Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
A cephalosporin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It is active against most common gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, is a potent inhibitor of Enterobacteriaceae, and is highly resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases. The drug has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.
A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.
One of the CEPHALOSPORINS that has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
A semisynthetic ampicillin-derived acylureido penicillin.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.
One of the principal schools of medical philosophy in ancient Greece and Rome. It developed in Alexandria between 270 and 220 B.C., the only one to have any success in reviving the essentials of the Hippocratic concept. The Empiricists declared that the search for ultimate causes of phenomena was vain, but they were active in endeavoring to discover immediate causes. The "tripod of the Empirics" was their own chance observations (experience), learning obtained from contemporaries and predecessors (experience of others), and, in the case of new diseases, the formation of conclusions from other diseases which they resembled (analogy). Empiricism enjoyed sporadic continuing popularity in later centuries up to the nineteenth. (From Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed, p186; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.
An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.
A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial fluoroquinolone. The drug strongly inhibits the DNA-supercoiling activity of DNA GYRASE.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
Semisynthetic ampicillin-derived acylureido penicillin. It has been proposed for infections with certain anaerobes and may be useful in inner ear, bile, and CNS infections.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.

Interpretation of middle ear fluid concentrations of antibiotics: comparison between ceftibuten, cefixime and azithromycin. (1/764)

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the potential influence of variables such as the cell content in the fluid, and serum levels, on the concentrations of ceftibuten, cefixime and azithromycin in the middle ear fluid of patients suffering from acute otitis media. METHODS: This randomized, open study compared the penetration of ceftibuten (9 mg kg(-1) 18 patients), cefixime (8 mg kg(-1), 16 patients) and azithromycin (10 mg kg(-1) 16 patients) into the intracellular and extracellular compartments of middle ear fluid of 50 paediatric patients (aged 8-14 years) with acute otitis media. Middle ear fluid was extracted by tympanocentesis 4, 12 and 24 h after dosing and divided into two fractions: with cells (as collected) (C+) and cell-free (C-). Antibiotics were assayed in C+ and C- samples by h.p.l.c. RESULTS: Ceftibuten achieved greater penetration into middle ear fluid than cefixime and azithromycin. Higher concentrations of ceftibuten (CTB) and cefixime (CFX) were found in the C- fraction (CTB: 4h 13.3+/-1.86; 12h 4.7+/-1.18; 24h 0.5+/-0.2. CFX: 4h 3.2+/-1.4; 12h 1.5+/-0.5; 24h>(0.1 mgl(-1)) than in the C+ fraction (CTB:4 h 8.4+/-4.3; 12 h 2.88+/-1.19; 24 h 0.3+/-0.27. CFX: 4 h 1.2+/-0.6; 12 h 0.8+/-0.2; 24 h>0.1 mg l(-1)) at the each time point, while the opposite was true for azithromycin (C-: 4 h 0.11+/-0.04; 12 h 0.12+/-0.08; 24 h 0.23+/-0.12. C+: 4 h 0.38+/-0.24; 12 h 0.9+/-0.03; 24 h 1.05+/-0.3 mg l(-1)). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the penetration of antibiotics into the middle ear fluid is influenced by its serum concentrations as well as by the cell content in the fluid. Ceftibuten achieved higher middle ear fluid concentrations than cefixime in C+ and C- fractions at all time points. Both ceftibuten and cefixime concentrations are negatively influenced by the cell content in the fluid. In contrast the concentration of azithromycin to the middle ear fluid is positively influenced by the cell content in the fluid.  (+info)

Glycosyltransferase domain of penicillin-binding protein 2a from Streptococcus pneumoniae is membrane associated. (2/764)

Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are bacterial cytoplasmic membrane proteins that catalyze the final steps of the peptidoglycan synthesis. Resistance to beta-lactams in Streptococcus pneumoniae is caused by low-affinity PBPs. S. pneumoniae PBP 2a belongs to the class A high-molecular-mass PBPs having both glycosyltransferase (GT) and transpeptide (TP) activities. Structural and functional studies of both domains are required to unravel the mechanisms of resistance, a prerequisite for the development of novel antibiotics. The extracellular region of S. pneumoniae PBP 2a has been expressed (PBP 2a*) in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein. The acylation kinetic parameters of PBP 2a* for beta-lactams were determined by stopped-flow fluorometry. The acylation efficiency toward benzylpenicillin was much lower than that toward cefotaxime, a result suggesting that PBP 2a participates in resistance to cefotaxime and other beta-lactams, but not in resistance to benzylpenicillin. The TP domain was purified following limited proteolysis. PBP 2a* required detergents for solubility and interacted with lipid vesicles, while the TP domain was water soluble. We propose that PBP 2a* interacts with the cytoplasmic membrane in a region distinct from its transmembrane anchor region, which is located between Lys 78 and Ser 156 of the GT domain.  (+info)

Single-dose oral ciprofloxacin compared with cefotaxime and placebo for prophylaxis during transurethral surgery. (3/764)

To determine the efficacy and safety of single-dose oral ciprofloxacin prophylaxis for the prevention of post-operative bacteriuria following transurethral resection of the prostate or bladder tumour, a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Five hundred and eighteen patients were randomized in a 2:2:1 ratio to receive ciprofloxacin 500 mg, cefotaxime 1 g or placebo 30-90 min before surgery. Of the 368 efficacy-evaluable patients, five (3.3%) ciprofloxacin, seven (4.8%) cefotaxime and five (7.0%) placebo recipients had post-operative bacteriuria (> or = 10(4) cfu/mL) during post-operative days 2-15. Five (3.4%) ciprofloxacin, five (3.4%) cefotaxime and one (2.4%) placebo recipients were considered clinical failures, of whom one, two and one patients, respectively, had concomitant bacteriuria. Drug-related adverse events were reported in six of 204 (3%) ciprofloxacin, 12 of 197 (6%) cefotaxime and one of 101 (1%) placebo patients. The observed rates of post-operative bacteriuria suggest that a single 500 mg dose of ciprofloxacin is suitable prophylaxis for transurethral surgery.  (+info)

Dissemination of a chloramphenicol- and tetracycline-resistant but penicillin-susceptible invasive clone of serotype 5 Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia. (4/764)

A national surveillance conducted in Colombia between 1994 and 1996 identified serotype 5 Streptococcus pneumoniae as the second most frequent cause of invasive disease in children younger than 5 years of age. All 43 serotype 5 isolates collected during this period were shown to be susceptible to penicillin, erythromycin, cefotaxime, and vancomycin, but most (38 of 43, or 88%) were highly resistant to chloramphenicol. In order to clarify a possible genetic relatedness among these isolates, additional microbiological and molecular characterizations were performed. Most (40 of 43, or 93%) of the isolates were found to be resistant to tetracycline. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of chromosomal DNAs revealed that all the 43 isolates were closely related and that 38 of the 43 isolates were representatives of a "Colombian clone" of S. pneumoniae isolates which were recovered throughout the 3-year surveillance period from patients in 13 hospitals located in five Colombian cities. Isolates belonging to this Colombian clone were resistant to chloramphenicol and tetracycline, hybridized with the cat and tetM DNA probes in the same 340-kb SmaI fragment, and had identical PFGE patterns after both SmaI and ApaI digestions.  (+info)

In-vitro activity of 29 antimicrobial agents against penicillin-resistant and -intermediate isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. (5/764)

Antibiotic resistance among isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae is increasing worldwide. Optimal therapy, though unknown, should be guided by in-vitro susceptibility testing. Currently, vancomycin is the only approved antibiotic that is universally active against multiresistant S. pneumoniae. In-vitro activities were determined for 29 antimicrobial agents against 22 penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (PISP) and 16 penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) isolates. MICs were determined in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth with 3% lysed horse blood in microtitre trays. Antimicrobial classes tested included cephalosporins, penicillin, aminopenicillins, macrolides, quinolones, carbapenems and other antimicrobial agents. Among the classes of antimicrobial agents tested, wide differences in susceptibility were demonstrated for both PISP and PRSP. Of the cephalosporins, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime demonstrated the best in-vitro activity for both PISP and PRSP. Of the quinolones, clinafloxacin and trovafloxacin showed the greatest in-vitro activity. Rifampicin and teicoplanin demonstrated excellent in-vitro activity. Promising in-vitro results of newer agents, such as quinupristin/dalfopristin, ramoplanin, teicoplanin and linezolid may justify further evaluation of these agents in clinical trials.  (+info)

Serum bactericidal activity of levofloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae. (6/764)

The objective of this study was to determine the serum bactericidal activity (SBA) of levofloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with various degrees of susceptibility to penicillin and cefotaxime. Serum samples of volunteers (n = 12) who had received levofloxacin 500 mg as a single po dose were provided in blinded fashion. SBA was determined, using the microdilution method, in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with lysed horse blood inoculated with an overnight culture diluted to yield a final concentration of approximately 10(5) cfu/mL. The serum bactericidal titre was defined as the highest dilution of serum showing no growth (> 99.9% reduction of inoculum). The duration of SBA ranged from 0.75 to 6.3 h (mean 3.85 h), and was independent of the susceptibility of the strains to penicillin and cefotaxime. In conclusion, a single po dose of 500 mg levofloxacin achieved serum concentrations which were bactericidal against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae for a mean period of 3.85 h.  (+info)

Effect of intravenous albumin on renal impairment and mortality in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. (7/764)

BACKGROUND: In patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, renal function frequently becomes impaired. This impairment is probably related to a reduction in effective arterial blood volume and is associated with a high mortality rate. We conducted a study to determine whether plasma volume expansion with intravenous albumin prevents renal impairment and reduces mortality in these patients. METHODS: We randomly assigned 126 patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis to treatment with intravenous cefotaxime (63 patients) or cefotaxime and intravenous albumin (63 patients). Cefotaxime was given daily in dosages that varied according to the serum creatinine level, and albumin was given at a dose of 1.5 g per kilogram of body weight at the time of diagnosis, followed by 1 g per kilogram on day 3. Renal impairment was defined as nonreversible deterioration of renal function during hospitalization. RESULTS: The infection resolved in 59 patients in the cefotaxime group (94 percent) and 62 in the cefotaxime-plus-albumin group (98 percent) (P=0.36). Renal impairment developed in 21 patients in the cefotaxime group (33 percent) and 6 in the cefotaxime-plus-albumin group (10 percent) (P=0.002). Eighteen patients (29 percent) in the cefotaxime group died in the hospital, as compared with 6 (10 percent) in the cefotaxime-plus-albumin group (P=0.01); at three months, the mortality rates were 41 percent (a total of 26 deaths) and 22 percent (a total of 14 deaths), respectively (P=0.03). Patients treated with cefotaxime had higher levels of plasma renin activity than those treated with cefotaxime and albumin; patients with renal impairment had the highest values. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, treatment with intravenous albumin in addition to an antibiotic reduces the incidence of renal impairment and death in comparison with treatment with an antibiotic alone.  (+info)

Reduction in the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and ceftazidime-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae following changes in a hospital antibiotic formulary. (8/764)

In 1995, changes in our hospital formulary were made to limit an outbreak of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and resulted in decreased usage of cephalosporins, imipenem, clindamycin, and vancomycin and increased usage of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase-inhibitor antibiotics. In this report, the effect of this formulary change on other resistant pathogens is described. Following the formulary change, there was a reduction in the monthly number (mean +/- SD) of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (from 21.9 +/- 8.1 to 17.2 +/- 7.2 patients/1,000 discharges; P = .03) and ceftazidime-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (from 8.6 +/- 4.3 to 5.7 +/- 4.0 patients/1,000 discharges; P = .02). However, there was an increase in the number of patients with cultures positive for cefotaxime-resistant Acinetobacter species (from 2.4 +/- 2.2 to 5.4 +/- 4.0 patients/1,000 discharges; P = .02). Altering an antibiotic formulary may be a possible mechanism to contain the spread of selected resistant pathogens. However, close surveillance is needed to detect the emergence of other resistant pathogens.  (+info)

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Symptoms of meningitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, nausea and vomiting, and sensitivity to light. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures, brain damage, and even death.

There are several types of meningitis, including:

1. Viral meningitis: This is the most common form of the infection and is usually caused by enteroviruses or herpesviruses. It is typically less severe than bacterial meningitis and resolves on its own with supportive care.
2. Bacterial meningitis: This is a more serious form of the infection and can be caused by a variety of bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. It requires prompt antibiotic treatment to prevent long-term complications and death.
3. Fungal meningitis: This type of meningitis is more common in people with weakened immune systems and is caused by fungi that are commonly found in the environment. It can be treated with antifungal medications.
4. Parasitic meningitis: This type of meningitis is rare and is caused by parasites that are typically found in tropical regions. It can be treated with antiparasitic medications.

Diagnosis of meningitis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood cultures, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. Imaging studies, such as CT or MRI scans, may be used to rule out other conditions and to evaluate the extent of brain damage.

Treatment of meningitis depends on the cause of the infection and may include antibiotics, antiviral medications, antifungal medications, or supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Supportive care may include intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management. In severe cases, meningitis may require hospitalization in an intensive care unit (ICU) and may result in long-term consequences such as hearing loss, learning disabilities, or cognitive impairment.

Prevention of meningitis includes vaccination against the bacteria or viruses that can cause the infection, good hygiene practices, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. Vaccines are available for certain types of meningitis, such as the meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). Good hygiene practices include washing hands frequently, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding sharing food, drinks, or personal items.

In conclusion, meningitis is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection that can affect people of all ages. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term consequences and improve outcomes. Prevention includes vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.



Klebsiella Infections can occur in anyone, but certain groups of people are at higher risk, such as premature infants, people with weakened immune systems, and those with chronic medical conditions like diabetes, liver or kidney disease.

Symptoms of Klebsiella Infections include fever, chills, cough, difficulty breathing, painful urination, redness and swelling in the affected area, and in severe cases, sepsis and death.

Diagnosis of Klebsiella Infections is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood cultures and urine cultures.

Treatment of Klebsiella Infections usually involves antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and prevent it from spreading. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide appropriate care and monitoring.

Prevention of Klebsiella Infections includes good hand hygiene, proper cleaning and disinfection of equipment and surfaces, and avoiding close contact with individuals who have the infection. Vaccines are also available for certain types of Klebsiella Infections, such as pneumonia.

Complications of Klebsiella Infections can include pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and sepsis, which can lead to organ failure and death if left untreated.

Recovery from Klebsiella Infections usually occurs within a few days to a week after antibiotic treatment is started, but in severe cases, recovery may take longer and may require hospitalization and close monitoring.

In conclusion, Klebsiella Infections are a type of bacterial infection that can affect various parts of the body, and can be mild or severe. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics are essential to prevent complications and ensure a successful recovery. Proper hygiene practices and vaccines are also important for preventing the spread of these infections.

Some common examples of bacterial infections include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
2. Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Skin infections such as cellulitis and abscesses
4. Bone and joint infections such as osteomyelitis
5. Infected wounds or burns
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea
7. Food poisoning caused by bacteria such as salmonella and E. coli.

In severe cases, bacterial infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis or blood poisoning. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.

Types of Pneumococcal Infections:

1. Pneumonia: This is an infection of the lungs that can cause fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
2. Meningitis: This is an infection of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, which can cause fever, headache, stiff neck, and confusion.
3. Septicemia (bloodstream infection): This is an infection of the blood that can cause fever, chills, and low blood pressure.
4. Sinusitis: This is an infection of the sinuses, which can cause headache, facial pain, and difficulty breathing through the nose.
5. Otitis media (middle ear infection): This is an infection of the middle ear, which can cause ear pain, fever, and hearing loss.

Causes and Risk Factors:

Pneumococcal infections are caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae. These bacteria can be spread through close contact with an infected person, such as touching or sharing food and drinks. People who are at high risk for developing pneumococcal infections include:

1. Children under the age of 5 and adults over the age of 65.
2. People with weakened immune systems, such as those with cancer, HIV/AIDS, or taking medications that suppress the immune system.
3. Smokers and people with chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
4. People who have recently had surgery or have a severe injury.
5. Those who live in long-term care facilities or have limited access to healthcare.

Prevention and Treatment:

Preventing pneumococcal infections is important, especially for high-risk individuals. Here are some ways to prevent and treat pneumococcal infections:

1. Vaccination: The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is recommended for children under the age of 5 and adults over the age of 65, as well as for people with certain medical conditions.
2. Hand washing: Frequent hand washing can help prevent the spread of pneumococcal bacteria.
3. Good hygiene: Avoiding close contact with people who are sick and regularly cleaning surfaces that may be contaminated with bacteria can also help prevent infection.
4. Antibiotics: Pneumococcal infections can be treated with antibiotics, but overuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, antibiotics should only be used when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
5. Supportive care: Those with severe pneumococcal infections may require hospitalization and supportive care, such as oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation.

Conclusion:

Pneumococcal infections can be serious and even life-threatening, especially for high-risk individuals. Prevention and prompt treatment are key to reducing the risk of complications and improving outcomes. Vaccination, good hygiene practices, and appropriate antibiotic use are all important in preventing and treating pneumococcal infections. If you suspect that you or a loved one has a pneumococcal infection, it is essential to seek medical attention right away. With proper care and support, many people with pneumococcal infections can recover fully and resume their normal lives.

Definition: Meningitis, pneumococcal, is an inflammatory disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) that affects the protective membranes (meninges) covering the brain and spinal cord, leading to a range of symptoms including fever, headache, vomiting, and altered mental status. It can be a severe and potentially life-threatening infection, particularly in certain patient populations such as children under 5 years old, older adults, and those with underlying medical conditions.

Epidemiology: Pneumococcal meningitis is relatively uncommon, but it remains an important public health concern, particularly in developed countries. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are approximately 350 cases of pneumococcal meningitis reported each year in the United States, resulting in about 10% of all cases of bacterial meningitis.

Risk Factors: Several risk factors have been identified for developing pneumococcal meningitis, including:

1. Age: Children under 5 years old and older adults are at increased risk.
2. Underlying medical conditions: Patients with conditions such as sickle cell disease, HIV/AIDS, and chronic lung disease are more likely to develop pneumococcal meningitis.
3. Weakened immune system: Those with compromised immune systems, such as those taking immunosuppressive medications or who have undergone organ transplants, are at higher risk.
4. Recent exposure to someone with pneumococcal disease: Close contact with someone who has recently been diagnosed with pneumococcal disease can increase the risk of developing the infection.

Clinical Presentation: Symptoms of pneumococcal meningitis can vary depending on the age of the patient, but common presentations include:

1. Fever
2. Headache
3. Vomiting
4. Altered mental status (in infants and young children) or confusion (in older adults)
5. Stiff neck
6. Sensitivity to light (photophobia)
7. Bulging of the soft spots on the skull in infants (in infants)

Diagnosis: The diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood cultures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the presence of S. pneumoniae. Imaging studies, such as CT or MRI scans, may be used to evaluate the brain and identify any signs of inflammation or abscesses.

Treatment: Pneumococcal meningitis is typically treated with antibiotics, which are usually given intravenously. The choice of antibiotic depends on the severity of the infection and the patient's age and medical history. In addition to antibiotics, supportive care may be provided to manage symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle aches. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Complications: Pneumococcal meningitis can lead to serious complications, including:

1. Hearing loss
2. Learning disabilities
3. Behavioral changes
4. Seizures
5. Brain damage
6. Death

Prevention: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is recommended for children under the age of 2 years and for certain high-risk groups, such as adults over the age of 65 and people with certain medical conditions. The vaccine can help prevent pneumococcal meningitis and other serious infections caused by S. pneumoniae. Good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing, can also help prevent the spread of the bacteria.

Prognosis: With prompt and appropriate treatment, the prognosis for pneumococcal meningitis is generally good. However, in severe cases or those with complications, the prognosis may be poorer. In some cases, long-term sequelae such as hearing loss, learning disabilities, and behavioral changes may occur.

Incubation period: The incubation period for pneumococcal meningitis is typically between 2 and 4 days, but it can range from 1 to 10 days.

Diagnosis: Pneumococcal meningitis is diagnosed based on a combination of clinical symptoms, physical examination findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Laboratory tests may include blood cultures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and PCR testing to identify the presence of S. pneumoniae.

Treatment: Treatment for pneumococcal meningitis typically involves antibiotics and supportive care to manage symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle aches. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

In conclusion, pneumococcal meningitis is a serious infection that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to prevent long-term sequelae and improve outcomes for affected individuals.

... is administered by intramuscular injection or intravenous infusion. As cefotaxime is metabolized to both active and ... Claforan Sterile (cefotaxime for injection, USP) and Injection (cefotaxime injection, USP). 19 June 2009. "Archived copy" (PDF ... "Cefotaxime (Claforan) Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 5 April 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2019. "Cefotaxime Sodium". The ... Cefotaxime is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to cefotaxime or other cephalosporins. Caution should ...
Despite their name, a few are more active on ceftazidime than cefotaxime. They have mainly been found in strains of Salmonella ... Ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime have failed even more often, despite the organism's susceptibility to the antibiotic ... These cephalosporins include cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime, as well as the oxyimino-monobactam aztreonam. Thus ESBLs ... The initials stand for "Cefotaxime-Munich". OXA beta-lactamases were long recognized as a less common but also plasmid-mediated ...
Intravenous administration of ceftriaxone is recommended as the first choice in these cases; cefotaxime and doxycycline are ...
Alternatives include cefotaxime, fluoroquinolones, and co-trimoxazole. Jones TF (August 2003). "From pig to pacifier: ...
"Antagonistic effect of chloramphenicol in combination with cefotaxime or ceftriaxone". Archived from the original on September ...
Cefotaxime (1) is a potent cephalosporin antibiotic in its own right. Further modification of this drug by inclusion of a ... The acid in cefotaxime is first protected as its silyl ester (2) by derivatization with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) ... In general, cefquinome is within the same range as cefpirome and cefotaxime. Against Gram-negative species, cefquinome has very ...
Wallace RJ Jr.; Tsukamura, M; Brown, BA; Brown, J; Steingrube, VA; Zhang, YS; Nash, DR (December 1990). "Cefotaxime-resistant ...
McPherson C, Gal P, Ransom JL (2008). "Treatment of Citrobacter koseri infection with ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime in a preterm ...
It rather resembles cefotaxime in its properties, but is not subject to metabolism. It was removed from the US Market in 2007. ... Injectable third generation cephalosporin antibiotic related to cefotaxime, q.v. Exhibits broad spectrum activity and ...
Otherwise, a third-generation cephalosporin such as ceftriaxone or cefotaxime is the first choice. Cefixime is a suitable oral ... Soe GB, Overturf GD (1987). "Treatment of typhoid fever and other systemic salmonelloses with cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ...
Antibiotics used in treatment of infectious diseases include chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and ...
These include ampicillin, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefamandole, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, tetracycline, ...
... cefotaxime [where available], ceftazidime, or cefepime) plus metronidazole •Monotherapy with piperacillin-tazobactam • ...
Cefotaxime (1 g IV every six hours for seven days) and doxycycline (200 mg initially followed by 100 mg IV every 12 hours for ... November 2004). "An open, randomized, controlled trial of penicillin, doxycycline, and cefotaxime for patients with severe ... there is no evidence on differences in death reduction when benzylpenicillin is compared with ceftriaxone or cefotaxime. ...
Polyethylenimine increases the effectiveness of the antibiotics including ampicillin, rifampin, cefotaxime, as well as others. ...
In place of the easily hydrolyzed acetyl group of cefotaxime, ceftriaxone has a metabolically stable thiotriazinedione moiety. ...
Cephalosporins penetrate the cerebrospinal fluid poorly unless the meninges are inflamed; cefotaxime is a more suitable ...
Major control treatments for paratyphoid fever include ciprofloxacin for 10 days, ceftriaxone/cefotaxime for 14 days, or ...
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This treatment should last for 14 days after sterilization and then only cefotaxime for another 7 days creating a minimum of 21 ... For suspected Gram-negative enteric (including E. coli) meningitis a combination of cefotaxime and aminoglycoside, usually ...
For example, a variant of TEM1 β-lactamase with 5 mutations is able to cleave cefotaxime (a third generation antibiotic). ...
... was targeted by cefotaxime. Colistin mecA LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de Branham, Sara E. (1930-04-18). "A New Meningococcus-like Organism ( ...
... also known as cefotaxime clamidoxic acid (INN) Clamohexal (Hexal Australia) [Au]. clamoxyquine (INN) clanfenur (INN) clanobutin ...
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Systemic therapy: Newborns with gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum should be treated for 7 days with ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ...
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cefotaxime 200 MG/ML Injectable Solution. SCD. 3. 309065. cefotaxime (as cefotaxime sodium) 10 GM per 50 ML Injectable Solution ... Cefotaxime was not mutagenic in the mouse micronucleus test or in the Ames test. Cefotaxime did not impair fertility to rats ... NOTE: Cefotaxime solutions exhibit maximum stability in the pH 5-7 range. Solutions of cefotaxime should not be prepared with ... Cefotaxime for Injection, USP is supplied as a dry powder in Pharmacy Bulk Packages containing cefotaxime sodium equivalent to ...
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Limited information indicates that cefotaxime produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in ... Cefotaxime is no longer marketed in the United States. ... Cefotaxime No authors listed. Show details Display options ... Cefotaxime is no longer marketed in the United States. Limited information indicates that cefotaxime produces low levels in ... Cefotaxime No authors listed In: Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Child ...
Limited information indicates that cefotaxime produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in ... Cefotaxime is no longer marketed in the United States. ... Cefotaxime No authors listed. Free Books & Documents Show ... Cefotaxime is no longer marketed in the United States. Limited information indicates that cefotaxime produces low levels in ... Cefotaxime No authors listed In: Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Child ...
Limited information indicates that cefotaxime produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in ... Cefotaxime is no longer marketed in the United States. ... Transfer of cefotaxime in human milk and from mother to foetus ... Cefotaxime is no longer marketed in the United States. Limited information indicates that cefotaxime produces low levels in ... Cefotaxime - Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®). Cefotaxime - Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®). ...
Penicillin and Cefotaxime Resistance of Quinolone-Resistant Neisseria meningitidis Clonal Complex 4821, Shanghai, China, 1965- ... Penicillin and Cefotaxime Resistance of Quinolone-Resistant Neisseria meningitidis Clonal Complex 4821, Shanghai, China, 1965- ...
After more than a decade of use, cefotaxime continues to play an important role in the treatment of patients with serious ... Cefotaxime is a parenterally administered third generation cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. ... Total treatment costs per patient-day were $US25.21 for cefotaxime 1 g twice daily and $US37.23 for cefotaxime 1 g 3 times ... In general, comparative trials have shown that cefotaxime has equivalent clinical efficacy to ceftriaxone. Although cefotaxime ...
A publicly available article also appearing in PubMed about Cefotaxime ... Cefotaxime is an FDA Pregnancy Category B drug. Cefotaxime use in pregnancy has not been studied clearly and should be used ... Cefotaxime is a medication used to manage and treat cervicitis/urethritis and pneumonia. Cefotaxime is a beta-lactam antibiotic ... The half-life of cefotaxime is generally one hour, and severe kidney dysfunction may prolong the half-life of cefotaxime and ...
Cefotaxime (Claforan). *View full drug information. Third-generation cephalosporin that has broad gram-negative spectrum, lower ...
Cefotaxime in Enteric Fever: Therapeutic Reappraisal. Mehta, Ketan K. Afiliação *Mehta KK; Internist MD, FCPS, FICP, FISE, FGSI ... Cefotaxime and ceftriaxone have a comparable spectrum of antimicrobial activity, but both differ in terms of pharmacokinetics. ... Considering the published literature, cefotaxime seems to be a dependable option for the management of typhoid owing to its ... Amid such a scenario of rising antimicrobial resistance, a broad-spectrum antibiotic like cefotaxime is a real bliss. ...
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Cefotaxime <=0.5. S. Cefotaxime/clavulanic acid 1. <=0.25. ---. Cefoxitin <=2. S. Ceftazidime <=1.0. S. ...
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Cefotaxime treatment for women with community-acquired pelvic abscesses. David L. Hemsell, Rigoberto Santos-Ramos, F. Gary ... Cefotaxime treatment for women with community-acquired pelvic abscesses. / Hemsell, David L.; Santos-Ramos, Rigoberto; ... Hemsell, D. L., Santos-Ramos, R., Cunningham, F. G., Nobles, B. J., & Hemsell, P. G. (1985). Cefotaxime treatment for women ... Cefotaxime treatment for women with community-acquired pelvic abscesses. In: American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. ...
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  • Like other parenterally administered cephalosporins, cefotaxime is well tolerated. (nih.gov)
  • Cefotaxime does not cause a significant incidence of coagulopathies, as observed with some cephalosporins (e.g., cefamandole and cefoperazone), nor is it associated with the development of pseudocholelithiasis as seen with ceftriaxone. (nih.gov)
  • Compared with the other cephalosporins, a favorable characteristic of cefotaxime is that it does not cause a notable occurrence of coagulopathies and pseudocholelithiasis. (statpearls.com)
  • [6] Cefotaxime can readily cross the blood-brain barrier when administered intravenously and may treat gram-negative infections resistant to previous generations of cephalosporins. (statpearls.com)
  • To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Cefotaxime for Injection, USP (cefotaxime sodium) and other antibacterial drugs, Cefotaxime for Injection, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Sterile cefotaxime sodium is a semisynthetic, broad spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic for parenteral administration. (nih.gov)
  • Cefotaxime for Injection, USP contains approximately 50.5 mg (2.2 mEq) of sodium per gram of cefotaxime activity. (nih.gov)
  • Cefotaxime for Injection, USP is supplied as a dry powder in Pharmacy Bulk Packages containing cefotaxime sodium equivalent to 10 g of cefotaxime. (nih.gov)
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  • The aim of this study was to investigate the deposition profile of a model drug, cefotaxime sodium (CS), using coarse and fine carriers after aerosolization at 60 l/min via a spinhaler® into a twin stage liquid impinger (TSI). (ac.ir)
  • Cefotaxime is a parenterally administered third generation cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. (nih.gov)
  • Cefotaxime is a beta-lactam antibiotic classified as a third-generation cephalosporin. (statpearls.com)
  • Cefotaxime is a beta-lactam antibiotic classified as a third-generation cephalosporin, which was first synthesized in 1976 and is FDA approved to treat gram-positive, gram-negative, and anaerobic bacteria. (statpearls.com)
  • [4] Trials comparing cefotaxime with the third-generation cephalosporin ceftriaxone have exhibited similar clinical efficiency. (statpearls.com)
  • In general, comparative trials have shown that cefotaxime has equivalent clinical efficacy to ceftriaxone. (nih.gov)
  • however, other institutions have shown cost savings when cefotaxime is replaced by ceftriaxone. (nih.gov)
  • [5] [4] Cefotaxime may also be interchangeable with ceftriaxone as off-label use for the treatment of endocarditis by Haemophilus parainfluenzae , H. aphrophilus , Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans , Cardiobacterium hominis , Eikenella corrodens , and Kingella kingae (HACEK) organisms. (statpearls.com)
  • Cefotaxime and ceftriaxone have a comparable spectrum of antimicrobial activity, but both differ in terms of pharmacokinetics . (bvsalud.org)
  • Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cefotaxime does not work for colds or other viral infections. (advacarepharma.com)
  • Baeur method with the organism tested against ceftazidime (30µg), cefotaxime (30µg), amoxicillin-clavulinic acid (20/10µg), cefepime (30µg), ciprofloxacin (5µg), gentamicin (10µg), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (23.75/1.25µg), imipenem (10µg) and doripenem (10µg) (Oxoid, UK). (who.int)
  • The EPK were resistant to ceftazidime (100%), cefotaxime (94.0%), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (92.0%), gentamicin (70.0%) and ciprofloxacin (70.0%) but 100% susceptible to both doripenem and imipenem. (who.int)
  • The first ESBL isolates were discovered in Germany in the mid-1980s and subsequently in the United States of America in the late 1980s shortly after the introduction of ceftazidime and cefotaxime into clinical practice (Knothe et al. (who.int)
  • it provides many singles doses of cefotaxime for addition to suitable parenteral fluids in the preparation of admixtures for intravenous infusion. (nih.gov)
  • A single 50 mg/kg dose of cefotaxime was administered as an intravenous infusion over a 10- to 15-minute period to 29 newborn infants grouped according to birth weight and age. (nih.gov)
  • After a single 1 gram intravenous dose in 2 women, cefotaxime milk levels were not measurable at any time up to 6 hours after the dose. (nih.gov)
  • The patients were randomized into Group A and Group B. Group A was treated with Intravenous Ciprofloxacin and Group B was treated with Intravenous Cefotaxime given twice daily for a period of 5 days. (jmedsci.com)
  • Both intravenous ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime are effective in treating spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with Cirrhosis Liver. (jmedsci.com)
  • Cefotaxime has beneficial therapeutic activity treating pneumonia affecting the lower respiratory tract primarily caused by Gram-negative bacilli, and the bactericidal agent has shown significant efficacy in treating complicated infections affecting the urinary tract. (statpearls.com)
  • Cefotaxime is a bactericidal agent that exerts its mechanism of action by binding penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) via beta-lactam rings and inhibiting the definitive activity of transpeptidation in peptidoglycan cell wall synthesis of susceptible bacterial organisms. (statpearls.com)
  • Distinctive properties of cefotaxime like broad-spectrum of activity, bactericidal action, stability against the common resistance-causing mechanisms, and good safety profile make it a reliable choice in the therapy landscape of enteric fever . (bvsalud.org)
  • In this transnational study, we developed, validated, and tested a low-cost surveillance and easy to implement approach to evaluate antibiotic resistance in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) by targeting cefotaxime-resistant (CTX-R) coliforms as indicators. (sciencecentral.in)
  • Solutions of Cefotaxime for Injection, USP range from very pale yellow to light amber depending on the concentration and the diluent used. (nih.gov)
  • Cefotaxime injection may also be used before surgery, and during and after a cesarean section, in order to prevent the patient from getting an infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cefotaxime injection is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cefotaxime injection comes as a powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intravenously (into a vein) or intramuscularly (into a muscle). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cefotaxime injection is also available as a premixed product to be injected intravenously. (medlineplus.gov)
  • How often you receive cefotaxime injection and the length of your treatment depends on the type of infection you have and how your body responds to the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You may receive cefotaxime injection in a hospital or you may administer the medication at home. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you will be receiving cefotaxime injection at home, your healthcare provider will show you how to use the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You should begin to feel better during the first few days of treatment with cefotaxime injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Use cefotaxime injection until you finish the prescription, even if you feel better.If you stop using cefotaxime injection too soon or skip doses, your infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cefotaxime injection is also sometimes used to treat typhoid fever (a serious infection that is common in developing countries), salmonella (an infection that causes severe diarrhea) and other types of infectious diarrhea, food poisoning, Lyme disease (an infection that may develop after a person is bitten by a tick), and a certain type of infection from dog bites. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Also tell your doctor if you are allergic to any of the ingredients in cefotaxime injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you become pregnant while taking cefotaxime injection, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • and were susceptible to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid. (cdc.gov)
  • To compare the efficacy of Ciprofloxacin and Cefotaxime in Cirrhosis Liver patients with SBP. (jmedsci.com)
  • In Group A, 82 percent responded to ciprofloxacin and in group B, 86 percent responded to cefotaxime. (jmedsci.com)
  • Methods and Findings: The mechanism of synergistic activity of a combination of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and β-lactam antibiotics cefotaxime was studied on Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC), by visualizing the morphological alteration on the cell wall induced by the combination using atomic force microscopy (AFM). (ewha.ac.kr)
  • Forty-one women with pelvic abscesses complicating salpingitis were treated with parenteral cefotaxime, a newer cephalosporin. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Amid such a scenario of rising antimicrobial resistance, a broad-spectrum antibiotic like cefotaxime is a real bliss. (bvsalud.org)
  • After a single 1 gram dose of cefotaxime to 12 women, average peak levels of 0.32 mg/L occurred 2 hours after the dose. (nih.gov)
  • After more than a decade of use, cefotaxime continues to play an important role in the treatment of patients with serious infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • The mean half-life of cefotaxime in infants with lower birth weights (≤1500 grams), regardless of age, was longer (4.6 hours) than the mean half-life (3.4 hours) in infants whose birth weight was greater than 1500 grams. (nih.gov)
  • Limited information indicates that cefotaxime produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. (nih.gov)
  • Six (15%) women became pregnant and were delivered of their infants a mean of 25 months following cefotaxime therapy. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Among the susceptible strains, Enterobacteriaceae is particularly sensitive to cefotaxime and may treat multi-drug resistant strains of Enterobacteriaceae . (statpearls.com)
  • Following IM administration of a single 500 mg or 1 g dose of cefotaxime to normal volunteers, mean peak serum concentrations of 11.7 and 20.5 mcg/mL respectively were attained within 30 minutes and declined with an elimination half-life of approximately 1 hour. (nih.gov)
  • Cells at sub-MICs (sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations) of cefotaxime were initially filamentated but recovered to the normal shape later, whereas cells at sub-MICs of EGCG experienced temporal disturbance on the cell wall such as leakage and release of cellular debris and groove formation, but later recovered to the normal shape. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • Clinical trials of cefotaxime have demonstrated clinical and/or bacteriological success rates usually between 75 and 100% in hospitalised patients with infections such as pneumonia, complicated urinary tract infections and bacteraemia. (nih.gov)
  • This activity outlines the indications, mechanism of action, and contraindications for cefotaxime is a valuable agent in treating and managing bacterial infections. (statpearls.com)
  • [2] Cefotaxime may also be used prophylactically prior to surgery to prevent surgical infections. (statpearls.com)
  • [3] Intramuscular treatment with cefotaxime for sexually transmitted infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae has shown a positive outcome in both men and women. (statpearls.com)
  • Cefotaxime is used to treat and prevent bacterial infections such as pneumonia and some lower respiratory tract infections, gonorrhea, meningitis and other brain and spinal infections. (advacarepharma.com)
  • Cefotaxime might be also used to prevent infections from certain surgeries. (advacarepharma.com)
  • Transfer of cefotaxime in human milk and from mother to foetus. (nih.gov)
  • Identify the most common adverse events associated with cefotaxime therapy. (statpearls.com)
  • A mean of 26.7 gm of cefotaxime was given over a mean of 6.5 days, and operation was not required during initial therapy. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Approximately 20-36% of an intravenously administered dose of 14 C-cefotaxime is excreted by the kidney as unchanged cefotaxime and 15-25% as the desacetyl derivative, the major metabolite. (nih.gov)
  • Cefotaxime is a medication used to manage and treat cervicitis/urethritis and pneumonia. (statpearls.com)
  • Review some interprofessional team strategies for improving care coordination and communication to advance cefotaxime and improve outcomes. (statpearls.com)
  • Although cefotaxime was traditionally administered at 6- or 8-hourly intervals, evaluations of twice daily regimens have demonstrated the feasibility of using this extended dosage interval in selected patients. (nih.gov)
  • Cefotaxime and is mainly supposed for certain degree of the best price plavix 30 days ago learn the greatest potential by most impressive strength gains. (weedstore.cc)
  • Flow cytometry showed that intracellular oxidative stress levels in the cell treated with a combination of EGCG and cefotaxime at sub-MICs were higher than those in the cells treated with either cefotaxime or EGCG at sub-MICs. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • Considering the published literature , cefotaxime seems to be a dependable option for the management of typhoid owing to its effectiveness against S. typhi bundled with an acceptable tolerability profile. (bvsalud.org)
  • Such solvates are rarely used as a means of producing relatively simple spectrum cefotaxime of form II. (eventenergy.ru)
  • In contrast, the combination of cefotaxime and EGCG at their respective sub-MICs induced permanent cellular damages as well as continuous elongation in cells and eventually killed them. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • Study of cefotaxime in the perinatal period. (nih.gov)
  • Introduction of substitutions E104K and G238S, that are known to have a synergistic effect on function in the parent ß-lactamase, showed similar increases in catalytic efficiency toward cefotaxime in the related ß-lactamases. (frontiersin.org)