Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)
Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.
A 235-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is also found in platelets. It has been localized to regions of cell-substrate adhesion. It binds to INTEGRINS; VINCULIN; and ACTINS and appears to participate in generating a transmembrane connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. Ng-CAM is immunologically and structurally distinct from NCAM.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A genetically related subfamily of RAP GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that share homology with RAS PROTEINS. They bind to Ras effectors but do not activate them, therefore they may antagonize the effects of RAS PROTEINS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
A family of immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecules that are involved in NERVOUS SYSTEM patterning.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
A family of cytoskeletal proteins that play essential roles in CELL ADHESION at ADHERENS JUNCTIONS by linking CADHERINS to the ACTIN FILAMENTS of the CYTOSKELETON.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
Pathological processes involving the PERITONEUM.
Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.
A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A ubiquitously expressed syndecan that is found in all stages of embryonic development and in most adult tissues. Syndecan-4 is found localized to focal adhesion sites in fibronectin-adherent cells and may play a role the process of CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
An alpha integrin with a molecular weight of 160-kDa that is found in a variety of cell types. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. Integrin alphaV can combine with several different beta subunits to form heterodimers that generally bind to RGD sequence-containing extracellular matrix proteins.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the INTEGRIN ALPHA2BETA1 heterodimer. It contains a domain which has homology to collagen-binding domains found in von Willebrand factor.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A family of related, adhesive glycoproteins which are synthesized, secreted, and incorporated into the extracellular matrix of a variety of cells, including alpha granules of platelets following thrombin activation and endothelial cells. They interact with a number of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS and anticoagulant factors. Five distinct forms have been identified, thrombospondin 1, -2, -3, -4, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). They are involved in cell adhesion, platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE growth, and tissue repair.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (1/22844)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins. (2/22844)

Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Phenotypic analysis of human glioma cells expressing the MMAC1 tumor suppressor phosphatase. (3/22844)

MMAC1, also known as PTEN or TEP-1, was recently identified as a gene commonly mutated in a variety of human neoplasias. Sequence analysis revealed that MMAC1 harbored sequences similar to those found in several protein phosphatases. Subsequent studies demonstrated that MMAC1 possessed in vitro enzymatic activity similar to that exhibited by dual specificity phosphatases. To characterize the potential cellular functions of MMAC1, we expressed wild-type and several mutant variants of MMAC1 in the human glioma cell line, U373, that lacks endogenous expression. While expression of wild-type MMAC1 in these cells significantly reduced their growth rate and saturation density, expression of enzymatically inactive MMAC1 significantly enhanced growth in soft agar. Our observations indicate that while wild-type MMAC1 exhibits activities compatible with its proposed role as a tumor suppressor, cellular expression of MMAC1 containing mutations in the catalytic domain may yield protein products that enhance transformation characteristics.  (+info)

Cell growth inhibition by farnesyltransferase inhibitors is mediated by gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB. (4/22844)

Recent results have shown that the ability of farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) to inhibit malignant cell transformation and Ras prenylation can be separated. We proposed previously that farnesylated Rho proteins are important targets for alternation by FTIs, based on studies of RhoB (the FTI-Rho hypothesis). Cells treated with FTIs exhibit a loss of farnesylated RhoB but a gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB (RhoB-GG), which is associated with loss of growth-promoting activity. In this study, we tested whether the gain of RhoB-GG elicited by FTI treatment was sufficient to mediate FTI-induced cell growth inhibition. In support of this hypothesis, when expressed in Ras-transformed cells RhoB-GG induced phenotypic reversion, cell growth inhibition, and activation of the cell cycle kinase inhibitor p21WAF1. RhoB-GG did not affect the phenotype or growth of normal cells. These effects were similar to FTI treatment insofar as they were all induced in transformed cells but not in normal cells. RhoB-GG did not promote anoikis of Ras-transformed cells, implying that this response to FTIs involves loss-of-function effects. Our findings corroborate the FTI-Rho hypothesis and demonstrate that gain-of-function effects on Rho are part of the drug mechanism. Gain of RhoB-GG may explain how FTIs inhibit the growth of human tumor cells that lack Ras mutations.  (+info)

The LIM-only protein PINCH directly interacts with integrin-linked kinase and is recruited to integrin-rich sites in spreading cells. (5/22844)

PINCH is a widely expressed and evolutionarily conserved protein comprising primarily five LIM domains, which are cysteine-rich consensus sequences implicated in mediating protein-protein interactions. We report here that PINCH is a binding protein for integrin-linked kinase (ILK), an intracellular serine/threonine protein kinase that plays important roles in the cell adhesion, growth factor, and Wnt signaling pathways. The interaction between ILK and PINCH has been consistently observed under a variety of experimental conditions. They have interacted in yeast two-hybrid assays, in solution, and in solid-phase-based binding assays. Furthermore, ILK, but not vinculin or focal adhesion kinase, has been coisolated with PINCH from mammalian cells by immunoaffinity chromatography, indicating that PINCH and ILK associate with each other in vivo. The PINCH-ILK interaction is mediated by the N-terminal-most LIM domain (LIM1, residues 1 to 70) of PINCH and multiple ankyrin (ANK) repeats located within the N-terminal domain (residues 1 to 163) of ILK. Additionally, biochemical studies indicate that ILK, through the interaction with PINCH, is capable of forming a ternary complex with Nck-2, an SH2/SH3-containing adapter protein implicated in growth factor receptor kinase and small GTPase signaling pathways. Finally, we have found that PINCH is concentrated in peripheral ruffles of cells spreading on fibronectin and have detected clusters of PINCH that are colocalized with the alpha5beta1 integrins. These results demonstrate a specific protein recognition mechanism utilizing a specific LIM domain and multiple ANK repeats and suggest that PINCH functions as an adapter protein connecting ILK and the integrins with components of growth factor receptor kinase and small GTPase signaling pathways.  (+info)

Exposure of human vascular endothelial cells to sustained hydrostatic pressure stimulates proliferation. Involvement of the alphaV integrins. (6/22844)

The present study investigated the effects of sustained hydrostatic pressure (SHP; up to 4 cm H2O) on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, focal adhesion plaque (FAP) organization, and integrin expression. Exposure of HUVECs to SHP stimulated cell proliferation and a selective increase in the expression of integrin subunit alphaV. The increase in alphaV was observed as early as 4 hours after exposure to pressure and preceded detectable increases in the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index. Laser confocal microscopy studies demonstrated colocalization of the alphaV integrin to FAPs. The individual FAPs in pressure-treated cells demonstrated a reduced area and increased aspect ratio and were localized to both peripheral and more central regions of the cells, in contrast to the predilection for the cell periphery in cells maintained under control pressure conditions. The pressure-induced changes in alphaV distribution had functional consequences on the cells: adhesivity of the cells to vitronectin was increased, and alphaV antagonists blocked the pressure-induced proliferative response. Thus, the present study suggests a role for alphaV integrins in the mechanotransduction of pressure by endothelial cells.  (+info)

Fluorimetric multiparameter cell assay at the single cell level fabricated by optical tweezers. (7/22844)

A fluorimetric multi-parameter cell sensor at the single cell level is presented which makes it possible to observe the physiological behavior of different cell lines, different physiological parameters, and statistical data at the same time. Different cell types were immobilized at predefined positions with high accuracy using optical tweezers and adhesion promoting surface layers. The process is applicable to both adherent and non-adherent cells. Coating of the immobilization area with mussel adhesive protein was shown to be essential for the process. Intracellular proton and calcium concentrations in different cell classes were simultaneously imaged and the specific activation of T lymphocytes was demonstrated. This method should be especially useful for drug screening due to the small sample volume and high information density.  (+info)

Cell adhesion regulates the interaction between the docking protein p130(Cas) and the 14-3-3 proteins. (8/22844)

Integrin ligand binding induces a signaling complex formation via the direct association of the docking protein p130(Cas) (Cas) with diverse molecules. We report here that the 14-3-3zeta protein interacts with Cas in the yeast two-hybrid assay. We also found that the two proteins associate in mammalian cells and that this interaction takes place in a phosphoserine-dependent manner, because treatment of Cas with a serine phosphatase greatly reduced its ability to bind 14-3-3zeta. Furthermore, the Cas-14-3-3zeta interaction was found to be regulated by integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Thus, when cells are detached from the extracellular matrix, the binding of Cas to 14-3-3zeta is greatly diminished, whereas replating the cells onto fibronectin rapidly induces the association. Consistent with these results, we found that the subcellular localization of Cas and 14-3-3 is also regulated by integrin ligand binding and that the two proteins display a significant co-localization during cell attachment to the extracellular matrix. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that 14-3-3 proteins participate in integrin-activated signaling pathways through their interaction with Cas, which, in turn, may contribute to important biological responses regulated by cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix.  (+info)

Osteopontin (OPN) is an extracellular glycosylated phosphoprotein that promotes cell adhesion by interacting with several integrin receptors. We previously reported that an OPN mutant lacking five O-glycosylation sites (Thr134/Thr138/Thr143/Thr147/Thr152) in the threonine/proline-rich region increased cell adhesion activity and phosphorylation compared with the wild type. However, the role of O-glycosylation in cell adhesion activity and phosphorylation of OPN remains to be clarified. Here, we show that site-specific O-glycosylation in the threonine/proline-rich region of OPN affects its cell adhesion activity and phosphorylation independently and/or synergistically. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we found that OPN mutants with substitution sets of Thr134/Thr138 or Thr143/Thr147/Thr152 had decreased and increased cell adhesion activity, respectively. In contrast, the introduction of a single mutation into the O-glycosylation sites had no effect on OPN cell adhesion activity. An adhesion assay ...
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This application note analyzes the role of different adhesion molecules and chemokines involved in various stages of inflammation under physiological flow conditions. Using Cellixs biochips and Mirus pumping system, THP-1, monocyte and PBMC adhesion to VCAM-1; THP-1, monocyte and PBMC rolling on E-selectin; and respective adhesion blockades is investigated. THP-1 adhesion to HUVECs, correlating adhesion assay results with adhesion molecule expression levels on HUVECs from flow cytometry data, i
Expression of cyclooxygenases (COX) and lipoxygenases (LOX) has been linked to many pathophysiological phenotypes, including cell adhesion. However, many current approaches to measure cellular changes are performed only in a fixed-time point. Since cells dynamically move in conjunction with the cell matrix, there is a pressing need for dynamic or time-dependent methods for the investigation of cell properties. In the presented study, we used stable human colorectal cancer cell lines ectopically expressing COX-1, COX-2, and 15LOX-1, to investigate whether expression of COX-1, COX-2, or 15LOX-1 would affect cell adhesion using our opto-electric methodology. In a fixed-time point experiment, only COX-1- and COX-2-expressing cells enhanced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, but all the transfected cells showed invasion activity. However, in a real-time experiment using opto-electric approaches, transmitted cellular morphology was much different with tight adhesion being shown in COX-2 expressing
The extravasation of leukocytes from the blood into tissues occurs as a multistep process: an initial transient interaction (rolling), generally thought to be mediated by the selectin family of adhesion molecules, followed by firm adhesion, usually mediated by integrins. Using a parallel plate flow chamber designed to approximate physiologic flow in postcapillary venules, we have characterized a rolling interaction between lymphoid cells and adherent primary and cultured endothelial cells that is not selectin mediated. Studies using blocking monoclonal antibodies indicate that this novel interaction is mediated by CD44. Abrogation of the rolling interaction could be specifically achieved using both soluble hyaluronate (HA) and treatment of the adherent cells with HA-reactive substances, indicating that HA is the ligand supporting this rolling interaction. Some B and T cell lines, as well as normal lymphocytes, either constitutively exhibit rolling or can be induced to do so by phorbol ester or ...
Cell adhesion involves receptor-mediated cell-surface interactions with the extracellular matrix (Burridge and Chrzanowska-Wodnicka 1996; Gumbiner 1996). These interactions play a central role in the organization of the cytoskeleton, thereby regulating cell shape and function. Focal adhesions are specialized structures linking the extracellular matrix to the actin microfilaments through integrin and syndecan transmembrane receptors. The structure of the focal adhesion plaque consists of an elaborate network of interconnecting proteins anchoring the microfilaments to the membrane at the contact site. As the points of closest apposition linking the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix, focal adhesions are ideally positioned for regulating the adhesive strength of the cell. It may help to think of the cell as having three grades of adhesiveness: (1) weak adherence, meaning that the cell is attached but not spread; (2) intermediate adherence, characterized by a spread cell that lacks stress ...
L-Arginine reduces human monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and decreases expression of certain endothelial cell adhesion molecules.
The integrin LFA-1 and its ligand ICAM-1 mediate B cell adhesion, but their role in membrane-bound antigen recognition is still unknown. Here, using planar lipid bilayers and cells expressing ICAM-1 fused to green fluorescence protein, we found that the engagement of B cell receptor (BCR) promotes B cell adhesion by an LFA-1-mediated mechanism. LFA-1 is recruited to form a mature B cell synapse segregating into a ring around the BCR. This distribution is maintained over a wide range of BCR/antigen affinities (10(6) M(-1) to 10(11) M(-1)). Furthermore, the LFA-1 binding to ICAM-1 reduces the level of antigen required to form the synapse and trigger a B cell. Thus, LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction lowers the threshold for B cell activation by promoting B cell adhesion and synapse formation.
The aim of the first part of the thesis was to develop and validate an in vitro adherence assay involving porcine mononuclear cells (MCs) and porcine endothelium, present within gut and lymph node. Factors involved in MC / endothelium interactions were determined. In summary we found that cell adhesion in our assay system was temperature, Ca2+ and Mn2+ sensitive, required metabolic activity, was inhibited by the phosphorylated monosaccharide galactose 6-phosphate, and unaffected by the presence of mucus. These findings reflected certain aspects of in vivo cell adhesion, present within the in vitro assay used. The adhesion characteristics of porcine Peyer s patch (PP), peripheral blood (PB), and lymph node (LN) MCs to porcine gut and lymph node endothelium was examined and used as an guiding model for the future study of human MCs adherence. It was found that PP MCs adhered significantly better to gut endothelium than to LN endothelium and similarly LN MCs adhered significantly better to LN ...
Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical to various cellular processes like cell spreading, migration, growth and apoptosis. At the tissue level, cell adhesion is important in the pathological and physiological processes that regulate the tissue morphogenesis. Cell adhesion to the ECM is primarily mediated by the integrin family of receptors. The receptors that are recruited to the surface are reinforced by structural and signaling proteins at the adhesive sites forming focal adhesions that connect the cytoskeleton to further stabilize the adhesions. The functional roles of these focal adhesions extend beyond stabilizing adhesions and transduce mechanical signals at the cell-ECM interface in various signaling events. The objective of this research is to analyze the role of the spatial distribution of the focal adhesions in stabilizing the cell adhesion to the ECM in relation to cells internal force balance. The central hypothesis was that peripheral focal adhesions stabilize cell
Static adhesion of transfectants to immobilized ligands. Adhesion of various integrin transfectants to MAdCAM-1 (top) and ICAM-1 (bottom) was measured in
The modification of medical device surface with adhesive ligands has been recently shown to be an effective means for making a bioselective surface which can inhibit bacterial adhesion while promoting host cell adhesion on device materials. Currently, the lack of quantitative correlation between the adhesion strength of bacteria, nature of adhesive ligand and adhesion kinetics of mammalian cells hinders the development of such device surface. In this study, the biophysical responses of bacteria and mammalian cells towards adhesive ligand on model device surfaces formed by the chemisorption of dopamine (a moderate antibiotic) on glass are elucidated. The effects of RGD, collagen and dopamine modification on the adhesion strength of two clinically significant bacteria including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were investigated by the determination of minimum lateral forces for bacterial detachment and the density of adhering bacteria. The result indicates that RGD ...
Antioxidants have been proposed to be anti-atherosclerotic agents; however, the mechanisms underlying their beneficial effects are poorly understood. We have examined the effect of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-tcp) on one cellular event in atherosclerotic plaque development, monocyte adhesion to stimulated endothelial cells (ECs). Human umbilical vein ECs were pretreated with alpha-tcp before stimulation with known agonists of monocyte adhesion: IL-1 (10 ng/ml), LPS (10 ng/ml), thrombin (30 U/ml), or PMA (10 nM). Agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion, but not basal adhesion, was inhibited in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by alpha-tcp. The IC50 of alpha-tcp on an IL-1-induced response was 45 microM. The inhibition correlated with a decrease in steady state levels of E-selectin mRNA and cell surface expression of E-selectin which is consistent with the ability of a monoclonal antibody to E-selectin to inhibit monocytic cell adhesion in this system. Probucol (50 microM) and ...
In the 9 years since the last review on leukocyte and endothelial interactions was published in this journal many of the critical structures involved in leukocyte adherence to and migration across endothelium have been elucidated. With the advent of cell and molecular biology approaches, investigations have progressed from the early descriptions by intravital microscopy and histology, to functional and immunologic characterization of adhesion molecules, and now to the development of genetically deficient animals and the first phase I trial of anti-adhesion therapy in humans. The molecular cloning and definition of the adhesive functions of the leukocyte integrins, endothelial members of the Ig gene superfamily, and the selectins has already provided sufficient information to construct an operative paradigm of the molecular basis of leukocyte emigration. The regulation of these adhesion molecules by chemoattractants, cytokines, or chemokines, and the interrelationships of adhesion pathways need ...
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The integrin subunit beta 1B, a beta 1 isoform with a unique sequence at the cytoplasmic domain, forms heterodimers with integrin alpha chains and binds fibronectin, but it does not localize to focal adhesion sites (Balzac, F., A. Belkin, V. Koteliansky, Y. Balabanow, F. Altruda, L. Silengo, and G. Tarone. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 121:171-178). Here we analyze the functional properties of human beta 1B by expressing it in hamster CHO cells. When stimulated by specific antibodies, beta 1B does not trigger tyrosine phosphorylation of a 125-kD cytosolic protein, an intracellular signalling pathway that is activated both by the endogenous hamster or the transfected human beta 1A. Moreover, expression of beta 1B results in reduced spreading on fibronectin and laminin, but not on vitronectin. Expression of beta 1B also results in severe reduction of cell motility in the Boyden chamber assay. Reduced cell spreading and motility could not be accounted for by preferential association of beta 1B with a given ...
Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix is required to execute growth factor (GF)-mediated cell behaviors, such as proliferation. A major underlying mechanism is that cell adhesion enhances GF-mediated intracellular signals, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk). However, because GFs use distinct mechanisms to activate Ras-Erk signaling, it is unclear whether adhesion-mediated enhancement of Erk signaling is universal to all GFs. We examined this issue by quantifying the dynamics of Erk signaling induced by epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. Adhesion to fibronectin-coated surfaces enhances Erk signaling elicited by epidermal growth factor but not by bFGF or PDGF. Unexpectedly, adhesion is not always a positive influence on GF-mediated signaling. At critical subsaturating doses of PDGF or bFGF, cell adhesion ablates Erk signaling; that is, adhesion desensitizes the cell to GF ...
Cell adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon vital for all multicellular organisms. Recognition of and adhesion to specific macromolecules is a crucial task of leukocytes to initiate the immune response. To gain statistically reliable information of cell adhesion, large numbers of cells should be measured. However, direct measurement of the adhesion force of single cells is still challenging and todays techniques typically have an extremely low throughput (5-10 cells per day). Here, we introduce a computer controlled micropipette mounted onto a normal inverted microscope for probing single cell interactions with specific macromolecules. We calculated the estimated hydrodynamic lifting force acting on target cells by the numerical simulation of the flow at the micropipette tip. The adhesion force of surface attached cells could be accurately probed by repeating the pick-up process with increasing vacuum applied in the pipette positioned above the cell under investigation. Using the introduced methodology
Hematogenous metastasis requires the arrest and extravasation of blood-borne tumor cells, possibly involving direct adhesive interactions with vascular endothelium. Cytokine activation of cultured human endothelium increases adhesion of melanoma and carcinoma cell lines. An inducible 110-kD endothelial cell surface glycoprotein, designated INCAM-110, appears to mediate adhesion of melanoma cells. In addition, an inducible endothelial receptor for neutrophils, ELAM-1, supports the adhesion of a human colon carcinoma cell line. Thus, activation of vascular endothelium in vivo that results in increased expression of INCAM-110 and ELAM-1 may promote tumor cell adhesion and affect the incidence and distribution of metastases.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Control of integrin αIIbβ3 outside-in signaling and platelet adhesion by sensing the physical properties of fibrin(ogen) substrates. AU - Podolnikova, Nataly. AU - Yermolenko, Ivan S.. AU - Fuhrmann, Alexander. AU - Lishko, Valeryi K.. AU - Magonov, Sergei. AU - Bowen, Benjamin. AU - Enderlein, Joerg. AU - Podolnikov, Andriy V.. AU - Ros, Robert. AU - Ugarova, Tatiana. PY - 2010/1/12. Y1 - 2010/1/12. N2 - The physical properties of substrates are known to control cell adhesion via integrin-mediated signaling. Fibrin and fibrinogen, the principal components of hemostatic and pathological thrombi, may represent biologically relevant substrates whose variable physical properties control adhesion of leukocytes and platelets. In our previous work, we have shown that binding of fibrinogen to the surface of fibrin clot prevents cell adhesion by creating an antiadhesive fibrinogen layer. Furthermore, fibrinogen immobilized on various surfaces at high density supports weak cell adhesion ...
The broad tissue distribution and evolutionary conservation of the GPI-anchored protein PrP suggests that it plays a role in cellular homeostasis. Since integrin adhesion determines cell behavior, the proposed role of PrP in cell adhesion may underlie the various in vitro and in vivo effects associated to PrP loss-of-function, including the immune phenotypes described in PrP−/- mice. We have investigated the role of PrP in the adhesion and (transendothelial) migration of human (pro)monocytes. We found that PrP regulates β1 integrin-mediated adhesion of monocytes. Additionally, PrP controls cell morphology and migratory behavior of monocytes: PrP-silenced cells show deficient uropod formation on immobilized VCAM and display bleb-like protrusions on the endothelium. Our data further show that PrP regulates ligand-induced integrin activation. Finally, we found that PrP controls the activation of several proteins involved in cell adhesion and migration, including RhoA and its effector cofilin as ...
University of Turku. Professor Johanna Ivaskas (University of Turku) research focus is on the changes that occur in cells with the development of cancer metastases. Integrins are important cell adhesion receptors that regulate the division of cells and their movement in tissue. Changes in cell adhesion properties are a key factor in the formation of cancer metastases. The aim of Professor Ivaskas research is to reach a fundamentally new mechanical understanding of how integrins work in cancer cells and to produce a roadmap of integrin receptor operation and communication chains.. The research combines different methods, including in vivo models, high-throughput screening and applications of synthetic biology. These innovative approaches will yield significant new information about the pathways of cancer cells and their movement in tissue. The project is expected to result in major scientific breakthroughs in this topical field of biomedicine.. Johanna Ivaska is a highly merited researcher. For ...
The idea that cells adhere to one another in a specific manner, such that cells of one type stick only to cells of the same type, appears to have had its origin from the work of Wilson (1907). He found that when cell suspensions from two species of marine sponge were mixed and allowed to aggregate, each individual aggregate body was composed of cells of one species alone. This conclusion has been supported by the results obtained by Humphreys (1963) amongst others, though some workers, who have used different species of sponge, have failed to detect signs of specific adhesion of the cells (Sara, Liaci & Melone, 1966). Until recently there has been little evidence in favour or against the idea that specific adhesion occurs between the cells of higher animals.. ...
Project leader: Prof. Dr. T. Chavakis. Integrin-dependent adhesive interactions between leukocytes and the endothelium contribute to inflammatory processes. In addition, similar adhesive events between haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and bone marrow stromal cells, including endothelial cells, play a major role for the mobilisation of HSC into peripheral blood and for the homing of HSC to the bone marrow, both processes being relevant for bone marrow transplantation. The beta2-integrin LFA-1, exclusively expressed on cells of haematopoietic origin, is a major adhesion receptor in this context. We recently identified developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1 or Edil3), secreted by endothelial cells, as an endogenous inhibitor of LFA-1-dependent leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in vitro and leukocyte recruitment in vivo as well as of interleukin-17 (IL-17)-dependent inflammation in the context of aging-associated inflammatory bone loss. Since LFA-1 can regulate adhesive functions of HSC and ...
The invention discloses a cell culture support which provides for the adhesion and culturing of one or more adhesive cells using a photoresist in which to provide a particular patterned design on a surface of the support. The patterned design is provided by the photoresist which is partially removed by photolithography during the making of the support which in turn imparts a striped, checkerboard or dotted pattern on the surface of the support. Further, the cell culture support is produced by pretreating the support surface with a reagent to provide hydrophobicity to the support surface. Also a reagent can be added to pretreat the support surface in order to facilitate adhesion at the photoresist prior to applying the photoresist into the cell culture support. Collagen is applied in the form of a solution, containing in addition thereto albumin and a crosslinking agent, in order to form a film. Collagen specifically affects the cell adhesion rate or the morphology of the cells to be adhered to the
The Phd thesis titled The role of trade partners cohesiveness in the conclusion of interregional agreements with the European Union explores the most important factors helping cohesiveness to explain the likelihood of concluding an agreement with the EU.
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Cells exert actomyosin contractility and cytoskeleton-dependent force in response to matrix stiffness cues. Cells dynamically adapt to force by modifying their behavior and remodeling their microenvironment. This adaptation is favored by integrin activation switch and their ability to modulate their clustering and the assembly of an intracellular hub in response to force. Indeed integrins are mechanoreceptors and mediate mechanotransduction by transferring forces to specific adhesion proteins into focal adhesions which are sensitive to tension and activate intracellular signals. α(5)β(1) integrin is considered of major importance for the formation of an elaborate meshwork of fibronectin fibrils and for the extracellular matrix deposition and remodeling. Here we summarize recent progress in the study of mechanisms regulating the activation cycle of β(1) integrin and the specificity of α(5)β(1) integrin in mechanotransduction.
Nano-scale or micro-scale adhesive structures comprising an array of nano-fabricated, pillars, the pillars having coated upon, or having disposed on a working surface thereof, a protein-mimetic, marine-adhesive coating. Methods of fabricating the nano-scale pillars, synthesis of the protein-mimetic coating or wet adhesive and application of the adhesive to the pillars are described.
The functionalization of hydrogels for receptor-mediated cell adhesion is one approach for targeted cell and tissue engineering applications. In this study, polyacrylamide gel surfaces were functionalized with specific cell adhesion ligands via the self-assembly of a peptide-based heterodimer. The s …
The CD2 receptor on T lymphocytes is essential for T cell adhesion and stimulation by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Blockade of CD2 function is immunosuppressive in both model systems and humans, indicating the importance of CD2 for the cellular immune response. Although the affinity of the molecular interaction between CD2 and its counter-receptor, CD58, is relatively low when measured in solution, this interaction mediates tight adhesion within the 2D cell-cell interface. To understand the mechanisms responsible for regulating the avidity of the CD2-CD58 interaction, we measured the number, affinity, and lateral mobility of CD2 molecules on resting and activated T cells. Cell activation caused a 1.5-fold increase in the number of CD2 sites on the cell surface, and the 2D affinity of CD2 for CD58 increased by 2.5-fold. The combination of T cell activation and CD2 ligation to CD58 decreased the laterally mobile fraction of the ligated CD2. Together, these changes would substantially enhance CD2
The integrin VLA-3 is a cell surface receptor, which binds to fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I and VI (Takada, Y., E. A. Wayner, W. G. Carter, and M. E. Hemler. 1988. J. Cell. Biochem. 37:385-393) and is highly expressed in substrate adherent cultures of almost all human cell types. The ligand specificity of VLA-3 and the inhibition of cell adhesion by anti-VLA-3 monoclonal antibodies suggest its involvement in cell-substrate interaction. In normal tissues, VLA-3 is restricted to few cell types, notably the kidney glomeruli and basal cells of the epidermis. In the epidermis, VLA-3 is generally strongly expressed on the entire plasma membrane of basal cells and is not polarized towards the basement membrane (Klein, C. E., C. Cardon-Cardo, R. Soehnchen, R. J. Cote, H. F. Oettgen, M. Eisinger, and L. J. Old. 1987. J. Invest. Dermatol. 89:500-507). Based on this finding we speculated that, in addition to a role of VLA-3 for adhesion of cells to substrate, it could also be relevant for cell-cell ...
Colorectal tumors originate and develop within intestinal crypts. Even though some of the essential phenomena that characterize crypt structure and dynamics have been effectively described in the past, the relation between the differentiation process and the overall crypt homeostasis is still partially understood. We here investigate this relation and other important biological phenomena by introducing a novel multiscale model that combines a morphological description of the crypt with a gene regulation model: the emergent dynamical behavior of the underlying gene regulatory network drives cell growth and differentiation processes, linking the two distinct spatio-temporal levels. The model relies on a few a priori assumptions, yet accounting for several key processes related to crypt functioning, such as: dynamic gene activation patterns, stochastic differentiation, signaling pathways ruling cell adhesion properties, cell displacement, cell growth, mitosis, apoptosis and the presence of ...
The role of the mesothelial layer in the peritoneal spreading of cancer cells is only partially clarified. Here we attempted to better define the mesothelial contribution to the tumor cell adhesion using a direct adhesion test applied to human primary cultures of mesothelial cells (HPMCs) derived from the peritoneal washes of patients with gastric and colorectal cancers. Gastric and colon carcinoma cells were seeded on different mesothelial monolayers and quantitative fluorescence analysis was performed to analyze their growth and adhesive properties. The adhesion of the cancer cells was not affected by the origin of the HPMCs when derived from patients with different cancers or with benign disease. In contrast, the high levels of ICAM1 expression and ROS production, which characterize these senescent mesothelial cells, enhanced the tumor cell adhesion. These results suggest that the mesothelial adhesive properties are dependent on the cell senescence, while are not affected by the tumor ...
My recent research has focused on how leukocytes control their adhesiveness and has resulted in a discovery of a novel regulatory pathway, Rogelj relates. Its a Rube Goldberg kind of sequence: Biochemical events that occur along this pathway determine the expression of a critical cell surface adhesion molecule, which in turn determines the ability of a leukocyte to recognize its target. Signals that lead to a loss of cell adhesiveness, therefore, result in suppression of the immune response. And, suppression of the immune system may or may not be a good thing ...
Our laboratory consists of 5 Research Fellows and a Junior Faculty member who are physician scientists or research scientists and two senior research technicians. who use a combination of immunological, biochemical and molecular biological strategies to study leukocyte recruitment in various in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation. We have developed a valuable in vitro model that allows direct microscopic examination of live leukocyte Ð endothelial interactions under defined laminar fluid shear stress conditions that mimic blood flow in small venules. Areas of focus using this model are three-fold: first, dissection of the adhesion mechanisms that support blood monocyte and specific T cell subset adhesive interactions with endothelium under flow, or specific recombinant endothelial cell adhesion molecules; second, characterization of endothelial-dependent mechanisms involved in regulation of endothelial cell borders (lateral junctions) during leukocyte transmigration, permeability function ...
The Ly-6 locus on mouse chromosome 15 encodes a family of 10-12 kDa proteins that are linked to the cell surface by a glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol anchor and have cell signaling and cell adhesion properties. Expression of Ly-6 proteins is tightly regulated during development; these proteins continu.... Full description. ...
The leukocyte adhesion cascade is an important paradigm of immunity and mediates leukocyte recruitment in acute or chronic inflammatory responses. Leukocyte recruitment requires several adhesive interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells. The adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelial cell surface is mediated by interactions between leukocyte integrins, such as the beta1-integrin family member VLA-4 (a4b1) or the beta2-integrin family members LFA-1 (aLb2, CD11a/CD18), Mac-1 (aMb2, CD11b/CD18, complement receptor-3), and their endothelial counter-receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) (1). Our lab has made significant contributions to the leukocyte adhesion cascade, including the recent identification of a novel endogenous inhibitor of leukocyte recruitment, the endothelial-derived molecule Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1, Edil3) (2-4).. Mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) from the bone marrow to the periphery takes place upon infection. HSC ...
Prostate Cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men.. The inflammatory tumor microenvironment is a fertile niche that releases reactive oxygen species, which accelerates the malignant transformation and appears as a fine tuner of the adhesive behavior of cells. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, represents an essential event in cellular responses to pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory insults. As we previously reported that HO-1 over-expression impaired tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo we sought to assess whether HO-1 could regulate the adhesive properties and the morphology of PCa cells. A bioinformatics enrichment analysis using Metacore, GeneMANIA and DAVID was performed; rendering a significant association of the HO-1 regulated genes with several proteins located in the extracellular space and cell membrane; compartments highly correlated with the adhesive behavior of cells. In an effort to understand the molecular ...
Effect of Ni addition on the microstructures of melt-spun CuCr ribbons. YU, M.; WANGI, Y.; WANG, Y.; SUN, Z. // Materials Science (0137-1339);2008, Vol. 26 Issue 3, p675 The microstructures and resistivities of melt-spun Cu75Cr25 and Cu(75-x)Cr25Nix (x = 1 or 3 wt. %) ribbons were studied. The size of the Cr-rich phase from liquid phase separation in the Cu75Cr25 microstructure can be decreased from the micrometer-scale to about 250 nm by using melt spinning.... ...
Sample preparation has always been a notoriously time consuming task that tends to detract from the more essential functions of collecting and analyzing data. A few key factors come in to play with improving the process of plating cells for imaging and the time that it takes. Cell adhesion, media re-equilibration, an unobstructed path for free migration of cells are some of the important factors to improve plating efficiency. Cell adhesion is pendant on the surface the cells are being plated on. The chemical composition of the glass affects cell adhesion and all glass surfaces are not created equal. It is best to use glass that is alkaline free and designed for cell adhesion (check out the Bioptechs Delta T Culture Dishes, FCS2 coverslips, 30mm ICD coverslips, and Microaquaduct slides). Sometimes an ECM is required depending on the cell type and protocol, however, in all cases cell plating is improved with the use of Culture Cylinders. A unique attribute of using a Culture Cylinder for plating ...
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Here, we investigated molecular and biophysical mechanisms through which GBM cells adhere to HA matrix. We find that GBM cells interact with HA via McTNs, which are long, thin protrusions rich in the HA receptor CD44, which we show is necessary for cell adhesion and McTN stability. Motility assays and laser ablation indicate that McTNs are stabilized by a balance of actomyosin-driven contraction, microtubule-driven protrusion, and CD44-mediated adhesion. Mechanical coupling of actin and microtubules with McTNs appears to be reinforced by a complex of IQGAP1 and CLIP170, and loss of IQGAP1 specifically disrupts adhesion and motility on HA.. McTNs, which can be functionally defined as microtubule-positive protrusions that elongate following actin depolymerization, have been observed in circulating tumor cells (CTCs), where they are believed to facilitate endothelial adhesion prior to extravasation (30⇓-32). However, to our knowledge, these structures have not been previously appreciated in the ...
Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is necessary for fundamental cellular processes such as survival, migration, and differentiation. Adhesion is mediated by integrin receptors, which recruit multiprotein adhesion complexes to sites of attachment to the ECM. Adhesion complexes provide a structural connection between the ECM and cytoskeleton, transmit mechanical force, and act as signaling hubs to control cell behavior. Recent high-resolution imaging studies of adhesion sites reveal some aspects of their spatial organization and provide insights into their function at the molecular level.. ...
In this study, we have investigated whether SHIP plays a role in PMA- or cytokine-mediated LFA-1 activation by overexpressing both WT and phosphatase dead forms of SHIP in DA-ER cells. Our results show that 1) overexpression of WT-SHIP in unstimulated DA-ER cells increases LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion to ICAM-1, and this adhesion is further augmented by the addition of PMA, IL-3, or Epo; 2) SHIP requires a functional 5′-phosphatase domain for these effects, and overexpression of a phosphatase dead form actually leads to a slight inhibition of LFA-1-mediated adhesion to ICAM-1; 3) SHIP overexpression most likely enhances adhesion via its effect on inside-out signaling because its overexpression has no effect on the external activation of LFA-1 by Mn2+; 4) LFA-1 activation on cells overexpressing WT-SHIP does not involve activation of Erk-1 and Erk-2; and 5) LFA-1 activation in response to PMA in SHIP-overexpressing cells is via its effects on a PKC-stimulated pathway, while LFA-1 activation in ...
We have designed a lightly crosslinked PEG based copolymer coating with compositional flexibility as well as extended stability for studying human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Copolymers contain a majority of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEMA) as a cytophobic background with poly(et
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Dysfunction of cell adhesion occurs during cancer metastasis. Loss of cell-cell adhesion in metastatic tumour cells allows them ... Cell adhesion is the process by which cells interact and attach to neighbouring cells through specialised molecules of the cell ... Cells adhesion occurs from the interactions between cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs), transmembrane proteins located on the cell ... allowing vertebrate cells to assemble into organised tissues. Cadherins are essential for cell-cell adhesion and cell ...
... s (CAMs) are a subset of cell surface proteins that are involved in the binding of cells with other cells ... Cell membrane Cell migration Immunological synapse Trogocytosis Cell+Adhesion+Molecules at the US National Library of Medicine ... Schnapp, L (2006). Integrin, Adhesion/cell-matrix. Seattle: Elsevier. García AJ (December 2005). "Get a grip: integrins in cell ... Gumbiner, B. M. (1996-02-09). "Cell adhesion: the molecular basis of tissue architecture and morphogenesis". Cell. 84 (3): 345- ...
... (formerly Cell Adhesion & Communication) is an academic journal that publishes review articles on ... Cell Communication & Adhesion homepage of Cell Communication & Adhesion (Articles with short description, Short description is ... FRACP are the regional editors of Cell Communication & Adhesion. Cell Communication & Adhesion publishes six issues per year in ... Intercelluar communication Intercellular junctions Receptor-based cell recognition & signaling Cell Communication & Adhesion is ...
... (sCAMs) are a class of cell adhesion molecule (CAMs - cell surface binding proteins) that may ... May 1998). "Soluble cell adhesion molecules in hypertriglyceridemia and potential significance on monocyte adhesion". ... Soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin (termed sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 ... They include soluble isoforms of the cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and P-selectin (distinguished as sICAM- ...
2002). "The tumor suppressor protein TSLC1 is involved in cell-cell adhesion". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (34): 31014-9. doi:10.1074/ ... 2003). "Implications of nectin-like molecule-2/IGSF4/RA175/SgIGSF/TSLC1/SynCAM1 in cell-cell adhesion and transmembrane protein ... Cell adhesion molecule 1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CADM1 gene. Model organisms have been used in the ... Cell adhesion molecule 1 has been shown to interact with EPB41L3. Genome-wide association studies identified an association ...
1996). "A unique gene encodes spliceoforms of the B-cell adhesion molecule cell surface glycoprotein of epithelial cancer and ... 2006). "Laminin-10 and Lutheran blood group glycoproteins in adhesion of human endothelial cells". Am. J. Physiol., Cell ... This protein may play a role in epithelial cell cancer and in vaso-occlusion of red blood cells in sickle cell disease. Two ... Basal cell adhesion molecule, also known as Lutheran antigen, is a plasma membrane glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by ...
"Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) modulates cell-cell interactions mediated by classic cadherins". The Journal of Cell ... a human epithelial antigen is a homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecule". The Journal of Cell Biology. 125 (2): 437-46. doi: ... EpCAM was first found to play a role in homotypic cell adhesion. This means that EpCAM on the surface of one cell binds to the ... September 2018). "EpCAM homo-oligomerization is not the basis for its role in cell-cell adhesion". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): ...
... also present on subset of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. In cell adhesion, CD56 contributes to cell-cell adhesion or cell- ... Τ cells and activated CD8+ T cells, as well as on dendritic cells. NCAM has been implicated as having a role in cell-cell ... The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM1 appears on early embryonic cells and is important in the formation of cell collectives ... Normal cells that stain positively for CD56 include NK cells, activated T cells, the brain and cerebellum, and neuroendocrine ...
... is a protein in humans that is encoded by the DSCAML1 gene. DSCAM, Down syndrome ... "DSCAML1 DS cell adhesion molecule like 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". Retrieved 2012-11-29. PDBe-KB provides an overview of all ... the structure information available in the PDB for Human Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule-like protein 1 v t e (Genes on ... cell adhesion molecule Fibronectin type III domain Immunoglobulin superfamily GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000177103 - ...
Cell-cell adhesions provide chemical and mechanical connections between adjacent cells. Of special importance to neuronal ... Cell migration is generally classified with four cell processes: Leading edge protrusion Adhesion formation Cell body ... Force transmission can occur through a variety of mechanisms, though adhesion complexes between cell-cell and cell- ... Kawauchi, T (2012). "Cell Adhesion and Its Endocytic Regulation in Cell Migration during Neural Development and Cancer ...
Cell adhesion molecules Fibronectin Laminin Schwab, Manfred, ed. (2001). "Cell Adhesion Molecules". Encyclopedic reference of ... are proteins that attach cells to specific compounds in the extracellular matrix (a process known as cell adhesion). Some of ... ISBN 978-0-387-25615-3.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Ulrich, Klaus (1994). "Cell-Adhesion Molecules ... SAMs do not have to be made by the cells that bind to them. They can also link to other SAMs, influencing each other's behavior ...
Cell sorting Cell adhesion Morphogenesis Wound healing Metastasis Foty, Ramsey A.; Steinberg, Malcolm S. (1 February 2005). " ... where tissues with weaker surface adhesion surround tissues with stronger surface adhesion, the rounding of irregular cell ... cells move to be near other cells of similar adhesive strength in order to maximize the bonding strength between cells and ... As cells with similar strengths of surface adhesion bond to one another, bonding energy in the overall system increases, and ...
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency Etzioni A, Harlan JM. Cell adhesion and leukocyte adhesion defects. In: Ochs HD, Smith CIE, Puck ... This gene encodes CD18, a protein present in several cell surface receptor complexes found on white blood cells, including ... It also impairs immune cell interaction, immune recognition, and cell-killing lymphocyte functions. The lack of CR3 interferes ... Leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1 (LAD1) is a rare and often fatal genetic disorder in humans. The main sign of the disease is ...
Ligand profiles and in vitro studies have indicated a role for adhesion GPCRs in cell adhesion and migration. Work utilizing ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors, Cell adhesion ... adhesion GPCRs) are a class of 33 human protein receptors with a broad distribution in embryonic and larval cells, cells of the ... and the belief that they interact with cell to cell and cell to extra cellular matrix. While ligands for many receptors are ...
"Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency". Pediatrics. 123 (3): 836-840. doi: ... Leukocyte adhesion cascade Congenital disorder of glycosylation "Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency: Immunodeficiency Disorders: ... 95 glycoproteins cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency". Cell. 50 (2): 193-202. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(87)90215-7. PMID 3594570. ... Types of leukocyte adhesion deficiency include LAD1, LAD2, and LAD3. LAD1 is the most common. Patients with LAD1 have an ...
The interthalamic adhesion contains nerve cells and nerve fibers; a few of the latter may cross the middle line, but most of ... The interthalamic adhesion (also known as the intermediate mass or middle commissure) is a flattened band of tissue that ... The interthalamic adhesion is notably enlarged in patients with the type II Arnold-Chiari malformation. Thalamus Medial surface ... It is still uncertain whether the interthalamic adhesion contains fibers that cross the midline - and for this reason, it is ...
The mechanism behind catch bonds helps to explain the biophysics behind cell-cell adhesion. According to the researchers, " ... "Bacterial adhesion to target cells enhanced by shear force". Cell. 109 (7): 913-23. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00796-1. PMID ... "Models for the specific adhesion of cells to cells". Science. 200 (4342): 618-27. Bibcode:1978Sci...200..618B. doi:10.1126/ ... Marshall BT, Long M, Piper JW, Yago T, McEver RP, Zhu C (May 2003). "Direct observation of catch bonds involving cell-adhesion ...
Fibronectins are involved in a number of important functions e.g., wound healing; cell adhesion; blood coagulation; cell ... "The receptor DEC-205 expressed by dendritic cells and thymic epithelial cells is involved in antigen processing". Nature. 375 ( ... K441 and R443 together make up a membrane-binding motif that allows EphA2 receptors to attach to the cell membrane. BSPH1; ... Pankov R, Yamada KM (2002). "Fibronectin at a glance". J Cell Sci. 115 (20): 3861-3863. doi:10.1242/jcs.00059. PMID 12244123. ...
"The roles of cell adhesion molecules in tumor suppression and cell migration: a new paradox". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 3 (4 ... "The immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule hepaCAM modulates cell adhesion and motility through direct interaction with the ... April 2008). "GlialCAM, an immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule is expressed in glial cells of the central nervous system ... modulating cell-matrix adhesion and migration, and b) inhibiting cancer cell growth. (Note: *HEPACAM, gene name; **hepaCAM, ...
High endothelial venules (HEVs) are cells found in secondary lymphoid organs that express large quantities of cell adhesion ... Lymphocyte homing receptors are cell adhesion molecules expressed on lymphocyte cell membranes that recognize addressins on ... J Cell Biol. 196 (1): 131-146. doi:10.1083/jcb.201110023. ISSN 0021-9525. PMC 3255974. PMID 22232704. (Cell adhesion molecules) ... Lymphocyte homing refers to adhesion of the circulating lymphocytes in blood to specialized endothelial cells within lymphoid ...
Cell Communication & Adhesion. 10 (1): 27-36. doi:10.1080/15419060302063. PMID 12881038. S2CID 225894. Wang WH, Yang JJ, Lin YC ... However, Cx29, which is highly expressed in myelin-forming glial cells of the CNS and PNS, has not been documented to form gap ... "Identification of novel variants in the Cx29 gene of nonsyndromic hearing loss patients using buccal cells and restriction ... "Connexin29 is uniquely distributed within myelinating glial cells of the central and peripheral nervous systems". The Journal ...
Cell Adhesion & Migration. 1 (4): 185-95. doi:10.4161/cam.1.4.5448. PMC 2634105. PMID 19262140. Zhu Y, Cuevas IC, Gabriel RA, ... "HOXA3 induces cell migration in endothelial and epithelial cells promoting angiogenesis and wound repair". Journal of Cell ... HoxA3 induces endothelial cell (EC) migration by upregulating MMP14 and uPAR. Conversely, HoxD10 and HoxA5 have the opposite ... Dunn J, Simmons R, Thabet S, Jo H (October 2015). "The role of epigenetics in the endothelial cell shear stress response and ...
The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... β-neurexin then binds to cell adhesion molecule, neuroligin located on the postsynaptic membrane. Neuroligin then interacts ... Paired pulse facilitation Postsynaptic density Missler M, Südhof TC, Biederer T (2012). "Synaptic cell adhesion". Cold Spring ... The ribbon synapse is a special type of synapse found in sensory neurons such as photoreceptor cells, retinal bipolar cells, ...
"Regulation of cell adhesion by protein-tyrosine phosphatases: II. Cell-cell adhesion". J Biol Chem. 281 (24): 16189-92. doi: ... The structure of PTPmu suggests that it can regulate cell adhesion and migration using its extracellular cell adhesion molecule ... Burridge K, Sastry SK, Sallee JL (2006). "Regulation of cell adhesion by protein-tyrosine phosphatases. I. Cell-matrix adhesion ... and therefore keeps cells stationary. Cadherins regulate cell-cell adhesion during development of the body and in adult tissue ...
... form focal adhesions with the substratum, linking them to the cell surface. Many types of migrating cells display ... Viruses have been shown to be transported along filopodia toward the cell body, leading to cell infection. Directed transport ... Filopodia have roles in sensing, migration, and cell-cell interaction. To close a wound in vertebrates, growth factors ... August 2020). "The Global Phosphorylation Landscape of SARS-CoV-2 Infection". Cell. 182 (3): 685-712.e19. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
Cell Communication & Adhesion. 10 (4-6): 451-6. doi:10.1080/cac.10.4-6.451.456. hdl:10533/174413. PMID 14681056. S2CID 33491307 ... In non-excitable cells, the resting potential across the plasma membrane (Vmem) of individual cells propagate across distances ... Civitelli, R (2008). "Cell-cell communication in the osteoblast/osteocyte lineage". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. ... Robinson, K. R (1985). "The responses of cells to electrical fields: A review". The Journal of Cell Biology. 101 (6): 2023-7. ...
Kos J, Jevnikar Z, Obermajer N (April-June 2009). "The role of cathepsin X in cell signaling". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 3 (2 ... It is also shown to bind cell surface heparin sulphate proteoglycans, indicating possible functions in cellular adhesion and ... This gene is expressed ubiquitously in cancer cell lines and primary tumors and, like other members of this family, may be ... Obermajer N, Svajger U, Bogyo M, Jeras M, Kos J (November 2008). "Maturation of dendritic cells depends on proteolytic cleavage ...
Cell Communication & Adhesion. 16 (1-3): 15-27. doi:10.1080/15419060903009329. PMID 19533476. S2CID 19077857. Kirchner F, ... Plakophilin-2 over time has shown to be more than components of cell-cell junctions; rather the plakophilins are emerging as ... which was coordinate with decreased electrical coupling of cells and decreased adhesion strength. These studies were further ... Cell. Proteomics. 4 (6): 785-95. doi:10.1074/mcp.M500021-MCP200. PMID 15778465. Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, ...
Cell Adhesion & Migration. 3 (4): 402-411. doi:10.4161/cam.3.4.8690. ISSN 1933-6926. PMC 2802756. PMID 19421003. "Newcomb ... but after this metamorphosis-induced cell death, the surviving nest cells can then differentiate. These cells become functional ... vast cell death sweeps through nests of larvae that are at the end of larval life. These nest cells were previously in an ... Venken, Koen J.T.; Simpson, Julie H.; Bellen, Hugo J. (October 2011). "Genetic Manipulation of Genes and Cells in the Nervous ...
Park JB, Kwak HJ, Lee SH (2008). "Role of hyaluronan in glioma invasion". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 2 (3): 202-7. doi:10.4161/ ... HA's interaction with CD44 activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an important molecule in the process of cell motility by ... This role of HA has been shown in other cell types, but has not yet been researched in cancer cells. The HA produced by HAS up- ... Finally, in the formation of a metastatic lesion, HAS produces HA to allow the cancer cell to interact with native cells at the ...
Lyn and Fgr are highly expressed in malignant prostate cells compared to normal prostate cells. When the primary prostate cells ... c-Src can be activated by many transmembrane proteins that include: adhesion receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, G-protein ... HSP90 inhibitor NVP-BEP800 has been described to affect stability of Src tyrosine kinase and growth of T-cell and B-cell acute ... Src, Fyn and Yes are expressed ubiquitously in all cell types while the others are generally found in hematopoietic cells. c- ...
2006). "JSAP1/JIP3 cooperates with focal adhesion kinase to regulate c-Jun N-terminal kinase and cell migration". J. Biol. Chem ... and c-Src are activated in human aortic smooth muscle cells by pressure stress". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 262 (1-2): 71-8. doi: ... 2002). "A scaffold protein in the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway is associated with focal adhesion kinase and ... 2001). "Kinesin-dependent axonal transport is mediated by the sunday driver (SYD) protein". Cell. 103 (4): 583-94. doi:10.1016/ ...
In paratenonitis, inflammatory cells are found in the cellular elements of the paratenon and in the vascular ingrowth. Maffulli ... Peritendinous tissues become macroscopically thickened and new connective tissue adhesions occur. ... It is presented with acute edema and hyperaemia of the paratenon with infiltration of inflammatory cells. After few hours or ...
... cell-cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth using atomic force microscopy-based single-cell force spectroscopy". Nano Letters. 13 ... Teneurins are homophilic adhesion molecules that bind specifically to other teneurin-family molecules on adjacent cells. The ... Ten-m3 mRNA is prominently co-expressed with Ten-m2 and Ten-m4 in the Purkinje's cell zone of the cerebellum. Ten-m3 protein is ... They are also expressed in some non-neuronal tissues that regulate pattern formation and sites of cell migration. Some Ten-m3 ...
... neural cell adhesion molecule) → ++ S100 → ++ Transthyretin → - Vimentin → +++ Desmin → - SMA (smooth muscle actin) → + The ... Vacuolated, or clear cells are common. Necrosis or cell death is normally observed to some extent in most of these tumors cells ... If the abnormal cells continue to grow, divide, and produce more abnormal cells, the mass of abnormal cells may eventually ... The papilla is meant to be surface cells. The ependymal cells line the inside of the ventricles of the brain. These cells have ...
Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.039. PMC 5329766. PMID 28187287. Cooper GM (2000). "The Molecular Composition of Cells". The Cell: A ... Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then activates a cascade of protein kinases that cause the cells to take ... The metabolism of cancer cells is also different from the metabolism of normal cells, and these differences can be used to find ...
UPS proteolysis plays a major role in responses of cancer cells to stimulatory signals that are critical for the development of ... adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, P-selectin) and prostaglandins and nitric oxide (NO). Additionally, the UPS also plays a ... Goff SP (Aug 2003). "Death by deamination: a novel host restriction system for HIV-1". Cell. 114 (3): 281-3. doi:10.1016/S0092- ... Kleiger G, Mayor T (Jun 2014). "Perilous journey: a tour of the ubiquitin-proteasome system". Trends in Cell Biology. 24 (6): ...
It is associated with biofilm formation and possesses at least four binding domains which can bind to different cell receptors ... a multifaceted adhesion produced by virulent Bordetella spp". Molecular Microbiology. 9: 653-60. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.1993. ... filamentous protein that serves as a dominant attachment factor for adherence to host ciliated epithelial cells of the ... on the epithelial cell surface. One notable bacterium that produces filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin is Bordetella pertussis ...
... which encodes the important cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein E-cadherin. Somatic mutations of the APC gene have also been ... As a result, the ErbB2/ErbB3 signaling pathway becomes constitutively activated, cell-cell interactions are lost and signet ... July 2013). "Signet ring cell colorectal carcinoma: a distinct subset of mucin-poor microsatellite-stable signet ring cell ... SRCCs are dedifferentiated adenocarcinomas that lose the capability for cell-cell interaction.[citation needed] Highly ...
F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... providing the cell with a means of stable cell adhesion. However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ... "Knockdown of Sec6 improves cell-cell adhesion by increasing α-E-catenin in oral cancer cells". FEBS Lett. 586 (6): 924-33. doi: ...
Uncleaved MAG is a complete transmembrane form, which acts as a signaling and adhesion molecule. MAG can also act as a ... Gage FH, Temple S (October 2013). "Neural stem cells: generating and regenerating the brain". Neuron. 80 (3): 588-601. doi: ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 138 (6): 1355-66. doi:10.1083/jcb.138.6.1355. PMC 2132563. PMID 9298990. Pronker MF, Lemstra S, ... is a type 1 transmembrane protein glycoprotein localized in periaxonal Schwann cell and oligodendrocyte membranes, where it ...
... and differentiation into high-affinity plasma cells and memory B cells. Adhesion between FDCs and B cells is mediated by ICAM-1 ... Unlike dendritic cells (DC), FDCs are not derived from the bone-marrow hematopoietic stem cell, but are of mesenchymal origin. ... Activated B-cells with low affinity to antigen captured on FDCs surface as well as autoreactive B-cells undergo apoptosis, ... Follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are cells of the immune system found in primary and secondary lymph follicles (lymph nodes) of ...
Bacterial replication in host cells causes endothelial cell proliferation and inflammation, resulting in mononuclear cell ... Studies have suggested that rOmpB is involved in this process of adhesion and invasion. Both rOmpA and rOmpB are members of a ... This species of Rickettsia uses an abundant cell surface protein called OmpB to attach to a host cell membrane protein called ... This causes the host cell membrane to protrude outward and invaginate the membrane of an adjacent cell. The bacteria are then ...
"The HIV-1 vpr protein induces anoikis-resistance by modulating cell adhesion process and microfilament system assembly". Cell ... Wennerberg K, Der CJ (March 2004). "Rho-family GTPases: it's not only Rac and Rho (and I like it)". Journal of Cell Science. ... Liu JP, Jessell TM (December 1998). "A role for rhoB in the delamination of neural crest cells from the dorsal neural tube". ... Madaule P, Axel R (May 1985). "A novel ras-related gene family". Cell. 41 (1): 31-40. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(85)90058-3. PMID ...
Furthermore these cells express a number of molecules important for the mediation of the cell adhesion, such as cadherin-11, ... These cells, together with other immune cells such as macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, mast cells, dendritic cells and ... These hallmark features of FLS in RA are divided into 7 cell-intrinsic hallmarks and 4 cell-extrinsic hallmarks. The cell- ... They lose the property called contact inhibition (cells arrest their growth in the case when more cells come into contact with ...
... cell division, cell adhesion, and stress response such as DNA repair. Activity of ABL1 protein is negatively regulated by its ... associates with focal adhesion kinase and induces pseudohyphal growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 (7): ... a site for phosphorylation in leukaemia cells". Genes to Cells. 9 (9): 781-90. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2004.00772.x. PMID ... Cell. 6 (6): 1413-23. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)00138-6. PMID 11163214. Yoshida K, Komatsu K, Wang HG, Kufe D (May 2002). "c- ...
as a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. It may also mediate the attachment of ... Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally found in the umbilical cord and bone marrow as haematopoietic cells, or in ... December 2019). "Single-cell analysis of bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells from children with sickle cell disease and thalassemia ... "CD34 and CD43 inhibit mast cell adhesion and are required for optimal mast cell reconstitution". Immunity. 22 (1): 43-57. doi: ...
... and cell adhesion. A proposed structure for the protein can be found in the images for proposed structures. The secondary ... Cell. 122 (6): 957-968. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8592-0. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 16169070. ... of cDNAs with open reading frames for 300 previously undefined genes expressed in CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells ( ...
Comparative Study of Action Potentials of Native and Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes". Stem Cells and Development ... vaginal atresia and labial adhesions. Sexual anomalies often generate from genetic abnormalities caused by many factors, ... The anti-Müllerian hormone is used for evaluating the function of Sertoli cells. A urinary steroid profile shows the ratio of ...
Cell. 157 (6): 1380-92. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.05.009. PMC 4144415. PMID 24906154. Anke M. Arsenic. In: Mertz W. ed., Trace ... Loskill P, Zeitz C, Grandthyll S, Thewes N, Müller F, Bischoff M, Herrmann M, Jacobs K (May 2013). "Reduced adhesion of oral ...
... cell-cycle regulation, angiogenesis, and cell adhesion. The correlative studies analyzing the expression of galectin-9 and ... "Galectin-9 as a regulator of cellular adhesion in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines". International Journal of ... an interaction with CD40 on T-cells induced their proliferation inhibition and cell death. Galectin-9 also has important ... "A modified version of galectin-9 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of Burkitt and Hodgkin lymphoma cells". British ...
The protein may play a role in the adhesion of activated T and NK cells to their target cells during the late phase of the ... promotes NK cell-target cell adhesion by interacting with the poliovirus receptor (CD155)". Journal of Immunology. 172 (7): ... CD96 is a receptor protein which is expressed on T cells and NK cells and shares sequence similarity with CD226 (also known as ... The protein may play a role in the adhesive interactions of activated T and NK cells during the late phase of the immune ...
Polymorphonuclear cells also infiltrate the epithelium, and chronic inflammatory cells infiltrate the lamina propria. Atrophic ... This adhesion involves adhesins (e.g., hyphal wall protein 1), and extracellular polymeric materials (e.g., mannoprotein). ... Apart from true hyphae, Candida can also form pseudohyphae - elongated filamentous cells, lined end to end. As a general rule, ... In vitro and studies show that Candidal growth, adhesion and biofilm formation is enhanced by the presence of carbohydrates ...
1997). "Morphogenesis of epithelial cells". In Paul, Leendert C.; Issekutz, Thomas B. (eds.). Adhesion molecules in health and ... Embryoblast cells also known as the inner cell mass form a compact mass of cells at the embryonic pole on one side of the ... The blastomeres are the daughter cells of the zygote, and when the blastomeres number from 16-32 the ball of cells is called a ... The cells on the outside and inside become differentially fated into trophoblast (outside) and inner cell mass (inside) ...
... the NKT cells), NK cells, fibroblasts and platelets. Integrins are involved in cell adhesion and also participate in cell- ... They are found on a wide variety of cell types including T cells ( ... Arase H, Saito T, Phillips JH, Lanier LL (August 2001). "Cutting edge: the mouse NK cell-associated antigen recognized by DX5 ... ITGA2 Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway Archived 2014-12-11 at the Wayback Machine Human ITGA2 genome location and ...
Bacteria use TAAs in order to infect their host cells via a process called cell adhesion. TAAs also go by another name, ... YadA bacterial adhesin protein domain Type V secretion system Virulence factor Cell adhesion Outer membrane Gram negative ... Then the Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin must adhere to the layer of cells found on the internal surface, the epithelial cells ... Once it has done so, it may bind to the ECM of the host cell. TAAs are a type of microbial surface components recognizing ...
"Biological adhesion of the flatworm Macrostomum lignano relies on a duo-gland system and is mediated by a cell type-specific ... The secretory organs of rhabditophorans, the protonephridia, also have a unique anatomy in which the flame cells and tube cells ... It is a structure of the epidermis containing three different cell types: anchor cells, adhesive glands and releasing glands. ... The adhesive glands secrete an adhesive substance that attaches the anchor cells to a surface, while the releasing glands ...
... and specifically the e-cadherin-based stem cell adhesion, is vital in maintaining the Drosophila germline stem cells. These ... cells continuously duplicate their genetic information without division into two cells. This creates very large cells, but ... "The receptor tyrosine phosphatase Lar regulates adhesion between Drosophila male germline stem cells and the niche". ... the LAR expressed in the testicles retains germline stem cells at the niche through the increased E-cadherin-based adhesion. ...
... integrins influence tubule cell adhesion after cytokine-induced injury". Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 12 (11 ... Racusen LC, Fivush BA, Li YL, Slatnik I, Solez K (April 1991). "Dissociation of tubular cell detachment and tubular cell death ... "Inflammatory cytokines induce apoptotic and necrotic cell shedding from human proximal tubular epithelial cell monolayers". ... Proximal tubule cells can shed with variable viability and not be purely "necrotic". Toxic ATN can be caused by free hemoglobin ...
Cell lines and Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. Multiplex Assays. By research area. Cancer. Cardiovascular. Cell Biology. ... Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and biochemical assays. Proteins and Peptides. By product type. Proteomics tools. ... The tumor cell will release gelatinase enzymes such as MMP-2 and MMP-9 that will degrade the basement membrane and allow ... This is a multi-step process which begins with tumor cell invasion through the extracellular matrix into the bloodstream. In ...
Cell surface proteoglycans, notably syndecan-2, may be important regulators of breast carcinoma progression through regulation ... Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans control adhesion and invasion of breast carcinoma cells Mol Cancer. 2015 Jan 27;14(1 ... First, thrombin inhibition contributed to enhanced cell adhesion and reduced invasion. Second, a specific loss of cell surface ... This may derive from their regulation of cell adhesion, but roles for specific syndecans are unresolved. ...
Control of adhesion-dependent cell survival by focal adhesion kinase. J Cell Biol. 1996;134(3):793-799.. View this article via ... Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling in focal adhesions decreases cell motility and proliferation. Mol Biol Cell ... Regulation of the cell cycle by focal adhesion kinase. J Cell Biol. 1998;143(7):1997-2008.. View this article via: PubMed ... Stimulation of cell migration by overexpression of focal adhesion kinase and its association with Src and Fyn. J Cell Sci. 1996 ...
... cell adhesion and the regulatory control of adhesion. By evolving adhesion, cells attach to a surface, where they spontaneously ... collectives then evolve a central-peripheral polarity in cell adhesion that supports a division of labor between cells and ... Here, we introduce a novel theoretical approach, based on spatial lineage tracking of cells, to study this origin. We show that ... Selection in favor of large collectives increases the fraction of adhesive cells until a surface becomes fully occupied. ...
ET-1 up-regulates cell surface adhesion molecules-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion ... ET-1 up-regulates cell surface adhesion molecules-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion ... Keywords: endothelin-1 (ET-1); intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1); systemic sclerosis; vascular cell adhesion molecule- ... ET-1, endothelin-1; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1.d. ...
Elevated lavels of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1, thrombomodulin and soluble endothelial cell adhesion molecules in ... 2007)‎. Elevated lavels of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1, thrombomodulin and soluble endothelial cell adhesion ... The results suggest that endothelial cells are highly activated in DHF patients and TNF-α is one of the factors which ... High levels of soluble activated endothelial substances suggest that endothelial cells are highly activated. When compared with ...
Start citing books, websites, journals, and more with the Citation Machine® CELL-ADHESION-AND-MIGRATION Citation Generator. ... Generate CELL-ADHESION-AND-MIGRATION citations in seconds. ...
Mechanical forces acting on cell adhesion receptor proteins regulate a range of cellular functions by formation and rupture of ... Significance Selectins and integrins are receptor proteins on cell surfaces responsible for adhesion to extracellular ... biomolecules, a critical component of physiological processes like white blood cell localization at sites of inflammation. The ... Catch bonds in sickle cell disease: shear-enhanced adhesion of red blood cells to laminin. *U. Goreke, Shamreen Iram, +8 ...
Quantitative proteomic analysis revealed perturbation of proteins involved in cell-cell adhesion, and we characterized the ... In this study, LC-MS/MS expression analysis was performed using knockout GSK3β colorectal cancer cells and isogenic controls in ... In summary, using a precision colorectal cancer cell-line knockout model with constitutively activated β-catenin we identified ... colorectal cancer cell lines carrying dominant stabilizing mutations of β-catenin. Consistent with the role of GSK3β, we found ...
... and cell adhesion. In the porcine ex vivo experiments, wound healing, the number of live cells, and SOX2-positive cells were ... Cell viability, cell proliferation rate, and the number of Ki67-positive cells were higher in Y-27632, sovesudil and PHP-0961 ... novel ROCK inhibitors have the capacity to regenerate hCEnCs by enhancing cell proliferation and adhesion between cells. ... We also evaluated wound healing and cell adhesion assays. Porcine corneas were used ex vivo to evaluate the effects of Y-27632 ...
Cell migration is heavily interconnected with plasma membrane protrusion and retraction (collectively termed ... Cell cycle and cell division Is the Subject Area "Cell cycle and cell division" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Cancer cell migration Is the Subject Area "Cancer cell migration" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Cell migration Is the Subject Area "Cell migration" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules + calcium-independent cell-cell adhesion via ... cell-cell adhesion mediated by integrin + cell-cell adhesion via plasma-membrane adhesion molecules + The attachment of one ... cell-cell adhesion involved in ameboidal cell migration + cell-cell adhesion involved in cerebral cortex tangential migration ... heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane ...
Cell adhesion experiments using the extracellular domains of SIRP family members showed that SIRP α have adhesion molecule ... Cell adhesion experiments using the extracellular domains of SIRP family members showed that SIRP α have adhesion molecule ... The discovery that SIRP α was a cell adhesion molecule with a regulatory role in signal transduction was expanded by in vitro ... The discovery that SIRP α was a cell adhesion molecule with a regulatory role in signal transduction was expanded by in vitro ...
In addition, T-cell adhesion to epithelial cells was inhibited by cIBR-NPs. In chapter 4, nanoparticles capable of blocking LFA ... Cell adhesion molecules including leukocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 ... Targeting of nanoparticles to cell adhesion molecules for potential immune therapy. dc.contributor.advisor. Berkland, Cory J.. ... Clustering of LFA-1 and ICAM-1 by multivalent ligands increases binding avidity of these cell adhesion molecules. In this ...
Cell adhesion protein receptor - A family of transmembrane glycoproteins consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact ... These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including ... CELL ADHESION PROTEIN RECEPTOR \sˈɛl ɐdhˈiːʒən pɹˈə͡ʊtiːn ɹɪsˈɛptə], \sˈɛl ɐdhˈiːʒən pɹˈə‍ʊtiːn ɹɪsˈɛptə], \s_ˈɛ_l ɐ_d_h_ˈiː_ʒ_ ... They interact with a wide variety of ligands including extracellular matrix glycoproteins, complement, and other cells, while ...
Seminars and Events at the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) and Vienna Biocenter (VBC).
Cell-cell adhesions also underpin axon-axon contacts and link neurons with supporting schwann cells and oligodendrocytes. ... costimulation and cellular adhesion. Furthermore cell-cell adhesions are important for brain morphology and highly coordinated ... Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are (glyco)proteins expressed on the cell surface and play a critical role in a wide array of ... neurons elongate their axons towards their targets and establish and maintain synapses through formation of cell-cell adhesions ...
... adhesion promoter between a PET flexible substrate and a AuCl3-doped single-layer graphene ... xBrx planar type inverted perovskite solar cells with a 17.9% power conversion efficiency under 1 sun conditions were ... Highly flexible, high-performance perovskite solar cells with adhesion promoted AuCl3-doped graphene electrodes J. H. Heo, D. H ... Highly flexible, high-performance perovskite solar cells with adhesion promoted AuCl3-doped graphene electrodes† ...
Towards cell-based microsystems: Cell-adhesion on polymerized peptide-amphiphilic microstructures ... Towards cell-based microsystems: Cell-adhesion on polymerized peptide-amphiphilic microstructures. Conference: ... With the latter approach, i.e. a vesicle-based live cell array, we are able to spatially control the outgrowth of model cell- ... which promote the adhesion and spreading of living cells. The versatility of these building blocks is demonstrated with two ...
USF1/CD90 signaling in maintaining glioblastoma stem cells and tumor-associated macrophages adhesion.. Zhou Y, Meng X, He W, Li ... USF1/CD90 signaling in maintaining glioblastoma stem cells and tumor-associated macrophages adhesion. Neuro Oncol. 2022. ... Aided by Stem Cells, a Lizard Regenerates a Perfect Tail for the First Time in 250 Million Years ...
Variations in two genes needed to form connections between brain cells may be associated with autism spectrum disorder, ... Study implicates cell-adhesion proteins in autism. by Victoria Stern / 18 May 2010 ... Because cell-adhesion proteins are critical for brain development, a change in their structure could cause features of autism, ... Proper cell adhesion is important for neuronal function, and particularly for synapse formation, says lead investigator Anthony ...
Elevated lavels of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1, thrombomodulin and soluble endothelial cell adhesion molecules in ... 2007)‏. Elevated lavels of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1, thrombomodulin and soluble endothelial cell adhesion ... The results suggest that endothelial cells are highly activated in DHF patients and TNF-α is one of the factors which ... High levels of soluble activated endothelial substances suggest that endothelial cells are highly activated. When compared with ...
Adhesion of highly adherent test strains of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae to these cells were studied. The test strains of H ... We investigated adhesion of respiratory pathogens to bronchial epithelial cells, and asked whether chronic bronchitis had an ... Bacterial adhesion to oropharyngeal and bronchial epithelial cells in smokers with chronic bronchitis and in healthy nonsmokers ... Bacterial adhesion to oropharyngeal and bronchial epithelial cells in smokers with chronic bronchitis and in healthy nonsmokers ...
... and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM). IgSF-CAMs are a large group of cell adhesion proteins that mediate cell ... In the heart, cell adhesion molecules are essential for normal cardiac function, establishing specialized cell-cell contacts ... activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (Alcam) and neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (Ncam-1), (Fig. 1A). ... Purkinje cell, Cell adhesion molecule, NCAM-1, Polysialic acid, Cardiac conduction system, Ventricular conduction system, Mouse ...
Proper regulation of the formation and stabilization of epithelial cell-cell adhesion. * Post author By exposed ... Early experiments showed that the E-cadherin complex is a master regulator of cell-cell adhesion because the formation of all ... We conclude that E-cadherin-based FAJs connect forming cell-cell adhesions to the contractile actomyosin cytoskeleton. These ... Proper regulation of the formation and stabilization of epithelial cell-cell adhesion is crucial in embryonic morphogenesis and ...
However we detected the Leishmania antigen in cells in glomeruli in 54, CD4+ T cells in the glomeruli of 44, and CD8+ T cells ... CD 4+ T cells predominate in proliferative patterns of glomerulonephritis, however the presence of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were ... There was a correlation between the number of Leishmania antigen positive cells and CD4+ T cells, and between the number of ... participation of adhesion molecules, and diminished apoptosis of cells contributing to determine the proliferative pattern of ...
Cell Adhesion to RGD-Alginate Is Modulated by Substrate Mechanics Nicholas G. Genes, Nicholas G. Genes ... "Cell Adhesion to RGD-Alginate Is Modulated by Substrate Mechanics." Proceedings of the ASME 2001 International Mechanical ...
... of major histocompatibility class I and class II antigens and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on operable non-small cell lung ... Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on bone marrow micrometastases in patients with operable non small cell lung carcinomas. ... Expression of intercellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules and class II major histocompatibility antigens in human lungs ... Expression of Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigens and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (Icam-1) on Renal Cell Cancer. ...
The aim of this study was to detect the expression level of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MicroRNA-21 in peripheral ... The aim of this study was to detect the expression level of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MicroRNA-21 in peripheral ... We have proved that the expression level of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MicroRNA-21 in serum of subjects is closely ... We also demonstrated that vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MicroRNA-21 had a positive correlation with weight, body mass ...
... cell growth and differentiation (17), regulation of apoptosis (18, 19), and cell-cell recognition and adhesion (19, 20, 21). In ... cell adhesion to HUVECs. In both cancer cell lines, galectin-3, although expressed at higher levels than in endothelial cells, ... cell adhesion to the monolayer of HBMEC-60 human bone marrow endothelial cells. The adhesion experiments were performed as ... cell adhesion to the monolayer of HBMEC-60 human bone marrow endothelial cells. The adhesion experiments were performed as ...
  • Elevated lavels of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1, thrombomodulin and soluble endothelial cell adhesion molecules in patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever. (
  • In addition to modulating vascular tone and extracellular matrix turnover, ET-1 up-regulates cell surface adhesion molecules-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1).The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the detection of ET-1, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in the diagnosis of systemic sclerosis. (
  • Systemic sclerosis causes increased expression of adhesion molecules on the surface of endothelial cells. (
  • Determination of soluble adhesion molecules and ET-1 in serum SSc patients could be one of the laboratory markers for evaluating SSc activity and disease prognosis. (
  • The attachment of one cell to another cell via adhesion molecules that are at least partially embedded in the plasma membrane. (
  • Cell adhesion molecules including leukocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) play an important role in regulating inflammatory responses. (
  • Clustering of LFA-1 and ICAM-1 by multivalent ligands increases binding avidity of these cell adhesion molecules. (
  • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are (glyco)proteins expressed on the cell surface and play a critical role in a wide array of biologic processes that include hemostasis, the immune response, inflammation, embryogenesis, and development of neuronal tissue. (
  • These are molecules located on the neuron's surface that help one neuron bond to another, forming a network of connections between the cells. (
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and adhesion molecules, such as the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), appear to play an important role in the immunological recognition and destruction of tumour cells. (
  • In conclusion, the co-ordinated expression of immunologically relevant cell surface molecules on primary NSCLC is a frequent event that correlates with distinct parameters of favourable prognosis. (
  • Therefore, modulating cell-cell interactions through cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) such as cadherins, neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAM) and L1, may be a potential alternative to improve nerve regeneration. (
  • Ankyrin binding activity shared by the neurofascin/L1/NrCAM family of nervous system cell adhesion molecules. (
  • Neurofascin, L1, NrCAM, NgCAM, and neuroglian are membrane-spanning cell adhesion molecules with conserved cytoplasmic domains that are believed to play important roles in development of the nervous system. (
  • Linkage of these ankyrin-binding cell adhesion molecules to spectrin-based structures may provide a major class of membrane-cytoskeletal connections in adult brain as well as earlier stages of development. (
  • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are a subset of cell adhesion proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the process called cell adhesion. (
  • In essence, cell adhesion molecules help cells stick to each other and to their surroundings. (
  • Cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) allows the cells to communicate each other by means of adhesion. (
  • What are the roles of cell adhesion molecules? (
  • Cell adhesion molecules including receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily and integrins are of crucial importance in mediating these processes. (
  • They are an important family of cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion molecules that participate exclusively in heterophilic interactions. (
  • How is MSCs mediated by cell surface molecules? (
  • Due to the state of cell surface molecules (membrane proteins and secreted proteins), we tend to call the immunosuppression of MSCs mediated by cellular surface molecules "direct cell-to-cell communication. (
  • Neuropil pattern formation and regulation of cell adhesion molecules in Drosophila optic lobe development depend on synaptobrevin. (
  • Expression of tetanus toxin light chain (which cleaves neuronal synaptobrevin) and genetic mosaics were used to analyze neuropil pattern formation and levels of selected neural adhesion molecules in the optic lobe. (
  • Our results demonstrate the requirement of neuronal synaptobrevin for regulation of cell adhesion molecules and development of the fine structure of the optic lobe. (
  • These adhesive interactions are mediated by a family of cell surface proteins, termed cell adhesion molecules. (
  • Fortunately these adhesion molecules fall into distinct families with adhesive interactions varying in strength from strong binding involved in the maintenance of tissue architecture to more transient, less avid, dynamic interactions observed in leukocyte biology. (
  • Adhesion molecules are extremely versatile cell surface receptors which not only stick cells together but provide biochemical and physical signals that regulate a range of diverse functions, such as cell proliferation, gene expression, differentiation, apoptosis and migration. (
  • In addition, like many other cell surface molecules, they have been usurped as portals of entry for pathogens, including prions. (
  • How the mechanical and chemical messages generated from adhesion molecules are integrated with other signalling pathways (such as receptor tyrosine kinases and phosphatases) and the role that aberrant cell adhesion plays in developmental defects and disease pathology are currently very active areas of research. (
  • This review focuses on the biochemical features that define whether a cell surface molecule can act as an adhesion molecule, and discusses five specific examples of how cell adhesion molecules function as more than just 'sticky' receptors. (
  • Rather dynamic 'conversations' and the formation of multi-protein complexes between adhesion molecules, growth factor receptors and matrix macromolecules can now provide a molecular explanation for the long-observed but poorly understood requirement for a number of seemingly distinct cell surface molecules to be engaged for efficient cell function to occur. (
  • The term "oncotarget" encompasses all molecules, pathways, cellular functions, cell types, and even tissues that can be viewed as targets relevant to cancer as well as other diseases. (
  • Expression of adhesion-related molecules, such as fibronectin 1 (FN1) and laminin gamma 1 (LAMC1), were increased in mesothelial cells after internalization of TEX from gastric cancer cell line and malignant pleural effusion. (
  • TEX may play a critical role in the development of peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer, which may be partially due to inducing increased expression of adhesion molecules in mesothelial cells. (
  • CD117 by immunohistochemical methods sion molecules, involved in cell-cell and in order to clarify the role of the infiltrating cell matrix interactions and thought to take inflammatory cells in the pathomechanisms part in cell motility [ 2,3 ]. (
  • More specifically, we are studying the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and chemokines in unaffected and tumor tissues, and how these shape the repertoire of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. (
  • Cell surface receptors ( membrane receptors , transmembrane receptors ) are receptors at the surface of a cell (built into its cell membrane ) that act in cell signaling by receiving (binding to) extracellular molecules . (
  • This is a multi-step process which begins with tumor cell invasion through the extracellular matrix into the bloodstream. (
  • They interact with a wide variety of ligands including extracellular matrix glycoproteins, complement , and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the cytoskeleton. (
  • Majority of these approaches only focus on growth factors and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. (
  • Epithelial cells are also attached to an extracellular matrix substratum which is essential for their differentiation and polarization [ 1 ]. (
  • During transformation, epithelial cells start to proliferate, acquire the ability to migrate, and lose both the intercellular adhesion, mediated by cadherins at adherens junctions, and the interactions with the extracellular matrix. (
  • Given the role of Hakai in tumorigenesis, we are interested to examine the possible implication of Hakai in the regulation of adhesions to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and invasion in epithelial cells, two hallmark processes in cancer and metastasis [ 10 , 11 ]. (
  • This formation helps deposition and adhesion of the extracellular matrix on the bone-implant interface. (
  • Our results show that QSOX1 leads to a decrease in cell proliferation, clonogenic capacities and promotes adhesion to the extracellular matrix. (
  • Depletion of either molecule had the same adhesion-promoting influence, along with reduced invasion, confirming a role for this complex in maintaining the invasive phenotype of mammary carcinoma cells. (
  • Cell adhesion experiments using the extracellular domains of SIRP family members showed that SIRP α have adhesion molecule properties. (
  • The discovery that SIRP α was a cell adhesion molecule with a regulatory role in signal transduction was expanded by in vitro kinase experiments and experiments with inhibitors of tyrosine kinases. (
  • The aim of this study was to detect the expression level of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MicroRNA-21 in peripheral serum of adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome patients and healthy subjects, analyze the correlation between vascular cell adhesion molecule-1/microRNA-21 and the main indicators of polysomnography (apnea-hypopnea index, L-Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen) of subjects. (
  • To explore the relationship between the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1/microRNA-21 and the severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome and its clinical significance. (
  • Enzyme-linked immunoassay was used to detect the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. (
  • Besides, the serum expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MicroRNA-21 were increased significantly in Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome patients, and the level was positively correlated with the degree of the disease. (
  • We also demonstrated that vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MicroRNA-21 had a positive correlation with weight, body mass index and apnea-hypopnea index, whereas a negative correlation with L-Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen. (
  • Finally, there is a significant positive correlation between vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MicroRNA-21. (
  • We have proved that the expression level of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MicroRNA-21 in serum of subjects is closely related to apnea-hypopnea index and L-Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen, which can reflect the severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome and may become a new biological observation index for diagnosis and prognosis evaluation of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome. (
  • Close homologue of L1 (CHL1) is a transmembrane cell adhesion molecule that is critical for brain development and for the maintenance of neural circuits in adults. (
  • Culture of BEAS-2B cells with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or interleukin (IL)-1α (1 ng/ml) was found to enhance intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression (severalfold) and induce de novo CD106 [vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)] expression. (
  • Intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is an inducible cell surface glycoprotein that is expressed on many cell types. (
  • The goal of the project supported by the Gebert Rüf Stiftung is to design a novel easy-to-use multifunctional molecule that ameliorates cell attachment to our soft surfaces. (
  • Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is used by cells to make an important molecule called NAD+ for short. (
  • Extracellular signaling molecule: an extracellular signaling molecule is produced by one cell and is at least capable of traveling to neighboring cells. (
  • tein, and neuronal cell adhesion molecule mRNA were also increased in olfactory bulb. (
  • The CD56 is a neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) expressed in natural killer cells. (
  • Integrative genomic analysis identifies a role for intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in childhood asthma. (
  • Genetic, epigenetic and protein analyses of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in Malaysian subjects with type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. (
  • It is suggested that, by controlling the membrane organization of signalling receptors, by imposing spatial organization, and by regulating the local concentration of cytosolic adapter proteins, intercellular and cell-matrix adhesion is more than just glue holding cells together. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Cell migration" applicable to this article? (
  • Cell adhesion is involved in stimulating signals that regulate cell differentiation, cell cycle, cell migration, and cell survival [4]. (
  • Some data suggest that AM might be involved in the progression cancer metastasis via angiogenesis and cell migration and invasion control. (
  • The Transient Receptor Potential channel TRPV2 is known to promote in prostate cancer cell migration and invasive phenotype and is correlated with the stage and grade of bladder cancer. (
  • In this work we show that AM induces prostate and urothelial cancer cell migration and invasion through TRPV2 translocation to plasma membrane and the subsequent increase in resting calcium level. (
  • Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a crucial regulator of cell migration , and its overexpression is associated with tumor metastatic behavior . (
  • Furthermore, we demonstrated that although RA and FAKi administered separately decrease viability, adhesion, and migration in mammary adenocarcinoma LM3 cells , their combination exerts a higher effect. (
  • This family is involved in a wide range of cellular responses, including cytoskeletal reorganization, regulation of transcription, cell migration, cellular transformation and metastasis. (
  • QSOX1 also reduces the invasive potential of cells by reducing cell migration and decreases the activity of the matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-2, involved in these mechanisms. (
  • The common themes will include regulation of gene expression, signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, cell cycle and apoptosis, cell polarity and migration, cell-cell interactions, pattern formation and organ development. (
  • Non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that plays an essential role in regulating cell migration, adhesion, spreading, reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, formation and disassembly of focal adhesions and cell protrusions, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation and apoptosis. (
  • Editorial Overview: Cell Adhesion and Migration. (
  • In addition, DCs treated with NPs or with cIBR-NPs stimulated the proliferation of T cells, but DCs treated with LABL-NPs did not stimulate T cell proliferation. (
  • Apart from this functional role, we recently reported that Hakai is not only implicated in lowering cell-cell contacts, but can also promote proliferation in an E-cadherin-independent manner. (
  • The effects of TEX on the malignant potential of gastric cancer were investigated in adhesion, invasion, and proliferation assays. (
  • 2 (2007) observed that cell adhesion and proliferation, as well as the osteogenic differentiation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to Ti discs were significantly similar to those on the plastic surface of the culture, indicating Ti as an excellent material for repairing hard tissue in the field of bone tissue engineering. (
  • The term "adhesion" to the biomaterial refers to the most important phase, since the quality of it will influence morphology and the capacity of cell proliferation and differentiation 3 . (
  • mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase, is thought to play a central role in regulating cell growth, proliferation, cellular metabolism and angiogenesis [ 7 ]. (
  • Low-level laser therapy has been investigated as a possible stimulus for enhancement of proliferation and differentiation of various cell types, but few reports relate undifferentiated mouse pulp cells (OD-21) response to irradiation in in vitro models. (
  • Irradiation time of group I influenced positively the proliferation and viability of OD-21 cells in late cell culture period. (
  • The syndecan family of transmembrane proteoglycans are virtually ubiquitous cell surface receptors that are implicated in the progression of some tumors, including breast carcinoma. (
  • Selected receptors including PAR-1 and syndecans were depleted by siRNA treatments to assess cell morphology and behavior. (
  • High levels of ET-1 and its receptors are expressed in both endothelial cells and circulating in the blood of SSc patients. (
  • the cytoadhesin receptors, the leukocyte adhesion receptors, and the very - late - antigen receptors. (
  • These receptors participate in cell - matrix and cell - cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development , hemostasis, thrombosis , wound healing , immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms, and oncogenic transformation . (
  • for instance during dorsal closure angiogenesis immune responses wound healing and tumorigenesis) is governed by the same basic principles (Cavey and Lecuit 2009 Engagement of cell-cell junction receptors activates several signaling pathways that regulate actin conformation. (
  • Where are adhesion receptors located in the body? (
  • Cell adhesion receptors link the abluminal surfaces of the endothelium and astrocytes with the basal lamina. (
  • How are integrins different from other adhesion receptors? (
  • Integrins Are Dimeric Receptors for Cell-Cell and Cell-Matrix Adhesion Unlike other adhesion receptors, integrins are heterodimers that consist of one α subunit and one β subunit (see Fig. 6-1). (
  • Living cells utilize cell surface receptors to interact with the ligands present in mechanical environments. (
  • The peptide induce adhesion of cell through cell surface receptors having K d = 2.8±0.9 × 10 -5 M suggesting weak binding. (
  • Cell adhesion was partially inhibited by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide, anti-β 1 integrin suggesting that integrin β 1 receptors have roles to play in the process. (
  • The peptide induce adhesion of cell through cell surface receptors having K(d) = 2.8 +/- 0.9 x 10(-5) M suggesting weak binding. (
  • Cell adhesion was partially inhibited by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide, anti-beta1 integrin suggesting that integrin beta1 receptors have roles to play in the process. (
  • These 2 members mediate leukocyte adhesions to endothelial cells but they also serve as receptors for iC3b (inactivated C3b). (
  • The spike (S) glycoprotein of coronaviruses contains protrusions that will only bind to certain receptors on the host cell. (
  • We outline some of the key factors that influence this process and highlight how the tumor cell environment may promote metastasis. (
  • Here, we present evidence that implicate Hakai in reducing cell-substratum adhesion and increasing epithelial cell invasion, two hallmark features of cancer progression and metastasis. (
  • All of these characteristics facilitate the invasion and metastasis of epithelial cells [ 2 ]. (
  • Combination Treatment of Retinoic Acid Plus Focal Adhesion Kinase Inhibitor Prevents Tumor Growth and Breast Cancer Cell Metastasis. (
  • MDA-MB231 cells were shown to be highly sensitive to exogenous heparan sulfate or heparin, promoting increased spreading, focal adhesion and adherens junction formation with concomitantly reduced invasion and matrix degradation. (
  • Paxillin, an important protein component of the cell-matrix adhesion, was completely absent from focal adhesions and focal contacts in Hakai-overexpressing MDCK cells. (
  • The initial tissue reaction to infection is a focal, intensely suppurative necrosis consisting largely of accumulations of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, followed by invasion of macrophages, epithelioid cells, and lymphocytes. (
  • The dynamic regulation of cell-cell adhesions is crucial for developmental processes, including tissue formation, differentiation and motility. (
  • The multifunctional polymer coating adhered strongly to our soft substrates and enabled cell adhesion, growth and differentiation. (
  • Dr. Matsuura's major research focus is stem cell biology and the mechanisms of cell differentiation, or, more precisely, the de-regulation of those processes in malignancy. (
  • Patients with leukocyte adhesion deficiency II experience growth failure and mental retardation, although they are less likely to die of infection. (
  • Patients with leukocyte adhesion deficiency II show severe developmental delay, which has not been significantly prevented even when fucose replacement seemed to decrease infections and improve phagocytic functions. (
  • Patients with leukocyte adhesion deficiency II manifest the Bombay phenotype (ie, negative for O and H blood group antigens with potential production of anti-H antibody). (
  • However, IgM and IgG serum levels are within the reference range in patients with leukocyte adhesion deficiency II. (
  • In order to do this, the tumor cells will undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). (
  • The tumor cell will release gelatinase enzymes such as MMP-2 and MMP-9 that will degrade the basement membrane and allow invasion into a secondary site. (
  • USF1/CD90 signaling in maintaining glioblastoma stem cells and tumor-associated macrophages adhesion. (
  • Serosal involvement by the primary tumor and subsequent intraperitoneal release of cancer cells are crucially important factors for metastatic formation. (
  • Immune responses influence patient outcome in most cancer types, and the aim of Marianne Quiding-Järbrink's research is to elucidate the role of different T cell populations in CRC and understand how Treg influence local anti-tumor immunity and lymphocyte recruitment to tumors. (
  • These studies are particularly important as several immunomodulatory therapies aimed at promoting anti-tumor T cell immunity by reducing Treg activity are currently being implemented, so-called checkpoint blockade therapy. (
  • Immune responses influence patient outcome in most cancer types, and the most important cell types for anti-tumor immunity are cytotoxic and cytokine producing lymphocytes. (
  • Regulatory T cells (Treg), on the other hand, can inhibit the function of cells with anti-tumor activity and thereby help the tumor to escape immune recognition. (
  • The aim of our project is to elucidate the role of different T cell populations in colorectal carcinoma and understand how Treg influence local anti-tumor immunity and lymphocyte recruitment to tumors. (
  • The ability of regulatory T cells to influence lymphocyte recruitment and T cell effector functions in the tumor microenvironment is determined, and we also perform long-term follow up of patient outcome related to the immunological parameters that we characterize. (
  • Significance Selectins and integrins are receptor proteins on cell surfaces responsible for adhesion to extracellular biomolecules, a critical component of physiological processes like white blood cell localization at sites of inflammation. (
  • Regulation of orientational order or molecular co-alignment of FA proteins as a mechanism able to precisely tune cell sensitivity to the ECM is identified and relative geometric organization of FA components is suggested as an important regulator of mechanotransduction. (
  • Therefore a large part of this work concentrates on the SIRP β subtype, its associated proteins, localisation and possible function in a cell. (
  • This suggested that both complexes at some point operated in close contact, so experiments were carried out to localise SIRP proteins in the cell. (
  • This work views the SIRPs as components of a cluster of different proteins at the cell membrane that recruit and use other cytosolic proteins, among them tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. (
  • Membrane proteins that mediate immune cell-cell interactions fall into different categories, namely those involved in antigen recognition, costimulation and cellular adhesion. (
  • Sticky clues: Variations in leucine-rich repeat genes, which produce cell-adhesion proteins, could be important in autism. (
  • The investigators focused on a group of genes called leucine-rich repeat (LRR) genes, which produce cell-adhesion proteins. (
  • Because cell-adhesion proteins are critical for brain development, a change in their structure could cause features of autism, he says. (
  • The investigators focused on 4 of the 313 known LRR genes - LRRTM1, LRRTM3, LRRN1 and LRRN3 - that encode cell-adhesion proteins in the brain 4 . (
  • We, therefore, examined the expression patterns of these proteins on primary tumours of 91 patients with operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (
  • This protein family plays a role in many cellular activities, including regulation of cell components and proteins. (
  • Located within the inner membrane of the energy-producing centers of cells (mitochondria), paraplegin is one of the proteins that form a complex called the m-AAA protease. (
  • The buildup of unusable proteins in nerve cells, caused by the nonfunctional m-AAA protease, can impair mitochondrial functioning and diminish nerve cell signaling, leading to the major signs and symptoms of spastic paraplegia type 7. (
  • When coated with proteins, cells adhere to and grow on our soft surfaces. (
  • QSOX1 participates in the folding and stability of proteins and thus could regulate the biological activity of its substrates in the secretory pathway and/or outside the cell. (
  • But urine has only tiny amounts of niacin, so the sirtuins don't work, the genes are exposed, and the yeast can make the proteins that help it stick to cells in the urinary tract, the researchers discovered. (
  • In the new work, graduate student Renee Domergue studied C. glabrata she had engineered to become permanently drug-resistant if the adhesion-promoting genes got turned on, which would only happen if Sir3 and the other proteins had stopped covering them up for some reason. (
  • The precurssor is processed into S1 and S2 by host cell furin or another cellular protease to yield the mature S1 and S2 proteins (PubMed:32155444). (
  • They are specialized integral membrane proteins that allow communication between the cell and the outside world. (
  • In addition, interaction of LFA-1 expressed on T cells and ICAM-1 expressed on antigen presenting cells (APCs) is crucial for immunological synapse formation and hence T cell activation. (
  • CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1) expressed on lymphocytes is known to play an important role in lymphocyte trafficking (adhesion to vascular endothelium), as well as interactions to antigen presenting cells (APC). (
  • Proper regulation of the formation and stabilization of epithelial cell-cell adhesion is crucial in embryonic morphogenesis and tissue repair processes. (
  • Hakai specifically targetted E-cadherin for internalization and degradation and thereby lowered epithelial cell-cell contact. (
  • We hypothesized that their anti-ischemic activity could be related to an inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and also the consequent generation of oxygen free radicals by leukocytes. (
  • We studied the in vitro adhesion of neutrophils to human umbilical vein endothelial cells under basal conditions and following neutrophil or endothelial cell activation (using 10 -7 fMLP and 500 U/ml TNF-α, respectively). (
  • A novel genetic leukocyte adhesion deficiency in subsecond triggering of integrin avidity by endothelial chemokines results in impaired leukocyte arrest on vascular endothelium under shear flow. (
  • 2008 Engagement of Cadherin adhesion induces Myosin II activation which in turn promotes the accumulation of Cadherins at sites of cell-cell adhesion (Shewan et al. (
  • It is this region of the cadherins that allows cell-adhesion and the essential feature of metazoan multicellularity. (
  • We illuminate the many-body effects underlying the structure, formation, and dissolution of cellular adhesion domains in the presence and absence of forces. (
  • What are some of the events of cellular adhesion? (
  • Furthermore cell-cell adhesions are important for brain morphology and highly coordinated brain functions such as memory and learning. (
  • Cell surface proteoglycans, notably syndecan-2, may be important regulators of breast carcinoma progression through regulation of cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and invasion. (
  • We conclude that E-cadherin-based FAJs connect forming cell-cell adhesions to the contractile actomyosin cytoskeleton. (
  • Conversely however the conformation of the actin cytoskeleton also influences cell-cell adhesion complexes. (
  • They start out small, initially causing few or no symptoms, but as they built up in the axons, they begin to destroy the cytoskeleton, the internal framework of the cells, increasingly interfering with the transmission of signals from the nerve cells. (
  • Using Northern blot hybridization analysis, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA was detected in BEAS-2B cells stimulated with cytokines. (
  • We also examine the production of various cytokines and study cytotoxic potential of the different T cell subsets in colon tumors. (
  • What is cell surface adhesion? (
  • In addition to cell and surface adhesion, the 'glue' also forms a matrix. (
  • Kobuchi, H 1998, ' Antioxidant regulation of cell adhesion gene on endothelial cells ', Free Radical Biology and Medicine , vol. 25, pp. 229-241. (
  • Nath, S & Bhattacharyya, D 2007, ' Cell adhesion by aqueous extract of human placenta used as wound healer ', Indian Journal of Experimental Biology , vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 732-738. (
  • Molecular biology studies will be supported by strong research and training programs in cell biology, developmental biology and genetics. (
  • In vitro association experiments revealed that SIRP β is part of a multiprotein complex at the cell membrane, where SIRP β1 interacted with DAP12, an adaptor protein with a transmembrane domain. (
  • Two mutations in the KINDLIN3 gene of a new leukocyte adhesion deficiency III patient reveal distinct effects on leukocyte function in vitro. (
  • What is the definition of Cell adhesion protein receptor? (
  • E-cadherin is the prototype and best-characterized protein member of adherens junctions in mammalian epithelial cells. (
  • Primary isolates of bronchial epithelial cells produced detectable levels of VCAM-1 protein and mRNA as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. (
  • A recent study of a protein called MOCA (Modifier of Cell Adhesion), carried out at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, provides new clues to the answers of these fundamental questions. (
  • Currently, 18 subtypes have been reported: 12 are type I (dysfunctional lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor synthesis), and 6 are type II (dysfunctional trimming/processing of the protein-bound oligosaccharide), including leukocyte adhesion deficiency II (CDG-IIc). (
  • A defect in a guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein, Rac2, which is integral to actin-associated neutrophil responses and to the generation of superoxide by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, leads to a clinical syndrome resembling Leukocyte adhesion deficiency with prolonged cord attachment, perirectal cellulitis, and omphalitis associated with marked leukocytosis and poor wound healing. (
  • S2 contains basic elements needed for the membrane fusion.The S protein plays key parts in the induction of neutralizing-antibody and T-cell responses, as well as protective immunity. (
  • This may derive from their regulation of cell adhesion, but roles for specific syndecans are unresolved. (
  • An overview of how integrin function is regulated from both a biochemical and a mechanical perspective, affecting integrin cell-surface availability, binding properties, activation or clustering is provided, and how this biomechanical regulation allows integrins to respond to different ECM physicochemical properties and signals. (
  • A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) will be functionalized on top of the quartz crystal bonded with gold, the top component of which is the cyclo-RGD that interacts with the αv β3 integrins on cell membrane, henceforth we'll study the ligand-receptor interaction. (
  • Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I (LAD I) is a failure to express CD18, which composes the common ß 2 subunit of LFA1 family (ß2 integrins). (
  • We investigated adhesion of respiratory pathogens to bronchial epithelial cells, and asked whether chronic bronchitis had an influence on bacterial adhesion. (
  • Membrane localisation of SIRP β was similarly reliant upon DAP12 expression, however, further experiments suggested that SIRP β may be secreted from the cell in the absence of DAP12. (
  • attaches the virion to the cell membrane by interacting with host receptor, initiating the infection (By similarity). (
  • Some S oligomers are transported to the host plasma membrane, where they may mediate cell-cell fusion. (
  • In the process of signal transduction , ligand binding affects a cascading chemical change through the cell membrane. (
  • Each cell membrane can have several kinds of membrane receptor, in varying surface distribution. (
  • A specific receptor may also be differently distributed on different membrane surfaces, depending on the membrane sort and cell function. (
  • Rotation Model: Ligand binding to the extracellular part of the receptor induces the rotation of the receptor's transmembrane region inside the cell membrane, in doing so regulate it's activity inside the cell. (
  • As another important component in nerve tissues, the potential of modulating cell-cell interactions as a strategy to promote regeneration has been overlooked. (
  • Within the central nervous system, there are considerably more cell-cell communications as compared to cell-ECM interactions, since the ECM only contributes 10%-20% of the total tissue volume. (
  • The ability of cells to interact with each other and their surroundings in a co-ordinated manner depends on multiple adhesive interactions between neighbouring cells and their extracellular environment. (
  • The understanding of cell interactions with mechanical microenvironment is the most crucial step to control cell functions in disease and development. (
  • Yet, it remains poorly understood what is the rate at which cells apply forces via ligand-receptor interactions that consequently defines rupture force relevant to living cells. (
  • Proper cell adhesion is important for neuronal function, and particularly for synapse formation, says lead investigator Anthony Monaco , professor of human genetics at the University of Oxford's Wellcome Trust Center for Human Genetics. (
  • The MDA-MB231 human breast carcinoma cell line was exposed to exogenous glycosaminoglycans and changes in cell behavior monitored by western blotting, immunocytochemistry, invasion and collagen degradation assays. (
  • First, thrombin inhibition contributed to enhanced cell adhesion and reduced invasion. (
  • We sought to investigate the possible implication of Hakai in cell-substratum adhesions and invasion in epithelial cells. (
  • Parental MDCK cells and MDCK cells stably overexpressing Hakai were used to analyse cell-substratum adhesion and invasion capabilities. (
  • Taken together, these results suggest that Hakai may be involved in two hallmark aspects of tumour progression, the lowering cell-substratum adhesion and the enhancement of cell invasion. (
  • Binding to human ACE2 receptor and internalization of the virus into the endosomes of the host cell induces conformational changes in the Spike glycoprotein (PubMed:32142651, PubMed:32075877, PubMed:32155444). (
  • Cell adhesion is also essential in cell communication and regulation, and becomes of fundamental importance in the development and maintenance of tissues. (
  • AM is expressed in a variety of malignant tissues and cancer cell lines and was shown to be a mitogenic factor capable of stimulating growth of several cancer cell types. (
  • We have designed novel biomimetic cell culture surfaces that imitate the softness of various tissues and organs, allowing the cells to «feel like home» even outside the body. (
  • The new study builds on the lab's discovery in 1999 that C. glabrata sticks to cells that line mucosal tissues and blood vessels thanks to the products of genes dubbed EPAs by Cormack's team. (
  • The hypothesized existence of cancer stem cells (CSC) and its markers aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), CD44, SOX2 and OCT4 in oral dysplastic tissues provides the potential for a more reliable assessment of malignant transformation of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). (
  • The loading rate was quantified through the experiment for variable cell numbers and loading rate and peak force generated on the surface due to ligand-receptor interaction was calculated. (
  • In GIP receptor transfected CHL cells, GIP(4-42) and GIP(17-30. (
  • It's been reported that 2019-nCoV can infect the human respiratory epithelial cells through interaction with the human ACE2 receptor. (
  • S1 mainly contains a receptor binding domain (RBD), which is responsible for recognizing the cell surface receptor. (
  • Additionally, a second cleavage leads to the release of a fusion peptide after viral attachment to host cell receptor (By similarity). (
  • they react with the receptor to induce changes in the metabolism and activity of a cell. (
  • The intracellular (or cytoplasmic ) domain of the receptor interacts with the interior of the cell or organelle, relaying the signal. (
  • For example perturbing actomyosin contractility strongly affects cell-cell adhesion formation and maturation (Angres et al. (
  • Other possible disease-associated genes are involved in the immune system, particularly in the maturation and function of T cells. (
  • Cell death assays suggested that the SIRP β1/DAP12 complex was a negative regulator of induced cell death, and that tyrosine kinases might be involved in this regulation. (
  • Early experiments showed that the E-cadherin complex is a master regulator of cell-cell adhesion because the formation of all junctions can be inhibited by E-cadherin-blocking antibodies (Gumbiner et al. (
  • Main objective in this project has been to isolate and characterize the different embryogenic cell types in Brassica napus microspore culture using a set of fluorescently-tagged gene reporters. (
  • Gene therapy for leukocyte adhesion deficiency. (
  • When the anti-LFA-1 70H12 F(ab) 2 monoclonal antibody was used, the drugs exerted only slight additional inhibition of the adhesion of fMLP-activated neutrophils to endothelium. (
  • HMEC-1 is an endothelial-like cell that was isolated from the endothelium of the foreskin of a male patient. (
  • Aqueous extract of human placenta, used as wound healer, has shown significant cell adhesion property on mouse peritoneal macrophages and P388D1 cultured macrophage cell line. (
  • We have determined the phenotype of the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B by flow cytometry. (
  • In these situations, an assay measuring a real biological process may still show a phenotype of interest under some conditions that can be observed and measured even if positive controls that induce high levels of cells with the phenotype do not exist. (
  • Nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation corrects the disease phenotype in the canine model of leukocyte adhesion deficiency. (
  • Through kin recognition, collectives then evolve a central-peripheral polarity in cell adhesion that supports a division of labor between cells and profoundly impacts growth. (
  • 2001 Furthermore Cadherin adhesion leads to recruitment and activation of several actin regulators such as the Arp2/3 complex (Kovacs Meisoindigo et al. (
  • 2007 As TJ complexes form only after Nectin and Cadherin junctions have formed it is not likely that these complexes are crucial in the actin-dependent initial formation of cell-cell adhesion. (
  • To study the molecular mechanisms controlling Paxillin expression, MDCK cells expressing E-cadherin shRNA in a tetracycline-inducible manner was employed. (
  • LAD-III, a leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome associated with defective Rap1 activation and impaired stabilization of integrin bonds. (
  • Adherens junctions are important components of the junctional complex between cells and are necessary for maintaining cell homeostasis and normal tissue architecture. (
  • Junctional complexes of epithelial cells. (
  • In addition, AM is a survival factor for certain cancer cells. (
  • ICAM-1 regulates the survival of influenza virus in lung epithelial cells during the early stages of infection. (
  • [1] Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a fairly onerous prognosis, with an overall 5-year survival rate ranging from 40% to 58% due to late diagnosis, metastatic behavior and recurrence potential, thus encouraging further research on factors that might modify the disease outcome. (
  • Aim: To evaluate the adhesion of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal cells (MBMMC) on different titanium surfaces. (
  • Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the adhesion capacity of mouse bone marrow MSCs to smooth and plasmanitrided Ti surfaces in the cathodic cage configuration. (
  • This project supported by the Gebert Rüf Stiftung is of high significance since design of our novel cell-adhesive and soft surfaces will greatly advance current cell culture methods. (
  • Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells. (
  • In chapter 3, a peptide ligand targeting LFA-1 (cIBR) was conjugated to PLGA NPs to specifically target T cells expressing LFA-1. (
  • This disease is a defect in fucose metabolism (lack of fucosylation of the carbohydrate selectin ligands) that results in failure to express the ligand for E and P selectin, sialyl Lewis-X (CD15s) expressed on leukocytes and endothelial cells. (
  • 2. Define the transcriptional landscape of embryogenic cells using high throughput mRNA sequencing. (
  • For RNA-seq, we identified 150 differentially expressed genes between air and DE treatment related to natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity per Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. (
  • The subtle signs of infection, the need to offer stem cell transplantation, and the early deaths in patients with leukocyte adhesion deficiency I that is not properly treated suggest that frequent monitoring by a clinical immunologist is essential. (
  • Without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), patients with leukocyte adhesion deficiency I who have an absence of CD18 expression usually die from infection within 2 years of life. (
  • The published experience with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been excellent with complete immunologic reconstitution. (
  • Hematopoetic Stem Cell Transplantation in Neutrophil Disorders: Severe Congenital Neutropenia, Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency and Chronic Granulomatous Disease. (
  • Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Type III: Clinical Features and Treatment With Stem Cell Transplantation. (
  • The role of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in improving outcome in this subgroup of AML patients is not known. (
  • Bacterial adhesion is probably a prerequisite for colonization of mucous membranes, but adhesion to the bronchial mucosa has not been studied in detail. (
  • Our results indicate that bacterial adhesion is of importance for the colonization and retention of H. influenzae in the human airways. (
  • Earlier reviews of leukocyte adhesion deficiency I indicated that unreconstituted patients most often succumbed to bacterial infections. (
  • This plasmid encodes both bundle-forming pili (Bfp) that promote bacterial adherence to mammalian cells and are required for virulence ( 4 ) and a transcriptional activator, known as Per, that upregulates genes, such as eae , within a pathogenicity island termed the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE) ( 5 ). (
  • The plaques are formed by way of extracellular polysaccharides, which are complex, sticky sugar chains located on the outer part of the bacterial cell. (
  • In a circulating water system, bacterial cells adhere to the surface of the plumbing system by way of their outer sugar chains. (
  • Thus, patients with this type of leukocyte adhesion deficiency manifest both severe bacterial infections and bleeding disorder. (
  • These properties determine the adhesion and behavior of cells in contact with the surface. (
  • Further experiments have been carried out to characterize the behavior of cells grown on our innovative culture substrates. (
  • Defibrotide and oligotide significantly inhibited neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells (after only 1 min of drug treatment). (
  • Defective neutrophil recruitment in leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I disease causes local IL-17-driven inflammatory bone loss. (
  • 1988 However Nectins are also crucial for the formation of all other cell-cell junctions (Honda et al. (
  • High levels of soluble activated endothelial substances suggest that endothelial cells are highly activated. (
  • En outre, il y avait une aug- mentation significative de la forme soluble du c-kit dans le sérum des patients atteints de pemphigus vulgaire actif par rapport aux témoins. (
  • Variants of leukocyte adhesion deficiency have also been reported, including fully expressed but nonfunctional CD18 and an E selectin that is expressed but rapidly cleaved from the cell surface (only present in soluble form). (