Cefatrizine: Orally active semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with broad-spectrum activity.Cephalexin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Cefazolin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.TriazolesBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Cefaclor: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotic derivative of CEPHALEXIN.Cyclacillin: A cyclohexylamido analog of PENICILLANIC ACID.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Pamphlets: Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Sick Sinus Syndrome: A condition caused by dysfunctions related to the SINOATRIAL NODE including impulse generation (CARDIAC SINUS ARREST) and impulse conduction (SINOATRIAL EXIT BLOCK). It is characterized by persistent BRADYCARDIA, chronic ATRIAL FIBRILLATION, and failure to resume sinus rhythm following CARDIOVERSION. This syndrome can be congenital or acquired, particularly after surgical correction for heart defects.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane: An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.alpha-Macroglobulins: Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cephradine: A semi-synthetic cephalosporin antibiotic.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Cefadroxil: Long-acting, broad-spectrum, water-soluble, CEPHALEXIN derivative.

Cefatrizine activity compared with that of other cephalosporins. (1/4)

Cefatrizine, a new orally administered cephalosporin, was tested against 400 clinical isolates. Cefatrizine had excellent activity against gram-positive cocci, inhibiting all except enterococci at minimal inhibitory concentrations below 1 mug/ml. Cefatrizine inhibited the majority of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella at concentrations below 12.5 mug/ml. Although cefatrizine was not hydrolyzed by many beta-lactamases, it did not inhibit a number of strains of Enterobacter, Serratia, or indole-positive Proteus. Cefatrizine was more active than cephalothin or cephalexin against E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella. Its overall activity was less than that of cefoxitin against strains resistant to cephalothin, but its activity against cephalothin-susceptible strains was equivalent to that of cefamandole.  (+info)

Human intravenous pharmacokinetics and absolute oral bioavailability of cefatrizine. (2/4)

Cefatrizine was administered intravenously and orally at dose levels of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg to normal male volunteers in a crossover study. Intravenous pharmacokinetics were dose linear over this range; mean peak plasma concentrations at the end of 30-min infusions were, respectively, 18, 37, and 75 micrograms/ml, total body clearance was 218 ml/min per 1.73 m2, renal clearance was 176 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and mean retention time in the body was 1.11 h. Cumulative urinary excretion of intact cefatrizine was 80% of the dose, and half-lives ranged from 1 to 1.4 h. Steady-state volume of distribution was 0.22 liters/kg. On oral administration, the absolute bioavailabilities of cefatrizine were 75% at 250 and 500 mg and 50% at 1,000 mg. The mean peak plasma concentrations and peak times were, respectively, 4.9, 8.6, and 10.2 micrograms/ml at 1.4, 1.6, and 2.0 h, mean residence times were 2.4, 2.6, and 3.1 h, and mean absorption times were 1.3, 1.6, and 1.9 h. Oral renal clearance and half-life values corresponded well to the intravenous values. Cumulative urinary excretion of intact cefatrizine (as percentage of dose) was 60 at 250 mg, 56 at 500 mg, and 42 at 1,000 mg. It is hypothesized that the lack of oral dose linearity between the 500- and 1,000-mg doses is due to a component of cefatrizine absorption by a saturable transport process. Relative absorption at the high dose would be sufficiently slow that an absorption "window" would be passed before maximum bioavailability could be attained. It is not expected that the observed bioavailability decrease at doses exceeding 500 mg will have any therapeutic significance, since clinical studies are establishing efficacy for a recommended unit dosage regimen of 500 mg.  (+info)

In vitro activities of five oral cephalosporins against aerobic pathogenic bacteria. (3/4)

Cefaclor (Lilly 99638) and cefatrizine (BL-S640, SK&F 70771) are orally absorbed, broad-spectrum semisynthetic cephalosporins. They were compared in vitro with cephalexin, cephaloglycin, and cepharadine against a variety of aerobic pathogenic bacteria by an agar dilution procedure. Cefaclor and cefatrizine were found to be similar or superior to cephalexin, cephaloglycin, and cephradine in terms of activity against gram-positive cocci other than enterococci. Only cefatrizine demonstrated any potentially useful activity against some susceptible isolates of enterococci. Cefaclor and cefatrizine also were highly active, equally or more so than the other oral cephalosporins, against several gram-negative species including Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. None of the cephalosporins were particularly active against Enterobacter cloacae. Both cefaclor and cefatrizine were active against Proteus mirabilis; cefatrizine was uniquely active against indolepositive Proteus species.  (+info)

In-vitro activity of 21 beta-lactam antibiotics against penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. (4/4)

MICs of 21 beta-lactams were determined by agar dilution against 283 penicillin-susceptible (pen-S), 122 intermediate (pen-I) and 23 fully penicillin-resistant (pen-R) pneumococci. MICs of all beta-lactams increased with increasing MICs of penicillin. Clometocillin was the most active penicillin against pen-I or pen-R pneumococci. All oral cephalosporins except cefuroxime and cefpodoxime were less active than penicillin and none was satisfactory against pen-I or pen-R pneumococci. The parenteral third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins (except ceftazidime) were similar in activity to penicillin against pen-S isolates. Cefpirome showed the lowest mean MICs against pen-I and pen-R strains.  (+info)

ABSTRACT. Diminazene remains one of South Africas most commonly used antiprotozoal agents for the management of babesiosis in dogs . Although the drug has been on the market for over 40 years, its intravenous pharmacokinetics are poorly known. To better understand the pharmacokinetics of the drug Berenil®, it was reconstituted in sterile water and administered intravenously to 6 adult German shepherd dogs. All 6 dogs demonstrated the previously described secondary peak in the plasma concentration versus time profile. The plasma pharmacokinetics for diminazene are described by both non-compartmental and compartmental models. From non-compartmental analysis, the area under curve to the last sample point (AUQast), clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (Vz) were 4.65 ± 1.95 ng/ml/h, 0.77 ± 0.18 l/kg/h and2.28 ± 0.60 l/kg respectively. For compartmental modelling, the plasma concentrations were fitted to both a 2-compartmental open model and a recirculatory enterohepatic model. From the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Physicochemical properties of amphoteric β-lactam antibiotics. IV. First- and second-order degradations of cefaclor and cefatrizine in aqueous solution and kinetic interpretation of the intestinal absorption and degradation of the concentrated antibiotics. AU - Nakashima, E.. AU - Tsuji, A.. AU - Nakamura, M.. AU - Yamana, T.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - A kinetic study on the degradations of cefaclor and cefatrizine was carried out at 35°C as a function of pH and initial drug concentration by the use of high-performance liquid chromatography. At constant pH and temperature, the degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics at the initial concentration of 5 mM. The shape of the rate-constant-pH profile of cefaclor resembled those for cefatrizine and other aminocephalosporins. At neutral pH, cefaclor was degraded via intramolecular nucleophilic attack of the α-amino group on the β-lactam moiety. The intramolecular reaction rate was very similar to that in the cases of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of the Oral Absorption of β-Lactam Antibiotics. I. Cephalosporins. T2 - Determination of Intrinsic Membrane Absorption Parameters in the Rat Intestine In Situ. AU - Sinko, Patrick J.. PY - 1988/10. Y1 - 1988/10. N2 - The oral absorption of five cephalosporin antibiotics, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefatrizine, cephalexin, and cephradine, has been studied using a single-pass intestinal perfusion technique in rats. Intrinsic membrane absorption parameters, "unbiased" by the presence of an aqueous permeability (diffusion or stagnant layer), have been calculated utilizing a boundary layer mathematical model. The resultant intrinsic membrane absorption parameters are consistent with a significant carrier-mediated, Michaelis-Menten-type kinetic mechanism and a small passive component in the jejunum. Cefaclor colon permeability is low and does not exhibit concentration dependent behavior. The measured carrier parameters (±SD) for the jejunal perfusions are as follows: ...
... cefatrizine MeSH D02.065.589.099.249.200.180 --- cephaloglycin MeSH D02.065.589.099.249.200.185 --- cephradine MeSH D02.065. ...
... cefatrizine (INN) cefazaflur (INN) cefazedone (INN) cefazolin (INN) cefbuperazone (INN) cefcanel daloxate (INN) cefcanel (INN) ...
Cefalexin J01DB02 Cefaloridine J01DB03 Cefalotin J01DB04 Cefazolin J01DB05 Cefadroxil J01DB06 Cefazedone J01DB07 Cefatrizine ...
InChI=1S/C20H22N4O10S/c1-9(25)33-10(2)34-19(28)15-11(7-32-20(21)29)8-35-18-14(17(27)24(15)18)22-16(26)13(23-30-3)12-5-4-6-31-12/h4-6,10,14,18H,7-8H2,1-3H3,(H2,21,29)(H,22,26)/b23-13-/t10?,14-,18-/m1/ ...
The production of benzylpenicillin involves fermentation, recovery and purification of the penicillin.[10] The fermentation process of the production of benzylpencillin is about obtaining the product. The presence of the product in solution inhibits the reaction and reduces the product rate and yield. Thus, in order to obtain the most product and increase the rate of reaction the product, would be continuously extracted out.[11] This is done by having the mold with either glucose, sucrose, lactose, startch, or detrin, nitrate, ammonium salt, corn steep liquor, peptone, meat or yeast extract, and little amounts of inorganic salts.[12] The recovery of the benzylpencillin is the most important part of the production process because it affects the purification steps if done wrong.[10] There are many different types of techniques to recover benzyl penicillin, aqueous two-phase extraction, liquid membrane extraction, microfiltration technique, and solvent subulation[10] Extraction is more commonly ...
... , sold under the brandname Merrem among others, is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.[1] Some of these include meningitis, intra-abdominal infection, pneumonia, sepsis, and anthrax.[1] It is given by injection into a vein.[1] Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, constipation, headache, rash, and pain at the site of injection.[1] Serious side effects include Clostridium difficile infection, seizures, and allergic reactions including anaphylaxis.[1] Those who are allergic to other β-lactam antibiotics are more likely to be allergic to meropenem.[1] Use in pregnancy appears to be safe.[1] It is in the carbapenem family of medications.[1] Meropenem usually results in bacterial death through blocking their ability to make a cell wall.[1] It is more resistant to breakdown β-lactamase producing bacteria.[1] Meropenem was patented in 1983.[2] It was approved for medical use in the United States in 1996.[1] It is on the World Health ...
InChI=1S/C14H15N5O5S2/c1-5-3-25-12-8(11(21)19(12)9(5)13(22)23)17-10(20)7(18-24-2)6-4-26-14(15)16-6/h4,8,12H,3H2,1-2H3,(H2,15,16)(H,17,20)(H,22,23)/b18-7-/t8-,12-/m1/ ...
Bonow RO, Carabello BA, Kanu C, et al. (August 2006). "ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (writing committee to revise the 1998 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease): developed in collaboration with the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists: endorsed by the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons". Circulation. 114 (5): e84-231. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.176857. PMID 16880336 ...
Penicillin V is sometimes used in the treatment of odontogenic infections.. It is less active than benzylpenicillin (penicillin G) against Gram-negative bacteria.[9][10] Phenoxymethylpenicillin has a range of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria that is similar to that of benzylpenicillin and a similar mode of action, but it is substantially less active than benzylpenicillin against Gram-negative bacteria.[9][10]. Phenoxymethylpenicillin is more acid-stable than benzylpenicillin, which allows it to be given orally.. Phenoxymethylpenicillin is usually used only for the treatment of mild to moderate infections, and not for severe or deep-seated infections since absorption can be unpredictable. Except for the treatment or prevention of infection with Streptococcus pyogenes (which is uniformly sensitive to penicillin), therapy should be guided by bacteriological studies (including sensitivity tests) and by clinical response.[11] People treated initially with parenteral ...
The in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam has been examined in five surveillance studies of isolates from Europe and North America.[8] In these studies, ceftolozane-tazobactam was notable for its activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a moderately common cause of hospital-acquired infections that is commonly multi-drug resistant. Ninety percent of P. aeruginosa isolates were inhibited by a ceftolozane-tazobactam at a concentration of 4 μg/mL (MIC90), making it the most potent anti-pseudomonal antibiotic in clinical use. In these same studies, ceftolozane-tazobactam exhibited MIC90 values of ,1 μg/mL for Escherichia coli, Citrobacter koseri, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella species, and Serratia marcescens. Somewhat poorer activity is observed for the Klebsiella and Enterobacter species, with the MIC90 for extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) expressing Klebsiella pneumonia being ,32 μg/mL. ...
A set of multienzymes (peptide synthase CepA, CepB, and CepC) are responsible for assembling the heptapeptide. (Figure 2). The organization of CepA, CepB, and Cep C closely resembles other peptide synthases such as those for surfactin (SrfA1, SrfA2, and SrfA3) and gramicidin (GrsA and GrsB).[41] Each peptide synthase activates codes for various amino acids to activate each domain. CepA codes for modules 1, 2, and 3. CepB codes for modules 4, 5, and 6, and CepC codes for module 7. The three peptide synthases are located at the start of the region of the bacterial genome linked with antibiotic biosynthesis, and span 27 kb.[41]. After the linear heptapeptide molecule is synthesized, vancomycin has to undergo further modifications, such as oxidative cross-linking and glycosylation, in trans[clarification needed] by distinct enzymes, referred to as tailoring enzymes, to become biologically active (Figure 3). To convert the linear heptapeptide, eight enzymes, open reading frames (ORFs) 7, 8, 9, 10, ...
InChI=1S/C16H21N7O7S3/c1-22-15(19-20-21-22)33-4-7-3-32-14-16(30-2,13(29)23(14)10(7)12(27)28)18-9(24)6-31-5-8(17)11(25)26/h8,14H,3-6,17H2,1-2H3,(H,18,24)(H,25,26)(H,27,28)/t8-,14-,16+/m1/s1 ‹See TfM› ...
... (SEF-di-nir) is a third-generation oral cephalosporin antibiotic sold under the brand names Cefzon and Omnicef. As of 2008, cefdinir, as Omnicef, was the highest-selling cephalosporin antibiotic in the United States, with more than US$585 million in retail sales of its generic versions alone.[1] Cefdinir is structurally similar to cefixime. It was discovered by Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (now Astellas) and introduced in 1991 under the brand name Cefzon.[2][3] Warner-Lambert licensed this cephalosporin for marketing in US from Fujisawa.[4] Abbott obtained U.S. marketing rights to Omnicef (cefdinir) in December 1998 through an agreement with Warner-Lambert Company.[5] It was approved by FDA on Dec 4, 1997.[6] It is available in US as Omnicef by Abbott Laboratories and in India as Cednir by Abbott, Kefnir by Glenmark, Cefdair by Xalra Pharma and Cefdiel by Ranbaxy. ...
Ceftolozane exerts bactericidal activities against susceptible gram-negative and gram-positive infections by inhibiting essential penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which are required for peptidoglycan cross-linking for bacterial cell wall synthesis, resulting in inhibition of cell wall synthesis and subsequent cell death. Ceftolozane is an inhibitor of PBPs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (e.g. PBP1b, PBP1c, and PBP3) and E. coli (e.g., PBP3).[6][7] Tazobactam is a potent β-lactamase inhibitor of most common class A and C β-lactamases. Tazobactam has little clinically relevant in vitro activity against bacteria due to its reduced affinity to penicillin-binding proteins; however, it is an irreversible inhibitor of some β-lactamases (certain penicillinases and cephalosporinases) and can covalently bind to some chromosomal and plasmid-mediated bacterial beta-lactamases.[6] The addition of tazobactam strengthens the therapeutic response to ceftolozane, giving it the ability to treat a broader range ...
... is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. It can be used to treat ear infections, skin infections, and other bacterial infections.[citation needed] It comes as a tablet and as a liquid suspension. Although there is a widely quoted cross-allergy risk of 10% between cephalosporins and penicillin, an article[1] has shown no increased risk for cross-allergy for cefprozil and several other second-generation or later cephalosporins. It was patented in 1983 and approved for medical use in 1992.[2] ...
... has the ability to kill a wide variety of bacteria. Imipenem is the active antibiotic agent and works by interfering with their ability to form cell walls, so the bacteria break up and die. Imipenem is rapidly degraded by the renal enzyme dehydropeptidase if administered alone (making it less effective); the metabolites can cause kidney damage.[11] Imipenem is a broad-spectrum betalactam antibiotic used for severe bacterial infections caused by susceptible organisms. Because imipenem is rapidly inactivated by renal dehydropeptidase I, it is given in combination with cilastatin, a DHP-I inhibitor which increases half-life and tissue penetration of imipenem. Imipenem/cilastatin, like other carbapenems, binds to bacterial penicillin-binding proteins and interferes with bacterial cell wall integrity and synthesis. It has activity against many aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. ...
Cefatrizine • Cefazedone • Cefazaflur • Cefradine • Cefroxadine • Ceftezole. ...
سیکلوسرین (آیوپاک آدی: (R)-4-Amino-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one, اینگیلیسجه: Cycloserine, عربجه: سيكلوسيرين‎، روسجا: Циклосерин) بیر شیمیایی بیلشیک دواء. بۇ دواءنین مول جرمیسی مول/قرم ۱۰۲٫۰۹۲ دیر. متابولیسمی قاراجییرده باش وئریر. سیکلوسرین آنتی‌بیوتیک‌ اۆچون ایستیفاده اوْلونور. ...
Cefatrizine • Cefazedone • Cefazaflur • Cefradine • Cefroxadine • Ceftezole ...
سیلور سولفادیازین (آیوپاک آدی: Silver [(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl](pyrimidin-2-yl)azanide, اینگیلیسجه: Silver sulfadiazine, (چینجه:磺胺嘧啶银‎)) بیر شیمیایی بیلشیک دواء. بۇ دواءنین مول جرمیسی مول/قرم ۳۵۷٫۱۴ دیر. سیلور سولفادیازین آنتی‌بیوتیک‌ اۆچون ایستیفاده اوْلونور. ...
A kinetic study on the degradations of cefaclor and cefatrizine was carried out at 35°C as a function of pH and initial drug ... N2 - A kinetic study on the degradations of cefaclor and cefatrizine was carried out at 35°C as a function of pH and initial ... AB - A kinetic study on the degradations of cefaclor and cefatrizine was carried out at 35°C as a function of pH and initial ... abstract = "A kinetic study on the degradations of cefaclor and cefatrizine was carried out at 35°C as a function of pH and ...
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are receiving this vaccine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.. Receiving this vaccine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.. ...
Detailed drug Information for Vaxchora. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
BASIC AND CLINICAL STUDIES OF CEFATRIZINE (S-640P) MIKI FUMIO , OSAKI TATSUO , ASAI TOMOKAZU , KAWAI MICHIHIDE , KUBO KENJI , ... Investigation has been made on cefatrizine and the following results were obtained.,BR,1) The susceptibilities of the clinical ... isolates to cefatrizine were shown with a peak of distribution at a … ...
Cefatrizine. 2. g. O. 1. g. O. J01DB07. 2000 Pentoxifylline. 0.3. g. O. 1. g. O. C04AD03. 1992 ...
... cefatrizine, cefazedone, cefozopran, cefpimizole, cefpiramide, and cefpirome), cephamycins (e.g., cefbuperazone, cefinetazole, ... Cefatrizine; Cefazaflur Sodium; Cefazolin; Cefazolin Sodium; Cefbuperazone; Cefdinir; Cefepime; Cefepime Hydrochloride; ...
Cefamandole Nafate; Cefamandole Sodium; Cefaparole; Cefatrizine; Cefazaflur Sodium; Cefazolin; Cefazolin Sodium; Cefbuperazone ...
Cefatrizine. 2. g. O. 1. g. O. J01DB07. 2000 Cefazolin. 2. g. P. 3. g. P. J01DB04. 1992 ...
Teratological studies of cefatrizine (S-640P) in mice and rats. III (1976) ...
2329468 - Saturable rate of cefatrizine absorption after oral administration to humans.. Publication Detail: Type: Journal ...
2. Cephalosporins: cefaclor, cephalothin, cefadroxil, cephapirin, cefamandole, cephradine, cefatrizine, cefsulodine, cefazolin ... cefatrizine, cefsulodine, cefazolin, ceftazidim, ceforanide, ceftriaxon, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cephacetrile, latamoxef, ... cefatrizine, cefsulodine, cefazolin, ceftazidim, ceforanide, ceftriaxon, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cephacetrile, latamoxef, ... cefatrizine, cefsulodine, cefazolin, ceftazidim, ceforanide, ceftriaxon, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cephacetrile, latamoxef, ...
... cefadroxilcefadroxylcefadrylcefalexincefaloglycincefaloniumcefaloramcefaloridinecefalotincefaparolecefapirincefatrizine ...
Aktuelle API Auditberichte • GMP-Audits der Herstelung pharmazeutischer Ausgangs- und Wirkstoffe nach ICH Q7 / EU GMP Guide Part II • Diapharm
1998) Saturable small intestinal drug absorption in humans: Modeling and interpretation of cefatrizine data. Eur J Pharm ...
Cefatrizine(Antibacterial.). *Cefazedone(Antibacterial.). *Cefazolin(Antibacterial.). *Cefbuperazone(Antibacterial.). * ...
... cefatrizine, and cefixime, as reported herein for some children. This notion is supported by recent results showing in vitro ...
... cefatrizine, cefamandole, cefoperazone, ceforanide, cefotaxime, cefotetan, cefonicid, cefotiam, cefoxitin, cephamycins, ...
... cefatrizine MeSH D02.065.589.099.249.200.180 --- cephaloglycin MeSH D02.065.589.099.249.200.185 --- cephradine MeSH D02.065. ...
... cefatrizine (INN) cefazaflur (INN) cefazedone (INN) cefazolin (INN) cefbuperazone (INN) cefcanel daloxate (INN) cefcanel (INN) ...
Cefatrizine (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Cefatrizine (substance). Concept Status. Published. ...
... cefatrizine, Jmax* = 0.73 (±0.19), Km = 0.58 (±0.17), Pm* = 0.17 (±0.03), and Pc* = 1.25 (±0.10); and cephradine, Jmax* = 1.57 ... The oral absorption of five cephalosporin antibiotics, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefatrizine, cephalexin, and cephradine, has been ... N2 - The oral absorption of five cephalosporin antibiotics, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefatrizine, cephalexin, and cephradine, has ... AB - The oral absorption of five cephalosporin antibiotics, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefatrizine, cephalexin, and cephradine, has ...
... cefatrizine, cephacetrile, cefepime, cefixime, cefonicid, cefoperazone, cefotetan, cefmetazole, ceftazidime, loracarbef, and ...
Cefatrizine Susc Islt Code System Concept Status. Published. Code System Preferred Concept Name. Cefatrizine [Susceptibility]. ...
Cefatrizine [500 mg]. Caps. 12s. 175.95. 207.00. 041687. TIFOX. Cefatrizine [250 mg/5ml]. Susp. 50ml. 89.25. 105.00. ... Cefatrizine [250 mg]. Caps. 12s. 123.25. 145.00. 041686. TIFOX. ...
  • A kinetic study on the degradations of cefaclor and cefatrizine was carried out at 35°C as a function of pH and initial drug concentration by the use of high-performance liquid chromatography. (elsevier.com)
  • The shape of the rate-constant-pH profile of cefaclor resembled those for cefatrizine and other aminocephalosporins. (elsevier.com)
  • Accelerated degradations of the highly reactive aminocephalosporins, cefaclor and cefatrizine, were observed at higher drug concentrations than 10 mM. (elsevier.com)
  • Since the degradation rates of cefaclor and cefatrizine were found to be larger than those of other amino-β-lactam antibiotics, the second-order degradation rate process should be considered in the analysis of their in situ intestinal absorption rates at high concentrations. (elsevier.com)
  • Teratological studies of cefatrizine (S-640P) in mice and rats. (nii.ac.jp)