A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.
Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found in ASTROCYTES and in the LIVER.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
One of the CEPHALOSPORINS that has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Semisynthetic 1-N-ethyl derivative of SISOMYCIN, an aminoglycoside antibiotic with action similar to gentamicin, but less ear and kidney toxicity.
A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.
An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces spectabilis. It is active against gram-negative bacteria and used for the treatment of gonorrhea.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.
Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.
Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members contain triterpenoid saponins.
Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)

Efficacy of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone in treatment of experimental endocarditis due to Enterococcus faecalis strains highly resistant to aminoglycosides. (1/797)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the in vitro possibilities of ampicillin-ceftriaxone combinations for 10 Enterococcus faecalis strains with high-level resistance to aminoglycosides (HLRAg) and to assess the efficacy of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone, both administered with humanlike pharmacokinetics, for the treatment of experimental endocarditis due to HLRAg E. faecalis. A reduction of 1 to 4 dilutions in MICs of ampicillin was obtained when ampicillin was combined with a fixed subinhibitory ceftriaxone concentration of 4 micrograms/ml. This potentiating effect was also observed by the double disk method with all 10 strains. Time-kill studies performed with 1 and 2 micrograms of ampicillin alone per ml or in combination with 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 micrograms of ceftriaxone per ml showed a > or = 2 log10 reduction in CFU per milliliter with respect to ampicillin alone and to the initial inoculum for all 10 E. faecalis strains studied. This effect was obtained for seven strains with the combination of 2 micrograms of ampicillin per ml plus 10 micrograms of ceftriaxone per ml and for six strains with 5 micrograms of ceftriaxone per ml. Animals with catheter-induced endocarditis were infected intravenously with 10(8) CFU of E. faecalis V48 or 10(5) CFU of E. faecalis V45 and were treated for 3 days with humanlike pharmacokinetics of 2 g of ampicillin every 4 h, alone or combined with 2 g of ceftriaxone every 12 h. The levels in serum and the pharmacokinetic parameters of the humanlike pharmacokinetics of ampicillin or ceftriaxone in rabbits were similar to those found in humans treated with 2 g of ampicillin or ceftriaxone intravenously. Results of the therapy for experimental endocarditis caused by E. faecalis V48 or V45 showed that the residual bacterial titers in aortic valve vegetations were significantly lower in the animals treated with the combinations of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone than in those treated with ampicillin alone (P < 0.001). The combination of ampicillin and ceftriaxone showed in vitro and in vivo synergism against HLRAg E. faecalis.  (+info)

Use of an oxacillin disk screening test for detection of penicillin- and ceftriaxone-resistant pneumococci. (2/797)

In a context of worldwide emergence of resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae strains, early detection of strains with decreased susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics is important for clinicians. If the 1-microgram oxacillin disk diffusion test is used as described by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, no interpretation is available for strains showing zone sizes of /=2.0 microgram/ml) to penicillin. For ceftriaxone, among 98 strains with no zone of inhibition in response to oxacillin, 68 had intermediate resistance (MIC, 1.0 microgram/ml), and 22 were resistant (MIC, >/=2.0 microgram/ml). To optimize the use of the disk diffusion method, we propose that the absence of a zone of inhibition around the 1-microgram oxacillin disk be regarded as an indicator of nonsusceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone and recommend that such strains be reported as nonsusceptible to these antimicrobial agents, pending the results of a MIC quantitation method.  (+info)

Comparison of peritoneal fluid culture results from adults and children undergoing CAPD. (3/797)

BACKGROUND: Peritonitis is a common complication in patients with end-stage renal disease treated by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Empirical treatment is based on the organisms that are most frequently isolated and their susceptibilities. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and then compare peritoneal fluid culture results from adult and pediatric patients on CAPD, with respect to micro-organisms and antimicrobial susceptibilities. DESIGN: Three-year retrospective review of peritoneal fluid cultures from adults and children on CAPD. RESULTS: We isolated 481 organisms from 378 peritoneal fluid specimens, collected from 135 patients (45 children, 90 adults). There were 191 episodes of peritonitis in children (mean 4.2+/-3.5, range 1 - 15) compared to 187 in adults (2.1+/-1.9, range 1 - 10) (p< 0.001). Two or more episodes occurred in 30 of 45 children (67%) compared to 33 of 90 adults (37%) (p < 0.001).The number of different organisms/patient as well as the total number of isolates/patient were significantly greater in children (respectively, 2.8+/-2.3, range 1 - 12; and 5.3+/-5.2, range 1 - 27) than in adults (2.0+/-1.3, range 1 - 6; and 2.7+/-2.4, range 1 - 10) (p< 0.005). After Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus was the most frequently isolated organism, occurring in 18% of episodes in adults and 12% of episodes in children (p< 0.01). Twenty-two of 33 fungal isolates (67%) in children were Candida parapsilosis compared to 3 of 24 (12%) in adults (p < 0.001). Subanalysis of multiple episodes revealed that Pseudomonas and Candida occurred significantly more often in children (p< 0.01), whereas S. aureus occurred more often in adults (p< 0.001). In polymicrobial episodes S. epidermidis occurred more often in adults (p < 0.05). Significant differences in susceptibilities to ampicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin were found between children and adults (p< 0.05 - 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CAPD-associated peritonitis occurs significantly more often in children than adults. Significant differences in microbial etiology and susceptibilities were found between pediatric and adult patients. Each dialysis unit should periodically analyze peritoneal fluid culture results from its CAPD patients. These data can then be used for optimization of empirical antimicrobial therapy of peritonitis.  (+info)

Short-course ceftriaxone therapy in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. (4/797)

Forty patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, three of whom had complicating acute hepatitis syndrome, eight late-onset hepatic failure, and 29 with cirrhosis, were treated with ceftriaxone 2 g intravenously once daily for 5 days. Ascitic fluid culture was positive in 28 patients, with Escherichia coli and Klebsiella as common isolates. All the bacteria isolated were sensitive to ceftriaxone except Enterococcus faecalis, which was isolated in a cirrhotic patient. All culture-positive patients sensitive to ceftriaxone showed bacteriological cure and 26 (65%) patients showed cytological cure after 48 hours of treatment. A total of 95% were cured of their infection after 5 days of treatment. Twelve (30%) patients died during hospitalisation after documented cure of their spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (renal failure, gastrointestinal bleed and cerebral oedema were the primary causes of death). Infection-related mortality due to Pseudomonas septicaemia was seen in one cirrhotic patient.  (+info)

Rifampin reduces early mortality in experimental Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. (5/797)

Compared with beta-lactam antibiotics, rifampin releases smaller quantities of proinflammatory cell wall products from Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro. Mice infected intracerebrally with S. pneumoniae were treated subcutaneously with 2-mg doses of rifampin or ceftriaxone (n=43 each) every 12 h for 3 days and then observed for another 3 days. Rifampin reduced overall mortality from 49% to 26% (P=.04). Kaplan-Meyer analysis revealed a substantial reduction of mortality during the first 24 h in mice receiving rifampin (difference in survival time: P=.007). Eight h after receiving a single 2-mg dose of rifampin or ceftriaxone, rifampin-treated mice had lower serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of lipoteichoic and teichoic acids than did ceftriaxone-treated mice (median serum level: <0.5 vs. 27.0 ng/mL, P=.02; median cerebrospinal fluid level of pooled specimens: 97.5 vs. 206.0 ng/mL). Thus, the use of rifampin appears promising for reducing the release of proinflammatory bacterial components and decreasing early mortality in bacterial meningitis.  (+info)

Once daily ceftriaxone and gentamicin for the treatment of febrile neutropenia. (6/797)

AIMS: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of once daily (OD) gentamicin and its effectiveness as part of an OD regimen for the empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia in children with cancer. SUBJECTS: 59 children aged 6 months to 16 years (mean (SD) 5.7 (4) years) with febrile neutropenia (neutrophil count < 0.5 x 10(9)/l) after chemotherapy. METHODS: Over one year, 113 febrile neutropenic episodes were treated empirically with an OD antibiotic regimen of ceftriaxone (80 mg/kg; maximum 4 g) and gentamicin (7 mg/kg; infused over 60 minutes, no maximum). The patients were assessed after 48 hours. RESULTS: 86 of the 113 episodes settled with the first line antibiotic regimen. In 29 episodes, blood cultures identified a causative bacterial pathogen; for 17 of these, the first line antibiotic regimen was adequate; in four episodes, although the episode settled, ceftriaxone was replaced by a more appropriate antibiotic and OD gentamicin was continued; in the remaining eight episodes, a glycopeptide antibiotic was deemed necessary. There was no failure of treatment in organisms sensitive to gentamicin, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In 27 episodes (24%), resolution was obtained by the empirical introduction of a second line regimen of ceftazidime and a glycopeptide antibiotic, and/or amphotericin. Gentamicin concentrations were measured in 110 episodes and they were all below the 24 hour line indicating that there was no need to change the dosing interval. In two episodes (2%), serum creatinine rose transiently by more than 50% of the baseline concentration. Although there was no vestibular toxicity, three of 30 children who underwent pure tone audiometry reported high frequency hearing loss in one ear. CONCLUSION: OD gentamicin can be used safely and effectively to treat febrile neutropenia in children with cancer. When used for a short period (< 5 days), in children not receiving other nephrotoxic drugs and who have normal serum creatinine, serum gentamicin estimations are unnecessary.  (+info)

Efficacy of beta-lactam and inhibitor combinations in a diffusion chamber model in rabbits. (7/797)

Using a diffusion chamber in rabbits, we evaluated therapy with the combination of ceftriaxone plus the beta-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam in comparison with ceftriaxone alone. One sensitive and one resistant strain of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae were inoculated into one of the six diffusion chambers, implanted in the same animal. In order to simulate pharmacokinetics in humans, both substances were administered in decreasing doses. Ceftriaxone was given 0, 2, 4 and 6 h after infection in dosages of 45, 35, 25 and 15 mg/kg of body weight, while tazobactam was administered either in one dose at 0 h, or divided into two doses at 0 and 1 h or 0 and 4 h, or divided into three doses at 0, 1 and 4 h after infection. The ratio of ceftriaxone:tazobactam was fixed at 8:1. Ceftriaxone, in combination with tazobactam, given in one dose immediately after infection showed a significant reduction in bacterial count. All other combinations of ceftriaxone and tazobactam did not differ from ceftriaxone in monotherapy. Co-administration of the beta-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam significantly enhanced the activity of ceftriaxone against all three tested species.  (+info)

Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly: the role of cefepime, a fourth-generation cephalosporin. (8/797)

In a prospective, multicentre double-blind trial, 151 patients over the age of 65 years were randomly assigned to receive either cefepime 2 g every 12 h for a minimum of 3 days and up to 14 days or ceftriaxone 1 g every 12 h for a minimum of 3 days and up to 14 days. Antibiotics were maintained until 48 h after fever had resolved; no other antibiotics were permitted. The average age in each group exceeded 77 years and significant co-morbidity was found in the majority of patients. The mean total duration of therapy was 5.8+/-2.4 days for the cefepime group and 6.7+/-2.7 days for the ceftriaxone group (P = 0.06). The clinical success rate at the end of therapy was 79.1% with cefepime and 75.4% with ceftriaxone (P = 0.62). At the end of follow-up, 91.7% of the cefepime-treated patients and 86.5% of the ceftriaxone patients had a satisfactory clinical response (P = 0.38). In 35 bacteriological evaluable patients, potential pathogens were eradicated in all but one patient receiving cefepime. Seven patients in each group died during the study period but in each case the death was unrelated to study drug. The commonest side-effect was diarrhoea (cefepime, five patients; ceftriaxone, two patients). The clinical and microbiological efficacy of cefepime is similar to that of ceftriaxone in elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization. Cefepime is an appropriate choice for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections in the elderly.  (+info)

Definition: Meningitis, pneumococcal, is an inflammatory disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) that affects the protective membranes (meninges) covering the brain and spinal cord, leading to a range of symptoms including fever, headache, vomiting, and altered mental status. It can be a severe and potentially life-threatening infection, particularly in certain patient populations such as children under 5 years old, older adults, and those with underlying medical conditions.

Epidemiology: Pneumococcal meningitis is relatively uncommon, but it remains an important public health concern, particularly in developed countries. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are approximately 350 cases of pneumococcal meningitis reported each year in the United States, resulting in about 10% of all cases of bacterial meningitis.

Risk Factors: Several risk factors have been identified for developing pneumococcal meningitis, including:

1. Age: Children under 5 years old and older adults are at increased risk.
2. Underlying medical conditions: Patients with conditions such as sickle cell disease, HIV/AIDS, and chronic lung disease are more likely to develop pneumococcal meningitis.
3. Weakened immune system: Those with compromised immune systems, such as those taking immunosuppressive medications or who have undergone organ transplants, are at higher risk.
4. Recent exposure to someone with pneumococcal disease: Close contact with someone who has recently been diagnosed with pneumococcal disease can increase the risk of developing the infection.

Clinical Presentation: Symptoms of pneumococcal meningitis can vary depending on the age of the patient, but common presentations include:

1. Fever
2. Headache
3. Vomiting
4. Altered mental status (in infants and young children) or confusion (in older adults)
5. Stiff neck
6. Sensitivity to light (photophobia)
7. Bulging of the soft spots on the skull in infants (in infants)

Diagnosis: The diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood cultures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the presence of S. pneumoniae. Imaging studies, such as CT or MRI scans, may be used to evaluate the brain and identify any signs of inflammation or abscesses.

Treatment: Pneumococcal meningitis is typically treated with antibiotics, which are usually given intravenously. The choice of antibiotic depends on the severity of the infection and the patient's age and medical history. In addition to antibiotics, supportive care may be provided to manage symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle aches. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Complications: Pneumococcal meningitis can lead to serious complications, including:

1. Hearing loss
2. Learning disabilities
3. Behavioral changes
4. Seizures
5. Brain damage
6. Death

Prevention: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is recommended for children under the age of 2 years and for certain high-risk groups, such as adults over the age of 65 and people with certain medical conditions. The vaccine can help prevent pneumococcal meningitis and other serious infections caused by S. pneumoniae. Good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing, can also help prevent the spread of the bacteria.

Prognosis: With prompt and appropriate treatment, the prognosis for pneumococcal meningitis is generally good. However, in severe cases or those with complications, the prognosis may be poorer. In some cases, long-term sequelae such as hearing loss, learning disabilities, and behavioral changes may occur.

Incubation period: The incubation period for pneumococcal meningitis is typically between 2 and 4 days, but it can range from 1 to 10 days.

Diagnosis: Pneumococcal meningitis is diagnosed based on a combination of clinical symptoms, physical examination findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Laboratory tests may include blood cultures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and PCR testing to identify the presence of S. pneumoniae.

Treatment: Treatment for pneumococcal meningitis typically involves antibiotics and supportive care to manage symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle aches. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

In conclusion, pneumococcal meningitis is a serious infection that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to prevent long-term sequelae and improve outcomes for affected individuals.

Symptoms of gonorrhea in men include:

* A burning sensation when urinating
* Discharge from the penis
* Painful or swollen testicles
* Painful urination

Symptoms of gonorrhea in women include:

* Increased vaginal discharge
* Painful urination
* Painful intercourse
* Abnormal vaginal bleeding

Gonorrhea can be diagnosed through a physical exam and laboratory tests, such as a urine test or a swab of the affected area. It is typically treated with antibiotics.

If left untreated, gonorrhea can cause serious complications, including:

* Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women
* Epididymitis (inflammation of the tube that carries sperm) in men
* Infertility
* Chronic pain
* Increased risk of HIV transmission

Gonorrhea is a reportable disease, meaning that healthcare providers are required by law to report cases to public health authorities. This helps to track and prevent the spread of the infection.

Prevention methods for gonorrhea include:

* Safe sex practices, such as using condoms or dental dams
* Avoiding sexual contact with someone who has gonorrhea
* Getting regularly tested for STIs
* Using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention

It is important to note that gonorrhea can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms even if they have the infection. Therefore, regular testing is important for early detection and treatment.

Symptoms of meningitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, nausea and vomiting, and sensitivity to light. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures, brain damage, and even death.

There are several types of meningitis, including:

1. Viral meningitis: This is the most common form of the infection and is usually caused by enteroviruses or herpesviruses. It is typically less severe than bacterial meningitis and resolves on its own with supportive care.
2. Bacterial meningitis: This is a more serious form of the infection and can be caused by a variety of bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. It requires prompt antibiotic treatment to prevent long-term complications and death.
3. Fungal meningitis: This type of meningitis is more common in people with weakened immune systems and is caused by fungi that are commonly found in the environment. It can be treated with antifungal medications.
4. Parasitic meningitis: This type of meningitis is rare and is caused by parasites that are typically found in tropical regions. It can be treated with antiparasitic medications.

Diagnosis of meningitis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood cultures, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. Imaging studies, such as CT or MRI scans, may be used to rule out other conditions and to evaluate the extent of brain damage.

Treatment of meningitis depends on the cause of the infection and may include antibiotics, antiviral medications, antifungal medications, or supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Supportive care may include intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management. In severe cases, meningitis may require hospitalization in an intensive care unit (ICU) and may result in long-term consequences such as hearing loss, learning disabilities, or cognitive impairment.

Prevention of meningitis includes vaccination against the bacteria or viruses that can cause the infection, good hygiene practices, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. Vaccines are available for certain types of meningitis, such as the meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). Good hygiene practices include washing hands frequently, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding sharing food, drinks, or personal items.

In conclusion, meningitis is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection that can affect people of all ages. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term consequences and improve outcomes. Prevention includes vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.



Symptoms of bacterial meningitis may include sudden onset of fever, headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light. In severe cases, the infection can cause seizures, coma, and even death.

Bacterial meningitis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients with bacterial meningitis. The disease is more common in certain groups, such as infants, young children, and people with weakened immune systems, and it can be more severe in these populations.

Prevention of bacterial meningitis includes vaccination against the bacteria that most commonly cause the disease, good hand hygiene, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.

Some common examples of bacterial infections include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
2. Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Skin infections such as cellulitis and abscesses
4. Bone and joint infections such as osteomyelitis
5. Infected wounds or burns
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea
7. Food poisoning caused by bacteria such as salmonella and E. coli.

In severe cases, bacterial infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis or blood poisoning. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.

The structure of ceftriaxone mimics the D-alanyl-D-alanine moiety, and the PBP attacks the beta-lactam ring in ceftriaxone as ... Ceftriaxone should not be used in those with an allergy to ceftriaxone or any component of the formulation. Although there is ... Ceftriaxone has also been investigated for efficacy in preventing relapse to cocaine addiction. Ceftriaxone seems to increase ... Ceftriaxone is reversibly bound to human plasma proteins and the binding of ceftriaxone decreases with increasing concentration ...
as "reversible ceftriaxone-associated biliary pseudolithiasis". Biliary sludge Kirejczyk, W. M.; Crowe, H. M.; MacKay, I. M.; ... It is reversed when ceftriaxone administration is stopped. It was first described in 1988 by Schaad et al. ... Biliary pseudolithiasis is an unusual complication of ceftriaxone where the drug complexes with calcium and mimics gallstones. ... Schaad, U. B.; Wedgwood-Krucko, J; Tschaeppeler, H (1988). "Reversible ceftriaxone-associated biliary pseudolithiasis in ...
However, ceftriaxone has the advantage of once-daily dosing, whereas the shorter half-life of cefotaxime necessitates two or ... Simmons BP, Gelfand MS, Grogan J, Craft B (1995). "Cefotaxime twice daily versus ceftriaxone once daily. A randomized ... Gums JG, Boatwright DW, Camblin M, Halstead DC, Jones ME, Sanderson R (January 2008). "Differences between ceftriaxone and ... Changing patterns in microbial resistance suggest cefotaxime may be suffering greater resistance than ceftriaxone, whereas the ...
Rocephin (ceftriaxone), a broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic. Roferon A (peginterferon alfa-2a), for some hematological ...
Ceftriaxone is an antibiotic commonly employed today. Hydrocortisone can sometimes reverse the adrenal insufficiency. ...
Ceftriaxone (a third generation cephalosporin) use is a risk factor for colonization and infection by VRE, and restriction of ... "Association of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Bacteremia and Ceftriaxone Usage". Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology ...
Initially, broad-spectrum antibiotics are given, such as ceftriaxone. As culture results become available, treatment can be ...
Commonly used antibiotics include ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, among others. Opioids should be avoided for treatment ...
Intravenous administration of ceftriaxone is recommended as the first choice in these cases; cefotaxime and doxycycline are ... In case of failure, guidelines recommend retreatment with injectable ceftriaxone. Several months after treatment for Lyme ... treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for 14 days an average of 30 days after first symptoms had to be retreated 3-6 months ... "Ceftriaxone compared with doxycycline for the treatment of acute disseminated Lyme disease". New England Journal of Medicine. ...
It may also be a rare adverse effect to ceftriaxone. Hypoprothrombinemia is found to present itself as either inherited or ...
Courses of doxycycline or ceftriaxone have been reported as effective. A general resistance to amoxicillin was noted in one ...
Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, may be as effective as penicillin-based treatment. It is recommended ... If a person is allergic to penicillin, ceftriaxone may be used or penicillin desensitization attempted. Other late ... In those with neurosyphilis, intravenous benzylpenicillin or ceftriaxone is recommended. During treatment people may develop ...
Appropriate antibiotics may include ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, or ampicillin/sulbactam. As of 2005, there is ...
... ceftriaxone, or cefotaxime. One relatively small randomized controlled trial suggested ceftriaxone was more effective than ... Small observational studies suggest ceftriaxone is also effective in children. The recommended duration of treatment is 14 to ... Several studies from Europe have suggested oral doxycycline is equally as effective as intravenous ceftriaxone in treating ... "Treatment of late Lyme borreliosis-randomised comparison of ceftriaxone and penicillin". Lancet. 1 (8596): 1191-4. doi:10.1016/ ...
15 for five days of ceftriaxone). It has the great advantage of requiring only a single injection, whereas ceftriaxone is ... This recommendation may yet change, now that a single dose of ceftriaxone (cost US$3) has been shown to be equivalent to one ... Nathan, N.; Borel, T.; Djibo, A. (2005). "Ceftriaxone as effective as long-acting chloramphenicol in short-course treatment of ... "Antagonistic effect of chloramphenicol in combination with cefotaxime or ceftriaxone". Archived from the original on September ...
Initial treatment typically includes antibiotics such as vancomycin, ceftriaxone or ceftazidime. Surgery in the form of joint ... General guidelines are as follows: Gram positive cocci - vancomycin Gram negative cocci - Ceftriaxone Gram negative bacilli - ... Ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, or ceftazidime Gram stain negative and immunocompetent - vancomycin Gram stain negative and ...
As of 2016, both ceftriaxone by injection and azithromycin by mouth are most effective. However, due to increasing rates of ... Treatment is usually with ceftriaxone by injection and azithromycin by mouth. Resistance has developed to many previously used ... Ertapenem is a potential effective alternative treatment for ceftriaxone-resistant gonorrhea. Adults may have eyes infected ... and ceftriaxone for the treatment of anogenital gonorrhoea (NABOGO): a randomised, non-inferiority trial". The Lancet ...
It has also been shown to be susceptible to ampicillin & ceftriaxone. The many home remedies or natural treatments for urinary ...
It is a potential effective alternative treatment for ceftriaxone-resistant gonorrhoea. It is given as an intravenous infusion ... and ceftriaxone for the treatment of anogenital gonorrhoea (NABOGO): a randomised, non-inferiority trial". The Lancet ...
Ceftriaxone (1 g IV every 24 hours for seven days) is also effective for severe leptospirosis. Cefotaxime (1 g IV every six ... Treatment when infected is with antibiotics such as doxycycline, penicillin, or ceftriaxone. The overall risk of death is 5-10 ... Panaphut T, Domrongkitchaiporn S, Vibhagool A, Thinkamrop B, Susaengrat W (June 2003). "Ceftriaxone compared with sodium ... there is no evidence on differences in death reduction when benzylpenicillin is compared with ceftriaxone or cefotaxime. ...
Azithromycin can be taken by mouth and is less expensive than ceftriaxone, which is given by injection. A separate problem ... Otherwise, a third-generation cephalosporin such as ceftriaxone or cefotaxime is the first choice. Cefixime is a suitable oral ... Wallace MR, Yousif AA, Mahroos GA, Mapes T, Threlfall EJ, Rowe B, Hyams KC (December 1993). "Ciprofloxacin versus ceftriaxone ... Dutta P, Mitra U, Dutta S, De A, Chatterjee MK, Bhattacharya SK (June 2001). "Ceftriaxone therapy in ciprofloxacin treatment ...
... ceftriaxone, a cephalosporin antibiotic. Pfizer gave the children a substantially reduced dose of the ceftriaxone (specifically ... LEXIS 17436 at *4-7. "Application for addition of 1g form of ceftriaxone to the complementary list of the WHO model list of ... P 126.) If a child was not responding well to Trovan, Pfizer switched his or her treatment to ceftriaxone. (Compl. P 126.) ... P 3.) The other half was "purposefully 'low-dosed'" with ceftriaxone, an FDA-approved drug shown to be effective in treating ...
Oral doxycycline or IV ceftriaxone are typically recommended for 14-21 days. The disease was first reported in 1941 by German ...
In the United States it is a second-line treatment to ceftriaxone for gonorrhea. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects ... intravenous ceftriaxone". The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 13 (11): 990-994. doi:10.1097/00006454-199411000-00010. ...
antipseudomonal penicillins, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins or ceftriaxone aztreonam can be ...
Once present it is generally treated with antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin or ceftriaxone. Those with severe disease may ... it is useful to initiate treatment with a single intravenous dose of a long-acting antibiotic such as ceftriaxone or an ... it is useful to initiate treatment with a single intravenous dose of a long-acting antibiotic such as ceftriaxone or an ...
Other antibiotics active against Y. enterocolitica include trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole, fluoroquinolones, ceftriaxone, and ...
A new combination drug therapy (sulfonamide, ceftriaxone, and amikacin) has also shown promise. The prognosis of nocardiosis is ...
Intravenous antibiotics such as ceftriaxone and possibly vancomycin or clindamycin are given once the airway is secure. A third ... Intravenous antibiotics such as ceftriaxone and possibly vancomycin or clindamycin is then given. Corticosteroids are also ... cephalosporin such as ceftriaxone is usually sufficient since it is usually effective against H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae. ...
In those with mild or moderate symptoms, a single injection of the antibiotic ceftriaxone along with two weeks of doxycycline ... Another alternative is to use a parenteral regimen with ceftriaxone or cefoxitin plus doxycycline. Clinical experience guides ...
Our results demonstrate further dissemination of FC428 in China and resurgence risks of sporadic ceftriaxone-resistant A8806 to ... Identification of ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae FC428 clone and isolates harboring a novel mosaic penA gene in ... Identification of ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae FC428 clone and isolates harboring a novel mosaic penA gene in ... Methods: A total of ten ceftriaxone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae FC428 isolates and two isolates harboring a novel mosaic penA- ...
In 2020, ceftriaxone showed an unprecedented high resistance rate of 24.87%, and 67.83% of the ceftriaxone-resistant (Cro-R) ... Briefly, the proportion of ceftriaxone-resistant (Cro-R) isolates reached a stunning prevalence rate of 24.87% in 2020. A ... Genomic epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Shenzhen, China, during 2019-2020: increased spread of ceftriaxone-resistant ... Genomic epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Shenzhen, China, during 2019-2020: increased spread of ceftriaxone-resistant ...
... To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ceftriaxone for ... Ceftriaxone concentrations in urine are shown in Table 2.. TABLE 2 Urinary Concentrations of Ceftriaxone After Single Dose ... Precipitation of ceftriaxone-calcium can also occur when ceftriaxone is mixed with calcium-containing solutions in the same IV ... Precipitation of ceftriaxone-calcium can also occur when ceftriaxone is mixed with calcium-containing solutions in the same IV ...
The patient was admitted to the hospital, and treatment with 2 g intravenous ceftriaxone once daily was initiated. Ceftriaxone ... ceftriaxone disodium salt and a vial of ceftriaxone sodium BP. The sample contained only 0.455 g of the drug, not 1 g as stated ... Substandard or falsified ceftriaxone might be a cause of treatment failure in bacterial meningitis in Africa. ... Fatal Bacterial Meningitis Possibly Associated with Substandard Ceftriaxone - Uganda, 2013. Jason W. Nickerson, PhD1; Amir ...
ceftriaxone 100 MG/ML Injectable Solution. SCD. 3. 309090. ceftriaxone (as ceftriaxone sodium) 100 GM per 1000 ML Injectable ... Ceftriaxone concentrations in urine are shown in Table 2.. Table 2. Urinary Concentrations of Ceftriaxone After Single Dose ... Ceftriaxone is a bactericidal agent that acts by inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Ceftriaxone has activity in the ... Precipitation of ceftriaxone-calcium can also occur when ceftriaxone is mixed with calcium-containing solutions in the same IV ...
Ceftriaxone Injection: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before using ceftriaxone injection,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to ceftriaxone; carbapenem ... Ceftriaxone injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: *pain, ... Ceftriaxone injection comes as a powder to be mixed with liquid, or as a premixed product, to be injected intravenously (into a ...
Ceftriaxone Injection Ceftriaxone injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as gonorrhea (a ... An antibiotic called ceftriaxone is given through a vein (IV). It is ... ...
JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it ...
Limited information indicates that ceftriaxone produce low levels in milk, which are not expected to cause adverse effects in ... Ceftriaxone - Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®). Ceftriaxone - Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®). ... Ceftriaxone distribution between maternal blood and fetal blood and tissues at parturition and between blood and milk ... Maternal Levels. Following administration of a 1 gram dose of ceftriaxone intramuscularly or intravenously on day 3 postpartum ...
CEFTRIAXONE, 10G, INJ.POWDER. Common uses. This medication contains an antibiotic from the cephalosporin family. Typically, it ...
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New findings from CDCs enhanced surveillance system show that ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella Typhi, the bacteria that causes ... New findings from CDCs enhanced surveillance system show that ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella Typhi, the bacteria that causes ... ceftriaxone has become increasingly important for empiric treatment (5), and the emergence of ceftriaxone resistance in Typhi ... suggesting that the emergence of ceftriaxone resistance among these two strains was unrelated. In both strains, the ceftriaxone ...
IR72 was assigned MSLT ST1903, NG-MAST ST17842 and NG-STAR type 1133, including the ceftriaxone resistance-mediating penA- ... Whole-genome sequencing showed that the isolate IR72 belongs to the internationally spreading multidrug-resistant ceftriaxone- ... Global awareness of spreading ceftriaxone-resistant gonococcal strains that threaten recommended dual therapies is essential. ... We describe a multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae urethritis case with ceftriaxone resistance and azithromycin ...
Diarrhea is found among people who take Ceftriaxone, especially for people who are female, 60+ old, have been taking the drug ... What is Ceftriaxone?. Ceftriaxone has active ingredients of ceftriaxone sodium. It is often used in typhoid fever. eHealthMe is ... It is based on ceftriaxone sodium (the active ingredients of Ceftriaxone) and Ceftriaxone (the brand name). Other drugs that ... Browse all side effects of Ceftriaxone:. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Diarrhea treatments and more:. * ...
Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Intramuscular Ceftriaxone Co-Administered with Acetaminophen in Healthy and Infected Sokoto Red ... Generic ceftriaxone injection containing 1 g ceftriaxone powder (PAN-CEFTRIAXONE) with lot/batch number B704128, with ... Study design: The first group received 1 g ceftriaxone only, the second group received 1 g ceftriaxone plus 300 mg paracetamol ... Intramuscular pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone was investigated in healthy goats after administration of 1 g ceftriaxone. The ...
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  • Ceftriaxone sodium is a sterile, semisynthetic, broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic for intravenous or intramuscular administration. (nih.gov)
  • Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.Using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk of getting an infection later that resists antibiotic treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An antibiotic called ceftriaxone is given through a vein (IV). (nih.gov)
  • They were randomly assigned to receive either 2 grams or 3 grams of zoliflodacin by mouth, or 500 milligrams of ceftriaxone, a currently recommended antibiotic, by injection. (nih.gov)
  • Ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin are first-choice antibiotics, with ampicillin, azithromycin, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole being alternative options ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We describe a multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae urethritis case with ceftriaxone resistance and azithromycin intermediate resistance in a heterosexual man in Ireland, August 2018. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection with ceftriaxone resistance and intermediate resistance to azithromycin, Denmark, 2017. (eurosurveillance.org)
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  • The infant would be expected to ingest only a few milligrams of ceftriaxone per day with usual doses. (nih.gov)
  • This study was aimed at finding out if paracetamol influences the pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in healthy and salmonella thyphimurium infected Sokoto red goats. (scialert.net)
  • Current treatment guidelines recommend the use of an expanded-spectrum cephalosporin (cefotaxime or ceftriaxone) ( 2 ), but these therapies increasingly are limited by drug resistance, and are threatened by the proliferation of substandard and falsified medicines ( 3 , 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Ceftriaxone injection is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ceftriaxone is a third generation cephalosporin that is widely used in bacterial infections. (scialert.net)
  • Ceftriaxone is an individual from the cephalosporin anti-toxins drug class. (rizochem.com)
  • To determine whether the patient's treatment failure and subsequent death might be related to the ceftriaxone product administered, a sealed vial similar to the one administered to the patient was analyzed at the University of Ottawa, Canada, and was found to contain only 0.455 g of the drug, not 1 g as stated by the manufacturer. (cdc.gov)
  • Suspecting that the patient's initial treatment failure might be related to the potency of the ceftriaxone product administered, physicians obtained a sealed vial of injectable ceftriaxone sodium (labeled 1 g), similar to that administered to the patient, from the hospital dispensary for testing. (cdc.gov)
  • The presence and quantity of active ingredient was verified by mass spectrometry with an analytical standard of 92% ceftriaxone disodium salt and a vial of ceftriaxone sodium BP. (cdc.gov)
  • Once-daily treatment with 2 g of intravenous ceftriaxone administered according to guidelines failed, and the patient died. (cdc.gov)
  • The patient was admitted to the hospital, and treatment with 2 g intravenous ceftriaxone once daily was initiated. (cdc.gov)
  • She was treated with intravenous teicoplanin 400 mg every 12 hours for 3 doses, then 400 mg daily for 5 days total, intravenous ceftriaxone 1 gram daily, topical mupirocin cream twice daily. (nih.gov)
  • Is Ceftriaxone 1000 mg powder the same as Monocef? (rizochem.com)
  • Ceftriaxone 1000 mg powder In order to avoid secondary infections, monocef injection is also utilised during surgical procedures. (rizochem.com)
  • What is the purpose of a Ceftriaxone 1000 mg powder injection? (rizochem.com)
  • ABSTRACT We carried out a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the clinical efficacy of ceftriaxone and ampicillin/cloxacillin prophylaxis in decreasing the frequency of post-caesarean section infection-related morbidity. (who.int)
  • Two hundred patients randomly received either ceftriaxone (single dose) or ampicillin/cloxacillin (3 doses) intravenously at induction of anaesthesia. (who.int)
  • One dose of ceftriaxone was as effective as ampicillin/ cloxacillin in preventing post-caesarean section complications and is easier to administer. (who.int)
  • Patients were randomized to receive ei- the efficacy of ceftriaxone with ampicillin/ ther ceftriaxone as single dose of 1 g or 1 g cloxacillin in preventing post-operative ampicillin/cloxacillin every 8 hours. (who.int)
  • Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Typhi is resistant to ceftriaxone and other antibiotics used for treatment, including ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The study strain was phenotypically resistant to ceftriaxone , ampicillin . (bvsalud.org)
  • Ceftriaxone was completely absorbed following IM administration with mean maximum plasma concentrations occurring between 2 and 3 hours post-dose. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple IV or IM doses ranging from 0.5 to 2 gm at 12- to 24-hour intervals resulted in 15% to 36% accumulation of ceftriaxone above single dose values. (nih.gov)
  • Thirty-three percent to 67% of a ceftriaxone dose was excreted in the urine as unchanged drug and the remainder was secreted in the bile and ultimately found in the feces as microbiologically inactive compounds. (nih.gov)
  • After a 1 gm IV dose, average concentrations of ceftriaxone, determined from 1 to 3 hours after dosing, were 581 mcg/mL in the gallbladder bile, 788 mcg/mL in the common duct bile, 898 mcg/mL in the cystic duct bile, 78.2 mcg/gm in the gallbladder wall and 62.1 mcg/mL in the concurrent plasma. (nih.gov)
  • If you will be using more than one dose of ceftriaxone injection, use the medication until you finish the prescription, even if you feel better. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Deux cent patientes ont reçu de manière aléatoire soit de la ceftriaxone (dose unique) soit de l'ampicilline-cloxacilline (3 doses) par voie intraveineuse à l'induction de l'anesthésie. (who.int)
  • Une dose de ceftriaxone était aussi efficace que l'ampicilline- cloxacilline dans la prévention des complications de la césarienne et elle est plus facile à administrer. (who.int)
  • Following administration of a 1 gram dose of ceftriaxone intramuscularly or intravenously on day 3 postpartum to 20 women, peak milk levels averaged about 0.7 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • In a randomised three-way study, 15 healthy male goats weighing 10-13 kg were divided into three groups of five goats each and each group got either a single intramuscular dose of 1 g ceftriaxone only, 1 g ceftriaxone co-administered with 300 mg paracetamol or 1 g ceftriaxone co-administered with 300 mg paracetamol plus inoculation with Salmonella thyphimurium . (scialert.net)
  • Nakayama S , Shimuta K , Furubayashi K , Kawahata T , Unemo M , Ohnishi M . New ceftriaxone- and multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain with a novel mosaic penA gene isolated in Japan. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Cooperative recognition of internationally disseminated ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Ceftriaxone-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Canada, 2017. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae failing treatment with ceftriaxone and doxycycline in France, November 2017. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Ceftriaxone sodium is a white to yellowish-orange crystalline powder which is readily soluble in water, sparingly soluble in methanol and very slightly soluble in ethanol. (nih.gov)
  • Each Pharmacy Bulk Package is supplied as a dry powder in Pharmacy Bulk Package bottles containing sterile ceftriaxone sodium, USP equivalent to 10 g of ceftriaxone and is intended for intravenous infusion only. (nih.gov)
  • Ceftriaxone injection comes as a powder to be mixed with liquid, or as a premixed product, to be injected intravenously (into a vein) over a period of 30 or 60 minutes.Ceftriaxone injection can also be given intramuscularly (into a muscle). (medlineplus.gov)
  • In view of widespread isolation of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi globally, third generation cephalosporins ( ceftriaxone ) are used as alternative drugs for treatment of typhoid fever in recent years. (bvsalud.org)
  • 0.01) increase in the values of elimination half life (0.58±0.012, 5.34±1.85), Volume of Distribution (Vd) (485.3±15.725, 14382.8±4418.9 and 10467±954.83 mL kg -1 ) and Clearance (Cl) (578.8±6.880, 1992.72±101.89 and 3039.21±72.1 mL/h/kg) when pharmacokinetic parameters were compared for ceftriaxone alone and ceftriaxone co-administered with paracetamol in healthy and infected Sokoto red goats respectively. (scialert.net)
  • To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ceftriaxone for injection and other antibacterial drugs, ceftriaxone for injection should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • eHealthMe is studying from 33,567 Ceftriaxone users for its effectiveness, alternative drugs and more. (ehealthme.com)
  • Empiric treatment with ceftriaxone and the presence of coadministered drugs was significantly associated with its inappropriate use. (edu.au)
  • Ceftriaxone may be taken by itself or in combination with other drugs. (rizochem.com)
  • Taj Pharma's keen focus that we provide safety to consume Ceftriaxone Tazobactum Injection to our customer along with that we also take care of our workers and all the professionals who are implementing the tasks of manufacturing these injections. (tajgenerics.com)
  • The medical records of patients who received ceftriaxone were reviewed prospectively between January 1 and March 30, 2017. (edu.au)
  • Before 2018, no ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella Typhi cases had been identified in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • During February 2018-August 2019, 33 cases of ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella Typhi were detected in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Typhi), the bacterium that causes typhoid fever, is a growing public health threat. (cdc.gov)
  • This study suggests that paracetamol and Salmonella thyphimurium infection alters the plasma disposition of ceftriaxone in healthy and infected Sokoto red goats. (scialert.net)
  • Ismail, 2005 ), Influence of paracetamol and Salmonella thyphimurium infection on the plasma kinetics of ceftriaxone in the Sokoto red goat has not been reported to our knowledge. (scialert.net)
  • Emergence of ceftriaxone resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in Eastern India. (bvsalud.org)
  • Interpretative criteria for ciprofloxacin (Susceptible 0.06µg/mL, Resistant 1.0 µg/mL), penicillin (Susceptible 0.06 µg/mL, Resistant 2.0 µg/mL) and tetracycline (Susceptible 0.25 µg/mL, Resistant 2.0 µg/mL), cefixime (Susceptible 0.25 µg/mL) and ceftriaxone (Susceptible 0.25 µg/mL) were in accordance with the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. (cdc.gov)
  • In patients who present with neurologic Lyme disease, first-line treatment options include IV ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, penicillin G, or oral doxycycline. (medscape.com)
  • Taj Pharmaceuticals, the well-known Ceftriaxone Tazobactum Injection manufacturer in India gives the assurance of high-quality and purity. (tajgenerics.com)
  • In various region of the body, ceftriaxone is utilized to treat bacterial contaminations. (rizochem.com)
  • Ceftriaxone inhibits bacterial growth, which is how it functions. (rizochem.com)
  • 1g of monocef-SB Ceftriaxone and Sulbactum, two distinct medications used in injection, collaborate to destroy the germs that cause infections. (rizochem.com)
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  • Get contact for Ceftriaxone Tazobactum Injection manufacturing companies from India. (tajgenerics.com)
  • Taj Pharmaceuticals, one of the leading Ceftriaxone Tazobactum Injection Manufacturers India brings the best-quality products. (tajgenerics.com)
  • Taj Pharmaceuticals is reputed manufacturer and Ceftriaxone Tazobactum Injection suppliers in India prefer Taj Pharmaceuticals due to the reliability and purity of products. (tajgenerics.com)
  • Taj Pharmaceuticals is one of the leading Ceftriaxone Tazobactum Injection Manufacturers Suppliers all over India. (tajgenerics.com)
  • Whole-genome sequencing showed that the isolate IR72 belongs to the internationally spreading multidrug-resistant ceftriaxone-resistant FC428 clade, initially described in Japan in 2015. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Clinicians and public health officials should remain vigilant for ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi in patients who have traveled to Pakistan, Iraq, or neighboring countries. (cdc.gov)
  • In March 2018, CDC began enhanced surveillance for ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi in response to an ongoing outbreak of XDR typhoid fever in Pakistan. (cdc.gov)
  • These illnesses represented the first cases of ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi documented in the United States ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This report provides an update on U.S. cases of XDR typhoid fever linked to Pakistan and describes a new, unrelated cluster of ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi infections linked to Iraq. (cdc.gov)
  • If you stop using ceftriaxone injection too soon or skip doses, your infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • penicillin antibiotics, or any other medications.Also tell your doctor if you are allergic to any of the ingredients in ceftriaxone injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ceftriaxone is one of the most commonly used antibiotics. (nih.gov)
  • Ceftriaxone is among the most commonly utilized antibiotics owing to its high potency, wide spectrum of activity, and low risk of toxicity. (edu.au)
  • Ceftriaxone is one of our more commonly ordered IV antibiotics and is appropriate broad-spectrum coverage for many suspected infections, including CAP. (pharmertoxguy.com)
  • 1gm Ceftriaxone Injection is the one used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pelvic inflammatory disease (infection of the female reproductive organs that may cause infertility), gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease) and meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord). (reqwellpcd.com)
  • Ceftriaxone injection is also sometimes given before certain types of surgery to prevent infections that may develop after the operation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ceftriaxone functions by eliminating the germs that cause infections. (rizochem.com)
  • Ceftriaxone treats what kinds of infections? (rizochem.com)
  • Ceftriaxone is a prescription drug used to treat the signs and symptoms of infections such as meningitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, ear infections, intra-abdominal infections, stds, and prosthetic joint infections. (rizochem.com)
  • About one week after treatment, nearly all of the gonorrhea infections of the genitals were cured: 48 of 49 people (98%) who received 2 grams of zoliflodacin, all 47 people who received 3 grams, and all 21 people who got ceftriaxone. (nih.gov)
  • The GISP alert criteria (Decreased susceptible 0.05 µg/mL was also used for cefixime and ceftriaxone since CLSI does not report a resistant MIC value. (cdc.gov)
  • Global awareness of spreading ceftriaxone-resistant gonococcal strains that threaten recommended dual therapies is essential. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The present study revealed a very high rate of inappropriate use of ceftriaxone which may potentially lead to emergence of drug-resistant microorganisms and ultimately exposes the patient to treatment failure and increased cost of therapy. (edu.au)
  • Ceftriaxone has active ingredients of ceftriaxone sodium . (ehealthme.com)
  • It is based on ceftriaxone sodium (the active ingredients of Ceftriaxone) and Ceftriaxone (the brand name). (ehealthme.com)
  • Compare ceftriaxone injection prices available at Canadian and international online pharmacies with local U.S. pharmacy coupon prices. (pharmacychecker.com)
  • Dr. Hayes: Would you provide your thoughts regarding IV compatibility of Ceftriaxone and LR during y-site administration in regards to a recent Hospital Pharmacy article (DOI: 10.1177/0018578719888913)? (pharmertoxguy.com)
  • The phase IV clinical study analyzes which people take Ceftriaxone and have Diarrhea. (ehealthme.com)
  • Data to determine the frequency of ceftriaxone ADRs was derived from clinical trials. (apharma-voice.com)
  • IR72 was assigned MSLT ST1903, NG-MAST ST17842 and NG-STAR type 1133, including the ceftriaxone resistance-mediating penA- 60.001. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • 1gm Ceftriaxone Injection has gained us increasing applaud for its effectiveness and no side effects. (reqwellpcd.com)
  • Ceftriaxone is recommended as the primary drug for treatment of meningitis and is available in the public health system in Uganda ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • You should begin to feel better during the first few days of your treatment with ceftriaxone injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Appropriateness of ceftriaxone use was evaluated as per the protocol developed from current treatment guidelines. (edu.au)
  • According to the FDA-approved package insert (and several other references), ceftriaxone can safely be administered as long as it is given in a separate IV line from LR . (pharmertoxguy.com)
  • The mean duration of ceftriaxone therapy in our study was 11.47 days, with a range of 1-52 days. (edu.au)
  • In neonates ≤ 28 days old, concomitant use of ceftriaxone and intravenous calcium-containing products is contraindicated , even if given in separate lines. (pharmertoxguy.com)
  • You may receive ceftriaxone injection in a hospital or doctor's office, or you may administer the medication at home. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you will be receiving ceftriaxone injection at home, your healthcare provider will show you how to use the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When it comes to manufacturing any Ceftriaxone Tazobactum Injection , Taj Pharmaceutical always leads. (tajgenerics.com)
  • Taj Pharmaceuticals is popular for manufacturing a lot of pharmaceutical and medical products along with Ceftriaxone Tazobactum Injection . (tajgenerics.com)