A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.
A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.
A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An aspect of protein kinase (EC in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. It is found associated with CYCLIN T and is a component of POSITIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION FACTOR B.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A CYCLIN C dependent kinase that is an important component of the mediator complex. The enzyme is activated by its interaction with CYCLIN C and plays a role in transcriptional regulation by phosphorylating RNA POLYMERASE II.
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
CELL CYCLE regulatory signaling systems that are triggered by DNA DAMAGE or lack of nutrients during G2 PHASE. When triggered they restrain cells transitioning from G2 phase to M PHASE.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A cyclin-dependent kinase that forms a complex with CYCLIN C and is active during the G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It plays a role in the transition from G1 to S PHASE and in transcriptional regulation.
A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
An INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor containing five ANKYRIN-LIKE REPEATS. Aberrant expression of this protein has been associated with deregulated EPITHELIAL CELL growth, organ enlargement, and a variety of NEOPLASMS.
A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
A transcriptional elongation factor complex that is comprised of a heterodimer of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9 and one of several CYCLINS including TYPE T CYCLINS and cyclin K. It functions by phosphorylating the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA POLYMERASE II.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.
Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.
An E2F transcription factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F4 recruits chromatin remodeling factors indirectly to target gene PROMOTER REGIONS through RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P130 and RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P107.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Separase is a caspase-like cysteine protease, which plays a central role in triggering ANAPHASE by cleaving the SCC1/RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. Cohesin holds the sister CHROMATIDS together during METAPHASE and its cleavage results in chromosome segregation.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
Lindqvist A, van Zon W, Karlsson Rosenthal C, Wolthuis RM (May 2007). "Cyclin B1-Cdk1 activation continues after centrosome ... As the amount of cyclin increases, more and more cyclin dependent kinases attach to cyclin signaling the cell further into ... At the peak of the cyclin, attached to the cyclin dependent kinases this system pushes the cell out of interphase and into the ... The control of each checkpoint is controlled by cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinases. The progression of interphase is the ...
Wolthuis (2007). "Cyclin B1-Cdk1 Activation Continues after Centrosome Separation to Control Mitotic Progression". PLOS Biology ... Many factors including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), ubiquitin ligases, inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases, and ... Cdk1-inhibitors could induce mitotic exit even when degradation of B-type cyclins was blocked by expression of non-degradable ... During mitosis, decreasing levels of Cdk1 leads to the activation of Cdc14, a phosphatase that counteracts Cdk1 via activation ...
... at G2/M involves cyclin B1/Cdk1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (22): 15965-72. doi:10.1074/jbc.M610819200. PMID ... Cyclin B1, essential in the entry into mitosis, is targeted by SCFNIPA in interphase. Phosphorylation of NIPA occurs in G2 ... Oscillating ubiquitination of nuclear cyclin B1 driven by the SCFNIPA complex contributes to the timing of mitotic entry. NIPA ...
"Restoring p53 Function in Human Melanoma Cells by Inhibiting MDM2 and Cyclin B1/CDK1-Phosphorylated Nuclear iASPP". Cancer Cell ...
"Cyclin B1-Cdk1 activation continues after centrosome separation to control mitotic progression". PLoS Biology. 5 (5): e123. doi ... As the amount of cyclin increases, more and more cyclin dependent kinases attach to cyclin signaling the cell further into ... At the peak of the cyclin attached to the cyclin dependent kinases this system pushes the cell out of interphase and into the M ... The control of each checkpoint is controlled by cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinases. The progression of interphase is the ...
CDK1 (also called CDC2) is considered the main mitotic kinase in mammalian cells and is activated by Cyclin B1. Aurora kinases ... Cyclin dependent kinase complexes (CDKs) are activated by mitotic cyclins, whose translation increases during mitosis. ...
During G2 phase of the cell cycle, Cdk1 and cyclin B1 makes a complex and forms maturation promoting factor (MPF). The complex ... The system cannot be stable at intermediate levels of Cyclin B1, and the transition between the two stable states is abrupt ... Exhibiting hysteresis, for different levels of Cyclin B1, the switches from low to high and high to low states vary. However, ... Additionally, positive feedback can induce bistability in Cyclin B1- by the two regulators Wee1 and Cdc25C, leading to the ...
... of Aurora-A targets cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein and promotes mRNA polyadenylation of Cdk1 and cyclin B1 ... Members of this protein family regulate translation of cyclin B1 during embryonic cell divisions. Multiple transcript variants ...
... prevents the kinase ability of the cyclin b1/Cdk1 complex in a fashion that does not break apart the complex. It plays ... It also interacts with CRIF, which causes the inhibition of Cdc2-cyclin B1 and Cdk-cyclin E. GADD45 also works with the cyclin- ... Vairapandi M, Balliet AG, Hoffman B, Liebermann DA (2002). "GADD45b and GADD45g are cdc2/cyclinB1 kinase inhibitors with a role ... GADD45G was found to inhibit Cdk1 kinase activity, which would cause disruption of cell growth. ...
Inactive Cyclin B1/CDK1 is sequestered in the nucleus by p21, while active Cyclin B1/CDK1 complexes are sequestered in the ... translocation of cyclin B1/CDK1 to the nucleus is extremely rapid. Once in the nucleus, cyclin B1/CDK1 phosphorylates many ... Increased levels of cyclin B1 cause rising levels of cyclin B1-CDK1 complexes throughout G2, but the complex remains inactive ... Mitotic entry is determined by a threshold level of active cyclin-B1/CDK1 complex, also known as cyclin-B1/Cdc2 or the ...
Recently, he discovered that the mitotic kinase, cyclin B1-Cdk1 is activated on centrosomes, and thereby prompted considerable ... This discovery was essential to the subsequent cloning of Xenopus cyclins and kept the Hunt lab at the forefront of cyclin ... Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathon (1994). "Cyclins and cancer II: Cyclin D and CDK inhibitors come of age". Cell. 79 (4): 573-582. ... Subsequently he cloned and characterised the first human cyclins with Tony Hunter. This was crucial to recognising that cyclins ...
Once cyclin B1-Cdk1 is activated, it remains stably active for the rest of mitosis. Another mechanism by which cyclin B1-Cdk1 ... Cyclin B1 is phosphorylated by Polo kinase and Cdk1, again setting up a positive feedback loop that commits cyclin B1-Cdk1 to ... and positive feedback loops ensure that once the cyclin B1-Cdk1 complex is activated, it is not deactivated. Cyclin B1-Cdk1 is ... "Cyclin F regulates the nuclear localization of cyclin B1 through a cyclin-cyclin interaction". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1378-88. doi: ...
Recent studies have shown that the cyclin A2-CDK1 complex triggers cyclin B1-CDK1 activation which results in chromatin ... Cyclin-A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNA2 gene. It is one of the two types of cyclin A: cyclin A1 is ... Cyclin A2 belongs to the cyclin family, whose members regulate cell cycle progression by interacting with CDK kinases. Cyclin ... The cyclin A2-CDK2 complex eventually phosphorylates E2F, turning off cyclin A2 transcription. E2F promotes cyclin A2 ...
In mammalian cells, CDK1, with its partners cyclin A2 and B1, alone can drive the cell cycle. Another one, CDK7, is involved ... CDK6; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK7; cyclin H CDK8; cyclin C CDK9; cyclin T1, cyclin T2a, cyclin T2b, cyclin K CDK10 ... CDK1; cyclin A, cyclin B CDK2; cyclin A, cyclin E CDK3; cyclin C CDK4; cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 CDK5; CDK5R1, CDK5R2. ... Cyclin B1 and B2 can localize Cdk1 to the nucleus and the Golgi, respectively, through a localization sequence outside the CDK- ...
Wolthuis (2007). "Cyclin B1-Cdk1 Activation Continues after Centrosome Separation to Control Mitotic Progression". PLOS Biology ... cyclin B-Cdk1 activates the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which in turn inactivates cyclin B-Cdk1 by degrading cyclin B, ... The cyclin B-Cdk1 complex participates in a regulatory circuit in which Cdk1 can phosphorylate and activate its activator, ... In order to proceed into mitosis, the cyclin B-Cdk1 complex (first discovered as MPF or M-phase promoting factor; Cdk1 is also ...
... is a member of the cyclin family. Cyclin B is a mitotic cyclin. The amount of cyclin B (which binds to Cdk1) and the ... Cyclin B1 Cyclin B2 PDB: 2B9R​; Petri, E.T.; Errico, A.; Escobedo, L.; Hunt, T. & Basavappa, R. (2007). "The crystal structure ... On the other hand, if cyclin B levels are depleted the cyclin B/CDK1 complex cannot form, cells cannot enter M phase and cell ... In order for the cell to progress out of mitosis, the degradation of cyclin B is necessary. The cyclin B/CDK1 complex also ...
... B / CDK1 - regulates progression from G2 to M phase. The specific cyclin subtypes along with their corresponding CDK (in ... ISBN 978-0-19-920610-0. Clute P, Pines J (June 1999). "Temporal and spatial control of cyclin B1 destruction in metaphase". ... Cyclin D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to S phase. G2/M cyclins - essential for ... The rise in presence of G1/S cyclins is paralleled by a rise in S cyclins. G1 cyclins do not behave like the other cyclins, in ...
... has been shown to interact with: Cyclin B1, HSF1, RALA, RALB, and REPS2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000017797 - ... Rossé C, L'Hoste S, Offner N, Picard A, Camonis J (2003). "RLIP, an effector of the Ral GTPases, is a platform for Cdk1 to ... is a platform for Cdk1 to phosphorylate epsin during the switch off of endocytosis in mitosis". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (33): 30597- ...
Since almost all cyclin B1-Cdk 1 complexes are found in the cytoplasm, Myt 1 may be the most important inhibitory kinase for ... In fission yeast where Wee 1 is the primary inhibitor of Cdk1, mutations in the Wee 1 gene cause premature entry into mitosis. ... of human Myt1 kinase induces a G2 cell cycle delay by interfering with the intracellular trafficking of Cdc2-cyclin B1 ... Multisite phosphorylation generates ultrasensitivity in the regulation of Cdc25C by Cdk1 (Ph.D. thesis). Stanford University. ...
1999). "Association with Cdc2 and inhibition of Cdc2/Cyclin B1 kinase activity by the p53-regulated protein Gadd45". Oncogene. ... GADD45A has been shown to interact with: AURKA, Cdk1, CCNB1, GADD45GIP1 MAP3K4, P21, and PCNA. Gadd45 GRCh38: Ensembl release ... "Association with Cdc2 and inhibition of Cdc2/Cyclin B1 kinase activity by the p53-regulated protein Gadd45". Oncogene. 18 (18 ... Vairapandi M, Balliet AG, Hoffman B, Liebermann DA (September 2002). "GADD45b and GADD45g are cdc2/cyclinB1 kinase inhibitors ...
Zhang Y; Wang Z; Ravid K (1996). "The cell cycle in polyploid megakaryocytes is associated with reduced activity of cyclin B1- ... "Differentiation of trophoblast stem cells into giant cells is triggered by p57/Kip2 inhibition of CDK1 activity". Genes & ... In the context of endoreplication these events are facilitated by an oscillation in cyclin E-Cdk2 activity. Cyclin E-Cdk2 ... de Nooij JC; Graber KH; Hariharan IK (2001). "Expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Dacapo is regulated by cyclin E ...
"G2 delay induced by nitrogen mustard in human cells affects cyclin A/cdk2 and cyclin B1/cdc2-kinase complexes differently". J. ... This cyclin binds both Cdk1 and Cdk2 kinases, which give two distinct kinase activities, one appearing in S phase, the other in ... Cyclins function as activating subunits of enzymatic complex together with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Different cyclins ... Cyclin-A1 interacts with: CDC20, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, E2F1, GNB2L1, GPS2, MYBL2, and Retinoblastoma protein. GRCh38: ...
After phosphorylation by cyclin B/Cdk1, the nuclear lamina depolymerises and B-type lamins stay associated with the fragments ... Lamin B1 reaches the highest expression level, whereas the expression of B2 is relatively constant in the early stages and ... These different disassembly events are initiated by the cyclin B/Cdk1 protein kinase complex (MPF). Once this complex is ... The lamins are type V intermediate filaments which can be categorized as either A-type (lamin A, C) or B-type (lamin B1, B2) ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... through the activity of Cdk1.[71] Due to its importance in ... All these phases in the cell cycle are highly regulated by cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, and other cell cycle proteins. ... Ramanathan SP, Helenius J, Stewart MP, Cattin CJ, Hyman AA, Muller DJ (February 2015). "Cdk1-dependent mitotic enrichment of ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... Cyclin-dependent kinase (EC *CDK1. *CDK2. *CDKL2. * ... Rickert P, Corden JL, Lees E (Jan 1999). "Cyclin C/CDK8 and cyclin H/CDK7/p36 are biochemically distinct CTD kinases". Oncogene ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK8 and cyclin C associate ... "Entrez Gene: CDK8 cyclin-dependent kinase 8".. *^ Nemet J, Jelicic B, Rubelj I, Sopta M (Feb 2014). "The two faces of Cdk8, a ...
Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... Cyclin-dependent kinase (EC *CDK1. *CDK2. *CDKL2. * ... cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity. • protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • ... Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 ... 1993). "Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase (EC *CDK1. *CDK2. *CDKL2. *CDK3. *CDK4. *CDK5 ... 17,17 B1. Start. 34,823,993 bp[2]. End. 34,836,945 bp[2]. RNA expression pattern. ...
... protein binds to and inhibits the activity of cyclin-CDK2, -CDK1, and -CDK4/6 complexes, and thus functions as a regulator of ... Cyclin. *A (A1, A2). *B (B1, B2, B3). *D (D1, D2, D3) ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, cyclin dependent kinase ... cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine ... p21Cip1 (alternatively p21Waf1), also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin- ...
CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 1CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES REGULATORY SUBUNIT 2G2/MITOTIC-SPECIFIC CYCLIN-B1{[(2,6-Difluorophenyl) ... Cyclin-dependent Kinase 1(Gene symbol: CDK1). B. 1. G2/mitotic-specific Cyclin-b1(Gene symbol: CCNB1) ...
Activated CDC25C is required on dephosphorating CDK1 Thr14 and Tyr14 residues. After dephospholation, cyclin B1/CDK1 complex ... Jackman M, Lindon C, Nigg EA, Pines J. Active cyclin B1-Cdk1 first appears on centrosomes in prophase. Nature Cell Biology. ... It has been documented that CDK1 is activated on centrosomes [24], Cyclin B1-CDK1 binds to the microtubules, chromosomes and to ... Conclusion: ESRRA/DSN1/CDC25C-CDK1-Cyclin B1 is of great importance in GC development. ESRRA could be a potential target as ...
... by inhibition of cyclin B1/Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) expression and by the activation of ataxia tel-angiectasia mutated ... NF-κB: Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor; Cdk1: Cyclin- ... P21: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor; P27: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor; BCL-xL: B-cell lymphoma-extra large. ... P21: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor; P27: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor; BCL-xL: B-cell lymphoma-extra large. ...
cyclin B1-CDK1 complex IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ... G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1. Names. cyclin B1, related sequence 1. cyclin B1, related sequence 13. ... Immunity against cyclin B1 tumor antigen delays development of spontaneous cyclin B1-positive tumors in p53 (-/-) mice. Vella ... Cyclin A/B1 associated events during G2/M transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Cyclin A/B1 associated events ...
At various time-intervals after Taxol treatment, immunoblot analyses of cyclin B1 and CDK1 levels were performed. In addition, ... there are no significant differences in cyclin B1 accumulation, tyrosine dephosphorylation of CDK1, and mitotic arrest of Taxol ... Taxol-induced CDK1 activation and mitosis preceded the cytosolic accumulation (approximately six-fold) of cyt c. The latter ... Temporal relationship of CDK1 activation and mitotic arrest to cytosolic accumulation of cytochrome C and caspase-3 activity ...
Nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (cdk1) was studied by immunoblotting.Exposure ... The DATS-mediated G2/M phase cell cycle arrest was also independent of reduced complex formation between cdk1 and cyclin B1, ... G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in DU145 cells results from differential kinetics of nuclear localization of cdk1 and cyclin B1. ... There was a decrease in expressions of cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and p-NF-κB and an increase in WAF1/p21 and Bax in tumor tissues of ...
Here, we identify that cyclin B1/CDK1-phosphorylates iASPP, which leads to the inhibition of iASPP dimerization, promotion of ... Most wild-type p53-expressing melanoma cell lines coexpress high levels of phosphorylated nuclear iASPP, MDM2, and cyclin B1. ... Restoring p53 function in human melanoma cells by inhibiting MDM2 and cyclin B1/CDK1-phosphorylated nuclear iASPP. ... Here, we identify that cyclin B1/CDK1-phosphorylates iASPP, which leads to the inhibition of iASPP dimerization, promotion of ...
Estrogen receptor ? causes a G2 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting CDK1 activity through the regulation of cyclin B1, GADD45A, and ... Estrogen receptor ? causes a G2 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting CDK1 activity through the regulation of cyclin B1, GADD45A, and ... causes a G2 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting CDK1 activity through the regulation of cyclin B1, GADD45A, and BTG2. ...
Among the identified phosphorylation sites, T603 and possibly S608 were phosphorylated by CDK1-cyclin B1 during mitosis, and ... CKAP2 phosphorylation by CDK1/cyclinB1 is crucial for maintaining centrosome integrity CKAP2 phosphorylation by CDK1/cyclinB1 ...
... while cyclin B1 was inhibited. However, in the high-concentration group, cyclin B1 was upregulated and CDK1 was inhibited. ... causing G2 phase arrest via the Cdc25C/CDK1/cyclin B1 signaling cascade. Its inhibitory effect on proliferation was stronger in ... In the low-concentration group, the G2 phase regulatory factors cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and cell division cycle 25C ( ... Helicobacter pylori inhibited cell proliferation in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts through the Cdc25C/CDK1/cyclinB1 ...
cdk2-cyclin E. cdk2-cyclin A. cdk1-cyclin B1. cdk4-cyclin D1. cdk5-p25. cdk6-cyclin D3. cdk7-cyclin H. cdk9-cyclin T. ... Cyclin E protein levels following a single administration of AZD5438 (75 mg/kg). Data indicate Western blot (each band ... AZD5438, a potent oral inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 1, 2, and 9, leads to pharmacodynamic changes and potent antitumor ... AZD5438, a potent oral inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 1, 2, and 9, leads to pharmacodynamic changes and potent antitumor ...
Wang, Z., et al. Cyclin B1/Cdk1 coordinates mitochondrial respiration for cell-cycle G2/M progression. Dev Cell. 29, (2), 217- ... M 단계를 통해 진행하고 야생형 미토콘드리아 CyclinB1 /는 Cdk1를 발현하는 세포에 4 시간만큼 빠르게 G1 단계에서 나타난 보여 CDK1 (도 4a), 미토콘드리아 CyclinB1의 향상을 나타내는 /는 Cdk1 ... 그 세포질, 핵 및 centrosomal 지역화를 통해 CyclinB1 /는 Cdk1는 핵 봉투 고장 및 중심체 분리 2와 유사 분열에서 다양한 이벤트를 동기화 할 수 있습니다. CyclinB1 /는 Cdk1는 세포 사멸 (3) ... 여기에, CyclinB1과는 Cdk1 유전자 벡터를 포함 COX8의 MTS에 표현에 복제하고, 재조합 CyclinB1과는 Cdk1는 미토콘드리아로 현지화되었다. 이 방법의 장점은 전체 유전자의 발현을 변경하지 않고,이 경우 ...
Active cyclin B1-Cdk1 first appears on centrosomes in prophase. Nat. Cell Biol. 5:143-148. doi:10.1038/ncb918. ... as are Cdk1, Cdc25, cyclin B, Plk1, and Aurora A. At the onset of mitosis, Cdk1-cyclin B activity begins to increase as a ... Antibodies to cyclin A (rabbit IgG; H-432), to cyclin B1 (rabbit IgG; H-20), to Plk1 (mouse IgG; F-8, for immunofluorescence ... Cdk1-cyclin B phosphorylates PrxI, which results in exposure of the centrosome to H2O2 and consequent inactivation of Cdk1- ...
Co-immunoprecipitation of cyclin B1-Cdk1 complex. Rabbit polyclonal anti-Cdk1 (10μg) was immobilized using the GlycoLink IP Kit ... Panel B: Co-immunoprecipitation of Cdk1-cyclin B1 complex using 10μg of anti-Cdk1 antibody immobilized onto 20µL of UltraLink ... The membranes were probed with mouse IgG1 anti-cyclin B1 or mouse IgG1 anti-Cdk1, and detected with goat anti-mouse HRP (Part ... The GlycoLink IP Kit also effectively isolated the protein-protein complex of Cdk1 and cyclin B1 from 0.75mg of late G2- ...
Repression of cyclin B1 and Cdk1 by p53 enforces the arrest. However, p53-induced repression of cyclin B1 and Cdk1 might ... PAME significantly decreased the levels of (c) Cdk1 and cyclin B1 mRNA (. ) and (d, e) protein (. ). The levels of mRNA and ... Cdk1 and cyclin B1, were examined in hBM-MSCs. Quantitative RT-PCR assay demonstrated that the mRNA levels of both Cdk1 and ... Cdk1, forward: 5. -TCA GGA TTT TCA GAG CTT TGG GCA CTC-3. , reverse: 5. -GCC ATT TTG CCA GAA ATT CGT TTG G-3. ; cyclin B1, ...
R-DME-69273. Cyclin A/B1/B2 associated events during G2/M transition. R-DME-69478. G2/M DNA replication checkpoint. R-DME-75035 ... sp,P23572,CDK1_DROME Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 OS=Drosophila melanogaster GN=Cdk1 PE=1 SV=1 ... R-DME-69273. Cyclin A/B1/B2 associated events during G2/M transition. R-DME-69478. G2/M DNA replication checkpoint. R-DME-75035 ... R-DME-174048. APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of Cyclin B. R-DME-174184. Cdc20:Phospho-APC/C mediated degradation of Cyclin A ...
Porter LA, Donoghue DJ (2003) Cyclin B1 and CDK1: nuclear localization and upstream regulators. Prog Cell Cycle Res 5:335-347 ... Human papillomavirus type 16 E1 E4-induced G2 arrest is associated with cytoplasmic retention of active Cdk1/cyclin B1 ... Roberts JM, Koff A, Polyak K, Firpo E, Collins S, Ohtsubo M, Massague J (1994) Cyclins, Cdks, and cyclin kinase inhibitors. ... Croft DR, Olson MF (2006) The Rho GTPase effector ROCK regulates cyclin A, cyclin D1, and p27Kip1 levels by distinct mechanisms ...
Louis, MO, USA). Antibodies against cyclin A, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK1, p53, p21Cip1, p27 Kip1, and β-actin were ... Levels of important cell cycle mediators, including CDK1, cyclin A, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, and cyclin E, were determined by ... cyclin A, and cyclin B1 but slightly affected the levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin E (Figure 4). With the 6-gingerol treatment at ... 6-Gingerol Diminished Levels of CDK1, Cyclin A, and Cyclin B1 in LoVo Cells. Having observed 6-gingerol-induced G2/M phase ...
Structural basis of human separase regulation by securin and Cdk1-cyclin B1 ...
CDK1; a catalytic subunit; also termed p34cdc2) and Cyclin B (B1, B2 and B3, a regulatory subunit). CDK1 phosphorylates ... thus it is necessary to bind with the Cyclin B which ensures CDK1 functions with the appropriate substrate [1, 2, 3]. In the ... Han SJ, Conti M. New pathways from PKA to the Cdc2/cyclin B complex in oocytes: Wee1B as a potential PKA substrate. Cell Cycle ... This activation in turn inactivates the cell division cycle 25B (CDC25B), which is the activator of cyclin-dependent kinase, ...
In contrast, NOL11 depletion severely delayed nuclear accumulation of cyclin B1; the number of cells showing cyclin B1 ... cyclin B1 signals in the nucleus were barely detectable (Fig. 2C, 0 min). Removal of RO-3306 caused rapid cyclin B1 ... Cyclin B1-Cdk1 activation continues after centrosome separation to control mitotic progression. PLOS Biol. 5, e123 (2007).. ... 1C and 4B). Initiation of mitosis is achieved by Cdk1 activation, which is regulated by the accumulation of cyclin B1 and ...
Cyclin B1/Cdk1 Phosphorylation of Mitochondrial p53 Induces Anti-Apoptotic Response. *Danupon Nantajit, Ming Fan, Nadire Duru, ...
C) Protein levels of FAM46C and cell growth-related factors (PCNA, Cyclin B1 and CDK1) were evaluated by Western blotting. (D) ... Activated ERK has been associated with the expression of key modulators for G2/M arrest, such as Cyclin B1 and CDK129. ERK ... In the present study, FAM46C overexpression caused a remarkable decrease in ERK activation, expression of Cyclin B1, CDK1 and ... Cyclin B1 and CDK129) and anti-apoptosis (Bcl-230,31) related factors in both SMCC-7721 and SK-Hep-1 cell lines compared with ...
Cyclin B1-Cdk1 activation continues after centrosome separation to control mitotic progression.. PLoS Biol 5:e123 (2007). ICC/ ... Mitosis persists in the absence of Cdk1 activity when proteolysis or protein phosphatase activity is suppressed.. J Cell Biol ...
"Cyclin B1-Cdk1 activation continues after centrosome separation to control mitotic progression". PLoS Biology. 5 (5): e123. doi ... As the amount of cyclin increases, more and more cyclin dependent kinases attach to cyclin signaling the cell further into ... At the peak of the cyclin attached to the cyclin dependent kinases this system pushes the cell out of interphase and into the M ... The control of each checkpoint is controlled by cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinases. The progression of interphase is the ...
Once cyclin B1-Cdk1 is activated, it remains stably active for the rest of mitosis. Another mechanism by which cyclin B1-Cdk1 ... Cyclin B1 is phosphorylated by Polo kinase and Cdk1, again setting up a positive feedback loop that commits cyclin B1-Cdk1 to ... and positive feedback loops ensure that once the cyclin B1-Cdk1 complex is activated, it is not deactivated. Cyclin B1-Cdk1 is ... "Cyclin F regulates the nuclear localization of cyclin B1 through a cyclin-cyclin interaction". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1378-88. doi: ...
Lindqvist A, van Zon W, Karlsson Rosenthal C, Wolthuis RM (May 2007). "Cyclin B1-Cdk1 activation continues after centrosome ... As the amount of cyclin increases, more and more cyclin dependent kinases attach to cyclin signaling the cell further into ... At the peak of the cyclin, attached to the cyclin dependent kinases this system pushes the cell out of interphase and into the ... The control of each checkpoint is controlled by cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinases. The progression of interphase is the ...
We showed that a protein complex named cyclin B1/cdk1, which is expressed at high levels in the cytoplasm of advanced melanomas ... Restoring p53 Function in Human Melanoma Cells by Inhibiting MDM2 and Cyclin B1/CDK1-Phosphorylated Nuclear iASPP ... as the best inhibitor of cyclinB1/cdk1.. We showed that p53 is inhibited by two proteins in melanoma cells, iASPP and MDM2. The ...
Increased levels of cyclin B1 will in turn lead to the activation of the cyclin B1/cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) complex and ... Decreased cyclin B1 inactivates CDK1 and allows mitotic exit. PBOX-6-induced G2/M arrest was verified by an increase in cyclin ... CDK1 ↑ , Cyclin B1 ↑,. Tubulin depolymerisation. 13. CML. PBOX-6. DNA fragmentation, Caspase-independent, Serine protease ... B1 and activation of CDK1 complex (13). Whilst CDK1 remains the most prominent mitotic kinase controlling entry and exit from ...
Inactivation of PP2A during M phase is essential to keep cyclin-B1-CDK1 activity high. Following DNA damage, it is also ... Inactivation of PP2A during M phase is essential to keep cyclin-B1-CDK1 activity high. Following DNA damage, it is also ... "Mastl is required for timely activation of APC/C in meiosis I and Cdk1 reactivation in meiosis II.". Adhikari D., Diril M.K., ... "Mastl is required for timely activation of APC/C in meiosis I and Cdk1 reactivation in meiosis II.". Adhikari D., Diril M.K., ...
  • 포유 동물에서 세포주기의 진행은 cyclins과 cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) 1에 의해 제어 높은 순서 이벤트에 따라 달라집니다. (jove.com)
  • Therefore, levels of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and their regulatory proteins involved in S-G2/M transition were investigated. (hindawi.com)
  • Cell cycle is under sophisticated regulation through the interactions of different cyclins with their specific kinases, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The control of each checkpoint is controlled by cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinases . (wikipedia.org)
  • As the amount of cyclin increases, more and more cyclin dependent kinases attach to cyclin signaling the cell further into interphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the peak of the cyclin attached to the cyclin dependent kinases this system pushes the cell out of interphase and into the M phase, where mitosis, meiosis, and cytokinesis occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, PL significantly modulated the mRNA levels of cyclins B1 and D1, cyclin-dependent kinases 1, 4, and 6, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. (mdpi.com)
  • The structural basis for specificity of substrate and recruitment peptides for cyclin-dependent kinases. (springer.com)
  • It is 1000-fold more selective toward Chk2 serine/threonine kinase than for Chk1 and Cdk1/B kinases. (selleckchem.com)
  • Not only is the MnSOD gene upregulated by oxidative stress, but MnSOD activity can be enhanced via the mitochondrial protein influx (MPI).A cluster of MPI containing cytoplasmic/nuclear proteins, such as cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, and p53 interact with and alter MnSOD activity. (escholarship.org)
  • Progression through the cell cycle is regulated by temporal activation of multiple cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk). (pnas.org)
  • The mammalian cell cycle control system is regulated by a group of protein kinases called cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (encyclopedia.com)
  • It has been previously shown that cyclin‐dependent kinases (CDK), key molecules involved in the cell cycle regulation, provide a link between pluripotency, selfrenewal and DNA damage response in hES cells. (theses.cz)
  • Although cyclins were initially characterized as molecules whose expression "cycled" (hence the name) once per cell cycle, it is now known that they function both as activating regulatory subunits and substrate specificity-determining components for cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) ( 9 , 27 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • This cyclin binds and activates CDK1 or CDK2 kinases and thus promotes both cell cycle G1/S and G2/M transitions (http://www. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Despite the lack of selective cdk1 inhibitors being described, dual cdk1-cdk2 inhibitors have been reported ( 12 - 14 ) and combined depletion of cdk1 and cdk2 is more proapoptotic than depletion of either cdk alone ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A more potent inhibitor of cdk1 and cdk2 than NU2058. (selleckchem.com)
  • To determine the Km for ATP for cyclin B1/CDK1 and cyclin A3/CDK2, and Ki values for NU6027, assays are performed in the absence of NU6027 and at two fixed NU6027 concentrations (5 μM and 10 μM), with ATP concentrations ranging from 6.25 μM to 800 μM. (selleckchem.com)
  • Substituted guanines and pyrimidines were tested as inhibitors of cyclin B1/CDK1 and cyclin A3/CDK2 and soaked into crystals of monomeric CDK2. (rcsb.org)
  • Cdk2 activity in complex with cyclin E and cyclin A is critical for S-phase progression because cyclin E/A-Cdk2 cooperates with cyclin D-Cdk4/6 to phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (RB) protein, which releases bound E2F transcription factor and allows it to stimulate expression of proliferation-specific target genes ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • O(6)-substituted guanines are adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) competitive inhibitors of CDK1/cyclin B1 and CDK2/cyclin A, the O(6) substituent occupying the kinase ribose binding site. (rcsb.org)
  • We generated mouse models with oocytespecific deletion of Cdk1 or Cdk2 and studied the specific requirements of Cdk1 and Cdk2 during resumption of oocyte meiosis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Imunoprecipitační a imunofluorescenční experimenty ukázaly, že CDK2 tvoří komplex s cyklinem B1. (theses.cz)
  • Komplex CDK2/cyklin B1 vykazuje kinázovou aktivitu, která kolísá v průběhu buněčného cyklu a svého maxima dosahuje ve G2/M fázi. (theses.cz)
  • Snížení exprese obou komponent komplexu CDK2/cyklin B1 vedlo k akumulaci lidských EK buněk v G2/M fázi, což ukazuje na velmi důležitou roli CDK2/cyklin B1 v regulaci mitózy. (theses.cz)
  • In G2/M phase of the cell cycle CDK2 associates with cyclin B1 to act like CDK1. (theses.cz)
  • Both methods show a downregulation of DNA replication and p53 pathway-involved genes HIST2H3D, HIST1H3J, CDK1 , TOP2, CDK1 , CDK2, CCNB1 and GTSE, as well as CCNA2 and RHOJ. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 69 MWold Change CDK1 CDK2 SRGAP3 GTSE1 ITPR1 Res Gene 3. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Results provide evidence that cdc2/cyclin B1 kinase activation was synchronous with the initial appearance of cytoskeletal lesions in mouse with Niemann-Pick disease type C. (nih.gov)
  • Title: Aberrant activation of Cdc2/cyclin B1 is involved in initiation of cytoskeletal pathology in murine Niemann-Pick disease type C. (nih.gov)
  • also termed p34 cdc2 ) and Cyclin B (B1, B2 and B3, a regulatory subunit). (springer.com)
  • For example, an increase in expression of cyclin B1/cdc2 is significantly higher in breast tumor tissue and shown to increase lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDK1/CDC2-cyclin-B controls pronuclear union in interphase fertilized eggs. (abcam.com)
  • Results Rabd-B efficiently induced G2/M phase arrest in ESCC cells by upregulating the Chk1/Chk2-Cdc25C axis to inhibit the G2→M transition facilitated by Cdc2/Cyclin B1. (deepdyve.com)
  • May stabilize the active CDC2-cyclin B1 complex and thereby contribute to the regulation of the cell cycle and the prevention of uncontrolled cell proliferation. (genecards.org)
  • To determine the effects of progesterone on the proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of hECs and to test if cyclin B1 is involved in these effects, progesterone and/or Alsterpaullone (Alp, a specific inhibitor of Cyclin B1/Cdc2) were added to primary hECs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNB1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also acts by mediating phosphorylation of cyclin-B1 (CCNB1) on centrosomes in prophase. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the in vitro histone H1 kinase activity of immunoprecipitated CDK1 and its tyrosine phosphorylation status (by anti-phosphotyrosine immunoblot analysis) were determined. (nih.gov)
  • Data presented here show that, while Taxol-induced peak CDK1 kinase activity occurs earlier in HL-60/neo cells, there are no significant differences in cyclin B1 accumulation, tyrosine dephosphorylation of CDK1, and mitotic arrest of Taxol-treated HL-60/neo vs HL-60/Bcl-xL cells. (nih.gov)
  • Cellular transition to anaphase and mitotic exit has been linked to the loss of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) kinase activity as a result of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-dependent specific degradation of its cyclin B1 subunit. (rupress.org)
  • Mitosis is composed of several phases: prophase (chromosomes start condensing), prometaphase (chromosomes condensed, removal of the bulk of sister cohesins, and establishment of bipolar spindles), metaphase (sister chromatids aligned in metaphase plate), anaphase/telophase (separation and pulling of sister chromatids), mitotic exit (loss of Cdk1 kinase activity and relaxation of the condensed chromosomes), and cytokinesis (end of mitosis and the formation of two new daughter cells). (rupress.org)
  • Whereas the centrosome is shielded from H 2 O 2 through its association with the H 2 O 2 -eliminating enzyme peroxiredoxin I (PrxI) during interphase, the centrosome-associated PrxI is selectively inactivated through phosphorylation by Cdk1 during early mitosis, thereby exposing the centrosome to H 2 O 2 and facilitating inactivation of centrosome-bound phosphatases. (rupress.org)
  • Inactivation of PP2A during M phase is essential to keep cyclin-B1-CDK1 activity high. (uniprot.org)
  • Cyclin B1 is then transported from each kinetochore as microtubule attachment is completed, and this relocalization may redirect the activity of cyclin B1-CDK1 and contribute to inactivation of the spindle assembly checkpoint. (nih.gov)
  • Exit from mitosis in mammalian cells requires the inactivation of Cdk1, the protein kinase that drives the mitotic state ( Murray, 2004 ). (rupress.org)
  • In G2 cells, this treatment induces inactivation of the CDK1-cyclin B1 complex and an increase of active chk1 kinase expression. (uio.no)
  • An identical phenotype was observed when flavopiridol was used to induce Cdk1 inactivation during late meiosis I prior to PBE, but not if Cdk1 was inactivated after PBE when metaphase II arrest was already established, altogether indicating that NAM impaired establishment rather than maintenance of metaphase II arrest. (harvard.edu)
  • The results from the present study show that PAME significantly reduced the levels of G 2 /M phase regulatory proteins, cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), and cyclin B1 and inhibited proliferation in hBM-MSCs. (hindawi.com)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that PAME induced p53 stabilization, which in turn increased the levels of p53/p21 proteins and decreased the levels of Cdk1/cyclin B1 proteins, thereby preventing the activation of Cdk1, and eventually caused cell cycle arrest at the G 2 /M phase. (hindawi.com)
  • In proliferating cells, CDK1-mediated FOXO1 phosphorylation at the G2-M phase represses FOXO1 interaction with 14-3-3 proteins and thereby promotes FOXO1 nuclear accumulation and transcription factor activity, leading to cell death of postmitotic neurons. (abcam.com)
  • Cyclin B1 binds CDK1, a cyclin-dependent kinase catalytic subunit, forming a complex that orchestrates mitosis through phosphorylation of key proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Altogether, our data support that miR-134 regulation of ICT1 facilitates malignant phenotype of HCC cells probably via cell cycle and apoptosis-associated proteins including CDK1, cyclin B1, Bcl-2 and Bax. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Likewise, phosphorylation of critical target proteins by the active cyclin B-Cdk1 complex mediates progression into mitosis ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Of the proteins regulating G2/M phase, daidzein decreased CDK1 expression by 28. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chk1 prevents the activation of Cdk1 by promoting the degradation and sequestration of the CDC25 phosphatases [ 14 - 16 ], which are required to dephosphorylate Tyr 15 of the catalytic subunit of Cdk1. (biochemj.org)
  • In addition to assembly with a cyclin-regulatory subunit, Cdk activity requires dephosphorylation of the Cdk catalytic subunit by the Cdc25A, Cdc25B, or Cdc25C phosphatase protein ( 1-3 ) and is negatively regulated by Cdk inhibitor p21 Cip1 (p21), p27 Kip1 , and p16 INK4A ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • The gene product complexes with p34 (Cdk1) to form the maturation-promoting factor (MPF). (wikipedia.org)
  • 5 , 6 ) has evolved to incorporate novel activities of cyclin-cdk complexes that have been observed in response to certain conditions, particularly when specific cdks are depleted (reviewed in ref. 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • During G2 and early mitosis, CDC25A/B/C-mediated dephosphorylation activates CDK1/cyclin complexes which phosphorylate several substrates that trigger at least centrosome separation, Golgi dynamics, nuclear envelope breakdown and chromosome condensation. (abcam.com)
  • Our results show that p38 is activated in response to hydroxyurea treatment and collaborates with Chk1 to prevent mitotic entry in non-transformed cell lines by maintaining cyclin B1/Cdk1 complexes inactive. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The activity of Cdk1-opposing phosphatases at the centrosome must be inhibited during early mitosis to prevent premature dephosphorylation of Cdh1-an activator of the ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-and the consequent premature degradation of mitotic activators. (rupress.org)
  • Dephosphorylation of PrxI by okadaic acid-sensitive phosphatases during late mitosis again shields the centrosome from H 2 O 2 and thereby allows the reactivation of Cdk1-opposing phosphatases at the organelle. (rupress.org)
  • Cdk1 does not only phosphorylate the meiotic phosphoproteins during meiosis resumption but also phosphorylates and suppresses the downstream protein phosphatase 1, which is essential for protecting the Cdk1 substrates from dephosphorylation. (diva-portal.org)
  • phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of CDK1 play important regulatory roles in controlling the cell cycle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The role of cyclin B1 is to transition the cell from G2 to M phase but becomes unregulated in cancer cells where overexpression of cyclin B1 can lead to uncontrolled cell growth by binding to its partner Cdks. (wikipedia.org)
  • METHODS: To investigate the role of cyclin B1 in proliferation and differentiation of hECs in menstrual cycle, the expression of cyclin B1 throughout the menstrual cycle was evaluated in hECs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To investigate the role of cyclin F in vivo, we generated mice deficient for cyclin F and conditionally deficient mice as well as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) conditionally deficient for cyclin F. Heterozygous animals are normal and fertile, but CycF −/− animals, with a myriad of developmental anomalies due in large part to failures in yolk sac and chorioallantoic placentation, die around embryonic day 10.5. (asm.org)
  • In addition, cyclin E expression from the cyclin D1 promoter completely rescues phenotypic consequences of cyclin D1 loss by bypassing cyclin D1's function in the cell cycle ( 12 ), suggesting that the essential role of cyclin D is to activate cyclin E expression. (asm.org)
  • Cyclin B1 turnover and the mechanism causing insensitivity of fully grown mouse oocytes to cycloheximide inhibition of meiotic resumption. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of CDK7 bypasses spindle assembly checkpoint via premature cyclin B degradation during oocyte meiosis. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we identify that cyclin B1/CDK1-phosphorylates iASPP, which leads to the inhibition of iASPP dimerization, promotion of iASPP monomer nuclear entry, and exposure of its p53 binding sites, leading to increased p53 inhibition. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It seems that functional redundancy among cdks and cyclin binding partners is a frequent event bringing clear implications for the clinical utility of selective cdk inhibition. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Promiscuity among cdk-cyclin binding partners has been observed both in vivo and in vitro and could drive resistance in the clinic ( 8 , 9 ), with a growing number of studies indicating that highly selective cdk inhibition may not be therapeutically effective. (aacrjournals.org)
  • cdk1 also has the attraction that it can regulate the activity of survivin (BIRC5), which has been implicated in regulation of the spindle checkpoint and inhibition of apoptosis and is selectively expressed in the majority of human tumor types ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Inhibition of cdk1 rapidly down-regulates survivin expression-inducing MYC-dependent apoptosis, leading to the suggestion that cdk1 inhibition might be a useful therapy for tumors that overexpress MYC, for example, in Burkitt's lymphoma ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Inhibition of cyclin B1/CDK1 is assayed using enzyme prepared from starfish oocytes. (selleckchem.com)
  • Cdk1 inhibition by roscovitine is known to induce premature mitotic exit, whereas inhibition of the APC/C-dependent degradation of cyclin B1 by MG132 induces mitotic arrest. (rupress.org)
  • SAC activation ( Diaz-Martinez and Yu, 2007 ) results in the inhibition of APC-Cdc20 by Mad2 and BubR1, and thus, the stabilization of securin and cyclin B1. (rupress.org)
  • Involvement of cyclin B1 in progesterone-mediated cell growth inhibition, G2/M cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in human endometrial cell. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Identification of novel purine and pyrimidine cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors with distinct molecular interactions and tumor cell growth inhibition profiles. (proteopedia.org)
  • Although the caspase inhibitors and high Bcl-xL levels inhibited caspase-3 cleavage and activity, they did not significantly affect Taxol-induced CDK1 activation or mitotic arrest. (nih.gov)
  • NU6027 is a potent ATR/CDK inhibitor, inhibits CDK1/2 , ATR and DNA-PK with K i of 2.5 μM/1.3 μM, 0.4 μM and 2.2 μM, enter cells more readily than the 6-aminopurine-based inhibitors. (selleckchem.com)
  • Different Cdk1 and proteasome inhibitors produce similar results, indicating that the effect is not drug specific. (rupress.org)
  • The effect on phosphorylation of cdk1 substrates phosphonucleolin ( TG3 and Nucleolin panels ) and PP1a ( bottom ) was measured. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We conclude that cyclin B1 accumulates at kinetochores during prometaphase, where it contributes to the correct attachment of microtubules to kinetochores and efficient alignment of the chromosomes, most likely through localized phosphorylation of specific substrates by cyclin B1-CDK1. (nih.gov)
  • We verify mitotic status by the retention of mitosis-specific markers and Cdk1 phosphorylation substrates, although cells can undergo late mitotic furrowing while still in mitosis. (rupress.org)
  • Overall, we conclude that continuous Cdk1 activity is not essential to maintain the mitotic state and that phosphatase activity directed at Cdk1 substrates is largely quiescent during mitosis. (rupress.org)
  • APC/C mediates ubiquitination of protein substrates including cyclin B1 and securin to drive the progression of mitosis. (rupress.org)
  • Western-blot showed G2M arrest caused by ESRRA silencing was via CDC25C-CDK1-Cyclin B1 pathway. (ijbs.com)
  • causes a G2 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting CDK1 activity through the regulation of cyclin B1, GADD45A, and BTG2. (viraquest.com)
  • In our model, H. pylori inhibited the proliferation of hPDLFs and exerted an invasive effect, causing G2 phase arrest via the Cdc25C/CDK1/cyclin B1 signaling cascade. (bvsalud.org)
  • Phosphorylated PrxI (pPrxI) appeared slightly earlier than did the mitotic marker phosphorylated histone H3 (pHH3), and it disappeared in parallel with pHH3 ( Fig. 1 A ). When HeLa or U2OS cells arrested in prometaphase with nocodazole were released from the arrest, pPrxI disappeared rapidly, with the rate of its loss being slightly greater than that for cyclin B1 or pHH3 ( Fig. S1 A ). (rupress.org)
  • These findings indicate that exposure of 6-gingerol may induce intracellular ROS and upregulate p53, p27 Kip1 , and p21 Cip1 levels leading to consequent decrease of CDK1, cyclin A, and cyclin B1 as result of cell cycle arrest in LoVo cells. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we find that combining both drugs causes prolonged mitotic arrest in the absence of Cdk1 activity. (rupress.org)
  • Determination of DNA content by flow cytometry demonstrated S and G2/M phase arrest of MCF-7 cell, correlated to Cdk1 downregulation, S phase arrest in MDA-MB-231 which is p53 and Cdk1 -dependent, sub-G0 cell cycle arrest in HeLa aligned with Cdk1 downregulation, G0/G1, S, G2/M phase arrest in HepG2 which is p53-dependent. (frontiersin.org)
  • Progesterone may inhibit cell proliferation, mediate G2/M cell cycle arrest and induce apoptosis in hECs via down-regulating Cyclin B1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • DATS-induced Cdc25C and Cdk1 phosphorylation and mitotic arrest, but not G2 phase arrest, was significantly attenuated by depletion of Chk1 protein using Chk1 targeted siRNA duplexes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, these results suggest existence of a Chk1-Cdc25C-Cdk1 independent mechanism responsible for DATS-induced G2 arrest. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, DNA replication arrest down-regulates cyclin B1 promoter activity in non-transformed cells, but not in tumor cells in a Chk1- and p38-independent way. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Apart from this fast response, G 2 DNA damage also induces changes in gene expression that finally maintain mitotic entry arrest, such as p53-induced Gadd45, p21, and 14-3-3σ expression or p53-dependent and p53-independent down-regulation of cyclin B1 or Plk1 ( 7 - 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Collectively, therefore, our data indicate that by disrupting Cdk1 regulation, NAM impairs entry into meiosis I and the establishment of metaphase II arrest. (harvard.edu)
  • MJ-29 inhibits tubulin polymerization, induces mitotic arrest and triggers apoptosis via CDK1 -mediated Bcl-2 phosphorylation in human leukemia U937 cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Successful cell cycle progression requires that many cell cycle regulators-including cyclins A and B, Plk1, and Aurora A-be degraded in a timely manner. (rupress.org)
  • Our findings therefore suggest that maintenance of nucleolar integrity during interphase is essential for proper cell cycle progression to mitosis via the regulation of Wee1 and Cdk1. (sciencemag.org)
  • The progression of interphase is the result of the increased amount of cyclin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin B1 is a key regulatory protein controlling cell cycle progression in vertebrates. (nih.gov)
  • Surprisingly, the E-type cyclins appear to be dispensable for cell cycle progression in normally cycling cells, but they are essential for cell cycle reentry ( 13 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • CDKs are called "cyclin-dependent" because their activity requires their association with activating subunits called cyclins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • While the number of CDKs in a cell remains constant during the cell cycle, the levels of cyclins oscillate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Centrosomal Chk1 has been shown to phosphorylate cdc25B and inhibit its activation of CDK1-cyclin B1, thereby abrogating mitotic spindle formation and chromatin condensation (7). (cellsignal.com)
  • Because Cdc25 phosphatase family activates cyclin B1/Cdk1, which is essential for mitotic entry, the cell cycle is finally arrested at the G 2 -M transition. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The central regulator, cyclin B-Cdk1 complex activates its own activator, phosphatase Cdc25, forming a positive feedback loop, and inhibits its own inhibitor, kinase Wee1, forming a double negative feedback loop. (elifesciences.org)
  • Additionally, cyclinB-Cdk1 activates the E3 ubiquitin ligase APC/C, which targets cyclin B for degradation and completes a core negative feedback loop. (elifesciences.org)
  • The results show that Cyclin B1 is essential for mitosis in mammalian cells and that its spatial localization has a crucial role in triggering mitosis at the correct time, even when Cdk1 can be regulated by the antagonistic Wee1-Myt1-Cdc25 pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Gorr IH, Reis A, Boos D, Wuhr M, Madgwick S, Jones KT, Stemmann O. Essential CDK1-inhibitory role for separase during meiosis I in vertebrate oocytes . (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Separase is activated in metaphase by degradation of securin and cyclin B1 by a ubiquitin ligase called the anaphase‐promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) ( Peters, 2002 ). (embopress.org)
  • ESRRA/DSN1/CDC25C-CDK1-Cyclin B1 is of great importance in GC development. (ijbs.com)
  • In the low-concentration group, the G2 phase regulatory factors cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25C) were upregulated, while cyclin B1 was inhibited. (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, the deactivated states of tyrosine phosphorylation of CDK1 (CDK1-Y15) and serine phosphorylation of Cdc25C (Cdc25C-S216) were upregulated after H. pylori infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • We found that exposure of PC-3 cells to 20 or 40 μM DATS resulted in a time-dependent enrichment of G2/M phase cells that was accompanied by accumulation of cyclin B1, degradation of cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25C), and increased phosphorylation of Cdc25C at Ser-216 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) at Tyr-15. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Ser-216 phosphorylation of Cdc25C phosphatase, which plays a pivotal role in activation of Cdk1/cyclin B1, negatively regulates its activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Part of a regulatory circuit that promotes the activation of CDK1 by phosphorylating the positive regulator CDC25C and inhibiting the negative regulators WEE1 and PKMYT1/MYT1. (nih.gov)
  • Taxol-induced G2/M transition is mediated by p34(cdc-2) (CDK1) which, if prematurely activated, may also trigger apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • In the present studies following S-phase synchronization and release, HL-60 cells with enforced expression of the bcl-xL (HL-60/Bcl-xL) and/or neomycin resistance gene (HL-60/neo) were exposed to Taxol to examine CDK1-related cell-cycle events and the cyt c-triggered molecular cascade of apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • These findings indicate that Bcl-xL overexpression does not affect Taxol-induced CDK1 activity leading to G2/M transition, which temporally precedes the cytosolic cyt c-mediated cleavage and activity of caspase-3 and apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • Cellular proliferation was evaluated with MTT test, cell cycle with propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry, apoptosis with FITC-Annexin V and the expression of cyclin B1 with Western blotting. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, genetic ablation of mitosis by knockdown of Cyclin A or overexpression of fzr/Cdh1 induces follicle cell endocycles and represses apoptosis independently of Notch signaling and differentiation. (sdbonline.org)
  • AURKA induced phosphorylation and recruitment of CDC25B to MTOCs prior to p-Cyclin B1-Ser123, and this sequential regulation is essential for the commitment of the oocytes to resume meiosis. (nih.gov)
  • While the exact mechanism that explains how cyclin B1 becomes overexpressed is not very well understood, previous work has shown that down regulation of cyclin B1 can lead to tumor regression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Open up in another windows Fig.1 Traumatic mind injury (TBI) induces up-regulation of cyclins A and B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activation. (cylch.org)
  • There is a substantial up-regulation of cyclin A (a, b) (**sham) at 6?h, accompanied by a decrease in 24?h post-injury (^6-h injured examples). (cylch.org)
  • Recently, we have reported that p21 is involved in the regulation of the mitotic kinase Cdk1/cyclin B1 and critical for successful mitosis and cytokinesis. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • These findings suggest that Cdk1-cyclin B1-mediated phosphorylation of TMAP is important for and contributes to proper regulation of microtubule dynamics and establishment of functional bipolar spindles during mitosis. (scialert.net)
  • In contrast, MEFs lacking cyclin F, while viable, do exhibit cell cycle defects, including reduced population-doubling time and a delay in cell cycle reentry from quiescence, indicating that cyclin F plays a role in cell cycle regulation. (asm.org)
  • Western blot analysis showed that taurine significantly limited the ionizing radiation-induced down-regulation of CyclinB1 and CDK1, and suppressed activation of Fas/FasL system pathway. (bireme.br)
  • Moreover, the significant reduction in hepatocyte mitosis was associated with diminished mRNA levels and nuclear expression of Cdc25B phosphatase and delayed accumulation of cyclin B1 protein, which is required for Cdk1 activation and entry into mitosis. (pnas.org)
  • We have developed AZD5438, a 4-(1-isopropyl-2-methylimidazol-5-yl)-2-(4-methylsulphonylanilino) pyrimidine, as a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 1, 2, and 9 (IC 50 , 16, 6, and 20 nmol/L, respectively). (aacrjournals.org)
  • THZ1 is a selective covalent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase CDK7 that down-regulates RNA polymerase II progressing and mRNA capping [ 1 - 3 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • as a result, to examine its activity, we assessed the degrees of phospho-n-myc, a CDK1 substrate. (cylch.org)
  • Cyclin B1 regulates both the activation of CDK1 and its subcellular localization, which may be critical for substrate selection. (nih.gov)
  • Once chromosomes are condensed and aligned at the metaphase plate, CDK1 activity is switched off by WEE1- and PKMYT1-mediated phosphorylation to allow sister chromatid separation, chromosome decondensation, reformation of the nuclear envelope and cytokinesis. (abcam.com)
  • Here, we find that the centrosomal levels of cyclin B, Plk1, and Aurora A as well as mitotic entry are likely regulated by the local concentration of H 2 O 2 around the centrosome. (rupress.org)
  • Like all cyclins, levels of cyclin B1 oscillate over the course of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • These high levels of cyclin B1 can also be associated to the extent of tumor invasion and aggressiveness therefore concentration of cyclin B1 can be used to determine the prognosis of cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear-dominant expression of cyclin B1 leads to poorer prognosis due to its weak activity compared to cytoplasmic cyclin B1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chk1 (checkpoint kinase 1) and Cdk1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1) (Cdk1-cyclin B complex) are key enzymes in the DNA damage checkpoint and cell cycle pathways [ 9 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • Immunity against cyclin B1 tumor antigen delays development of spontaneous cyclin B1-positive tumors in p53 (-/-) mice. (nih.gov)
  • Active Cdk1 is also capable of phosphorylating and activating Cdc25 and thus promote its own activation, resulting in a positive feedback loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of such suppression of centrosomal phosphatase activity, further activation of Cdk1 would not be expected to occur because of the premature degradation of cyclin B, Plk1, and Aurora A. (rupress.org)
  • Another mechanism by which cyclin B1-Cdk1 activity is regulated is through subcellular localization. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is regulated by the phosphorylation of cyclin B1, in contrast to phosphorylation of Cdk1 regulating the activity of the complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanistically, miR-294 represses Wee1 leading to increased activity of the cyclin B1/CDK1 complex confirmed by qRT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. (genengnews.com)
  • Effects of phosphorylation of threonine 160 on cyclin-dependent kinase 2 structure and activity. (springer.com)
  • Aneuploidy in oocytes is prevented by sustained CDK1 activity through degron masking in cyclin B1. (mpg.de)
  • Levasseur MD, Thomas C, Davies OR, Higgins JMG, Madgwick S. Aneuploidy in oocytes is prevented by sustained CDK1 activity through degron masking in cyclin B1 . (ncl.ac.uk)
  • The rounded cells are alive and in mitosis as measured by low phospho-Tyr 15 Cdk1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1), high Cdk activity, active Plk1 (Polo-like kinase 1) and high phospho-histone H3 signals. (biochemj.org)
  • By measuring cyclin B1 levels, Cdk1 activity and phosphorylation of histone H3 on Ser 10 , cells can be followed as they exit G 2 -phase and enter mitosis [ 18 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • Loss-of-function studies in mice have proven particularly useful in understanding specific roles carried out by cyclins and the tissues which are exquisitely dependent upon their activity. (asm.org)
  • Cyclin B1-Cdk1 is involved in the early events of mitosis, such as chromosome condensation, nuclear envelope breakdown, and spindle pole assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin B1 is displaced from individual kinetochores to the spindle poles by microtubule attachment to the kinetochores, and this displacement is dependent on the dynein/dynactin complex. (nih.gov)
  • Previous work has shown that high cyclin B1 expression levels are found in variety of cancers such as breast, cervical, gastric, colorectal, head and neck squamous cell, non-small-cell lung cancer, colon, prostate, oral and esophageal. (wikipedia.org)
  • If Cdk1 remains phosphorylated on Tyr 15 , the enzyme stays inactive despite high cyclin B1 levels and the cell is blocked in the G 2 -phase of the cell cycle. (biochemj.org)
  • Its activation is well-regulated, and positive feedback loops ensure that once the cyclin B1-Cdk1 complex is activated, it is not deactivated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another important function of the cyclin B1-Cdk1 complex is to break down the nuclear envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • We showed that a protein complex named cyclin B1/cdk1, which is expressed at high levels in the cytoplasm of advanced melanomas, induces a pair of precise chemical modifications on iASPP to activate the protein. (news-medical.net)
  • A model of the complex between cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and the activation domain of neuronal Cdk5 activator. (springer.com)
  • Although activation of the anaphase-promoting complex-Cdc20 (APC-Cdc20) occurred on-time in NAM-treated oocytes, Cdc20 levels were higher in very late meiosis I, pointing to exaggerated APC-Cdc20-mediated proteolysis as a reason for lower cyclin B1 levels. (harvard.edu)
  • MPF is a complex of cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and cyclin B1, which is essential and sufficient for entry into mitosis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Once cyclinB1-Cdk1 complex is activated, the circuit drives a set of mitotic events including chromosome condensation and nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB). (elifesciences.org)
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that cyclin B1 is a critical factor in proliferation and differentiation of hECs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Once activated, cyclin B1-Cdk1 promotes several of the events of early mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depletion of NOL11 delayed entry into the mitotic phase owing to increased inhibitory phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and aberrant accumulation of Wee1, a kinase that phosphorylates and inhibits Cdk1. (sciencemag.org)
  • In virtually all tumors, gene amplifications and/or deletions or functional alterations of key regulators contrive to deregulate the cyclin D1-cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 4/p16/pRb/E2F signaling axis ( 1 ) and, in the case of p27 and cyclin E, have prognostic value ( 2 , 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) activation requires interaction with three domains of p35. (springer.com)
  • Molecular motions of human cyclin-dependent kinase 2. (springer.com)
  • Gene expression profiling highlighted that ACFP treatment in ovarian cancer cells repressed the expression of bcl- xl, akt , CDC 25C and cyclin B1 and promoted the expression of bax and caspase -3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further network analysis of jointly regulated kinase groups suggested that Cyclin-dependent kinase- and mitogen-activated kinase-centered interaction networks are coordinately down- and up-regulated in late mitosis, respectively. (mcponline.org)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 772 Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 1 (CDK1) Antikörper von 35 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Reduced DNA replication in regenerating Foxm1b −/− hepatocytes was associated with sustained increase in nuclear staining of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p21 Cip1 (p21) protein between 24 and 40 h after partial hepatectomy. (pnas.org)
  • Active Cdk1 drives cells into mitosis, which is characterized by major structural and biochemical changes, including cell rounding [ 17 ], chromosome condensation and phosphorylation of core histones. (biochemj.org)
  • Most wild-type p53-expressing melanoma cell lines coexpress high levels of phosphorylated nuclear iASPP, MDM2, and cyclin B1. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cyclin B1 contributes to the switch-like all or none behavior of the cell in deciding to commit to mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Just prior to mitosis, a large amount of cyclin B1 is present in the cell, but it is inactive due to phosphorylation of Cdk1 by the Wee1 kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • A possible trigger for activation is phosphorylation by cyclin A-Cdk, which functions before cyclin B1-Cdk in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before mitosis almost all cyclin B1 in the cell is located in the cytoplasm, but in late prophase it relocates to the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the end of mitosis, cyclin B1 is targeted for degradation by the APC through its APC localization sequence, permitting the cell to exit mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein may have a role in cell-cycle control by interacting with the Cdk1/cyclinB1 co. (genecards.org)
  • There are G 1 cyclins, S-phase cyclins, and G 2 /M cyclins, each of which interact differently with CDK subunits to regulate the various phases of the cell cycle. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cyclins are key components of the core cell cycle machinery. (asm.org)
  • Restoring p53 function in human melanoma cells by inhibiting MDM2 and cyclin B1/CDK1-phosphorylated nuclear iASPP. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Among the identified phosphorylation sites, T603 and possibly S608 were phosphorylated by CDK1- cyclin B1 during mitosis , and the ectopic expression of both T603A and S608A mutants was unable to restore the centrosomal abnormalities in CKAP2-depleted cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • To uncover how to restore p53, we treated melanoma cells with a panel of small molecules and identified JNJ-7706621 (JNJ) as the best inhibitor of cyclinB1/cdk1. (news-medical.net)
  • Cyclin B1 and its associated kinase Cdk1 localize at mitochondria and enhance mitochondrial function as cells divide. (sciencemag.org)
  • a-c) The manifestation of the two 2 important cyclins (A and Myod1 B1) was evaluated in cortical cells following handled cortical effect (CCI) by Traditional western blot analysis. (cylch.org)
  • Gene expression profiles of ovarian cancer cells treated with ACFP were generated by cDNA microarray, and the expression of apoptotic-specific genes, such as bcl -xl, bax , akt , caspase -3, CDC 25C and cyclin B1, was assessed by real time PCR and western blot analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Notably, ICT1 knockdown reduced the levels of CDK1, cyclin B1 and Bcl-2 and increased the expression of Bax in HepG2 cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • ICT1 overexpression resulted in upregulation of CDK1, cyclin B1 and Bcl-2, and downregulation of Bax in Hep3B cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • ICT1 regulates the expressions of CDK1, cyclin B1, Bcl-2 and Bax, and is directly targeted by microRNA-134 (miR-134) in HCC cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Title: Cyclin B1 is essential for mitosis in mouse embryos, and its nuclear export sets the time for mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • Phosphorylation of the lamins by cyclin B1-Cdk1 causes them to dissociate, compromising the structural integrity of the nuclear envelope so that it breaks down. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylation of cyclin B1 causes it to be imported to the nucleus, and phosphorylation also prevents export from the nucleus by blocking the nuclear export signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, as the oocyte resumes MI, it undergoes a process of nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB) caused by activation of Cdk1 - this is a G2/M transition [ 7 , 8 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Taxol-induced CDK1 activation and mitosis preceded the cytosolic accumulation (approximately six-fold) of cyt c. (nih.gov)
  • During meiosis I exit in NAM-treated medium, we found that cyclin B1 levels were lower and inhibitory Cdk1 phosphorylation was increased compared with controls. (harvard.edu)
  • A single bivalent efficiently inhibits cyclin B1 degradation and polar body extrusion in mouse oocytes indicating robust SAC during female meiosis I. Hoffmann S, et al . (nih.gov)
  • promotes G2-M transition, and regulates G1 progress and G1-S transition via association with multiple interphase cyclins. (abcam.com)