Occupational asthma induced by cephalosporins. (1/31)A 20-yr-old pharmaceutical worker who developed attacks of shortness of breath and wheezing 9 months after beginning work on a process in which cefadroxil powder was bottled or encapsulated will be described. Skin test with cefaxodril was negative. Baseline spirometry and methacholine inhalation test were normal. A controlled bronchial challenge test was carried out in a closed-circuit system with assessment of respirable dust concentration. Exposure to cefadroxil powder at a mean concentration of 10 mg x m(-3) for 10 min elicited an isolated immediate asthmatic response, but no response was observed to control challenge with lactose. Single-blind oral challenge test with amoxicillin up to 500 mg was well tolerated, whereas the oral challenge with cephalexin (25 mg) elicited an immediate asthmatic response. This patient had developed occupational asthma caused by inhalation of cefadroxil as confirmed by specific inhalation test. Since she tolerated oral amoxicillin, a synthetic penicillin with the side-chain identical to that of cefadroxil, it seems that she may be sensitized to the dihydrothiazine ring of cephalosporins. (+info)
Enzymatic synthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics using penicillin-G acylase in frozen media. (2/31)Penicillin-G acylase (EC 126.96.36.199) from Escherichia coli catalyzed the synthesis of various beta-lactam antibiotics in ice at -20 degrees C with higher yields than obtained in solution at 20 degrees C. The initial ratio between aminolysis and hydrolysis of the acyl-enzyme complex in the synthesis of cephalexin increased from 1.3 at 20 degrees C to 25 at -20 degrees C. The effect on the other antibiotics studied was less, leading us to conclude that freezing of the reaction medium influences the hydrolysis of each nucleophile-acyl-enzyme complex to a different extent. Only free penicillin-G acylase could perform transformations in frozen media: immobilized preparations showed a low, predominantly hydrolytic activity under these conditions. (+info)
beta-lactam antibiotics as substrates for OCTN2, an organic cation/carnitine transporter. (3/31)Therapeutic use of cephaloridine, a beta-lactam antibiotic, in humans is associated with carnitine deficiency. A potential mechanism for the development of carnitine deficiency is competition between cephaloridine and carnitine for the renal reabsorptive process. OCTN2 is an organic cation/carnitine transporter that is responsible for Na(+)-coupled transport of carnitine in the kidney and other tissues. We investigated the interaction of several beta-lactam antibiotics with OCTN2 using human cell lines that express the transporter constitutively as well as using cloned human and rat OCTN2s expressed heterologously in human cell lines. The beta-lactam antibiotics cephaloridine, cefoselis, cefepime, and cefluprenam were found to inhibit OCTN2-mediated carnitine transport. These antibiotics possess a quaternary nitrogen as does carnitine. Several other beta-lactam antibiotics that do not possess this structural feature did not interact with OCTN2. The interaction of cephaloridine with OCTN2 is competitive with respect to carnitine. Interestingly, many of the beta-lactam antibiotics that were not recognized by OCTN2 were good substrates for the H(+)-coupled peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. In contrast, cephaloridine, cefoselis, cefepime, and cefluprenam, which were recognized by OCTN2, did not interact with PEPT1 and PEPT2. The interaction of cephaloridine with OCTN2 was Na(+)-dependent, whereas the interaction of cefoselis and cefepime with OCTN2 was largely Na(+)-independent. Furthermore, the Na(+)-dependent, OCTN2-mediated cellular uptake of cephaloridine could be demonstrated by direct uptake measurements. These studies show that OCTN2 plays a crucial role in the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of certain beta-lactam antibiotics such as cephaloridine and that cephaloridine-induced carnitine deficiency is likely to be due to inhibition of carnitine reabsorption in the kidney. (+info)
Intestinal peptide transport: ex vivo uptake studies and localization of peptide carrier PEPT1. (4/31)The nature of protein breakdown products and peptidomimetic drugs such as beta-lactams is crucial for their transmembrane transport across apical enterocyte membranes, which is accomplished by the pH-dependent high-capacity oligopeptide transporter PEPT1. To visualize oligopeptide transporter-mediated uptake of oligopeptides, an ex vivo assay using the fluorophore-conjugated dipeptide derivative D-Ala-Lys-N(epsilon)-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid (D-Ala-Lys-AMCA) was established in the murine small intestine and compared with immunohistochemistry for PEPT1 in murine and human small intestine. D-Ala-Lys-AMCA was accumulated by enterocytes throughout all segments of the murine small intestine, with decreasing intensity from the top to the base of the villi. Goblet cells did not show specific uptake. Inhibition studies revealed competitive inhibition by the beta-lactam cefadroxil, the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril, and the dipeptide glycyl-glutamine. Controls were performed using either the inhibitor diethylpyrocarbonate or an incubation temperature of 4 degrees C to exclude unspecific uptake. Immunohistochemistry for PEPT1 localized immunoreactivity to the enterocytes, with the highest intensity at the apical membrane. This is the first study that visualizes dipeptide transport across the mammalian intestine and indicates that uptake assays using D-Ala-Lys-AMCA might be useful for characterizing PEPT1-specific substrates or inhibitors. (+info)
Distribution and function of the peptide transporter PEPT2 in normal and cystic fibrosis human lung. (5/31)BACKGROUND: Aerosol administration of peptide based drugs has an important role in the treatment of various pulmonary and systemic diseases. The characterisation of pulmonary peptide transport pathways can lead to new strategies in aerosol drug treatment. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and ex vivo uptake studies were established to assess the distribution and activity of the beta-lactam transporting high affinity proton coupled peptide transporter PEPT2 in normal and cystic fibrosis human airway tissue. RESULTS: PEPT2 immunoreactivity in normal human airways was localised to cells of the tracheal and bronchial epithelium and the endothelium of small vessels. In peripheral lung immunoreactivity was restricted to type II pneumocytes. In sections of cystic fibrosis lung a similar pattern of distribution was obtained with signals localised to endothelial cells, airway epithelium, and type II pneumocytes. Functional ex vivo uptake studies with fresh lung specimens led to an uptake of the fluorophore conjugated dipeptide derivative D-Ala-L-Lys-AMCA into bronchial epithelial cells and type II pneumocytes. This uptake was competitively inhibited by dipeptides and cephalosporins but not ACE inhibitors, indicating a substrate specificity as described for PEPT2. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence for the expression and function of the peptide transporter PEPT2 in the normal and cystic fibrosis human respiratory tract and suggest that PEPT2 is likely to play a role in the transport of pulmonary peptides and peptidomimetics. (+info)
Evaluation of cefuroxime axetil and cefadroxil suspensions for treatment of pediatric skin infections. (6/31)A randomized, single-blind, multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cefuroxime axetil and cefadroxil suspensions for the treatment of skin or skin structure infections in 287 children. Each drug was given at a dosage of 30 mg/kg of body weight per day in two divided doses. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, or a combination of the two, were the primary pathogens isolated from infected skin lesions. A satisfactory bacteriological response (cure or presumed cure) was obtained in 97.1 and 94.3% of children in the cefuroxime axetil and cefadroxil groups, respectively (P greater than 0.05). Satisfactory clinical responses (cure or improvement) were more likely to occur in cefuroxime axetil recipients than in cefadroxil recipients (97.8 versus 90.3%; P less than 0.05). Both regimens were equally well tolerated, with adverse events occurring in 7.9 and 6.1% of cefuroxime axetil and cefadroxil recipients, respectively. There were more patients who refused to take cefuroxime axetil (7 of 189) than there were who refused to take cefadroxil (0 of 98), but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.1). In this study, cefuroxime axetil was at least as effective as cefadroxil in resolving skin and skin structure infections in children. (+info)
Mechanisms of cefadroxil uptake in the choroid plexus: studies in wild-type and PEPT2 knockout mice. (7/31)The choroid plexus uptake of [(3)H]cefadroxil was studied in peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2) wild-type and null mice as a function of temperature, transport inhibitors, pH, and saturability. At normal pH (7.4) and temperature (37 degrees C), the uptake of 1 microM cefadroxil was reduced by 83% in PEPT2(-/-) mice as compared with PEPT2(+/+) mice (p < 0.001). A further reduction was achieved in null animals by reducing the temperature to 4 degrees C, or by adding saturating concentrations of unlabeled cefadroxil or p-aminohippurate (p < 0.05). Glycylsarcosine coadministration could inhibit the uptake of cefadroxil in PEPT2(+/+) mice (p < 0.01) but not PEPT2(-/-) mice. Although a proton-stimulated uptake of cefadroxil was demonstrated in PEPT2(+/+) mice (pH 6.5 versus pH 7.4; p < 0.01), no pH dependence was observed in PEPT2(-/-) mice. Kinetic parameters for cefadroxil (without p-aminohippurate) in wild-type mice were: V(max) = 5.4 pmol/mg/min, K(m) = 34 microM, and K(d) = 0.0069 microl/mg/min; in the presence of p-aminohippurate, the parameters were: V(max) = 4.1 pmol/mg/min, K(m) = 27 microM, and K(d) = 0.0064 microl/mg/min. In null animals, the kinetic parameters of cefadroxil (without p-aminohippurate) were: V(max) = 2.7 pmol/mg/min, K(m) = 110 microM, and K(d) = 0.0084 microl/mg/min; in the presence of p-aminohippurate, only a K(d) = 0.010 microl/mg/min was observed. Based on kinetic and inhibitor analyses, it was determined that (under linear conditions), 80 to 85% of cefadroxil's uptake in choroid plexus is mediated by PEPT2, 10 to 15% by organic anion transporter(s), and 5% by nonspecific mechanisms. These findings demonstrate that PEPT2 is the primary transporter responsible for cefadroxil uptake in the choroid plexus. Moreover, the data suggest a role for PEPT2 in the clearance of peptidomimetics from cerebrospinal fluid. (+info)
In vitro activities of Ro 40-6890 against 164 predominantly intestinal members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae. (8/31)The in vitro activities of Ro 40-6890, the active metabolite of a novel orally absorbable cephalosporin ester, Ro 41-3399, against 164 nonfastidious aerobic gram-negative rods of predominantly intestinal origin from patients with diarrhea were evaluated by the agar dilution method recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Ro 40-6890 was inhibitory (MIC for 90% of isolates [MIC90], 0.12 micrograms/ml) against the majority of intestinal members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae (Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Plesiomonas shigelloides). The potency of Ro 40-6890 was very similar to that of cefotaxime (MIC90, 0.12 micrograms/ml) and distinctly higher than those of cefadroxil (MIC90, > or = 128 micrograms/ml) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (MIC90, 32 micrograms/ml-2 micrograms/ml). (+info)
Cefadroxil is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria eventually die. Cefadroxil is used to treat a variety of infections caused by bacteria, including skin infections, ear infections, and urinary tract infections.
Cefadroxil is available as a prescription medication and is typically taken by mouth in the form of a tablet or liquid suspension. It is usually taken one to two times a day, depending on the severity of the infection and the individual patient's needs.
As with all antibiotics, it is important to take cefadroxil exactly as directed by your healthcare provider and to finish the entire course of treatment, even if you start to feel better. This will help ensure that the infection is fully treated and reduce the risk of the bacteria becoming resistant to the antibiotic.
Some common side effects of cefadroxil include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach pain. In rare cases, more serious side effects may occur, such as an allergic reaction or severe skin reactions. If you experience any unusual symptoms while taking cefadroxil, it is important to contact your healthcare provider right away.
Cephalexin is a type of antibiotic known as a first-generation cephalosporin. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is essential for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacterial cells become unstable and eventually die.
Cephalexin is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria, making it a useful antibiotic for treating various types of infections, such as respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and urinary tract infections.
Like all antibiotics, cephalexin should be used only to treat bacterial infections, as it has no effect on viral infections. It is important to take the full course of treatment as directed by a healthcare professional, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished, to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.
Common side effects of cephalexin include nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain. In rare cases, more serious side effects such as allergic reactions, severe skin rashes, or liver damage may occur. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if any signs of an allergic reaction or serious side effect are experienced while taking cephalexin.
Cephradine is a type of antibiotic known as a first-generation cephalosporin. It is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and genitourinary tract infections. Cephradine works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which leads to the death of the bacteria.
Cephradine is available in oral (by mouth) and intravenous (into a vein) forms. Common side effects of cephradine include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain. More serious side effects can occur, such as allergic reactions, seizures, and severe skin reactions. It is important to take cephradine exactly as directed by a healthcare professional and to inform them of any medical conditions or medications being taken that could interact with the antibiotic.
The choroid plexus is a network of blood vessels and tissue located within each ventricle (fluid-filled space) of the brain. It plays a crucial role in the production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which provides protection and nourishment to the brain and spinal cord.
The choroid plexus consists of modified ependymal cells, called plexus epithelial cells, that line the ventricular walls. These cells have finger-like projections called villi, which increase their surface area for efficient CSF production. The blood vessels within the choroid plexus transport nutrients, ions, and water to these epithelial cells, where they are actively secreted into the ventricles to form CSF.
In addition to its role in CSF production, the choroid plexus also acts as a barrier between the blood and the central nervous system (CNS), regulating the exchange of substances between them. This barrier function is primarily attributed to tight junctions present between the epithelial cells, which limit the paracellular movement of molecules.
Abnormalities in the choroid plexus can lead to various neurological conditions, such as hydrocephalus (excessive accumulation of CSF) or certain types of brain tumors.
I couldn't find a medical definition for "Ampyrone" as it is not a recognized or commonly used term in medicine or pharmacology. It may be possible that you have made a slight error in the spelling, and you are actually looking for "Amiodarone," which is a medication used to treat and prevent various types of heart rhythm disorders.
If this is not the case, please provide more context or clarify your question so I can give you an accurate answer.
Cyclacillin is not a recognized or commonly used term in medicine or microbiology. It appears that you may have misspelled the name of an antibiotic. The correct spelling and medical definition are as follows:
Cloxacillin: A penicillinase-resistant antibiotic, closely related to dicloxacillin, used to treat infections caused by susceptible staphylococci, including beta-lactamase producing strains. It is commonly used for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections.
Cloxacillin is a type of penicillin that resist breaking down by certain enzymes produced by bacteria (penicillinases). This allows cloxacillin to be effective against some bacteria that have become resistant to other types of penicillin.
A symporter is a type of transmembrane protein that functions to transport two or more molecules or ions across a biological membrane in the same direction, simultaneously. This process is called co-transport and it is driven by the concentration gradient of one of the substrates, which is usually an ion such as sodium (Na+) or proton (H+).
Symporters are classified based on the type of energy that drives the transport process. Primary active transporters, such as symporters, use the energy from ATP hydrolysis or from the electrochemical gradient of ions to move substrates against their concentration gradient. In contrast, secondary active transporters use the energy stored in an existing electrochemical gradient of one substrate to drive the transport of another substrate against its own concentration gradient.
Symporters play important roles in various physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, neurotransmitter reuptake, and ion homeostasis. For example, the sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) is a symporter that co-transports glucose and sodium ions across the intestinal epithelium and the renal proximal tubule, contributing to glucose absorption and regulation of blood glucose levels. Similarly, the dopamine transporter (DAT) is a symporter that co-transports dopamine and sodium ions back into presynaptic neurons, terminating the action of dopamine in the synapse.
Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are derived from the fungus Acremonium, originally isolated from seawater and cow dung. They have a similar chemical structure to penicillin and share a common four-membered beta-lactam ring in their molecular structure.
Cephalosporins work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, which ultimately leads to bacterial death. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, meaning they are effective against a wide range of bacteria, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.
There are several generations of cephalosporins, each with different spectra of activity and pharmacokinetic properties. The first generation cephalosporins have a narrow spectrum of activity and are primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Second-generation cephalosporins have an expanded spectrum of activity that includes some Gram-negative organisms, such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. Third-generation cephalosporins have even broader spectra of activity and are effective against many resistant Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Fourth-generation cephalosporins have activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics. They are often reserved for the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.
Cephalosporins are generally well tolerated, but like penicillin, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Cross-reactivity between cephalosporins and penicillin is estimated to occur in 5-10% of patients with a history of penicillin allergy. Other potential adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), neurotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity.
A dipeptide is a type of molecule that is formed by the condensation of two amino acids. In this process, the carboxyl group (-COOH) of one amino acid combines with the amino group (-NH2) of another amino acid, releasing a water molecule and forming a peptide bond.
The resulting molecule contains two amino acids joined together by a single peptide bond, which is a type of covalent bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another. Dipeptides are relatively simple molecules compared to larger polypeptides or proteins, which can contain hundreds or even thousands of amino acids linked together by multiple peptide bonds.
Dipeptides have a variety of biological functions in the body, including serving as building blocks for larger proteins and playing important roles in various physiological processes. Some dipeptides also have potential therapeutic uses, such as in the treatment of hypertension or muscle wasting disorders.
In the context of medical definitions, "suspensions" typically refers to a preparation in which solid particles are suspended in a liquid medium. This is commonly used for medications that are administered orally, where the solid particles disperse upon shaking and settle back down when left undisturbed. The solid particles can be made up of various substances such as drugs, nutrients, or other active ingredients, while the liquid medium is often water, oil, or alcohol-based.
It's important to note that "suspensions" in a medical context should not be confused with the term as it relates to pharmacology or physiology, where it may refer to the temporary stopping of a bodily function or the removal of something from a solution through settling or filtration.
Asymmetric membrane capsule
Discovery and development of cephalosporins
List of drugs: Cb-Ce
List of MeSH codes (D02)
ATC code J01
Timeline of antibiotics
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- Cefadroxil (formerly trademarked as Duricef) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic of the cephalosporin type, effective in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] Cefadroxil is used as an antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures, for patients allergic to penicillins. (wikipedia.org)
- Cefadroxil Capsules USP is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic intended for oral administration. (nih.gov)
- Cefadroxil is a broad-spectrum antibiotic effective in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections. (bionity.com)
- Cefadroxil is a cephalosporin antibiotic. (medstoreproducts.com)
- Obvious superficial impetiginization should be treated with topical mupirocin or a systemic antibiotic with activity against Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species (eg, dicloxacillin, cephalexin, cefadroxil, levofloxacin). (medscape.com)
- Info: Cefadroxil - cephalosporin antibiotic of the I generation for intake. (mol.go.th)
- Cefadroxil is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
- Antibiotics such as cefadroxil will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you stop taking cefadroxil too soon or skip doses, your infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
- Cefadroxil Capsules is Cephalosporins antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections of the throat, ear, urinary tract, skin, and soft tissues. (inopha.net)
- Also tell your doctor if you are allergic to any of the ingredients in cefadroxil capsules, tablets, or suspension.Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ingredients. (medlineplus.gov)
- To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of cefadroxil capsules and other antibacterial drugs, cefadroxil capsules should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (nih.gov)
Caused by bacteria2
- citation needed] Cefadroxil has a broad spectrum of activity and has been effective in treating bacteria responsible for causing tonsillitis, and infections of the skin and urinary tract. (wikipedia.org)
- Cefadroxil fights bacteria in the body. (medstoreproducts.com)
- Cefadroxil is used for treating infections caused by certain bacteria. (1001pills.com)
- Cefadroxil is a first-generation cephalosporin antibacterial drug that is the para-hydroxy derivative of cephalexin, and is used similarly in the treatment of mild to moderate susceptible infections such as the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes, causing the disease popularly called strep throat or streptococcal tonsillitis, urinary tract infection, reproductive tract infection, and skin infections. (wikipedia.org)
- Cefadroxil is used to treat many different types of bacterial infections such as bronchitis, tonsillitis, ear infections, skin infections, and urinary tract infections. (medstoreproducts.com)
- Cefadroxil, Free Acid Susceptibility and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) Data" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
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- Cefadroxil is a first-generation semisynthetic cephalosporin that arrests bacterial growth by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. (medscape.com)
- Escherichia coli: 8 μg/ml Staphylococcus aureus: 1 - 2 μg/ml Streptococcus pneumoniae: ≤1 - >16 μg/ml The most common side effects of cefadroxil are diarrhea (which, less commonly, may be bloody), nausea, upset stomach, and vomiting. (wikipedia.org)
- Most strains of Enterococcus faecalis (formerly Streptococcus faecalis ) and Enterococcus faecium (formerly Streptococcus faecium ) are resistant to cefadroxil. (nih.gov)
- Cefadroxil is also sometimes used for certain penicillin allergic patients who have a heart condition and are having a dental or upper respiratory tract (nose, mouth, throat, voice box) procedure, in order to prevent them from developing a heart valve infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- To clear up your infection completely, take Cefadroxil for the full course of treatment. (medstoreproducts.com)
- Long-term or repeated use of Cefadroxil may cause a second infection. (medstoreproducts.com)
- Use Cefadroxil with extreme caution in children younger than 10 years old who have diarrhea or an infection of the stomach or bowel. (1001pills.com)
- Cefadroxil is rapidly absorbed after oral administration. (nih.gov)
- Cefadroxil comes as a capsule, tablet, and suspension (liquid) to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
- Cefadroxil is a first-generation cephalosporin antibacterial drug that is the para-hydroxy derivative of cefalexin, and is used similarly in the treatment of mild to moderate susceptible infections. (bionity.com)
- If you miss a dose of Cefadroxil, take it as soon as possible. (medstoreproducts.com)
- Diabetes patients - Cefadroxil may cause the results of some tests for urine glucose to be wrong. (medstoreproducts.com)
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- Take cefadroxil with food to reduce nausea and stomach upset. (medlineplus.gov)
- Cefadroxil is found in breast milk. (medstoreproducts.com)
- Cefadroxil Impurity E product with CAS: 147103-93-3 is also known as Diketopiperazine derivative. (synthinkchemicals.com)
- Cefadroxil may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
- The plasma half-life of cefadroxil is about 1.5 hours and is prolonged in patients with renal impairment. (bionity.com)