The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
Tumors or cancer of the CECUM.
Pathological developments in the CECUM.
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
The valve, at the junction of the CECUM with the COLON, that guards the opening where the ILEUM enters the LARGE INTESTINE.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.
A beta-2 selective adrenergic antagonist. It is used primarily in animal and tissue experiments to characterize BETA-2 ANDRENERGIC RECEPTORS.
A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the TRANSVERSE COLON. It passes cephalad from the cecum to the caudal surface of the right lobe of the LIVER where it bends sharply to the left, forming the right colic flexure.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Powdered exudate from various Acacia species, especially A. senegal (Leguminosae). It forms mucilage or syrup in water. Gum arabic is used as a suspending agent, excipient, and emulsifier in foods and pharmaceuticals.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Infections with bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.

Apoptosis of villous epithelial cells and follicle-associated epithelial cells in chicken cecum. (1/1758)

The process of the disappearance of epithelial cells was examined in chicken cecal villi and follicle-associated epithelium (FAE). The apoptotic epithelial cells with intense DNA-fragmentation and their exfoliation were found in the villous tips. The epithelial cells with weak DNA-fragmentation were seen in the upper portion of the villi and their sparse exfoliations were also found there. Numerous epithelial cells in the intestinal lumen expressed the apoptotic features. A row of apoptotic epithelial cells with DNA-fragmentation was also found in the apical FAE, whereas no M cells exhibited any apoptotic signs. In all cecal regions, CD3+, CD8+, and TCR2+ lymphocytes were predominant in the epithelium at the upper portion of the villi and the FAE. CD4+ lymphocytes were mainly seen in the lamina propria. TCR1+ lymphocytes were not abundant in comparison with TCR2+ lymphocytes in the epithelium. TCR3+ T lymphocytes were rarely detected. These results suggest that the chicken cecal epithelial cells exfoliated into the lumen after the induction of the apoptosis, and that the induction may be involved with CD3+, CD8+, and TCR2+ lymphocytes. No death in M cells suggests that M cells may transform into microvillous epithelial cells.  (+info)

Regulation of early peritoneal neutrophil migration by macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and mast cells in experimental peritonitis. (2/1758)

Neutrophil (PMN) migration into the peritoneal cavity in response to fecal peritonitis is an important mechanism of host defense against bacterial invasion. We show that the murine C-X-C (PMN-specific) chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), on intraperitoneal injection in mice, causes PMN migration into the peritoneum. MIP-2 mRNA and protein were expressed by peritoneal leukocytes after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in mice and neutralization of MIP-2 reduced peritoneal PMN migration. A prerequisite for neutrophil-endothelial adhesion and subsequent migration from the circulation is selectin-mediated rolling. Pretreatment of mice with an anti-P-selectin antibody before intraperitoneal injection of MIP-2 significantly reduced peritoneal PMN migration. However, there are no reports that a C-X-C chemokine can up-regulate endothelial selectins. We postulated that MIP-2, when injected intraperitoneally, interacts with a cell that is known to release factors that up-regulate endothelial selectins. A likely candidate is the mast cell, which contains histamine and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and both of these factors induce selectins. Intraperitoneally injected MIP-2 caused an early significant increase in peritoneal TNF-alpha, whereas histamine levels were unaffected. In a subsequent experiment, mast cell-deficient mice and their normal controls were then injected intraperitoneally with MIP-2 or underwent CLP. Significantly fewer PMNs migrated into the peritoneal cavity in the mast cell-deficient mice after MIP-2 injection or CLP. Thus, our findings indicate that mast cells and MIP-2 are necessary for PMN migration into the peritoneum in response to intra-abdominal infection, and that MIP-2 appears to facilitate this through an increase in TNF-alpha release.  (+info)

Pathogenesis of Newcastle disease in chickens experimentally infected with viruses of different virulence. (3/1758)

Groups of 4-week-old White Rock chickens were inoculated intraconjunctivally with nine isolates of Newcastle disease virus representing all pathotypes. Birds were monitored clinically and euthanatized sequentially, with collection of tissues for histopathologic examination and in situ hybridization using an anti-sense digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe corresponding to the sequence of the gene coding for the matrix protein. Disease was most severe with velogenic viscerotropic pathotypes and was characterized by acute systemic illness with extensive necrosis of lymphoid areas in the spleen and intestine. Viral nucleic acid was detected in multiple tissues but most prominently in macrophages associated with lymphoid tissue. Velogenic neurotropic isolates caused central nervous system disease despite minimal amounts of viral nucleic acid detected in neural tissue. Mesogenic and lentogenic pathotypes caused no overt disease; however, viral nucleic acid was present in myocardium and air sac epithelium following infection with these isolates. Compromise of air sac and myocardium may predispose mesogen- and lentogen-infected chickens to secondary infection and/or decreased meat and egg production.  (+info)

Gas supersaturation in the cecal wall of mice due to bacterial CO2 production. (4/1758)

PCO2 in the lumen and serosa of cecum and jejunum was measured in mice. The anesthetic used was a fentanyl-fluanisone-midazolam mixture. PCO2 was recorded in vivo and postmortem. PCO2 was 409 +/- 32 Torr (55 +/- 4 kPa) in the cecal lumen and 199 +/- 22 Torr (27 +/- 3 kPa) on the serosa in normal mice. Irrigation of the cecum resulted in serosal and luminal PCO2 levels of 65-75 Torr. Cecal PCO2 was significantly lower in germ-free mice (65 +/- 5 Torr). Cecal PCO2 increased significantly after introduction of normal bacterial flora into germ-free mice. Introduction of bacterial monocultures into germ-free mice had no effect. After the deaths of the mice, cecal PCO2 increased rapidly in normal mice. The intestinal bacteria produced the majority of the cecal PCO2, and the use of tonometry in intestinal segments with a high bacterial activity should be interpreted with caution. We propose that serosal PCO2 levels >150-190 Torr (20-25 kPa) in the cecum of mice with a normal circulation may represent a state of gas supersaturation in the cecal wall.  (+info)

Pulmonary clearance of adrenomedullin is reduced during the late stage of sepsis. (5/1758)

Polymicrobial sepsis is characterized by an early, hyperdynamic phase followed by a late, hypodynamic phase. Although upregulation of adrenomedullin (ADM), a novel potent vasodilatory peptide, plays an important role in producing cardiovascular responses during the progression of sepsis, it remains unknown whether the clearance of this peptide is altered under such conditions. To determine this, male adult rats were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) followed by fluid resuscitation. At 5 h (i.e., the hyperdynamic phase of sepsis) or 20 h (the hypodynamic phase) after CLP, the animals were injected with 125I-labeled ADM through the jugular vein. Blood and tissue samples (including the lungs, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, spleen, mesentery, liver, brain, skeletal muscle, heart, and skin) were harvested 30 min after the injection and the radioactivity was determined. The results indicate that there were no significant alterations in tissue [125I]ADM distribution at 5 h after CLP compared to shams. At 20 h after CLP, however, there was a significant decrease in radioactivity in the lungs. In contrast, a significant increase of radioactivity was observed in all other organs except the liver and kidneys. The pulmonary distribution of [125I]ADM was found to be far greater than in any other organs tested, irrespective of the effect of sepsis. In separate groups of animals, injection of [125I]ADM into the left ventricle resulted in a significant decrease in radioactivity in the lungs of both sham and septic animals at 20 h after surgery. These results suggest that the lungs are the primary site of ADM clearance, which is significantly diminished during the late stage of sepsis. The decreased clearance of ADM by the lungs may play an important role in maintaining the sustained levels of plasma ADM under such conditions.  (+info)

A comparison of the effects of dietary cellulose and fermentable galacto-oligosaccharide, in a rat model of colorectal carcinogenesis: fermentable fibre confers greater protection than non-fermentable fibre in both high and low fat backgrounds. (6/1758)

The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of diets with either a non-fermentable fibre source (cellulose) or a fermentable fibre source [galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS)], combined with different levels of dietary fat, on the development of colorectal cancer. Male Wistar rats were fed AIN76-based diets with either a low or high level of cellulose, or a low or high level of GOS, for 9 months. The fat content of the diets was low, medium or high. All rats were treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine to induce colorectal tumours. Generally, the tumour incidence increased with increasing fat content in the diet. Despite marked faeces bulking, dietary cellulose either had no effect or an enhancing effect on the formation of colorectal tumours in general, although the development of carcinomas was decreased. GOS appeared to be highly protective against the development of colorectal tumours, as was demonstrated by an inhibitory effect on tumour incidence, multiplicity and size, regardless of the fat content of the diet. Neither fibre source influenced the bromodeoxyuridine labelling index determined in colon crypts or tumours. In animals fed high-GOS diets, the caecal content was significantly increased in weight and significantly decreased in pH. It was concluded that tumorigenesis was enhanced by increased fat content of the diet, and that the diets containing fermentable GOS conferred a greater protection against colorectal cancer than did the diets containing non-fermentable cellulose.  (+info)

Selective in vivo inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a rat model of sepsis. (7/1758)

Elevated production of nitric oxide (NO) by the inducible NO synthase (type II, iNOS) may contribute to the vascular hyporesponsiveness and hemodynamic alterations associated with sepsis. Selective inhibition of this isoenzyme is a possible therapeutic intervention to correct these pathophysiological alterations. Aminoguanidine has been shown to be a selective iNOS inhibitor and to correct the endotoxin-mediated vascular hypocontractility in vitro. However, to date aminoguanidine has not been shown to selectively block iNOS activity in vivo. The in vivo effects of aminoguanidine were assessed in the cecal ligation and perforation model of sepsis in rats. Aminoguanidine (1.75-175 mg/kg) was administered to septic and sham-operated rats for 3 h before euthanasia and harvest of tissues. NOS activities were determined in the thoracic aorta and lung from these animals. Aminoguanidine (17.5 mg/kg) did not alter the mean arterial pressure; however, it did inhibit induced iNOS (but not constitutive NOS) activity in the lung and thoracic aorta from septic animals. Only the higher dose of aminoguanidine (175 mg/kg) was able to increase the mean arterial pressure in septic and sham-operated animals. Thus selective inhibition of iNOS in vivo with aminoguanidine is possible, but our data suggest that other mechanisms, in addition to iNOS induction, are responsible for the loss of vascular tone characteristic of sepsis.  (+info)

Prevalence and persistence of Salmonella in broiler chicken flocks. (8/1758)

Cecal contents of 2,345 broiler chickens consisting of 28 flocks originated from 12 farms were examined for the prevalence of Salmonella to know the actual status of infection with Salmonella in the chicken flocks. Salmonella was isolated from 336 (14.3%) samples. From these isolates, eight serovars were identified. Of the 336 Salmonella isolates, 242 (72.0%) were serotyped as S. Blockley, 60 (17.9%) S. Hadar, 15 (4.5%) S. Bredeney, nine (2.7%) S. Schwarzengrund, four (1.2%) S. Anatum, three (0.9%) S. Enteritidis, two (0.6%) S. Ohio, and one (0.3%) S. Livingstone. The same serovars of Salmonella were repeatedly found in the chickens from the same farms. S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis were detected in pooled broken eggshell samples collected from the hatchery. Analysis of plasmid profiles revealed 11 patterns of S. Blockley and seven patterns of S. Hadar. Strains of the same plasmid profiles of S. Blockley were isolated repeatedly from the same farm over one year after the first isolation.  (+info)

The cecum is the first part of the large intestine, located at the junction of the small and large intestines. It is a pouch-like structure that connects to the ileum (the last part of the small intestine) and the ascending colon (the first part of the large intestine). The cecum is where the appendix is attached. Its function is to absorb water and electrolytes, and it also serves as a site for the fermentation of certain types of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. However, the exact functions of the cecum are not fully understood.

Cecal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the cecum, which is the first part of the large intestine or colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Common types of cecal neoplasms include adenomas (benign tumors that can become cancerous over time), carcinoids (slow-growing tumors that usually don't spread), and adenocarcinomas (cancers that start in the glands that line the inside of the cecum).

Symptoms of cecal neoplasms may include changes in bowel habits, such as diarrhea or constipation; abdominal pain or cramping; blood in the stool; and unexplained weight loss. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular screening is recommended for people at high risk for developing colorectal cancer, including those with a family history of the disease or certain genetic mutations.

Cecal diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the cecum, which is a pouch-like structure located at the junction of the small and large intestines. The cecum plays an important role in digestion, particularly in the fermentation of certain types of food.

There are several different types of cecal diseases, including:

1. Cecal volvulus: This is a rare condition in which the cecum twists on itself, cutting off blood flow and causing severe pain and other symptoms.
2. Diverticulitis: This occurs when small pouches called diverticula form in the wall of the cecum and become inflamed or infected.
3. Appendicitis: Although not strictly a cecal disease, the appendix is a small tube-like structure that branches off from the cecum. Inflammation of the appendix (appendicitis) can cause severe pain in the lower right abdomen and may require surgical removal of the appendix.
4. Crohn's disease: This is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that can affect any part of the digestive tract, including the cecum.
5. Tuberculosis: The cecum can also be affected by tuberculosis, which is a bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs but can spread to other parts of the body.
6. Cancer: Although rare, cancer can also affect the cecum, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.

Treatment for cecal diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include antibiotics, surgery, or other medical interventions. If you are experiencing symptoms that may be related to a cecal disease, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the cecum, where it joins the small intestine, to the anus. It is called "large" because it has a larger diameter compared to the small intestine and is responsible for several important functions in the digestive process.

The large intestine measures about 1.5 meters (5 feet) long in adults and consists of four main regions: the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon. The primary function of the large intestine is to absorb water and electrolytes from undigested food materials, compact the remaining waste into feces, and store it until it is eliminated through defecation.

The large intestine also contains a diverse population of bacteria that aid in digestion by breaking down complex carbohydrates, producing vitamins like vitamin K and some B vitamins, and competing with harmful microorganisms to maintain a healthy balance within the gut. Additionally, the large intestine plays a role in immune function and helps protect the body from pathogens through the production of mucus, antimicrobial substances, and the activation of immune cells.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

Gastrointestinal (GI) contents refer to the physical substances within the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. These contents can vary depending on the time since the last meal and the digestive process that is underway. Generally, GI contents include food, fluids, digestive enzymes, secretions, bacteria, and other waste products.

In a more specific context, GI contents may also refer to the stomach contents, which are often analyzed during autopsies or in cases of suspected poisoning or overdose. Stomach contents can provide valuable information about the type and amount of substances that have been ingested within a few hours prior to the analysis.

It is important to note that GI contents should not be confused with gastrointestinal fluids, which specifically refer to the secretions produced by the gastrointestinal tract, such as gastric juice in the stomach or bile in the small intestine.

A germ-free life refers to an existence in which an individual is not exposed to or colonized by any harmful microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. This condition is also known as "sterile" or "aseptic." In a medical context, achieving a germ-free state is often the goal in certain controlled environments, such as operating rooms, laboratories, and intensive care units, where the risk of infection must be minimized. However, it is not possible to maintain a completely germ-free life outside of these settings, as microorganisms are ubiquitous in the environment and are an essential part of the human microbiome. Instead, maintaining good hygiene practices and a healthy immune system is crucial for preventing illness and promoting overall health.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

The digestive system is a complex group of organs and glands that process food. It converts the food we eat into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair. The digestive system also eliminates waste from the body. It is made up of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and other organs that help the body break down and absorb food.

The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. Other organs that are part of the digestive system include the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and salivary glands.

The process of digestion begins in the mouth, where food is chewed and mixed with saliva. The food then travels down the esophagus and into the stomach, where it is broken down further by stomach acids. The digested food then moves into the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. The remaining waste material passes into the large intestine, where it is stored until it is eliminated through the anus.

The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder play important roles in the digestive process as well. The liver produces bile, a substance that helps break down fats in the small intestine. The pancreas produces enzymes that help digest proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. The gallbladder stores bile until it is needed in the small intestine.

Overall, the digestive system is responsible for breaking down food, absorbing nutrients, and eliminating waste. It plays a critical role in maintaining our health and well-being.

Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are a type of fatty acid that have a low molecular weight and are known for their ability to evaporate at room temperature. They are produced in the body during the breakdown of carbohydrates and proteins in the absence of oxygen, such as in the digestive tract by certain bacteria.

The most common volatile fatty acids include acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. These compounds have various roles in the body, including providing energy to cells in the intestines, modulating immune function, and regulating the growth of certain bacteria. They are also used as precursors for the synthesis of other molecules, such as cholesterol and bile acids.

In addition to their role in the body, volatile fatty acids are also important in the food industry, where they are used as flavorings and preservatives. They are produced naturally during fermentation and aging processes, and are responsible for the distinctive flavors of foods such as yogurt, cheese, and wine.

The ileocecal valve, also known as the Bauhin's valve, is a vital physiological structure in the gastrointestinal tract. It is a valve located at the junction between the ileum (the final portion of the small intestine) and the cecum (the first part of the large intestine or colon). This valve functions to control the flow of digesta from the small intestine into the large intestine, preventing backflow from the colon into the small intestine. It is an essential component in maintaining proper digestive function and gut health.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

The appendix is a small, tube-like structure that projects from the large intestine, located in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen. Its function in humans is not well understood and is often considered vestigial, meaning it no longer serves a necessary purpose. However, in some animals, the appendix plays a role in the immune system. Inflammation of the appendix, known as appendicitis, can cause severe abdominal pain and requires medical attention, often leading to surgical removal of the appendix (appendectomy).

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, also known as the digestive tract, is a continuous tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. It is responsible for ingesting, digesting, absorbing, and excreting food and waste materials. The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum, anus), and accessory organs such as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The primary function of this system is to process and extract nutrients from food while also protecting the body from harmful substances, pathogens, and toxins.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

The small intestine is the portion of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the pylorus of the stomach to the beginning of the large intestine (cecum). It plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. The small intestine is divided into three parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

1. Duodenum: This is the shortest and widest part of the small intestine, approximately 10 inches long. It receives chyme (partially digested food) from the stomach and begins the process of further digestion with the help of various enzymes and bile from the liver and pancreas.
2. Jejunum: The jejunum is the middle section, which measures about 8 feet in length. It has a large surface area due to the presence of circular folds (plicae circulares), finger-like projections called villi, and microvilli on the surface of the absorptive cells (enterocytes). These structures increase the intestinal surface area for efficient absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water.
3. Ileum: The ileum is the longest and final section of the small intestine, spanning about 12 feet. It continues the absorption process, mainly of vitamin B12, bile salts, and any remaining nutrients. At the end of the ileum, there is a valve called the ileocecal valve that prevents backflow of contents from the large intestine into the small intestine.

The primary function of the small intestine is to absorb the majority of nutrients, electrolytes, and water from ingested food. The mucosal lining of the small intestine contains numerous goblet cells that secrete mucus, which protects the epithelial surface and facilitates the movement of chyme through peristalsis. Additionally, the small intestine hosts a diverse community of microbiota, which contributes to various physiological functions, including digestion, immunity, and protection against pathogens.

Gastrointestinal transit refers to the movement of food, digestive secretions, and waste products through the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. This process involves several muscles and nerves that work together to propel the contents through the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum.

The transit time can vary depending on factors such as the type and amount of food consumed, hydration levels, and overall health. Abnormalities in gastrointestinal transit can lead to various conditions, including constipation, diarrhea, and malabsorption. Therefore, maintaining normal gastrointestinal transit is essential for proper digestion, nutrient absorption, and overall health.

Butoxamine is a pharmaceutical drug that acts as an antagonist or blocker for β2-adrenergic receptors. These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body and play a role in mediating the effects of catecholamines such as adrenaline and noradrenaline.

Butoxamine is primarily used in research settings to study the functions of β2-adrenergic receptors and their signaling pathways. It has been used to investigate the role of these receptors in various physiological processes, including airway smooth muscle relaxation, lipolysis, and insulin secretion.

It is important to note that Butoxamine is not approved for use in humans as a therapeutic agent, and its use is restricted to research purposes only.

The term "crop" in the context of avian anatomy refers to a thin-walled, expandable portion of the digestive tract that functions as a storage site for food. It is located between the esophagus and the stomach (proventriculus) in birds. The crop serves as a temporary reservoir where ingested food can be stored and softened by the addition of water and digestive enzymes before being passed on to the proventriculus for further digestion and absorption. This allows birds to consume large quantities of food at once, which can then be gradually processed and utilized over an extended period.

The ascending colon is the first part of the large intestine, which is the portion of the digestive system that follows the small intestine. It is called "ascending" because it travels upward from the right side of the abdomen toward the underside of the liver. The primary function of the ascending colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food and prepare waste for elimination.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

Gum arabic, also known as acacia gum, is a natural gum made from the sap of two species of acacia tree: Senegalia senegal and Vachellia seyal. It's primarily composed of complex polysaccharides and has been used in various medical and non-medical applications for centuries.

In a medical context, gum arabic is often used as an excipient or a component of the delivery system for medications. Its properties as a binder, emulsifier, and stabilizer make it useful in the production of tablets, capsules, and other pharmaceutical forms. It can also be found in some oral medications, throat lozenges, and cough syrups due to its soothing effects on mucous membranes.

However, it's important to note that gum arabic itself is not a medication or therapeutic agent, but rather a component that aids in the administration or delivery of medical substances.

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

A colonoscopy is a medical procedure used to examine the large intestine, also known as the colon and rectum. It is performed using a flexible tube with a tiny camera on the end, called a colonoscope, which is inserted into the rectum and gently guided through the entire length of the colon.

The procedure allows doctors to visually inspect the lining of the colon for any abnormalities such as polyps, ulcers, inflammation, or cancer. If any polyps are found during the procedure, they can be removed immediately using special tools passed through the colonoscope. Colonoscopy is an important tool in the prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer, which is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide.

Patients are usually given a sedative to help them relax during the procedure, which is typically performed on an outpatient basis in a hospital or clinic setting. The entire procedure usually takes about 30-60 minutes to complete, although patients should plan to spend several hours at the medical facility for preparation and recovery.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

A Salmonella infection in animals refers to the presence and multiplication of Salmonella enterica bacteria in non-human animals, causing an infectious disease known as salmonellosis. Animals can become infected through direct contact with other infected animals or their feces, consuming contaminated food or water, or vertical transmission (from mother to offspring). Clinical signs vary among species but may include diarrhea, fever, vomiting, weight loss, and sepsis. In some cases, animals can be asymptomatic carriers, shedding the bacteria in their feces and acting as a source of infection for other animals and humans. Regular monitoring, biosecurity measures, and appropriate sanitation practices are crucial to prevent and control Salmonella infections in animals.

Dietary fiber, also known as roughage, is the indigestible portion of plant foods that makes up the structural framework of the plants we eat. It is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, gums, lignins, and waxes. Dietary fiber can be classified into two categories: soluble and insoluble.

Soluble fiber dissolves in water to form a gel-like material in the gut, which can help slow down digestion, increase feelings of fullness, and lower cholesterol levels. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oats, barley, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts.

Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water and passes through the gut intact, helping to add bulk to stools and promote regular bowel movements. Insoluble fiber is found in foods such as whole grains, bran, seeds, and the skins of fruits and vegetables.

Dietary fiber has numerous health benefits, including promoting healthy digestion, preventing constipation, reducing the risk of heart disease, controlling blood sugar levels, and aiding in weight management. The recommended daily intake of dietary fiber is 25-38 grams per day for adults, depending on age and gender.

Isatin is not a medical term, but rather an organic compound that has been used in various biochemical and medicinal research contexts. Here's the chemical definition:

Isatin, also known as indole-2,3-dione, is an organic compound with the formula C8H5NO2. It is a derivative of indole and consists of a benzene ring fused to a pyrrole ring, with two ketone functional groups (=O) at positions 2 and 3. Isatin is a white crystalline solid that is slightly soluble in water and more soluble in organic solvents. It occurs naturally in some plants and animals and can be synthesized in the laboratory.

In medical and biochemical research, isatin has been studied for its potential role as an inhibitor of various enzymes and biological targets, including monoamine oxidases, tyrosinase, and carbonic anhydrase. Some isatin derivatives have shown promising results in preclinical studies for the treatment of various diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. However, more research is needed to determine their safety and efficacy in humans before they can be approved for medical use.

Poultry diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious disorders that affect domesticated birds, particularly those raised for meat, egg, or feather production. These diseases can be caused by various factors including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, genetic predisposition, environmental conditions, and management practices.

Infectious poultry diseases are often highly contagious and can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to decreased production, increased mortality, and reduced quality of products. Some examples of infectious poultry diseases include avian influenza, Newcastle disease, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidiosis.

Non-infectious poultry diseases can be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, environmental stressors, and management issues. Examples of non-infectious poultry diseases include ascites, fatty liver syndrome, sudden death syndrome, and various nutritional deficiencies.

Prevention and control of poultry diseases typically involve a combination of biosecurity measures, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, good management practices, and monitoring for early detection and intervention. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of poultry diseases is crucial to implementing effective treatment and prevention strategies, and can help minimize the impact of disease outbreaks on both individual flocks and the broader poultry industry.

Bacteroides are a genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are normally present in the human gastrointestinal tract. They are part of the normal gut microbiota and play an important role in breaking down complex carbohydrates and other substances in the gut. However, some species of Bacteroides can cause opportunistic infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or when they spread to other parts of the body. They are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, making infections caused by these bacteria difficult to treat.

Animal feed refers to any substance or mixture of substances, whether processed, unprocessed, or partially processed, which is intended to be used as food for animals, including fish, without further processing. It includes ingredients such as grains, hay, straw, oilseed meals, and by-products from the milling, processing, and manufacturing industries. Animal feed can be in the form of pellets, crumbles, mash, or other forms, and is used to provide nutrients such as energy, protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals to support the growth, reproduction, and maintenance of animals. It's important to note that animal feed must be safe, nutritious, and properly labeled to ensure the health and well-being of the animals that consume it.

Spirochaetales is an order of bacteria that includes several species known to cause infections in humans. The term "Spirochaetales infections" generally refers to diseases caused by these spirochete bacteria. The most well-known Spirochaetales infections include:

1. Syphilis - Caused by Treponema pallidum, syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It progresses through several stages, with symptoms ranging from painless sores to rashes, and may eventually affect the heart, brain, and other organs.

2. Lyme disease - Caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted through tick bites, Lyme disease is an inflammatory illness that can cause a variety of symptoms, such as rash, fever, fatigue, and joint pain. In later stages, it may lead to neurological and cardiac complications if not treated promptly.

3. Leptospirosis - Caused by Leptospira spp., leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that humans usually acquire through exposure to infected animal urine or contaminated water. Symptoms can range from mild flu-like illness to severe complications, such as kidney and liver failure, meningitis, and respiratory distress.

4. Relapsing fever - Caused by Borrelia recurrentis and transmitted through the bite of lice, relapsing fever is characterized by recurring episodes of high fever, chills, headache, and muscle aches. The disease can be severe and may lead to complications such as myocarditis, hepatitis, and neurological issues.

5. Pinta - Caused by Treponema carateum, pinta is a tropical skin infection that primarily affects the outer layers of the skin, causing lesions and discoloration. While not typically life-threatening, it can lead to significant disfigurement if left untreated.

Treatment for Spirochaetales infections generally involves antibiotics, such as penicillin or doxycycline, depending on the specific infection and its severity. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, using insect repellent to prevent insect bites, avoiding contact with potentially infected animals, and seeking prompt medical attention if symptoms develop after potential exposure.

Illustration of the large intestine Cecum and ileum Ileo-cecal valve Cecum Arteries of cecum and vermiform process Inferior ... The cecum and appendix are derived from the bud of cecum that forms during week 6 in the midgut next to the apex of the ... The cecum or caecum is a pouch within the peritoneum that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine. It is ... In herbivores, the cecum stores food material where bacteria are able to break down the cellulose. In humans, the cecum is ...
... or foramen caecum (from the Latin caecus meaning blind) can refer to: Foramen cecum (frontal bone) Foramen cecum ... tongue) Foramen cecum (dental) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Foramen cecum. If an internal ...
The Foramen cecum, in dental anthropology, is a minor expression of the protostylid of the tooth. It is thus indirectly related ... Fossas and pits located in the protosylid, a Foramen cecum, have seemingly become rarer and rare over time. Most populations ...
Foramen cecum is labeled at the top right. Foramen cecum Foramen cecum Foramina of skull This article incorporates text in the ... or foramen caecum), by articulation with the ethmoid. The foramen cecum varies in size in different subjects, and is frequently ... The frontal crest of the frontal bone ends below in a small notch which is converted into a foramen, the foramen cecum ( ...
... may refer to: Ceca (singer) (born 1973), a Serbian singer Confederación Española de Cajas de Ahorros, the Spanish ... Italian and Spanish acronym for the European Coal and Steel Community Ceca, plural of cecum Comprehensive Economic Cooperation ... a healthcare non-profit in the US This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title CECA. If an internal link ... Agreement the Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement between India and Singapore Ceca Foundation, ...
Look up caeca in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Caeca may refer to: the plural of caecum (see pyloric caeca in humans) Caeca ... which expelled the Jews from the Papal States This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Caeca. If an ...
... is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. Caecum ... Gofas, S. (2009). Caecum gofasi Pizzini & Nofroni, 2001. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. World Marine Mollusca ...
Minimum recorded depth is 0 m. Maximum recorded depth is 101 m. Caecum clava Folin, 1867. WoRMS (2010). Caecum clava Folin, ... Caecum clava is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. The maximum ...
Minimum recorded depth is 2 m. Maximum recorded depth is 46 m. Caecum multicostatum Folin, 1867. WoRMS (2010). Caecum ... Caecum Multicostatum can be found in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and Venezuela The maximum recorded shell length is 4.2 ... Caecum multicostatum is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. ... Caecum multicostatum de Folin, 1867". Welch J. J. (2010). "The "Island Rule" and Deep-Sea Gastropods: Re-Examining the Evidence ...
Ceca's reality television show, titled Ceca Show: Ceca i deca, also began airing on Blic TV. While performing for Serbian ... as a judge and mentor Ceca Show: Ceca & Deca (2022-present) Šta je to u tvojim venama Tour (1993) Ceca Tour '94 (1994) Fatalna ... "Serbian pop singer Ceca, widow of warlord Arkan, avoids jail term". The Guardian. 1 May 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2011. "Ceca u ... Ceca renewed her collaboration with PGP-RTS to release Maskarada in 1997. Her tenth studio album, Ceca 2000, was subsequently ...
... is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. Caecum ... WoRMS (2009). Caecum inclinatum De Folin, 1869. Accessed through the World Register of Marine Species at http://www. ...
Minimum recorded depth is 0 m. Maximum recorded depth is 60 m. Caecum floridanum Stimpson, 1851. WoRMS (2010). Caecum ... Caecum floridanum is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. The ...
... is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. Caecum ... Gofas, S. (2009). Caecum atlantidis Watson, 1897. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. World Marine Mollusca database. ...
Minimum recorded depth is 0 m. Maximum recorded depth is 183 m. Caecum imbricatum Carpenter, 1858. WoRMS (2010). Caecum ... Caecum imbricatum is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. The ...
... is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. Caecum ... glabrum (Montagu, 1803). Gofas, S. (2009). Caecum glabrum (Montagu, 1803). In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2009) ...
Minimum recorded depth is 0 m. Maximum recorded depth is 100 m. Caecum antillarum Carpenter, 1858. WoRMS (2010). Caecum ... Caecum antillarum is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. The ...
... Pizzini, Nofroni & Bonfitto, 2008. WoRMS (2010). Caecum varanoi Pizzini, Nofroni & Bonfitto, 2008. In: Bouchet, ... Caecum varanoi is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. This marine ...
Ceca at AllMusic Ceca discography at Discogs Ceca discography at MusicBrainz (CS1 Slovenian-language sources (sl), CS1 Serbian- ... "Svetlana Ceca Ražnatović Biografija" (in Serbian). Biografija.org. Retrieved 2021-06-20. "Ceca: ma, kakva udaja!". Sabor (in ... "Snimila je pet albuma i bila je rešena da se preseli u veliki grad: u ovoj zgradi na vračaru živela je Ceca pre udaje!". Glossy ... "Ceca snima album: Ništa bez Marine". Novosti.RS (in Serbian). 2016-04-26. Retrieved 2021-06-20. "Autogram (2016) album" (in ...
... Raines & Pizzini, 2005. WoRMS (2009). Caecum rehderi Raines & Pizzini, 2005. Accessed through the World Register ... Caecum rehderi is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. This marine ...
... , common name the DeFolin's lagoon snail, is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or ... Hoeksema D.F. & Segers W. (1993) On the systematics and distribution of the marine gastropod Caecum armoricum de Folin, 1869 ( ... Cape Verde Caecum armoricum de Folin, 1869. Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 6 January 2019. ...
... is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusc or micromollusc in the family Caecidae. Caecum ... WoRMS (2010). Caecum jonatani Espinosa, Ortea, Fernandez-Garcés & Moro, 2007. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) ...
... Pizzini, Nofroni & Bonfitto, 2008. WoRMS (2010). Caecum smriglioi Pizzini, Nofroni & Bonfitto, 2008. In: ... Caecum smriglioi is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. Pizzini M ...
... is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. Caecum engli ... Nofroni, Pizzini & Oliverio, 1997). Gofas, S. (2009). Caecum engli (Nofroni, Pizzini & Oliverio, 1997). In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas ...
Minimum recorded depth is 0 m. Maximum recorded depth is 101 m. Caecum ryssotitum Folin, 1867. WoRMS (2010). Caecum ryssotitum ... Caecum ryssotitum is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. The ...
... Raines & Pizzini, 2009. WoRMS (2010). Caecum wami Raines & Pizzini, 2009. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G ... Caecum wami is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. This marine ... Raines & Pizzini (2009). Two new Caecidae from the South West Pacific Ocean and the "Caecum insculptum" complex ( ...
... is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. Caecum ... swinneni (Nofroni, Pizzini & Oliverio, 1997). Gofas, S. (2009). Caecum swinneni (Nofroni, Pizzini & Oliverio, 1997). In: ...
... , common name the Johnson's caecum, is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk ... Minimum recorded depth is 0 m. Maximum recorded depth is 75 m. Caecum johnsoni Winkley, 1908. Rosenberg, G. (2010). Caecum ...
... is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. Caecum verai ... WoRMS (2010). Caecum verai Moreno, Peñas & Rolán, 2003. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca ...
... is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. Caecum ... WoRMS (2009). Caecum clarum de Folin in Lamy, 1910. Accessed through the World Register of Marine Species at http://www. ...
... Raines & Pizzini, 2005. WoRMS (2009). Caecum heterochromum Raines & Pizzini, 2005. Accessed through the ... Caecum heterochromum is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. ...
Illustration of the large intestine Cecum and ileum Ileo-cecal valve Cecum Arteries of cecum and vermiform process Inferior ... The cecum and appendix are derived from the bud of cecum that forms during week 6 in the midgut next to the apex of the ... The cecum or caecum is a pouch within the peritoneum that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine. It is ... In herbivores, the cecum stores food material where bacteria are able to break down the cellulose. In humans, the cecum is ...
The best deterrent against colorectal cancer may be to photograph the cecum--where a significance incidence of colorectal ... Three-fourths of the 29 patients had tumors in the cecum, and most of the tumors were large and progressing aggressively when ... Although colonoscopy is more accurate than x-ray in detecting polyps or early cancer, photographing the cecum is not a standard ... Photography of the Cecum Should Accompany Colonoscopy, Say Researchers. July 1, 1998. Publication ...
after his 3rd treatment, it was discovered he had lymphoma in his cecum as well. Weve asked about surgery to remove his cecum ... My opinion - and I am not a doctor - is that lymphoma in an extra nodal location like the cecum could possibly benefit from ...
Ileum and cecum, horse. Depiction of an ileum and cecum as viewed from the left side. The rest of the GI tract has been removed ...
Here is Svetlana Ražnatović, also known as Ceca (pronounced Tsetsa), as requested by dogggg here Ceca is a very popular and ... Forum > Sims 2 Community Downloads > Custom Sims > Sim Celebrities > Ceca as requested ...
What work is the CECA sectors Obra Social engaged in? 10 July 2023 ...
Annunci (relativi alla Repubblica Ceca). Alloggi (affitto/vendita), in vendita - cercasi, offerte di lavoro (descritte in ...
Re: Ileum,cecum. From: Dawn ([email protected]). Thu Nov 2 09:48:47 2006 * Messages sorted by: [ date ][ thread ][ subject ] ... 17 years and last year started having GI problems so went to a Gastro doc and he did a colonoscopy and said the ileum/cecum ...
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CECA represents the interests of more than 8,000 electrical contractors across Canada who generate over $5 billion in revenues ... "What is the "CECA Provincial/Territory Licensing Directory" and how can it help you access the means to carry out business ... CECA has developed a web-based resource which allows you to easily access information, through links and points of contact, in ... Remember, the intention of this directory is to provide CECA members with a "Roadmap" for accessing electrical licensing and ...
This module allows you to configure and use very simply multiple virtual POS system based on the CECA, as Unicaja or CAM. ...
And CECA gave Singapore a strategic first-mover advantage in India, just when the continental country was taking off to be an ... And specifically on CECA, this FTA with India benefits Singapore in many ways. Signed in 2005, it was Indias first ... But our FTAs in general and CECA in particular are not the causes of the challenges our PMEs face; if anything, they are part ... CECA reduces tariff barriers, which made Singapore goods more competitive in the Indian market. And partly because of that, ...
The cecum containing the stump of the appendix along the upper wall of the intestine, axial view (Figure1) of the patient lying ... The cecum containing the stump of the appendix along the upper wall of the intestine, axial view (Figure1) of the patient lying ... The cecum containing the stump of the appendix along the upper wall of the intestine, sagittal view (Figure2) of the patient ... Unusually, this was located inside the lumen of the cecum. The stump was 6 x 8 mm in size and had a characteristic layered ...
Both CECA and CEPA are forms of economic agreements between India and other countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand ... for CECA) and Japan, Sri Lanka, and South Korea (for CEPA). From the actual name ... Difference Between CECA and CEPA CECA vs CEPA CECA stands for Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement while CEPA is an ... 3.CECA is a stepping stone for CEPA. CEPA also has a broad scope in terms of its aspects and items.. 4.CECA deals mostly with ...
Ceca has landed. Ne samo, da je pristala, še jako dober koncert je napovedala. Bejba je po vsem sodeč mož beseda, ker ji je ... Poleg tega se Ceca niti pod razno ne obnaša kot kokoš, česar se za 96 % estrade ne bi dalo reči. Bila je hladna kot špricar. ... Večkrat med koncertom s(m)o obiskovalci in obiskovalke začeli spontano vzklikat Ceca. In ona v enem od takih primerov, ko bi ... Tribune so bile do konca polne, Ceca bujna in lepa, po skoraj triurnem koncertu frišna kot roža. V nasprotju s priljubljenim ...
Repubblica Ceca. Marposs è leader mondiale nella fornitura di strumenti di precisione per la misura ed il controllo in ambiente ...
Multiple diastatic perforation of the ascending cecum caused by stenosing carcinoma of the transverse colon]. Download Prime ... Rupture of the cecum in colon ileus. Diastatic cecum perforation].. *[Diastatic perforations of the colon of neoplastic origin ... Perforation of the cecum due to carcinoma of the distal colon].. *[The clinico-evolutionary and therapeutic aspects in ... Multiple Diastatic Perforation of the Ascending Cecum Caused By Stenosing Carcinoma of the Transverse Colon]. Minerva Chir. ...
Nelson Ogunshakin OBE, ACE chief executive, said: "ACE and CECA are proud to continue to build on the value and security that ... CECAs director of external affairs, Alasdair Reisner, said: "Industry-standard terms and conditions are widely understood and ... ACE and CECA launch new infrastructure contract. Grant Prior 12 years ago ... Trade bodies ACE and CECA have launched a new suite of standard forms of contract for infrastructure work. ...
Editorial Note on Cecum and Treatment. For gastrointestinal endoscopists, the ileocecum is that the finish line during ...
For Ceca, though, marrying Arkan was personal. For Ceca, the nineteenth of February 1995 was the day she married her love. Ceca ... 1 2019-05-08T18:46:56-07:00 ceca funeral arkan 1 media/1454668424_ceca 1 News1 Aleksandar Jovanovic Cile-min.jpg plain 2019-05- ... 1 2019-05-06T20:24:58-07:00 Ceca i Arkan - Svadba 19.02.1995. 1 Label and copyright: Ceca Zabranjeno svako kopiranje video i/ ... 1 2019-05-06T20:25:27-07:00 Ceca - Kad bi bio ranjen - (Audio 1996) HD 1 Label and copyright: Komuna & Svetlana Ceca Raznatovic ...
... who is the Group Commercial Director at Osborne has been appointed Chairman of CECA Commercial and Legal Working Group. ... CECA chief executive Alasdair Reisner said: "We are excited about the opportunities that are opening up to drive positive ... Mark Taylor, who is the Group Commercial Director at Osborne has been appointed Chairman of CECA Commercial and Legal Working ... With more than 300 members split across eight regions, CECA represents firms who together carry out an estimated 70-80 per cent ...
... Serves to support AAAs early-career anatomists by acting as the primary ... chairing and selecting participants for CECA-sponsored sessions; and fostering a network of early-career anatomists.. ...
Like other colorectal cancers, carcinoma of the cecum can also cause bowel symptoms. Because the cecum attaches to the small ... The cecum, a pouchlike structure, lies very close to the appendix.. *Perforation of the cecal cancer can allow cancer cells to ... The cecum connects the large intestine and the small intestine. While most colorectal cancers arise in the far end of the colon ... The cecum, a pouchlike structure, lies very close to the appendix. Cecal carcinoma can cause appendicitis or appendicitis-like ...
Informations statistiques (CECA). Les salaires nominaux dans les charbonnages et la siderurgie compares a ceux verses dans les ... UNSPECIFIED (1957) Informations statistiques (CECA). Les salaires nominaux dans les charbonnages et la siderurgie compares a ...
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Have you studied at Competitive Edge Charter Academy (CECA)?. Please provide a brief review of your experience at Competitive ... Competitive Edge Charter Academy known as CECA opened in 2011 in Yucaipa to provide students in kindergarten through 8th grades ... Competitive Edge Charter Academy (CECA). 34450 Stonewood Dr.. Yucaipa, CA 92399-6852. Phone: 909-797-0174. [google-map-sc] ... Edge Charter Academy (CECA) in the comment section to help other readers!. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ...
  • La Commissione europea ha dato tempo due mesi alla Repubblica Ceca e alla Lituania per conformarsi pienamente a quanto dispone la Direttiva 2004/38/CE sulla libertà di circolazione e soggiorno dei cittadini europei che garantisce loro il pieno diritto di viaggiare liberamente, vivere e lavorare in ogni Stato dell'Ue. (immigrazione.it)
  • While the cecum is usually intraperitoneal, the ascending colon is retroperitoneal. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The cecum's position changes after the midgut rotates and the ascending colon elongates, and the accumulation of meconium inside the cecum may result in the latter's increased diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The connection between the end of the cecum and the beginning of the ascending colon is called the cecocolic orifice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lower gastrointestinal tract may be divided into the cecum, the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, the sigmoid colon and the rectum. (web.app)
  • In about 90% people, the caecum is practically entirely encompassed by the peritoneum and has wide retrocaecal recess that might ascend upward posterior to the lower part of the ascending colon and after that named retrocolic recess. (earthslab.com)
  • Cecal perforation due to colon tumor that spanned from the cecum to the proximal third of the ascending colon, in addition, a transverse ileum angiostrongyliasis in an elderly anastomosis was performed, without further complication. (bvsalud.org)
  • Three-fourths of the 29 patients had tumors in the cecum, and most of the tumors were large and progressing aggressively when discovered. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Because tumors in the cecum often ulcerate and bleed, anemia, or low hemoglobin levels related to blood loss, can occur as a symptom of cecal carcinoma. (healthfully.com)
  • The cecum and appendix are derived from the bud of cecum that forms during week 6 in the midgut next to the apex of the umbilical herniation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, the cecum and appendix are formed by the enlargement of the postarterial segment of the midgut loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lateral wall of the cecum grows much more rapidly than the medial wall, with the result that the point of attachment of the appendix comes to lie on the medial side. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cecum is an end point for the colon with a dead-end portion terminating with the appendix. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, obligate carnivores, whose diets contain little or no plant matter, have a reduced cecum, which is often partially or wholly replaced by the appendix. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cecum containing the stump of the appendix along the upper wall of the intestine, axial view (Figure1) of the patient lying down. (efsumb.org)
  • The findings were consistent with a non-inflamed stump appendix within the cecum. (efsumb.org)
  • The cecum, a pouchlike structure, lies very close to the appendix. (healthfully.com)
  • The increase of caecum from beginning results in a change in its shape and in the position of the connection of appendix. (earthslab.com)
  • At birth, the caecum is conical in shape and the vermiform appendix is connected at its apex. (earthslab.com)
  • The development of right saccule is greaterthan the left so the apex of caecum and the base of appendix are shoved toward the left and nearer to the ileocaecal junction. (earthslab.com)
  • Consequently the base of appendix is connected at the posteromedial wall of the caecum. (earthslab.com)
  • The caecum and vermiform appendix grow from the caecal bud appearing from the caudal limb of the archaic intestinal loop. (earthslab.com)
  • The proximal part of the bud dilates to create caecum and the distal part stays narrow and creates the vermiform appendix. (earthslab.com)
  • The caecum is quadrate in shape (because of identical size of left and right saccules) and the appendix is connected in the depressed underside. (earthslab.com)
  • ii) Inferior ileocaecal fold: It goes from the anteroinferior aspect of the terminal part of the ileum to the caecum or appendix. (earthslab.com)
  • The appendix (an appendage of the cecum), also called vermiform process or vermiform appendix, is a tubular structure with a blind end attached to the cecum. (medscape.com)
  • The base of the appendix lies on the posteromedial wall of the cecum 1-2 cm below the ileocecal junction. (medscape.com)
  • The large intestine develops partly from the midgut (from cecum to distal transverse colon), the hindgut (from distal transverse colon to dentate line in anorectum), and proctodeum (below the dentate line). (medscape.com)
  • The connection between the end of the small intestine (ileum) and the start (as viewed from the perspective of food being processed) of the colon (cecum) is now clearly understood, and is called the ileocecal orifice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Illustration of the large intestine Cecum and ileum Ileo-cecal valve Cecum Arteries of cecum and vermiform process Inferior ileocecal fossa Endoscopic image of cecum with arrow pointing to ileocecal valve in foreground McBurney's point Stedman, Thomas (2000). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ileal contents empty into the cecum through the ileocecal valve. (web.app)
  • The cecum, which is the proximal blind end (pouch) of the ascending (right) colon, is a blind cul-de-sac below the level of the ileocecal junction that lies in the right iliac fossa. (medscape.com)
  • The terminal ileum opens into the cecum at its medial wall, and the opening is guarded by an ileocecal valve. (medscape.com)
  • There are several peritoneal fossae (eg, superior and inferior ileocecal, subcecal, retrocecal) around the cecum, which can be sites of internal herniation of the small bowel. (medscape.com)
  • Moreover, mRNA expression of the Paneth cell-associated marker, Lyz1, was increased the proximal colon, whereas the expression of the goblet cell marker, Muc2, was unchanged in the epithelial cells of the ileum, cecum, and distal colon. (cdc.gov)
  • The proximal part of the bud grows rapidly to form the cecum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caecum (L. caecum = blind) is a large dilated blind sac at the commencement (proximal end) of the large intestine . (earthslab.com)
  • The position of the caecum is to the right iliac fossa, above the lateral half of the inguinal ligament . (earthslab.com)
  • The cecum leads to the ascending (right) colon, which ascends vertically from right iliac fossa through the right lumbar region into right hypochondrium under the liver. (medscape.com)
  • While most colorectal cancers arise in the far end of the colon, the rectum and sigmoid colon, the cecum is the next most common site for cancer to arise, according to the Surgical Practice of Northern New Jersey 3 4 5 . (healthfully.com)
  • The caecum may have mesentery. (earthslab.com)
  • the cecum does not have its own mesentery and is mobile, owing to attachment to the mesentery of the small intestine. (medscape.com)
  • Like other colorectal cancers, carcinoma of the cecum can also cause bowel symptoms. (healthfully.com)
  • Because the cecum attaches to the small intestine, where stool is mostly liquid, bowel obstruction rarely occurs unless the tumor grows very large. (healthfully.com)
  • Normally the caecum appears as a dilated pendulous sac inferior to the ileocaecal junction. (earthslab.com)
  • Symptoms of cecum carcinoma vary from symptoms of other cancers due to the location. (healthfully.com)
  • The Interior of the caecum presents 2 orifices- ileocaecal orifice and appendicular orifice. (earthslab.com)
  • The ileocaecal orifice is the notable characteristic of the inner part of the caecum. (earthslab.com)
  • Type any keywords below to search the CECA site. (ceca.co.uk)
  • The cecum or caecum is a pouch within the peritoneum that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • SINGAPORE: Health Minister Ong Ye Kung spoke in Parliament on Tuesday (Jul 6) to address "false" statements surrounding free trade agreements (FTA) and the Singapore-India Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA). (channelnewsasia.com)
  • First, even before the General Election last July, the PSP (Progress Singapore Party) has repeatedly alleged that the Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) between Singapore and India allows professionals from India "a free hand" to come and work in Singapore. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • Both CECA and CEPA are forms of economic agreements between India and other countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand (for CECA) and Japan, Sri Lanka, and South Korea (for CEPA). (differencebetween.net)
  • To ask the Minister for Trade and Industry (Industry) whether he can provide an update on (i) the review of the Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) with India and (ii) discussions, if any, with India on the movement of natural persons, including professionals, business visitors, intra-corporate transferees and short-term service providers, under CECA. (mti.gov.sg)
  • Over 99% of the bacteria in the gut are anaerobes, but in the cecum, aerobic bacteria reach high densities. (wikipedia.org)
  • It increases the Enterobacteriaceae in both cecum and colon and G-negative anaerobes in the colon. (bvsalud.org)
  • The best deterrent against colorectal cancer may be to photograph the cecum--where a significance incidence of colorectal cancer occurs--as a complement to performing colonoscopy, according to a study conducted in Allentown, Pennsylvania. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Thus the inflammation of the cecum is called typhlitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is the condition of inflammation of the cecum, primarily caused by bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • I have severe adhesions for the past 17 years and last year started having GI problems so went to a Gastro doc and he did a colonoscopy and said the ileum/cecum area has colitis looking inflammation and he mentioned Crohn's, but wasn't really sure. (adhesions.org)
  • Erythema nodosum en, is an inflammatory condition characterized by inflammation of the fat cells under the skin, resulting in tender red nodules or lumps that are usually seen on both shins. (web.app)
  • This underscores the importance of photographing the cecum in conjunction with colonoscopy when cancer is suspected in high-risk patients. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Although colonoscopy is more accurate than x-ray in detecting polyps or early cancer, photographing the cecum is not a standard practice in the examination. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Since cecal cancer was most prominent in the study, photographing the cecum as a standard practice during colonoscopy will document its inspection and reduce future false negatives during colon surveillance. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Inhibition of nitric oxide increased significantly the Enterobacteriaceae count in cecum compared to normal and liver injury control groups. (bvsalud.org)
  • Caecum is 1 of those organs of the body which have greater width than length (viz. (earthslab.com)
  • In humans, the cecum is involved in absorption of salts and electrolytes and lubricates the solid waste that passes into the large intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cecum connects the large intestine and the small intestine. (healthfully.com)
  • 2.These two forms of economic agreements are India's way of forging economic ties with other Asian countries like Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand (for CECA) and Japan, Sri Lanka, and South Korea. (differencebetween.net)
  • Ceca is a very popular and successful Serbian pop folk singer in the Balkan countries. (insimenator.org)
  • Through careful examination and analysis of her music and the ethnopolitical climate of Yugoslavia in the 90s, this paper will show Ceca was a victim of the politicization of turbo-folk, rather than an aggressor of Serbian ethnonationalism. (usc.edu)
  • Ceca grew up in a small Serbian village, where as a young girl she performed in the various kafanas. (usc.edu)
  • Therefore, I almost always avoid this maneuver and typically can get to the cecum using these lift techniques. (medscape.com)
  • CECA members may post their news and photos to this blog. (ceca-acea.org)
  • Remember, the intention of this directory is to provide CECA members with a "Roadmap" for accessing electrical licensing and business requirements across the country. (ceca.org)
  • With more than 300 members split across eight regions, CECA represents firms who together carry out an estimated 70-80 per cent of all civil engineering activity in the UK, in the key sectors of transport, energy, communications, waste and water. (osborne.co.uk)
  • CECA stands for Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement while CEPA is an acronym for Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement. (differencebetween.net)
  • The Second Review of the Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement ("Second CECA Review") is ongoing. (mti.gov.sg)
  • In dissections by the Greek philosophers, the connection between the ileum of the small intestine and the cecum was not fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • I ask Ceca what people in Serbia think of her now. (usc.edu)
  • Competitive Edge Charter Academy known as CECA opened in 2011 in Yucaipa to provide students in kindergarten through 8th grades with a alternative to traditional education opportunities. (educator.com)
  • The CECA center will provide its students with course materials on paper and online. (pub.ro)
  • On the premise of development of the caecum afterwards on, 4 types of caecum might be seen in adults. (earthslab.com)
  • The PSP has since made a public statement on the matter, standing by its view on FTA and CECA. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • This is with a view to arriving at mutually beneficial outcomes, before the conclusion of the Second CECA Review. (mti.gov.sg)
  • Nelson Ogunshakin OBE, ACE chief executive, said: "ACE and CECA are proud to continue to build on the value and security that the suite provides. (constructionenquirer.com)
  • CECA chief executive Alasdair Reisner said: "We are excited about the opportunities that are opening up to drive positive change in the sector through this new group. (osborne.co.uk)
  • What you should know about cecum cancer verywell health. (web.app)
  • The word cecum (/ˈsiːkəm/, plural ceca /ˈsiːkə/) stems from the Latin caecus meaning blind. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5.A subtle difference is the use of the word "cooperation" in CECA and "partnership" in CEPA. (differencebetween.net)