A cephalosporin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It is active against most common gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, is a potent inhibitor of Enterobacteriaceae, and is highly resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases. The drug has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
One of the CEPHALOSPORINS that has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
Benzoate derivatives that contain one or more alkyl or aryl groups linked to the benzene ring structure by OXYGEN.
A pyridinium-substituted semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial used especially for Pseudomonas infections in debilitated patients.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.
Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Cephalosporinase is an enzyme produced by certain bacteria that can hydrolyze and confer resistance to cephalosporin antibiotics.
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
A group of glycine amides of aminobenzoic acids.
A hexosyltransferase involved in the transfer of disaccharide molecules to the peptidoglycan structure of the CELL WALL SKELETON. It plays an important role in the genesis of the bacterial CELL WALL.
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.

Levels of cefmenoxime in sera and peritoneal tissues of patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. (1/55)

It is not known whether a prophylactic antibiotic administered prior to surgery reaches adequate levels in the peritoneum, where peritonitis may take place. This study determined levels of cefmenoxime in sera and peritoneal tissues of patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. Fifteen patients who underwent elective gastrointestinal surgery received an intravenous drip infusion of cefmenoxime (2 g) over 1 h prior to surgery. In patients who underwent gastrectomy, the level of cefmenoxime in serum was 130.8 +/- 6.9 micrograms/ml at laparatomy and decreased to 5.0 +/- 0.7 micrograms/ml at 4 h. Levels in parietal peritoneal and omental tissues at laparotomy were 35.3 +/- 5.2 and 19.2 +/- 3.5 micrograms, respectively, and decreased time dependently. In patients who underwent cholecystectomy, the level of cefmenoxime in serum was 137.9 +/- 7.3 micrograms/ml at laparotomy and decreased to 5.0 +/- 1.2 micrograms/ml at 4 h. Levels in parietal peritoneal and omental tissues were 31.0 +/- 8.4 and 13.7 +/- 3.3 micrograms/g, respectively, and decreased time dependently. The level of cefmenoxime in serum correlated with the levels of cefmenoxime in parietal peritoneum (r = 0.64, P less than 0.01) and in omentum (r = 0.47, P less than 0.02). In patients with appendicitis who received a bolus injection of 2 g of cefmenoxime, the level of drug in inflammatory omental tissue correlated with the level in serum. The levels in peritoneal tissue during surgery lasting up to 2 h were significantly greater than in MIC of cefmenoxime against almost all bacteria reported. A preoperative single dose of 2 g of cefmenoxime probably is effective as a prophylactic for intraoperative contamination.  (+info)

Synergistic effects of romurtide and cefmenoxime against experimental Klebsiella pneumonia in mice. (2/55)

We investigated the synergistic effects of romurtide (MDP-Lys [L18]) and cefmenoxime (CMX) in the treatment of experimental Klebsiella pneumonia in mice. Mice were infected with 1 x 10(4) CFU of Klebsiella pneumoniae by inhalation of aerosol bacterial suspension. About 90% of untreated animals died within a week; however, the mortality rate of animals treated with CMX alone at a dose of 40 mg/kg/day was 60% at 7 days after the infection. When one or two doses of L18 were administered before or after the infection concomitantly with CMX, a remarkable improvement in the survival rate was observed. There was no significant improvement in the survival rate of animals treated with L18 alone before or after infection. Histopathological sections of the lungs of mice treated with CMX and L18 showed slower progression of infection than those of mice treated with CMX alone. Significant differences were also found in quantitative cultures of viable bacteria in the lungs 1 to 4 days after the infection. Although viable bacterial counts in the lungs of the control and CMX-treated groups showed a rapid increase 24 to 48 h after the infection, they remained lower than the initial counts (x 10(4)) in the lungs of mice treated with combination regimens. From these results, it can be concluded that L18 is a useful biological response modifier in the treatment of acute pulmonary bacterial infections.  (+info)

Studies on condensed-heterocyclic azolium cephalosporins. III. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of 7 beta-[2-(2-amino-5-substituted-thiazol-4-yl)-2 (Z)-alkoxyiminoacetamido]-3-(condensed-heterocyclic azolium)methyl-3-cephem-4- carboxylates. (3/55)

As a part of our research on the synthesis of cephalosporins bearing condensed-heterocyclic azolium groups at the 3 position in the cephalosporin nucleus, we describe herein the synthesis of 7 beta-[2-(2-amino-5-halogeno-, methylthio-, methylsulfinyl-, methylsulfonyl- and sulfothiazol-4-yl)-2(Z)-alkoxyiminoacetamido] cephalosporins and their antibacterial activity. Among the compounds prepared, 7 beta-[2-(2-amino-5-chlorothiazol-4-yl)-2(Z)- methoxyiminoacetamido]-3-(imidazo[1,5-a]-pyridinium-1-yl)methyl-3-cephem -4-carboxylate (14) showed good antibacterial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, whereas the antibacterial activity against other Gram-negative bacteria was a slightly lower than that of 7 beta-[2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2(Z)-methoxyiminoacetamido]-3-(im ida zo [1,2-a]pyridinium (I-1) and imidazo[1,5-a]pyridinium (I-4)-1-yl)methyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylates.  (+info)

Application of mathematical model to multiple-dose experimental chemotherapy for fatal murine pneumonia. (4/55)

Two beta-lactam antibiotics, cefazolin and cefmenoxime, were administered for 7 days to mice with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae by using dosage regimens that would simulate multiple dosing in usual clinical treatments at dosing intervals of 8 or 12 h. Viable numbers of the bacteria in the lungs were measured at 12- or 24-h intervals. The mathematical model established in a previous single-dose study was applied in this study to explain the time courses of the changes in bacterial count over 7 days. However, because the error in viable count measurements was larger than that in the previous study, the time course of the changes in mean viable count was not regular and the viable count reduction rate changed during multiple dosing, and therefore it was difficult to explain the time course by repeated application of the mathematical model described previously. This study suggests that the changes in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters during multiple dosing need to be considered.  (+info)

Paradoxical activity of beta-lactam antibiotics against Proteus vulgaris in experimental infection in mice. (5/55)

In previous papers (Y. Ikeda and T. Nishino, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:1073-1077, 1988; Y. Ikeda, T. Nishino, and T. Tanino, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:865-869, 1987), we reported that many of the 7-aminothiazolyl cephalosporins, such as cefmenoxime, showed paradoxically reduced activity against Proteus vulgaris at higher concentrations, whereas these paradoxical effects were not observed for other types of cephalosporins, such as cefbuperazone and cefoperazone. In this study, we compare the therapeutic effect of cefmenoxime with that of cefbuperazone and explore the in vivo paradoxical effect of cefmenoxime by using an experimental infection model in mice. In an intraperitoneal infection with P. vulgaris 11, the survival rate with cefmenoxime was increased to 43% at 3.13 mg/kg but was lower at higher doses. On the other hand, cefbuperazone did not show such a paradoxical therapeutic effect. In mice infected with P. vulgaris 11, cefmenoxime levels in both serum and peritoneal washings were rapidly reduced and beta-lactamase activities in the peritoneal cavity were increased at higher cefmenoxime doses. These findings suggested that high levels of cefmenoxime at the infection site induced increased production of beta-lactamase, which then rapidly inactivated the antibiotic. We conclude that the paradoxical therapeutic effect of cefmenoxime against P. vulgaris occurs by the same mechanisms as the in vitro effect and that the high beta-lactamase inducibility and low beta-lactamase stability may account for the paradoxical therapeutic effect of cefmenoxime against P. vulgaris.  (+info)

Application of mathematical model to experimental chemotherapy of fatal murine pneumonia. (6/55)

Two beta-lactam antibiotics, cefazolin and cefmenoxime, were administered in an experimental model of murine pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a way which enabled us to approximate the serum antibiotic concentration time course in humans. Bacterial counts during the experiments were subjected to nonlinear least-squares analyses by using a mathematical model that explained the bacterial killing by the antibiotic concentration time course and other factors associated with antimicrobial potency and bacterial growth. Cefazolin gave a killing curve that changed synchronously with the drug levels in serum; in contrast, cefmenoxime gave a curve that was prolonged as compared with the change in the drug levels in serum. Multiple correlation coefficients were about 0.9, and the model worked well for bacterial count data. Parameters relating to antimicrobial potency of the drugs, bacterial growth rate, and drug distribution into the tissue were estimated numerically.  (+info)

In vitro assessment of the cytotoxicity of six topical antibiotics to four cultured ocular surface cell lines. (7/55)

To determine the cytotoxicity of antibiotic eyedrops to ocular surface cells using a semi-quantitative method, a range of commercially available antibiotic eyedrops were assessed by using three corneal cell lines and one conjunctival cell line. All antibiotic solutions were free of benzalkonium chloride. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay and neutral red assay following the exposure of cells to the undiluted, 2- and 10-fold diluted drugs for 10, 30, and 60 min. Toxicity was compared using % cell viability score (%CVS) . The tested eyedrops and values of %CVS50 and %CVS40/80 were Bestron((R)) (cefmenoxime, 100, 94) , Panimycin((R)) (dibekacin, 86, 58) , Noflo((R)) (norfloxacin, 90, 50) , Cravit((R)) (levofloxacin, 86, 46) , Tosfulo((R)) (tosufloxacin, 57, -3) , and Vigamox((R)) (moxifloxacin, 57, -6) . Cell viability markedly increased after dilution. For instance, cell viability assayed by MTT was > 80% for all the measurements in antibiotics diluted 10-fold, and the rate of the measurements showing > 80% cell viability decreased to 43% (31 out of 72 measurements) in the solutions diluted 2-fold. Of the drugs tested, Bestron((R)) containing cefmenoxime showed the weakest toxicity. Vigamox((R)) containing moxifloxacin and Tosuflo((R)) containing tosufloxacin were more toxic when compared with the other antibiotics. CVS was useful for the comparison of the cytotoxicity of the drugs.  (+info)

Antimicrobial activity and stability to beta-lactamase of BMY-28271, a new oral cephalosporin ester. (8/55)

BMY-28271, the acetoxyethyl ester of BMY-28232, 7-[(Z)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-hydroxyiminoacetamido]-3(Z) -propen-1-yl-3- cephem-4-carboxylic acid, is a new oral cephalosporin. BMY-28232 has a widely expanded spectrum with high activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. BMY-28232 is far more active than cefixime or cefteram against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Against gram-negative bacteria, the activity of BMY-28232 was comparable to or somewhat weaker than that of cefixime or cefteram. BMY-28232 was a poor substrate for various beta-lactamases. Orally administered BMY-28271 had a good therapeutic effect on systemic infections with S. aureus and some gram-negative bacteria in mice. Oral BMY-28271 was efficacious against S. aureus Smith infection: the efficacy of BMY-28271 was 80 to 90 times higher than that of cefixime or cefteram.  (+info)

Cefmenoxime is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Cefmenoxime has a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including some strains that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Common indications for cefmenoxime include respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and intra-abdominal infections. It is also used as a prophylactic agent during surgery to reduce the risk of postoperative infections.

Cefmenoxime is usually administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and its dosage may vary depending on the type and severity of the infection, as well as the patient's age and renal function. Common side effects of cefmenoxime include gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, as well as allergic reactions such as rash, itching, and hives.

It is important to note that the use of antibiotics should be based on a careful assessment of the patient's condition and the susceptibility of the infecting organism. Overuse or misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance, which can make subsequent infections more difficult to treat.

Cefotaxime is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Cefotaxime has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Cefotaxime is often used to treat serious infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. It may also be used to prevent infections during surgery or in people with weakened immune systems. The drug is administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and its dosage depends on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Like all antibiotics, cefotaxime can cause side effects, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and rash. In rare cases, it may cause serious allergic reactions or damage to the kidneys or liver. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking this medication.

Cefotiam is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, leading to bacterial cell death. Cefotiam has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Here is the medical definition of 'Cefotiam':

Cefotiam is a semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, beta-lactam antibiotic belonging to the cephalosporin class. It has activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including many strains that are resistant to other antibiotics. Cefotiam inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), leading to bacterial cell death.

Cefotiam is available in various formulations, including intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) injections, for the treatment of a wide range of infections, such as:

* Lower respiratory tract infections (e.g., pneumonia, bronchitis)
* Urinary tract infections (e.g., pyelonephritis, cystitis)
* Skin and soft tissue infections (e.g., cellulitis, wound infections)
* Bone and joint infections (e.g., osteomyelitis, septic arthritis)
* Intra-abdominal infections (e.g., peritonitis, appendicitis)
* Septicemia (bloodstream infections)

Cefotiam is generally well tolerated, but like other antibiotics, it can cause side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), skin rashes, and allergic reactions. In rare cases, cefotiam may cause serious adverse effects, such as seizures, interstitial nephritis, or hemorrhagicystitis. It should be used with caution in patients with a history of allergy to beta-lactam antibiotics, impaired renal function, or a history of seizure disorders.

It is essential to complete the full course of treatment as prescribed by a healthcare professional, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that the infection is entirely eradicated and to reduce the risk of developing antibiotic resistance.

Proteus vulgaris is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in soil, water, and the human digestive tract. They are named after the Greek god Proteus, who could change his shape at will, as these bacteria are known for their ability to undergo various morphological changes.

Proteus vulgaris is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and can cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. They can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, wound infections, pneumonia, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections).

Proteus vulgaris is also known for its ability to produce urease, an enzyme that breaks down urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. This can lead to the formation of urinary stones and contribute to the development of chronic urinary tract infections. Additionally, Proteus vulgaris can form biofilms, which can make it difficult to eradicate the bacteria from infected sites.

In a medical context, identifying Proteus vulgaris is important for determining appropriate antibiotic therapy and managing infections caused by this organism.

Hydroxybenzoate ethers are a type of chemical compound that are commonly used as preservatives in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food products. They are formed by the reaction between a hydroxybenzoic acid and an alcohol, resulting in the creation of an ether bond.

The term "hydroxybenzoate" refers to a class of compounds known as phenols, which contain a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a benzene ring. Examples of hydroxybenzoic acids include gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, and vanillic acid.

When these hydroxybenzoic acids react with an alcohol, such as ethanol or methanol, they form hydroxybenzoate ethers. The most common examples of hydroxybenzoate ethers used in medical applications include:

* Methylparaben (methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate)
* Ethylparaben (ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate)
* Propylparaben (propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate)
* Butylparaben (butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate)

These compounds are effective antimicrobial agents and are used to prevent the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds in a variety of medical and consumer products. However, there is some concern that parabens may have estrogenic effects and potentially disrupt hormone function, although the evidence for this is not conclusive. As a result, some manufacturers have begun to phase out the use of parabens in their products.

Cefsulodin is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. By damaging the cell wall, Cefsulodin causes the bacterium to become unstable and eventually die.

Cefsulodin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which means it is effective against a wide range of bacteria. It is often used to treat infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can be difficult to treat with other types of antibiotics.

Cefsulodin is usually given by injection into a vein (intravenously) or muscle (intramuscularly). It may also be given as a topical solution for skin infections. As with all antibiotics, Cefsulodin should only be used under the direction of a healthcare provider, and it is important to take the full course of treatment as prescribed, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished.

Like other cephalosporins, Cefsulodin can cause side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and rash. In rare cases, it may also cause serious side effects such as an allergic reaction, kidney damage, or seizures. It is important to inform your healthcare provider of any medical conditions you have and any medications you are taking before starting treatment with Cefsulodin.

Cefazolin is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria are not able to grow and multiply, and are eventually destroyed by the body's immune system.

Cefazolin is commonly used to treat infections of the skin, bones, joints, heart, lungs, and urinary tract. It may also be used to prevent infection during surgery. Like all antibiotics, cefazolin is only effective against certain types of bacteria, so it is important to know the specific type of bacteria causing an infection before using this medication.

Cefazolin is usually given as an injection into a vein or muscle, and may be administered in a hospital setting or at home with proper training. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the patient's overall health status.

As with any medication, cefazolin can cause side effects, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, and rash. In rare cases, it may also cause serious side effects such as allergic reactions, kidney damage, or abnormal blood clotting. It is important to report any unusual symptoms to a healthcare provider promptly.

It is essential to complete the full course of treatment with cefazolin, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Cephamycins are a subclass of cephalosporin antibiotics, which are derived from the fungus Acremonium species. They have a similar chemical structure to other cephalosporins but have an additional methoxy group on their side chain that makes them more resistant to beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by some bacteria that can inactivate other cephalosporins and penicillins.

Cephamycins are primarily used to treat infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus species, and Enterobacter species. They have a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, making them useful for treating a variety of infections.

The two main cephamycins that are used clinically are cefoxitin and cefotetan. Cefoxitin is often used to treat intra-abdominal infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, and skin and soft tissue infections. Cefotetan is primarily used for the treatment of surgical prophylaxis, gynecological infections, and pneumonia.

Like other cephalosporins, cephamycins can cause allergic reactions, including rashes, hives, and anaphylaxis. They should be used with caution in patients who have a history of allergies to penicillin or other beta-lactam antibiotics. Additionally, cephamycins can disrupt the normal gut flora, leading to secondary infections such as Clostridioides difficile (C. diff) diarrhea.

Cefamandole is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is a type of antibacterial medication used to treat various infections caused by bacteria. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, resulting in weakening and eventual death of the bacterial cells.

Cefamandole has a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, making it useful for treating a variety of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and septicemia.

Like other cephalosporins, cefamandole is generally well-tolerated and has a low incidence of serious side effects. However, it can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as allergic reactions in some people. It may also interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your healthcare provider of all the medications you are taking before starting cefamandole therapy.

It is important to note that antibiotics should only be used to treat bacterial infections and not viral infections, as they are not effective against viruses and can contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance.

Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are derived from the fungus Acremonium, originally isolated from seawater and cow dung. They have a similar chemical structure to penicillin and share a common four-membered beta-lactam ring in their molecular structure.

Cephalosporins work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, which ultimately leads to bacterial death. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, meaning they are effective against a wide range of bacteria, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.

There are several generations of cephalosporins, each with different spectra of activity and pharmacokinetic properties. The first generation cephalosporins have a narrow spectrum of activity and are primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Second-generation cephalosporins have an expanded spectrum of activity that includes some Gram-negative organisms, such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. Third-generation cephalosporins have even broader spectra of activity and are effective against many resistant Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Fourth-generation cephalosporins have activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics. They are often reserved for the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Cephalosporins are generally well tolerated, but like penicillin, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Cross-reactivity between cephalosporins and penicillin is estimated to occur in 5-10% of patients with a history of penicillin allergy. Other potential adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), neurotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity.

A cephalosporinase is an enzyme that can break down and inactivate cephalosporins, a group of antibiotics commonly used to treat various bacterial infections. Bacteria that produce this enzyme are referred to as "cephalosporin-resistant" or "cephalosporinase-producing" organisms. The production of cephalosporinases by bacteria can lead to treatment failures and make infections more difficult to manage.

Cephalosporins are broad-spectrum antibiotics, which means they can be effective against a wide range of bacterial species. However, some bacteria have developed resistance mechanisms, such as the production of cephalosporinases, to counteract their effects. These enzymes hydrolyze the beta-lactam ring in cephalosporins, rendering them ineffective.

There are different classes of cephalosporinases (e.g., Ambler classes A, C, and D), each with distinct characteristics and substrate profiles. Some cephalosporinases can hydrolyze a broader range of cephalosporins than others, leading to varying degrees of resistance.

To overcome cephalosporinase-mediated resistance, alternative antibiotics or combinations of antibiotics may be used. Additionally, the development of new cephalosporins with improved stability against these enzymes is an ongoing area of research in the field of antimicrobial drug discovery.

Cephaloridine is a type of antibiotic that belongs to the class of cephalosporins. It is used for treating various bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and septicemia.

Cephaloridine works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall, leading to bacterial death. It is administered intramuscularly or intravenously and is known for its broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, due to its potential nephrotoxicity (kidney toxicity), it has largely been replaced by other antibiotics with similar spectra of activity but better safety profiles.

It's important to note that the use of cephaloridine should be reserved for infections caused by bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics, and its administration should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

Aminohippuric acids are a type of organic compound that contain both an amino group and a hippuric acid group in their chemical structure. Hippuric acid is a derivative of benzoic acid, which is conjugated with glycine in the body. Aminohippuric acids are primarily known for their use as diagnostic agents in renal function tests.

The most common aminohippuric acid is p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), which is used as a marker to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) in the kidneys. PAH is freely filtered by the glomeruli and then actively secreted by the proximal tubules of the nephrons, making it an ideal agent for measuring ERPF.

In a renal function test using PAH, a small dose of the compound is injected into the patient's bloodstream, and its concentration in the blood is measured over time. By analyzing the clearance rate of PAH from the blood, healthcare providers can estimate the ERPF and assess kidney function.

Overall, aminohippuric acids are important diagnostic tools for evaluating renal function and identifying potential kidney-related health issues.

Peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase is not a medical term per se, but rather a biological term used to describe an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan, a major component of bacterial cell walls.

In simpler terms, peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase is an enzyme responsible for adding sugar molecules to the growing peptidoglycan structure during bacterial cell wall synthesis. This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a disaccharide-peptide subunit from a donor molecule (a lipid carrier called undecaprenyl pyrophosphate) to the acceptor molecule (the existing peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall). This process helps maintain the structural integrity and stability of bacterial cells.

Because of its essential role in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase is considered a potential target for developing new antibiotics to combat bacterial infections.

Cefoxitin is a type of antibiotic known as a cephamycin, which is a subclass of the larger group of antibiotics called cephalosporins. Cephalosporins are bactericidal agents that inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to and disrupting the function of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs).

Cefoxitin has a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including many strains that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is commonly used to treat infections caused by susceptible organisms such as:

* Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant S. aureus or MRSA)
* Streptococcus pneumoniae
* Escherichia coli
* Klebsiella spp.
* Proteus mirabilis
* Bacteroides fragilis and other anaerobic bacteria

Cefoxitin is available in both intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) formulations, and it is typically administered every 6 to 8 hours. The drug is generally well tolerated, but potential side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, as well as allergic reactions, including rash, pruritus, and anaphylaxis.

It's important to note that the use of antibiotics should be based on the results of bacterial cultures and susceptibility testing whenever possible, to ensure appropriate therapy and minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

... is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic.[citation needed] Diseases Database (DDB): 30892 Yokota N, Koguchi M ... Duncker G, Reich U, Krausse R (1994). "Cefmenoxime in corneal organ culture". Ophthalmologica. 208 (5): 262-6. doi:10.1159/ ... Paladino J, Fell R (1994). "Pharmacoeconomic analysis of cefmenoxime dual individualization in the treatment of nosocomial ... "Antibacterial activities of cefmenoxime against recent fresh clinical isolates from patients in sinusitis". Jpn J Antibiot. 48 ...
These include latamoxef (moxalactam), cefmenoxime, cefoperazone, cefamandole, cefmetazole, and cefotetan. This is thought to be ...
The first products TAP file new drug applications for, were two cephalosporins, cefmenoxime (Cefmax) and cefsulodin (Cefonomil ...
Cefmax cefmenoxime (INN) cefmepidium chloride (INN) cefmetazole (INN) cefminox (INN) Cefobid cefodizime (INN) cefonicid (INN) ...
S01AA27 Cefuroxime S01AA28 Vancomycin S01AA29 Dibekacin S01AA30 Combinations of different antibiotics S01AA31 Cefmenoxime ...
... s such as metronidazole, tinidazole, cephamandole, latamoxef, cefoperazone, cefmenoxime, and furazolidone, cause a ...
... cefmenoxime MeSH D02.065.589.099.249.190.190.135 - cefotiam MeSH D02.065.589.099.249.190.190.145 - ceftizoxime MeSH D02.065. ...
... cefmenoxime, cefmetazole, cefonicid, cefoperazone, cefotetan, ceftriaxone, and latamoxef (moxalactam); thought to be due to ...
Examples of such sodium salts are (selection): Bispyribac, bithionol, bosentan, brequinar, bromfenac, Cefmenoxime, ceftiofur, ...
J01DC14 Flomoxef J01DD01 Cefotaxime J01DD02 Ceftazidime J01DD03 Cefsulodin J01DD04 Ceftriaxone J01DD05 Cefmenoxime J01DD06 ...
Rifamycin S02AA13 Miconazole S02AA14 Gentamicin S02AA15 Ciprofloxacin S02AA16 Ofloxacin S02AA17 Fosfomycin S02AA18 Cefmenoxime ...
... cefmenoxime 1983 - ceftazidime 1983 - ceftizoxime 1983 - norfloxacin 1984 - cefonicid 1984 - cefotetan 1984 - temocillin 1985 ...
Cefmenoxime is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic.[citation needed] Diseases Database (DDB): 30892 Yokota N, Koguchi M ... Duncker G, Reich U, Krausse R (1994). "Cefmenoxime in corneal organ culture". Ophthalmologica. 208 (5): 262-6. doi:10.1159/ ... Paladino J, Fell R (1994). "Pharmacoeconomic analysis of cefmenoxime dual individualization in the treatment of nosocomial ... "Antibacterial activities of cefmenoxime against recent fresh clinical isolates from patients in sinusitis". Jpn J Antibiot. 48 ...
ករណីថ្នាំចាក់:. ・ករណីចាក់ក្នុងសាច់ដុំ:. ប្រើ1ថ្ងៃ1~2g បែងចែកជា2ដងក្នុង1ថ្ងៃ លាយជាមួយសូលុយស្យុងដែលភ្ជាប់មកជាមួយ រួចចាក់ក្នុងសាច់ដុំ។. ・ករណីចាក់តាមសរសៃវ៉ែន:. -មនុស្សពេញវ័យ:ប្រើ1ថ្ងៃ1~2g បែងចែកជា2ដងក្នុង1ថ្ងៃ ចាក់តាមសរសៃវ៉ែន។ ករណីពិបាកព្យាបាល ឬ ករណីរោគសញ្ញាធ្ងន់ធ្ងរ អាចបង្កើនកម្រិតដល់1ថ្ងៃ4g បែងចែកជា2~4ដងក្នុង1ថ្ងៃ។ ...
cefmenoxime S02AA30 antiinfectives, combinations List of abbreviations. Last updated: 2023-01-23 ...
Aktuelle API Auditberichte • GMP-Audits der Herstelung pharmazeutischer Ausgangs- und Wirkstoffe nach ICH Q7 / EU GMP Guide Part II • Diapharm
Cefdinir, Cefditoren, Cefetamet, Cefixime, Cefmenoxime, Cefodizime, Cefoperazone, Cefotaxime, Cefpiramide, Cefpodoxime, ...
3. For research involving disulfiram-like reactions with newer ceph- alosporins: Cefmenoxime. The barbiturates dominated ...
Polymyxin B, sold under the brand name Poly-Rx among others, is an antibiotic used to treat meningitis, pneumonia, sepsis, and urinary tract infections.[1] While it is useful for many Gram negative infections, it is not useful for Gram positive infections.[1] It can be given by injection into a vein, muscle, or cerebrospinal fluid or inhaled.[1] The injectable form is generally only used if other options are not available.[2] It is also available as the combinations bacitracin/polymyxin B and neomycin/polymyxin B/bacitracin for use on the skin.[3][4] Common side effects when given by injection include kidney problems, neurological problems, fever, itchiness, and rash.[1] Injections into muscle may result in significant pain.[1] Other serious side effects may include fungal infections, anaphylaxis, and muscle weakness.[1] It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe for the baby.[1] Polymyxin B works by breaking down the cytoplasmic membrane which generally results in bacterial cell death.[1] ...
This review explores evolving knowledge of the immunopathogenic mechanisms, pharmacogenomic associations, and medication cross-reactivity data related to SCAR syndromes.
Cefmenoxime. A cephalosporin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It is active against most common ... Disulfonic AcidGlycolatesCefmenoximeTrifluoroacetic AcidGlutamineAminoisobutyric AcidsTricarboxylic AcidsCycloparaffins ...
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Cefmenoxime. Cefoperazone. Cefotaxime. Cefpiramide. Cefpodoxime. Cefsulodin. Ceftibuten. Ceftizoxime. Ceftriaxone. Latamoxef. ...
Cefmenoxime (Fig. 4a, d) had six major ligand interactions with NSP15, the shortest distance of which was 2.73 Å from the ... Cefmenoxime. D. Gefitinib. Edetic Acid. Peramivir. Eprosartan. Trifluridine. Cefmetazole. Doripenem. Lapatinib. Pentetic Acid. ... a) Cefmenoxime; (b) Cefotiam; (c) Ceforanide. The plots show the stability of the positions of these compounds. MD, molecular ... a, d) Cefmenoxime; (b, e) Cefotiam; (c, f) Ceforanide. NSP15, nonstructural protein 15. ...
Cefmenoxime Susc Islt Code System Concept Status. Published. Code System Preferred Concept Name. Cefmenoxime [Susceptibility]. ...
Dive into the research topics of Cochleotoxicity of otic drops in the chinchilla: Comparative study of Bestron and Cortisporin. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
CEFMENOXIME HEMIHYDROCHLORIDE STERILE (CEFMENOXIME HYDROCHLORIDE ). *CEFMENOXIME HEMIHYDROCHLORIDE STERILE (CEFMENOXIME ... "注射用鹽酸頭胞美欣的英文名稱為Cefmenoxime Hydrochloride for Injection"Standard",
Effect of probenecid on the pharmacokinetics of cefmenoxime. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1983 Jun;23(6):803-7. ...
Preparation and Characterization of Nanoparticles of Amorphous Cefmenoxime Hydrochloride Figure 3: Scanning electron microscope ...
Our main products include cefmenoxime hydrochloride and its intermediate, .... samaritanhospital.org: Welcome to Samaritan ...
Cefmenoxime D2.886.675.966.500.249.190.190.125 D2.886.665.74.190.190.125. D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.190.190.125. Cefmetazole ...
Cefmenoxime D2.886.675.966.500.249.190.190.125 D2.886.665.74.190.190.125. D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.190.190.125. Cefmetazole ...
Cefmenoxime D2.886.675.966.500.249.190.190.125 D2.886.665.74.190.190.125. D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.190.190.125. Cefmetazole ...
Cefmenoxime D2.886.675.966.500.249.190.190.125 D2.886.665.74.190.190.125. D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.190.190.125. Cefmetazole ...
Cefmenoxime D2.886.675.966.500.249.190.190.125 D2.886.665.74.190.190.125. D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.190.190.125. Cefmetazole ...
Cefmenoxime D2.886.675.966.500.249.190.190.125 D2.886.665.74.190.190.125. D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.190.190.125. Cefmetazole ...
Cefmenoxime D2.886.675.966.500.249.190.190.125 D2.886.665.74.190.190.125. D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.190.190.125. Cefmetazole ...
Cefmenoxime D2.886.675.966.500.249.190.190.125 D2.886.665.74.190.190.125. D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.190.190.125. Cefmetazole ...
Cefmenoxime D2.886.675.966.500.249.190.190.125 D2.886.665.74.190.190.125. D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.190.190.125. Cefmetazole ...
  • 33. The client and family with information about when they initiate chain reactions, such as cefotetan, cefoperazone, cefamandole, and cefmenoxime. (reflectionsbodysolutions.com)
  • The superior five cephalosporins (categorized by his or her defined every day amounts) have been cefodizime sea, cefoperazone/sulbactam sea salt, cefaclor, cefixime as well as cefmenoxime hydrochloride, which were used 182.93, 110.Sixty three, 109.09, Information and facts.47 as well as 100.05 outlined every day dose every 12,500 days and nights, correspondingly. (parp1inhibitor.com)
  • We are raw material supplier in China for Cefmenoxime hydrochloride, third-generation, semi-synthetic, beta-lactam cephalosporin antibiotic used in the treatment of female gynecologic and obstetric infections. (inopha.net)
  • Contact us to get Cefmenoxime hydrochloride if want to order it online. (inopha.net)
  • Strategies Rotarod functionality was examined every 2?weeks after a presymptomatic Cefmenoxime hydrochloride administration of intravenous MSC-derived exosomes in YACMJD84 twice.2 mice. (monossabios.com)
  • Mutant ATXN3 protein aggregates in neurons, forms nuclear inclusions, and disturbs the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, leading to neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, and mind atrophy Cefmenoxime hydrochloride especially in the cerebellar nuclei, brainstem, and basal ganglia [3, 4]. (monossabios.com)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into different cell types in the brain and launch Cefmenoxime hydrochloride many potent factors. (monossabios.com)
  • Strategies Cell culture Individual urine cell-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (U-iPSCs) had been donated with the Guangzhou Institute Cefmenoxime hydrochloride of Biomedicine and Wellness, Chinese language Academy of Research, Guangzhou, China [16]. (monossabios.com)
  • MSCs were after that cleaned in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) 3 x, and Cefmenoxime hydrochloride CCM was after that changed with chemically described and protein-free (CDPF) moderate as inside our earlier research [18], which contains CD-CHO moderate. (monossabios.com)