Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.
Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.
Cephalosporin antibiotic, partly plasma-bound, that is effective against gram-negative and gram-positive organisms.
Cephalosporinase is an enzyme produced by certain bacteria that can hydrolyze and confer resistance to cephalosporin antibiotics.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A second-generation cephalosporin administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Its bactericidal action results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. It is used for urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and soft tissue and bone infections.
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.
Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE but susceptible to a penicillin-binding protein. It is inactivated by gastric acid so administered by injection.
Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.
Absence or reduced levels of PROTHROMBIN in the blood.
An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.
An antibiotic derived from penicillin similar to CARBENICILLIN in action.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotic derivative of CEPHALEXIN.

Markedly different rates and resistance profiles exhibited by seven commonly used and newer beta-lactams on the selection of resistant variants of Enterobacter cloacae. (1/187)

Seven beta-lactam antibiotics (cefepime, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefamandole, imipenem and meropenem) were tested for their potential to select resistance in standard and clinical strains of Enterobacter cloacae (n = 9). The strains were subcultured daily with the test antibiotics at doubling concentrations starting at 0.125 x MIC. Development of resistance throughout the passages was detected by a disc diffusion test. Ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and cefamandole selected resistance at a faster rate than cefoperazone, cefepime and meropenem. Imipenem did not select resistance in the nine strains tested and was the only antibiotic that eradicated all the strains during selection. The resistance patterns of strains selected by meropenem, cefepime and the other cephalosporins were markedly different, although cross-resistance to the early generation cephalosporins was common. The resistance phenotypes of most strains remained stable upon serial passages in antibiotic-free medium. The findings of this study highlight the importance of the choice of antibiotic for therapy not only on the basis of its antibacterial activity, but also on its potential to select resistance to itself and other antibiotics.  (+info)

Interpretive criteria for cefamandole and cephalothin disk diffusion susceptibility tests. (2/187)

A multi-center study of 1,838 clinical isolates established the accuracy of diffusion susceptibility tests with 30-mug cephalothin disks and 30-mug cefamandole disks. The same interpretive zone standards can be applied to tests with either disk but the two drugs cannot be tested interchangeably.  (+info)

Quinupristin-dalfopristin combined with beta-lactams for treatment of experimental endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus constitutively resistant to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B antibiotics. (3/187)

Quinupristin-dalfopristin (Q-D) is an injectable streptogramin active against most gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In experimental endocarditis, however, Q-D was less efficacious against MRSA isolates constitutively resistant to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogram B (C-MLS(B)) than against MLS(B)-susceptible isolates. To circumvent this problem, we used the checkerboard method to screen drug combinations that would increase the efficacy of Q-D against such bacteria. beta-Lactams consistently exhibited additive or synergistic activity with Q-D. Glycopeptides, quinolones, and aminoglycosides were indifferent. No drugs were antagonistic. The positive Q-D-beta-lactam interaction was independent of MLS(B) or beta-lactam resistance. Moreover, addition of Q-D at one-fourth the MIC to flucloxacillin-containing plates decreased the flucloxacillin MIC for MRSA from 500 to 1,000 mg/liter to 30 to 60 mg/liter. Yet, Q-D-beta-lactam combinations were not synergistic in bactericidal tests. Rats with aortic vegetations were infected with two C-MLS(B)-resistant MRSA isolates (isolates AW7 and P8) and were treated for 3 or 5 days with drug dosages simulating the following treatments in humans: (i) Q-D at 7 mg/kg two times a day (b.i.d.) (a relatively low dosage purposely used to help detect positive drug interactions), (ii) cefamandole at constant levels in serum of 30 mg/liter, (iii) cefepime at 2 g b.i.d., (iv) Q-D combined with either cefamandole or cefepime. Any of the drugs used alone resulted in treatment failure. In contrast, Q-D plus either cefamandole or cefepime significantly decreased valve infection compared to the levels of infection for both untreated controls and those that received monotherapy (P < 0.05). Importantly, Q-D prevented the growth of highly beta-lactam-resistant MRSA in vivo. The mechanism of this beneficial drug interaction is unknown. However, Q-D-beta-lactam combinations might be useful for the treatment of complicated infections caused by multiple organisms, including MRSA.  (+info)

In vitro activity of piperacillin compared with that of carbenicillin, ticarcillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and cefamandole against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. (4/187)

Piperacillin (T-1220), a semisynthetic derivative of aminobenzylpenicillin, was more active than either carbenicillin or ticarcillin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa; over 60% of isolates were inhibited at a concentration of 6.3 mug/ml. Piperacillin was bactericidal for 84% of Pseudomonas strains at 100 mug/ml, carbenicillin killed 60%, and ticarcillin killed 68% at that concentration. Piperacillin was also more active than the other penicillins against isolates of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, and Proteus mirabilis. The combination of piperacillin and tobramycin, demonstrating synergistic inhibition of 87% of strains of P. aeruginosa, was the most active of the penicillin-aminoglycoside combinations tested for synergism.  (+info)

In-vitro bactericidal activity of cefpirome and cefamandole in combination with glycopeptides against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (5/187)

The bactericidal activity in vitro of cefpirome plus either vancomycin or teicoplanin was compared with that of a cefamandole-vancomycin combination against ten clinical isolates of homogeneous methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Cefpirome (0.125 x MIC) combined with vancomycin (0.5-2 x MIC) or teicoplanin (0.5-4 x MIC) acted synergically against the ten isolates. Similar effects were observed with the cefamandole-vancomycin combination, except that for one isolate, higher cefamandole concentrations (0.25-1 x MIC) were required.  (+info)

The penetration of ceftriaxone and cefamandole into bone, fat and haematoma and relevance of serum protein binding to their penetration into bone. (6/187)

Thirteen patients undergoing total hip replacement were given ceftriaxone 1 g and cefamandole 1 g simultaneously, either immediately or 8 h before surgery. For both agents the concentrations seen in the bone and fat during the operation, and for haematoma fluid +info)

Antibacterial activity of a new parenteral cephalosporin--HR 756: comparison with cefamandole and ceforanide. (7/187)

HR 756, a new parenteral cephalosporin that is beta-lactamase resistant, was tested against 271 bacterial isolates. Both agar and broth dilution testing were employed, using two media and two inoculum sizes of bacteria. Antibacterial activity of the drug was compared to that of cefamandole (CFM) and ceforanide (CFN). In agar, HR 756 was more active than CFM and CFN against all bacteria tested except isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, which were better inhibited by CFM. HR 756 exhibited some antipseudomonas activity in agar, although a marked inoculum effect was apparent. A comparison of median minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations in broth showed again that HR 756 was the most active of these three drugs. HR 756 demonstrated enhanced antibacterial activity compared to CFM and CFN against bacteria sensitive to all three drugs as well as against more resistant isolates of Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter species, and indole-positive Proteus. As with other cephalosporins, results for most bacteria were affected by inoculum size, medium, and type of dilution test employed in in vitro studies.  (+info)

Effect of osmotic stabilizers on radiometric detection of cell wall-damaged bacteria. (8/187)

The effect of osmotic stabilizers on the 14CO2-dependent radiometric detection of cell wall-damaged Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied in BACTEC 14C-labeled blood culture medium. The organisms were previously exposed to cefamandole or carbenicillin at 63 to 80% of the minimum inhibitory concentrations. The addition of 10% sucrose, 2.2% glycerol, and 2.2% ethylene glycol to the medium failed to reduce the time required for detection and diminished the amounts of 14CO2 released by the growing cultures. Viable counts made after 4 to 7 h of incubation showed a decreased culture density in osmotically stabilized media as compared with saline or Ficoll controls. Sucrose and Ficoll had little or no inhibitory effect on 14CO2 evolution by P. aeruginosa. The osmotic stabilizers tested did not seem to improve the survival of the bacterial inoculum and failed to increase the sensitivity of the radiometric system of detection.  (+info)

Cefamandole is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is a type of antibacterial medication used to treat various infections caused by bacteria. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, resulting in weakening and eventual death of the bacterial cells.

Cefamandole has a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, making it useful for treating a variety of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and septicemia.

Like other cephalosporins, cefamandole is generally well-tolerated and has a low incidence of serious side effects. However, it can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as allergic reactions in some people. It may also interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your healthcare provider of all the medications you are taking before starting cefamandole therapy.

It is important to note that antibiotics should only be used to treat bacterial infections and not viral infections, as they are not effective against viruses and can contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mandelic Acids" is not a recognized medical term or concept in dermatology or medicine. Mandelic acid, however, is a type of chemical compound used in skincare products for various purposes such as exfoliation and reducing hyperpigmentation. It is an aromatic hydroxyacetic acid derived from mandelic almonds. If you have any questions about skincare ingredients or treatments, I'd be happy to help clarify those for you!

Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are derived from the fungus Acremonium, originally isolated from seawater and cow dung. They have a similar chemical structure to penicillin and share a common four-membered beta-lactam ring in their molecular structure.

Cephalosporins work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, which ultimately leads to bacterial death. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, meaning they are effective against a wide range of bacteria, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.

There are several generations of cephalosporins, each with different spectra of activity and pharmacokinetic properties. The first generation cephalosporins have a narrow spectrum of activity and are primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Second-generation cephalosporins have an expanded spectrum of activity that includes some Gram-negative organisms, such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. Third-generation cephalosporins have even broader spectra of activity and are effective against many resistant Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Fourth-generation cephalosporins have activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics. They are often reserved for the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Cephalosporins are generally well tolerated, but like penicillin, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Cross-reactivity between cephalosporins and penicillin is estimated to occur in 5-10% of patients with a history of penicillin allergy. Other potential adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), neurotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity.

Cephalothin is a type of antibiotic known as a first-generation cephalosporin. It is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and urinary tract infections.

Cephalothin works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which are essential for their survival. It binds to specific proteins in the bacterial cell wall, causing the wall to become unstable and ultimately leading to the death of the bacterium.

Like other antibiotics, cephalothin is only effective against certain types of bacteria, and it should be used under the direction of a healthcare professional. It is important to take the full course of treatment as directed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to reduce the risk of developing antibiotic resistance.

Common side effects of cephalothin include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. More serious side effects may include allergic reactions, kidney damage, and seizures. It is important to inform your healthcare provider of any medical conditions you have or medications you are taking before starting treatment with cephalothin.

Cefazolin is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria are not able to grow and multiply, and are eventually destroyed by the body's immune system.

Cefazolin is commonly used to treat infections of the skin, bones, joints, heart, lungs, and urinary tract. It may also be used to prevent infection during surgery. Like all antibiotics, cefazolin is only effective against certain types of bacteria, so it is important to know the specific type of bacteria causing an infection before using this medication.

Cefazolin is usually given as an injection into a vein or muscle, and may be administered in a hospital setting or at home with proper training. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the patient's overall health status.

As with any medication, cefazolin can cause side effects, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, and rash. In rare cases, it may also cause serious side effects such as allergic reactions, kidney damage, or abnormal blood clotting. It is important to report any unusual symptoms to a healthcare provider promptly.

It is essential to complete the full course of treatment with cefazolin, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Cefoxitin is a type of antibiotic known as a cephamycin, which is a subclass of the larger group of antibiotics called cephalosporins. Cephalosporins are bactericidal agents that inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to and disrupting the function of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs).

Cefoxitin has a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including many strains that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is commonly used to treat infections caused by susceptible organisms such as:

* Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant S. aureus or MRSA)
* Streptococcus pneumoniae
* Escherichia coli
* Klebsiella spp.
* Proteus mirabilis
* Bacteroides fragilis and other anaerobic bacteria

Cefoxitin is available in both intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) formulations, and it is typically administered every 6 to 8 hours. The drug is generally well tolerated, but potential side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, as well as allergic reactions, including rash, pruritus, and anaphylaxis.

It's important to note that the use of antibiotics should be based on the results of bacterial cultures and susceptibility testing whenever possible, to ensure appropriate therapy and minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Cephapirin is a type of antibiotic that belongs to the class of cephalosporins. It is used to treat various bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and genitourinary tract infections. Cephapirin works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which results in bacterial death.

Like other cephalosporins, cephapirin is generally well-tolerated and has a broad spectrum of activity against many different types of bacteria. However, it may cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and allergic reactions in some people. It is important to take cephapirin exactly as directed by a healthcare provider, and to complete the full course of treatment even if symptoms improve before all of the medication has been taken.

It's worth noting that Cephapirin is not a commonly used antibiotic now a days, due to the availability of other cephalosporins which are more effective and have less side effects.

A cephalosporinase is an enzyme that can break down and inactivate cephalosporins, a group of antibiotics commonly used to treat various bacterial infections. Bacteria that produce this enzyme are referred to as "cephalosporin-resistant" or "cephalosporinase-producing" organisms. The production of cephalosporinases by bacteria can lead to treatment failures and make infections more difficult to manage.

Cephalosporins are broad-spectrum antibiotics, which means they can be effective against a wide range of bacterial species. However, some bacteria have developed resistance mechanisms, such as the production of cephalosporinases, to counteract their effects. These enzymes hydrolyze the beta-lactam ring in cephalosporins, rendering them ineffective.

There are different classes of cephalosporinases (e.g., Ambler classes A, C, and D), each with distinct characteristics and substrate profiles. Some cephalosporinases can hydrolyze a broader range of cephalosporins than others, leading to varying degrees of resistance.

To overcome cephalosporinase-mediated resistance, alternative antibiotics or combinations of antibiotics may be used. Additionally, the development of new cephalosporins with improved stability against these enzymes is an ongoing area of research in the field of antimicrobial drug discovery.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Cefonicid is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, leading to the death of the bacteria. Cefonicid is administered intravenously and is typically used to treat serious infections such as sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis.

Here is the medical definition of 'Cefonicid':

Cefonicid is a semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, bactericidal antibiotic of the cephalosporin class. It is administered intravenously and has a long half-life, allowing for once- or twice-daily dosing. Cefonicid is stable in the presence of beta-lactamases, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), making it useful for treating infections caused by bacteria that produce these enzymes. It is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis.

Common side effects of cefonicid include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and local reactions at the injection site. More serious side effects can include allergic reactions, kidney damage, and seizures. Cefonicid should be used with caution in patients with a history of allergy to beta-lactam antibiotics, impaired renal function, or a history of seizure disorders.

Cefuroxime is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria are unable to grow and multiply, and are eventually destroyed by the body's immune system.

Cefuroxime is effective against many different types of bacteria, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. It is often used to treat respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and bone and joint infections.

Like all antibiotics, cefuroxime should be used only under the direction of a healthcare provider, and it is important to take the full course of treatment as prescribed, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which are more difficult to treat and can pose a serious threat to public health.

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

Cephaloridine is a type of antibiotic that belongs to the class of cephalosporins. It is used for treating various bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and septicemia.

Cephaloridine works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall, leading to bacterial death. It is administered intramuscularly or intravenously and is known for its broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, due to its potential nephrotoxicity (kidney toxicity), it has largely been replaced by other antibiotics with similar spectra of activity but better safety profiles.

It's important to note that the use of cephaloridine should be reserved for infections caused by bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics, and its administration should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

Penicillin resistance is the ability of certain bacteria to withstand the antibacterial effects of penicillin, a type of antibiotic. This occurs when these bacteria have developed mechanisms that prevent penicillin from binding to and inhibiting the function of their cell wall biosynthesis proteins, particularly the enzyme transpeptidase.

One common mechanism of penicillin resistance is the production of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can hydrolyze and inactivate the beta-lactam ring structure present in penicillin and other related antibiotics. Another mechanism involves alterations in the bacterial cell wall that prevent penicillin from binding to its target proteins.

Penicillin resistance is a significant concern in clinical settings, as it can limit treatment options for bacterial infections and may necessitate the use of more potent or toxic antibiotics. It is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can contribute to the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including those resistant to penicillin.

Ampicillin is a penicillin-type antibiotic used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which are essential for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die.

The medical definition of Ampicillin is:

"A semi-synthetic penicillin antibiotic, derived from the Penicillium mold. It is used to treat a variety of infections caused by susceptible gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Ampicillin is effective against both aerobic and anaerobic organisms. It is commonly used to treat respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis, and endocarditis."

It's important to note that Ampicillin is not effective against infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or other bacteria that have developed resistance to penicillins. Additionally, overuse of antibiotics like Ampicillin can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance, which is a significant public health concern.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die. Carbenicillin is effective against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is often used to treat serious infections caused by these organisms. It is administered orally or intravenously, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Carbenicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to

Cephamycins are a subclass of cephalosporin antibiotics, which are derived from the fungus Acremonium species. They have a similar chemical structure to other cephalosporins but have an additional methoxy group on their side chain that makes them more resistant to beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by some bacteria that can inactivate other cephalosporins and penicillins.

Cephamycins are primarily used to treat infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus species, and Enterobacter species. They have a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, making them useful for treating a variety of infections.

The two main cephamycins that are used clinically are cefoxitin and cefotetan. Cefoxitin is often used to treat intra-abdominal infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, and skin and soft tissue infections. Cefotetan is primarily used for the treatment of surgical prophylaxis, gynecological infections, and pneumonia.

Like other cephalosporins, cephamycins can cause allergic reactions, including rashes, hives, and anaphylaxis. They should be used with caution in patients who have a history of allergies to penicillin or other beta-lactam antibiotics. Additionally, cephamycins can disrupt the normal gut flora, leading to secondary infections such as Clostridioides difficile (C. diff) diarrhea.

Moxalactam is not a medical condition but actually an antibiotic medication. It is a type of beta-lactam antibiotic, specifically a fourth-generation cephalosporin, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. Moxalactam has a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including many that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Moxalactam works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall, leading to bacterial death. It is commonly used to treat intra-abdominal infections, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis, among other conditions. As with any medication, moxalactam can have side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as allergic reactions and changes in liver function tests. It is important to use antibiotics only when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare professional to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Cephalexin is a type of antibiotic known as a first-generation cephalosporin. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is essential for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacterial cells become unstable and eventually die.

Cephalexin is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria, making it a useful antibiotic for treating various types of infections, such as respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and urinary tract infections.

Like all antibiotics, cephalexin should be used only to treat bacterial infections, as it has no effect on viral infections. It is important to take the full course of treatment as directed by a healthcare professional, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished, to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Common side effects of cephalexin include nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain. In rare cases, more serious side effects such as allergic reactions, severe skin rashes, or liver damage may occur. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if any signs of an allergic reaction or serious side effect are experienced while taking cephalexin.

Methicillin is defined as a narrow-spectrum antibiotic that belongs to the penicillin class. It was initially developed to address the problem of beta-lactamase enzyme production in Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, which made them resistant to earlier penicillins. However, methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus (MRSA) have since emerged and become a significant global health concern. Methicillin is no longer used clinically due to its high nephrotoxicity, but the term "methicillin-resistant" remains relevant in describing resistant bacteria.

Premedication is the administration of medication before a medical procedure or surgery to prevent or manage pain, reduce anxiety, minimize side effects of anesthesia, or treat existing medical conditions. The goal of premedication is to improve the safety and outcomes of the medical procedure by preparing the patient's body in advance. Common examples of premedication include administering antibiotics before surgery to prevent infection, giving sedatives to help patients relax before a procedure, or providing medication to control acid reflux during surgery.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Cefoperazone is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria are not able to grow and multiply, and are eventually destroyed by the body's immune system.

Cefoperazone is often used to treat infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin, and soft tissues. It may also be used to prevent infections during surgery. Like all antibiotics, cefoperazone should only be used under the direction of a healthcare professional, as misuse can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

It is important to note that cefoperazone, like other antibiotics, can have side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. It may also cause allergic reactions in some people. If you experience any unusual symptoms while taking cefoperazone, it is important to contact your healthcare provider right away.

Hypoprothrombinemia is a medical condition characterized by a decreased level of prothrombin (coagulation factor II) in the blood, which can lead to an increased bleeding tendency. Prothrombin is a protein involved in the coagulation cascade that helps to form blood clots and stop bleeding.

Hypoprothrombinemia can be caused by various factors, including vitamin K deficiency, liver disease, inherited or acquired disorders of prothrombin synthesis, or the use of certain medications such as warfarin. Symptoms may include easy bruising, prolonged bleeding from cuts or injuries, nosebleeds, and in severe cases, internal bleeding. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and may include vitamin K supplementation, fresh frozen plasma transfusions, or other specific therapies depending on the etiology of the condition.

Tobramycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat various types of bacterial infections. According to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terminology of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the medical definition of Tobramycin is:

"A semi-synthetic modification of the aminoglycoside antibiotic, NEOMYCIN, that retains its antimicrobial activity but has less nephrotoxic and neurotoxic side effects. Tobramycin is used in the treatment of serious gram-negative infections, especially Pseudomonas infections in patients with cystic fibrosis."

Tobramycin works by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit of bacterial cells, inhibiting protein synthesis and ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. It is commonly used to treat severe infections caused by susceptible strains of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, and Enterobacter species.

Tobramycin is available in various formulations, such as injectable solutions, ophthalmic ointments, and inhaled powder for nebulization. The choice of formulation depends on the type and location of the infection being treated. As with any antibiotic, it's essential to use Tobramycin appropriately and under medical supervision to minimize the risk of antibiotic resistance and potential side effects.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Enterobacter is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. These bacteria are members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and are known to cause a variety of infections in humans, particularly in healthcare settings.

Enterobacter species are capable of causing a range of infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bacteremia, and wound infections. They are often resistant to multiple antibiotics, which can make treatment challenging. Infections with Enterobacter are typically treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics that are effective against gram-negative bacteria.

It's worth noting that while Enterobacter species can cause infections, they are also a normal part of the microbiota found in the human gut and usually do not cause harm in healthy individuals. However, if the bacterium enters the bloodstream or other sterile sites in the body, it can cause infection and illness.

In the context of pharmacology, "half-life" refers to the time it takes for the concentration or amount of a drug in the body to be reduced by half during its elimination phase. This is typically influenced by factors such as metabolism and excretion rates of the drug. It's a key factor in determining dosage intervals and therapeutic effectiveness of medications, as well as potential side effects or toxicity risks.

Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other animals. Many species of Staphylococcus can cause infections in humans, but the most notable is Staphylococcus aureus, which is responsible for a wide range of illnesses, from minor skin infections to life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, endocarditis, and sepsis.

Staphylococcus species are non-motile, non-spore forming, and typically occur in grape-like clusters when viewed under a microscope. They can be coagulase-positive or coagulase-negative, with S. aureus being the most well-known coagulase-positive species. Coagulase is an enzyme that causes the clotting of plasma, and its presence is often used to differentiate S. aureus from other Staphylococcus species.

These bacteria are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, including penicillin, due to the production of beta-lactamases. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a particularly problematic strain that has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics and can cause severe, difficult-to-treat infections.

Proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, and environmental cleaning are crucial measures for preventing the spread of Staphylococcus in healthcare settings and the community.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

'Proteus' doesn't have a specific medical definition itself, but it is related to a syndrome in medicine. Proteus syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the overgrowth of various tissues and organs in the body. The name "Proteus" comes from the Greek god Proteus, who could change his form at will, reflecting the diverse and ever-changing nature of this condition's symptoms.

People with Proteus syndrome experience asymmetric overgrowth of bones, skin, and other tissues, leading to abnormalities in body shape and function. The disorder can also affect blood vessels, causing benign tumors called hamartomas to develop. Additionally, individuals with Proteus syndrome are at an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer.

The genetic mutation responsible for Proteus syndrome is found in the AKT1 gene, which plays a crucial role in cell growth and division. This disorder is typically not inherited but instead arises spontaneously as a new mutation in the affected individual. Early diagnosis and management of Proteus syndrome can help improve patients' quality of life and reduce complications associated with the condition.

"Sarcina" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in current use. However, in older medical literature or in the context of microbiology, "Sarcina" refers to a genus of Gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that are arranged in tetrads or packets of 4, 8, or 16 cells. These bacteria were once thought to be responsible for a variety of infections, but they are now considered to be rare causes of disease and are not typically tested for in clinical settings.

In modern medical terminology, the term "sarcina" is more commonly used outside of medicine, particularly in the context of physical fitness or exercise, where it refers to a unit of weightlifting or strength training that involves lifting a weight equal to one's own bodyweight.

Cefotaxime is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Cefotaxime has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Cefotaxime is often used to treat serious infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. It may also be used to prevent infections during surgery or in people with weakened immune systems. The drug is administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and its dosage depends on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Like all antibiotics, cefotaxime can cause side effects, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and rash. In rare cases, it may cause serious allergic reactions or damage to the kidneys or liver. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking this medication.

Penicillinase is an enzyme produced by some bacteria that can inactivate penicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics by breaking down the beta-lactam ring, which is essential for their antimicrobial activity. Bacteria that produce penicillinase are resistant to penicillin and related antibiotics. Penicillinase-resistant penicillins, such as methicillin and oxacillin, have been developed to overcome this form of bacterial resistance.

Ticarcillin is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the class of drugs called penicillins. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible bacteria. Ticarcillin has activity against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

The drug works by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, leading to bacterial death. It is often administered intravenously in a hospital setting due to its poor oral bioavailability. Common side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as allergic reactions, including rash and itching.

It's important to note that the use of ticarcillin should be based on the results of bacterial culture and sensitivity testing to ensure its effectiveness against the specific bacteria causing the infection. Additionally, healthcare providers should monitor renal function during treatment, as ticarcillin can affect kidney function in some patients.

Cefaclor is a type of antibiotic known as a second-generation cephalosporin. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria eventually die. Cefaclor is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, making it a broad-spectrum antibiotic.

Cefaclor is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections (such as bronchitis and pneumonia), ear infections, skin infections, and urinary tract infections. It is available in both oral and intravenous forms.

Like all antibiotics, cefaclor should be used only to treat bacterial infections, as it is not effective against viral infections such as the common cold or flu. Overuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can make future infections more difficult to treat. It is important to take cefaclor exactly as directed by a healthcare professional and to complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before all of the medication has been taken.

... is no longer available in the United States. The chemical structure of cefamandole, like that of several other ... The clinically used form of cefamandole is the formate ester cefamandole nafate, a prodrug which is administered parenterally. ... Cefamandole has a broad spectrum of activity and can be used to treat bacterial infections of the skin, bones and joints, ... The following represents cefamandole MIC susceptibility data for a few medically significant microorganisms. Escherichia coli: ...
These include latamoxef (moxalactam), cefmenoxime, cefoperazone, cefamandole, cefmetazole, and cefotetan. This is thought to be ...
"Emergence of resistance to cefamandole: possible role of cefoxitin-inducible beta-lactamases". Antimicrobial Agents and ...
Injectable semi-synthetic cephalosporin antibiotic related to cefamandole, q.v. Cefonicid is synthesized conveniently by ... The mandelic acid amide C-7 side chain is reminiscent of cefamandole. Cefazaflur Saltiel E, Brogden RN (September 1986). " ...
Findell, C. M.; Sherris, J. C. (1976). "Susceptibility of Enterobacter to Cefamandole: Evidence for a High Mutation Rate to ...
Other antibiotics with broad antibacterial spectra are cephalothin, carbenicillin, amoxicillin, cefamandole, tobramycin, and ...
These include ampicillin, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefamandole, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, tetracycline, ...
A drug associated with increased risk of vitamin K deficiency is cefamandole, although the mechanism is unknown. Vitamin K is ...
The molecular formula C18H18N6O5S2 (molar mass: 462.505 g/mol) may refer to: Cefamandole Cefatrizine This set index page lists ...
... cefamandole (INN) Cefanex cefaparole (INN) cefapirin (INN) cefatrizine (INN) cefazaflur (INN) cefazedone (INN) cefazolin (INN) ...
... cefprozil Cefaclor Cefamandole Cefuroxime Cefotetan Cefoxitin Cefixime Cefotaxime Cefpodoxime Ceftazidime Ceftriaxone Cefdinir ...
... cefamandole MeSH D02.065.589.099.249.150.160 - cefoperazone MeSH D02.065.589.099.249.160 - cefazolin MeSH D02.065.589.099. ...
Abacavir Cephalosporins such as cefamandole, cefmenoxime, cefmetazole, cefonicid, cefoperazone, cefotetan, ceftriaxone, and ...
Eurosefro and Incef Cephapirin Cephacetrile Cefamandole Ampicillin (Has the same chemical formula) Penicillin is the usual drug ...
... cefamandole and cefotetan, that have a N-methylthio-tetrazole moiety Griseofulvin, an oral antifungal drug Procarbazine ...
Cefradine J01DB10 Cefacetrile J01DB11 Cefroxadine J01DB12 Ceftezole J01DC01 Cefoxitin J01DC02 Cefuroxime J01DC03 Cefamandole ...
... may refer to: Mandol (antibiotic), the antibiotic cefamandole Algerian mandole or mandol, a musical instrument Mandol ...
... cefamandole 1977 - cefoxitin 1977 - cefuroxime 1977 - mezlocillin 1977 - pivmecillinam 1979 - cefaclor 1980 - cefmetazole 1980 ...
Cefamandole is no longer available in the United States. The chemical structure of cefamandole, like that of several other ... The clinically used form of cefamandole is the formate ester cefamandole nafate, a prodrug which is administered parenterally. ... Cefamandole has a broad spectrum of activity and can be used to treat bacterial infections of the skin, bones and joints, ... The following represents cefamandole MIC susceptibility data for a few medically significant microorganisms. Escherichia coli: ...
... cefamandole, cefaclor, cefotetan, cefoxitin, and cefuroxime) have an extended antibacterial spectrum that includes greater ... Other articles where cefamandole is discussed: antibiotic: Cephalosporins: The second-generation cephalosporins ( ... cefuroxime and cefamandole) and third-generation ones (such as ceftazidime) tend to be more effective against gram-negative ... The second-generation cephalosporins (cefamandole, cefaclor, cefotetan, cefoxitin, and cefuroxime) have an extended ...
Spécialités Etrangères : NEOSTERON FRANCE(SPECIALITES RETIREES DU MARCHE) PAYS-BAS Retour à la page daccueil. ...
Cefaclor and cefamandole as alternatives to spectinomycin in the treatment of men with uncomplicated gonorrhoea. ... Cefaclor and cefamandole as alternatives to spectinomycin in the treatment of men with uncomplicated gonorrhoea. ... cefamandole 1 g intramuscularly after probenecid 1 g orally (group B); cefaclor 3 g orally with probenecid 1 g orally (group C ...
The clinically used form of cefamandole is an ester form, cefamandole nafate, a prodrug. Cefamandole is no longer available in ... CEFAMANDOLE Created by admin. on Thu Jul 06 21:23:34 UTC 2023. , Edited by admin. on Thu Jul 06 21:23:34 UTC 2023. ... Cefamandole at 4 x the MBC did not affect the survival of intracellular S. aureus, but killed 41% of extracellular bacteria by ... Cefamandole under brand name mandol is indicated for the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of the ...
Cefamandole Impurity A(EP). Catalog No: PI00018003 Product Name: Cefamandole Nafate Impurity A(EP). CAS No:N/A,,Chemical ... Cefamandole Nafate Impurity E(EP). Catalog No: PI00018006 Product Name: Cefamandole Impurity E(EP). CAS No: 87932-78-3,Chemical ... Cefamandole Impurity C(EP). Catalog No: PI00018004 Product Name: Cefamandole Impurity C(EP). CAS No:36922-16-4,,Chemical ... Cefamandole Impurity D(EP). Catalog No: PI00018005 Product Name: Cefamandole Nafate Impurity D (EP). CAS No:13183-79-4,, ...
Find information on Cefamandole (Mandol) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing ... "Cefamandole." Daviss Drug Guide, 18th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2023. Anesthesia Central, anesth.unboundmedicine.com/anesthesia ... Davis-Drug-Guide/109106/all/cefamandole. Vallerand AHA, Sanoski CAC, Quiring CC. Cefamandole. Daviss Drug Guide. F.A. Davis ... Vallerand, A. H., Sanoski, C. A., & Quiring, C. (2023). Cefamandole. In Daviss Drug Guide (18th ed.). F.A. Davis Company. ...
Cefamandole (Mandol) interacts with WINE. The alcohol in wine can interact with cefamandole. This can lead to upset stomach, ...
Acyclovir reference guide for safe and effective use from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (AHFS DI).
Common choices include ceftriaxone or other third-generation cephalosporins, cefuroxime, and cefamandole. After culture and ...
Cefamandole. When taken with amoxicillin, bromelain was shown to increase absorption of amoxicillin in humans. When 80 mg of ...
cefamandole. cefamandole will increase the level or effect of probenecid by acidic (anionic) drug competition for renal tubular ... cefamandole. Monitor Closely (1)cefamandole will increase the level or effect of probenecid by acidic (anionic) drug ...
Tobi - Get up-to-date information on Tobi side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Tobi
cefamandole. Minor (1)cefamandole increases toxicity of furosemide by pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. ... cefamandole. cefamandole increases toxicity of furosemide by pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Increased ...
Cefaclor, Cefamandole, Cefmetazole, Cefonicid, Ceforanide, Cefotiam, Cefprozil, Cefuroxime. Third generation. Cefdinir, ...
Comparative study of cefazolin, cefamandole, and vancomycin for surgical prophylaxis in cardiac and vascular operations: a ...
Study Drugs flashcards from Dennis Shrute's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Emergence of resistance to cefamandole: possible role of cefoxitin-inducible beta-lactamases. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 15 ...
Cefamandole Nafate. Cefapirin (Cephapirin) Benzathine. Cefapirin (Cephapirin) Sodium. Cefatrizine. Cefatrizine Propylene Glycol ...
Some drugs also interfere with vitamin K deficiency such as salicylates, barbiturates, and cefamandole. ...
Comparative study of cefazolin, cefamandole, and vancomycin for surgical prophylaxis in cardiac and vascular operations: a ...
Cefamandole nafate 20 mg/ml. -20°C. 30. Cefazolin sodium 20 mg/ml. -20°C. 30. ...
... cefamandole, cefoperazone, diazepam, furosemide, hydrocortisone sodium succinate, insulin (regular: 100 units/mL), ...
... cefamandole, cefoperazone, diazepam, furosemide, hydrocortisone sodium succinate, insulin (regular: 100 units/mL), ...
Cefamandole/analogs & derivatives (1978-1983). Cephalosporins (1966-1974). Cephamycins (1975-1977). Lactams (1972-1980). Public ...
Polymyxin B, sold under the brand name Poly-Rx among others, is an antibiotic used to treat meningitis, pneumonia, sepsis, and urinary tract infections.[1] While it is useful for many Gram negative infections, it is not useful for Gram positive infections.[1] It can be given by injection into a vein, muscle, or cerebrospinal fluid or inhaled.[1] The injectable form is generally only used if other options are not available.[2] It is also available as the combinations bacitracin/polymyxin B and neomycin/polymyxin B/bacitracin for use on the skin.[3][4] Common side effects when given by injection include kidney problems, neurological problems, fever, itchiness, and rash.[1] Injections into muscle may result in significant pain.[1] Other serious side effects may include fungal infections, anaphylaxis, and muscle weakness.[1] It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe for the baby.[1] Polymyxin B works by breaking down the cytoplasmic membrane which generally results in bacterial cell death.[1] ...
  • The second-generation cephalosporins (cefamandole, cefaclor, cefotetan, cefoxitin, and cefuroxime) have an extended antibacterial spectrum that includes greater activity against additional species of gram-negative rods. (britannica.com)
  • Cefaclor and cefamandole as alternatives to spectinomycin in the treatment of men with uncomplicated gonorrhoea. (bmj.com)
  • The chemical structure of cefamandole, like that of several other cephalosporins, contains an N-methylthiotetrazole (NMTT or 1-MTT) side chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • cefuroxime and cefamandole) and third-generation ones (such as ceftazidime) tend to be more effective against gram-negative bacterial species that are resistant to the first-generation cephalosporins. (britannica.com)
  • Common choices include ceftriaxone or other third-generation cephalosporins, cefuroxime, and cefamandole. (medscape.com)
  • Cefoperazone, similar to other cephalosporins such as cefamandole, contains the methyltiotetrazole (NMTT) side chain, which can cause hypoprothrombinaemia and consequently bleeding manifestations. (manipal.edu)
  • Cefazolin Ceforanide "Cefamandole sodium salt Susceptibility and 0.5 - 32 Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) Data" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The clinically used form of cefamandole is the formate ester cefamandole nafate, a prodrug which is administered parenterally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cefamandole under brand name mandol is indicated for the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms such as: lower respiratory infections, including pneumonia, caused by S. pneumoniae. (ncats.io)
  • Cefamandole (INN, also known as cephamandole) is a second-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following drugs or solutions are reportedly incompatible or only compatible in spe-cific situations with tobramycin: cefamandole naftate, furosemide and heparin sodium. (elephantcare.org)
  • The following represents cefamandole MIC susceptibility data for a few medically significant microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2023. https://anesth.unboundmedicine.com/anesthesia/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/109106/all/cefamandole. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Escherichia coli: 0.12 - 400 μg/ml Haemophilus influenzae: 0.06 - >16 μg/ml Staphylococcus aureus: 0.1 - 12.5 μg/ml CO2 is generated during the normal constitution of cefamandole and ceftazidime, potentially resulting in an explosive-like reaction in syringes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cefamandole resistance transfer in bacterial strains from two newborn units. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • transfer of cefamandole resistance was demonstrated from strains of citrobacter freundii as well as from individual strains of enterobacter cloacae, acinetobacter anitratus and klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from patients in two newborn units. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • in citrobacter freundii, cefamandole resistance was transferred always with cephalotin resistance as well as with a tem-like beta lactamase (conferring resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin and azlocillin). (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Cefamandole is no longer available in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cefamandole is no longer available in USA, but it has prescription in UK. (ncats.io)
  • While Klebsiella strains donated cefotaxime, cefamandole and cefuroxime resistance to Escherichia coli K-12 recipients, the genetic analysis of exconjugants after the transfer of plasmids from Serratia strains to Proteus or Salmonella recipients showed that the cefoxitin resistance determinant was also co-transferred. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro activity of cefamandole, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, and carbenicillin, alone and in combination with aminoglycosides against Serratia marcescens. (nih.gov)
  • Common choices include ceftriaxone or other third-generation cephalosporins, cefuroxime, and cefamandole. (medscape.com)
  • In addition to the nine antimicrobial agents studied in the two previous years, three other agents were added to the evaluation: cefamandole, cefuroxime, and cefonicid. (duke.edu)
  • Cefamandole (INN, also known as cephamandole) is a second-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cefazolin Ceforanide "Cefamandole sodium salt Susceptibility and 0.5 - 32 Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) Data" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cefamandole sodium salt is freely soluble in aqueous solution. (goldbio.com)
  • Cefamandole has a broad spectrum of activity and can be used to treat bacterial infections of the skin, bones and joints, urinary tract, and lower respiratory tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sensitivity of gentamicin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae to cefamandole and cefoxitin. (nih.gov)
  • The following represents cefamandole MIC susceptibility data for a few medically significant microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)