Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cdc20 Proteins: Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Guanylate Kinase: Catalyzes the ATP-dependent PHOSPHORYLATION of GMP to generate GDP and ADP.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 6: A 97-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 levels increase during cellular differentiation, while in proliferating cells the enzyme is degraded rapidly via the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae: A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6: Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.PhosphoproteinsNuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9: A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. It is found associated with CYCLIN T and is a component of POSITIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION FACTOR B.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Cyclin E: A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1: A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.MAP Kinase Kinase 2: A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.ChromonesAdaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesCyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Casein Kinase I: A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 8: A CYCLIN C dependent kinase that is an important component of the mediator complex. The enzyme is activated by its interaction with CYCLIN C and plays a role in transcriptional regulation by phosphorylating RNA POLYMERASE II.Phosphoglycerate Kinase: An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC 2.7.2.3.MorpholinesCyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Phosphorylase Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and PHOSPHORYLASE B to ADP and PHOSPHORYLASE A.Aurora Kinase A: An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Arginine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the guanidine nitrogen of arginine in the presence of ATP and a divalent cation with formation of phosphorylarginine and ADP. EC 2.7.3.3.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Phosphoserine: The phosphoric acid ester of serine.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.MAP Kinase Kinase 6: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases: Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).MAP Kinase Kinase 3: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for a subset of P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES that includes MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 12; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 13; and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 14.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Focal Adhesion Kinase 2: A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase: A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol into 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Lim Kinases: Serine protein kinases involved in the regulation of ACTIN polymerization and MICROTUBULE disassembly. Their activity is regulated by phosphorylation of a threonine residue within the activation loop by intracellular signaling kinases such as P21-ACTIVATED KINASES and by RHO KINASE.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Checkpoint Kinase 2: Enzyme activated in response to DNA DAMAGE involved in cell cycle arrest. The gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 22 at position 12.1. In humans it is encoded by the CHEK2 gene.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are considered the major physiological kinases for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6. Unlike RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 90KDa the proteins in this family are sensitive to the inhibitory effects of RAPAMYCIN and contain a single kinase domain. They are referred to as 70kDa proteins, however ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs for proteins in this class also results in 85kDa variants being formed.Phosphothreonine: The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Nerve Tissue ProteinsPromoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase: An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.6.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.

*Cyclin-dependent kinase 1

The human homolog of Cdk1, CDC2, shares approximately 63% amino-acid identity with its yeast homolog. Furthermore, human CDC2 ... Cdk1 is comprised mostly by the bare protein kinase motif, which other protein kinases share. Cdk1, like other kinases, ... where it is encoded by genes cdc28 and cdc2, respectively. In humans, Cdk1 is encoded by the CDC2 gene. With its cyclin ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that ...

*CKS1B

"Entrez Gene: CKS1B CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B". Harper, J.W. 2001. Protein destruction: Adapting roles for Cks ... "Human cDNAs encoding homologs of the small p34Cdc28/Cdc2-associated protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces ... Cdk1 expression, which is crucial for M phase entry, is drastically diminished by Cks1 depletion, and that restoration of cdk1 ... Cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CKS1B gene. The CKS1B protein binds ...

*CKS2

"Entrez Gene: CKS2 CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2". Human CKS2 genome location and CKS2 gene details page in the UCSC ... "Human cDNAs encoding homologs of the small p34Cdc28/Cdc2-associated protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces ... Cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CKS2 gene. CKS2 protein binds to ... Gorr IH, Boos D, Stemmann O (2005). "Mutual inhibition of separase and Cdk1 by two-step complex formation". Mol. Cell. 19 (1): ...

*Wee1

The M-phase kinases Polo-like kinase (Plk1) and Cdc2 phosphorylate two serine residues in Wee1A which are recognized by SCFβ- ... cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28 (Cdk1 homologue) is phosphorylated by Swe1 (Wee1 homologue) and dephosphorylated by Mih1 (Cdc25 ... Russell P, Nurse P (May 1987). "Negative regulation of mitosis by wee1+, a gene encoding a protein kinase homolog". Cell. 49 (4 ... corresponding proteins are Wee1-like protein kinase and Wee1-like protein kinase 2 which act on the human Cdk1 homologue Cdk1. ...
Niles, R M. and Logue, M P., "Retinoid acid increases cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase activity in b16-f1 mouse melanoma cells. Abstr." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 1639 ...
Protein Kinase C (PKC) is a family of nucleotide-independent, Ca2+-dependent serine kinases. ,ref name=na,Takai, Y., Kishimoto, A., Inoue, M., & Nishizuka, Y. (1977). Studies on a cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase and its proenzyme in mammalian tissues. I. Purification and characterization of an active enzyme from bovine cerebellum. J. Biol. Chem., 252(21), 7603-7609. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.viviena.library.unsw.edu.au/pubmed/199594?dopt=Abstract] ,/ref,. At least 11 isozymes have been identified, ,ref name=peter,Acs, P., Wang, Q., Bogi, K., Marquez, A., Lorenzo, P., Biro, T., Szallai, Z., Mushinski, F., & Blue, P. (1997). Both the Catalytic and Regulatory Domains of Protein Kinase C Chimeras Modulate the Proliferative Properties of NIH 3T3 Cells. J Biol Chem., 272(45), 28793-28799. Retrieved May 15, 2009, from [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=9353351&dopt=Abstract Pubmed],/ref, most ...
Protein Kinase C (PKC) is a family of nucleotide-independent, Ca2+-dependent serine kinases. ,ref name=na,Takai, Y., Kishimoto, A., Inoue, M., & Nishizuka, Y. (1977). Studies on a cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase and its proenzyme in mammalian tissues. I. Purification and characterization of an active enzyme from bovine cerebellum. J. Biol. Chem., 252(21), 7603-7609. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.viviena.library.unsw.edu.au/pubmed/199594?dopt=Abstract] ,/ref,. At least 11 isozymes have been identified, ,ref name=peter,Acs, P., Wang, Q., Bogi, K., Marquez, A., Lorenzo, P., Biro, T., Szallai, Z., Mushinski, F., & Blue, P. (1997). Both the Catalytic and Regulatory Domains of Protein Kinase C Chimeras Modulate the Proliferative Properties of NIH 3T3 Cells. J Biol Chem., 272(45), 28793-28799. Retrieved May 15, 2009, from [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=9353351&dopt=Abstract Pubmed],/ref, most ...
The subcellular distribution of protein kinase activity in isolated islets of Langerhans was determined. The majority (70%) of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was located in the S-100 (soluble) fraction, while the majority (42%) of cyclic AMP-independent activity was located in the solublised P-100 (containing mitochondria, secretory granules and microsomes) fraction. Partial characterisation of the islet cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity revealed the presence of two isozymes designated Type I and Type II. Type II kinase was the predominant isozyme of the S-100 fraction and Type I was the predominant isozyme found in the solublised P-100 fraction. Nonidet-P40 (a non-ionic detergent) was found to activate the S-100 cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity, although no significant increase in protein kinase activity was observed when the P-0.6 (containing nuclei and cellular debris) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification of a regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from Drosophila heads. AU - Inoue, Hiroko. AU - Yoshioka, Tohru. PY - 1997/6/9. Y1 - 1997/6/9. N2 - The cytosolic extract from Drosophila heads was separated using anion-exchange column chromatography. Two types of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), type I and type II, were detected, and type II PKA was found to be a major isozyme. The regulatory subunit of type II PKA (RII) was purified, and only one isoform was observed. The purified protein had an apparent molecular mass of 51 kDa on SDS gel electrophoresis. Partial amino acid sequences of the protein were almost identical with the RIIα subunit of human. Since PKA has been implicated to be especially important for learning and memory in Drosophila, the RII subunit may play an essential role in the regulation of neuronal activity in the brain of Drosophila, and possibly in human.. AB - The cytosolic extract from Drosophila heads ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorylation of cardiac troponin by guanosine 3. T2 - 5-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. AU - Blumenthal, D. K.. AU - Stull, J. T.. AU - Gill, G. N.. PY - 1978. Y1 - 1978. N2 - Homogeneous cGMP-dependent protein kinase catalyzes the rapid incorporation of phosphate, specifically into the inhibitory subunit of purified cardiac troponin with a maximal incorporation of 1 mol of phosphate/mol of troponin. When troponin was incubated in the presence of both cGMP- and cAMP-dependent protein kinases, a maximal incorporation of 1 mol of phosphate/mol of troponin was observed which suggested phosphorylation of the same site by the two kinases. Both cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases had similar K(m) values for troponin, but the V(max) value for the phosphorylation reaction catalyzed by cAMP-dependent protein kinase was 12-fold greater than the value obtained for cGMP-dependent protein ...
Shop Leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Nov 02, 2019 (Eon Market Research via COMTEX) -- The market report, titled Global Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Chk1 Market Research Report 2019 - By Manufacturers, Product Type, Applications, Region and Forecast to 2026′, recently added to the market research repository of Eonmarketresearch.com, details in-depth past and present analytical and statistical data about the global Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Chk1 market. The report describes the Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Chk1 market in detail in terms of the economic and regulatory factors that are currently shaping the markets growth trajectory, the regional segmentation of the global Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Chk1 market , and an analysis of the markets downstream and upstream value and supply chains. Competitive Research of Global Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Chk1 Market 2019 Based on Key Players: " CanBas Co Ltd Cascadian Therapeutics Inc Eli Lilly and ...
Complement factor C3, recently found to contain covalently bound phosphate, was phosphorylated in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A) and Ca2+-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Both protein kinases phosphorylated the same serine residue(s) located in the C3a portion of the alpha-chain. In addition, protein kinase C phosphorylated the beta-chain to a lesser extent. Protein kinase A gave a maximal incorporation of 1 mol of phosphate/mol of C3 while that value with protein kinase C was 1.5 mol of phosphate/mol of C3. The velocity in pmol of [32P]phosphate/(min x unit kinase) was 20 times higher for protein kinase C than for protein kinase A although a 10 times lower ratio of protein kinase to C3 was used in the former case. The apparent Kmfor C3 was ...
Looking for online definition of Protein-kinase C-related kinase 2 in the Medical Dictionary? Protein-kinase C-related kinase 2 explanation free. What is Protein-kinase C-related kinase 2? Meaning of Protein-kinase C-related kinase 2 medical term. What does Protein-kinase C-related kinase 2 mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic GMP - Dependent protein kinase. AU - Roskoski, R.. AU - Vulliet, Philip R. AU - Glass, D. B.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - Tyrosine hydroxylase purified from rat pheochromycytoma was phosphorylated and activated by purified cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase as well as by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. The extent of activation was correlated with the degree of phosphate incorporated into the enzyme. Comparable stoichiometric ratios (0.6 mol phosphate/mol tyrosine hydroxylase subunit) were obtained at maximal concentrations of either cyclic AMP-dependent or cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases. The enzymes appeared to mediate the phosphorylation of the same residue based on the observation that incorporation was not increased when both enzymes were present. The major tryptic phosphopeptide obtained from tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylated by each protein ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A protein histidine kinase induced m rat liver by peroxisome proliferators. In vitro activation by Ras protein and guanine nucleotides. AU - Motojima, Kiyoto. AU - Goto, S.. PY - 1993/3/15. Y1 - 1993/3/15. N2 - A novel protein kinase is induced in rat liver plasma membrane by the administration of peroxisome proliferators. A 36 kDa protein (P36) on the membrane was rapidly phosphorylated in vitro by the kinase and the phosphorylated amino acid was identified as phosphohistidine. Histidine phosphorylation of P36 was activated in vitro by recombinant Ras protein and GTP; both decreased Michaelis constant (Km) for ATP from 1.25 to 0.25 μM. The novel histidine kinase, products of which have been overlooked due to their acid lability, may participate in cellular signaling and peroxisome proliferators may perturb the pathway.. AB - A novel protein kinase is induced in rat liver plasma membrane by the administration ...
An antiserum against the catalytic subunit C of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, isolated from bovine heart type II protein kinase, was produced in rabbits. Reaction of the catalytic subunit with antiserum and separation of the immunoglobulin G fraction by Protein A-Sepharose quantitatively removed the enzyme from solutions. Comparative immunotitration of protein kinases showed that the amount of antiserum required to eliminate 50% of the enzymic activity was identical for pure catalytic subunit, and for holoenzymes type I and type II. The reactivity of the holoenzymes with the antiserum was identical in the absence or the presence of dissociating concentrations of cyclic AMP. Most of the holoenzyme (type II) remains intact when bound to the antibodies as shown by quantification of the regulatory subunit in the supernatant of the immunoprecipitate. Titration with the antibodies also revealed the presence of a cyclic AMP-independent histone ...
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Looking for online definition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the Medical Dictionary? cAMP-dependent protein kinase explanation free. What is cAMP-dependent protein kinase? Meaning of cAMP-dependent protein kinase medical term. What does cAMP-dependent protein kinase mean?
Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) constitute a unique family of enzymes in plants that are characterized by a C-terminal calmodulin (CaM)-like domain. Through protein kinase assays, we have examined the levels of cucumber calcium-dependent kinase $(C_SCDPK)$ activity in various organs of cucumber seedlings and plants. The activity of $C_SCDPK$ was highest in cucumber plant leaves followed by seedling roots and hypocotyls; however, cucumber plant flowers, seedling cotyledons, and hooks had levels that were barely detectable. The $C_SCDPKs$ were immunolocalized using polyclonal antibodies that are highly specific against a part of the kinase domain of a calcium-dependent protein kinase $(C_SCDPKS)$ in the phloem sieve elements (SEs) in various organs of cucumber. In addition, this study indicates the presence of CsCDPKs in organelle-like bodies associated with the plasma membrane of sieve elements in mature stems and ...
The induction of ornithine decarboxylase was studied following the stimulation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with concanavalin A (ConA) (10 µg/ml). Following treatment with ConA, ornithine decarboxylase activity increased 4-5-fold between 6 and 12 hr of incubation and reached a peak level 10-12-fold above control (unstimulated) values by 48 hr. Increases in incorporation of [3H]uridine into acid-insoluble material followed a similar time course after the addition of ConA to lymphocytes. The rate of incorporation of [3H]thymidine into acid-insoluble material was maximal at 72 hr. The degree of activation of soluble cyclic 3,5-AMP-dependent protein kinase(s) was determined at various times following ConA stimulation. Between 1 and 2 hr after mitogen administration, the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity ratio increased markedly and was 0.23 unit above control values by 4 hr. The activity ratio decreased between 4 and 8 hr and returned to higher values after ...
Trans-activation of the DNA-damage signalling protein kinase Chk2 by T-loop exchange The protein kinase Chk2 (checkpoint kinase 2) is a major effector of the replication checkpoint. Chk2 activation is initiated by phosphorylation of Thr68, in the serine glutamine/threonine-glutamine cluster domain (SCD), by ATM. The phosphorylated SCD-segment binds to the FHA domain of a second Chk2 molecule, promoting dimerisation of the protein and triggering phosphorylation of the activation segment/T-loop in the kinase domain. We have now determined the structure of the kinase domain of human Chk2 in complexes with ADP and a small-molecule inhibitor debromohymenialdisine. The structure reveals a remarkable dimeric arrangement in which T-loops are exchanged between protomers, to form an active kinase conformation in trans. Biochemical data suggest that this dimer is the biologically active state promoted by ...
1. Noradrenaline and histamine, when added to superfused guinea-pig cerebral-cortical tissues, increased both cyclic AMP-dependent and -independent histone kinase activities of some, but not of all, subsequently isolated subcellular fractions, and decreased their cyclic [3H]AMP-binding capacity, which was concluded to be due to an increase in endogenously bound cyclic AMP. 2. Adenosine and 2-chloroadenosine also diminished the cyclic [3H]AMP-binding capacities, but did not affect the histone kinase activities. 3. DEAE-cellulose chromatography and stability to KCl additions showed that the greater part of the histone kinase of the present preparations corresponded to the type II enzyme [of Corbin, Keely & Park (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 218-225], with a lesser amount of type I activity. Different sites of cyclic AMP accumulation in relation to these or other kinases are considered in interpreting the differential tissue responses to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Wound-healing effect of ginsenoside Rd from leaves of Panax ginseng via cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase pathway. AU - Kim, Wang Kyun. AU - Song, Seung Yong. AU - Oh, Won Keun. AU - Kaewsuwan, Sireewan. AU - Tran, Tien Lam. AU - Kim, Won Serk. AU - Sung, Jong Hyuk. PY - 2013/2/28. Y1 - 2013/2/28. N2 - Panax ginseng is considered as one of the most valuable medicinal herbs in traditional medicine, and ginsenoside Rd is one of the main active ingredients in P. ginseng leaf. Although there is significant number of evidences implicated on the beneficial effects of the ginsenosides with diverse associated mechanisms, reports on the skin regeneration by the ginsenoside Rd are not sufficient. Therefore, we examined the mitogenic and protective effects of the ginsenoside Rd in the keratinocyte progenitor cells (KPCs) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Furthermore, the signaling pathways involved in the activation of KPCs and HDFs were investigated, and wound-healing effect is ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase complex, cytoplasm, nucleus, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity, mitochondrion organization, protein kinase A signaling, protein phosphorylation, Ras protein signal transduction
Histidine-to-aspartate (His-Asp) phosphorelay (or two-component) systems are very common signal transduction mechanisms that are implicated in a wide variety of cellular responses to environmental stimuli. The His-Asp phosphorelay components include "sensor histidine kinase (HK)", "phosphotransfer intermediate (HPt)", and "response regulator (RR)". With special reference to three bacterial species (Mesorhizobium loti, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Sinorhizobium meliloti), each of which belongs to a different genera of Rhizobia, here we attempted to compile all of the His-Asp phosphorelay components in order to reveal a comparative genome-wide overview as to the His-Asp phosphorelay. It was revealed that M. loti has 47 HKs, 1 HPts, and 58 RRs; B. japonicum has 80 HKs, 3 HPts, and 91 RRs; whereas S. meliloti has 40 HKs, 1 HPt, and 58 RRs. These His-Asp phosphorelay components were extensively compiled and characterized. The resulting overview as to the His-Asp phosphorelay of Rhizobia will provide ...
K07636 phoR; two-component system, OmpR family, phosphate regulon sensor histidine kinase PhoR [EC:2.7.13.3] K07657 phoB; two-component system, OmpR family, phosphate regulon response regulator PhoB K01077 E3.1.3.1; alkaline phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.1] K02040 pstS; phosphate transport system substrate-binding protein K02040 pstS; phosphate transport system substrate-binding protein K07637 phoQ; two-component system, OmpR family, sensor histidine kinase PhoQ [EC:2.7.13.3] K07660 phoP; two-component system, OmpR family, response regulator PhoP K07790 pagO; putative membrane protein PagO K07638 envZ; two-component system, OmpR family, osmolarity sensor histidine kinase EnvZ [EC:2.7.13.3] K07659 ompR; two-component system, OmpR family, phosphate regulon response regulator OmpR K09475 ompC; outer membrane pore protein C K09476 ompF; outer membrane pore protein F K07639 rstB; two-component system, OmpR family, sensor histidine kinase RstB ...
... ,LC Sciences provides a comprehensive kinase analysis service utilizing high density protein kinase substrate (PKS) peptide microarrays synthesized on Paraflo microfluidic chips for proteomic scale kinase profiling, quantitative measurement of kinase kinetic activities, and drug discovery research.,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
16S ribosomal RNA, 30S ribosomal protein S2, 30S ribosomal protein S3, 30S ribosomal protein S4, 30S ribosomal protein S5, 30S ribosomal protein S6, 30S ribosomal protein S7, 30S ribosomal protein S8, 30S ribosomal protein S9, 30S ribosomal protein S10, 30S ribosomal protein S11, 30S ribosomal protein S12, 30S ribosomal protein S13, 30S ribosomal protein S14, 30S ribosomal protein S15, 30S ribosomal protein S16, 30S ribosomal protein S17, 30S ribosomal protein S18, 30S ribosomal protein S19, 30S ribosomal protein S20, 30S ribosomal protein Thx, RNA (5-R(*AP*AP*AP*AP*AP*GP*GP*AP*AP*AP*UP*A*AP*AP*AP*AP*UP*GP*CP*AP*GP*UP*UP*CP*AP*AP*UP*CP*UP*A)-3), tRNA-Gln, tRNA-Met, tRNA-Gln, capreomycin IA, 50S ribosomal protein L27, 50S ribosomal protein L28, 50S ribosomal protein L29, 50S ribosomal protein L30, 50S ribosomal protein L31, 50S ribosomal protein L32, 50S ribosomal protein L33, 50S ribosomal protein L34, 50S ribosomal protein L35, 50S ribosomal protein L36, 23S ribosomal RNA, 5S ribosomal RNA, ...
Purified proteoglycan subunits from human articular, bovine articular and nasal cartilages, and a rat chondrosarcoma were phosphorylated in vitro by beef heart cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the presence of gamma 32P-ATP. In these experiments, a maximum of 1.7 moles of 32P were incorporated per mole of proteoglycan from human cartilage. Phosphorylation was dependent on the presence of cAMP. Analysis by autoradiography revealed that serine residues in the core protein of the proteoglycan were the sites of phosphorylation. Treatment of proteoglycan subunits with chondroitinase ABC and alkaline phosphatase prior to reaction with cAMP-dependent protein kinase increased the incorporation of 32P by 12-30% when compared with untreated proteoglycans. These data indicate that proteoglycans in cartilage can be phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
A comparative analysis on protein kinases encoded in the completely sequenced genomes of two plant species, namely Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa spp japonica cv. Nipponbare is reported in the current study. We have analysed 836 and 1386 kinases identified from A. thaliana and the $O$. sativa genomes respectively. Their classification into known subfamilies reveals selective expansions of the plant receptor kinase subfamily comprising of Ser/Thr receptor kinases. The presence of calciumdependent kinases, and potential absence of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase of the type found in other (non-plant) eukaryotes, are other notable features of the two plant kinomes described here. An analysis on domain organisation of each of the protein kinases encoded in the plant genome has been carried out. Uncommon composition of functional domains like nuclear translocation factor domain, ...
The activity of calcium-, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (PKc) was measured in (a) total extracts, (b) crude membrane, and (c) cytosolic fractions of chick embryo myogenic cells differentiating in culture. Total PKc activity slowly declines during the course of terminal myogenesis in contrast to the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which was also measured in the same cells. Myogenic cells at day 1 of culture possess high particulate and low soluble PKc activity. A dramatic decline of particulate PKc activity occurs during myogenic cell differentiation and is accompanied, through day 4, by a striking rise of the soluble activity. The difference in the subcellular distribution of PKc between replicating myoblasts and myotubes is confirmed by phosphorylation studies conducted in intact cells. These studies demonstrate that four polypeptides whose phosphorylation is stimulated by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate in myotubes, are ...
Internalization of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) requires two receptors, the uPA receptor (uPAR) and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP)/alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M) receptor. Here, we address whether protein kinases are involved in the internalization of uPA by human melanoma cells. Initially, we found that the internalization of uPA was significantly inhibited by the serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitors staurosporine, K-252a and H-89, but not by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, genistein and lavendustin A. Internalization of uPA was also inhibited by a pseudosubstrate peptide for cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), but not by a pseudosubstrate peptide for protein kinase C. We confirmed a requirement for PKA-activity and implicated a specific isoform by using an antisense oligonucleotide against the regulatory subunit RI alpha of PKA which suppresses PKA-I ...
The study of the primary metabolism of cyanobacteria in response to light conditions is important for environmental biology because cyanobacteria are widely distributed among various ecological niches. Cyanobacteria uniquely possess circadian rhythms, with central oscillators consisting from three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. The two-component histidine kinase SasA/Hik8 and response regulator RpaA transduce the circadian signal from KaiABC to control gene expression. Here, we generated a strain overexpressing rpaA in a unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The rpaA-overexpressing strain showed pleiotropic phenotypes, including slower growth, aberrant degradation of an RNA polymerase sigma factor SigE after the light-to-dark transition, and higher accumulation of sugar catabolic enzyme transcripts under dark conditions. Metabolome analysis revealed delayed glycogen degradation, decreased sugar phosphates and organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and increased ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of novel bacterial histidine biosynthesis inhibitors using docking, ensemble rescoring, and whole-cell assays. AU - Henriksen,Signe Teuber. AU - Liu,J.. AU - Estiu,G.. AU - Oltvai,Z.N.. AU - Wiest,O.. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - The rapid spread on multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus requires not just novel treatment options, but the development of faster methods for the identification of new hits for drug development. The exponentially increasing speed of computational methods makes a more extensive use in the early stages of drug discovery attractive if sufficient accuracy can be achieved. Computational target identification using systems-level methods suggested the histidine biosynthesis pathway as an attractive target against S. aureus. Potential inhibitors for the pathway were identified through docking, followed by ensemble rescoring, that is sufficiently accurate to justify immediate testing of the identified compounds by whole-cell assays, ...
Rationale: The giant protein titin plays key roles in myofilament assembly and determines the passive mechanical properties of the sarcomere. The cardiac titin molecule has 2 mayor elastic elements, the N2B and the PEVK region. Both have been suggested to determine the elastic properties of the heart with loss of function data only available for the N2B region.. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of titins proline-glutamate-valine-lysine (PEVK) region to biomechanics and growth of the heart.. Methods and Results: We removed a portion of the PEVK segment (exons 219 to 225; 282 aa) that corresponds to the PEVK element of N2B titin, the main cardiac titin isoform. Adult homozygous PEVK knockout (KO) mice developed diastolic dysfunction, as determined by pressure-volume loops, echocardiography, isolated heart experiments, and muscle mechanics. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed increased strain of the N2B element, a spring region retained in the PEVK-KO. ...
Mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase presents strong structural and functional similarities with the yeast sucrose non-fermenting 1 (Snf1) kinase involved in the derepression of glucose-repressed genes. It is now clearly established that AMP-activated protein kinase in the liver decreases glycolytic/lipogenic gene expression as well as genes involved in hepatic glucose production. This is achieved through a decreased transcriptional efficiency of transcription factors such as sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein-1c, carbohydrate-response-element-binding protein, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α or forkhead-related protein. Clearly, the long-term consequences of AMP-activated protein kinase activation have to be taken into account if activators of this enzyme are to be designed as anti-diabetic drugs.. ...
Read independent reviews on Casein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta) from AMS Biotechnology (Archived Products) on SelectScience
1. CukkemaneA, SeifertR, KauppUB (2011) Cooperative and uncooperative cyclic-nucleotide-gated ion channels. Trends Biochem Sci 36: 55-64.. 2. KauppUB, NiidomeT, TanabeT, TeradaS, BönigkW, et al. (1989) Primary structure and functional expression from complementary DNA of the rod photoreceptor cyclic GMP-gated channel. Nature 342: 762-766.. 3. LudwigA, ZongX, JeglitschM, HofmannF, BielM (1998) A family of hyperpolarization-activated mammalian cation channels. Nature 393: 587-591.. 4. TakioK, SmithSB, KrebsEG, WalshKA, TitaniK (1982) Primary structure of the regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from bovine cardiac muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 2544-2548.. 5. TakioK, WadeRD, SmithSB, KrebsEG, WalshKA, et al. (1984) Guanosine cyclic 3′,5′-phosphate dependent protein kinase, a chimeric protein homologous with two separate protein families. Biochemistry 23: 4207-4218.. 6. de RooijJ, ZwartkruisFJ, VerheijenMH, CoolRH, NijmanSM, et al. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of the bovine lens plasma membrane substrates for cAMP‐dependent protein kinase. AU - LOUIS, Charles F.. AU - JOHNSON, Ross. AU - JOHNSON, Keith. AU - TURNQUIST, Janet. PY - 1985/7. Y1 - 1985/7. N2 - cAMP‐dependent protein kinase, derived from either calf lens or bovine heart, promotes the phosphorylation of three lens plasma membrane proteins of molecular mass 28 kDa, 26 kDa and 18 kDa. Correlation of the maximal level of phosphorylation of these components with the Coomassie blue staining intensity of fractionated lens membranes suggests that the phosphorylation of the 28 kDa and 18 kDa components may be approximately stoichiometric. The protein kinase substrates could be dephosphorylated by a cardiac sarcoplasmic‐reticulum‐bound protein phosphatase activity. The 26 kDa component comigrated with MP26, the major lens membrane component that has been localized to the lens fiber cell junction. Treatment of phosphorylated lens ...
RAC Gamma Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase (Protein Kinase Akt 3 or Protein Kinase B Gamma or RAC PK Gamma or STK 2 or AKT3 or EC 2.7.11.1) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-08-29 Available for US$ 3500 at Researchmoz.us
Human 5-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-2 (PRKAA2) ELISA Kit can measure Human 5-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-2 in serum, blood, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other related supernatants and tissues.
K07636 phoR; two-component system, OmpR family, phosphate regulon sensor histidine kinase PhoR [EC:2.7.13.3] K07658 phoB1; two-component system, OmpR family, alkaline phosphatase synthesis response regulator PhoP K01077 E3.1.3.1; alkaline phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.1] K01077 E3.1.3.1; alkaline phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.1] K02040 pstS; phosphate transport system substrate-binding protein K04771 degP; serine protease Do [EC:3.4.21.107] K04771 degP; serine protease Do [EC:3.4.21.107] K07650 cssS; two-component system, OmpR family, sensor histidine kinase CssS [EC:2.7.13.3] K07770 cssR; two-component system, OmpR family, response regulator CssR K02406 fliC; flagellin K02406 fliC; flagellin K02406 fliC; flagellin K02406 fliC; flagellin K02406 fliC; flagellin K02405 fliA; RNA polymerase sigma factor for flagellar operon FliA K02556 motA; chemotaxis protein MotA K07651 resE; two-component system, OmpR family, sensor histidine kinase ResE [EC:2.7.13.3] K07775 resD; ...
[103 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Cyclin Dependent Kinase 6 (Cell Division Protein Kinase 6 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PLSTIRE or CDK6 or EC 2.7.11.22) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 report by Global Markets Direct. Cyclin Dependent Kinase 6 (Cell Division Protein Kinase 6 or...
Histidine-containing phosphotransfer (HPt) factors from Arabidopsis thaliana, designated as AHPs, function most likely in concert with histidine (His)-kinases (HKs) and response regulators (RRs) in certain multistep histidine (His)→aspartate (Asp) phosphorelays that are involved in the signal transduction mechanisms, by which plant cells appear to respond to certain hormonal stimuli, including cytokinin. Although some previous in vitro results from studies on Arabidopsis AHPs (AHP1 to AHP5) supported this hypothesis, it has not yet been proven. To this end, here we constructed transgenic plants that contained the AHP2 protein in a considerably higher amount than in wild-type plants. Such AHP2-overexpressing young seedlings were examined in comparison with wild-type plants, with special reference to hormone responses; particularly, their inhibitory effects on root elongation of plants grown on agar-plates, and also hypocotyl elongation of etiolated seedlings grown in the dark. The results of ...
1CDK: Phosphotransferase and substrate binding mechanism of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit from porcine heart as deduced from the 2.0 A structure of the complex with Mn2+ adenylyl imidodiphosphate and inhibitor peptide PKI(5-24).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning, characterization, and expression of the gene for the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in Caenorhabditis elegans. T2 - Identification of highly conserved and unique isoforms generated by alternative splicing. AU - Gross, Robert E.. AU - Bagchi, Srilata. AU - Lu, Xiangyi. AU - Rubin, Charles S.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans expresses substantial amounts of several forms (Mr values = 39,000-41,000) of the catalytic subunit (C) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Approximately 65% of the total cAMP-dependent phosphotransferase activity is recovered in particulate fractions of homogenates prepared from asynchronous populations of C. elegans. The C subunit is expressed at a low level in cytosolic and particulate compartments during embryogenesis. As the nematodes progress from late embryonic stages to the newly hatched, first larval (L1) stage, C subunit content increases 15-fold. High levels of C subunits ...
Protein phosphatase which antagonizes mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase CDC28, the inactivation of which is essential for exit from mitosis. To access its substrates, is released from nucleolar sequestration during mitosis. Plays an essential in coordinating the nuclear division cycle with cytokinesis through the cytokinesis checkpoint. Involved in chromosome segregation, where it is required for meiosis I spindle dissambly as well as for establishing two consecutive chromosome segregation phases. Allows damaged actomyosin rings to be maintained to facilitate completion of cell division in response to minor perturbation of the cell division machinery. Inhibits transcription of ribosomal genes (rDNA) during anaphase and controls segregation of nucleolus by facilitating condensin targeting to rDNA chromatin in anaphase. Dephosphorylates SIC1, a CDC28 inhibitor, and SWI5, a transcription factor for SIC1, and induces degradation ...
5-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKAA1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ser/thr protein kinase family. It is the catalytic subunit of the 5-prime-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a cellular energy sensor conserved in all eukaryotic cells. The kinase activity of AMPK is activated by the stimuli that increase the cellular AMP/ATP ratio. AMPK regulates the activities of a number of key metabolic enzymes through phosphorylation. It protects cells from stresses that cause ATP depletion by switching off ATP-consuming biosynthetic pathways. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. Protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with TSC2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000132356 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000050697 - Ensembl, May ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of cGMP-Dependent protein kinase anchoring proteins (GKAPs). AU - Vo, Ngan. AU - Gettemy, Jessica M.. AU - Coghlan, Vincent M.. PY - 1998/5/29. Y1 - 1998/5/29. N2 - To promote both efficiency and selectivity, many protein kinases and phosphatases are maintained in specific subcellular microenvironments through their association with anchoring proteins. In this study, we describe a new class of proteins, called GKAPS, that specifically bind the Type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). GKAPs were detected in rat aorta, brain, and intestine using a protein overlay technique. The PKG binding proteins were distinct from AKAPs, proteins known to bind the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Furthermore, a synthetic peptide that blocks association of PKA with AKAPs did not affect the PKG-GKAP interaction. Deletion mutagenesis was used to map the GKAP binding determinants within PKG to the N-terminal regulatory ...
Read "Direct interactions of ABA-insensitive(ABI)-clade protein phosphatase(PP)2Cs with calcium-dependent protein kinases and ABA response element-binding bZIPs may contribute to turning off ABA response, Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amphetamine activate protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase via NMDA receptor in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. AU - Wu, Hsueh-Hsia. AU - Lee, Horng-Mo. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. M3 - Article. VL - 1. SP - 12. EP - 19. JO - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. JF - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. SN - 1562-4242. ER - ...
Phosphorylation of the C terminus of c-Fos has been implicated in serum response element-mediated repression of c-fos transcription after its induction by serum growth factors. The growth-regulated enzymes responsible for this phosphorylation in early G1 phase of the cell cycle and the sites of phosphorylation have not been identified. We now provide evidence that two growth-regulated, nucleus- and cytoplasm-localized protein kinases, 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), contribute to the serum-induced phosphorylation of c-Fos. The major phosphopeptides derived from biosynthetically labeled c-Fos correspond to phosphopeptides generated after phosphorylation of c-Fos in vitro with both RSK and MAP kinase. The phosphorylation sites identified for RSK (Ser-362) and MAP kinase (Ser-374) are in the transrepression domain. Cooperative phosphorylation at these sites by ...
Three genes encoding different Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases have been characterized in the wheat phytopathogenic fungus Stagonospora nodorum. The kinases were identified from the S. nodorum genome sequence on the basis of sequence homology to known Ca2+/calmodulin- dependent protein kinases. Expression analysis determined that each of the kinases was expressed during growth in vitro and also during infection. The onset of sporulation triggered increased transcript levels of each of the kinases, particularly CpkA where an 11-fold increase in expression was observed during sporulation in planta. The role of the kinases was further determined via a reverse genetics approach. The disruption of CpkA affected vegetative growth in vitro and also sporulation. The cpkA strains produced 20-fold less spores on complex media and were unable to sporulate on defined minimal media. Infection ...
immune Uncategorized Dinaciclib (SCH 727965) manufacture, Rabbit polyclonal to NFKBIZ. Activation from the RNA-dependent proteins kinase (PKR) continues to be implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative illnesses. not really mediated by PKR inhibition. Using kinase assays we looked into whether PKRi impacts any other proteins kinase. These analyses proven that PKRi does not Dinaciclib (SCH 727965) manufacture have any major inhibitory influence on pro-apoptotic kinases like the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), the p38 MAP kinases as well as the death-associated proteins kinases (DAPKs), or on additional kinases including c-Raf, MEK1, MKK7 and MKK6. PKRi does, nevertheless, inhibit the experience of particular cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) including CDK2 and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein kinase A-anchoring inhibitor peptides arrest mammalian sperm motility. AU - Vijayaraghavan, Srinivasan. AU - Goueli, Said A.. AU - Davey, Michael. AU - Carr, Daniel. PY - 1997/2/21. Y1 - 1997/2/21. N2 - Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is anchored at specific subcellular sites through the interaction of the regulatory subunit (R) with protein kinase A-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) via an amphipathic helix binding motif. Synthetic peptides containing this amphipathic helix domain competitively disrupt PKA binding to AKAPs and cause a loss of PKA modulation of cellular responses. In this report we use S-Ht31, a cell-permeant anchoring inhibitor peptide, to study the role of PKA anchoring in sperm. Our analysis of three species of mammalian sperm detected three isoforms of PKA (RIIα, RIIβ, and RIβ) and one 110-kDa AKAP. The addition of S-Ht31 to bovine caudal epididymal sperm inhibits motility in a time- and concentration-dependent ...
The results of the present study identify the ERK 1/2 MAP kinase as being responsible for phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser116 in endothelial cells under basal conditions. Ser116 phosphorylation has been shown previously by Kou et al to be reduced by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor calphostin C, implicating PKC as a mediator of this specific phosphorylation reaction.21 However, Shaw and colleagues22,23 have recently shown that the AGC kinases (protein kinase A, protein kinase G, and PKC), as well as the calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, cannot phosphorylate serines or threonines in protein substrates containing a proline at the P+1 position. Proline at P+1 is thus a "veto residue" that precludes phosphorylation by AGC and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. This feature of proline-directed phosphorylation provides very tight control in preventing reciprocal substrate specificity ...
Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) play fundamental roles in bacterial survival and pathogenesis and have been proposed as targets for the development of novel classes of antibiotics. A new coupled assay was developed and applied to analyse the kinetic mechanisms of three new kinds of inhibitors of TCS function. The assay exploits the biochemical properties of the cognate HpkA-DrrA histidine kinase-response regulator pair from Thermotoga maritima and allows multiple turnovers of HpkA, linear formation of phosphorylated DrrA, and Michaelis-Menten analysis of inhibitors. The assay was validated in several ways, including confirmation of competitive inhibition by adenosine 5′-β,γ-imidotriphosphate (AMP-PNP). The coupled assay, autophosphorylation and chemical cross-linking were used to determine the mechanisms by which several compounds inhibit TCS function. A cyanoacetoacetamide showed non-competitive inhibition with respect to ATP concentration in the coupled assay. The
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein kinase C regulates the tonic but not the phasic component of contraction in guinea-pig ileum. AU - Sasaguri, T.. AU - Watson, S. P.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. N2 - We have investigated the effect of phorbol esters and the down-regulation of protein kinase C on contraction of guinea-pig ileum longitudinal smooth muscle to carbachol and high K+. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) enhanced the phasic component and inhibited or enhanced, respectively, the tonic component of contraction to carbachol and high K+. In contrast, 4α-phorbol, which does not activate protein kinase C, had no effect on these responses. Exposure to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 1 μM) for up to 8 h induced a time-dependent loss of [3H]-PDBu binding sites, consistent with the down-regulation of protein kinase C by this treatment. The phasic component of contraction to carbachol or high K+ was unaffected following the down-regulation of ...
Clinical malaria is associated with the proliferation of Plasmodium parasites in human erythrocytes. The coordinated processes of parasite egress from and invasion into erythrocytes are rapid and tightly regulated. We have found that the plant-like calcium-dependent protein kinase PfCDPK5, which is expressed in invasive merozoite forms of Plasmodium falciparum, was critical for egress. Parasites deficient in PfCDPK5 arrested as mature schizonts with intact membranes, despite normal maturation of egress proteases and invasion ligands. Merozoites physically released from stalled schizonts were capable of invading new erythrocytes, separating the pathways of egress and invasion. The arrest was downstream of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (PfPKG) function and independent of protease processing. Thus, PfCDPK5 plays an essential role during the blood stage of malaria replication ...
Stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) are stimulated by cell damaging agents as well as by physiological receptor agonists. In this study we show that human platelets contain the isoforms SAPK2a, SAPK2b, SAPK3 and SAPK4 as determined by immunoblotting with specific antibodies. All four kinases were activated in thrombin-stimulated platelets whereas only SAPK2a and SAPK2b were significantly stimulated by collagen. All four isoforms were able to phosphorylate wild-type human cPLA2in vitro, although to different extents, but not cPLA2 mutants that had Ser505 replaced by alanine. Phosphorylation at Ser505 was confirmed by phosphopeptide mapping using microbore HPLC. SAPK2a and 42-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase incorporated similar levels of phosphate into cPLA2 relative to the ability of each kinase to stimulate phosphorylation of myelin basic protein. SAPK2b and SAPK4 incorporated less phosphate, and cPLA2 was a poor substrate for ...
The expression and phosphorylation state of VASP was investigated in neutrophils during cell adherence. Adhesion is an essential process for neutrophil migration from the peripheral blood to sites of inflammation. During the process of adhesion, neutrophils adhere and spread without any clear stopping point between these two processes. Therefore, it was important to determine whether VASP was phosphorylated in response to signals involved in adhesion and/or spreading. In this report, we demonstrate that VASP is a target for cGK regulation of neutrophil spreading. We showed that VASP was in its dephosphorylated form in retracted round neutrophils and was rapidly phosphorylated by cGK at the onset of cell spreading. Both adherence and the onset of cell spreading induced significant elevations of cGMP in neutrophils. When neutrophils were incubated with 8-Br-cGMP, a direct activator of cGK, cells became more polarized in suspension, and spread more rapidly during adhesion. Our observations that ...
The DNA replication checkpoint is a complex signal transduction pathway, present in all eukaryotic cells, that functions to maintain genomic integrity and cell viability when DNA replication is perturbed. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe the major effector of the replication checkpoint is the protein kinase Cds1. Activation of Cds1 is known to require the upstream kinase Rad3 and the mediator Mrc1, but the biochemical mechanism of activation is not well understood. We report that the replication checkpoint is activated in two stages. In the first stage, Mrc1 recruits Cds1 to stalled replication forks by interactions between the FHA domain of Cds1 and specific phosphorylated Rad3 consensus sites in Mrc1. Cds1 is then primed for activation by Rad3-dependent phosphorylation. In the second stage, primed Cds1 molecules dimerize via phospho-specific interactions mediated by the FHA domains and are activated by autophosphorylation. This two-stage activation mechanism for the ...
AMP/ATP-binding subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Gamma non-catalytic subunit mediates binding to AMP, ADP and ATP, leading to activate or inhibit AMPK: AMP-binding results in allosteric activation of alpha catalytic subunit (PRKAA1 or PRKAA2) both by inducing phosphorylation and preventing dephosphorylation of catalytic subunits. ADP also stimulates phosphorylation, without ...
A mechanism by which β2-adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) stimulate signaling is transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a cardioprotective signaling pathway that requires the formation of a β2AR-EGFR complex and the activation of Src. We have shown that β2AR internalization requires phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) through both its lipid kinase and protein kinase activities. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the lipid kinase activity of PI3K mediates β2AR-EGFR complex formation, while the protein kinase activity of PI3K phosphorylates Src. PI3K kinase mutants with lipid kinase and/or protein kinase activity, and PI3K inhibitors were used in co-immunoprecipitation and FRET experiments to study the role of PI3K on β2AR-EGFR complex formation. To identify putative Src phosphorylation sites, HEK-293 cells expressing hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged Src and ...
Video articles in JoVE about catalytic domain include The Multifaceted Benefits of Protein Co-expression in Escherichia coli, Using Scaffold Liposomes to Reconstitute Lipid-proximal Protein-protein Interactions In Vitro, Quantitative FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer) Analysis for SENP1 Protease Kinetics Determination, An Engineered Split-TET2 Enzyme for Chemical-inducible DNA Hydroxymethylation and Epigenetic Remodeling, Expression of Recombinant Cellulase Cel5A from Trichoderma reesei in Tobacco Plants, A Fluorescence-based Exonuclease Assay to Characterize DmWRNexo, Orthologue of Human Progeroid WRN Exonuclease, and Its Application to Other Nucleases, Quantification of Bacterial Histidine Kinase Autophosphorylation Using a Nitrocellulose Binding Assay, Specificity Analysis of Protein Lysine Methyltransferases Using SPOT Peptide Arrays, Split-BioID - Proteomic Analysis of Context-specific Protein Complexes in Their Native Cellular Environment, A Protocol for Analyzing
Mouse FT210 cells at 39 degreesC cannot enter mitosis but arrest in G2 phase, because they lack Cdc2 kinase activity as a result of a temperature-sensitive lesion in the cdc2 gene. Incubation of arrested cells with the protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitor okadaic acid induces morphologically normal chromosome condensation. We now show that okadaic acid also induces two other landmark events of early mitosis, nuclear lamina depolymerization and centrosome separation, in the absence of Cdc2 kinase activity. Okadaic acid-induced entry into mitosis is accompanied by partial activation of Cdc25C and may be prevented by tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors and by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine, suggesting that Cdc25C and kinases distinct from ...
Non-catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Beta non-catalytic subunit acts as a scaffold on which the AMPK complex assembles, via its C-terminus that bridges alpha (PRKAA1 or PRKAA2) and gamma subunits (PRKAG1, PRKAG2 or PRKAG3) (By similarity).
O receptor LRR-RLK (Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase), designado NIK1 (NSP-interacting kinases), está envolvido na resposta imunológica em plantas contra Germinivirus. NIK1 foi inicialmente descrito por interagir com a proteína viral NSP (nuclear shuttle protein), proteína que participa do transporte de DNA viral do núcleo para o citoplasma de células infectadas. Com alta similaridade estrutural a NIK1, BAK1 (Brassinosteroid Insensitive Associated Kinase1), também conhecida como SERK3 (Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase3), é um receptor LRR-RLK de membrana que desempenha um duplo papel em vias de sinalização, podendo atuar como um coreceptor de BRI1 na presença de BR ou mediar respostas de defesa contra patógenos. Na via de crescimento desencadeada por brassinosteróides (BRs), BAK1 interage com BRI1 (Brassinosteroid-insensitive1) na membrana plasmática e ativa a função de cinase desta proteína. Recentemente, através de dados de ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorylation of MYPT1 by protein kinase C attenuates interaction with PP1 catalytic subunit and the 20 kDa light chain of myosin. AU - Tóth, Attila. AU - Kiss, Enikö. AU - Gergely, P.. AU - Walsh, Michael P.. AU - Hartshorne, David J.. AU - Erdődi, F.. PY - 2000/11/3. Y1 - 2000/11/3. N2 - The effect of phosphorylation in the N-terminal region of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) on the interactions with protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit (PP1c) and with phosphorylated 20 kDa myosin light chain (P-MLC20) was studied. Protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylated threonine-34 (1 mol/mol), the residue preceding the consensus PP1c-binding motif (35KVKF38) in MYPT11-38, but this did not affect binding of the peptide to PP1c. PKC incorporated 2 mol P(i) into MYPT11-296 suggesting a second site of phosphorylation within the ankyrin repeats (residues 40-296). This phosphorylation diminished the stimulatory effect of MYPT11-296 on the P-MLC20 phosphatase ...
Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a ubiquitously expressed phosphoprotein involved in many cellular processes. Phosphorylation is considered the major regulatory mechanism of the NPM protein, associated with diverse cellular events. In this study, we characterized the phosphorylation status of several physiological phosphorylation sites of NPM, especially the newly confirmed
Circadian rhythms are daily cycles of activity that have been demonstrated in many organisms including bacteria, fungi, insects, plants, and mammals. A clock system is composed of three parts: the input pathway, the central oscillator, and the output pathway. The input pathway takes temporal and environmental signals and transfers that information to the central oscillator, which contains the core components of the clock, to synchronize the endogenous clock with the environment. Temporal cues are then sent through output pathways to control certain cell processes. The CikA (circadian input kinase) protein is an integral part of the input pathway because a cikA mutant cannot reset its circadian rhythm in response to dark pulses. CikA contains a histidine protein kinase (HPK) domain, which suggests that CikA is part of a bacterial two-component signal transduction system in which CikA autophosphorylates in response to a signal and transfers that phosphate to a putative partner ...
Recombinant Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV (CAMK4) Protein (His tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Jetzt Produkt ABIN668012 bestellen.
Maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is dependent upon a balance between anabolic and catabolic processes and signaling through the Akt (protein kinase B, PKB)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway is believed to influence protein synthesis as well as protein degradation in skeletal muscle [1 - 3]. The Akt family consists of three different isoforms, Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3 (PKBα, β, γ) encoded by separate genes [4]. Gene deletion studies have indicated a role for both Akt1 and Akt2 in growth and skeletal muscle size [5] and overexpression of Akt1 has been shown to result in skeletal muscle hypertrophy [6]. Akt activity is regulated by phosphorylation both at a threonine site (T308 for Akt1) located in the central catalytic domain (see e.g. [4,7]) and at a serine site (S473 for Akt1) located in the C-terminal hydrophobic regulatory domain (see e.g. [4,8]). Phosphorylations of both sites are believed to be necessary for full activation of Akt kinase activity [9] although ...
MAP kinases are key mediators of cellular differentiation and proliferation in all animals, and they function in receptor tyrosine kinase/Ras signaling pathways (reviewed in Marshall 1994). MAP kinase plays an important role in the Ras signaling pathway because it can activate downstream substrates that directly mediate the cellular response to growth factors, suggesting that MAP kinase acts near or at the end of this signaling pathway (reviewed in Treisman 1996).. MAP kinases are activated when they become phosphorylated by the protein kinase MEK (MAP or ERK kinase; Adams and Parker 1992; Crewset al. 1992b). The major known substrate for MEK is currently MAP kinase, suggesting that the predominant function of MEK may be to activate MAP kinase (Segeret al. 1992). Once activated, a significant fraction of MAP kinase molecules translocate to ...
Casein Kinase I Isoform Delta (Tau Protein Kinase CSNK1D or CKI Delta or CSNK1D or EC 2.7.11.1 or EC 2.7.11.26) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016 - Market research report and industry analysis - 10293155
TY - JOUR. T1 - Undamaged DNA transmits and enhances DNA damage checkpoint signals in early embryos. AU - Peng, Aimin. AU - Lewellyn, Andrea L.. AU - Maller, James L.. PY - 2007/10/1. Y1 - 2007/10/1. N2 - In Xenopus laevis embryos, the midblastula transition (MBT) at the 12th cell division marks initiation of critical developmental events, including zygotic transcription and the abrupt inclusion of gap phases into the cell cycle. Interestingly, although an ionizing radiation-induced checkpoint response is absent in pre-MBT embryos, introduction of a threshold amount of undamaged plasmid or sperm DNA allows a DNA damage checkpoint response to be activated. We show here that undamaged threshold DNA directly participates in checkpoint signaling, as judged by several dynamic changes, including H2AX phosphorylation, ATM phosphorylation and loading onto chromatin, and Chk1, Chk2 phosphorylation and release from nuclear DNA. These responses on physically separate threshold DNA require γ-H2AX and are ...
The regulation of the guinea-pig pancreatic acinar plasma membrane Ca2+ pump by protein kinase A, protein kinase C and calmodulin was investigated. The results were compared with the effects of these regulators on the high affinity Ca2+-ATPase found in this membrane preparation. The catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase stimulated Ca2+ transport 2-fold, but had no effect on Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity. Purified protein kinase C, the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate and diacylglycerol derivative, 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol, failed to stimulate the Ca2+-uptake but augmented the Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity. Exogenously added calmodulin failed to stimulate either activity. In addition, two antagonists of calmodulin activity, trifluoperazine and compound 48/80 produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of Ca2+-transport. These data suggest the presence of endogenous calmodulin within ...
Specific mutants were developed to evaluate the roles of several residues in [Alpha]8 helix of the regulatory (R) domain of human pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDHK2) in the linkage between the Regulatory (R) and catalytic (Cat) domain (Q144A), dichloroacetate (DCA)/pyruvate inhibition (R154C, R158A, I157F) and stimulation by reductive acetylation (L160A, R154C/L160A). All mutants, with the exception of L160A, were active, and were bound to and had their activities enhanced by dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2). The cross arms between subunits are anchored by W383. Based on the studies on the W383F mutant, W383 provided majority of the intrinsic Trp fluorescence; and ligand(s) binding quenched primarily (pyruvate) or exclusively (ADP or ATP) the fluorescence of W383. The Q144 mutation in the R domain caused 14-fold weaker K[superscript]+ binding with ATP in the Cat domain but did not alter the weaker K[superscript]+ binding with ADP unless Pi was included. Similarly, with 100 mM ...
Living organisms rely on many different mechanisms to adapt to changes within their environment. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events are one such way cells can communicate to generate a response to environmental changes. In the Kennelly laboratory we hope to gain insight on phosphorylation events in the domain Archaea through the study of the acidothermophilic organism Sulfolobus solfataricus. Such findings may provide answers into evolutionary relationships and facilitate an understanding of phosphate transfer via proteins in more elaborate systems where pathway disturbances can lead to disease processes. A λ-phage expression library was generated from S. solfataricus genomic DNA. The immobilized expression products were probed with a purified protein kinase, SsoPK4, and radiolabeled ATP to identify potential native substrates. A protein fragment of the ORF sso0563, the catalytic A-type ATPase subunit A (AtpA), was phosphorylated by SsoPK4. Full length and truncated forms ...
A tetracycline-regulated reporter system was used to investigate the regulation of cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) mRNA stability by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 signaling cascade. The stable beta-globin mRNA was rendered unstable by insertion of the 2, 500-nucleotide Cox-2 3 untranslated region (3 UTR). The chimeric transcript was stabilized by a constitutively active form of MAPK kinase 6, an activator of p38. This stabilization was blocked by SB203580, an inhibitor of p38, and by two different dominant negative forms of MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK-2), a kinase lying downstream of p38. Constitutively active MAPKAPK-2 was also able to stabilize chimeric beta-globin-Cox-2 transcripts. The MAPKAPK-2 substrate hsp27 may be involved in stabilization, as beta-globin-Cox-2 transcripts were partially stabilized by phosphomimetic mutant forms of hsp27. A short (123-nucleotide) fragment of the Cox-2 3 UTR was necessary and ...
The IPL1 gene is required for high-fidelity chromosome segregation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conditional ipl1ts mutants missegregate chromosomes severely at 37 degrees C. Here, we report that IPL1 encodes an essential putative protein kinase whose function is required during the later part of each cell cycle. At 26 degrees C, the permissive growth temperature, ipl1 mutant cells are defective in the recovery from a transient G2/M-phase arrest caused by the antimicrotubule drug nocodazole. In an effort to identify additional gene products that participate with the Ipl1 protein kinase in regulating chromosome segregation in yeast, a truncated version of the previously identified DIS2S1/GLC7 gene was isolated as a dosage-dependent suppressor of ipl1ts mutations. DIS2S1/GLC7 is predicted to encode a catalytic subunit (PP1C) of type 1 protein phosphatase. Overexpression of the full-length DIS2S1/GLC7 gene results in chromosome missegregation in wild-type cells ...
Catalytic domain of the Protein Serine/Threonine Kinase, MAP/ERK kinase kinase 3. Serine/threonine kinases (STKs), MAP/ERK kinase kinase 3 (MEKK3) subfamily, catalytic (c) domain. STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. The MEKK3 subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. MEKK3 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MKKK or MAP3K), that phosphorylates and activates the MAPK kinase MEK5 (or MKK5), which in turn phosphorylates and activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel protein kinase C (PKCε) is required for fMet-Leu-Phe-induced activation of NF-κB in human peripheral blood monocytes. AU - Chen, Ling Yu. AU - Doerner, Astrid. AU - Lehmann, Paul F.. AU - Huang, Shuang. AU - Zhong, Guangming. AU - Pan, Zhixing K.. PY - 2005/6/10. Y1 - 2005/6/10. N2 - We have reported that the chemoattractant, fMet-Leu-Phe (fMLP), induces the activation of NF-κB in human peripheral blood monocytes and that this requires the activity of small GTPase, RhoA (Huang, S., Chen, L.-Y., Zuraw, B. L., Ye, R. D., and Pan, Z. K. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 40977-40981). Here we showed that the novel protein kinase C isozyme, PKCε, associates functionally with RhoA in fMLP-stimulated monocytes and that PKCε acted as a signaling component downstream of the GTPase RhoA during fMLP-induced activation of NF-κB. Stimulation of monocytes with fMLP resulted in activation of both PKCε and NF-κB. This latter activation was largely blocked by specific ...
Mouse eggs are ovulated following arrest at metaphase of the second meiotic division (metII). Fertilization breaks this arrest, with the egg extruding a second polar body (PB2) and forming pronuclei. Ca2+ spikes induced by phospholipase C zeta, which are introduced into the egg on gamete fusion, are responsible for causing the degradation of Erp1/Emi2 (Fbxo43 - Mouse Genome Informatics) (Ducibella and Fissore, 2008; Jones, 2005; Mehlmann, 2005; Swann et al., 2006). Erp1/Emi2 loss activates the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) and so drives exit from meiosis (Madgwick et al., 2006; Shoji et al., 2006).. In frog eggs, the Ca2+ fertilization signal switches on calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamKII; Camk2), which phosphorylates Erp1/Emi2 and so promotes its degradation (Liu and Maller, 2005; Rauh et al., 2005; Schmidt et al., 2005). Consistent with this more recent development in the understanding of the molecular events of activation, it had been discovered several years previously, ...
1. Raman M, Chen W, Cobb M.H. Differential regulation and properties of MAPKs. Oncogene. 2007;26(22):3100 2. Iñesta-Vaquera F, Sabio G, Kuma Y, Cuenda A. Alternative p38 Pathways MAPK. Stress-Activated Protein Kinases. Heidelberg: Springer Berlin. 2008:17 3. Adams R.H. et al. Essential role of p38alpha MAP kinase in placental but not embryonic cardiovascular development. Mol Cell. 2000;6(1):109 4. Allen M. et al. Deficiency of the stress kinase p38alpha results in embryonic lethality: characterization of the kinase dependence of stress responses of enzyme-deficient embryonic stem cells. J Exp Med. 2000;191(5):859 5. Mudgett J.S. et al. Essential role for p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase in placental angiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97(19):10454 6. Tamura K. et al. Requirement for p38alpha in erythropoietin expression: a role for stress kinases in erythropoiesis. Cell. 2000;102(2):221 7. ...
Growth factors and various cellular stresses are known to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, which plays a role in conveying signals from the cytosol to the nucleus. The phosphorylation of MAP kinase is thought to be a prerequisite for translocation. Here, we investigate the translocation and activation of MAP kinase during ischaemia and reperfusion in perfused rat heart. Ischaemia (0-40 min) induces the translocation of MAP kinase from the cytosol fraction to the nuclear fraction. Immunohistochemical observation shows that MAP kinase staining in the nucleus is enhanced after ischaemia for 40 min. Unexpectedly, tyrosine phosphorylation of MAP kinase is unchanged in the nuclear fraction during ischaemia, indicating that unphosphorylated MAP kinase translocates from the cytosol to the nucleus. During reperfusion (0-30 min), after ischaemia for 20 min, tyrosine phosphorylation of ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-triggered protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2) mediates multiple p38 MAPK-dependent inflammatory responses. at Ser-58. Computational modeling and calculation of theoretical binding energies predicted that both phosphorylation at Ser-58 and mutation of Ser-58 to Asp (S58D) jeopardized the ability of 14-3-3 to dimerize. Experimentally, S58D mutation significantly impaired both 14-3-3 dimerization and binding to Raf-1. These data suggest that MAPKAPK2-mediated phosphorylation regulates 14-3-3 functions, and this MAPKAPK2 activity may symbolize a novel pathway mediating p38 MAPK-dependent swelling. A diverse group of cellular responses are elicited by activation of a highly conserved family of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, which includes extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), ERK5, and p38 MAPKs. A large body of evidence shows ...
Tight coupling between cytosolic and mitochondrial metabolism is key for GSIS (glucose-stimulated insulin secretion). In the present study we examined the regulatory contribution of PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase) kinase 1, a negative regulator of PDH, to metabolic coupling in 832/13 clonal beta-cells. Knockdown of PDH kinase 1 with siRNA (small interfering RNA) reduced its mRNA (,80 %) and protein level (,40 %) after 72 h. PDH activity, glucose-stimulated cellular oxygen consumption and pyruvate-stimulated mitochondrial oxygen consumption increased 1.7- (P , 0.05), 1.6- (P , 0.05) and 1.6-fold (P , 0.05) respectively. Gas chromatography/MS revealed an altered metabolite profile upon silencing of PDH kinase 1, determined by increased levels of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates malate, fumarate and alpha-ketoglutarate. These metabolic alterations were associated with exaggerated GSIS (5-fold compared with 3.1-fold in control cells; P , 0.01). Insulin ...
Thesis lecture: Mitosis exit regulation by Cdc5 and PP2A-Cdc55. By Yolanda Moyano Rodriguez. Directed by Dr. Ethel Queralt. 28/11/2019 at 10:30 am. Campus del Mar (UPF). Room 61.310-12. ...
... is a member of the CDC25 family of phosphatases. CDC25A is required for progression from G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle. It activates the cyclin-dependent kinase CDC2 by removing two phosphate groups. CDC25A is specifically degraded in response to DNA damage, which prevents cells with chromosomal abnormalities from progressing through cell division. CDC25A is an oncogene, although its exact role in oncogenesis has not been demonstrated. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Background In represents the weights for input edges from node to node at any time +?1 represents the next time point. the basin size of the largest attractor remained unchanged (Number ?(Figure4D).4D). Consequently, the em C. elegans /em early embryonic cell cycles network possessed a high homeostatic stability because the basin size of the largest attractor would not change significantly under perturbations [23]. Such high robustness of the em C. elegans /em early embryonic cell cycle network was due to the topological structure (nodes and edges) of the regulatory network. Open in a separate window Number 4 The histogram of the relative changes of basin size. The switch of the largest attractors basin size under several network perturbations: (A) deletion, (B) addition, (C) switching and (D) average of A to C. The histogram is definitely RepSox reversible enzyme inhibition generated in the em C. elegans /em network and 1000 same size arbitrary systems. P may be the possibility of em B /em / ...
This gene encodes a member of the p34Cdc2 protein kinase family. p34Cdc2 kinase family members are known to be essential for eukaryotic cell cycle control. This gene is in close proximity to CDC2L2, a nearly identical gene in the same chromosomal region. The gene loci including this gene, CDC2L2, as well as metalloprotease MMP21/22, consist of two identical, tandemly linked genomic regions which are thought to be a part of the larger region that has been duplicated. This gene and CDC2L2 were shown to be deleted or altered frequently in neuroblastoma with amplified MYCN genes. The protein kinase encoded by this gene could be cleaved by caspases and was demonstrated to play roles in cell apoptosis. Several alternatively spliced variants of this gene have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Bongki Cho, Hyo Min Cho, Hyun Jung Kim, Jaehoon Jeong, Sang Ki Park, Eun Mi Hwang, Jae-Yong Park, Woon Ryoung Kim, Hyun Kim, Woong Sun].
References for Abcams Recombinant Human CDC42 protein (ab87713). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Cells depleted of Plk or cdc5-1 protein arrest at multiple points of M phase. (A) Growth of cdc5Δ mutant conditionally rescued by expressing either GAL1-HA-EGF
Dephosphorylation of the Cdc2 kinase by the Cdc25 tyrosine phosphatase is the universally conserved trigger for mitotic entry. Cdc25 is also the point of convergence for checkpoint signaling pathways which monitor the ...
Information on what to do if you have been exposed to TB, and links for patients and health care providers. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
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From Cdc2 to Cdk1: when did the cell cycle kinase join its cyclin partner? | Journal of Cell ScienceFrom Cdc2 to Cdk1: when did the cell cycle kinase join its cyclin partner? | Journal of Cell Science

... identified by complementation of a cdc28 mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a homolog of Xenopus Eg1. EMBO J. 10, 2653 - ... kinases that are associated with cyclins would be called `cyclin-dependent kinases, or CDKs. And so Cdc2 became Cdk1... ... This suggested that cyclins could be subunits of Cdc2 kinase, even though Cdc2 retained H1 kinase activity at the restrictive ... Since Cdc2 appeared to be a component of Xenopus MPF, Arion et al. suggested that Cdc2 kinase and MPF could be the same entity ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/115/12/2461.long

Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 - WikipediaCyclin-dependent kinase 1 - Wikipedia

The human homolog of Cdk1, CDC2, shares approximately 63% amino-acid identity with its yeast homolog. Furthermore, human CDC2 ... Cdk1 is comprised mostly by the bare protein kinase motif, which other protein kinases share. Cdk1, like other kinases, ... where it is encoded by genes cdc28 and cdc2, respectively. In humans, Cdk1 is encoded by the CDC2 gene. With its cyclin ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclin-dependent_kinase_1

Community Academic Profiles - Faculty & Researchers - Stanford MedicineCommunity Academic Profiles - Faculty & Researchers - Stanford Medicine

The yeast Cdc2/CDC28 PSTAIRE kinase and its orthologs such as the mammalian Cdk1 have been found to be indispensable for cell- ... the plant homolog of the yeast and animal Cdc2?/Cdk1 kinases. Our data show that the principle of a double negative wiring of ... CDKA;1 is the only PSTAIRE kinase in the flowering plant Arabidopsis and can rescue Cdc2/CDC28 mutants. Here, we show that cdka ... Aurora kinases are evolutionarily conserved key mitotic determinants in all eukaryotes. Yeasts contain a single Aurora kinase, ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/pathology/annika-weimer

Modulation of plant growth in vivo and identification of kinase substrates using an analog-sensitive variant of CYCLIN...Modulation of plant growth in vivo and identification of kinase substrates using an analog-sensitive variant of CYCLIN...

... the central cell-cycle regulator in Arabidopsis and homolog of the yeast Cdc2/CDC28 kinases. This variant could largely rescue ... Applying bulky kinase inhibitors allowed the reduction of kinase activity in an organismic context in vivo and the modulation ... 1 version is functional and represent a novel tool to modulate kinase activity in vivo and identify kinase substrates. Our here ... Thus, identification of kinase substrates is pivotal for the understanding of many - if not all - molecular biological ...
more infohttps://bmcplantbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12870-016-0900-7

CKS1B - WikipediaCKS1B - Wikipedia

"Entrez Gene: CKS1B CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B". Harper, J.W. 2001. Protein destruction: Adapting roles for Cks ... "Human cDNAs encoding homologs of the small p34Cdc28/Cdc2-associated protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces ... Cdk1 expression, which is crucial for M phase entry, is drastically diminished by Cks1 depletion, and that restoration of cdk1 ... Cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CKS1B gene. The CKS1B protein binds ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CKS1B

Sophisticated lessons from simple organisms: appreciating the value of curiosity-driven research | Disease Models & MechanismsSophisticated lessons from simple organisms: appreciating the value of curiosity-driven research | Disease Models & Mechanisms

CDK1 homolog) to continue dividing (Lee and Nurse, 1987). The regulation of CDK1 by inputs from many of the CDC genes governs ... Mutants in CDC28, encoding the major cyclin-dependent kinase, arrest with a small bud, unable to enter a new cell cycle. ... 1987). Complementation used to clone a human homologue of the fission yeast cell cycle control gene cdc2. Nature 327, 31-35. ... which revealed that Ras transmits signals from receptor tyrosine kinases (Simon et al., 1991; similar insights from worms are ...
more infohttp://dmm.biologists.org/content/10/12/1381?rss=1

Interactive Fly, DrosophilaInteractive Fly, Drosophila

... requiring inactivation of cyclin B Cdk1 kinases. Exit from mitosis in yeast involves accumulation of the cyclin kinase ... ste9/srw1 is negatively regulated by cdc2-dependent protein phosphorylation. In G1, when cdc2-cyclin kinase activity is low, ... The first phase of Clb2 destruction, which lowers the Cdc28-Clb2 kinase activity, is a prerequisite for the second. Thus, Clb2 ... EVOLUTIONARY HOMOLOGS. Activation of yeast Fizzy-related homologs. Proteolysis of mitotic cyclins depends on a multisubunit ...
more infohttp://www.sdbonline.org/sites/fly/newgene/fizyrel2.htm

Interactive Fly, DrosophilaInteractive Fly, Drosophila

2000). Exit from mitosis in budding yeast: biphasic inactivation of the Cdc28-Clb2 mitotic kinase and the role of Cdc20. Mol ... Completion of mitosis requires neither fzr/rap nor fzr2, a male germline-specific Drosophila Cdh1 homolog. Proteolysis of ... 2000). Cdk1 is essential for mammalian cyclosome/APC regulation. Exp. Cell Res. 255(2): 184-91. 10694434 Lukas, C., et al. ( ... 2000). APC(ste9/srw1) promotes degradation of mitotic cyclins in G1 and is inhibited by cdc2 phosphorylation. EMBO J. 19(15): ...
more infohttp://www.sdbonline.org/sites/fly/newgene/fizyrel4.htm

Cell Division Cycle | www.antibodies-online.comCell Division Cycle | www.antibodies-online.com

This protein kinase is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit ... MDM2 (Mdm2 P53 Binding Protein Homolog (Mouse)): MDM2 ELISA Kits MDM2 (Mdm2, p53 E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase Homolog (Mouse)): ... Progression from one phase to another is controlled by cyclin dependent kinases (CDK) and their activators, cyclins. Latter ... AURKB - Aurora Kinase B: AURKB antibodies AURKB ELISA Kits AURKB Proteins AURKC - Aurora Kinase C: AURKC antibodies AURKC ELISA ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/cell-division-cycle-pathway-13/

T-Loop Phosphorylation of Arabidopsis CDKA;1 Is Required for Its Function and Can Be Partially Substituted by an Aspartate...T-Loop Phosphorylation of Arabidopsis CDKA;1 Is Required for Its Function and Can Be Partially Substituted by an Aspartate...

Arabidopsis contains one Cdc2+/Cdc28 homolog, designated CDKA;1, that appears to be the main kinase involved at both major ... The Arabidopsis CDKA;1 shares 65, 67, and 62% of its amino acid residues with the human CDK1 (CDC2), the human CDK2, and the ... Previously, it was reported that plant kinases can at least partially rescue a temperature-sensitive cdc2 mutant (Hirayama et ... Together, these data suggest that the Arabidopsis Cdc2+/Cdc28 homolog has similar enzymatic properties as other Cdc2+/Cdc28 ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/19/3/972.long

An interaction between myosin-10 and the cell cycle regulator Wee1 links spindle dynamics to mitotic progression in epithelia |...An interaction between myosin-10 and the cell cycle regulator Wee1 links spindle dynamics to mitotic progression in epithelia |...

Multiple Cdk1 inhibitory kinases regulate the cell cycle during development. Dev. Biol. 249:156-173. doi:10.1006/dbio.2002.0743 ... Negative regulation of mitosis by wee1+, a gene encoding a protein kinase homolog. Cell. 49:559-567. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(87) ... The cdc25 protein controls tyrosine dephosphorylation of the cdc2 protein in a cell-free system. Cell. 64:903-914. doi:10.1016/ ... Phosphorylation by Cdc28 activates the Cdc20-dependent activity of the anaphase-promoting complex. J. Cell Biol. 149:1377-1390. ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/early/2018/01/09/jcb.201708072

A Single-Transformation Gene Function Test in DiploidCandida albicans | Journal of BacteriologyA Single-Transformation Gene Function Test in DiploidCandida albicans | Journal of Bacteriology

Candida albicans CDK1 and CYB1: cDNA homologues of the cdc2/CDC28 and cdc13/CLB1/CLB2 cell cycle control genes.Gene1721996137 ... CDC28 specifies a cyclin-dependent protein kinase, and activity of such kinases is vital for cell cycle progression in all ... A Candida albicans homolog of CDC25 is functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Eur. J. Biochem.2131993195204. ... albicans CDC28 may be essential. Acdc28::UAU1/CDC28 heterozygote produced Ura+ and Arg+ Ura+ segregants at rates comparable to ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/182/20/5730

Regulation of Mih1/Cdc25 by protein phosphatase 2A and casein kinase 1 | JCBRegulation of Mih1/Cdc25 by protein phosphatase 2A and casein kinase 1 | JCB

Cdk1 is required for phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of Mih1. Because Cdk1-Clb2 was identified in the screen for kinases ... The polo-like kinase Plx1 is required for activation of the phosphatase Cdc25c and CyclinB-Cdc2 in Xenopus Oocytes. Mol. Biol. ... Negative regulation of calcineurin signaling by Hrr25p, a yeast homolog of casein kinase I. Genes Dev. 17:2698-2708. ... Cdc28-dependent regulation of the Cdc5/Polo kinase. Curr. Biol. 15:2033-2037. ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/180/5/931

Cyclin-dependent kinase directly regulates initiation of meiotic recombinationCyclin-dependent kinase directly regulates initiation of meiotic recombination

Cellular substrates of p34(Cdc2) and its companion cyclin-dependent kinases. Trends Cell Biol. 1993;3:296-301. [PubMed] ... The cdc28-as1 extract also labeled Mer2 (Figure 3C, lane 4). Because Cdc28-as1 is the only kinase in the extract capable of ... In vitro kinase assay. Recombinant Mer2 protein was expressed in E. coli as a fusion with the yeast SUMO homolog Smt3 ... Targets of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1. Nature. 2003;425:859-864. [PubMed] ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC1950680/?lang=en-ca

Control of Cell Proliferation, Organ Growth, and DNA Damage Response Operate Independently of Dephosphorylation of the...Control of Cell Proliferation, Organ Growth, and DNA Damage Response Operate Independently of Dephosphorylation of the...

Rn Cdc2), GenBank CAA43807.1 (Hs Cdk2), GeneID 852457 (Sc CDC28), GenBank AAP94021.1 (Um Cdk1), GeneID 2539869 (Sp Cdc2+). ... Wee1-like kinases are diversely used in eukaryotes, for example, as a checkpoint kinase versus a mitotic regulator. Therefore, ... including the Cdk1 homolog CDKA;1, which contains as the sole CDK in Arabidopsis the canonical PSTAIRE amino acid motif ... Cdk-1), GeneID 34411 (Dm Cdc2), GeneID 396252 (Gg CDC2), GeneID 983 (Hs Cdk1), GeneID 12534 (Mm Cdc2), GeneID 54237 ( ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/21/11/3641?ijkey=57c689ec81f21a507a0baa5afd910c062acb8381&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Genetic Evidence for Roles of Yeast Mitotic Cyclins at Single-Stranded Gaps Created by DNA Replication | G3: Genes | Genomes |...Genetic Evidence for Roles of Yeast Mitotic Cyclins at Single-Stranded Gaps Created by DNA Replication | G3: Genes | Genomes |...

2002 Cdc2-cyclin B kinase activity links Crb2 and Rqh1-topoisomerase III. Genes Dev. 16: 1195-1208. ... In budding yeast, six B-type cyclins (Clbs) associate with a single Cdk, Cdk1 (Cdc28), to drive S and M phase progression ( ... Of great interest, a recent study in mammals demonstrated that mitotic Cdk1 does indeed regulate WRN (the Sgs1 human homolog) ... 1996 Regulation of RAD53 by the ATM-like kinases MEC1 and TEL1 in yeast cell cycle checkpoint pathways. Science 27: 1357-1360. ...
more infohttp://www.g3journal.org/content/8/2/737

The milk-derived fusion peptide, ACFP, suppresses the growth of primary human ovarian cancer cells by regulating apoptotic gene...The milk-derived fusion peptide, ACFP, suppresses the growth of primary human ovarian cancer cells by regulating apoptotic gene...

CDC25C directs dephosphorylation of cyclin B-bound CDC2 (CDK1) and triggers entry into mitosis [28]. Overexpression of cyclinB1 ... differential roles of protein kinase A and exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP-1. Br J Nutr. 2006;96(3):553-61. ... can lead to uncontrolled cell growth by deregulation binding and activation of cell cycle activating CDK kinases. Binding of ... v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1. 0.29. 0.27. NM_000995 ...
more infohttps://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12885-016-2281-6

FUNCTIONS AND TARGETS OF LET-7 MICRO RNAS - Patent applicationFUNCTIONS AND TARGETS OF LET-7 MICRO RNAS - Patent application

CDC2 CDK1 cell cycle NHL, CRC, (Wolowiec et al., 1999; Egilmez et SCCHN, OepC al., 2001; Chang et al., 2005a; Hansel et al., ... CKS1B CDC28 protein Binds SKP2 and targets it to its substrates, required for ubiquitination of p21 kinase regulatory Cip1 ( ... 198465 Nik related kinase NUMBL NM_004756 numb homolog (Drosophila)-like NUP98 NM_005387 nucleoporin 98 kD isoform 3 NXT2 NM_ ... CDKN2B cyclin-dependent interacts with the D type cyclin dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6, kinase inhibitor inhibits cell ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20090163430

ASMscience | Protein Kinases RegulatiASMscience | Protein Kinases Regulati

... which are composed of a protein kinase catalytic domain fused to a calcium-binding domain. ... Progression through the cell cycle phases is controlled by the cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs). These enzymes ... Phosphorylation of Cdc28 and regulation of cell size by the protein kinase CKII in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem. J. 351: ... Pfcrk-1, a developmentally regulated cdc2-related protein kinase of Plasmodium falciparum. Mol. Biochem.Parasitol. 70:167-174. ...
more infohttp://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555817558.chap15

Aperçu des produits pour CLK3 kit ELISAAperçu des produits pour CLK3 kit ELISA

dual specificity protein kinase CLK3 , cdc2/CDC28-like protein kinase 3 , CDC like kinase 3 ... Cdc2 (Montrer CDK1 Kits ELISA)-like kinases and DNA topoisomerase I (Montrer TOP1 Kits ELISA) regulate alternative splicing of ... ClpB Caseinolytic Peptidase B Homolog (E. Coli) Kits ELISA * ClpP Caseinolytic Peptidase, ATP-Dependent, Proteolytic Subunit ... CLK3 encodes a protein belonging to the serine/threonine type protein kinase family. De plus, nous expédions CLK3 Anticorps (60 ...
more infohttps://www.anticorps-enligne.fr/abstract/CLK3+

CCNYL1, but Not CCNY, Cooperates with CDK16 to Regulate Spermatogenesis in Mouse | proLékaře.czCCNYL1, but Not CCNY, Cooperates with CDK16 to Regulate Spermatogenesis in Mouse | proLékaře.cz

PCTAIRE-1 and PCTAIRE-3, two members of a novel cdc2/CDC28-related protein kinase gene family. Oncogene. 1992;7(11):2249-58. ... Activation of the various cyclin/cdc2 protein kinases. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1993;5(2):180-6. 8507489 ... which is regulated by the Ccnyl1 homolog Ccny, but found no differences between Ccnyl1-/- and WT testes (S5F Fig). These lines ... which is required to activate CDK1, and consequently influence the cell cycle [1]. However, some Cyclins and CDKs do not ...
more infohttps://www.prolekare.cz/casopisy/plos-genetics/2015-8/ccnyl1-but-not-ccny-cooperates-with-cdk16-to-regulate-spermatogenesis-in-mouse-55059

ASMscience | Fungal Cell Cycle: A Unicellular versus Multicellular ComparisonASMscience | Fungal Cell Cycle: A Unicellular versus Multicellular Comparison

Roles and regulation of Cln-Cdc28 kinases at the start of the cell cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J 14:4803-4813. [ ... Tyrosine phosphorylation of the fission yeast cdc2+ protein kinase regulates entry into mitosis. Nature 342:39-45. http://dx. ... Regulation of hyphal morphogenesis and the DNA damage response by the Aspergillus nidulans ATM homolog AtmA. Genetics 173:99- ... Hct1 binds the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), and this complex marks Cdk1 for degradation. These events cause the cell to ...
more infohttp://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0025-2016

The plant‐specific CDKB1‐CYCB1 complex mediates homologous recombination repair in Arabidopsis | The EMBO JournalThe plant‐specific CDKB1‐CYCB1 complex mediates homologous recombination repair in Arabidopsis | The EMBO Journal

... no homologs of Chk2 or its sister kinase Chk1 could be found in plants to date. Furthermore, even though a homolog of the yeast ... Enserink JM, Hombauer H, Huang ME, Kolodner RD (2009) Cdc28/Cdk1 positively and negatively affects genome stability in S. ... Malumbres M, Harlow E, Hunt T, Hunter T, Lahti JM, Manning G, Morgan DO, Tsai LH, Wolgemuth DJ (2009) Cyclin‐dependent kinases ... Ongkeko W, Ferguson DJ, Harris AL, Norbury C (1995) Inactivation of Cdc2 increases the level of apoptosis induced by DNA damage ...
more infohttp://d2ni3bh4dzb2ig.cloudfront.net/content/35/19/2068

A Peek into the Complex Realm of Histone Phosphorylation | Molecular and Cellular BiologyA Peek into the Complex Realm of Histone Phosphorylation | Molecular and Cellular Biology

Mammalian growth-associated H1 histone kinase: a homolog of cdc2+/CDC28 protein kinases controlling mitotic entry in yeast and ... like cyclin B1 and Cdk1, and subsequent reduced acetylation of H3 Lys9. Deacetylation of H3 at these promoters results in ... kinase B), the late-interphase-specific p34CDC2/cyclin A (kinase A), the mitotic p34CDC2/cyclin B (kinase C), and the p34CDC2/ ... including the serine/threonine protein kinase Chk1, protein kinase C-related kinase 1 (PRK1), and Dlk/Zip kinases (90, 99, 112 ...
more infohttps://mcb.asm.org/content/31/24/4858

CKS1B Gene - GeneCards | CKS1 Protein | CKS1 AntibodyCKS1B Gene - GeneCards | CKS1 Protein | CKS1 Antibody

CDC28 Protein Kinase Regulatory Subunit 1B, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 1 (CKS1_HUMAN). *CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B, isoform CRA_a (D3DV79_ ... Human cDNAs encoding homologs of the small p34Cdc28/Cdc2-associated protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces ... CDK1 * ENSP00000378699 20 * P06493 139 4 *STRING: ENSP00000378699. *IID: # exp=11 # pred=4 ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CKS1B
  • Substrates of Cdk1 bind near the mouth of the cleft, and Cdk1 residues catalyze the covalent bonding of the γ-phosphate to the oxygen of the hydroxyl serine/threonine of the substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is exemplified by the fact that only histone H3 and the plant homolog of TPX2 have been identified as Aurora substrates in plants. (stanford.edu)
  • Thus, identification of kinase substrates is pivotal for the understanding of many - if not all - molecular biological processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A pilot set of five proteins involved in a range of different processes could be confirmed in independent kinase assays to be phosphorylated by CDKA;1 approving the applicability of the here-developed method to identify substrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The here presented generation of an analog-sensitive CDKA;1 version is functional and represent a novel tool to modulate kinase activity in vivo and identify kinase substrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A phospho-mimicry T161D substitution restored the primary defect of cdka;1 mutants, and although the T161D substitution displayed a dramatically reduced kinase activity with a compromised ability to bind substrates, homozygous mutant plants were recovered. (plantcell.org)
  • Although the relevant substrates of Cdc28 remain to be identified, these findings demonstrate that CDK does regulate at least some of the processes required for chiasma formation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Results indicate that CLB2 functions in parallel with the SGS1 helicase and EXO1 exonuclease to allow proper Rad51 recombination, but also regulates a combined Sgs1-Exo1 activity in a pathway dependent on Mec1 and Rad53 checkpoint protein kinases. (g3journal.org)
  • This protein is a nuclear dual-specificity kinase that regulates the intranuclear distribution of the serine/arginine-rich (SR) family of splicing factors. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Here we provide biochemical, genetic, and cell biological evidence that the microtubule-bundling protein MAP65-1-a member of the MAP65/Ase1/PRC1 protein family, implicated in central spindle formation and cytokinesis in animals, yeasts, and plants-is a genuine substrate of alpha Aurora kinases. (stanford.edu)
  • Aurora kinases are key effectors of mitosis. (stanford.edu)
  • Substantial work in yeast and animal model systems has shown that high kinase activity levels are in particular required to promote the transition from a gap phase (G1) into S phase where the nuclear DNA becomes replicated and from a second gap phase (G2) into M phase (mitosis) during which the chromosomes are distributed to the newly forming daughter cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cdk1 appears to directly phosphorylate Mih1 and is required for initiation of Mih1 dephosphorylation as cells enter mitosis. (rupress.org)
  • Clb1, 2, 3 and 4) in complex with Cdk1 leads to spindle assembly and sister chromatid alignment. (wikipedia.org)
  • These progenitors are unique to the second tracheal metamere as homologous cells from other segments, express fizzy-related (fzr) , the Drosophila homolog of CDH1 protein of the APC complex , and enter endocycle and do not contribute to adult trachea. (sdbonline.org)
  • Applying bulky kinase inhibitors allowed the reduction of kinase activity in an organismic context in vivo and the modulation of plant growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cdk1 activity is best understood in S. cerevisiae, so Cdk1 S. cerevisiae activity is described here. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proper separation of homologous chromosomes at the first meiotic division requires the production of physical connections (chiasmata) between homologs through recombinational exchange of chromosome arms after sister-chromatid cohesion is established but before chromosome segregation takes place. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Sic1 is a stoichiometric inhibitor that binds directly to Clb5,6-Cdk1 complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdk1 expression, which is crucial for M phase entry, is drastically diminished by Cks1 depletion, and that restoration of cdk1 reduces G(2)-M accumulation in Cks1-depleted cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phosphatase Cdc14, which is known to be required for APC activation in vivo, is able to reverse the effects of Cdc28 by catalyzing Hct1 dephosphorylation and activation. (sdbonline.org)
  • Degradation of Pds1 is necessary for release of Cdc14 from the nucleolus, whereas degradation of Clb5 is crucial if Cdc14 is to overwhelm Cdk1 and activate its foes (Cdh1 and Sic1). (sdbonline.org)
  • Cln1,2 and/or Clb5,6-Cdk1 complex activity leads to a sudden drop in Sic1 levels, allowing for coherent S phase entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Casein kinase 1 is responsible for most of the hyperphosphorylation of Mih1, whereas protein phosphatase 2A associated with Cdc55 dephosphorylates Mih1. (rupress.org)
  • Collectively, these observations suggest that Mih1 regulation is achieved by a balance of opposing kinase and phosphatase activities. (rupress.org)
  • We find that homozygous mutations may be isolated at three nonessential loci ( ADE2, RIM20 , and YGR189 ), while only allelic triplications were found at two essential loci ( SNF1 and CDC28 ). (asm.org)
  • The figure depicts only the CMGC branch of a larger tree constructed (by J. Packer, Abbott Laboratories) from a Hidden Markov Model-derived alignment of all protein kinases in the P. falciparum genome. (asmscience.org)