Orally active semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with broad-spectrum activity.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.
Triazoles are a class of antifungal drugs that contain a triazole ring in their chemical structure and work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes, thereby disrupting the integrity and function of the membrane.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.

Cefatrizine activity compared with that of other cephalosporins. (1/4)

Cefatrizine, a new orally administered cephalosporin, was tested against 400 clinical isolates. Cefatrizine had excellent activity against gram-positive cocci, inhibiting all except enterococci at minimal inhibitory concentrations below 1 mug/ml. Cefatrizine inhibited the majority of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella at concentrations below 12.5 mug/ml. Although cefatrizine was not hydrolyzed by many beta-lactamases, it did not inhibit a number of strains of Enterobacter, Serratia, or indole-positive Proteus. Cefatrizine was more active than cephalothin or cephalexin against E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella. Its overall activity was less than that of cefoxitin against strains resistant to cephalothin, but its activity against cephalothin-susceptible strains was equivalent to that of cefamandole.  (+info)

Human intravenous pharmacokinetics and absolute oral bioavailability of cefatrizine. (2/4)

Cefatrizine was administered intravenously and orally at dose levels of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg to normal male volunteers in a crossover study. Intravenous pharmacokinetics were dose linear over this range; mean peak plasma concentrations at the end of 30-min infusions were, respectively, 18, 37, and 75 micrograms/ml, total body clearance was 218 ml/min per 1.73 m2, renal clearance was 176 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and mean retention time in the body was 1.11 h. Cumulative urinary excretion of intact cefatrizine was 80% of the dose, and half-lives ranged from 1 to 1.4 h. Steady-state volume of distribution was 0.22 liters/kg. On oral administration, the absolute bioavailabilities of cefatrizine were 75% at 250 and 500 mg and 50% at 1,000 mg. The mean peak plasma concentrations and peak times were, respectively, 4.9, 8.6, and 10.2 micrograms/ml at 1.4, 1.6, and 2.0 h, mean residence times were 2.4, 2.6, and 3.1 h, and mean absorption times were 1.3, 1.6, and 1.9 h. Oral renal clearance and half-life values corresponded well to the intravenous values. Cumulative urinary excretion of intact cefatrizine (as percentage of dose) was 60 at 250 mg, 56 at 500 mg, and 42 at 1,000 mg. It is hypothesized that the lack of oral dose linearity between the 500- and 1,000-mg doses is due to a component of cefatrizine absorption by a saturable transport process. Relative absorption at the high dose would be sufficiently slow that an absorption "window" would be passed before maximum bioavailability could be attained. It is not expected that the observed bioavailability decrease at doses exceeding 500 mg will have any therapeutic significance, since clinical studies are establishing efficacy for a recommended unit dosage regimen of 500 mg.  (+info)

In vitro activities of five oral cephalosporins against aerobic pathogenic bacteria. (3/4)

Cefaclor (Lilly 99638) and cefatrizine (BL-S640, SK&F 70771) are orally absorbed, broad-spectrum semisynthetic cephalosporins. They were compared in vitro with cephalexin, cephaloglycin, and cepharadine against a variety of aerobic pathogenic bacteria by an agar dilution procedure. Cefaclor and cefatrizine were found to be similar or superior to cephalexin, cephaloglycin, and cephradine in terms of activity against gram-positive cocci other than enterococci. Only cefatrizine demonstrated any potentially useful activity against some susceptible isolates of enterococci. Cefaclor and cefatrizine also were highly active, equally or more so than the other oral cephalosporins, against several gram-negative species including Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. None of the cephalosporins were particularly active against Enterobacter cloacae. Both cefaclor and cefatrizine were active against Proteus mirabilis; cefatrizine was uniquely active against indolepositive Proteus species.  (+info)

In-vitro activity of 21 beta-lactam antibiotics against penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. (4/4)

MICs of 21 beta-lactams were determined by agar dilution against 283 penicillin-susceptible (pen-S), 122 intermediate (pen-I) and 23 fully penicillin-resistant (pen-R) pneumococci. MICs of all beta-lactams increased with increasing MICs of penicillin. Clometocillin was the most active penicillin against pen-I or pen-R pneumococci. All oral cephalosporins except cefuroxime and cefpodoxime were less active than penicillin and none was satisfactory against pen-I or pen-R pneumococci. The parenteral third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins (except ceftazidime) were similar in activity to penicillin against pen-S isolates. Cefpirome showed the lowest mean MICs against pen-I and pen-R strains.  (+info)

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Cephalexin is a type of antibiotic known as a first-generation cephalosporin. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is essential for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacterial cells become unstable and eventually die.

Cephalexin is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria, making it a useful antibiotic for treating various types of infections, such as respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and urinary tract infections.

Like all antibiotics, cephalexin should be used only to treat bacterial infections, as it has no effect on viral infections. It is important to take the full course of treatment as directed by a healthcare professional, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished, to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Common side effects of cephalexin include nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain. In rare cases, more serious side effects such as allergic reactions, severe skin rashes, or liver damage may occur. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if any signs of an allergic reaction or serious side effect are experienced while taking cephalexin.

Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are derived from the fungus Acremonium, originally isolated from seawater and cow dung. They have a similar chemical structure to penicillin and share a common four-membered beta-lactam ring in their molecular structure.

Cephalosporins work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, which ultimately leads to bacterial death. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, meaning they are effective against a wide range of bacteria, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.

There are several generations of cephalosporins, each with different spectra of activity and pharmacokinetic properties. The first generation cephalosporins have a narrow spectrum of activity and are primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Second-generation cephalosporins have an expanded spectrum of activity that includes some Gram-negative organisms, such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. Third-generation cephalosporins have even broader spectra of activity and are effective against many resistant Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Fourth-generation cephalosporins have activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics. They are often reserved for the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Cephalosporins are generally well tolerated, but like penicillin, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Cross-reactivity between cephalosporins and penicillin is estimated to occur in 5-10% of patients with a history of penicillin allergy. Other potential adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), neurotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity.

Cefazolin is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria are not able to grow and multiply, and are eventually destroyed by the body's immune system.

Cefazolin is commonly used to treat infections of the skin, bones, joints, heart, lungs, and urinary tract. It may also be used to prevent infection during surgery. Like all antibiotics, cefazolin is only effective against certain types of bacteria, so it is important to know the specific type of bacteria causing an infection before using this medication.

Cefazolin is usually given as an injection into a vein or muscle, and may be administered in a hospital setting or at home with proper training. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the patient's overall health status.

As with any medication, cefazolin can cause side effects, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, and rash. In rare cases, it may also cause serious side effects such as allergic reactions, kidney damage, or abnormal blood clotting. It is important to report any unusual symptoms to a healthcare provider promptly.

It is essential to complete the full course of treatment with cefazolin, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Triazoles are a class of antifungal medications that have broad-spectrum activity against various fungi, including yeasts, molds, and dermatophytes. They work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes, leading to increased permeability and disruption of fungal growth. Triazoles are commonly used in both systemic and topical formulations for the treatment of various fungal infections, such as candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, and dermatophytoses. Some examples of triazole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

... is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic. Dunn GL, Hoover JR, Berges DA, Taggart JJ, Davis LD, Dietz EM, et al ... Structure-activity studies related to cefatrizine (SK&F 60771)". The Journal of Antibiotics. 29 (1): 65-80. doi:10.7164/ ...
The molecular formula C18H18N6O5S2 (molar mass: 462.505 g/mol) may refer to: Cefamandole Cefatrizine This set index page lists ...
... cefatrizine (INN) cefazaflur (INN) cefazedone (INN) cefazolin (INN) cefbuperazone (INN) cefcanel daloxate (INN) cefcanel (INN) ...
... may refer to: (-)-2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane Cefatrizine, a cephalosporin antibiotic Crystal field theory, ...
... cefatrizine MeSH D02.065.589.099.249.200.180 - cephaloglycin MeSH D02.065.589.099.249.200.185 - cephradine MeSH D02.065.589.099 ...
Cefalexin J01DB02 Cefaloridine J01DB03 Cefalotin J01DB04 Cefazolin J01DB05 Cefadroxil J01DB06 Cefazedone J01DB07 Cefatrizine ...
Cefatrizine is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic. Dunn GL, Hoover JR, Berges DA, Taggart JJ, Davis LD, Dietz EM, et al ... Structure-activity studies related to cefatrizine (SK&F 60771)". The Journal of Antibiotics. 29 (1): 65-80. doi:10.7164/ ...
7] cefatrizine, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole can be used for the first 2 weeks of treatment ...
Aktuelle API Auditberichte • GMP-Audits der Herstelung pharmazeutischer Ausgangs- und Wirkstoffe nach ICH Q7 / EU GMP Guide Part II • Diapharm
This review explores evolving knowledge of the immunopathogenic mechanisms, pharmacogenomic associations, and medication cross-reactivity data related to SCAR syndromes.
Cefatrizine Susc Islt Code System Concept Status. Published. Code System Preferred Concept Name. Cefatrizine [Susceptibility]. ...
Cefatrizine-corneal edema (PRR, 440.64; ROR, 481.67; IC, 3.84) and cefatrizine-corneal ulceration (PRR, 346.22; ROR, 399.70; IC ...
Cefatrizine D2.886.675.966.500.249.200.165.125 D2.886.665.74.200.165.125. D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.200.165.125. Cefazolin D2.886 ...
Cefatrizine D2.886.675.966.500.249.200.165.125 D2.886.665.74.200.165.125. D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.200.165.125. Cefazolin D2.886 ...
Simultaneous determination of cefatrizine and clavulanic acid in dog plasma by HPLC.. 2004 Apr 1 ...
PENIMEPICYCLINE Introduction dans BIAM : 18/2/1992 Dernière mise à jour : 19/10/1999 Etat : valide Identification de la substance Propriétés Pharmacologiques Mécanismes daction Effets Recherchés Indications thérapeutiques Effets secondaires Effets sur la descendance Pharmaco-Dépendance Précautions demploi Contre-Indications Voies dadministration Posologie & mode dadministration Pharmaco-Cinétique Identification de la substance Formule Chimique : 6-(phnoxyactamido) pnicillinate de N-[[2-hydroxythyl)piprazin-1-yl…. ...
InChI=1S/C66H75Cl2N9O24/c1-23(2)12-34(71-5)58(88)76-49-51(83)26-7-10-38(32(67)14-26)97-40-16-28-17-41(55(40)101-65-56(54(86)53(85)42(22-78)99-65)100-44-21-66(4,70)57(87)24(3)96-44)98-39-11-8-27(15-33(39)68)52(84)50-63(93)75-48(64(94)95)31-18-29(79)19-37(81)45(31)30-13-25(6-9-36(30)80)46(60(90)77-50)74-61(91)47(28)73-59(89)35(20-43(69)82)72-62(49)92/h6-11,13-19,23-24,34-35,42,44,46-54,56-57,65,71,78-81,83-87H,12,20-22,70H2,1-5H3,(H2,69,82)(H,72,92)(H,73,89)(H,74,91)(H,75,93)(H,76,88)(H,77,90)(H,94,95)/t24-,34+,35-,42+,44-,46+,47+,48-,49+,50-,51+,52+,53+,54-,56+,57+,65-,66-/m0/s1 ...
J01DB07: cefatrizina - cefatrizine *J01DB08: cefapirina - cefapirin *J01DB09: cefadrina - cefradine *J01DB10: cefacetrilo - ...
Might alterations in the gut microbiome due to long-term use of proton pump inhibitors increase the risk of cholangitis?
Cefatrizine D2.886.675.966.500.249.200.165.125 D2.886.665.74.200.165.125. D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.200.165.125. Cefazolin D2.886 ...
Integrative bioinformatics and proteomics-based discovery of an eEF2K inhibitor (cefatrizine) with ER stress modulation in ...
Cefatrizine (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Cefatrizine (substance). Concept Status. Published. ...
Cefatrizine Preferred Term Term UI T007074. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID ... Cefatrizine Preferred Concept UI. M0003717. Registry Number. 8P4W949T8K. Related Numbers. 51627-14-6. Scope Note. Orally active ... Cefatrizine. Tree Number(s). D02.065.589.099.249.200.165.125. D02.886.665.074.200.165.125. D03.633.100.300.249.200.165.125. ...
Cefatrizine Preferred Term Term UI T007074. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID ... Cefatrizine Preferred Concept UI. M0003717. Registry Number. 8P4W949T8K. Related Numbers. 51627-14-6. Scope Note. Orally active ... Cefatrizine. Tree Number(s). D02.065.589.099.249.200.165.125. D02.886.665.074.200.165.125. D03.633.100.300.249.200.165.125. ...
Its main uses are in intensive care medicine (pneumonia, peritonitis), some diabetes-related foot infections, and empirical therapy in febrile neutropenia (e.g., after chemotherapy). The drug is administered intravenously every 6 or 8 hr, typically over 3-30 min. It may also be administered by continuous infusion over four hours. Prolonged infusions are thought to maximize the time that serum concentrations are above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the bacteria implicated in infection.[citation needed] Piperacillin-tazobactam is recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence as first-line therapy for the treatment of bloodstream infections in neutropenic cancer patients.[7] For β-lactam antipseudomonal antibiotics, including piperacillin/tazobactam, prolonged intravenous infusion is associated with lower mortality than bolus intravenous infusion in persons with sepsis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.[8] ...
Cefatrizine-corneal edema (PRR, 440.64; ROR, 481.67; IC, 3.84) and cefatrizine-corneal ulceration (PRR, 346.22; ROR, 399.70; IC ...
Cefatrizine D2.886.675.966.500.249.200.165.125 D2.886.665.74.200.165.125. D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.200.165.125. Cefazolin D2.886 ...
C47966 IY6234ODVR CEFAMANDOLE SODIUM C47967 HW64W823GC CEFAPAROLE C96704 8P4W949T8K CEFATRIZINE C81027 3731IA5GI9 CEFATRIZINE ...
D4.75.80.875.99.221.249.150 Cefatrizine D2.886.675.966.500.249.200.165.125 D2.886.665.74.200.165.125 D4.75.80.875.99.221. ...
Cefpodoxime, sold under the brand name Vantin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat middle ear infections, strep throat, sinusitis, urinary tract infections, and gonorrhea.[2] It is taken by mouth.[2] Common side effects include diarrhea, nausea, vaginal yeast infections, abdominal pain, and headache.[3] Other side effects may include allergic reactions and Clostridioides difficile infection.[2] While there is no evidence of harm with use in pregnancy, such use has not been well studied.[4] It is a third-generation cephalosporin and works by interfering with the bacterial cell wall.[1] Cefpodoxime was patented in 1980 and approved for medical use in 1989.[5] It is available as a generic medication.[2] In the United States 20 tablets of 200 mg costs about 36 USD as of 2021.[6] ...
Cefatrizine Cefazolin Cefixime Cefmenoxime Cefmetazole Cefonicid Cefoperazone Cefotaxime Cefotetan Cefotiam Cefoxitin ...

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