Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules: Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1: A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.E-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Activated-Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule: Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex: A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Vitronectin: A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Receptors, Fibronectin: Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.alpha Catenin: A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Focal Adhesion Kinase 2: A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Receptors, Very Late Antigen: Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Cell-Matrix Junctions: Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.Talin: A 235-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is also found in platelets. It has been localized to regions of cell-substrate adhesion. It binds to INTEGRINS; VINCULIN; and ACTINS and appears to participate in generating a transmembrane connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Selectins: Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Mice, Inbred C57BLCollagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuron-Glia: Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. Ng-CAM is immunologically and structurally distinct from NCAM.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Leukocyte Rolling: Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.rap1 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAP GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that share homology with RAS PROTEINS. They bind to Ras effectors but do not activate them, therefore they may antagonize the effects of RAS PROTEINS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Integrin alpha3beta1: Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.PhosphoproteinsCell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Contactins: A family of immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecules that are involved in NERVOUS SYSTEM patterning.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Mucoproteins: Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Tenascin: Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.Catenins: A family of cytoskeletal proteins that play essential roles in CELL ADHESION at ADHERENS JUNCTIONS by linking CADHERINS to the ACTIN FILAMENTS of the CYTOSKELETON.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Contactin 2: A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Receptors, Leukocyte-Adhesion: Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Junctional Adhesion Molecules: A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Desmoplakins: Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.Peritoneal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERITONEUM.Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Crk-Associated Substrate Protein: Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.Integrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Integrin alpha5: This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.Desmosomes: A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Cytochalasin D: A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Receptors, Collagen: Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.gamma Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Syndecan-4: A ubiquitously expressed syndecan that is found in all stages of embryonic development and in most adult tissues. Syndecan-4 is found localized to focal adhesion sites in fibronectin-adherent cells and may play a role the process of CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.U937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Actinin: A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Integrin alphaV: An alpha integrin with a molecular weight of 160-kDa that is found in a variety of cell types. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. Integrin alphaV can combine with several different beta subunits to form heterodimers that generally bind to RGD sequence-containing extracellular matrix proteins.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Integrin alpha2: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the INTEGRIN ALPHA2BETA1 heterodimer. It contains a domain which has homology to collagen-binding domains found in von Willebrand factor.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Thrombospondins: A family of related, adhesive glycoproteins which are synthesized, secreted, and incorporated into the extracellular matrix of a variety of cells, including alpha granules of platelets following thrombin activation and endothelial cells. They interact with a number of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS and anticoagulant factors. Five distinct forms have been identified, thrombospondin 1, -2, -3, -4, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). They are involved in cell adhesion, platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE growth, and tissue repair.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Stress Fibers: Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (1/22844)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins. (2/22844)

Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Phenotypic analysis of human glioma cells expressing the MMAC1 tumor suppressor phosphatase. (3/22844)

MMAC1, also known as PTEN or TEP-1, was recently identified as a gene commonly mutated in a variety of human neoplasias. Sequence analysis revealed that MMAC1 harbored sequences similar to those found in several protein phosphatases. Subsequent studies demonstrated that MMAC1 possessed in vitro enzymatic activity similar to that exhibited by dual specificity phosphatases. To characterize the potential cellular functions of MMAC1, we expressed wild-type and several mutant variants of MMAC1 in the human glioma cell line, U373, that lacks endogenous expression. While expression of wild-type MMAC1 in these cells significantly reduced their growth rate and saturation density, expression of enzymatically inactive MMAC1 significantly enhanced growth in soft agar. Our observations indicate that while wild-type MMAC1 exhibits activities compatible with its proposed role as a tumor suppressor, cellular expression of MMAC1 containing mutations in the catalytic domain may yield protein products that enhance transformation characteristics.  (+info)

Cell growth inhibition by farnesyltransferase inhibitors is mediated by gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB. (4/22844)

Recent results have shown that the ability of farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) to inhibit malignant cell transformation and Ras prenylation can be separated. We proposed previously that farnesylated Rho proteins are important targets for alternation by FTIs, based on studies of RhoB (the FTI-Rho hypothesis). Cells treated with FTIs exhibit a loss of farnesylated RhoB but a gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB (RhoB-GG), which is associated with loss of growth-promoting activity. In this study, we tested whether the gain of RhoB-GG elicited by FTI treatment was sufficient to mediate FTI-induced cell growth inhibition. In support of this hypothesis, when expressed in Ras-transformed cells RhoB-GG induced phenotypic reversion, cell growth inhibition, and activation of the cell cycle kinase inhibitor p21WAF1. RhoB-GG did not affect the phenotype or growth of normal cells. These effects were similar to FTI treatment insofar as they were all induced in transformed cells but not in normal cells. RhoB-GG did not promote anoikis of Ras-transformed cells, implying that this response to FTIs involves loss-of-function effects. Our findings corroborate the FTI-Rho hypothesis and demonstrate that gain-of-function effects on Rho are part of the drug mechanism. Gain of RhoB-GG may explain how FTIs inhibit the growth of human tumor cells that lack Ras mutations.  (+info)

The LIM-only protein PINCH directly interacts with integrin-linked kinase and is recruited to integrin-rich sites in spreading cells. (5/22844)

PINCH is a widely expressed and evolutionarily conserved protein comprising primarily five LIM domains, which are cysteine-rich consensus sequences implicated in mediating protein-protein interactions. We report here that PINCH is a binding protein for integrin-linked kinase (ILK), an intracellular serine/threonine protein kinase that plays important roles in the cell adhesion, growth factor, and Wnt signaling pathways. The interaction between ILK and PINCH has been consistently observed under a variety of experimental conditions. They have interacted in yeast two-hybrid assays, in solution, and in solid-phase-based binding assays. Furthermore, ILK, but not vinculin or focal adhesion kinase, has been coisolated with PINCH from mammalian cells by immunoaffinity chromatography, indicating that PINCH and ILK associate with each other in vivo. The PINCH-ILK interaction is mediated by the N-terminal-most LIM domain (LIM1, residues 1 to 70) of PINCH and multiple ankyrin (ANK) repeats located within the N-terminal domain (residues 1 to 163) of ILK. Additionally, biochemical studies indicate that ILK, through the interaction with PINCH, is capable of forming a ternary complex with Nck-2, an SH2/SH3-containing adapter protein implicated in growth factor receptor kinase and small GTPase signaling pathways. Finally, we have found that PINCH is concentrated in peripheral ruffles of cells spreading on fibronectin and have detected clusters of PINCH that are colocalized with the alpha5beta1 integrins. These results demonstrate a specific protein recognition mechanism utilizing a specific LIM domain and multiple ANK repeats and suggest that PINCH functions as an adapter protein connecting ILK and the integrins with components of growth factor receptor kinase and small GTPase signaling pathways.  (+info)

Exposure of human vascular endothelial cells to sustained hydrostatic pressure stimulates proliferation. Involvement of the alphaV integrins. (6/22844)

The present study investigated the effects of sustained hydrostatic pressure (SHP; up to 4 cm H2O) on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, focal adhesion plaque (FAP) organization, and integrin expression. Exposure of HUVECs to SHP stimulated cell proliferation and a selective increase in the expression of integrin subunit alphaV. The increase in alphaV was observed as early as 4 hours after exposure to pressure and preceded detectable increases in the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index. Laser confocal microscopy studies demonstrated colocalization of the alphaV integrin to FAPs. The individual FAPs in pressure-treated cells demonstrated a reduced area and increased aspect ratio and were localized to both peripheral and more central regions of the cells, in contrast to the predilection for the cell periphery in cells maintained under control pressure conditions. The pressure-induced changes in alphaV distribution had functional consequences on the cells: adhesivity of the cells to vitronectin was increased, and alphaV antagonists blocked the pressure-induced proliferative response. Thus, the present study suggests a role for alphaV integrins in the mechanotransduction of pressure by endothelial cells.  (+info)

Fluorimetric multiparameter cell assay at the single cell level fabricated by optical tweezers. (7/22844)

A fluorimetric multi-parameter cell sensor at the single cell level is presented which makes it possible to observe the physiological behavior of different cell lines, different physiological parameters, and statistical data at the same time. Different cell types were immobilized at predefined positions with high accuracy using optical tweezers and adhesion promoting surface layers. The process is applicable to both adherent and non-adherent cells. Coating of the immobilization area with mussel adhesive protein was shown to be essential for the process. Intracellular proton and calcium concentrations in different cell classes were simultaneously imaged and the specific activation of T lymphocytes was demonstrated. This method should be especially useful for drug screening due to the small sample volume and high information density.  (+info)

Cell adhesion regulates the interaction between the docking protein p130(Cas) and the 14-3-3 proteins. (8/22844)

Integrin ligand binding induces a signaling complex formation via the direct association of the docking protein p130(Cas) (Cas) with diverse molecules. We report here that the 14-3-3zeta protein interacts with Cas in the yeast two-hybrid assay. We also found that the two proteins associate in mammalian cells and that this interaction takes place in a phosphoserine-dependent manner, because treatment of Cas with a serine phosphatase greatly reduced its ability to bind 14-3-3zeta. Furthermore, the Cas-14-3-3zeta interaction was found to be regulated by integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Thus, when cells are detached from the extracellular matrix, the binding of Cas to 14-3-3zeta is greatly diminished, whereas replating the cells onto fibronectin rapidly induces the association. Consistent with these results, we found that the subcellular localization of Cas and 14-3-3 is also regulated by integrin ligand binding and that the two proteins display a significant co-localization during cell attachment to the extracellular matrix. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that 14-3-3 proteins participate in integrin-activated signaling pathways through their interaction with Cas, which, in turn, may contribute to important biological responses regulated by cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix.  (+info)

*Cell adhesion

... β-catenin plays a role in cell-cell adhesion by controlling cadherin-mediated cell adhesion at the plasma membrane. Cell-matrix ... Defects in cell adhesion are usually attributable to defects in expression of adhesion molecules. Cell junctions allow cells to ... Dysfunction of cell-adhesion and cell-migration occurs during cancer metastasis. Cellular adhesion and traction can allow cells ... resulting in loss of cell adhesion. Cell adhesion forces of mammalian cells could specifically be measured down to the single ...

*Cell adhesion molecule

... in the process called cell adhesion. In essence, cell adhesion molecules help cells stick to each other and to their ... Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the ... In general, Mn2+ increases affinity, Mg2+ promotes adhesion to cells, and Ca2+ decreases cell adhesion. Integrins regulate ... Molecular and cellular biology portal Cell membrane Cell migration Immunological synapse Trogocytosis Cell Adhesion Molecules ...

*Cell adhesion molecule 1

... has been shown to interact with EPB41L3. Cell adhesion molecule GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 2002). "The tumor suppressor protein TSLC1 is involved in cell-cell adhesion". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (34): 31014-9. doi:10.1074/ ... 2003). "Implications of nectin-like molecule-2/IGSF4/RA175/SgIGSF/TSLC1/SynCAM1 in cell-cell adhesion and transmembrane protein ... Cell adhesion molecule 1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CADM1 gene. Model organisms have been used in the ...

*Epithelial cell adhesion molecule

1997). "Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) modulates cell-cell interactions mediated by classic cadherins". J Cell Biol ... Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a transmembrane glycoprotein mediating Ca2+-independent homotypic cell-cell ... 1994). "Ep-CAM: a human epithelial antigen is a homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecule". The Journal of Cell Biology. 125 (2): ... "Cytoplasmic tail regulates the intercellular adhesion function of the epithelial cell adhesion molecule". Mol Cell Biol. 18 (8 ...

*Neural cell adhesion molecule

... also present on subset of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. In cell adhesion, CD56 contributes to cell-cell adhesion or cell- ... Τ cells and activated CD8+ T cells, as well as on dendritic cells. NCAM has been implicated as having a role in cell-cell ... The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM1 appears on early embryonic cells and is important in the formation of cell collectives ... Normal cells that stain positively for CD56 include NK cells, activated T cells, the brain and cerebellum, and neuroendocrine ...

*Soluble cell adhesion molecules

... (sCAMs) are a class of cell adhesion molecule (CAMs - cell surface binding proteins) that may ... May 1998). "Soluble cell adhesion molecules in hypertriglyceridemia and potential significance on monocyte adhesion". ... Soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin (termed sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 ... They include soluble forms of the cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and P-selectin (distinguished as sICAM-1, ...

*Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule like 1

... is a protein in humans that is encoded by the DSCAML1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule like 1". Retrieved 2012-11-29. ...

*Cell Communication & Adhesion

... homepage of Cell Communication & Adhesion. ... FRACP are the regional editors of Cell Communication & Adhesion. Cell Communication & Adhesion publishes 6 issues per year in ... Intercelluar communication Intercellular junctions Receptor-based cell recognition & signaling Cell Communication & Adhesion is ... Cell Communication & Adhesion is an academic journal that publishes review articles on intercellular communication, ...

*Fibronectin type II domain

Fibronectins are involved in a number of important functions e.g., wound healing; cell adhesion; blood coagulation; cell ... "The receptor DEC-205 expressed by dendritic cells and thymic epithelial cells is involved in antigen processing". Nature. 375 ( ... Pankov R, Yamada KM (2002). "Fibronectin at a glance". J Cell Sci. 115: 3861-3863. doi:10.1242/jcs.00059. PMID 12244123. ... that binds cell surfaces and various compounds including collagen, fibrin, heparin, DNA, and actin. ...

*Homeobox

"HoxA5 stabilizes adherens junctions via increased Akt1". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 1 (4): 185-95. doi:10.4161/cam.1.4.5448. ... "HOXA3 induces cell migration in endothelial and epithelial cells promoting angiogenesis and wound repair". Journal of Cell ... HoxA3 induces endothelial cell (EC) migration by upregulating MMP14 and uPAR. Conversely, HoxD10 and HoxA5 have the opposite ... Dunn J, Simmons R, Thabet S, Jo H (Oct 2015). "The role of epigenetics in the endothelial cell shear stress response and ...

*Active zone

The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... β-neurexin then binds to cell adhesion molecule, neuroligin located on the postsynaptic membrane. Neuroligin then interacts ... The ribbon synapse is a special type of synapse found in sensory neurons such as photoreceptor cells, retinal bipolar cells, ... "Synaptic cell adhesion". Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 4 (4): a005694. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a005694. PMC 3312681 . PMID ...

*Cathepsin Z

Kos J, Jevnikar Z, Obermajer N (April-June 2009). "The role of cathepsin X in cell signaling". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 3 (2 ... It is also shown to bind cell surface heparin sulphate proteoglycans, indicating possible functions in cellular adhesion and ... This gene is expressed ubiquitously in cancer cell lines and primary tumors and, like other members of this family, may be ... Obermajer N, Svajger U, Bogyo M, Jeras M, Kos J (November 2008). "Maturation of dendritic cells depends on proteolytic cleavage ...

*LRRC24

... in muscle targeting to tendon cells". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 4 (3): 368-71. doi:10.4161/cam.4.3.11606. PMC 2958611 . PMID ... Protein-protein interactions of LRRC24 implicate the protein with cell signaling, cell migration, and axon guidance. ROBO2 was ... IGFBP7 is also involved in the stimulation of cell adhesion. To date, no study has specifically implicated LRRC24 or the LRRC24 ... The structure of the protein suggests that it localizes to the cell membrane. LRRC24 is conserved in Euteleostomi with the ...

*Paxillin

... a new focal adhesion protein that binds paxillin LD motifs and actin and regulates cell adhesion". The Journal of Cell Biology ... "Monocyte cells and cancer cells express novel paxillin isoforms with different binding properties to focal adhesion proteins". ... Quach NL, Rando TA (May 2006). "Focal adhesion kinase is essential for costamerogenesis in cultured skeletal muscle cells". ... Lawrence RE, Salgia R (NaN). "MET molecular mechanisms and therapies in lung cancer". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 4 (1): 146-52 ...

*Substrate adhesion molecules

Cell adhesion molecules Fibronectin Laminin Schwab, Manfred, ed. (2001). "Cell Adhesion Molecules". Encyclopedic reference of ... are proteins that attach cells to specific compounds in the extracellular matrix (a process known as cell adhesion). Some of ... ISBN 978-0-387-25615-3. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Ulrich, Klaus (1994). "Cell-Adhesion Molecules of Vertebrates ... SAMs do not have to be made by the cells that bind to them. They can also link to other SAMs, influencing each other's behavior ...

*SYNJ2

Cell Adhesion & Migration. 6 (6): 518-25. doi:10.4161/cam.22139. PMC 3547897 . PMID 23076136. Wong KA, Wilson J, Russo A, Wang ... "Synaptojanin 2 is recognized by HLA class II-restricted hairy cell leukemia-specific T cells". Leukemia. 17 (12): 2467-73. doi: ... Chuang YY, Tran NL, Rusk N, Nakada M, Berens ME, Symons M (November 2004). "Role of synaptojanin 2 in glioma cell migration and ... target genes are involved in the oxidative stress response and in control of the cell cycle". The Journal of Biological ...

*Synapse

Missler, M; Südhof, TC; Biederer, T (2012). "Synaptic cell adhesion". Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 4: a005694. doi:10.1101/ ... The distinctive structure of nerve cells allows action potentials to travel directionally (from dendrites to cell body down the ... neurons are cells that are specialized to pass signals to individual target cells, and synapses are the means by which they do ... causing voltage changes in the presynaptic cell to induce voltage changes in the postsynaptic cell. The main advantage of an ...

*Wound healing assay

"An introduction to the wound healing assay using live-cell microscopy". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 8 (5): 440-451. doi:10.4161/ ... A wound healing assay is a laboratory technique used to study cell migration and cell-cell interaction. This is also called a ... scratch assay because it is done by making a scratch on a cell monolayer and capturing images at regular intervals by time ...

*HOXA5

"HoxA5 stabilizes adherens junctions via increased Akt1". Cell Adhesion & Migration. 1 (4): 185-95. doi:10.4161/cam.1.4.5448. ... human embryonic stem cells) to the most endothelial-like (human umbilical vein endothelial cells, or HUVECs) shows that the ... "HOXA5 is targeted by cell-type-specific CpG island methylation in normal cells and during the development of acute myeloid ... Dunn J, Simmons R, Thabet S, Jo H (Oct 2015). "The role of epigenetics in the endothelial cell shear stress response and ...

*CDH17

2004). "Ksp-cadherin is a functional cell-cell adhesion molecule related to LI-cadherin". Exp. Cell Res. 294 (2): 345-55. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: CDH17 cadherin 17, LI cadherin (liver-intestine)". Gessner R, Tauber R (2001). "Intestinal cell adhesion molecules ... 2004). "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. ...

*Hyaluronan synthase

Cell Adhesion and Migration. 2008;2:202-207 Jiang D, et al. Regulation of lung injury and repair by Toll-like receptors and ... HA's interaction with CD44 activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an important molecule in the process of cell motility by ... This role of HA has been shown in other cell types, but has not yet been researched in cancer cells. The HA produced by HAS up- ... Finally, in the formation of a metastatic lesion, HAS produces HA to allow the cancer cell to interact with native cells at the ...

*Collagen, type IV, alpha 1

Hinek A (July 1994). "Nature and the multiple functions of the 67-kD elastin-/laminin binding protein". Cell Adhesion and ... It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. COL4A1 is a subunit of the type IV collagen and plays a role in ... In a normal wall of arteries, collagen type IV acts to inhibit smooth muscle cell proliferation. Accordingly, it was ... NC1 binds to the α1β1 integrin and inhibits specific integrin signaling pathways in vascular epithelial cells. It also ...

*CDH8

... integral membrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Mature cadherin proteins are composed of a large ... Type II (atypical) cadherins are defined based on their lack of a HAV cell adhesion recognition sequence specific to type I ... Cell Adhesion and Communication. 2 (1): 15-26. doi:10.3109/15419069409014199. PMID 7982033. Kido M, Obata S, Tanihara H, ... and appears to determine the specificity of the protein's homophilic cell adhesion activity. ...

*Neuroangiogenesis

Bautch, V. L.; James, J. M. (2009). "Neurovascular development: The beginning of a beautiful friendship". Cell Adhesion and ... Tip cells found at the extremity of the developing blood vessel control adjacent endothelial cells to direct growth. Tip cells ... Neuronal growth cones are situated on the tips of nerve cells and are responsive to different factors, both positive and ... The nervous and blood vessel systems share guidance cues and cell-surface receptors allowing for this synchronised growth. This ...

*ITGA7

Hynes, RO (3 April 1992). "Integrins: versatility, modulation, and signaling in cell adhesion". Cell. 69 (1): 11-25. doi: ... It has been demonstrated that alpha-7 integrin can be mono-ADP-ribosylated on the cell surface in skeletal muscle cells; ... Cell adhesion and communication. 5 (3): 193-205. doi:10.3109/15419069809040291. PMID 9686317. Samson, T; Smyth, N; Janetzky, S ... "The role of extracellular and cytoplasmic splice domains of alpha7-integrin in cell adhesion and migration on laminins". Exp. ...

*Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src

Lyn and Fgr are highly expressed in malignant prostate cells compared to normal prostate cells. When the primary prostate cells ... c-Src can be activated by many transmembrane proteins that include: adhesion receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, G-protein ... Src, Fyn and Yes are expressed ubiquitously in all cell types while the others are generally found in hematopoietic cells. c- ... a novel nuclear tyrosine kinase expressed in epithelial cells". Cell Growth Differ. 5 (12): 1347-55. PMID 7696183. Lee J, Wang ...
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This application note analyzes the role of different adhesion molecules and chemokines involved in various stages of inflammation under physiological flow conditions. Using Cellixs biochips and Mirus pumping system, THP-1, monocyte and PBMC adhesion to VCAM-1; THP-1, monocyte and PBMC rolling on E-selectin; and respective adhesion blockades is investigated. THP-1 adhesion to HUVECs, correlating adhesion assay results with adhesion molecule expression levels on HUVECs from flow cytometry data, i
Expression of cyclooxygenases (COX) and lipoxygenases (LOX) has been linked to many pathophysiological phenotypes, including cell adhesion. However, many current approaches to measure cellular changes are performed only in a fixed-time point. Since cells dynamically move in conjunction with the cell matrix, there is a pressing need for dynamic or time-dependent methods for the investigation of cell properties. In the presented study, we used stable human colorectal cancer cell lines ectopically expressing COX-1, COX-2, and 15LOX-1, to investigate whether expression of COX-1, COX-2, or 15LOX-1 would affect cell adhesion using our opto-electric methodology. In a fixed-time point experiment, only COX-1- and COX-2-expressing cells enhanced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, but all the transfected cells showed invasion activity. However, in a real-time experiment using opto-electric approaches, transmitted cellular morphology was much different with tight adhesion being shown in COX-2 expressing
The extravasation of leukocytes from the blood into tissues occurs as a multistep process: an initial transient interaction ("rolling"), generally thought to be mediated by the selectin family of adhesion molecules, followed by firm adhesion, usually mediated by integrins. Using a parallel plate flow chamber designed to approximate physiologic flow in postcapillary venules, we have characterized a rolling interaction between lymphoid cells and adherent primary and cultured endothelial cells that is not selectin mediated. Studies using blocking monoclonal antibodies indicate that this novel interaction is mediated by CD44. Abrogation of the rolling interaction could be specifically achieved using both soluble hyaluronate (HA) and treatment of the adherent cells with HA-reactive substances, indicating that HA is the ligand supporting this rolling interaction. Some B and T cell lines, as well as normal lymphocytes, either constitutively exhibit rolling or can be induced to do so by phorbol ester or ...
Cell adhesion involves receptor-mediated cell-surface interactions with the extracellular matrix (Burridge and Chrzanowska-Wodnicka 1996; Gumbiner 1996). These interactions play a central role in the organization of the cytoskeleton, thereby regulating cell shape and function. Focal adhesions are specialized structures linking the extracellular matrix to the actin microfilaments through integrin and syndecan transmembrane receptors. The structure of the focal adhesion plaque consists of an elaborate network of interconnecting proteins anchoring the microfilaments to the membrane at the contact site. As the points of closest apposition linking the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix, focal adhesions are ideally positioned for regulating the adhesive strength of the cell. It may help to think of the cell as having three grades of adhesiveness: (1) weak adherence, meaning that the cell is attached but not spread; (2) intermediate adherence, characterized by a spread cell that lacks stress ...
The integrin LFA-1 and its ligand ICAM-1 mediate B cell adhesion, but their role in membrane-bound antigen recognition is still unknown. Here, using planar lipid bilayers and cells expressing ICAM-1 fused to green fluorescence protein, we found that the engagement of B cell receptor (BCR) promotes B cell adhesion by an LFA-1-mediated mechanism. LFA-1 is recruited to form a mature B cell synapse segregating into a ring around the BCR. This distribution is maintained over a wide range of BCR/antigen affinities (10(6) M(-1) to 10(11) M(-1)). Furthermore, the LFA-1 binding to ICAM-1 reduces the level of antigen required to form the synapse and trigger a B cell. Thus, LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction lowers the threshold for B cell activation by promoting B cell adhesion and synapse formation.
The aim of the first part of the thesis was to develop and validate an in vitro adherence assay involving porcine mononuclear cells (MCs) and porcine endothelium, present within gut and lymph node. Factors involved in MC / endothelium interactions were determined. In summary we found that cell adhesion in our assay system was temperature, Ca2+ and Mn2+ sensitive, required metabolic activity, was inhibited by the phosphorylated monosaccharide galactose 6-phosphate, and unaffected by the presence of mucus. These findings reflected certain aspects of in vivo cell adhesion, present within the in vitro assay used. The adhesion characteristics of porcine Peyer s patch (PP), peripheral blood (PB), and lymph node (LN) MCs to porcine gut and lymph node endothelium was examined and used as an guiding model for the future study of human MCs adherence. It was found that PP MCs adhered significantly better to gut endothelium than to LN endothelium and similarly LN MCs adhered significantly better to LN ...
Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical to various cellular processes like cell spreading, migration, growth and apoptosis. At the tissue level, cell adhesion is important in the pathological and physiological processes that regulate the tissue morphogenesis. Cell adhesion to the ECM is primarily mediated by the integrin family of receptors. The receptors that are recruited to the surface are reinforced by structural and signaling proteins at the adhesive sites forming focal adhesions that connect the cytoskeleton to further stabilize the adhesions. The functional roles of these focal adhesions extend beyond stabilizing adhesions and transduce mechanical signals at the cell-ECM interface in various signaling events. The objective of this research is to analyze the role of the spatial distribution of the focal adhesions in stabilizing the cell adhesion to the ECM in relation to cells internal force balance. The central hypothesis was that peripheral focal adhesions stabilize cell
Static adhesion of transfectants to immobilized ligands. Adhesion of various integrin transfectants to MAdCAM-1 (top) and ICAM-1 (bottom) was measured in
The modification of medical device surface with adhesive ligands has been recently shown to be an effective means for making a bioselective surface which can inhibit bacterial adhesion while promoting host cell adhesion on device materials. Currently, the lack of quantitative correlation between the adhesion strength of bacteria, nature of adhesive ligand and adhesion kinetics of mammalian cells hinders the development of such device surface. In this study, the biophysical responses of bacteria and mammalian cells towards adhesive ligand on model device surfaces formed by the chemisorption of dopamine (a moderate antibiotic) on glass are elucidated. The effects of RGD, collagen and dopamine modification on the adhesion strength of two clinically significant bacteria including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were investigated by the determination of minimum lateral forces for bacterial detachment and the density of adhering bacteria. The result indicates that RGD ...
Antioxidants have been proposed to be anti-atherosclerotic agents; however, the mechanisms underlying their beneficial effects are poorly understood. We have examined the effect of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-tcp) on one cellular event in atherosclerotic plaque development, monocyte adhesion to stimulated endothelial cells (ECs). Human umbilical vein ECs were pretreated with alpha-tcp before stimulation with known agonists of monocyte adhesion: IL-1 (10 ng/ml), LPS (10 ng/ml), thrombin (30 U/ml), or PMA (10 nM). Agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion, but not basal adhesion, was inhibited in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by alpha-tcp. The IC50 of alpha-tcp on an IL-1-induced response was 45 microM. The inhibition correlated with a decrease in steady state levels of E-selectin mRNA and cell surface expression of E-selectin which is consistent with the ability of a monoclonal antibody to E-selectin to inhibit monocytic cell adhesion in this system. Probucol (50 microM) and ...
In the 9 years since the last review on leukocyte and endothelial interactions was published in this journal many of the critical structures involved in leukocyte adherence to and migration across endothelium have been elucidated. With the advent of cell and molecular biology approaches, investigations have progressed from the early descriptions by intravital microscopy and histology, to functional and immunologic characterization of adhesion molecules, and now to the development of genetically deficient animals and the first phase I trial of "anti-adhesion" therapy in humans. The molecular cloning and definition of the adhesive functions of the leukocyte integrins, endothelial members of the Ig gene superfamily, and the selectins has already provided sufficient information to construct an operative paradigm of the molecular basis of leukocyte emigration. The regulation of these adhesion molecules by chemoattractants, cytokines, or chemokines, and the interrelationships of adhesion pathways need ...
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Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix is required to execute growth factor (GF)-mediated cell behaviors, such as proliferation. A major underlying mechanism is that cell adhesion enhances GF-mediated intracellular signals, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk). However, because GFs use distinct mechanisms to activate Ras-Erk signaling, it is unclear whether adhesion-mediated enhancement of Erk signaling is universal to all GFs. We examined this issue by quantifying the dynamics of Erk signaling induced by epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. Adhesion to fibronectin-coated surfaces enhances Erk signaling elicited by epidermal growth factor but not by bFGF or PDGF. Unexpectedly, adhesion is not always a positive influence on GF-mediated signaling. At critical subsaturating doses of PDGF or bFGF, cell adhesion ablates Erk signaling; that is, adhesion desensitizes the cell to GF ...
Cell adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon vital for all multicellular organisms. Recognition of and adhesion to specific macromolecules is a crucial task of leukocytes to initiate the immune response. To gain statistically reliable information of cell adhesion, large numbers of cells should be measured. However, direct measurement of the adhesion force of single cells is still challenging and todays techniques typically have an extremely low throughput (5-10 cells per day). Here, we introduce a computer controlled micropipette mounted onto a normal inverted microscope for probing single cell interactions with specific macromolecules. We calculated the estimated hydrodynamic lifting force acting on target cells by the numerical simulation of the flow at the micropipette tip. The adhesion force of surface attached cells could be accurately probed by repeating the pick-up process with increasing vacuum applied in the pipette positioned above the cell under investigation. Using the introduced methodology
Hematogenous metastasis requires the arrest and extravasation of blood-borne tumor cells, possibly involving direct adhesive interactions with vascular endothelium. Cytokine activation of cultured human endothelium increases adhesion of melanoma and carcinoma cell lines. An inducible 110-kD endothelial cell surface glycoprotein, designated INCAM-110, appears to mediate adhesion of melanoma cells. In addition, an inducible endothelial receptor for neutrophils, ELAM-1, supports the adhesion of a human colon carcinoma cell line. Thus, activation of vascular endothelium in vivo that results in increased expression of INCAM-110 and ELAM-1 may promote tumor cell adhesion and affect the incidence and distribution of metastases.. ...
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The broad tissue distribution and evolutionary conservation of the GPI-anchored protein PrP suggests that it plays a role in cellular homeostasis. Since integrin adhesion determines cell behavior, the proposed role of PrP in cell adhesion may underlie the various in vitro and in vivo effects associated to PrP loss-of-function, including the immune phenotypes described in PrP−/- mice. We have investigated the role of PrP in the adhesion and (transendothelial) migration of human (pro)monocytes. We found that PrP regulates β1 integrin-mediated adhesion of monocytes. Additionally, PrP controls cell morphology and migratory behavior of monocytes: PrP-silenced cells show deficient uropod formation on immobilized VCAM and display bleb-like protrusions on the endothelium. Our data further show that PrP regulates ligand-induced integrin activation. Finally, we found that PrP controls the activation of several proteins involved in cell adhesion and migration, including RhoA and its effector cofilin as ...
University of Turku. Professor Johanna Ivaskas (University of Turku) research focus is on the changes that occur in cells with the development of cancer metastases. Integrins are important cell adhesion receptors that regulate the division of cells and their movement in tissue. Changes in cell adhesion properties are a key factor in the formation of cancer metastases. The aim of Professor Ivaskas research is to reach a fundamentally new mechanical understanding of how integrins work in cancer cells and to produce a roadmap of integrin receptor operation and communication chains.. The research combines different methods, including in vivo models, high-throughput screening and applications of synthetic biology. These innovative approaches will yield significant new information about the pathways of cancer cells and their movement in tissue. The project is expected to result in major scientific breakthroughs in this topical field of biomedicine.. Johanna Ivaska is a highly merited researcher. For ...
The idea that cells adhere to one another in a specific manner, such that cells of one type stick only to cells of the same type, appears to have had its origin from the work of Wilson (1907). He found that when cell suspensions from two species of marine sponge were mixed and allowed to aggregate, each individual aggregate body was composed of cells of one species alone. This conclusion has been supported by the results obtained by Humphreys (1963) amongst others, though some workers, who have used different species of sponge, have failed to detect signs of specific adhesion of the cells (Sara, Liaci & Melone, 1966). Until recently there has been little evidence in favour or against the idea that specific adhesion occurs between the cells of higher animals.. ...
Project leader: Prof. Dr. T. Chavakis. Integrin-dependent adhesive interactions between leukocytes and the endothelium contribute to inflammatory processes. In addition, similar adhesive events between haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and bone marrow stromal cells, including endothelial cells, play a major role for the mobilisation of HSC into peripheral blood and for the homing of HSC to the bone marrow, both processes being relevant for bone marrow transplantation. The beta2-integrin LFA-1, exclusively expressed on cells of haematopoietic origin, is a major adhesion receptor in this context. We recently identified developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1 or Edil3), secreted by endothelial cells, as an endogenous inhibitor of LFA-1-dependent leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in vitro and leukocyte recruitment in vivo as well as of interleukin-17 (IL-17)-dependent inflammation in the context of aging-associated inflammatory bone loss. Since LFA-1 can regulate adhesive functions of HSC and ...
The invention discloses a cell culture support which provides for the adhesion and culturing of one or more adhesive cells using a photoresist in which to provide a particular patterned design on a surface of the support. The patterned design is provided by the photoresist which is partially removed by photolithography during the making of the support which in turn imparts a striped, checkerboard or dotted pattern on the surface of the support. Further, the cell culture support is produced by pretreating the support surface with a reagent to provide hydrophobicity to the support surface. Also a reagent can be added to pretreat the support surface in order to facilitate adhesion at the photoresist prior to applying the photoresist into the cell culture support. Collagen is applied in the form of a solution, containing in addition thereto albumin and a crosslinking agent, in order to form a film. Collagen specifically affects the cell adhesion rate or the morphology of the cells to be adhered to the
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Nano-scale or micro-scale adhesive structures comprising an array of nano-fabricated, pillars, the pillars having coated upon, or having disposed on a working surface thereof, a protein-mimetic, marine-adhesive coating. Methods of fabricating the nano-scale pillars, synthesis of the protein-mimetic coating or wet adhesive and application of the adhesive to the pillars are described.
The CD2 receptor on T lymphocytes is essential for T cell adhesion and stimulation by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Blockade of CD2 function is immunosuppressive in both model systems and humans, indicating the importance of CD2 for the cellular immune response. Although the affinity of the molecular interaction between CD2 and its counter-receptor, CD58, is relatively low when measured in solution, this interaction mediates tight adhesion within the 2D cell-cell interface. To understand the mechanisms responsible for regulating the avidity of the CD2-CD58 interaction, we measured the number, affinity, and lateral mobility of CD2 molecules on resting and activated T cells. Cell activation caused a 1.5-fold increase in the number of CD2 sites on the cell surface, and the 2D affinity of CD2 for CD58 increased by 2.5-fold. The combination of T cell activation and CD2 ligation to CD58 decreased the laterally mobile fraction of the ligated CD2. Together, these changes would substantially enhance CD2
Colorectal tumors originate and develop within intestinal crypts. Even though some of the essential phenomena that characterize crypt structure and dynamics have been effectively described in the past, the relation between the differentiation process and the overall crypt homeostasis is still partially understood. We here investigate this relation and other important biological phenomena by introducing a novel multiscale model that combines a morphological description of the crypt with a gene regulation model: the emergent dynamical behavior of the underlying gene regulatory network drives cell growth and differentiation processes, linking the two distinct spatio-temporal levels. The model relies on a few a priori assumptions, yet accounting for several key processes related to crypt functioning, such as: dynamic gene activation patterns, stochastic differentiation, signaling pathways ruling cell adhesion properties, cell displacement, cell growth, mitosis, apoptosis and the presence of ...
The role of the mesothelial layer in the peritoneal spreading of cancer cells is only partially clarified. Here we attempted to better define the mesothelial contribution to the tumor cell adhesion using a direct adhesion test applied to human primary cultures of mesothelial cells (HPMCs) derived from the peritoneal washes of patients with gastric and colorectal cancers. Gastric and colon carcinoma cells were seeded on different mesothelial monolayers and quantitative fluorescence analysis was performed to analyze their growth and adhesive properties. The adhesion of the cancer cells was not affected by the origin of the HPMCs when derived from patients with different cancers or with benign disease. In contrast, the high levels of ICAM1 expression and ROS production, which characterize these senescent mesothelial cells, enhanced the tumor cell adhesion. These results suggest that the mesothelial adhesive properties are dependent on the cell senescence, while are not affected by the tumor ...
My recent research has focused on how leukocytes control their adhesiveness and has resulted in a discovery of a novel regulatory pathway, Rogelj relates. Its a Rube Goldberg kind of sequence: Biochemical events that occur along this pathway determine the expression of a critical cell surface adhesion molecule, which in turn determines the ability of a leukocyte to recognize its target. Signals that lead to a loss of cell adhesiveness, therefore, result in suppression of the immune response. And, suppression of the immune system may or may not be a good thing ...
Our laboratory consists of 5 Research Fellows and a Junior Faculty member who are physician scientists or research scientists and two senior research technicians. who use a combination of immunological, biochemical and molecular biological strategies to study leukocyte recruitment in various in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation. We have developed a valuable in vitro model that allows direct microscopic examination of live leukocyte Ð endothelial interactions under defined laminar fluid shear stress conditions that mimic blood flow in small venules. Areas of focus using this model are three-fold: first, dissection of the adhesion mechanisms that support blood monocyte and specific T cell subset adhesive interactions with endothelium under flow, or specific recombinant endothelial cell adhesion molecules; second, characterization of endothelial-dependent mechanisms involved in regulation of endothelial cell borders (lateral junctions) during leukocyte transmigration, permeability function ...
The Ly-6 locus on mouse chromosome 15 encodes a family of 10-12 kDa proteins that are linked to the cell surface by a glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol anchor and have cell signaling and cell adhesion properties. Expression of Ly-6 proteins is tightly regulated during development; these proteins continu.... Full description. ...
The leukocyte adhesion cascade is an important paradigm of immunity and mediates leukocyte recruitment in acute or chronic inflammatory responses. Leukocyte recruitment requires several adhesive interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells. The adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelial cell surface is mediated by interactions between leukocyte integrins, such as the beta1-integrin family member VLA-4 (a4b1) or the beta2-integrin family members LFA-1 (aLb2, CD11a/CD18), Mac-1 (aMb2, CD11b/CD18, complement receptor-3), and their endothelial counter-receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) (1). Our lab has made significant contributions to the leukocyte adhesion cascade, including the recent identification of a novel endogenous inhibitor of leukocyte recruitment, the endothelial-derived molecule Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1, Edil3) (2-4).. Mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) from the bone marrow to the periphery takes place upon infection. HSC ...
Prostate Cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men.. The inflammatory tumor microenvironment is a fertile niche that releases reactive oxygen species, which accelerates the malignant transformation and appears as a fine tuner of the adhesive behavior of cells. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, represents an essential event in cellular responses to pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory insults. As we previously reported that HO-1 over-expression impaired tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo we sought to assess whether HO-1 could regulate the adhesive properties and the morphology of PCa cells. A bioinformatics enrichment analysis using Metacore, GeneMANIA and DAVID was performed; rendering a significant association of the HO-1 regulated genes with several proteins located in the extracellular space and cell membrane; compartments highly correlated with the adhesive behavior of cells. In an effort to understand the molecular ...
Effect of Ni addition on the microstructures of melt-spun CuCr ribbons. YU, M.; WANGI, Y.; WANG, Y.; SUN, Z. // Materials Science (0137-1339);2008, Vol. 26 Issue 3, p675 The microstructures and resistivities of melt-spun Cu75Cr25 and Cu(75-x)Cr25Nix (x = 1 or 3 wt. %) ribbons were studied. The size of the Cr-rich phase from liquid phase separation in the Cu75Cr25 microstructure can be decreased from the micrometer-scale to about 250 nm by using melt spinning.... ...
Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is necessary for fundamental cellular processes such as survival, migration, and differentiation. Adhesion is mediated by integrin receptors, which recruit multiprotein adhesion complexes to sites of attachment to the ECM. Adhesion complexes provide a structural connection between the ECM and cytoskeleton, transmit mechanical force, and act as signaling hubs to control cell behavior. Recent high-resolution imaging studies of adhesion sites reveal some aspects of their spatial organization and provide insights into their function at the molecular level.. ...
In this study, we have investigated whether SHIP plays a role in PMA- or cytokine-mediated LFA-1 activation by overexpressing both WT and phosphatase dead forms of SHIP in DA-ER cells. Our results show that 1) overexpression of WT-SHIP in unstimulated DA-ER cells increases LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion to ICAM-1, and this adhesion is further augmented by the addition of PMA, IL-3, or Epo; 2) SHIP requires a functional 5′-phosphatase domain for these effects, and overexpression of a phosphatase dead form actually leads to a slight inhibition of LFA-1-mediated adhesion to ICAM-1; 3) SHIP overexpression most likely enhances adhesion via its effect on inside-out signaling because its overexpression has no effect on the external activation of LFA-1 by Mn2+; 4) LFA-1 activation on cells overexpressing WT-SHIP does not involve activation of Erk-1 and Erk-2; and 5) LFA-1 activation in response to PMA in SHIP-overexpressing cells is via its effects on a PKC-stimulated pathway, while LFA-1 activation in ...
We have designed a lightly crosslinked PEG based copolymer coating with compositional flexibility as well as extended stability for studying human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Copolymers contain a majority of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEMA) as a cytophobic background with poly(et
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A model proposing the role of tTG in cell adhesion. Association of integrins with tTG promotes cell adhesion and spreading due to formation of ternary adhesion
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interleukin-11 enhancement of VLA-5 mediated adhesion of CD34+ cells from cord blood to fibronectin is associated with the PI-3 kinase pathway. AU - Wang, Li Sheng. AU - Liu, Hong Jun. AU - Broxmeyer, Hal E.. AU - Lu, Li. PY - 2000/3/1. Y1 - 2000/3/1. N2 - Adhesion is required for cell growth, differentiation, survival, and function. Cell adhesion is mediated by a structurally diverse group of plasma membrane receptors, each exhibiting specialized ligand-binding properties that are needed for specific tasks. Integrin-mediated adhesion is important for hematopoietic stem (HSC)/progenitor (HPC) cell survival and may prevent programmed cell death. Interleukin (IL)-11, a multi-functional cytokine secreted by the bone marrow environment, plays an important role in regulating growth and differentiation of HSCs/HPCs. In this report, we demonstrate that IL-II enhanced adhesion of freshly isolated and 3 day-expanded CD34+ cells to immobilized fibronectin. The expression of very late ...
Ruan Q, Zhao C, Ye Z, et al. Effect And Possible Mechanism Of Monocyte-Derived VEGF On Monocyte-Endothelial Cellular Adhesion After Electrical Burns[J]. Burns, 2014.
Cell adhesion plays a central role in development and disease. Cell adhesion to particular ligands can affect cytoskeletal organization and cell polarity, cell proliferation, and gene expression. This book is divided into two parts.
Cell adhesion plays a central role in development and disease. Cell adhesion to particular ligands can affect cytoskeletal organization and cell polarity, cell proliferation, and gene expression. This book is divided into two parts.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The cardiovascular risk factor homocysteine is mainly bound to proteins in human plasma, and it has been hypothesized that homocysteinylated proteins are important mediators of the toxic effects of hyperhomocysteinemia. It has been recently demonstra
Tensile stress patterns in tissues are revealed by cell-cell adhesion defects; in turn, cell responses to supracellular tension require cell-cell adhesion.
I was always glad to read Bill Fabreys column for Radiance, a compilation of weight-related media and research from the previous three months. Even if the reporting was anti-fat, it was exciting to see any mention of fat activism or the non-diet approach (now Health At Every Size). I have a similar urge to gather weight-related stuff that catches my attention, both cool and uncool. Only now, it would be very difficult for anyone to collect everything thats coming out. This first round up of items Ive come across in the last week is about as long as the list that Radiance used to publish quarterly. Is there a version of Moores Law for fat community? Does our computing/community speed double every two years? Old-timer comparisons aside, I like seeing the words "round" and "up" together, so heres Round Up #1. ...
Migration is a complex process for epithelial tissues, because the epithelium must move as an intact sheet to preserve its barrier function. The requirement for structural integrity is met by coupling cell-to-matrix and cell-to-cell adhesion at the cellular level, and by coordinating cell proliferation and cell migration in the tissue as a whole. Proliferation is suppressed at the migrating cell front, allowing cells in this region to remain tightly packed while advancing rapidly. At the same time, proliferation is enhanced in a region behind the advancing cell front to expand the epithelial cell sheet. This review considers the extracellular signals and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate these processes in the lens and corneal epithelium, with emphasis on the commonalities that link these tissues.
It is an interesting time to consider the means and roles of cell adhesion in the eukaryotes. There was initial wonder at the results of Wilsons reports of species-specific reaggregation of sponge...
Predicted to have calcium-dependent phospholipid binding activity; calcium-dependent protein binding activity; and phospholipase A2 inhibitor activity. Predicted to be involved in several processes, including homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules; positive regulation of endothelial cell migration; and regulation of NMDA receptor activity. Predicted to localize to the plasma membrane. Orthologous to human ANXA3 (annexin A3 ...
Despite reports in the early to mid-1990s, alternatively spliced forms of different adhesion molecules, such as VCAM-1, PECAM-1, MAdCAM-1, and ICAM-1, have virtually been ignored, and the majority of the scientific field has considered these molecules to exist as single proteins. However, with expansion of genomic technologies, it is clear that the majority of genes, including those that encode for the adhesion molecules, undergo alternative splicing and have the potential to produce multiple isoforms. The expression patterns, ligand interactions, and functions of these isoforms still remain largely undefined. Future studies are needed to understand how these isoforms contribute to immune and inflammatory responses, as well as potentially modulate disease phenotypes.. Studies of the alternatively spliced forms of ICAM-1 have benefited significantly from the generation of multiple lines of ICAM-1-deficient mice. In fact, their initial discovery was facilitated by the identification of ICAM-1 ...
Adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) or to neighboring cells regulates multiple cellular processes such as cell migration, morphogenesis, proliferation, gene expression and survival. Activation and regulation of these responses depends on multiple environmental cues, which are sensed and interpreted in specific cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesions. In our lab, we focus in particular on integrin- and cadherin-mediated adhesions, and study the mechanisms whereby they sense external surfaces, recognizing not only their chemical composition, but also their physical properties, including their topography, rigidity and ligand density. Systematic molecular modulation of the adhesion sites is used in an attempt to decipher the mechanisms whereby the adhesion-based molecular machinery integrates complex environmental information and triggers a coherent and robust response. Specifically, we combine a wide variety of molecular perturbation approaches with advanced, quantitative imaging technologies, ...
This gene encodes a member of the homeobox transcription factor family. A highly related protein in mouse has been shown to influence cellular processes that control cell adhesion and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton in myoblast fusion and chondrogenesis. The encoded protein may also play a role in cancer progression ...
(2010) Yashunsky et al. Biophysical Journal. The development of novel technologies capable of monitoring the dynamics of cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions in real time and a label-free manner is vital for gaining deeper insights into these most fundamental cellular processes. However, the...
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Contents. List of Contributors. Preface (A.G. Lee). Molecules of Cell Adhesion and Recognition an Overview (R. Marsh and R. Brackenbury). Cell Recognition.
The interaction between the extracellular matrix and cells affects a wide spectrum of cellular processes including migration, growth, death, capacity to degrade matrix, capacity to synthesize matrix, differentiation, and cell attachment. In human neutrophils, we study signalling by beta1 integrin receptors which contribute to cell attachment and migration. Additionally, we study the effect of nitric oxide, an inflammatory mediator, on the signalling pathways. Neutrophils help destroy foreign invaders at tissue sites but first must reversibly undergo cell attachment through the endothelium and matrix. We hypothesize that nitric oxide modulates matrix-cell interaction by the reversible inhibition of neutrophil attachment to fibronectin (ligand for beta1 integrin)-coated surfaces. We recently showed that nitric oxide inhibits adherence associated with a stimulation of actin-ADP ribosylation. In bovine chondrocytes, we study signalling by beta1 integrin receptors which contribute to the capacity to ...
The article below details a study on the enhancing effect of Round Up (glyposhate) on harmful pathogens. My curiosity is peaked by it as it may help to explain some of the increasingly large salmonella outbreaks. Worth a read and also worth keeping the study in hand to assist you in dealing with State and…
ClashMusic: Charlotte Church is guest reviewer for Singles Round Up for 22nd October 2012 with songs by Yeasayer, The Joy Formidable, Jessie Ware, Rick Ross and more.
I cannot open the e-mail attachments on my XP Professional computer. No problem before. When the download - Answered by a verified Tech Support Specialist
View Notes - Harris Lecture 3 notes (1 per page)(1)-1 from BIOLOGY BIO230 at University of Toronto. Cell-cell adhesion How can small and fragile cells form large and stable organisms? ? 1 1 Cells are
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Frida Kaori Weierud.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Foster Talks series.. ...
Thanks to everyone who applied to our two postdoc positions! We had a lot of applications and will get back to you shortly! Please bear with us.. ...
The latest beta patch introduced all the tabards for the Mists of Pandaria factions--they blow tabard designs from past expansions out of the water.
FireRescue1 is focusing on news and information about Incident Management throughout the month of February, 2011. Check out some of these great incident
Well be putting up our Vigilia di Grande Inverno guide later today, but theres also been some blue posts we want to share with you!
Learn what adhesion is, how it is measured, what a test really measures relative to the true adhesion between two surfaces, how adhesion affects the performance of the final laminated or multilayer product, an ideal adhesion test between two materials, and what the common T-peel adhesion test measure.
Modern dentistry means to glue. Nowadays we use adhesion procedures in all our clinical works. So lets understand which procedure we have to use and in which...
Molecular techniques have revolutionised our knowledge of cell and tissue function in both health and disease. We already have new and powerful treatments based on an understanding of communication between cells by messenger molecules called cytokines. Furthermore, there is great therapeutic promise in defining molecules which regulate cell adhesion, motility, proliferation, survival, and death. Rational manipulation of cell and tissue function for therapeutic ends may be much closer than you think.. ...
Sterile Pads found in: Nutramax Non-Adherent Sterile Pads, Pro Advantage® Non-Adherent Sterile Pads, CURAD® Sterile Non-Adherent Pads, Dukal Sterile Gauze..
Definition of Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1? Meaning of Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 as a legal term. What does Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 mean in law?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Growth cone interactions with purified cell and substrate adhesion molecules visualized by interference reflection microscopy. AU - Drazba, Judith. AU - Liljelund, Patricia. AU - Smith, Carolyn. AU - Payne, Ross. AU - Lemmon, Vance. PY - 1997/6/18. Y1 - 1997/6/18. N2 - The migration of growth cones on substrates consisting of naturally occurring cell adhesion molecules has been extensively studied in cell culture. However, relatively little is known about how growth cones contact the substrate or how the patterns of contact change as growth cones move forward. We have examined the interactions of chick retinal ganglion cell growth cones with laminin, merosin, N-cadherin, L1 and poly-L-lysine by time- lapse interference reflection microscopy (IRM) using a laser scanning confocal microscope. In images obtained by IRM, areas of a cell that are closely apposed to the substrate appear dark whereas areas that are farther away appear light. Growth cones on laminin and merosin were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thrombin-mediated Focal Adhesion Plaque Reorganization in Endothelium. T2 - Role of Protein Phosphorylation. AU - Schaphorst, Kane L.. AU - Pavalko, Frederick M.. AU - Patterson, Carolyn E.. AU - Garcia, Joe G.N.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - Endothelial cell (EC) gap formation and barrier function are subject to dual regulation by (1) axial contractile forces, regulated by myosin light chain kinase activity, and (2) tethering forces, represented by cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesions. We examined whether focal adhesion plaque proteins (vinculin and talin) and focal adhesion kinase, p125FAK (FAK), represent target regulatory sites involved in thrombin-mediated EC barrier dysfunction. Histologically, thrombin produced dramatic rearrangement of EC actin, vinculin, and FAK in parallel with the evolution of gap formation and barrier dysfunction. Vinculin and talin were in vitro substrates for phosphorylation by EC PKC, a key effector enzyme involved in thrombin-induced EC ...
Background: Mast cells infiltrate the bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) in asthmatic patients, but the mechanism of mast cell adhesion is still unknown. The adhesion molecules CD44 (i.e. hyaluronate receptor) and CD51 (i.e. vitronectin receptor) are widely expressed and bind to many extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The aims of the study are (i) to identify the role of ECM in mast cell adhesion to BSM and (ii) to examine the role of CD51 and CD44 in this adhesion.. Methods: Human lung mast cells, human mast cell line (HMC-1), and BSM cells from control donors or asthmatic patients were cultured in the presence/absence of various cytokines. Mast cell-BSM interaction was assessed using 3H-thymidine-pulsed mast cells, confocal immunofluorescence, or electron microscopy. Adhesion molecules expression and collagen production on both cell types were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR, western blot, and flow cytometry.. Results: Mast cell adhesion to BSM cells mostly involved type I collagen of the ECM. ...
CD2 is a T lymphocyte glycoprotein that functions in adhesion of T lymphocytes and also as a putative receptor for activation signals. Functional data suggest that LFA-3, a widely distributed cell surface glycoprotein, may be the biological ligand of CD2. We have purified LFA-3 from human erythrocytes and characterized the purified protein functionally. LFA-3 bound specifically to CD2+ cells, and this binding was inhibited by CD2 mAb. Conversely, purified LFA-3 inhibited binding of CD2 mAb to cells, and the concentration required for this effect suggests that LFA-3 half-saturated CD2 at 1-5 nM LFA-3. Purified LFA-3 inhibited rosetting of human and sheep erythrocytes with CD2+ T lymphoma cells and T lymphocytes, and mediated aggregation of a CD2+ T lymphoma cell line. Purified LFA-3 reconstituted into planar membranes mediated efficient CD2-dependent adhesion of T lymphoblasts. These data demonstrate that LFA-3 is a ligand for CD2 and that LFA-3 can mediate T lymphocyte adhesion.
We have distinguished five TNF-alpha-inducible cell adhesion mechanisms on microvasculature-derived endothelioma cells of the mouse which mediate the binding of different types of leukocytes. Three of these mechanisms could be identified as the mouse homologs of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin, of which the latter was defined by the novel mAb 21KC10. The fourth TNF-alpha-inducible cell adhesion mechanism was blocked by antibodies specific for mouse P-selectin. We have recently shown that TNF-alpha stimulates the synthesis of P-selectin in mouse endothelioma cells (A. Weller, S. Isenmann, D. Vestweber. 1992. J. Biol. Chem. 267:15176-15183). Here we show that this stimulation leads to maximal cell surface expression levels within 4 h after stimulation while the same endothelioma cells are also able to upregulate P-selectin at the cell surface within minutes after stimulation with PMA. Both effects are additive. The fifth TNF-induced cell adhesion mechanism is defined by mediating the binding to the ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Laser Surface Engineering of Polymeric Materials for Enhanced Mesenchymal Stem Cell Adhesion and Growth. AU - Waugh, David. AU - Cosgrove, Daniel. AU - Hussain, Issam. AU - Lawrence, Jonathan. PY - 2019/5/3. Y1 - 2019/5/3. N2 - Owing to them being relatively inexpensive and easy to manipulate, polymers are becoming more widely used within the biomedical industry for several different applications. As an example, because of its high wear resistance, low moisture absorption and high chemical resistance, poly(ether ether ketone) is commonly used as a biomaterial in the healthcare and biomedical industries. However, poly(ether ether ketone) surface properties are not optimum for efficient or enhanced bio-functionality, leading it to have somewhat inferior wettability and adhesion characteristics. On account of this, many researchers are now looking to employ surface engineering techniques to improve and enhance the surface properties of poly(ether ether ketone), enhancing its ...
Cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesions are often characterized as functionally distinct adhesion systems within the cell that mediate different proliferative outcomes. In contrast to the widely accepted pro-proliferative effect of cell-matrix adhesion, the proliferative effect of cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion remains unresolved. While the majority of studies demonstrate that cadherins mediate contact inhibition of proliferation, there have also been compelling reports of cadherins stimulating cell cycling. Here, we show that matrix stiffness is the mechanistic basis for crosstalk between N-cadherin at cell-cell junctions and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at cell-matrix adhesions, and that this interplay between adhesive systems modulates the proliferative role of N-cadherin. We demonstrate that N-cadherin is induced in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) following vascular injury, an in vivo model of tissue stiffening and proliferation. Complementary experiments on deformable polyacrylamide hydrogels
Tumor cells that acquire metastatic potential have developed resistance to anoikis, a cell death process, after detachment from their primary site to the second organ. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of a novel marine bacterial polysaccharide EPS11 which exerts its cytotoxic effects through affecting cancer cell adhesion and anoikis. Firstly, we found that EPS11 could significantly affect cell proliferation and block cell adhesion in A549 cells. We further demonstrated that the expression of several cell adhesion associated proteins is downregulated and the filiform structures of cancer cells are destroyed after EPS11 treatment. Interestingly, the destruction of filiform structures in A549 cells by EPS11 is in a dose-dependent manner, and the inhibitory tendency is very consistent with that observed in the cell adhesion assay, which confirms that filiform structures play important roles in modulating cell adhesion. Moreover, we showed that EPS11 induces apoptosis of A549 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adhesion Characteristics of Murine Metastatic and Nonmetastatic Tumor Cells in Vitro. AU - Murray, J. Clifford. AU - Liotta, Lance. AU - Rennard, Stephen I.. AU - Martin, George R.. PY - 1980/2/1. Y1 - 1980/2/1. N2 - We have studied the attachment of mouse fibroblasts, transformed nonmetastatic fibroblasts, and metastatic fibrosarcoma cells to various substrates. The metastatic cells attach preferentially to type IV (basement membrane) collagen in the absence of serum, compared to type I collagen and plastic. In the presence of fibronectin, these cells attach well to both type I and type IV collagens. The normal and transformed fibroblasts attach to all these substrates, although the transformed fibroblasts attach more slowly. The ability to attach to type I collagen and plastic is correlated with the levels of fibronectin and collagen produced by these cells. The data indicate that the transformed and metastatic cells differ from normal cells in their attachment properties and ...
Assays using purified proteins under flow and cells under static conditions were used to evaluate the inhibitory activity of this compound in vitro. Biacore analysis demonstrated that PSI-697 effectively inhibited binding of P-selectin to PSGL-1 with 50% inhibition of binding at 125 μM. A 2-fold lower inhibitory concentration of PSI-697 was observed when PSGL-1-expressing cells were subjected to a static adhesion assay. This high concentration in vitro and difference between the monomeric protein/protein interactions of the Biacore assay and multimeric cell/protein interaction of the static cell assay probably reflect the difficulty in reproducing in vivo flow rates, selectin densities, and other contributing cellular interactions in vitro. It suggests that in vivo receptor occupancy requirements may be lower than those in vitro, and as expected for a flow-dependent interaction, the EC50 of PSI-697 decreased further from the Biacore and static adhesion assay to the in vivo models described ...
Adhesion characteristics of copper thin film deposited on PET substrate by electron cyclotron resonance-metal organic chemical vapor deposition ...
Neutrophil invasion of inflamed tissue is a complex process involving an initial mild adhesive interaction with the venular endothelium, termed rolling, which allows neutrophils to remain in close apposition to the endothelial cells and to sample the environment for local signals of an ongoing inflammatory process.1 2 3 If the appropriate signals (stimuli) are present, the neutrophils become activated, and a strong adhesive interaction takes place. This results in neutrophil arrest and eventual emigration toward the chemotactic stimulus in the interstitium. Although there is a general consensus on the mechanisms (adhesion molecule activation/expression) involved in neutrophil-endothelial cell adhesive interactions,1 2 3 the mechanisms by which neutrophils penetrate the endothelial cell lining to gain access to the interstitium remain controversial. The barriers to neutrophil movement to the site of chemotactic (or inflammatory) stimuli in the interstitium are (1) the endothelial cells lining the ...
Cell adhesion molecules are cell surface glycoproteins, the function of which is regulated by neurons at different stages of brain development and in response to a variety of external stimuli, for example during learning.. This project will aim to identify and characterise new endogenous regulators of cell adhesion molecules and test artificial regulators of cell adhesion molecules to analyse their pharmacological potential in various disease models.Recombinant protein production, mass spectrometry, protein-protein interaction assays, various protein analysis tools, and cellular models will be used.. ...
Background: Neopetrosiamide A (NeoA) is a 28-amino acid tricyclic peptide originally isolated from a marine sponge as a tumor cell invasion inhibitor whose mechanism of action is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings: We show that NeoA reversibly inhibits tumor cell adhesion, disassembles focal adhesions in pre-attached cells, and decreases the level of beta 1 integrin subunits on the cell surface. NeoA also induces the formation of dynamic, membrane-bound protrusions on the surface of treated cells and the release of membrane-bound vesicles into the culture medium. Proteomic analysis indicates that the vesicles contain EGF and transferrin receptors as well as a number of proteins involved in adhesion and migration including: beta 1 integrin and numerous alpha integrin subunits; actin and actin-binding proteins such as cofilin, moesin and myosin 1C; and membrane modulating eps15 homology domain (EHD) proteins. Surface labeling, trafficking inhibition, and real-time imaging experiments all ...
Cadherins are transmembrane glycoproteins vital in calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion during tissue differentiation. Cadherins cluster to form foci of homophilic binding units. A key determinant to the strength of the cadherin-mediated adhesion may be by the juxtamembrane region in cadherins. This region induces clus
By Ramis-Conde, Ignacio Drasdo, Dirk; Anderson, Alexander R A; Chaplain, Mark A J ABSTRACT In this article, we show, using a mathematical multiscale model, how cell adhesion may be regulated by interactions between E-cadherin and beta-catenin and how the control of cell adhesion may be related to cell migration, to the epithelial- mesenchymal transition and to invasion in populations of eukaryotic cells. E-cadherin mediates cell-cell adhesion and plays a critical role in the formation and maintenance of junctional contacts between cells. Loss of E-cadherin-mediated adhesion is a key feature of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. beta-catenin is an intracellular protein associated with the actin cytoskeleton of a cell. E- cadherins bind to beta-catenin to form a complex which can interact both with neighboring cells to form bonds, and with the cytoskeleton of the cell. When cells detach from one another, beta-catenin is released into the cytoplasm, targeted for degradation, and downregulated. ...
Cell adhesion molecules are a subset of cell adhesion proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix in the process called cell adhesion. In essence, cell adhesion molecules help cells stick to each other and to their surroundings. Cell adhesion is a crucial component in maintaining tissue structure and function. Discover the latest research on adhesion molecule and their role in health and disease here. ...
The RGD peptide is the binding motif of fibronectin to cell adhesion molecules. RGD peptide acts as an inhibitor of integrin-ligand interactions and can induce apoptosis in the absence of signals and integrin-mediated cell clustering. Research demonstrates that RGD peptides promote apoptosis through activation of conformation changes that enhance pro-caspase-3 activation and autoprocessing. The RGD peptide can serve as a cell adhesion site of extracellular matrix, cell surface proteins, and integrins. In addition, RGD peptide can inhibit ACK-2 activation through cell adhesion. ...
A foam substrate-attached adhesive sheet or tape comprising a substrate having formed thereon a layer of a pressure-sensitive adhesive, wherein the substrate is a foam elastomer having a breaking elongation of at least 800% and an apparent 800% modulus of from 1.0 to 15 kg/cm2 in a tensile test of 23 C., and a breaking elongation of at least 400% and an apparent 400% modulus of from 2.0 to 60 kg/cm2 in a tensile test of -30 C.
Clone REA697 recognizes the rat CD146 (LSEC) antigen, also known as Gicerin, MCAM, MUC18, or MEL-CAM. CD146 is a putative cell adhesion molecule of an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily which shows homophilic and heterophilic binding activities with two isoforms: S-gicerin, which has small cytoplasmic domain and the same extracellular domain as l-gicerin, shows stronger cell adhesion activity. CD146 is expressed on endothelial cells and a variety of tumor cells and is involved in cell adhesion and in cohesion of the endothelial monolayer at intercellular junctions in vascular tissue. In rat, neurite promotion activity of CD146 from hippocampal neurons is reported. Additional information: Clone REA697 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Belgique
1166 Tumor cell metastasis is a complex, multi-step process that is a major cause of morbidity and death amongst cancer patients. Cell adhesion plays a critical role in the development of metastatic cancer, and it is mediated by interactions between receptors on the cell surface and ligands of the extracellular matrix or other surfaces. Therefore, inhibition of the cell adhesion process appears to be an effective method of preventing metastasis. To prevent cell adhesion, we developed genetically engineered polypeptides with the potential to inhibit metastases. We have found that the cell penetrating peptides (CPP) Tat or penetratin (Pen), fused with elastin-like polypeptide (CPP-ELP) inhibited adhesion, spreading, invasion and migration of SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells, SK-MEL-2 melanoma cells, and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in cell culture. Furthermore, we have also confirmed that Tat-ELP has anti-metastatic potential in an experimental ovarian cancer metastasis model in vivo. Therefore, ...
Organic coatings adhere better to polyester film base if the film base is first subjected to electron-beam irradiation while passing through an inert atmosphere such as nitrogen.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adhesion induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene expression in ovarian cancer cells. AU - Yan, Chunhong. AU - Tian, Fang. AU - Xiao, Fengjun. AU - Li, Keqin. AU - Li, Chunhai. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: This work was conducted to investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP 9) gene in cancer cells by fibronectin adhesion and the underlying mechanism of cell invasion. METHODS: Following adhesion of ovarian cancer cells A2780 to fibronectin, mRNA expression of MMP cells were assayed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). MMP9 promoter was cloned from genomic DNA of HT1080 cells with PCR. The MMP-9-pGL2 reporter gene vector was constructed and then transiently transfected into A2780 cells. RESULTS: Adhesion induced the increase of cellular MMP9 mRNA content in A2780 cells, not affecting the expression of MMP2 or TIMP-1 gene. The stimulation was enhanced with the increase adhesion time. When the transfected cells were allowed ...
mTOR is a central controller for cell growth/proliferation and survival. Recent studies have shown that mTOR also regulates cell adhesion, yet the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we found that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin reduced the basal or type I insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)-stimulated adhesion of cancer cells. Further research revealed that both mTORC1 and mTORC2 were involved in the regulation of cell adhesion, as silencing expression of raptor or rictor inhibited cell adhesion.
This gene is a type II classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily and one of three cadherin 7-like genes located in a cluster on chromosome 18. The encoded membrane protein is a calcium dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein comprised of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a transmembrane region and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail. Type II (atypical) cadherins are defined based on their lack of a HAV cell adhesion recognition sequence specific to type I cadherins. Since disturbance of intracellular adhesion is a prerequisite for invasion and metastasis of tumor cells, cadherins are considered prime candidates for tumor suppressor genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene is a type II classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily and one of three cadherin 7-like genes located in a cluster on chromosome 18. The encoded membrane protein is a calcium dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein comprised of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a transmembrane region and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail. Type II (atypical) cadherins are defined based on their lack of a HAV cell adhesion recognition sequence specific to type I cadherins. Since disturbance of intracellular adhesion is a prerequisite for invasion and metastasis of tumor cells, cadherins are considered prime candidates for tumor suppressor genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Altogether 56 zirkonia discs (Z-CAD, Metoxit, Swizerland) were fabricated for the study. Half of the discs were provided with a sol-gel derived TiO2 coating (MetAlive™, ID Creations, Turku, Finland). The rest of the discs were non-coated and formed the control group. The cell adhesion was tested by cultivating epithelial cells (20 000/cm2) on the experimental discs for 1, 3, 6 and 24 hours, after which the fluorescence of the samples was measured (Biotek synergy HT). The amount of cells was detected by comparing the fluorescence value to the standard curve. In addition, the proliferation was studied by growing epithelial cells (25 000/cm2) for 1, 3 and 7 days. The number of cells was calculated by defining the absorbance of the samples (Multiskan EX, Themo Labsystems), followed by a comparison with the standard curve. Finally, the samples were processed for light microscopy ...
My research efforts have concentrated on delineating the molecular basis of vascular development in the mammalian embryo as an approach to understanding the etiology of congenital heart diseases. My laborotory efforts are based on the hypothesis that the developing vasculature provides important patterning information that directs subsequent cardiac and pulmonary morphogenetic events. We have focused our investigation on two areas: 1) the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules, particularly PECAM-1 in regulating vascular ontogeny and 2) the role of NFATc-1, in specification of endocardial development during early organogenesis. PECAM-1/CD31 is the earliest endothelial specific adhesion molecule expressed in the developing embryo. In addition, it is expressed as multiple alternatively spliced isoforms which demonstrate dramatically different adhesion profiles. We are using in vitro cell culture, in situ whole mouse embryo culture, and transgenic approaches to define the specific role of PECAM-1
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of a radiolabeled small molecule targeting leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 expression in lymphoma and leukemia. AU - Poria, Rahul B.. AU - Norenberg, Jeffrey P.. AU - Anderson, Tamara L.. AU - Erion, Jack. AU - Wagner, Carston R.. AU - Arterburn, Jeffrey B.. AU - Larson, Richard S.. PY - 2006/11/20. Y1 - 2006/11/20. N2 - Objective: Leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) is constitutively expressed on leukocytes, including overexpression on lymphomas and leukemias. We have developed a derivative of BIRT 377, an allosteric inhibitor of LFA-1, which may be chemically tagged without affecting binding. In this study, we modified this derivative, (R)-1-(4-aminobutyl)-5-(4-bromobenzyl) -3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (butylamino-NorBIRT), and demonstrated its potential as a noninvasive imaging agent. Methods: Specific binding of fluorescein-labeled butylamino-NorBIRT to both human and murine cells was demonstrated using ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ras farnesylation inhibitor FTI-277 restores the E-cadherin/catenin cell adhesion system in human cancer cells and reduces cancer metastasis. AU - Nam, Jeong Seok. AU - Ino, Yoshinori. AU - Sakamoto, Michiie. AU - Hirohashi, Setsuo. PY - 2002/9/1. Y1 - 2002/9/1. N2 - The E-cadherin/catenin cell adhesion system is often down-regulated in epithelial tumors. This is thought to play an important role in cancer invasion and metastasis, and restoration of this system may suppress metastatic spread of cancer. In this study, the effects of a Ras farnesylation inhibitor (FTI-277) on E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and metastatic potential were examined. In cell aggregation assays, FTI-277 stimulated aggregation of colon, liver and breast cancer cells. In vitro cultures of cancer cells showed that FTI-277 induced strong cell-cell contact. Immunoblotting analysis showed that FTI-277 increased E-cadherin/catenin (α, β and γ) expression and strongly stabilized E-cadherin/catenin ...
The distribution of two integrins, the fibronectin receptor and the vitronectin receptor, has been explored in an endothelium-derived cell line plated onto various substrata. On a fibronectin substratum, in the presence of serum, these cells develop focal contacts that contain the fibronectin receptor, whereas the vitronectin receptor is diffusely distributed over the cell surface. Conversely, cells plated onto vitronectin-coated coverslips concentrate only the vitronectin receptor within focal contacts. The accumulation of the vitronectin receptor within focal contacts also occurs when the cells are plated on uncoated coverslips but in the presence of serum. Therefore, we conclude that under normal culture conditions (i.e. in serum-containing media), the vitronectin receptor is the predominant form of integrin involved in substratum adhesion. This conclusion is supported by experiments in which cells were cultured on fibronectin-coated coverslips in the presence of serum. Initially these cells ...
Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) is a treatment option for patients with resistant arterial hypertension, but in some patients it is not successful. Predictive parameters on the success of RSD remain unknown. The angiogenic factors soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are known to be associated with endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling, and hypertension. We evaluated whether sFLT-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 are predictive markers for blood pressure reduction after RSD. Consecutive patients (n=55) undergoing renal denervation were included. Venous serum samples for measurement of sFlt-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were collected before and 6 months after RSD. A therapeutic response was defined as an office systolic blood pressure reduction of ,10 mm Hg 6 months after RSD. A significant mean office systolic blood pressure reduction of 31.2 mm Hg was observed in 46 patients 6 months after RSD. Nine ...
An altered expression of the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is associated with cancer progression in various cancer types. In some cancers ALCAM has a prognostic value or is predictive for the benefit of therapeutic interventions. To date there are no data on the role of ALCAM in cervical cancer available. In this study, ALCAM expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissue samples of 233 patients with cervical cancer, among them 178 with complete follow-up information. In addition, soluble (s-)ALCAM was measured in sera of a subset of the included patients (n = 55) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ALCAM overexpression was detected (immunoreactive score (IRS) 2-12) in 58.4% of the cervical cancer samples. The normal ectocervical or endocervical epithelium showed no ALCAM reactivity. In untreated patients, ALCAM overexpression in tumor tissue tended to be associated with shorter cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Patients,
Focal adhesion assembly and disassembly are essential for cell migration and cancer invasion, but the detailed molecular mechanisms regulating these processes remain to be elucidated. Phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase type Iγ (PIPKIγ) binds talin and is required for focal adhesion formation in EGF-stimulated cells, but its role in regulating focal adhesion dynamics and cancer invasion is poorly understood. We show here that overexpression of PIPKIγ promoted focal adhesion formation, whereas cells expressing either PIPKIγK188,200R or PIPKIγD316K, two kinase-dead mutants, had much fewer focal adhesions than those expressing WT PIPKIγ in CHO-K1 cells and HCT116 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, overexpression of PIPKIγ, but not PIPKIγK188,200R, resulted in an increase in both focal adhesion assembly and disassembly rates. Depletion of PIPKIγ by using shRNA strongly inhibited formation of focal adhesions in HCT116 cells. Overexpression of PIPKIγK188,200R or depletion of PIPKIγ reduced the
BACKGROUND: To better understand the mechanisms of eosinophil recruitment into the upper airways, we examined human nasal polyps for the expression of the chemotactic cytokine RANTES and the endothelial adhesion molecules E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1).. METHODS: Routine histologic examination and immunostaining with antibodies to RANTES, E-selectin, and VCAM-1 were performed on three types of tissues: nasal polyps, sinus mucosa, or turbinates from patients undergoing other elective procedures (S/T), and nasal biopsy specimens from nonallergic volunteers (NA). To further quantify the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules, some tissue samples were homogenized, and the resulting supernatants were assayed with sandwich ELISAs for VCAM-1 and E-selectin.. RESULTS: Polyp eosinophil counts ranged from 19/mm2 to 1818/mm2 (763 +/- 120/mm2, mean +/- SEM) and were significantly higher than those found in the control tissues (5 +/- 2 in S/T samples and 20 +/- 9 in NA ...
The present study demonstrates the modulated expression of the adhesion molecule E-selectin via angiotensin II in human coronary endothelial cells. Evidence for this pathway was obtained from measurements of increased antigen expression at the protein level as well as from increased mRNA content. Functionally, the angiotensin II-induced expression of E-selectin leads to an increase of HL-60 cell adhesion, as demonstrated under near-physiological flow conditions. The effects of angiotensin II on E-selectin expression appear to be mediated by an AT1 (angiotensin II) receptor, since the AT1-receptor antagonist DUP 753 but not the AT2-receptor antagonist PD 123177 suppressed E-selectin-dependent adhesion. These observations indicate a link between the renin-angiotensin system and the expression of E-selectin, which is thought to play a crucial role in the processes of inflammation and atherosclerosis.1 26 27 Adhesion molecule expression on endothelial cells after stimulation with angiotensin II was ...

Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 legal definition of Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 legal definition of Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1

What is Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1? Meaning of Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 as a legal ... What does Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 mean in law? ... Definition of Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and ... Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 legal definition of Leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 https://legal ...
more infohttps://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Leukocyte-endothelial+cell+adhesion+molecule+1

ALCAM elisa kit | Cavy Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule ELISA Kit-AAB59499.1ALCAM elisa kit | Cavy Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule ELISA Kit-AAB59499.1

Cavy Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule ELISA Kit-AAB59499.1 (MBS046317) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) Pathway Diagram. Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) Pathway antibodies. Cell Adhesion Molecules ( ... Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM), ELISA Kit. Also Known As Cavy Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule ... Cell adhesion. Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 3q13.1. Cellular Component: focal adhesion; cell soma; axon; integral to ...
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Recombinant Human Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule(PECAM1),partial - CusabioRecombinant Human Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule(PECAM1),partial - Cusabio

Purchase Recombinant Human Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule(PECAM1),partial. It is produced in Yeast. High purity. ... Recombinant Human Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule(PECAM1),partial. Recombinant Human Platelet endothelial cell ... Cell adhesion molecule which is required for leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) under most inflammatory conditions. ... Cell membrane, Single-pass type I membrane protein, Note=Cell surface expression on neutrophils is down-regulated upon fMLP or ...
more infohttps://www.cusabio.com/Recombinant-Protein/Recombinant-Human-Platelet-endothelial-cell-adhesion-molecule-PECAM1-partial-12760318.html

Ceacam12 (untagged) - Mouse carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 12 (Ceacam12), transcript variant 1, (10ug)...Ceacam12 (untagged) - Mouse carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 12 (Ceacam12), transcript variant 1, (10ug)...

Mouse carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 12 (Ceacam12), transcript variant 1, (10ug), 10 µg. ... Home » cDNA » Mouse cDNA » Ceacam12 (untagged) - Mouse carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 12 (Ceacam12), ... MC210519 Ceacam12 (untagged) - Mouse carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 12 (Ceacam12), transcript variant ... Properties for Ceacam12 (untagged) - Mouse carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 12 (Ceacam12), transcript ...
more infohttps://www.acris-antibodies.com/cdna/mouse-cdna/ceacam12-untagged-mouse-carcinoembryonic-antigen-related-cell-adhesion-molecule-12-ceacam12-transcript-variant-1-10ug-mc210519.htm

Studies in the expression and modulation of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1)  - UCL DiscoveryStudies in the expression and modulation of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) - UCL Discovery

Studies in the expression and modulation of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1). Doctoral thesis , UCL ( ... Introduction: The endothelial mucosal cell adhesion molecule (MAdCAM-1) is considered to be critically important in recruiting ... Studies in the expression and modulation of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) ... Studies in the expression and modulation of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1). ...
more infohttp://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1332882/

Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) - biological impact on vascular endothelial cells [Abstract]  -ORCAActivated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) - biological impact on vascular endothelial cells [Abstract] -ORCA

Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) - biological impact on vascular endothelial cells [Abstract]. Wound Repair ... Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) - biological impact on vascular endothelial cells [Abstract] ... Our purpose was assess the impact of Activated Leucocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) on Human Vascular Endothelial Cells ( ... the following cell sublines were created; a control (HECVpEF) endothelial cell line and a ALCAM-knockdown (HECVALCAM/KD) cell ...
more infohttp://orca-mwe.cf.ac.uk/18941/

The genetically modified polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule-positive cells for potential treatment of X...The genetically modified polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule-positive cells for potential treatment of X...

... form of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-positive cells and promotes cell proliferation and favors oligodendrocyte lineage ... form of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-positive cells and promotes cell proliferation and favors oligodendrocyte lineage ... form of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-positive cells and promotes cell proliferation and favors oligodendrocyte lineage ... form of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-positive cells and promotes cell proliferation and favors oligodendrocyte lineage ...
more infohttps://yonsei.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/the-genetically-modified-polysialylated-form-of-neural-cell-adhes

OriGene - ALCAM (NM 001627) cDNA CloneOriGene - ALCAM (NM 001627) cDNA Clone

Human activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company. ... This protein binds to T-cell differentiation antigene CD6, and is implicated in the processes of cell adhesion and migration. ... Lenti ORF clone of Alcam (mGFP-tagged ORF) - Rat activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (Alcam), (10 ug). $990. 7 weeks. ... Lenti ORF clone of Alcam (mGFP-tagged ORF) - Rat activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (Alcam), (10 ug). $990. 7 weeks. ...
more infohttp://www.origene.com/human_cdna/NM_001627/SC316550.aspx

Neuronal Cell Adhesion | SpringerLinkNeuronal Cell Adhesion | SpringerLink

Investigations in a variety of systems have shown that dissociated single cells will, under appropriate conditions, aggregate ... Glaser L., Merrell R., Gottlieb D.I., Littman D., Pulliam M.W., Bradshaw R.A. (1976) Neuronal Cell Adhesion. In: Bradshaw R.A ... This simple view is probably an oversimplification, because not only do cells migrate to be adjacent to homologous cells, but ... The simplest explanation for this observation is that cells have a preferential or higher affinity for homologous cells, and if ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-2772-1_9

Cell adhesion - WikipediaCell adhesion - Wikipedia

Dysfunction of cell adhesion occurs during cancer metastasis. Loss of cell-cell adhesion in metastatic tumour cells allows them ... Cell adhesion is the process by which cells interact and attach to neighbouring cells through specialised molecules of the cell ... Cell-cell junctionsEdit. Cell-cell junctions can occur in different forms. In anchoring junctions between cells such as ... Overview diagram of different types of cell junctions present in epithelial cells, including cell-cell junctions and cell- ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_adhesion

Cell adhesion molecule definition | Drugs.comCell adhesion molecule definition | Drugs.com

Definition of cell adhesion molecule. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... cell adhesion molecule. Definition: proteins that hold cells together, uvomorulin, and hold them to their substrates, laminin. ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/cell-adhesion-molecule.html

cell adhesion on coated coatedcell adhesion on coated coated

Hello I´m about to start some studies on cell adhesion on surfaces coated with different substances such as cell culture flasks ... cell adhesion on coated coated. Sofie Ludwig Sofie.Ludwig at gmx.de Thu Nov 9 04:49:07 EST 2000 *Previous message: Newest ... Does anyone has any ideas how I can test the stickiness (adherence forces) of the cells. Thanks Sofie *Previous message: Newest ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/cellbiol/2000-November/013234.html

Zbrafish] cell adhesion molecules zebrafishZbrafish] cell adhesion molecules zebrafish

... cell adhesion molecules zebrafish , , Dear all, , , I am trying to do a whole mount immunostaining for beta-catenin. , The ... Zbrafish] cell adhesion molecules zebrafish. Burdine, Rebecca D via zbrafish%40net.bio.net (by rburdine from princeton.edu). ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/zbrafish/2010-March/006842.html

Cell adhesion assays | SpringerLinkCell adhesion assays | SpringerLink

... the promotion of cell migration, and the transduction of information about the cell microenvironment across the... ... Cell adhesion makes an important contribution to the maintenance of tissue structure, ... Cell adhesion makes an important contribution to the maintenance of tissue structure, the promotion of cell migration, and the ... This article will outline in detail two standard assays used for quantitating the adhesion of cells to an immobilized substrate ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1385%2FMB%3A18%3A1%3A57

Cell Adhesion on Surface-Functionalized Magnesium.  - PubMed - NCBICell Adhesion on Surface-Functionalized Magnesium. - PubMed - NCBI

Cell Adhesion on Surface-Functionalized Magnesium.. Wagener V1, Schilling A2, Mainka A2, Hennig D1, Gerum R2, Kelch ML1, Keim S ... These coatings also showed improved cell adhesion and spreading after 24 h of culture comparable to tissue-treated plastic ... Endothelial cells (DH1+/+) and osteosarcoma cells (MG63) were cultured on coated samples for up to 20 days. To quantify Mg ... On AV-coated cp Mg, a confluent layer of endothelial cells formed after 5 days and remained intact for up to 20 days. Together ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27089250

Cell adhesion - WikipediaCell adhesion - Wikipedia

... β-catenin plays a role in cell-cell adhesion by controlling cadherin-mediated cell adhesion at the plasma membrane. Cell-matrix ... Defects in cell adhesion are usually attributable to defects in expression of adhesion molecules. Cell junctions allow cells to ... Dysfunction of cell-adhesion and cell-migration occurs during cancer metastasis. Cellular adhesion and traction can allow cells ... resulting in loss of cell adhesion. Cell adhesion forces of mammalian cells could specifically be measured down to the single ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_adhesion

Cell Adhesion Signaling and Its Impact on TumorigenesisCell Adhesion Signaling and Its Impact on Tumorigenesis

... Guest Editors: Claudia D. Andl, Ala-Eddin Al Moustafa, Therese B. ... Cell Adhesion Signaling and Its Impact on Tumorigenesis, Claudia D. Andl, Ala-Eddin Al Moustafa, Therese B. Deramaudt, and ... The Misregulation of Cell Adhesion Components during Tumorigenesis: Overview and Commentary, Claudia D. Andl Volume 2010 (2010 ... How Do Cells Make Decisions: Engineering Micro- and Nanoenvironments for Cell Migration, Siti Hawa Ngalim, Astrid Magenau, ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jo/si/545329/

Cadherin Types and Role in Cell-Cell AdhesionCadherin Types and Role in Cell-Cell Adhesion

Cadherins are Ca2+ dependent cell-cell adhesion molecules that mediate adhesion between cells and tissues in organisms. They ... Cadherins are Ca2+ dependent cell-cell adhesion molecules that mediate adhesion between cells and tissues in organisms. They ... The non-clustered group have functions in early development, axon growth and patterning, synapses, cell-cell adhesion, and cell ... www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Cadherin-Types-and-Role-in-Cell-Cell-Adhesion.aspx. (accessed September 22, 2019). ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Cadherin-Types-and-Role-in-Cell-Cell-Adhesion.aspx

Single Cell Adhesion Assay Using Computer Controlled MicropipetteSingle Cell Adhesion Assay Using Computer Controlled Micropipette

To gain statistically reliable information of cell adhesion, large numbers of cells should be measured. However, direct ... The adhesion force of surface attached cells could be accurately probed by repeating the pick-up process with increasing vacuum ... We blocked nonspecific cell adhesion by the protein non-adhesive PLL-g-PEG polymer. We found that human primary monocytes are ... measurement of the adhesion force of single cells is still challenging and todays techniques typically have an extremely low ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0111450

Metastasis and cell adhesion poster | AbcamMetastasis and cell adhesion poster | Abcam

Cell Biology. Epigenetics. Metabolism. Developmental Biology. By research area. Immunology. Microbiology. Neuroscience. Signal ... Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and biochemical assays. By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. ... The tumor cell will release gelatinase enzymes such as MMP-2 and MMP-9 that will degrade the basement membrane and allow ... This is a multi-step process which begins with tumor cell invasion through the extracellular matrix into the bloodstream. In ...
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Opioid-binding protein/cell adhesion molecule (Q14982) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIOpioid-binding protein/cell adhesion molecule (Q14982) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
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Cell adhesion molecule - WikipediaCell adhesion molecule - Wikipedia

... in the process called cell adhesion. In essence, cell adhesion molecules help cells stick to each other and to their ... Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the ... In general, Mn2+ increases affinity, Mg2+ promotes adhesion to cells, and Ca2+ decreases cell adhesion. Integrins regulate ... Molecular and cellular biology portal Cell membrane Cell migration Immunological synapse Trogocytosis Cell Adhesion Molecules ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_adhesion_molecule

Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Inhibitor  | GreenMedInfoVascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Inhibitor | GreenMedInfo

Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants, Enzyme Inhibitors, Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), Vascular Cell Adhesion ... 32 Abstracts with Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Inhibitor Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Pharmacological Actions : Neuroprotective Agents, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Inhibitor Additional Keywords : Blood Brain ... The hypotensive and anti-inflammatory effect of soy nut consumption may be due to a reduction in solube vascular cell adhesion ...
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Medical Xpress - cell adhesionMedical Xpress - cell adhesion

Boosting sarcoma cell death. Ewing sarcomas - rare, aggressive childhood cancers - are derived from mesenchymal cells in bone ... For more than a century, neuroscientists have known that nerve cells talk to one another across the small gaps between them, a ... Engineers show key feature for modeling how cells spread in fibrous environments. One area of research within mechanobiology, ... Researchers at Mayo Clinic have identified an interaction among proteins that allows cancer cells to grow and metastasize. They ...
more infohttps://medicalxpress.com/tags/cell+adhesion/

Cell-adhesion sensing of the extracellular matrix | Benny GeigersCell-adhesion sensing of the extracellular matrix | Benny Geiger's

Cell-adhesion sensing of the extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix (ECM) to which cells attach, contains multiple ... Projected cell adhesion area per cell adhering to different ligand (dot) separation. (Adapted from Arnold et al., 2004). ... it was demonstrated that cells also respond to the spacing of adhesion ligands. A spacing of ~50 nm or less is needed to induce ... Geblinger, D; Addadi, L; Geiger, B (2010). Nano-topography sensing by osteoclasts. Journal of Cell Science. 123 (9):1503-1510. ...
more infohttps://www.weizmann.ac.il/mcb/Geiger/scientific-activities/cell-adhesion-sensing-extracellular-matrix
  • This cadherin is present in vascular and lymphatic endothelial cell, thus giving its name. (news-medical.net)
  • Defects in this adhesion are associated with tumor angiogenesis and vascular tumors. (news-medical.net)
  • The cell adhesion stimulating protein can be a structural protein or a polypeptide growth factor, such as vascular endothelial growth factor. (google.co.uk)
  • 7. The medical article of claim 1 wherein the cell adhesion stimulating protein comprises vascular endothelial growth factor. (google.co.uk)
  • Thus, during early stages of vascular inflammation, low shear stress typically seen at atherosclerosis-prone regions promotes the induction of endothelial CX3CL1 and monocytic cell recruitment, whereas physiological shear stress counteracts this inflammatory activation of endothelial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Support is requested to continue a program designed to advance understanding of molecular mechanisms of vascular disease and to promote development of new diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive strategies through the collaborative efforts of a group of experienced scientists focused oh the unifying theme of cell adhesion. (labome.org)
  • Altogether, this interdisciplinary program will enable remarkable synergies amongst a group of accomplished investigators who will test new hypotheses and utilize and develop cutting edge methodologies to advance understanding of cell adhesion events in vascular biology and thrombosis. (labome.org)
  • In studies conducted in collaboration with Joachim Spatz and colleagues at the University of Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (Stuttgart, Germany) it was demonstrated that cells also respond to the spacing of adhesion ligands. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Cell adhesion is mediated by certain adhesive ligands and corresponding receptors. (google.es)
  • It can further be shown that in mixed aggregates of cells prepared from different organs (for example, neural retina and liver) there occurs cell segregation such that cells originally derived from the same organ attached to each other and separate from the cells derived from a different organ. (springer.com)
  • Investigations in a variety of systems have shown that dissociated single cells will, under appropriate conditions, aggregate and, if maintained in culture, will morphologically differentiate to resemble the original organ or tissue (23, 33, 34). (springer.com)
  • Hydrogen evolution after contact with cell culture medium was markedly decreased on AV- and SA-coated Mg compared to uncoated Mg. These coatings also showed improved cell adhesion and spreading after 24 h of culture comparable to tissue-treated plastic surfaces. (nih.gov)
  • Tissue Regeneration from Mechanical Stretching of Cell-Cell Adhesion. (nih.gov)
  • While tethered, the cells receive signals instructing them to enter underlying tissue to fight pathogens or repair injuries. (innovations-report.com)
  • The surface tensions correspond to the mutual sorting behavior: the tissue type with the higher surface tension will occupy an internal position relative to a tissue with a lower surface tension (if these tissues can interact with each other through their adhesion machinery). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hello I´m about to start some studies on cell adhesion on surfaces coated with different substances such as cell culture flasks. (bio.net)
  • All three coatings have been previously suggested to reduce initial corrosion and to enhance protein adsorption and hence cell adhesion on magnesium surfaces. (nih.gov)
  • Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells. (jove.com)
  • An article published this week in the journal Nature provides the first experimental evidence for an unusual molecular bonding mechanism that could explain how certain cells adhere to surfaces such as blood vessel walls under conditions of mechanical stress. (innovations-report.com)
  • The non-clustered group have functions in early development, axon growth and patterning, synapses, cell-cell adhesion, and cell motility. (news-medical.net)
  • For more than a century, neuroscientists have known that nerve cells talk to one another across the small gaps between them, a process known as synaptic transmission (synapses are the connections between neurons). (medicalxpress.com)
  • An ability to quantitate adhesion has proven to be extremely valuable for those researchers studying the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes. (springer.com)
  • This is a multi-step process which begins with tumor cell invasion through the extracellular matrix into the bloodstream. (abcam.com)
  • The tumor cell will release gelatinase enzymes such as MMP-2 and MMP-9 that will degrade the basement membrane and allow invasion into a secondary site. (abcam.com)
  • Moreover, sALCAM was also shown to inhibit tumor progression in melanoma cells (van Kilsdonk et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Does anyone has any ideas how I can test the stickiness (adherence forces) of the cells. (bio.net)
  • Cadherins forms homophilic attachment between themselves, which results in cells of a similar type sticking together and can lead to selective cell adhesion, allowing vertebrate cells to assemble into organised tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selective cell-cell adhesion enables vertebrate cells to assemble into organised tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homophilic attachment allows selective recognition, resulting in cells of a similar type sticking together, whereas cells of a different type stay segregated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell adhesion is also essential for infectious organisms, such as bacteria or viruses, to cause diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell adhesion is also essential for the pathogenesis of infectious organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that N-CAM-deficient beta-cell tumorigenesis is associated with changes in the expression of genes involved in cell-matrix adhesion and cytoskeletal dynamics, biological processes known to affect the invasive and metastatic behaviour of tumour cells. (gu.se)
  • This interdisciplinary program will span disciplines of biochemistry, cell biology, ex-vivo and in vivo studies to assess the effects of blood flow on adhesion and signaling, and analysis of genetically-modified mice and zebrafish. (labome.org)
  • inducing the colonization and proliferation of viable cells to reduce or inhibit thrombosis by adhering a cell adhesion stimulating protein to a ceramic material, the cell adhesion stimulating protein being selected from the group consisting of VEGF, fibroblast growth factor, and combinations thereof. (google.co.uk)
  • To quantify Mg corrosion, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was measured after 1, 3, and 5 days of cell culture. (nih.gov)
  • First, an attachment assay, which employs a colorimetric detection of bound cells, and second, a spreading assay, which employs phase contrast microscopy to measure the flattening of adherent cells. (springer.com)
  • When presented to cells as a peptide-covered surface, synthetic peptides containing the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence promote cell attachment in a manner similar to that of natural fibronectin or vitronectin. (google.es)
  • Cells can form integrin-mediated attachment sites called focal adhesions, which provide the necessary mechanical force for cells to propel themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review serves the mechanobiology community by shifting the focus of mechanical stretching effects from cell-ECM adhesions to the less examined cell-cell adhesions, which we believe play an equally important role in orchestrating the response pathways. (nih.gov)
  • In multicellular organisms, bindings between CAMs allow cells to adhere to one another and creates structures called cell junctions . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell junctions allow cells to adhere to one another in multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This simple view is probably an oversimplification, because not only do cells migrate to be adjacent to homologous cells, but they also take up characteristic positions within the aggregate which cannot be explained simply by differential affinities (33). (springer.com)
  • An alternative possibility is that the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence provides essentially all of the information for the receptor binding and that it is the conformation of this sequence that gives an adhesion protein its receptor specificity. (google.es)
  • These results offer a potential mechanism for tumour cell disaggregation during N-CAM-deficient beta tumour cell progression. (gu.se)
  • The differential adhesion hypothesis (sometimes called the "thermodynamic hypothesis") is a theory of cell adhesion advanced by Malcolm Steinberg in 1964 to explain the mechanism by which heterotypic cells in mixed aggregates sort out into isotypic territories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defects in cell adhesion are usually attributable to defects in expression of CAMs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defects in E-Cadherin adhesion have been associated with several diseases, such as cancer, Listeriosis, Candidiasis, Bacteroides infection. (news-medical.net)
  • This cadherin in present in skeletal muscle and central nervous system, and the defects in this adhesion are associated with intellectual disabilities. (news-medical.net)
  • Defects in the adhesion mediated by protocadherins is associated with epilepsy and mental retardation. (news-medical.net)
  • A spacing of ~50 nm or less is needed to induce focal adhesion formation and assembly (Figure 2). (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Later in development, NCAM1 (CD56) expression is found on various differentiated tissues and is a major CAM mediating adhesion among neurons and between neurons and muscle. (wikidoc.org)
  • Mechanical stretching has been a widely used method to stimulate the mechanotransduction process originating from the cell-cell adhesion and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) complexes. (nih.gov)
  • This review explores techniques in mechanical stretching in two-dimensional settings with different stretching regimens on different cell types. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanotransduction responses from these different cell types will be discussed with an emphasis on their biophysical transformations during mechanical stretching and the cross talk between the cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion complexes. (nih.gov)
  • The simplest explanation for this observation is that cells have a preferential or higher affinity for homologous cells, and if free to move within the aggregate, will rearrange so as to be adjacent to homologous rather than hetero-logous cells. (springer.com)
  • This mechanochemical coupling in cell-cell adhesion is required for a large number of cell behaviors, and perturbations of the cell-cell adhesion structure or related mechanotransduction pathways can lead to critical pathological conditions such as skin and heart diseases, arthritis, and cancer. (nih.gov)
  • The cells interact with Au nanodot patterns with Au dot spacing of 58 nm (f) and 73 nm (g). (h) Projected cell adhesion area per cell adhering to different ligand (dot) separation. (weizmann.ac.il)