An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and CMP from CDP-DIACYLGLYCEROL and MYOINOSITOL.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
The ester of diacylglycerol with the terminal phosphate of cytidine diphosphate. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine in bacteria.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of phosphatidylserine and CMP from CDPdiglyceride plus serine. EC
An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC
Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of phosphatidylcholines from CDPcholine and 1,2-diacylglycerols. EC
Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond. EC 6.2.
Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC
A frozen dairy food made from cream or butterfat, milk, sugar, and flavorings. Frozen custard and French-type ice creams also contain eggs.
Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.
A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A water-soluble medicinal preparation applied to the skin.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.

Identification of AtPIS, a phosphatidylinositol synthase from Arabidopsis. (1/56)

Phosphatidylinositol synthase is the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol, a key phospholipid component of all eukaryotic membranes and the precursor of messenger molecules involved in signal transduction pathways for calcium-dependent responses in the cell. Using the amino acid sequence of the yeast enzyme as a probe, we identified an Arabidopsis expressed sequence tag potentially encoding the plant enzyme. Sequencing the entire cDNA confirmed the homology between the two proteins. Functional assays, performed by overexpression of the plant cDNA in Escherichia coli, a bacteria which lacks phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol synthase activity, showed that the plant protein induced the accumulation of phosphatidylinositol in the bacterial cells. Analysis of the enzymatic activity in vitro showed that synthesis of phosphatidylinositol occurs when CDP-diacylglycerol and myo-inositol only are provided as substrates, that it requires manganese or magnesium ions for activity, and that it is at least in part located to the bacterial membrane fraction. These data allowed us to conclude that the Arabidopsis cDNA codes for a phosphatidylinositol synthase. A single AtPIS genetic locus was found, which we mapped to Arabidopsis chromosome 1.  (+info)

Phosphatidylinositol is an essential phospholipid of mycobacteria. (2/56)

Phosphatidylinositol (PI) and metabolically derived products such as the phosphatidylinositol mannosides and linear and mature branched lipomannan and lipoarabinomannan are prominent phospholipids/lipoglycans of Mycobacterium sp. believed to play important roles in the structure and physiology of the bacterium as well as during host infection. To determine if PI is an essential phospholipid of mycobacteria, we identified the pgsA gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis encoding the phosphatidylinositol synthase enzyme and constructed a pgsA conditional mutant of Mycobacterium smegmatis. The ability of this mutant to synthesize phosphatidylinositol synthase and subsequently PI was dependent on the presence of a functional copy of the pgsA gene carried on a thermosensitive plasmid. The mutant grew like the control strain under permissive conditions (30 degrees C), but ceased growing when placed at 42 degrees C, a temperature at which the rescue plasmid is lost. Loss of cell viability at 42 degrees C was observed when PI and phosphatidylinositol dimannoside contents dropped to approximately 30 and 50% of the wild-type levels, respectively. This work provides the first evidence of the essentiality of PI to the survival of mycobacteria. PI synthase is thus an essential enzyme of Mycobacterium that shows promise as a drug target for anti-tuberculosis therapy.  (+info)

Molecular cloning, functional complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and enzymatic properties of phosphatidylinositol synthase from the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. (3/56)

The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, switches between the rapidly dividing tachyzoite and the slowly replicating bradyzoite in intermediate hosts such as humans and domestic animals. We have recently identified a bradyzoite cDNA encoding a putative phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) synthase using a subtractive library [Yahiaoui, B., Dzierszinski, F., Bernigaud, A., Slomianny, C., Camus, D., and Tomavo, S. (1999) Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 99, 223-235]. Here, we report the cloning of another cDNA encoding PtdIns synthase that is exclusively expressed in the tachyzoite stage. The two transcripts are encoded by two different genes, which are stage-specifically regulated. The deduced amino-acid sequence (258 amino acids with a calculated total molecular mass of 27.8 kDa) of the tachyzoite-specific cDNA shares a significant degree of identity (between 26.5 and 30.1%) to the PtdIns synthases from human, rat, Arabidopsis thaliana and yeast. Interestingly, the putative protein encompasses an N-terminal extension that is approximately 40 amino-acids longer than that of PtdIns synthases from other organisms. Functional complementation realized by tetrad analysis of segregants of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae PtdIns synthase-deficient mutant (PIS1/pis1:kanMX4) showed that only the T. gondii putative PtdIns synthase truncated at its N-terminal extension is able to restore the viability of the cells. We demonstrate that this protein expressed in yeast transformants is functionally active in the membrane preparation and requires manganese and magnesium ions for activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular cloning and functional analysis of a gene encoding a PtdIns synthase in protozoan parasites.  (+info)

Phosphatidylinositol synthesis and exchange of the inositol head are catalysed by the single phosphatidylinositol synthase 1 from Arabidopsis. (4/56)

In order to study some of its enzymatic properties, phosphatidylinositol synthase 1 (AtPIS1) from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana was expressed in Escherichia coli, a host naturally devoid of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns). In the context of the bacterial membrane and in addition to de novo synthesis, the plant enzyme is capable of catalysing the exchange of the inositol polar head for another inositol. Our data clearly show that the CDP-diacylglycerol-independent exchange reaction can occur using endogenous PtdIns molecular species or PtdIns molecular species from soybean added exogenously. Exchange has been observed in the absence of cytidine monophosphate (CMP), but is greatly enhanced in the presence of 4 microm CMP. Our data also show that AtPIS1 catalyses the removal of the polar head in the presence of much higher concentrations of CMP, in a manner that suggests a reverse of synthesis. All of the PtdIns metabolizing activities require free manganese ions. EDTA, in the presence of low Mn2+ concentrations, also has an enhancing effect.  (+info)

Regulation of CDP-diacylglycerol synthesis and utilization by inositol and choline in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (5/56)

CDP-diacylglycerol (CDP-DG) is an important branchpoint intermediate in eucaryotic phospholipid biosynthesis and could be a key regulatory site in phospholipid metabolism. Therefore, we examined the effects of growth phase, phospholipid precursors, and the disruption of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis on the membrane-associated phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes CDP-DG synthase, phosphatidylglycerolphosphate (PGP) synthase, phosphatidylinositol (PI) synthase, and phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase in cell extracts of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In complete synthetic medium containing inositol, maximal expression of CDP-DG synthase, PGP synthase, PI synthase, and PS synthase in wild-type cells occurred in the exponential phase of growth and decreased two- to fourfold in the stationary phase of growth. In cells starved for inositol, this decrease in PGP synthase, PI synthase, and PS synthase expression was not observed. Starvation for inositol resulted in a twofold derepression of PGP synthase and PS synthase expression, while PI synthase expression decreased initially and then remained constant. Upon the addition of inositol to inositol-starved cells, there was a rapid and continued increase in PI synthase expression. We examined expression of these enzymes in cho2 and cho1 mutants, which are blocked in the methylation pathway for synthesis of PC. Choline starvation resulted in a decrease in PS synthase and CDP-DG synthase expression in cho1 but not cho2 cells. Expression of PGP synthase and PI synthase was not affected by choline starvation. Inositol starvation resulted in a 1.7-fold derepression of PGP synthase expression in cho2 but not cho1 cells when PC was synthesized. PS synthase expression was not depressed, while CDP-DG synthase and PI synthase expression decreased in cho2 and cho1 cells in the absence of inositol. These results demonstrate that (i) CDP-DG synthase, PGP synthase, PI synthase, and PS synthase are similarly regulated by growth phase; (ii) inositol affects the expression of PGP synthase, PI synthase, and PS synthase; (iii) disruption of the methylation pathway results in aberrant patterns of regulation of growth phase and phospholipid precursors. Important differences between S. pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae with regard to regulation of these enzymes are discussed.  (+info)

Inhibition of CDP-DG: inositol transferase by inostamycin. (6/56)

Inostamycin, a novel microbial secondary metabolite, inhibited [3H]inositol and 32P1 incorporation into phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) in cultured A431 cells, the IC50 being 0.5 micrograms/ml, without inhibiting macromolecular synthesis. The drug inhibited cellular inositol phosphate formation only when it was added at the same time as labeled inositol. It was found to inhibit in vitro CDP-DG:inositol transferase activity of the A431 cell membrane, the IC50 being about 0.02 micrograms/ml. It did not inhibit tyrosine kinase, PtdIns phospholipase C, or PtdIns kinase. Therefore, inhibition of PtdIns turnover by inostamycin must be due to the inhibition of CDP-DG:inositol transferase. Thus, inostamycin is a novel inhibitor of CDP-DG:inositol transferase.  (+info)

Evidence of a role for phosphatidylinositol synthesis in human amnion cell proliferation. (7/56)

Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) is the key precursor of phosphoinositide-derived intracellular mediators. The effects of changing the rate of PtdIns synthesis on mitogenic activity of human amnion-derived WISH cells were investigated. Incubation of the cells with [3H]inositol caused a time- and dose-dependent PtdIns labeling. Exogenous Ca2+ inhibited [3H]inositol incorporation in a dose-dependent fashion; half-maximal inhibition occurred with 0.3-1.0 mM Ca2+. In contrast, removal of cytosolic Ca2+ by ionophore A23187 and 1 mM EGTA induced enhancement of the PtdIns labeling as a function of A23187 concentration, perhaps through release of inhibitory effects of endogenous Ca2+. The A23187-stimulated PtdIns labeling with [3H]inositol was not abolished by additional unlabeled inositol, suggesting that [3H]inositol labeling of PtdIns occurred mainly through de novo synthesis catalyzed by PtdIns synthase (EC In cells with PtdIns synthase activity decreased by exogenous Ca2+, [3H]thymidine incorporation was also inhibited, while A23187 caused dose-dependent enhancement of thymidine incorporation. The changes in PtdIns synthase activity occurred in parallel with changes in mitogenic activity caused by increasing the dose of exogenous Ca2+ or A23187. A similar lowering of mitogenic activity was observed upon suppression of PtdIns synthase by pemirolast potassium (9-methyl-3-1H-tetrazol-5yl-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyridin-4-one potassium) via a Ca(2+)-independent mechanism. These data demonstrate that changes in PtdIns synthase activity by some agents acting via different mechanisms are associated with parallel changes in thymidine incorporation, and suggest that PtdIns production is tightly coupled to cell proliferation in human amnion cells.  (+info)

Synthetic capacity of Arabidopsis phosphatidylinositol synthase 1 expressed in Escherichia coli. (8/56)

Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) synthase 1 from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been expressed in Escherichia coli in order to study the synthetic capacities of the enzyme. Analysis of the total fatty acid content of the bacteria shows that PtdIns synthase activity does not have a profound effect on the proportions of the different fatty acids produced, even if the presence of an extra acidic phospholipid leads to a global reduction of the lipid content. A closer analysis carried out on individual phospholipids reveals a global fatty acid composition almost unchanged in the two major bacterial lipids phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) and phosphatidylglycerol (PtdGro). Phosphatidylinositol has a very unusual composition that shows the ability of the plant enzyme to use CDP-diacylglycerol molecular species absent from plants. We identified the various PtdIns molecular species. They represent a pool of the major molecular species of PtdEtn and PtdGro. These results, together with the determination of the apparent affinity constants of AtPIS1 for myo-inositol and CDP-diacylglycerol, allow us to discuss some of the constraints of PtdIns synthesis in plants in terms of specificity, which will depend on the subcellular localization of the protein.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytostatic effect of inostamycin, an inhibitor of cytidine 5′-diphosphate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (CDP-DG). T2 - Inositol transferase, on oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. AU - Baba, Yuh. AU - Tsukuda, Mamoru. AU - Mochimatsu, Izumi. AU - Furukawa, Shigeru. AU - Kagata, Hiroko. AU - Nagashima, Yoji. AU - Koshika, Shinri. AU - Imoto, Masaya. AU - Kato, Yasumasa. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Dr E. W. Thompson (St Vincents Institute of Medical Research, Fitzroy, Australia) for preparation of the manuscript. A part of this study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, and Science of Japan.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Inostamycin, which was recently isolated from Streptomyces sp. MH816-AF15 as an inhibitor of cytidine 5′-diphosphate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (CDP-DG): inositol transferase, caused a G1-phase accumulation in the cell cycle of small cell lung carcinomas. To investigate whether the cytostatic effect of inostamycin is ...
CDP-Diacylglycerol-Inositol 3-Phosphatidyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and CMP from CDP-DIACYLGLYCEROL and MYOINOSITOL.
CDIPT (CDP-diacylglycerol--inositol 3-phosphatidyltransferase), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A revised biosynthetic pathway for phosphatidylinositol in Mycobacteria. AU - Morii, Hiroyuki. AU - Ogawa, Midori. AU - Fukuda, Kazumasa. AU - Taniguchi, Hatsumi. AU - Koga, Yosuke. PY - 2010/11/1. Y1 - 2010/11/1. N2 - For the last decade, it has been believed that phosphatidylinositol (PI) in mycobacteria is synthesized from free inositol and CDP-diacylglycerol by PI synthase in the presence of ATP. The role of ATP in this process, however, is not understood. Additionally, the PI synthase activity is extremely low compared with the PI synthase activity of yeast. When CDP-diacylglycerol and [ 14C]1L-myo-inositol 1-phosphate were incubated with the cell wall components of Mycobacterium smegmatis, both phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) and PI were formed, as identified by fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography. PI was formed from PIP by incubation with the cell wall components. Thus, mycobacterial PI was synthesized from CDP-diacylglycerol and ...
Protein target information for L-serine-phosphatidylethanolamine phosphatidyltransferase (roundworm). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
In an inositol-depleted 1321 N1 astrocytoma cell line, propranolol at 0.5 mM concentration and carbachol in the presence of Li+ induce a large increase (30-60-fold) in the amount of CMP-phosphatidate, the lipid substrate of PtdIns synthase. The actions of both agents on CMP-phosphatidate accumulation were reversed by co-incubation with 1 mM inositol. In cells grown in the presence of 40 microM inositol the propranolol- and carbachol-mediated CMP-phosphatidate accumulation was much smaller (2-4-fold). Propranolol- and carbachol-mediated increases in CMP-phosphatidate accumulation were at least additive in both inositol-replete and -depleted cells. The subcellular distribution of accumulated CMP-phosphatidate was investigated by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation of a lysate of inositol-depleted cells. There were two coincident peaks of carbachol-stimulated [3H]CMP-phosphatidate and PtdIns synthase activity, respectively. The first peak of accumulated [3H]CMP-phosphatidate and PtdIns synthase ...
CDP-DG(20:0/22:0) belongs to the family of CDP-diacylglycerols. It is a glycerophospholipid containing a diacylglycerol, with a cytidine diphosphate attached to the oxygen O1 or O2 of the glycerol part. As is the case with diacylglycerols, phosphatidylserines can have many different combinations of fatty acids of varying lengths and saturation attached to the C-1 and C-2 positions. CDP-DG(20:0/22:0), in particular, consists of two eicosanoyl chain at positions C-1 and C2. In E. coli glycerophospholipid metabolism, The biosynthesis of CDP-diacylglycerol (CDP-DG) involves condensation of phosphatidic acid (PA) and cytidine triphosphate, with elimination of pyrophosphate, catalysed by the enzyme CDP-diacylglycerol synthase. The resulting CDP-diacylglycerol can be utilized immediately for the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and thence cardiolipin (CL), and of phosphatidylinositol (PI). CDP-DG(20:0/22:0) is also a substrate of CDP-diacylglycerol pyrophosphatase. It is involved in ...
Stimulation of enzyme secretion in the pancreas on injection of a single dose of the cholinergic drug, pilocarpine, was associated with an increased incorporation of [2-3H]myoinositol into a lipid, which was previously characterized as phosphatidylinositol. Stimulation of enzyme secretion by hourly injection of the pancreozymin congener, caerulein, led to more increased phosphatidylinositol synthesis than with a single injection of pilocarpine. The amylase level of the pancreas remained at a low level as long as caerulein was injected, indicating continued stimulation of enzyme secretion even though increased phosphatidylinositol synthesis ceased after 6 h. Feeding gave the same stimulation of phosphatidylinositol synthesis as caerulein. The major synthesis of phosphatidylinositol in controls and the stimulation of phosphatidylinositol synthesis by pilocarpine was entirely confined to the microsome fraction throughout the experiments (up to 18 h). This shows that there is no flow of microsomal ...
This item is made to order and will take 10-12 business days to manufacture.Sales on this site ship only to the US and Canada. For other international orders, please email us at [email protected] SKU: XPEH1216 Category: Human ...
Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, ...
Phosphoinositides (PIs) and their derivatives are essential cellular components that form the building blocks for cell membranes and regulate numerous cell functions. Specifically, the ability to generate myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) via phospholipase C (PLC) dependent hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to InsP3 and diacylglycerol (DAG) initiates intracellular calcium signaling events representing a fundamental signaling mechanism dependent on PIs. InsP3 produced by PI turnover as a second messenger causes intracellular calcium release, especially from endoplasmic reticulum, by binding to the InsP3 receptor (InsP3R). Various PIs and the enzymes, such as phosphatidylinositol synthase and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, necessary for their turnover have been characterized in Apicomplexa, a large phylum of mostly commensal organisms that also includes several clinically relevant parasites. However, InsP3Rs have not been identified in genomes of apicomplexans, ...
Similar to Uncharacterized CDP-alcohol phosphatidyltransferase class-I family protein 3 (Dictyostelium discoideum) (uniprot_sprot:sp,Q550W1,CAPTC_DICDI ...
1GR0: Crystal Structure of Inositol 1-Phosphate Synthase from Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, a Key Enzyme in Phosphatidylinositol Synthesis
Fosfatidat citidililtransferaza (EC, CDP digliceridna pirofosforilaza, CDP-diacilglicerolna sintaza, CDP-diacilgliceridna sintetaza, citidin difosfogliceridna pirofosforilaza, fosfatidat citidiltransferaza, fosfatidinsko kiselinska citidililtransferaza, CTP:1,2-diacilglicerofosfat-citidil transferaza, CTP-diacilglicerol sintetaza, DAG sintetaza, CDP-DG) je enzim sa sistematskim imenom CTP:fosfatidat citidililtransferaza.[1][2][3] Ovaj enzim katalizuje sledeću hemijsku reakciju. ...
Clostridium butyricum phosphatidyltransferase: from Clostridium butyricum; catalyzes transfer of the phosphatidyl moiety of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidylserine to primary alcohols such as glycerol, serine and ethanolamine; catalyze transfer of both the diacyl and alkenyl acyl forms of glycerophospholipids, but the diacyl forms are used preferentially
CDP-DG(a-15:0/i-21:0) is a cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol or CDP-diacylglycerol (CDP-DG). CDP-diacylglycerol is an important branchpoint intermediate in eukaryotic phospholipid biosynthesis and could be a key regulatory molecule in phospholipid metabolism. It is a glycerophospholipid in which a cytidine diphosphate moiety occupies a glycerol substitution site. As is the case with diacylglycerols, CDP-diacylglycerols can have many different combinations of fatty acids of varying lengths and saturation attached at the C-1 and C-2 positions. Fatty acids containing 16, 18 and 20 carbons are the most common. CDP-DG(a-15:0/i-21:0), in particular, consists of one chain of anteisopentadecanoic acid at the C-1 position and one chain of isoheneicosanoic acid at the C-2 position. Cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerols are rarely noticed in analyses of lipid compositions of tissues, as they are present is such small amounts (perhaps only 0.05% or so of the total phospholipids ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The incorporation of [3H]Ins into PtdIns by exchange of free and lipid-bound inositol moieties occurs via the action of at least two types of Mg2+/Mn(2+)-dependent enzymes in turkey erythrocytes. One is a nucleotide-independent PtdIns/Ins exchange enzyme and its function is, as yet, unknown, whereas the other is CMP-dependent and appears to be an exchange reaction catalysed by PtdIns synthase. The effects of analogues with modifications of the substituent at the 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-positions on the incorporation of [3H]Ins into PtdIns under both synthase and exchange reaction conditions were investigated in turkey erythrocytes. Analogues causing substantial inhibition of [3H]Ins incorporation were then used in kinetic experiments to determine the type of inhibition involved. The analogues 1-deoxy-1-fluoro-scyllo-inositol and 5-O-methyl-myo-inositol exhibited the greatest effects on the incorporation of [3H]Ins via both the synthase and exchange reactions, and the kinetic analysis indicated that ...
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In the presence of the drug, the incorporation of cytidine, but not of inorganic phosphate, into phosphatidyl-CMP (CDP-diacylglycerol) was dependent on the cytidine concentration ...
Toxoplasma gondii is among the most prevalent protozoan parasites, which infects a wide range of organisms including one-third of the human population. Its rapid intracellular replication within a vacuole requires efficient synthesis of glycerophospholipids. Cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) serves as a major precursor for phospholipid synthesis. Given the peculiarities of lipid biogenesis, understanding the mechanism and physiological importance of CDP-DAG synthesis is particularly relevant in T. gondii Here, we report the occurrence of two phylogenetically divergent CDP-DAG synthase (CDS) enzymes in the parasite. The eukaryotic-type TgCDS1 and the prokaryotic-type TgCDS2 reside in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and apicoplast, respectively. Conditional knockdown of TgCDS1 severely attenuated the parasite growth and resulted in a nearly complete loss of virulence in a mouse model. Moreover, mice infected with the TgCDS1 mutant became fully resistant to challenge infection with a ...
PG(15:1(9Z)/18:0) is a phosphatidylglycerol. Phosphatidylglycerols consist of a glycerol 3-phosphate backbone esterified to either saturated or unsaturated fatty acids on carbons 1 and 2. As is the case with diacylglycerols, phosphatidylglycerols can have many different combinations of fatty acids of varying lengths and saturation attached to the C-1 and C-2 positions. PG(15:1(9Z)/18:0), in particular, consists of one 9Z-pentadecenoyl chain to the C-1 atom, and one octadecanoyl to the C-2 atom. In E. coli glycerophospholipid metabolism, phosphatidylglycerol is formed from phosphatidic acid (1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate) by a sequence of enzymatic reactions that proceeds via two intermediates, cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol (CDP-diacylglycerol) and phosphatidylglycerophosphate (PGP, a phosphorylated phosphatidylglycerol). Phosphatidylglycerols, along with CDP-diacylglycerol, also serve as precursor molecules for the synthesis of cardiolipin, a phospholipid found in membranes ...
Catalyzes the synthesis of cardiolipin (CL) (diphosphatidylglycerol) by specifically transferring a phosphatidyl group from CDP-diacylglycerol to phosphatidylglycerol (PG). CL is a key phospholipid in mitochondrial membranes and plays important roles in maintaining the functional integrity and dynamics of mitochondria under both optimal and stress conditions ...
Accepted name: phosphatidylcholine synthase. Reaction: CDP-diacylglycerol + choline = CMP + phosphatidylcholine. Other name(s): CDP-diglyceride-choline O-phosphatidyltransferase. Systematic name: CDP-diacylglycerol:choline O-phosphatidyltransferase. Comments: Requires divalent cations, with Mn2+ being more effective than Mg2+.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 243666-86-6. References: 1. de Rudder, K.E.E., Sohlenkamp, C. and Geiger, O. Plant-exudated choline is used for rhizobial membrane lipid biosynthesis by phosphatidylcholine synthase. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 20011-20016. [PMID: 10391951]. 2. Sohlenkamp, C., de Rudder, K.E.E., Röhrs, V., López-Lara, I.M. and Geiger, O. Cloning and characterization of the gene for phosphatidylcholine synthase. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 18919-18925. [PMID: 10858449]. ...
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