224-9. doi: 10.1016/s0962-8924( ... Armadillo/beta-catenin is also a component of cell-cell adherens junctions in epithelia. How can these two seemingly distinct ... this signal regulates cell-fate choices in embryos of the fruit fly Drosophila and vertebrates. ...
Recent studies characterizing the cell-matrix adhesions formed by cells within a 3D matrix have arrived at contradictory … ... extracellular matrix environment often display different properties and behavior compared to cells cultured on a two- ... Recent studies characterizing the cell-matrix adhesions formed by cells within a 3D matrix have arrived at contradictory ... For example, even though cells contain integrin-based 3D adhesions, there can be substantial variability within these adhesions ...
... suggest that the probability of cell adhesion is directly correlated with the cell type (which classifies cell maturity) rather ... 1994) Adhesion of sickle cells to vascular endothelium is critically dependent on changes in density and shape of the cells. ... t = 6 s) The cell flips around the adhesion site to align with the flow direction (Movie S8). (6 s , t , 4 min) The cell ... Initially, the cell has only one adhesion site (white dotted circle); then additional adhesion sites are formed over time ( ...
Cell-adhesion sensing of the extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix (ECM) to which cells attach, contains multiple ... Projected cell adhesion area per cell adhering to different ligand (dot) separation. (Adapted from Arnold et al., 2004). ... Geiger, B; Spatz, JP; Bershadsky, AD (2009). Environmental sensing through focal adhesions. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell ... Adhesions mediated via different integrins induce the assembly of morphologically distinct focal adhesions. The molecular ...
Differential Effects on Cell Cell and Cel Substratum Adhesion in Embryonic Chick Cells, Developmental Biology 123:411 420 (1987 ... The adhesion of cells to other cells or to extracellular materials is important to the orderly development and functioning of ... 105 (1986). Antibodies and a synthetic peptide that block cell fibronectin adhesion arrest neural crest cell migration in vivo ... 105 (1986). Antibodies and a synthetic peptide that block cell-fibronectin adhesion arrest neural crest cell migration in vivo ...
... medium without cell adhesion-mediating proteins. The increased cell adhesion was also confirmed for LF cells by an independent ... and VSMC cells on amine PPs can be explained most probably by a non-specific cell adhesion such as electrostatic interaction ... rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and endothelial cells (HUVEC, HSVEC, and CPAE) on three different amine PPs. We ... motivated current detailed studies of cell resistance to trypsinization, cell proliferation, motility, and the rate of ...
... biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules. ... strong adhesion of monocytic THP-1 cells to endothelial cells was observed. This adhesion was in part mediated by transmembrane ... Shear Stress Counteracts Endothelial CX3CL1 Induction and Monocytic Cell Adhesion. Aaron Babendreyer, Lisa Molls, Daniela ... By contrast, CX3CL1 induction is profoundly reduced when cells are exposed to higher shear stress. When endothelial cells were ...
... allows breast cancer cells to survive as they travel through the body and form new tumors, a process termed metastasis. ... Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center discovered that a cell adhesion protein, E-cadherin, ... Tags: Blood, Blood Vessels, Breast Cancer, Cadherin, Cancer, Carcinoma, Cell, Cell Adhesion, Cell Biology, Ductal Carcinoma, ... Cell adhesion protein promotes metastasis in breast cancer, study reveals. *Download PDF Copy ...
... partially reprogrammed cells, somatic cells and hPSC-derived differentiated progeny. We exploited these differential adhesion ... We also applied this strategy to isolate hPSCs (hiPSCs and human embryonic stem cells) during routine culture and show that it ... This approach can separate fully and partially reprogrammed human induced pluripotent stem cells. We demonstrate substantial ... may be extended to isolate hPSC-derived lineage-specific stem cells or differentiated cells. ...
Overview of Adhesion and Extracellular Matrix signaling networks, antibodies and related reagents, interactive pathway diagrams ... cell-cell), tight junctions (impermeable cell-cell), and focal adhesions (cell-matrix). ... Nelson WJ (2008) Regulation of cell-cell adhesion by the cadherin-catenin complex. Biochem. Soc. Trans.. 36(Pt 2), 149-55. ... Integrins are α/β heterodimeric cell surface receptors that play a pivotal role in cell adhesion and migration. The integrin ...
Cell Biology. Epigenetics. Metabolism. Developmental Biology. By research area. Immunology. Microbiology. Neuroscience. Signal ... Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and biochemical assays. By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. ... The tumor cell will release gelatinase enzymes such as MMP-2 and MMP-9 that will degrade the basement membrane and allow ... This is a multi-step process which begins with tumor cell invasion through the extracellular matrix into the bloodstream. In ...
Visit to view our Adhesion, Migration & ECM materials including Extracellular Matrix & more. CST - Customer ... Adhesion (160). Extracellular Matrix (97). Motility / Polarity / Chemotaxis (1094). Apoptosis (596). Cell Cycle / Mitosis / ... T Cell Receptor Signaling (11). TGF-ß Signaling (7). Toll-Like Receptor Signaling (2). Translation: eIF4E and p70S6K (1). ... B Cell Receptor Signaling (10). Death Receptor Signaling (1). ErbB/HER Signaling (85). ESC Pluripotency and Differentiation (44 ...
The 2021 Gordon Research Conference on Cell Contact and Adhesion will be held in New London, NH. Apply today to reserve your ... Conference History Cell Contact and Adhesion (GRS) Contribute Financially to This Conference Conference Fees ... This GRC will be held in conjunction with the "Cell Contact and Adhesion (GRS)" Gordon Research Seminar (GRS). Those interested ...
Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants, Enzyme Inhibitors, Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), Vascular Cell Adhesion ... 32 Abstracts with Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Inhibitor Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Pharmacological Actions : Neuroprotective Agents, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Inhibitor Additional Keywords : Blood Brain ... The hypotensive and anti-inflammatory effect of soy nut consumption may be due to a reduction in solube vascular cell adhesion ...
Compare cell adhesion molecule ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews ... Human Platelet/Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (PECAM1) ELISA Kit *Detection Target: Platelet/Endothelial Cell Adhesion ... Detection Target: carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5. *Detection Range: Detect Range: 5 ng/ml-120 ng/ml ... Human Carcinoembryonic Antigen-related Cell Adhesion Molecule 6 (non-specific cross reacting antigen), CEACAM6 ELISA Kit ...
Goat polyclonal Cell adhesion molecule 4 antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to ... Involved in the cell-cell adhesion. Has calcium- and magnesium-independent cell-cell adhesion activity. May have tumor- ... Lane 1 : Anti-Cell adhesion molecule 4 antibody (ab109767) at 0.1 µg/ml. Lane 2 : Anti-Cell adhesion molecule 4 antibody ( ... Anti-Cell adhesion molecule 4 antibody. See all Cell adhesion molecule 4 primary antibodies. ...
Collagen specifically affects the cell adhesion rate or the morphology of the cells to be adhered to the support. The steps of ... is developed for purposes of providing a cell culture support for adherent cells. ... Further, the cell culture support is produced by pretreating the support surface with a reagent to provide hydrophobicity to ... Also a reagent can be added to pretreat the support surface in order to facilitate adhesion at the photoresist prior to ...
  • Cell adhesion is the process by which cells interact and attach to neighbouring cells through specialised molecules of the cell surface. (
  • This process can occur either through direct contact between cell surfaces or indirect interaction, where cells attach to surrounding extracellular matrix , a gel-like structure containing molecules released by cells into spaces between them. (
  • [1] Cells adhesion occurs from the interactions between cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs), [2] transmembrane proteins located on the cell surface. (
  • [2] Each of these adhesion molecules has a different function and recognizes different ligands . (
  • Cadherins are Ca2+ dependent cell-cell adhesion molecules that mediate adhesion between cells and tissues in organisms. (
  • All three contain the tripeptide sequence arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (Arg-Gly-Asp or R-G-D) which appears to function as the primary recognition site for receptors on the surface of cells binding to these molecules. (
  • The intracellular tail of integrins interact with numerous signaling molecules including focal adhesion kinase (FAK). (
  • The present invention relates to bone marrow cell adhesion molecules and a method for detecting adherence between cell adhesion molecules and cells. (
  • Known as "catch bonds," the adhesion mechanism displays surprising behavior, prolonging rather than shortening the lifetimes of bonds between specific molecules as increasing force is applied. (
  • The researchers studied the activity of selectin molecules, a family of proteins that helps control the adhesion of white blood cells - leukocytes - used by the body to fight infection and repair injuries. (
  • Instead of classical cadherins, non-classical cadherins such as desmogleins and desmocollins act as adhesion molecules and they are linked to intermediate filaments instead of actin filaments. (
  • Adhesion molecules play an essential role in the host immune response by mediating the adhesive interactions that are essential for immune cell trafficking and activation. (
  • This process is thought to be regulated at least in part by adhesion molecules and their intracellular binding partners. (
  • The adhesive force measurement for single-cell microorganisms and single-molecules is emphasized as well. (
  • Growth cones express various cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that recognize localized guidance cues present on neighboring cells or in the extracellular matrix and translate them into a directed axonal extension ( Tessier-Lavigne and Goodman, 1996 ). (
  • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are a subset of cell adhesion proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the process called cell adhesion. (
  • In essence, cell adhesion molecules help cells stick to each other and to their surroundings. (
  • There are four major superfamilies or groups of CAMs: the immunoglobulin super family of cell adhesion molecules (IgCAMs), Cadherins, Integrins, and the Superfamily of C-type of lectin-like domains proteins (CTLDs). (
  • van Buul JD, Kanters E, and Hordijk PL. Endothelial signaling by Ig-like cell adhesion molecules. (
  • Galkina E and Ley K. Vascular adhesion molecules in atherosclerosis. (
  • There is, therefore, increasing interest in the receptors that determine these processes-cell adhesion molecules. (
  • Three main groups of adhesion molecules have been implicated in cardiovascular pathology: integrins, selectins, and members of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (
  • Immunoglobulin molecules such as the intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, 2, and 3), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) are principally involved in the adhesion of leucocytes (table 2 ). (
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cell Adhesion Molecules" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Cell Adhesion Molecules" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Cell Adhesion Molecules" by people in Profiles. (
  • The Fourth Annual Pezcoller Symposium entitled Adhesion Molecules: Cellular Recognition Mechanisms was held in Rovereto, Italy, June 24-26, 1992 and was focussed on the detailed mechanisms whereby cells utilize certain integral membrane proteins to perceive their surrounding environment and interact with it. (
  • With timely presentations and stimulating discussions this Symposium addressed the genetics and biochemistry of adhesion molecules, the regulation of their functions and their role in cancer and the immune system. (
  • Emphasis was given to adhesion proteins in the integrin family because of the widespread distribution of this group of molecules and its important role in essentially all eukaryotic biological systems. (
  • The role of certain integrins in stimulating signal transduction, the essential involvement of integrins in conditioning the function of T and NK cells function, the heterogeneity of integrins and its biological consequences, and the role of cell adhesion molecules in tumor cells invasion and metastases are all extensively analyzed. (
  • Many cell adhesion molecules within the tumor microenvironment are changed and significant alterations of glycosylation are observed. (
  • These changes in cell adhesion molecules alter the ability of tumor cells to interact with other cells and extracellular matrix proteins. (
  • Three families of cell-cell interaction molecules selectins, Siglecs, and integrins have been associated with cancer progression in many pre-clinical studies, yet inhibition of cell adhesion as a therapeutic target is just beginning to be explored. (
  • Adhesion molecules, on any cell, mediate interactions with other cells and the extracellular matrix in the microenvironment ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Consequently, changes in expression of cell adhesion molecules and their ligands directly affect immune evasion and metastasis. (
  • Malignant transformation changes not only the expression of cell adhesion molecules but also causes profound changes in cell surface glycosylation ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • Several families of cell adhesion molecules including cadherins, integrins, junctional-adhesion molecules, and selectins are altered during tumorigenesis. (
  • Prior engagement of NK cells with MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules by IRs allows for greater intrinsic responsiveness to subsequent activation stimuli through a process called NK cell licensing (aka education) ( 3 - 6 ). (
  • Two distinct calcium-sensitive cell-cell adhesion molecules were identified in human epithelial tissues and carcinomas using two monoclonal antibodies raised against vulvar epidermoid carcinoma A-431 and human mammary carcinoma MCF-7 and selected on the basis of their activities to disrupt cell-cell adhesion. (
  • Moreover, immunohistochemical examination of 44 lung carcinomas showed that both molecules were coexpressed in all of them, and suggested that expression of P-cadherin was closely related to the differentiation of carcinoma cells. (
  • These heart diseases, which we have termed cell-cell junction cardiomyopathies , are caused by mutations in intracellular proteins that link adhesion molecules at adherens junctions and desmosomes to the myocyte cytoskeleton. (
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at Title: Cell substrate distance measurement in correlation with distribution of adhesion molecules by fluorescence microscopy Author: Yoriko Iwanaga Publisher: [S.l.] : [s.n.], 2000. (
  • If the reader detects a slight tilt toward those adhesion molecules that function in the nervous system, this is merely a reflection of this editor's interests, biases, and of course, limitations. (
  • A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. (
  • Inhibition of the cadherin activity with antibodies induces dissociation of cell layers, indicating a fundamental importance of these molecules in maintaining the multicellular structure. (
  • Return to Template:Cell adhesion molecules . (
  • The adhesion molecules CD44 (i.e. hyaluronate receptor) and CD51 (i.e. vitronectin receptor) are widely expressed and bind to many extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. (
  • Adhesion molecules expression and collagen production on both cell types were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR, western blot, and flow cytometry. (
  • We show here that these variations were paralleled by an increase in N-cadherin expression and relocalization of different adhesion molecules, such as N-cadherin, α-catenin, p-120 and β-catenin. (
  • Belgiovine C, Chiodi I and Mondello C: Relocalization of cell adhesion molecules during neoplastic transformation of human fibroblasts. (
  • It interacts with various molecules and functions as a scaffold protein at cell junctions. (
  • HNSCC invasion is a necessary component of metastasis where tumor cells infiltrate into adjacent tissues, degrading basement membranes and extracellular matrix (ECM), and -disrupting tissue architecture. (
  • This family of CAMs are membrane proteins that mediate cell-cell adhesion through its extracellular domains and require extracellular Ca 2+ ions to function correctly. (
  • In adherens junctions, classical cadherins between neighbouring cells interact through their extracellular domains. (
  • Cadherins are transmembrane proteins, and the N and C terminal of the cadherins are present in the extracellular and intracellular domain of a cell, respectively. (
  • Cells in a three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix environment often display different properties and behavior compared to cells cultured on a two-dimensional (2D) substrate. (
  • The extracellular matrix (ECM) to which cells attach, contains multiple filaments, composed of diverse proteins and glycosaminoglycans. (
  • The adhesion of cells to other cells or to extracellular materials is important to the orderly development and functioning of cells in an organism. (
  • Focal adhesions are the connections that form between a cell and its extracellular matrix and are mediated primarily through integrins. (
  • This is a multi-step process which begins with tumor cell invasion through the extracellular matrix into the bloodstream. (
  • Integrins are transmembrane protein heterodimers that mediate cell-cell, cell-extracellular matrix, and cell-virus interactions. (
  • In adherens junctions, cadherins between neighbouring cells interact through their extracellular domains, which share a conserved calcium-sensitive region in their extracellular domains. (
  • Many adhesive proteins present in extracellular matrices and in the blood contain the tripeptide arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) as their cell recognition site. (
  • Integrins are one family of adhesion receptors that leukocytes utilize to interact with other cells and with components of the extracellular matrix. (
  • The final type of binding occurs between cells and substrate, where a mutual extracellular ligand that binds two different CAMs. (
  • Integrins provide essential links between the extracellular environment and the intracellular signalling pathways, which can play roles in cell behaviours such as apoptosis, differentiation, survival, and transcription. (
  • The influence of the rheological behavior of extracellular matrix (ECM) to cell adhesion and migration represents an important issue for various biomedical applications. (
  • Under these conditions, components of the subendothelial extracellular matrix (ECM) are exposed and trigger sudden platelet activation and adhesion. (
  • The adhesion of cells to each other and to the proteins of the extracellular matrix provides a stable environment for cell growth, differentiation, and migration. (
  • 1 In addition, they straddle the cell membrane and play an important role in initiating intracellular events in response to extracellular stimuli. (
  • 2 The most widely distributed integrins belong to the β 1 subfamily, which mainly influence the adhesion of cells to extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin, collagens, and laminin (table 1 ). (
  • Cell adhesion assays are used to quantitate attachment and analyze the molecular mechanisms for extracellular matrix adhesion, cell migration and sensitivity to inhibitors. (
  • ALCAM (Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule), also known as CD166 (cluster of differentiation 166), is a member of a subfamily of immunoglobulin receptors with five immunoglobulin-like domains (VVC2C2C2) in the extracellular domain. (
  • This function is critical to the regulation of cellular adhesion to the extracellular matrix. (
  • It has been proposed that TG2 acts as an intermediary connector between extracellular fibronectin and cell membrane integrins, strengthening the fibronectin-integrin interaction and facilitating nesting of cells in the extracellular matrix ( 1 ). (
  • In conjunction with previous studies investigating the role of TG2 in fibroblasts ( 3 , 6 ), our in vitro data pointed to the significance of TG2-mediated cellular adhesion to the extracellular matrix. (
  • As integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix is an important step during cancer dissemination, we speculated that the enzyme plays a role in this process. (
  • Integrins are receptors that mediate attachment between a cell and the tissues surrounding it, which may be other cells or the extracellular matrix (ECM). (
  • The main receptors on animal cells for binding most extracellular matrix proteins are the integrins. (
  • The extracellular matrix also contains noncollagen proteins with multiple domains and specific binding sites for receptors on the surface of cells. (
  • The extracellular matrix components are degraded by proteolytic enzymes called proteases that act close to the cells that produce them. (
  • It has been suggested that cadherins bind cells by their homophilic interactions at the extracellular domain and are associated with actin bundles at the cytoplasmic domain. (
  • Focal adhesions are known as signalling platforms broadcasting the information of the biochemical and physical qualities of the extracellular matrix into intracellular signalling cascades. (
  • This might be due to the lack of understanding the fundamental cell biological properties, like cell-extracellular matrix interaction, governs pluripotency. (
  • Also, integrins, the cell surface receptors mediating the cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, displayed spatial subtype-specific compartmentalisation. (
  • Basal FAK activity in non-stimulated endothelial cells is important in maintaining cell adhesion to integrins via PI3 kinase/Akt signaling. (
  • Cadherins and immunoglobulins are homophilic CAMs, as they directly bind to the same type of CAMs on another cell, while integrins and selectins are heterophilic CAMs that bind to different types of CAMs. (
  • Alternatively, cell junctions can be categorised into two main types according to what interacts with the cell: cell-cell junctions, mainly mediated by cadherins, and cell-matrix junctions, mainly mediated by integrins. (
  • The molecular composition of the ECM (here, glass surfaces were coated with fibronectin or vitronectin) and the cellular interaction with these matrices via different integrins (α 5 β 1 and α v β 3 , respectively) lead to the formation of focal adhesions with distinct morphology, size and subcellular distribution. (
  • Integrins are α/β heterodimeric cell surface receptors that play a pivotal role in cell adhesion and migration. (
  • Integrins in cell adhesion and signaling. (
  • In addition, integrins participate in cell-matrix interactions, while other CAM families participate in cell-cell interactions. (
  • citation needed] Integrins, one of the major classes of receptors within the ECM, mediates cell-ECM interactions with collagen, fibrinogen, fibronectin, and vitronectin. (
  • In Project 2, Dr.Shattil will continue to develop and utilize strategies to visualize interactions of proteins with platelet integrin alpha lIb beta 3 in living cells and he will analyze the signaling mechanisms of alpha V integrins in vivo in zebrafish. (
  • These events lead to the shift of β1 and β3 integrins on the platelet surface from a low to a high affinity state, thereby enabling them to bind their ligands and to mediate firm adhesion, spreading, coagulant activity, and aggregation. (
  • The β 2 integrins are expressed solely by white cells and principally interact with members of the immunoglobulin superfamily promoting leucocyte adhesion and infiltration. (
  • They induce relatively weak and transient adhesion allowing the cells to roll along the vascular wall after which they will disengage or, following the triggering of other adhesion receptors such as integrins, become more securely bound. (
  • They determine a variety of lymphocyte functions but, perhaps more importantly in the context of cardiovascular disease, they also play a pivotal role in the "trafficking" of leucocytes through tissues, interacting with β 2 integrins on white cells. (
  • The molecular basis for the regulation of certain integrins, the function of these proteins in determining cell adhesion, and the consequences of this adhesion for the function of the cells involved are discussed. (
  • We review how cell-cell interactions mediated by integrins and the glycan-binding receptors selectins and Siglec receptors support cancer progression. (
  • This mini review addresses the role of cell adhesion and glycan-mediated interactions during metastasis and tumor-induced immune suppression in the context of altered glycosylation as a ubiquitous characteristic of cancer progression with a focus on integrins, selectins, and siglecs. (
  • Analysing this data with custom-built computational algorithms allowed them to accurately measure adhesion size, and even count the number of integrins in each adhesion. (
  • These early, or nascent, adhesions assemble from clusters of approximately 50 integrins and have a diameter of around 100 nanometres. (
  • These integrins are found on many cells such as blood platelets. (
  • The fibrous proteins give the matrix strength and form structures to which the cells can be anchored using glycoproteins such as Laminin and fibronectin that have many binding sites for integrins on the cell surface. (
  • Integrins participate in cell adhesion as well as cell surface-mediated signalling. (
  • A second class of receptors expressed in HNSCC, the cadherins, form intercellular adhesions and are also relevant to the invasive process. (
  • Cell adhesion is mediated by certain adhesive ligands and corresponding receptors. (
  • Some of these receptors bind to the RGD sequence of a single adhesion protein only, whereas others recognize groups of them. (
  • More than ten proved or suspected RGD-containing adhesion-promoting proteins have already been identified, and the integrin family includes at least as many receptors recognizing these proteins. (
  • Together, the adhesion proteins and their receptors constitute a versatile recognition system providing cells with anchorage, traction for migration, and signals for polarity, position, differentiation, and possibly growth. (
  • Resting T lymphocytes express integrin receptors, but they mediate minimal cell adhesion. (
  • More importantly, any mutations of adhesion receptors can lead to developmental disorders and diseases. (
  • This review summarizes the most important structural and functional properties of these adhesion receptors and briefly discusses their potential as targets for antithrombotic therapy. (
  • In addition, various soluble stimuli are produced and released from platelets which strengthen platelet adhesion and, together with locally produced thrombin, recruit more platelets into the growing thrombus by exposing or activating receptors on the platelet surface which allow platelets to adhere to each other, a process termed aggregation ( Figure 1 ). (
  • Unlike other adhesion receptors, selectins bind to carbohydrates and glycopeptides rather than protein ligands (table 2 ). (
  • When neural crest cells stop making N-CAM and N-cadherin , and start displaying integrin receptors , cells separate and migrate. (
  • Since cell adhesion receptors are connected to signal-transduction pathways, these cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions modulate cell phenotype, proliferation, differentiation, survival, and migration. (
  • Cancer-associated glycosylation promotes the interaction of tumor cells within a microenvironment through glycan-binding receptors-lectins ( 5 ). (
  • Selectins are vascular cell adhesion receptors present on leukocytes, endothelial cells, and platelets that bind to glycans. (
  • Binding of NK cell inhibitory receptors to MHC class I (MHC-I) confers increased responsiveness to NK cells by a process known as NK cell licensing/education. (
  • Reduced MHC-I expression or a lack of inhibitory receptors for MHC-I results in diminished NK cell responsiveness. (
  • The reduction of NK cell conjugation to target cells was not attributed to altered β 2 integrin LFA-1 properties but was instead due to reduced inside-out signaling to LFA-1 by activating receptors. (
  • Natural killer cells possess several sets of activating and stochastically expressed inhibitory receptors (IRs), which control different steps in cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated killing of target cells, including conjugation of NK cells to target cells, polarization of lytic granules toward target cells, and degranulation ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Binding of cytotoxic lymphocytes to the adhesion ligand ICAM-1 requires an open conformation of LFA-1, which is regulated by inside-out signals from other receptors ( 12 ). (
  • The Abs used for IR depletion also depleted NK cells that expressed the activating receptors KIR2DS2 and KIR3DS1. (
  • These influences are applied mainly through transmembrane cell adhesion proteins that act as matrix receptors. (
  • These matrix receptors have a main role in epithelial cells and mediating their interactions with the basal lamina. (
  • [1] [3] Other cellular processes regulated by cell adhesion include cell migration and tissue development in multicellular organisms . (
  • They also mediate other cell processes, including growth cone migration. (
  • Although there is a general consensus that discrete cell-matrix adhesions exist in various 3D matrix environments, there are specific exceptions, particularly in cells undergoing amoeboid migration. (
  • for example, over-expression of a cytoskeletal cell adhesion component can potentially cloud the visualization of adhesions and even alter the mode of cell migration. (
  • Induction of cell polarization and migration by a gradient of nanoscale variations in adhesive ligand spacing. (
  • The increased resistance observed for the non-endothelial cell types was accompanied by an increased rate of cellular attachment, even though spontaneous migration was comparable to the control, i.e., to the standard cultivation surface. (
  • Mice harboring a macrophage-specific deletion of the gene encoding β-catenin exhibited insufficient skin wound healing due to macrophage-specific defects in migration, adhesion to fibroblasts, and ability to produce TGF-β1. (
  • My lab investigates the molecular mechanisms of cell adhesion and migration underpinning normal and pathological conditions, including inflammation and cancer. (
  • The adhesion of cells is crucial in various developmental functions, such as to maintain tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis and activate critical signaling pathways regulating survival, migration, gene expression, and differentiation. (
  • Amoeboid migration is a rapid (10 $\mu $m min$^{-1})$ mode of migration that some tumor cells exhibit. (
  • Implications of these results on adhesion and migration will be discussed. (
  • The nature of cell adhesion and migration are stochastic as reported by Stokes et al. (
  • 2 Cell migration should be considered in subcellular and cellular levels by applying fluctuation-dissipation theorem in the form of Langevin-type force-balance equations, 3-5 and supercellular level by formulating mesoscopic mass and stress-balance equations. (
  • Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an essential nonreceptor tyrosine kinase regulating cell migration, adhesive signaling, and mechanosensing. (
  • vcam-1 -deficient mice also had reduced mature IgD + B and T cells in BM and a greatly reduced capacity to support short-term migration of transferred B cells, CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, and preactivated CD4 + T cells to the BM. (
  • VCAM-1 on HEVs has an apparently redundant role in lymphocyte migration to LNs ( 24 ), whereas VCAM-1 on BM microvessels has an overlapping role with selectins in hematopoietic progenitor cell recruitment into the BM compartment ( 7 )( 34 ). (
  • Adhesive interactions, however, are also involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, regulating thrombus formation, facilitating leucocyte infiltration, mediating the migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells, and enabling the deposition of fibrotic tissue. (
  • NrCAM is engaged in such biological processes as axonal fasciculation, cell-cell adhesion, central nervous system development, clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels, neuron migration, positive regulation of neuron differentiation, regulation of axon extension, and synaptogenesis. (
  • NCAM exhibits glycoforms as it can be posttranslationally modified by the addition of polysialic acid (PSA) to the fifth Ig domain, which is thought to abrogate its homophilic binding properties and can lead to reduced cell adhesion important in cell migration and invasion. (
  • The Regulation Of Cell Adhesion Pathway has been researched in relation to Cell Adhesion, Cell Migration, Cell-cell Adhesion, Cell Motility, Cell Growth. (
  • Recent data suggest that EpCAM is also involved in cell signaling, migration, proliferation and differentiation. (
  • In addition, ALCAM-ALCAM homophilic interaction contributes to cellular changes, such as angiogenesis, immune response and cell migration during the neuronal development (van Kempen et al. (
  • A Basal lamina determines the cell polarity, promotes cell survival, proliferation, and serves as a direct route for cell migration. (
  • A prosthesis is formed from a biocompatible material having one or more associated cell adhesion stimulating proteins. (
  • 6. The medical article of claim 4 wherein the at least one cell adhesion stimulating protein comprises a plurality of structural proteins. (
  • As demonstrated on LF fibroblasts, the resistance to trypsin was similar in serum-supplemented and serum-free media, i.e., medium without cell adhesion-mediating proteins. (
  • Based on all the results, the increased resistance to trypsinization of C2C12, LF, HaCaT, and VSMC cells on amine PPs can be explained most probably by a non-specific cell adhesion such as electrostatic interaction between the cells and amine groups on the material surface, rather than by the receptor-mediated adhesion through serum-derived proteins adsorbed on the PPs. (
  • Adherens junctions are dynamic structures that form, strengthen and spread, degrade, and then re-form as their associated proteins create ephemeral connections with counterparts from adjacent cells. (
  • The connection between cell junctions and the cytoskeleton may be more dynamic than originally considered and may rely on multiple, weak associations between the cadherin-catenin complex and the actin cytoskeleton or rely on other membrane-associated proteins (i.e. nectin and afadin). (
  • Together, this collection of structural proteins, enzymes, and adaptor proteins create dynamic cell-cell junctions necessary for temporary associations during morphogenesis and maintains the integrity of complex tissues and structures following development. (
  • They function in regulation of paracellular permeability and in the maintenance of cell polarity, blocking the movement of transmembrane proteins between the apical and the basolateral cell surfaces. (
  • The present invention relates to proteins associated with human bone marrow cell membranes for adhering hematopoietic cells to human bone marrow cell membranes. (
  • Also disclosed is a method for detecting binding between cell adhesion membrane proteins and cells having a potential to be bound to such proteins. (
  • examining the stained cells adhering to the blotting material for indications of adhesion of the cell adhesion molecule proteins to the applied cells, wherein said subjecting and/or said contacting is effective to clear lithium dodecyl sulfate from the cell adhesion molecule proteins. (
  • growing cells bound to cell adhesion molecule proteins on the blotting material, prior to said staining. (
  • 7. A method according to claim 1, wherein the cell adhesion molecule proteins have an unknown identity and the cells have a known identity. (
  • The classic cadherins (E-, N- and P-) are concentrated at the intermediate cell junctions, which link to the actin filament network through specific linking proteins called catenins. (
  • Activation of the α IIb β 3 or glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor is the final step in platelet aggregation and determines the adhesion of platelets to other matrix and plasma proteins. (
  • These early adhesions have a consistent size of 100 nanometres, are made up of a cluster of around 50 integrin proteins and are the same even when the surrounding surface is hard or soft. (
  • Once the cell forms these early adhesions on soft or hard surfaces, it can use talin and other mechanosensitive proteins to develop force. (
  • Although many of these monogenic cardiomyopathies are rare, insights into pathogenesis by identification of the responsible mutations can provide clues about mechanisms in more common forms of heart disease.We have studied a group of human cardiomyopathies caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins that function as linkers in cell-cell adhesion junctions. (
  • These proteins organise the matrix and help cells attach to the matrix. (
  • Since the shape and the organisation of cells in and on scaffolds both affect their function, we tested patterned silk scaffolds made of three different silk proteins concerning their influence on cell adhesion, growth and orientation. (
  • Two different cell lines, BALB/3T3 fibroblasts and C2C12 myoblasts, showed controllable cell adhesion as well as orientation dependent on the silk proteins used and patterns made. (
  • To screen for cell-surface proteins showing enhanced expression under metabolic stress, we performed a signal sequence trap in combination with a functional cloning method. (
  • We screened for cell-surface proteins showing enhanced expression using oligomycin, a mitochondorial inhibitor in H9C2 rat cardiac myoblasts. (
  • These proteins presented a clear membrane localization in tumorigenic cells compared to a more diffuse, cytoplasmic distribution in primary fibroblasts and non-tumorigenic immortalized cells, suggesting that tumorigenic cells could form strong cell-cell contacts and cell contacts did not induce growth inhibition. (
  • Finally, we found α-catenin and ZO-1 nuclear localization in non-transformed cells, suggestive of possible additional roles of these proteins besides cell junction formation. (
  • All three coatings have been previously suggested to reduce initial corrosion and to enhance protein adsorption and hence cell adhesion on magnesium surfaces. (
  • The cells were immunofluorescently stained for focal adhesion complex-associated protein, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and visualized with laser scanning confocal microscopy. (
  • The cell adhesion stimulating protein can be a structural protein or a polypeptide growth factor, such. (
  • The cell adhesion stimulating protein can be a structural protein or a polypeptide growth factor, such as vascular endothelial growth factor. (
  • Viable cells can be adhered in vivo or in vitro to the biocompatible material with the cell adhesion stimulating protein. (
  • 4. The medical article of claim 1 wherein the cell adhesion stimulating protein further comprises a structural protein. (
  • 5. The medical article of claim 4 wherein the cell adhesion stimulating protein comprises a structural protein selected from the group consisting of gelatin, collagen, fibronectin, vitronectin and laminin. (
  • 7. The medical article of claim 1 wherein the cell adhesion stimulating protein comprises vascular endothelial growth factor. (
  • inducing the colonization and proliferation of viable cells to reduce or inhibit thrombosis by adhering a cell adhesion stimulating protein to a ceramic material, the cell adhesion stimulating protein being selected from the group consisting of VEGF, fibroblast growth factor, and combinations thereof. (
  • 14. The method of claim 13 wherein the adhering of the cell adhesion stimulating protein to the ceramic material is performed using an adhesive. (
  • 15. The method of claim 13 wherein the cell adhesion stimulating protein further comprises a structural protein. (
  • In solution, such peptides can inhibit cell attachment to a surface coated with fibronectin, vitronectin, collagen, the peptides themselves or some other adhesive protein having an Arg-Gly-Asp cell attachment site. (
  • An alternative possibility is that the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence provides essentially all of the information for the receptor binding and that it is the conformation of this sequence that gives an adhesion protein its receptor specificity. (
  • Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center discovered that a cell adhesion protein, E-cadherin, allows breast cancer cells to survive as they travel through the body and form new tumors, a process termed metastasis. (
  • Cancer cells break free from the primary tumor early in metastasis and much research has focused on how cancer cells stick together at the molecular level, through the protein E-cadherin. (
  • Examining a dual switch mechanism of integrin regulation by cytoskeletal protein filamin A in immune cells. (
  • Tan, H.F., and Tan, S.M. (2020) The focal adhesion protein kindlin-2 controls mitotic spindle assembly by inhibiting histone deacetylase 6 and maintaining α-tubulin acetylation. (
  • In order for functional synaptic connections to be established, however, both presynaptic and postsynaptic protein complexes must be recruited and stabilized at appropriate points of cell-cell contact ( McAllister, 2007 ). (
  • NrCAM is a cell surface protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, L1/neurofascin/NgCAM subgroup. (
  • ALCAM protein is localized to the cell membrane (Bowen et al. (
  • Cells interact with their environment through protein complexes called focal adhesions. (
  • The major protein in the focal adhesion complex is integrin, which spans the cell membrane, forming a link between the internal skeleton of the cell and external surface. (
  • Formation of early adhesions was also assisted by rapid recruitment of the mechanosensor protein, talin. (
  • The main image features individual adhesion structures with the marked vinculin protein. (
  • At the molecular level, protein and the transcriptional expression of type I collagen, CD51 or CD44 remained unchanged in asthmatic BSM cells or in mast cells/BSM cells under inflammatory conditions, whereas that of CD44 variant isoform 6 (v6) was increased. (
  • JAM4, a junctional cell adhesion molecule interacting with a tight junction protein, MAGI-1. (
  • MAGI-1 is a membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein at tight junctions in epithelial cells. (
  • We report here a novel MAGI-1-binding protein that we named junctional adhesion molecule 4 (JAM4). (
  • Our previously-obtained impressive results of highly increased C2C12 mouse myoblast adhesion to amine plasma polymers (PPs) motivated current detailed studies of cell resistance to trypsinization, cell proliferation, motility, and the rate of attachment carried out for fibroblasts (LF), keratinocytes (HaCaT), rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and endothelial cells (HUVEC, HSVEC, and CPAE) on three different amine PPs. (
  • We have shown recently that kindlin-3 is important in leukemic cell proliferation. (
  • Investigating the role of kindlin-3 in leukemic cell proliferation and drug resistance. (
  • The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of decontamination of titanium implants surface by chemical conditioning agents and photodynamic therapy, by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and to analyze the adhesion and proliferation of osteoblastic cells on the previously decontaminated surfaces. (
  • Saos-2 cells [5x104] were seeded on implant surfaces and incubated for 24h (adhesion assay) and 72h (proliferation assay), determined on SEM images. (
  • This is seemingly in contrast to studies with BM stromal cell clones from VCAM-1 null mice, where long-term maintenance and proliferation of clonable pre-B cells, cobblestone formation, and differentiation to IgM-secreting mature B cells were equally possible on VCAM-1 + and VCAM-1 − BM stromal cells ( 35 ). (
  • ALCAM-CD6 interaction mediates T-cell activation or proliferation. (
  • A total of 120 compounds were acquired and tested in cell culture-based assays for inhibition of ovarian tumor cell adhesion and proliferation. (
  • Hi, I need to do check proliferation of my cell lines in serum free condition. (
  • Our molecular-level simulations show how the attachment and dissociation of molecular bonds influence adhesion dynamics. (
  • Molecular composition map" of focal adhesions and stress fibers. (
  • E-cadherin appears to limit molecular stresses within the cancer cells and allow them to survive long enough to form new tumors. (
  • Molecular pathway and cell state responsible for dissociation-induced apoptosis in human pluripotent stem cells. (
  • An article published this week in the journal Nature provides the first experimental evidence for an unusual molecular bonding mechanism that could explain how certain cells adhere to surfaces such as blood vessel walls under conditions of mechanical stress. (
  • We found that one range of forces, applied by increasing wall shear stress, actually increased the lifetimes of adhesive bonds between the cell adhesion molecule P-selectin and its ligand PSGL-1," said Dr. Rodger McEver, Fred Jones Distinguished Scientist at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation and adjunct professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of Oklahoma Health Science Center. (
  • This problem will be discussed from a variety of different perspectives including but not limited to cell and tissue level considerations, molecular and biochemical pathways, and physical descriptions of the processes. (
  • Stem cells and cancer cells have enough molecular similarities that the former can be used to trigger immunity against the latter. (
  • Rapid progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular interactions that result in cell adhesion. (
  • In addition to serving as "molecular glue", cell adhesion is important in affecting cellular mechanisms of growth, contact inhibition, and apoptosis. (
  • Support is requested to continue a program designed to advance understanding of molecular mechanisms of vascular disease and to promote development of new diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive strategies through the collaborative efforts of a group of experienced scientists focused oh the unifying theme of cell adhesion. (
  • By growing cells on either hard glass or fluid artificial membranes coated with RGD, and observing adhesion formation with super-resolution microscopy, a team of MBI scientists led by Dr Rishita Changede and Professor Michael Sheetz was able to investigate the molecular origins of adhesion formation on surfaces of different rigidity. (
  • Although we can only guess at the ancestral mechanisms that fostered the first primitive intercellular unions, some one billion years ago, we now recognize contemporary molecular "themes" with presumably ancient origins that mediate cell-cell interactions. (
  • It appears that each cadherin subclass has binding specificity and this molecular family is involved in selective cell-cell adhesion. (
  • In human serum, at least two molecular species of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) with molecular weights of 110,000-130,000 and 150,000-180,000, respectively, can be identified by Western blotting. (
  • We are interested in the molecular mechanisms connecting the focal adhesions to transcriptional regulation of pluripotency, says Professor Ivaska. (
  • Focal adhesion kinase and endothelial cell apoptosis. (
  • This review summarizes the signaling pathways of FAK in prevention of apoptosis and the role of FAK in mediating adenosine and homocysteine-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and in cardiovascular diseases. (
  • This cadherin is present in vascular and lymphatic endothelial cell, thus giving its name. (
  • Porcine aortic endothelial cell, double-labeled for actin (green) and phospho-tyrosine (red). (
  • Flow conditions critically regulate endothelial cell functions in the vasculature. (
  • The VCAM-1 cytoplasmic domain is essential for endothelial cell signaling and leukocyte trafficking. (
  • Jalkanen S, Salmi M. VAP-1 and CD73, endothelial cell surface enzymes in leukocyte extravasation. (
  • Only when the endothelial cell layer of blood vessels is damaged by injuries or pathological alterations, such as found in atherosclerosis, the adhesive potential of platelets becomes evident. (
  • PCR analysis, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy confirmed that cells expressed surface markers consistent with the endothelial cell lineage. (
  • Scientifically, metastasis is characterized by many separate stages, including when cancer cells invade healthy breast tissue, escape the primary tumor, enter and survive within blood vessels, exit into new organs, then survive and seed a new tumor in a distant organ, such as the lungs. (
  • We outline some of the key factors that influence this process and highlight how the tumor cell environment may promote metastasis. (
  • Cannabidiol inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis via intercellular adhesion molecule-1. (
  • Disease and disorder research has been conducted in relation to the Regulation Of Cell Adhesion Pathway and Tissue Adhesions, Malignant Neoplasms, Neoplasms, Neoplasm Metastasis, Cell Invasion. (
  • The discussion focuses on mechanisms during immune evasion and metastasis that can be therapeutically targeted by blocking these cell-cell interactions. (
  • Cancer progression induces immune evasion and eventually metastasis, a process consisting of several steps enabling tumor cells to leave the primary tumor, to intravasate and survive in the circulation, to extravasate and seed in distant organs and to initiate growth of metastatic lesions. (
  • Tumor cell interactions with other cells in the environment contribute to immune evasion and metastasis at every step of this process. (
  • During malignancy, glycans on tumor cells are involved in invasiveness, metastasis, and immune suppression ( 6 - 8 ). (
  • Deciphering the universal nature of adhesion formation may reveal how tumour cells sense and migrate on surfaces of different rigidity, which is a hallmark of metastasis, the devastating ability of cancer to spread throughout the body. (
  • In anchoring junctions between cells such as adherens junctions and desmosomes, the main CAMs present are the cadherins. (
  • [2] Cadherins forms homophilic attachment between themselves, which results in cells of a similar type sticking together and can lead to selective cell adhesion, allowing vertebrate cells to assemble into organised tissues. (
  • [1] Cadherins are essential for cell-cell adhesion and cell signalling in multicellular animals and can be separated into two types: classical cadherins and non-classical cadherins. (
  • Cadherins are a family of glycoproteins involved in the Ca2+-dependent cell-cell adhesion mechanism which is detected in most kinds of tissues. (
  • Their colony morphology was altered by the ectopic expression of cadherins from the dispersed type to the compact type, providing direct evidence for a key role of cadherins in cell-cell adhesion. (
  • On endothelial cells, the transmembrane chemokine CX3CL1/fractalkine promotes vascular inflammation by functioning as a surface-expressed adhesion molecule and by becoming released as soluble chemoattractant for monocytic cells expressing the receptor CX3CR1. (
  • This adhesion was in part mediated by transmembrane CX3CL1 as demonstrated with a neutralizing antibody. (
  • Initially described as a dominant surface antigen on human colon carcinoma, it is a transmembrane glycoprotein mediating epithelial-specific intercellular cell-adhesion. (
  • Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. (
  • Here, we present quantitative results of the simultaneous and synergistic effects of adhesion and polymerization of deoxygenated sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in the human red blood cell (RBC) on the mechanisms underlying vasoocclusive pain crisis. (
  • To clarify the mechanisms underlying the ECM's specific effects on cells, synthetic matrices with distinct chemical and physical properties are utilized as adhesive substrates. (
  • Cells exert, sense, and respond to the different physical forces through diverse mechanisms and translating them into biochemical signals. (
  • One prerequisite for the evolution of multicellular organisms was the invention of mechanisms by which cells could adhere to one another. (
  • The subsequent development of specialized tissues and organs depended on the elaboration of incredibly sophisticated, regulatable cell-to-cell adhesion mechanisms which are known to operate in biological processes as diverse as the growth of the embryo, the immune response, the establishment of connections between nerve cells, and arteriosclerosis, to name just a few. (
  • Overview diagram of different types of cell junctions present in epithelial cells, including cell-cell junctions and cell-matrix junctions. (
  • In multicellular organisms, bindings between CAMs allow cells to adhere to one another and creates structures called cell junctions . (
  • Anchoring junctions ( adherens junctions , desmosomes and hemidesmosomes ), which maintain cells together and strengthens contact between cells. (
  • Cell-cell junctions can occur in different forms. (
  • Adherens junctions mainly function to maintain shape of tissues and hold cells together. (
  • [10] This association with actin filaments is essential for adherens junctions to stabilises cell-cell adhesion. (
  • Armadillo/beta-catenin is also a component of cell-cell adherens junctions in epithelia. (
  • Cells can form a number of connections with the cells and matrix in their surrounding environment: adherens junctions (cell-cell), tight junctions (impermeable cell-cell), and focal adhesions (cell-matrix). (
  • Tight junctions are impermeable cell-cell junctions that form a continuous barrier to fluids across the epithelium and endothelium. (
  • According to their functions, the cell junctions can be classified as: Anchoring junctions (adherens junctions, desmosomes and hemidesmosomes), which maintain cells together and strengthens contact between cells. (
  • Combined with cell junctions and ECM, CAMs help hold animal cells together. (
  • Interaction with EPB41L1 may regulate structure or function of cell-cell junctions (By similarity). (
  • Vestweber, D. VE-cadharin: the major endothelial adhesion molecule controlling cellular junctions and blood vessel formation. (
  • Cell-cell junctions are distributed evenly around the lateral circumference of cells within an epithelium. (
  • Cells mutant for Rap1 condensed their adherens junctions to one side of the cell. (
  • Rap1 is enriched at adherens junctions, particularly between newly divided sister cells where it may reseal the adherens junction ring. (
  • This observation suggests that alterations in intercellular adhesion caused by defects in cell-cell mechanical junctions may create anatomic substrates that are particularly conducive to the development of lethal ventricular arrhythmias. (
  • Our work in this area has focused on the hypothesis that defective mechanical linkage in the cell-cell junction cardiomyopathies causes remodeling of gap junctions, which, in turn, can give rise to conduction abnormalities that may contribute to the high incidence of sudden death in these patients. (
  • These findings suggest that JAM4 together with MAGI-1 provides an adhesion machinery at tight junctions, which may regulate the permeability of kidney glomerulus and small intestinal epithelial cells. (
  • Hydrogen evolution after contact with cell culture medium was markedly decreased on AV- and SA-coated Mg compared to uncoated Mg. These coatings also showed improved cell adhesion and spreading after 24 h of culture comparable to tissue-treated plastic surfaces. (
  • Hello I´m about to start some studies on cell adhesion on surfaces coated with different substances such as cell culture flasks. (
  • In particular, the youngest RBCs exhibit unique adhesion dynamics, whereby polymerized HbS fiber bundles grow from cell surfaces to serve as sites of cytoadherence. (
  • Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells. (
  • Osteoblastic cell adhesion on implant surfaces contaminated by Aggregatibacter a. (
  • However, within the body there are a variety of different surfaces that cells can grow on, from soft surfaces such as brain matter to hard surfaces like bone. (
  • Although cells can form focal adhesions on both soft and hard surfaces, how they assemble on surfaces of such different rigidity is still a mystery. (
  • Remarkably, they discovered that cells growing on soft or hard surfaces form adhesions in the exact same way. (
  • These results suggested that PTH rapidly activates adhesion of CFU-F to plastic or bone surfaces. (
  • We also investigated the speed of initial cell spreading after seeding using fluorescently labeled fibroblasts (NIH/3T3). (
  • Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors. (
  • Subsequently these Au NPs patterns on 8PEG-VS-SH hydrogels have been investigated in cell culture with murine fibroblasts (L-929). (
  • Studying neoplastic transformation of telomerase immortalized human fibroblasts (cen3tel), we found that the transition from normal to tumorigenic cells was associated with the loss of growth contact inhibition, the acquisition of an epithelial-like morphology and a change in actin organization, from stress fibers to cortical bundles. (
  • Intracellular signaling pathways and the regulation of cell adhesion. (
  • Thus, it is essential to understand the regulation of cell adhesion during development and its contribution to various conditions with the help of quantitative methods. (
  • Submit your Twitter account related to Regulation Of Cell Adhesion to be featured! (
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  • The study of the Regulation Of Cell Adhesion Pathway has been mentioned in research publications which can be found using our bioinformatics tool below. (
  • The Regulation Of Cell Adhesion Pathway complements our catalog of research reagents including antibodies and ELISA kits against PTK2, FN1, SPARC, PXN, BETA-CATENIN. (
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  • We have 2868 products for the study of the Regulation Of Cell Adhesion Pathway that can be applied to Western Blot, Flow Cytometry, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry from our catalog of antibodies and ELISA kits. (
  • Investigations in a variety of systems have shown that dissociated single cells will, under appropriate conditions, aggregate and, if maintained in culture, will morphologically differentiate to resemble the original organ or tissue (23, 33, 34). (
  • Therefore, many laboratories try with great effort to develop resorbable tissue scaffolds that could support the patient´s cells. (
  • ECM provides mechanical support for cells and also determines the shape of tissue 9 . (
  • Across all three models, loss of the E-cadherin gene dramatically increased the cancer cells' ability to invade healthy tissue. (
  • however, the relative contribution of β-catenin activity and function in specific cell types in the granulation tissue during the healing process is unknown. (
  • While tethered, the cells receive signals instructing them to enter underlying tissue to fight pathogens or repair injuries. (
  • Cannabinoids inhibit cancer cell invasion via increasing tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). (
  • Losing myosin function contributes to the progression of skin cancer , and our new work gives an important clue as to why this might happen when Rho signalling is disrupted, causing a loss of cell adhesion and tissue integrity. (
  • Cell adhesion is a crucial component in maintaining tissue structure and function. (
  • Testing for EpCAM is based on morphology and phenotypical staining and can be performed with primary carcinoma tissue and cells harvested from malignant effusions. (
  • This disrupted normal epithelial cell behavior, and mutant cell clones dispersed into the surrounding wild-type tissue. (
  • The basal lamina separates the cells and epithelia from the surrounding connective tissue and forms a connection between them. (
  • Collagens are secreted in large quantities by the connective tissue cells. (
  • Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales. (
  • Alt-Holland A, Zhang W, Margulis A, Garlick JA (2005) Microenvironmental control of premalignant disease: the role of intercellular adhesion in the progression of squamous cell carcinoma. (
  • This study investigates the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) within this action. (
  • VCAM-1 expression can be induced by numerous factors, including TNF-α, IL-1, IL-4, IL-13, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 cross-linking ( 8 )( 9 )( 10 )( 11 )( 12 )( 13 )( 14 ). (
  • Microfluidics Core Unit B, led by Dr. Groisman, a physicist, will develop and provide high throughput multichannel microfluidic flow systems to analyze platelet and leukocyte adhesion to conventional and patterned substrates under controlled shear stress. (
  • ITGB2 mutations cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I. (
  • Carter WG, Ryan MC, Gahr PJ (1991) Epiligrin, a new cell adhesion ligand for integrin alpha 3 beta 1 in epithelial basement membranes. (
  • The cells interact with Au nanodot patterns with Au dot spacing of 58 nm (f) and 73 nm (g). (h) Projected cell adhesion area per cell adhering to different ligand (dot) separation. (
  • We have used DNA-mediated gene transfer and site-directed mutagenesis to elucidate the intracellular signaling pathways that regulate integrin-mediated cell adhesion. (
  • Second, there are cell-specific differences in the signaling pathways that regulate integrin function. (
  • These studies illustrate the complex nature of the signaling pathways that regulate lymphocyte adhesion. (
  • Coincubation with specific signaling pathway inhibitors followed by Western blot analysis indicated that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-mediated pathways are involved in leptin-mediated EPC adhesion. (
  • In studies conducted in collaboration with Joachim Spatz and colleagues at the University of Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (Stuttgart, Germany) it was demonstrated that cells also respond to the spacing of adhesion ligands. (
  • Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. (
  • Figure 1: Adhesion of hiPSCs undergoing reprogramming and differentiation. (
  • Cellular differentiation hierarchies in normal and culture-adapted human embryonic stem cells. (
  • Differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells into cardiomyocytes. (
  • A universal system for highly efficient cardiac differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells that eliminates interline variability. (
  • Isolation and directed differentiation of neural crest stem cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. (
  • Here, cell lineage tracing revealed that cells in which β-catenin is transcriptionally active express a gene profile that is characteristic of the myeloid lineage. (
  • We generated vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 "knock-in" mice and Cre recombinase transgenic mice to delete the VCAM-1 gene ( vcam-1 ) in whole mice, thereby overcoming the embryonic lethality seen with conventional vcam-1 -deficient mice. (
  • Template:Infobox gene Neural cell adhesion molecule ( NCAM ), also called CD56 , is a homophilic binding glycoprotein expressed on the surface of neurons , glia and skeletal muscle . (
  • When melanoma and endothelioma cells were cultured on either side of a Nucleopore membrane, the expression of VCAM-1 on the endothelioma cells was inhibited and VCAM-1 gene transcription was suppressed. (
  • Has both calcium-independent homophilic cell-cell adhesion activity and calcium-independent heterophilic cell-cell adhesion activity with IGSF4, NECTIN1 and NECTIN3. (
  • JAM4 mediated calcium-independent homophilic adhesion and was accumulated at cell-cell contacts when expressed in L cells. (
  • One of the major clinical problems in the developed world is arterial thrombosis caused by rupture or erosion of an atherosclerotic plaque leading to platelet adhesion and subsequent thrombus formation in coronary and cerebral arteries causing myocardial infarction and stroke, respectively. (
  • Platelet adhesion and aggregation on the ECM. (
  • In addition to providing a distinct cellular mechanism for increasing F-actin, this manipulation targeted only a subset of cells, thus eliminating potentially confounding non-cell-autonomous effects that might be expected from bath application of a drug. (
  • This is used to functionalize from the measurement of cellular deformability to the quantification of the interaction forces generated by a cell and exerted on its surroundings at single-cell with attachment and detachment events. (
  • We have examined the effect of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-tcp) on one cellular event in atherosclerotic plaque development, monocyte adhesion to stimulated endothelial cells (ECs). (
  • In recent years adhesion GPCRs (aGPCRs), the second largest GPCR family, gained significant attention as they are present on almost all mammalian cells, are associated to a plethora of diseases and regulate important cellular processes. (
  • The in vitro specific cell binding, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity of Apt-CUR-NPs were also studied. (
  • In tumors such as ovarian cancer, in which cellular adhesion to the matrix plays a critical role in the establishment of metastases ( 8 ), such inhibitors may prevent cancer dissemination. (
  • They also play a role in cell signaling and thereby define cellular shape, mobility, and regulate the cell cycle. (
  • MOSCONA, A. A., Cells and Tissues in Culture (F. N. Willmer ed. (
  • Desmogleins are present in simple and stratified epithelia, myocardium, hair follicle cells, and the outermost epidermis, among other tissues. (
  • Myosin is found at cell adhesion points and we know it plays a necessary role in regulating how cells stick together to form coherent tissues," she said. (
  • The cells in all the tissues of our body die and have to be replaced as regularly as every 24 hours in the intestinal system," he said. (
  • Central and peripheral nervous system, and other tissues, endothelial cells, and certain tumor cell lines and human cancers including pancreatic cancer, melanoma, renal and colon carcinoma, adrenal gland, placenta, thyroid and testis (Wang et al. (
  • Later in development, NCAM1 (CD56) expression is found on various differentiated tissues and is a major CAM mediating adhesion among neurons and between neurons and muscle. (
  • Normal cells that stain positively for CD56 include NK cells , activated T cells , the brain and cerebellum , and neuroendocrine tissues. (
  • It contains the consequent analysis of the injury and defensive responses as regards separate cells, organs and tissues and the whole organism. (
  • Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) mediates extravasation of circulating leukocytes into inflamed tissues, and presumably, plays a role in the immigration of cytotoxic effector lymphocytes into tumor metastases. (
  • Epithelial cells growing on a patterned adhesive surface with the shape of the Weizmann Institute tree. (
  • The study results suggest that breast cancer cells need adhesive connections to survive and eventually spread and kill patients. (
  • We demonstrate substantial differences in 'adhesive signature' between human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), partially reprogrammed cells, somatic cells and hPSC-derived differentiated progeny. (
  • The invention discloses a cell culture support which provides for the adhesion and culturing of one or more adhesive cells using a photoresist in which to provide a particular patterned design on a surface of the support. (
  • Understanding the phenomenon is important, McEver noted, because the lifetimes of the adhesive bonds determine whether the white blood cells form the rolling interactions with blood vessel walls that are necessary for them to reach the point of inflammation. (
  • To permit such rapid movement, the adhesive contacts between the cell and the substrate must be relatively short-lived and weak. (
  • In this study, we investigate the basic adhesive character of amoeboid cells (D. discoideum) in contact with silanized glass substrates. (
  • We observe the initiation and spreading of the adhesive contacts that these cells establish as they settle under gravity onto the substrate and relax towards mechanical equilibrium. (
  • The adhesive properties of platelets have to be tightly regulated to ensure that the cells readily become activated under appropriate conditions to prevent blood loss in cases of vascular injury, while at the same time undesired adhesion, which can lead to thrombotic events, has to be avoided. (
  • Using FAK-null cells expressing FAK under an inducible promoter, we demonstrate that FAK regulates the time-dependent generation of adhesive forces. (
  • Adjacent to target cells, the near-wall hydrodynamics, thermal fluctuations, and thermodynamic adhesive interactions simultaneously impact the transient motion of the SNP. (
  • Find the best cell adhesion assay equipment in our peer-reviewed product directory: compare products, check customer reviews and receive pricing direct from manufacturers. (
  • A solid-phase adhesion assay was carried out for all 120 compounds and identified several candidates that effectively inhibited cancer cell adhesion to fibronectin. (
  • The adhesion assay to be used in this experiment involves using trypsin. (
  • Cell adhesion link cells in different ways and can be involved in signal transduction for cells to detect and respond to changes in the surroundings. (
  • Does anyone has any ideas how I can test the stickiness (adherence forces) of the cells. (
  • Our research has shown this is because myosin protects a signalling molecule called Rho, an important switch that stabilizes adherence points between cells. (
  • One of the players in this scenario is vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, which mediates both rolling on endothelial cells (ECs) and firm adherence ( 4 )( 5 )( 6 )( 7 ). (
  • It was found that the conditioned medium was unable to increase the adherence of bone marrow cells and therefore the number of CFU-F when cultured in 6-well plates. (
  • Schematic representations of integrin (left), immunoglobulin superfamily (centre), and selectin (right) adhesion molecule structures. (
  • Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a key component of cell-substratum adhesions, known as focal adhesion complexes. (
  • Focal adhesion kinase modulates cell adhesion strengthening via integrin activation. (
  • These observations confirmed the atomic force microscopy results and reinforced their physiological relevance in an experimental design that recapitulates cell interactions in the circulation. (
  • Cell-cell interactions and cell adhesion are key mediators of cancer progression and facilitate hallmarks of cancer including immune evasion and metastatic dissemination. (
  • Endogenous lectins expressed on immune cells and other cells in the stroma, facilitate cell-interactions, -adhesions, thereby contributing to homeostasis. (
  • Alpha-tocopherol inhibits agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion to cultured human endothelial cells. (
  • Agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion, but not basal adhesion, was inhibited in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by alpha-tcp. (
  • The inhibition correlated with a decrease in steady state levels of E-selectin mRNA and cell surface expression of E-selectin which is consistent with the ability of a monoclonal antibody to E-selectin to inhibit monocytic cell adhesion in this system. (
  • They also provided strong evidence that the Rac/Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) β-pix localizes to sites of cell-cell contact through a direct interaction with cadherin/β-catenin/scribble, and it promotes SV clustering by increasing actin polymerization at these sites ( Sun and Bamji, 2011 ). (
  • Despite the well observed protective role of SC, the subtleties regarding the adhesion and mechanical interaction among the individual corneocytes are still poorly known. (
  • It also promotes cell adhesion through interaction with fibronectin and facilitates formation of fibronectin-integrin complexes. (
  • This interaction is involved in tumor cell adhesion to the matrix and in the process of tumor dissemination. (
  • These findings support the concept that inhibitors of the TG2-FN interaction will effectively disrupt cell adhesion to fibronectin. (
  • Mast cell-BSM interaction was assessed using 3 H-thymidine-pulsed mast cells, confocal immunofluorescence, or electron microscopy. (
  • The regulation of adherens junction positioning could play a role in cell mobility and cell division. (
  • this confirms its role in adherens junction formation in mesenchymal cells and is in agreement with the strong cell-cell contact formation by neoplastically transformed cells. (
  • When presented to cells as a peptide-covered surface, synthetic peptides containing the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence promote cell attachment in a manner similar to that of natural fibronectin or vitronectin. (
  • Seven compounds showed more than 50% inhibition of cell adhesion at a concentration of 25 μmol/L. A follow-up fluorescence polarization study revealed that one compound in particular (ITP-79) inhibited binding of a TG2 peptide to a 42-kDa fragment of fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner. (
  • By using knockdown and knock-in experiments, we showed that the enzyme enhances β1-integrin-mediated ovarian cancer cell adhesion to fibronectin ( 4 ). (
  • 1 Laboratory of Cell and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, United States. (
  • Collagen specifically affects the cell adhesion rate or the morphology of the cells to be adhered to the support. (
  • Mast cell adhesion to BSM cells mostly involved type I collagen of the ECM. (
  • Mast cell-BSM cell adhesion involved collagen, CD44, and CD51, particularly under inflammatory conditions. (
  • The primary reason for treatment failure in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is local tumor cell invasion. (
  • The tumor cell will release gelatinase enzymes such as MMP-2 and MMP-9 that will degrade the basement membrane and allow invasion into a secondary site. (
  • We also applied this strategy to isolate hPSCs (hiPSCs and human embryonic stem cells) during routine culture and show that it may be extended to isolate hPSC-derived lineage-specific stem cells or differentiated cells. (
  • Highly efficient and large-scale generation of functional dopamine neurons from human embryonic stem cells. (
  • Fabrication of synthetic polymer coatings and their use in feeder-free culture of human embryonic stem cells. (
  • Adaptation to culture of human embryonic stem cells and oncogenesis in vivo . (
  • Preserving the genetic integrity of human embryonic stem cells. (
  • Mouse Genetics Core Unit A, led by Dr. Petrich, will provide expertise, genomic constructs, genotyping, well characterized murine embryonic stem cells, and blastocyst injections for the purpose of genetic manipulation of mice. (
  • VCAM-1 was originally identified on the surface of activated human umbilical vein ECs as a mediator of adhesion with melanoma cells and lymphocytes ( 8 )( 9 )( 10 ). (
  • There are three principal members of this family-L, P, and E selectin, named after the cell types in which they were first identified (lymphocytes, platelets, and endothelial cells). (
  • 4 ICAM-1 and 2 are expressed on endothelial cells, lymphocytes, and some other leucocytes. (
  • [2] Defects in cell adhesion are usually attributable to defects in expression of CAMs. (
  • However, activation of the T cell results within minutes in increased integrin functional activity that occurs without a change in the level of integrin expression on the cell surface. (
  • Our data indicate that most aGPCRs are expressed in different spatio-temporal patterns during kidney development and that altered aGPCR expression is associated with a variety of kidney diseases including CKD, diabetic nephropathy, lupus nephritis as well as renal cell carcinoma. (
  • During the early stages of adhesion, FAK expression in FAK-null cells enhances integrin activation to promote integrin binding and, hence, the adhesion strengthening rate. (
  • Here, the expression of CD56 is most stringently associated with, but certainly not limited to, natural killer cells . (
  • Epithelial cell adhesion molecule expression (CD326) in cancer: a short review. (
  • e.g. the termination or initiation of expression of a cadherin subclass in a given cell collective is correlated with its segregation from or connection with other cell collectives. (
  • It promotes their adhesion, transmigration, and homing in neointimal lesions, possibly by modulating αvβ5 integrin expression. (
  • CD44v6 expression is increased in asthmatic BSM cells. (
  • Endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression is suppressed by melanoma and carcinoma. (
  • Here we show that in mice and humans, VCAM-1 expression is repressed on tumor-infiltrating vascular endothelial cells in the lungs. (
  • Growing evidence indicates that FAK is important in maintenance of normal cell survival and that disruption of FAK signaling results in loss of substrate adhesion and anoikis (apoptosis) of anchorage-dependent cells, such as endothelial cells. (
  • a) Scheme of diblock copolymer micelle lithography and biofunctionalization of gold particle substrate (top) in contact with a cell membrane (bottom). (
  • L1 coupling to ankyrin and the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton modulates ethanol inhibition of L1 adhesion and ethanol teratogenesis. (
  • Betson M, Lozano E, Zhang J, Braga VM (2002) Rac activation upon cell-cell contact formation is dependent on signaling from the epidermal growth factor receptor. (
  • Thus, during early stages of vascular inflammation, low shear stress typically seen at atherosclerosis-prone regions promotes the induction of endothelial CX3CL1 and monocytic cell recruitment, whereas physiological shear stress counteracts this inflammatory activation of endothelial cells. (
  • Increased integrin-mediated adhesion appears to be a general response of T cells to activation, since a diverse array of activation stimuli are capable of inducing this rapid increase in integrin functional activity. (
  • This work demonstrates a novel role for FAK in integrin activation and the time-dependent generation of cell-ECM forces. (
  • Upon activation, P-selectin is rapidly presented on the surface of activated endothelial cells or platelets through exocytosis of storage granules. (
  • Nascent Integrin Adhesions Form on All Matrix Rigidities after Integrin Activation, Developmental Cell (2015). (
  • This activation may represent an early event in the anabolic response of bone cells to PTH. (
  • The hypotensive and anti-inflammatory effect of soy nut consumption may be due to a reduction in solube vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 which results in an improvement in endothelial function. (
  • This GRC will be held in conjunction with the "Cell Contact and Adhesion (GRS)" Gordon Research Seminar (GRS). (
  • The Gordon Research Seminar on Cell Contact and Adhesion is a unique forum for graduate students, post-docs, and other scientists with comparable levels of experience and education to present and exchange new data and cutting edge ideas. (
  • Moreover, sALCAM was also shown to inhibit tumor progression in melanoma cells (van Kilsdonk et al. (
  • [1] NCAM has been implicated as having a role in cell-cell adhesion, [2] neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory. (
  • Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM, CD326) is a pleiotropic molecule that potentially offers therapeutic applications in cancer treatment. (
  • In this work CUR-NPs (curcumin-loaded lipid-polymer-lecithin hybrid nanoparticles) were synthesized and functionalized with ribonucleic acid (RNA) Aptamers (Apts) against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for targeted delivery to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. (
  • see Figure 1) induce the assembly of morphologically distinct focal adhesions. (
  • A spacing of ~50 nm or less is needed to induce focal adhesion formation and assembly (Figure 2). (
  • Overall, our data indicate that cannabinoids induce ICAM-1, thereby conferring TIMP-1 induction and subsequent decreased cancer cell invasiveness. (