A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.
Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored. For example, amber suppressors cancel the effect of an AMBER NONSENSE MUTATION.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A set of nuclear proteins in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE that are required for the transcriptional repression of the silent mating type loci. They mediate the formation of silenced CHROMATIN and repress both transcription and recombination at other loci as well. They are comprised of 4 non-homologous, interacting proteins, Sir1p, Sir2p, Sir3p, and Sir4p. Sir2p, an NAD-dependent HISTONE DEACETYLASE, is the founding member of the family of SIRTUINS.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
An ascomycetous yeast of the fungal family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Protein factors released from one species of YEAST that are selectively toxic to another species of yeast.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CYTOPLASM. It is a multifunctional enzyme that contains a NAD-dependent deacetylase activity that is specific for HISTONES and a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC and EC
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC, EC, EC, and EC
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A DNA-binding protein that mediates DNA REPAIR of double strand breaks, and HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
A urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
(GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC (GTP cyclohydrolase II).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A systemic agricultural fungicide used for control of certain fungal diseases of stone fruit.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is expressed primarily in neuronal tissue and may be specific for the Ha-ras homolog of the RAS PROTEINS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)

Cdc42: An essential Rho-type GTPase controlling eukaryotic cell polarity. (1/193)

Cdc42p is an essential GTPase that belongs to the Rho/Rac subfamily of Ras-like GTPases. These proteins act as molecular switches by responding to exogenous and/or endogenous signals and relaying those signals to activate downstream components of a biological pathway. The 11 current members of the Cdc42p family display between 75 and 100% amino acid identity and are functional as well as structural homologs. Cdc42p transduces signals to the actin cytoskeleton to initiate and maintain polarized gorwth and to mitogen-activated protein morphogenesis. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cdc42p plays an important role in multiple actin-dependent morphogenetic events such as bud emergence, mating-projection formation, and pseudohyphal growth. In mammalian cells, Cdc42p regulates a variety of actin-dependent events and induces the JNK/SAPK protein kinase cascade, which leads to the activation of transcription factors within the nucleus. Cdc42p mediates these processes through interactions with a myriad of downstream effectors, whose number and regulation we are just starting to understand. In addition, Cdc42p has been implicated in a number of human diseases through interactions with its regulators and downstream effectors. While much is known about Cdc42p structure and functional interactions, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which it transduces signals within the cell. Future research should focus on this question as well as on the detailed analysis of the interactions of Cdc42p with its regulators and downstream effectors.  (+info)

Multisite autophosphorylation of p21-activated protein kinase gamma-PAK as a function of activation. (2/193)

p21-activated protein kinase (PAK) is a family of serine/threonine kinases whose activity is stimulated by binding to small G-proteins such as Cdc42 and subsequent autophosphorylation. Focusing on the ubiquitous gamma-isoform of PAK in this study, baculovirus-infected insect cells were used to obtain recombinant gamma-PAK, while native gamma-PAK was isolated from rabbit reticulocytes. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of gamma-PAK followed by immunoblot analysis revealed a similar profile for native and recombinant gamma-PAK, both consisting of multiple protein spots. Following Cdc42-stimulated autophosphorylation, the two-dimensional profiles of native and recombinant gamma-PAK were characterized by a similar acidic shift, suggesting a common response to Cdc42. To understand the effect of differential phosphorylation on its activation status, gamma-PAK autophosphorylation was conducted in the presence or absence of activators such as Cdc42 and histone II-AS, followed by tryptic digestion and comparative two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping. The major phosphopeptides were subjected to a combination of manual and automated amino acid sequencing. Overall, eight autophosphorylation sites were identified in Cdc42-activated gamma-PAK, six of which are in common with those previously reported in alpha-PAK, while Ser-19 and Ser-165 appear to be uniquely phosphorylated in the gamma-form. Further, the phosphorylation of Ser-141, Ser-165, and Thr-402 was found to correlate with gamma-PAK activation.  (+info)

Inducible recruitment of Cdc42 or WASP to a cell-surface receptor triggers actin polymerization and filopodium formation. (3/193)

BACKGROUND: Cdc42, a GTP-binding protein of the Rho family, controls actin cytoskeletal organization and helps to generate actin-based protruding structures, such as filopodia. In vitro, Cdc42 regulates actin polymerization by facilitating the creation of free barbed ends - the more rapidly growing ends of actin filaments - and subsequent elongation at these ends. The Wiskott- Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, which has a pleckstrin-homology domain and a Cdc42/Rac-binding motif, has been implicated in cell signaling and cytoskeleton reorganization. We have investigated the consequences of local recruitment of activated Cdc42 or WASP to the plasma membrane. RESULTS: We used an activated Cdc42 protein that could be recruited to an engineered membrane receptor by adding rapamycin as a bridge, and added antibody-coupled beads to aggregate these receptors. Inducible recruitment of Cdc42 to clusters of receptors stimulated actin polymerization, resulting in the formation of membrane protrusions. Cdc42-induced protrusions were enriched in the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein VASP and the focal-adhesion-associated proteins zyxin and ezrin. The Cdc42 effector WASP could also induce the formation of protrusions, albeit of different morphology. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first demonstration that the local recruitment of activated Cdc42 or its downstream effector, WASP, to a membrane receptor in whole cells is sufficient to trigger actin polymerization that results in the formation of membrane protrusions. Our data suggest that Cdc42-induced actin-based protrusions result from the local and serial recruitment of cytoskeletal proteins including zyxin, VASP, and ezrin.  (+info)

Crosstalk between the Ras2p-controlled mitogen-activated protein kinase and cAMP pathways during invasive growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (4/193)

The two highly conserved RAS genes of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are redundant for viability. Here we show that haploid invasive growth development depends on RAS2 but not RAS1. Ras1p is not sufficiently expressed to induce invasive growth. Ras2p activates invasive growth using either of two downstream signaling pathways, the filamentation MAPK (Cdc42p/Ste20p/MAPK) cascade or the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (Cyr1p/cAMP/PKA) pathway. This signal branch point can be uncoupled in cells expressing Ras2p mutant proteins that carry amino acid substitutions in the adenylyl cyclase interaction domain and therefore activate invasive growth solely dependent on the MAPK cascade. Both Ras2p-controlled signaling pathways stimulate expression of the filamentation response element-driven reporter gene depending on the transcription factors Ste12p and Tec1p, indicating a crosstalk between the MAPK and the cAMP signaling pathways in haploid cells during invasive growth.  (+info)

The Cdc42p GTPase is involved in a G2/M morphogenetic checkpoint regulating the apical-isotropic switch and nuclear division in yeast. (5/193)

The Cdc42p GTPase is involved in the signal transduction cascades controlling bud emergence and polarized cell growth in S. cerevisiae. Cells expressing the cdc42(V44A) effector domain mutant allele displayed morphological defects of highly elongated and multielongated budded cells indicative of a defect in the apical-isotropic switch in bud growth. In addition, these cells contained one, two, or multiple nuclei indicative of a G2/M delay in nuclear division and also a defect in cytokinesis and/or cell separation. Actin and chitin were delocalized, and septin ring structure was aberrant and partially delocalized to the tips of elongated cdc42(V44A) cells; however, Cdc42(V44A)p localization was normal. Two-hybrid protein analyses showed that the V44A mutation interfered with Cdc42p's interactions with Cla4p, a p21(Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase (PAK)-like kinase, and the novel effectors Gic1p and Gic2p, but not with the Ste20p or Skm1p PAK-like kinases, the Bni1p formin, or the Iqg1p IQGAP homolog. Furthermore, the cdc42(V44A) morphological defects were suppressed by deletion of the Swe1p cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitory kinase and by overexpression of Cla4p, Ste20p, the Cdc12 septin protein, or the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Cdc24p. In sum, these results suggest that proper Cdc42p function is essential for timely progression through the apical-isotropic switch and G2/M transition and that Cdc42(V44A)p differentially interacts with a number of effectors and regulators.  (+info)

Rho family GTPases control entry of Shigella flexneri into epithelial cells but not intracellular motility. (6/193)

Shigella flexneri, an invasive bacterial pathogen, promotes formation of two cytoskeletal structures: the entry focus that mediates bacterial uptake into epithelial cells and the actin-comet tail that enables the bacteria to spread intracellularly. During the entry step, secretion of bacterial invasins causes a massive burst of subcortical actin polymerization leading the formation of localised membrane projections. Fusion of these membrane ruffles leads to bacterial internalization. Inside the cytoplasm, polar expression of the IcsA protein on the bacterial surface allows polymerization of actin filaments and their organization into an actin-comet tail leading to bacterial spread. The Rho family of small GTPases plays an essential role in the organization and regulation of cellular cytoskeletal structures (i.e. filopodia, lamellipodia, adherence plaques and intercellular junctions). We show here that induction of Shigella entry foci is controlled by the Cdc42, Rac and Rho GTPases, but not by RhoG. In contrast, actin-driven intracellular motility of Shigella does not require Rho GTPases. Therefore, Shigella appears to manipulate the epithelial cell cytoskeleton both by Rho GTPase-dependent and -independent processes.  (+info)

Identification of the stef gene that encodes a novel guanine nucleotide exchange factor specific for Rac1. (7/193)

The Rho family GTPases are involved in a variety of cellular events by changing the organization of actin cytoskeletal networks in response to extracellular signals. However, it is not clearly known how their activities are spatially and temporally regulated. Here we report the identification of a novel guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1, STEF, which is related in overall amino acid sequence and modular structure to mouse Tiam1 and Drosophila SIF proteins. STEF protein contains two pleckstrin homology domains, a PDZ domain and a Dbl homology domain. The in vitro assay showed that STEF protein specifically enhanced the dissociation of GDP from Rac1 but not that from either RhoA or Cdc42. Expression of a truncated STEF protein in culture cells induced membrane ruffling with altered actin localization, which implies that this protein also activates Rac1 in vivo. The stef transcript was observed in restricted parts of mice, including cartilaginous tissues and the cortical plate of the central nervous system during embryogenesis. These findings suggested that STEF protein participates in the control of cellular events in several developing tissues, possibly changing the actin cytoskeletal network by activating Rac1.  (+info)

Activation of Ste20 by Nef from human immunodeficiency virus induces cytoskeletal rearrangements and downstream effector functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (8/193)

The negative factor (Nef) from human and simian immunodeficiency viruses is important for the pathogenesis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Among other targets, it activates the Nef-associated kinase, which is related to the p21-activated kinase. In this study, we demonstrate that Nef activates Ste20, the homolog of p21-activated kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nef binds to the adaptor proteins Bem1 and Ste20 via its proline-rich (PXXP) and diarginine (RR) motifs, respectively. These interactions induce the mitogen-activated protein kinase and increase the rates of budding, sizes of cells, and patterns of mating projections. These effects of Nef depend on the small GTPase Cdc42 and guanine nucleotide exchange factor Cdc24. Thus, studies in S. cerevisiae identified specific interactions between Nef and cellular proteins and their associated signaling cascade.  (+info)

Abstract: We present three distinct examples where phaseless auxiliary-field Quantum Monte Carlo (ph-AFQMC) can be reliably performed with a single-determinant trial wavefunction with essential symmetry breaking. We first utilized essential time-reversal symmetry breaking with ph-AFQMC to compute the triplet-singlet energy gap in the TS12 set. We found statistically better performance of ph-AFQMC with complex-restricted orbitals than with spin-unrestricted orbitals. We then showed the utilization of essential spin symmetry breaking when computing the single-triplet gap of a known biradicaloid, C$_{36}$. ph-AFQMC with spin-unrestricted Hartree-Fock (ph-AFQMC+UHF) fails catastrophically even with spin-projection and predicts no biradicaloid character. With approximate Br{\u}ckner orbitals obtained from regularized orbital-optimized second-order M{\o}ller-Plesset perturbation theory ($\kappa$-OOMP2), ph-AFQMC quantitatively captures strong biradicaloid character of C$_{36}$. Lastly, we applied ...
Winters MJ, Pryciak PM. Interaction with the SH3 domain protein Bem1 regulates signaling by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae p21-activated kinase Ste20. Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Mar; 25(6):2177-90 ...
The Higgs mechanism provides masses to vector bosons, but it does not completely break gauge symmetry (rather, it breaks the global part of it). This is obvious from the fact that gauge symmetry is often used to eliminate Goldstone bosons. In fact, Ive read on some other posts that at the quantum level, gauge symmetry is not a considered a symmetry (in the sense that it is not a symmetry of observables), but rather that it is some structural redundancy that physical theories have. Indeed, gauge symmetry breaking is a name more appropriate to the act of adding a gauge fixing term to the lagrangian. I have also read that it is a do-nothing transformation, in the sense that it acts trivially on states. Can someone show me an heuristic calculation showing that a gauge transformation is a do-nothing transformation (by this I mean define some gauge transformation on states and show that the state which is obtained is exactly the one we started from)? ...
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
Heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins (G proteins) determine tissue and cell polarity in a variety of organisms. In yeast, cells orient polarized growth toward the mating partner along a pheromone gradient by a mechanism that requires Far1p and Cdc24p. Far1p bound Gβγ and interacted with polarity establishment proteins, which organize the actin cytoskeleton. Cells containing mutated Far1p unable to bind Gβγ or polarity establishment proteins were defective for orienting growth toward their mating partner. In response to pheromones, Far1p moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Thus, Far1p functions as an adaptor that recruits polarity establishment proteins to the site of extracellular signaling marked by Gβγ to polarize assembly of the cytoskeleton in a morphogenetic gradient. ...
A defining feature of living systems is the capacity to break symmetry and generate well-defined forms and patterns through self-organisation. Our group aims to understand the principle of multi-cellular self-organisation using a well-suited model system: early mouse embryos. Mammalian eggs lack polarity and thus symmetry is broken during early embryogenesis. This symmetry breaking results in the formation of a blastocyst consisting of two major cell types, the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm, each distinct in its position and gene expression. Our recent studies unexpectedly revealed that morphogenesis and gene expression are highly dynamic and stochastically variable during this process. Determining which signal breaks the symmetry and how the blastocyst establishes a reproducible shape and pattern despite the preceding variability remains fundamental open questions in mammalian development. We have recently developed a unique set of experimental frameworks that integrate biology and ...
Some characteristic features of band structures, like the band degeneracy at high symmetry points or the existence of energy gaps, usually reflect the symmetry of the crystal or, more precisely, the symmetry of the wave vector group at the relevant points of the Brillouin zone. In this paper, we will illustrate this property by considering two-dimensional (2D)-hexagonal lattices characterized by a possible two-fold degenerate band at the K points with a linear dispersion (Dirac points). By combining scanning tunneling spectroscopy and angle-resolved photoemission, we study the electronic properties of a similar system: the Ag/Cu(111) interface reconstruction characterized by a hexagonal superlattice, and we show that the gap opening at the K points of the Brillouin zone of the reconstructed cell is due to the symmetry breaking of the wave vector group.
Abstract: In the extra U(1) superstring inspired model, we examine the electroweak and U(1)-prime symmetry breaking with the singlet and exotic quark D, D+{\c}along with the study of heavy Z-prime boson in accordance with the top quark mass region. For this, we have done the analysis of complete renormalization group equations (RGEs)pertaining to the anomaly free E-{\6}-Eta model of rank 5. The Z-prime is found to the order of TeV or above with allowed small Z-Zprime mixing angle, for which the large singlet VEV is required. This is done by considering the only non-universality of Yukawa couplings at GUT scale because these do not obey the E-{\6}relationship and also satisfies the unitarity constraints both at GUT and weak scale, where rest of the parameters, i.e., gaugino masses, tri-linear couplings, and soft supersymmetric breaking masses are kept universal at GUT scale with the gauge couplings unification. The large value of Yukawa couplings (order of 1) triggered the symmetry breaking ...
The freshwater polyp Hydra can regenerate from tissue fragments or random cell aggregates. We show that the axis-defining step (symmetry breaking) of regeneration requires mechanical inflation-collapse oscillations of the initial cell ball. We present experimental evidence that axis definition is …
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PURPOSE: To investigate the efficiency of antiplatelet (aspirin) therapy in vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (VED) patients with a high mean platelet volume. METHODS: A total of 184 patients diagnosed with VED between the ages of 18 and 76 were randomly divided into two groups and treated for 6 weeks [group 1: 120 patients (mean age 48.3), aspirin 100 mg/day; group 2: 64 patients (mean age 47.7), placebo 100 mg/day]. The changes from baseline to end point in erectile function scores on the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) and the number of patients who answered yes to questions 2 and 3 of the sexual encounter profile (SEP) were compared statistically ...
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Rho-type GTPase Cdc42 regulates polarized growth through its effectors, including the p21-activated kinases (PAKs) Ste20, Cla4, and Skm1. Previously, we demonstrated that Ste20 interacts with several proteins involved in sterol synthesis that are crucial for cell polarization. Under anaerobic conditions, sterols cannot be synthesized and need to be imported into cells. Here, we show that Ste20, Cla4, and Skm1 form a complex with Sut1, a transcriptional regulator that promotes sterol uptake. All three PAKs can translocate into the nucleus and down-regulate the expression of genes involved in sterol uptake, including the Sut1 targets AUS1 and DAN1 by a novel mechanism. Consistently, deletion of either STE20, CLA4, or SKM1 results in an increased sterol influx and PAK overexpression inhibits sterol uptake. For Ste20, we demonstrate that the down-regulation of gene expression requires nuclear localization and kinase activity of Ste20. Furthermore, the Ste20
We have developed a protocol to generate aggregates of mouse embryonic stem cells that display self-organization, symmetry breaking and ...
Casimir is a a joint graduate school between Leiden University and Delft University of Technology with focus on applied and fundamental physics. Casimir organizes courses for PhD students and also has a pre-phd track for MSc. students.
Toddler rails are crib specific and designed to preserve and continue the overall crib design through the conversion stages. Adding some extra protection against toddlers rolling out of the crib, it makes safety look stylish. This toddler guard rail is compatible with Karisma convertible cribs (5501/5502). Construction
A mechanistic hypothesis for the origin of the three domains of life is proposed. A population of evolving pre-cells is suggested to have had a membrane of a racemate of chiral lipids that continuously underwent spontaneous symmetry breaking by spatial phase segregation into two enantiomerically enr …
FYI, moved DD out of a crib right before she turned 2. She was verbal so that might make a difference. The rule was, you dont act like a big girl in the big bed then you go back in the crib. (With great power comes great responsibility). We never had a problem. On the other hand, it may be because I never sleep trained my kids, and we dont have a lot of arbitrary rules. I teach them to knock on my door, but I always let them in…… ...
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We have studied chiral symmetry breaking in the melt crystallization of 1,1-binaphthyl. We confirm that chiral symmetry breaking can be induced by stirring the melt as it crystallizes. We find an additional process of vapor crystallization to occur alongside the melt crystallization. This complicates the analysis of the enantiomorphism by introducing a further phenomenon: that of polymorphism. Crystallographic studies by X-ray diffraction reveal two polymorphs of 1,1-binaphthyl that are made up of two different conformers of each of the two enantiomeric forms of the molecule. Crystals from the melt are generally chiral tetragonal crystals (P42121) composed of (R)- or (S)-1,1-binaphthyl in a transoid conformer, while those from the vapor are racemic monoclinic crystals (C2/c) made up of the cisoid conformer of both (R)- and (S)-1,1-binaphthyl enantiomers. The main intermolecular interactions in all these crystals are weak aromatic CH/π hydrogen bonds, which are responsible for the ...
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The crib is the one place where babies and young children are regularly left unsupervised. To help keep your child safe, use recommended equipment properly and update features of the crib as your child grows.. In Canada, cribs made before September 1986 are considered unsafe, and it is illegal to advertise and sell them, though they may be found at garage sales and flea markets. If you are thinking of buying a used crib, be sure to check for a label to see when it was made. Do not use or buy a crib made before September 1986. ...
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In immunolocalization experiments, we previously had shown that Cdc42p was not observed around the plasma or internal membranes and was only variably seen at the mother-bud neck region (43). The disparity between these patterns and GFP-Cdc42p targeting patterns described herein may be due to the nature of the anti-Cdc42p antibody used. The antibody was raised against a peptide sequence containing amino acids 165 to 181, a region adjacent to the membrane-targeting domain (42) and likely to be in close proximity to the plasma membrane, raising the possibility that steric hindrance interfered with efficient binding. An underestimation of Cdc42p membrane targeting may also be due to the immunolocalization protocol used, including the use of cell wall-digesting enzymes and sodium dodecyl sulfate, required for efficient Cdc42p visualization. These possibilities were supported by the observation that the GFP-Cdc42p immunolocalization pattern with anti-Cdc42p antibody was similar to that seen previously ...
We have studied the ultrafast changes of electronic states in bulk ZnO upon intense hard x-ray excitation from a free electron laser. By monitoring the transient anisotropy induced in an optical probe beam, we observe a delayed breaking of the initial c-plane symmetry of the crystal that lasts for several picoseconds. Interaction with the intense x-ray pulses modifies the electronic state filling in a manner inconsistent with a simple increase in electronic temperature. These results may indicate a way to use intense ultrashort x-ray pulses to investigate high-energy carrier dynamics and to control certain properties of solid-state materials. ...
The Babys Dream Willa Metal Stationary Crib, Aqua is Babys Dream 1st Traditional Metal Crib and is a gorgeous heirloom. The Willa crib is a stunner at a fantastic price.. ...
Lecture 1 - The notions of aquantum phase, order, symmetry breaking. Evolution of quantum systems. The notion of a quantum phase transition, universality, dynamical ctitical exponent, types of phase transitions and level crossing ...
We report results of a search for supersymmetry (SUSY) with gauge-mediated symmetry breaking in di-photon events collected by the DO experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider in 2002-2006. In 1.1 fb(-1) of data, we find no significant excess beyond the background expected from the standard model and set the most stringent lower limits to date for a standard benchmark model on the lightest neutralino and chargino masses of 125 GeV and 229 GeV, respectively, at 95% confidence.. ...
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Yet she hadnt ever climbed out of her crib, much to our surprise. Until yesterday. I went to get her out in the morning when she began hollering for me and when I walked in the room she said Paisley do it as she swung a little leg over the side of the crib. She quickly scaled the wall and dropped to her feet on the other side as I watched in amazement ...
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Seja bem vindo ao site do Principio Vital. O Princípio Vital é uma ferramenta de Homeopatia que foi desenvolvido para facilitar o trabalho de profissionais da área. Está vinculado na web
Seja bem vindo ao site do Principio Vital. O Princípio Vital é uma ferramenta de Homeopatia que foi desenvolvido para facilitar o trabalho de profissionais da área. Está vinculado na web
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Thus, the transient terahertz response reveals nontrivial dynamics of the stripe-phase vibrational order in LSNO under nonequilibrium conditions. Ultrafast excitation increases the excess energy of the electronic carriers, resulting in a quasi-instantaneous charge delocalization and ensuing partial melting of the electronic stripes, as reported previously (19-21). At early times (Δt = 0 ps), the crystal distortions still remain frozen in their stripe-phase symmetry, whereas the charges have become itinerant. Within a few 100 fs, the charges localize, which contributes to disrupting the electronic order and may further involve dissipation into strongly coupled phonons analogous to other complex oxides (25, 26). Here, the longitudinal zone-folded distortions adapt on a similar time scale, whereas the transverse distortions remain locked in a symmetry-broken state. This indicates a situation where the translational symmetry is restored along the ordering wave vector for only one of the two ...
This opening lecture lists some of the questions and issues propelling current research in Cell Biology and modelling in this field. I introduce basic features of eukaryotic cells that can crawl, and explain briefly the role of the actin cytoskeleton in cell motility. I also introduce the biochemical signalling that regulates the cytoskeleton and the concept of cell polarization. By simplifying the enormously complex signalling networks, and applying tools of mathematics (nonlinear dynamics, scaling, bifurcations), we can hope to get some understanding of a few of the basic mechanisms that areresponsible for symmetry breaking, robustness, pattern formation, self-assembly, and other cell-level phenomena ...
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We derive an unbiased information theoretic energy landscape for chromosomes at metaphase using a maximum entropy approach that accurately reproduces the details of the experimentally measured pairwise contact probabilities between genomic loci. Dynamical simulations using this landscape lead to cylindrical, helically twisted structures reflecting liquid crystalline order. These structures are similar to those arising from a generic ideal homogenized chromosome energy landscape. The helical twist can be either right or left handed so chiral symmetry is broken spontaneously. The ideal chromosome landscape when augmented by interactions like those leading to topologically associating domain formation in the interphase chromosome reproduces these behaviors. The phase diagram of this landscape shows that the helical fiber order and the cylindrical shape persist at temperatures above the onset of chiral symmetry breaking, which is limited by the topologically associating domain interaction strength ...
We experimentally demonstrate the realization of a parity-time (PT) symmetry breaking in optically coupled semiconductor lasers (SCLs). The two SCLs are identical except for a detuning between their optical emission frequencies. This detuning is analogous to the gain-loss parameter found in optical PT systems. To model the coupled SCLs, we employ the standard rate equations describing the electric field and carrier inversion of each SCL, and show that, under certain conditions, the rate equations reduce to the canonical, two-site PT- symmetric model. This model captures the global behavior of the laser intensity as the system parameters are varied. Overall, we find that this bulk system (coupled SCLs) provides an excellent test-bed to probe the characteristics of PT-breaking transitions, including the effects of time delay ...
SMSB processes yield a stochastic distribution of chiral signs between successive experiments or outcomes. This means that for a large number of experiments, or in a scenario of a large number of independent working reactors, as in the abiotic scenario of hydrothermal vents in the Hadean Ocean, the average over all the individual stochastic outputs must be the racemic mixture. However, a characteristic of SMSB bifurcations is that a very weak external chiral polarization can select one of the two degenerate chiral branches.20,21 Therefore, any weak chiral induction on the enantiomeric transition states, sufficiently weak so that it has no chemical relevance for common asymmetric synthesis, selects one of the two SMSB bifurcation branches deterministically for one of the two chiral signs. There are recent dramatic experimental examples of this for the Soai reaction.13 Thus, for example Fig. 5 shows a simulation for the deterministic effect of an extremely weak chiral polarization that converts ...
Takahashi T, Muneoka Y, Lohmann J, deHaro LM, Solleder G, Bosch TCG, David CN, Bode HR, Koizumi O, Shimizu H, Hatta M, Fujisawa T, Sugiyama T (1997) Systematic isolation of peptide signal molecules regulating development in hydra: Lwamide and PW families. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:1241-1246.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
In this thesis, simulations are performed to study the motion ofindividual cells in flow, focusing on the hydrodynamics of actively swimming cells likethe self-propelling microorganisms, and of passively advected objects like the red bloodcells. In particular, we develop numerical tools to address the locomotion ofmicroswimmers in viscoelastic fluids and complex geometries, as well as the motion ofdeformable capsules in micro-fluidic flows.. For the active movement, the squirmer is used as our model microswimmer. The finiteelement method is employed to study the influence of the viscoelasticity of fluid on theperformance of locomotion. A boundary element method is implemented to study swimmingcells inside a tube. For the passive counterpart, the deformable capsule is chosen as the modelcell. An accelerated boundary integral method code is developed to solve thefluid-structure interaction, and a global spectral method is incorporated to handle theevolving cell surface and its corresponding ...
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Emotions are difficult to interpret, particularly if you are existing in an epistemological vacuum where the theory of evolution and the evolutiona of organisms (and their nervous systems) isnt there to serve as an internal referent that allows you to recognize the essential polarity of the organism - that which is generative and symmetrical, and that which is dissipative and symmetry breaking. These terms come from the physics of thermodynamics, and the study of the physics of organisms, where symmetry (generative) dynamics exist side by side with dissipative (disequilibrated) dynamics, generally termed metabolism. In a certain sense, the gene-protein macro-molecular edifice that builds us into a real-physical structure can be considered the symmetry within us, whereas its tendency towards dissolution (heat loss) puts it into constant interaction with small metabolites, co-factors and the environment to keep itself alive ...
Abstract: Five years after their discovery, much of the interest in iron-pnictide materials remains in understanding not only their superconducting transition at nearly 60K, but also the nature of their normal state. In this context, a hotly debated topic is the origin of the tetragonal to orthorhombic transition, which either precedes or happens simultaneously to a magnetic instability, and persists even in the vicinities of the superconducting dome. Experiments have revealed that the anisotropies in this orthorhombic phase cannot be explained by the small lattice distortion alone, suggesting that the tetragonal symmetry breaking is driven by electronic degrees of freedom, dubbed nematic in analogy to the physics of liquid crystals. In this talk, I will present a consistent microscopic theoretical model for this nematic phase and explore its manifestations in a variety of macroscopic properties of the iron pnictides -- such as elastic, magnetic, and transport properties. The model is rooted on ...
The effect of load rate on the load-carrying capabilities of wood cribs is investigated in this Bureau of Mines study. The modulus of deformation (stiffness) of wood crib blocks has been shown to increase with increases in rates of load application, causing larger load reactions for increases in convergence rates. Since wood cribs are tested in the laboratory at convergence rates that are orders
Cdc42 was originally discovered as a key regulator of bud site assembly and polarity in S. cerevisiae. Recent genetic studies have shown that the function of Cdc42 in regulating cell polarity appears...
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... cdc42 gtp-binding protein MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.300.400.700.060 - cdc42 gtp-binding protein, saccharomyces cerevisiae MeSH ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunits MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.300.200.100.100 - gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, g12-g13 MeSH ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gi-go MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.300. - gtp-binding protein alpha subunit, gi2 ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gq-g11 MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.300.200.100.400 - gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gs ...
... cdc42 gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.776.476.525.700.050.500 - cdc42 gtp-binding protein in saccharomyces cerevisiae MeSH D12.776 ... rab2 gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.776.476.525.400.100 - rab3 gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.776.476.525.400.100.100 - rab3a gtp- ... rac gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.776.476.525.700.100.100 - rac1 gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.776.476.525.700.200 - rhoa gtp- ... rab4 gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.776.476.525.400.200 - rab5 gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.776.476.525.475.100 - rap1 gtp- ...
This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to the CDC10 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The protein also shares ... Each of these similar proteins, including the yeast CDC10, contains a GTP-binding motif. The yeast CDC10 protein is a ... "Borg proteins control septin organization and are negatively regulated by Cdc42". Nature Cell Biology. 3 (10): 861-6. doi: ... "Functional analysis of a human homologue of the Drosophila actin binding protein anillin suggests a role in cytokinesis". The ...
eIF-2b regenerates the GTP-bound form of eIF-2 for an additional cycle in protein synthesis initiation, i.e., its binding to ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Dbl-like RhoGEFs were present at the origin of eukaryotes and evolved as highly adaptive cell ... There are 11 identified DOCK family members divided into subfamilies based on their activation of Rac and Cdc42. DOCK family ... GTP generally binds in its place, as the cytosolic ratio of GTP is much higher than GDP at 10:1. The binding of GTP to the ...
... cdc42 gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.776.157.325.515.700.050.500 - cdc42 gtp-binding protein, saccharomyces cerevisiae MeSH ... ral gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.776.157.325.515.462 - ran gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.776.157.325.515.475 - rap gtp-binding ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, g12-g13 MeSH D12.776.157.325.332.100.200 - gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gi-go MeSH ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunit, gi2 MeSH D12.776.157.325.332.100.300 - gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gq-g11 MeSH ...
The cooperative binding of CDC42 and PIP2 is thermodynamically favored; binding of one enhances binding of the other. CDC42 and ... Rajmohan R, Meng L, Yu S, Thanabalu T (April 2006). "WASP suppresses the growth defect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae las17Delta ... WASp and N-WASP are analogs, they contain an N-terminal EVH1 domain, a C-terminal VCA domain and central B and GBD (GTP binding ... "Cdc42-interacting protein 4 mediates binding of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein to microtubules". The Journal of ...
... and their state of phosphorylation determines which proteins can bind. While many of the key polarity proteins are well ... The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a model system for eukaryotic biology in which many of the fundamental elements ... For polarity sites to form, Cdc42 must be present and capable of cycling GTP, a process regulated by its guanine nucleotide ... Examples include the PAR complex (Cdc42, PAR3/ASIP, PAR6, atypical protein kinase C), Crumbs complex (Crb, PALS, PATJ, Lin7), ...
... cdc42 gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.644.360.525.700.050.500 - cdc42 gtp-binding protein, saccharomyces cerevisiae MeSH D12.644. ... ral gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.644.360.525.462 - ran gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.644.360.525.475 - rap gtp-binding proteins ... rab2 gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.644.360.525.400.100 - rab3 gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.644.360.525.400.100.100 - rab3a gtp- ... rac gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.644.360.525.700.100.100 - rac1 gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.644.360.525.700.200 - rhoa gtp- ...
The cooperative binding of CDC42 and PIP2 is thermodynamically favored; binding of one enhances binding of the other.[9] CDC42 ... Rajmohan R, Meng L, Yu S, Thanabalu T (April 2006). "WASP suppresses the growth defect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae las17Delta ... WASp and N-WASP are analogs, they contain an N-terminal EVH1 domain, a C-terminal VCA domain and central B and GBD (GTP binding ... SH3 domain binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • actin binding. • protein kinase binding. • small GTPase ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae*cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. *cdc42 GTP Binding Protein, Saccharomyces ... cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein [D12.776.157.325.515.700.050]. *cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae [D12.776.157.325. ... cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein [D12.644.360.525.700.050]. *cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae [D12.644.360.525. ... cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein [D12.776.476.525.700.050]. *cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae [D12.776.476.525. ...
... cdc42 GTP-Binding Proteincdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae • Cell Membrane Permeability • Cell Polarity • ... Saccharomyces cerevisiaeSaccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins • Septins • Signal Transduction • SNARE Proteins • Sodium • Sodium ... Protein BindingProtein Isoforms • Protein Transport • Quail • Rats • Rats, Inbred SHR • Rats, Wistar • Renal Circulation • ... Membrane Transport Proteins • Mice • Microvessels • Models, Animal • Models, Biological • Models, Statistical • Models, ...
... cdc42 GTP-Binding Proteincdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae • Cell Membrane Permeability • Cell Polarity • ... Saccharomyces cerevisiaeSaccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins • Septins • Signal Transduction • SNARE Proteins • Sodium • Sodium ... Protein BindingProtein Isoforms • Protein Transport • Quail • Rats • Rats, Inbred SHR • Rats, Wistar • Renal Circulation • ... Membrane Transport Proteins • Mice • Microvessels • Models, Animal • Models, Biological • Models, Statistical • Models, ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae variety diastaticus is generally considered to be an obligatory spoilage microorganism and spoilage ... Cdc42 Gtp-binding Protein, Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from ... Silent Information Regulator Proteins, Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. A set of nuclear proteins in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE that are ... Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Proteins. Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific ...
... members of the Rho family of GTP-binding proteins have recently been implicated in a plethora of other functions, including the ... GTP-Binding Proteins * cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae * rac GTP-Binding Proteins ... In addition to their roles in organizing the actin cytoskeleton, members of the Rho family of GTP-binding proteins have ... Alongside this expansion is proposed functions has been the identification of multiple target proteins that interact directly ...
EC GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library ... cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism*. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: ...
Categories: cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, ...
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rho family protein Rho1p binds to PKC1, the yeast PKC homolog, and stimulates PKC1 activity in the ... Atypical Protein Kinases Cλ and -ζ Associate with the GTP-Binding Protein Cdc42 and Mediate Stress Fiber Loss. Matthew P. ... GST-Cdc42 associates with aPKC in rat brain cytosol.GST fusions of the Rho family GTP-binding proteins RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 ... V12 Cdc42 bound well to aPKCs, wild-type Cdc42 bound less well, and little binding was detected with N17 Cdc42. The V12/T35A ...
In budding yeast, this symmetry-breaking polarization depends on a scaffold protein called Bem1p. A recent study defines ... cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae / chemistry * cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae / ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism * Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / chemistry * Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins * BEM1 protein, S cerevisiae * p21-Activated Kinases * cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, ...
1991) Mutational analysis of CDC42Sc, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene that encodes a putative GTP-binding protein involved in ... 1995) Pheromone signalling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the small GTP-binding protein Cdc42p and its activator Cdc24p. ... Molecular cloning of the gene for the human placental GTP-binding protein Gp (G25K): identification of this GTP-binding protein ... 1996) Functional analysis of the interaction between the small GTP binding protein Cdc42 and the Ste20 protein kinase in yeast. ...
Promotes the exchange of CDC42-bound GDP by GTP. Controls the polarity of calmodulin, and the calcium regulatory process of bud ... Promotes the exchange of CDC42-bound GDP by GTP. Controls the polarity of calmodulin, and the calcium regulatory process of bud ... Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae): entries, gene names and cross-references to SGD. *PDB cross-references. Index of Protein Data ... sp,P11433,CDC24_YEAST Cell division control protein 24 OS=Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c) OX=559292 GN= ...
This protein is highly similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc 42, and is able to complement the yeast cdc42-1 mutant. The ... These proteins can bind GTP and GDP, and they have intrinsic GTPase activity. This protein undergoes a continuous cycle of de- ... and they serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac. This specific family member regulates cell motility ... The encoded protein is a calcium-binding, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein that interacts transiently with newly ...
This protein is highly similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc 42, and is able to complement the yeast cdc42-1 mutant. The ... Microtubule associated proteins like MAP1, MAP2, MAP4, or MAPtau bind polymerized microtubules stabilize the polymerized form, ... Several common GTPase families like Rac and Rho promote microtubule assembly indirectly by facilitating GDP/GTP exchange on ... RHOA Proteins ROCK1 (rho-Associated, Coiled-Coil Containing Protein Kinase 1): ROCK1 antibodies ROCK1 ELISA Kits ROCK1 Proteins ...
This protein is highly similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc 42, and is able to complement the yeast cdc42-1 mutant. The ... FRZB (Frizzled-Related Protein): FRZB antibodies FRZB ELISA Kits FRZB Proteins IGFBP4 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding ... Protein 4): IGFBP4 antibodies IGFBP4 ELISA Kits IGFBP4 Proteins IGFBP5 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5): IGFBP5 ... IGFBP6 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 6): IGFBP6 antibodies IGFBP6 ELISA Kits IGFBP6 Proteins ...
This protein is highly similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc 42, and is able to complement the yeast cdc42-1 mutant. The ... FRZB (Frizzled-Related Protein): FRZB Antikörper FRZB ELISA Kits FRZB Proteine IGFBP4 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding ... The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor protein tyrosine kinase and type I transmembrane protein that belongs to the ROR ... This protein also acts as a co-receptor with Frizzled protein family members for transducing signals by Wnt proteins and was ...
... cell wall integrity and binds Cdc42, a Rho-like small GTP-binding protein required for polarized morphogenesis. We have cloned ... The DNA binding protein, Ace2, plays a major role in the control of cell-cycle progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, being a ... cell wall integrity and binds Cdc42, a Rho-like small GTP-binding protein required for polarized morphogenesis. We have cloned ... The DNA binding protein, Ace2, plays a major role in the control of cell-cycle progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, being a ...
GTP-Binding Proteins. *cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Grant support. *GM48052/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United ... Functional analysis of the interaction between the small GTP binding protein Cdc42 and the Ste20 protein kinase in yeast.. ... but it has been demonstrated recently that binding of the small GTP binding protein Cdc42 is able to activate Ste20 in vitro. ... In contrast, a Ste20 mutant protein unable to bind Cdc42 was found diffusely throughout the cytoplasm, suggesting that Cdc42 is ...
GTP-Binding Proteins. *cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. *rac GTP-Binding Proteins ... The small GTP-binding proteins Rac1 and Cdc42 regulate the activity of the JNK/SAPK signaling pathway.. Coso OA1, Chiariello M ... cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. *rac GTP-Binding Proteins. Substances. *Cell Cycle Proteins ... Taken together, these findings strongly support a critical role for Rac1 and Cdc42 in controlling the JNK signaling pathway. ...
... suggesting that cooperation between protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions is a prevalent mechanism during Cdc42- ... Thus, Cdc42 binding is required but is insufficient; instead, direct membrane binding by Ste20 is also required. Nevertheless, ... In budding yeast, Cdc42 regulates polarity and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling in part through the PAK-family ... Activation of Ste20 requires a Cdc42/Rac interactive binding (CRIB) domain, which mediates its recruitment to membrane- ...
cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc42蛋白質-酵母 MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 3 ERKキナーゼキナーゼ3 ... rho GTP-Binding Proteins rho低分子量GTP結合蛋白質 ... rac GTP-Binding Proteins Rac蛋白質 rac1 GTP-Binding Protein rac1 ... GTPase-Activating Proteins GTPアーゼ活性化蛋白質 ... cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein cdc42蛋白質 Guanosine Triphosphate ... IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 2
An exciting possibility is that target proteins (see the next section) could be used to recognize the GTP-bound forms of Rho, ... controls Rho1p activation inSaccharomyces cerevisiae (28). A major problem in this field has been the lack of reliable reagents ... Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 have been reported to regulate the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and the p38 mitogen-activated protein ( ... In vitro binding assays have revealed that their interaction (through their NH2-termini) with a transmembrane protein, CD44, ...
... cdc42 gtp-binding protein MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.300.400.700.060 - cdc42 gtp-binding protein, saccharomyces cerevisiae MeSH ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunits MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.300.200.100.100 - gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, g12-g13 MeSH ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gi-go MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.300. - gtp-binding protein alpha subunit, gi2 ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gq-g11 MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.300.200.100.400 - gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gs ...
... cdc42 gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.776.476.525.700.050.500 - cdc42 gtp-binding protein in saccharomyces cerevisiae MeSH D12.776 ... rab2 gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.776.476.525.400.100 - rab3 gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.776.476.525.400.100.100 - rab3a gtp- ... rac gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.776.476.525.700.100.100 - rac1 gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.776.476.525.700.200 - rhoa gtp- ... rab4 gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.776.476.525.400.200 - rab5 gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.776.476.525.475.100 - rap1 gtp- ...
The Rho/Cdc42 family of GTPases and the letha … ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins * cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein * ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / metabolism * cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein / metabolism * rho GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism ... The Rho/Cdc42 family of GTPases and the lethal giant larvae/Sro7 family are two highly conserved families of proteins which ...
gtp binding protein beta subunits*heterotrimeric gtp binding proteins*saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc42 gtp binding protein*map ... gtp binding protein alpha subunits*myosin type v*gq g11 gtp binding protein alpha subunits*coliphages*tunicamycin*saccharomyces ... Ste4 has regions of homology with STE50, an S. cerevisiae protein required for sexual differentiation that we show can bind to ... gtp binding protein gamma subunits*tropism*genetic epistasis*mannosyltransferases*phosphothreonine* ...
Species about Experts and Doctors on saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins in Ithaca, New York, United States ... saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc42 gtp binding protein*microtubule proteins*transcriptional silencer elements*benomyl*rab gtp ... Biochemical comparisons of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bem2 and Bem3 proteins. Delineation of a limit Cdc42 GTPase-activating ... Experts and Doctors on saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins in Ithaca, New York, United States. Summary. Locale: Ithaca, New York ...
cdc42 gtp binding protein*snare proteins*glycosyltransferases. Genomes and Genes. *Vps35 products*VPS15 *VPS35 *VPS29 *VPS17 * ... Pérez Sampietro M, Herrero E. The PacC-family protein Rim101 prevents selenite toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by ... Experts and Doctors on saccharomyces cerevisiae in Tokyo, Japan*Experts and Doctors on cell membrane in Tokyo, Japan*Experts ... molecules in which domains of Vps26p have been replaced by the similar domain in the protein encoded by the mouse VPS26 gene, ...
... partial cDNA of a ROP binding protein kinase (HvRBK1) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid screenings with barley ... Cdc42/Rac-interactive binding. RIC. ROP-interactive CRIB motif-containing protein. MT. microtubule. YTH. yeast two hybrid. DN. ... Barley HvRBK1 is an active kinase in vitro, and activity is enhanced by CA HvRACB or GTP-loaded HvRAC1. Hence, HvRBK1 might act ... cyan fluorescent protein. YFP. yellow fluorescent protein. RFP. red fluorescent protein. TIGS. transient-induced gene silencing ...
The experimental data is in the form of mass spectrometry, yeast two-hybrid, protein structure prediction, light microscopy and ... The YRC PDR provides for the searching of millions of protein descriptions from many databases to find proteins and public ... experimental data describing those proteins produced by the YRC. ... interacts with the Rho1p small GTP-binding protein and with the ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae Length:. 633 amino acids. Gene Ontology:. Cellular Component:. nucleus [IDA. ] cytoplasm [IDA. ] ...
... cerevisiae OSH1 and YHR073w.. *Mouse protein citron, a putative rho/rac effector that binds to the GTP-bound forms of rho and ... guanine nucleotide exchange proteins like vav, dbl, SoS and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC24, GTPase activating proteins like ... Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Region of Intersectin in Complex with Cdc42. 1kz7. Crystal Structure of the DH/PH Fragment of ... Its function is not known, but many proteins that contain a PH domain interact with GTP-binding proteins. The PH domain in beta ...
Protein Coding), P21 (RAC1) Activated Kinase 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Interacts tightly with GTP-bound but not GDP-bound CDC42/p21 and RAC1 (By similarity). Interacts with the androgen receptor AR ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Saccharomycetes. STE20 31 *21 (a). OneToMany. *VIII:95118-97937. Sea Squirt. (Ciona savignyi) ... Protein Symbol:. Q9NQU5-PAK6_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 6. Protein Accession:. Q9NQU5. ...
rhoa gtp binding protein. Website summaries. Medical Information Search ... Binding Protein 2Amidesrac GTP-Binding ProteinsMacromolecular SubstancesSeptinsTATA-Box Binding ProteinSaccharomyces cerevisiae ... ProteinsGuanylyl ImidodiphosphateInsulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteinscdc42 GTP-Binding ProteinRNA-Binding ProteinsRNA, ... Binding Proteinsrab5 GTP-Binding ProteinsProtein-Serine-Threonine Kinasesrab2 GTP-Binding ProteinProteinsOncogene Protein p21( ...
17:54.1 We mark a protein called. 17:56.2 actin binding protein 140 (Abp140),. 17:58.2 which binds to the actin cables,. 18: ... 01:45.3 are called Saccharomyces cerevisiae,. 01:47.1 and here are some differences.. 01:48.2 Okay?. 01:49.2 It takes about 20 ... 09:30.0 It recruits another protein,. 09:31.2 this protein is called Cdc42.. 09:35.2 Cdc stands for cell division cycle,. 09: ... 22:18.2 this GTP back to GDP,. 22:21.0 the bumps go away on this α subunit,. 22:23.2 it binds back to the β and 𠛾 ...
A novel GTP-binding protein, Sar1p, is involved in transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. J. Cell ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae). (B) ER microsomes were incubated in the presence of ATP, GTP, and purified COPII components for 30 ... The STAR motif is unique to the Sar1 family and is absent from all other Ras superfamily GTPases including Ras, Rho/Rac/Cdc42, ... A novel GTP-binding protein, Sar1p, is involved in transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. J. Cell ...
In vitro GDP/GTP exchange assays demonstrated that the Dbl family GEF Don1 is highly specific for Cdc42 and cannot activate ... Dissection of the assembly pathway of the proteasome lid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Then, all text in news headlines was ... 3H-spiperone binding capacity in mononuclear cells: a family study. Treatment of NHP significantly decreased fasting glucose, ... Different culturing times were established in hypoxia incubator, and protein expressions of VEGF in placental tissue were ...
protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, alpha. 0.983. CDC42. cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25kDa). 0.982. ... ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1). 0.772. ... guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 1. 0.075. ... protein phosphatase 2 (formerly 2A), regulatory subunit A (PR 65), alpha isoform. 0.930. ...
RAB4A:GTP binds KIF3 and activates KIF3 (Homo sapiens) * GGC-RAB4A:GTP:KIF3:microtubule [cytoplasmic vesicle membrane] (Homo ... Homologues of TUBA3C [cytosol] (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Homologues of TUBA3C [cytosol] (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) ... PolyUb-Misfolded proteins bind vimentin to form aggresome (Homo sapiens) * Poly-vimentin:PolyUb-Misfolded Proteins:HDAC6: ... RAC1,CDC42:GTP:IQGAP1:CLIP1:microtubule [plasma membrane] (Homo sapiens) * Microtubule [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * Microtubule ...
... that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific ... DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded ... Saccharomyces cerevisiaeSaccharomyces cerevisiae ProteinsCell CyclePeptide FragmentsCreatine KinaseDNA-Activated Protein Kinase ...
... protein binding,chromatin binding,ATPase activity,GTP binding,GTPase activity,ATP binding DNA replication preinitiation complex ... cerevisiae regulatory subunit, Rpn7p; Rpn5p is an essential protein cullin deneddylation,ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic ... Dubious open reading frame unlikely to encode a functional protein; overlaps 5 end of essential CDC42 gene which encodes a ... unlikely to encode a protein; not conserved in closely related Saccharomyces species; partially overlaps the essential gene ...
Protein Profiling of Adenine Nucleoside and Nucleotide Analogs Binding Proteins Using N6-Biotinylated-8-azidoadenosine Analogs ... In the yeast model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a synthetic substrate developed from a proposed Gcn5-specific consensus ... Wenn sie GTP gebunden haben befinden sie sich im aktiven, bei Bindung von GDP im inaktiven Zustand. Der Austausch dieser beiden ... Zunächst wurde qGAP mit RhoA, Rac1 und Cdc42 auf zytoplasmatische Extrakte von SILAC-markierten HeLa Zellen angewendet (SILAC- ...
... protein binding,chromatin binding,ATPase activity,GTP binding,GTPase activity,ATP binding DNA replication preinitiation complex ... cerevisiae regulatory subunit, Rpn7p; Rpn5p is an essential protein cullin deneddylation,ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic ... Dubious open reading frame unlikely to encode a functional protein; overlaps 5 end of essential CDC42 gene which encodes a ... unlikely to encode a protein; not conserved in closely related Saccharomyces species; partially overlaps the essential gene ...
... protein binding,chromatin binding,ATPase activity,GTP binding,GTPase activity,ATP binding DNA replication preinitiation complex ... cerevisiae regulatory subunit, Rpn7p; Rpn5p is an essential protein cullin deneddylation,ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic ... Dubious open reading frame unlikely to encode a functional protein; overlaps 5 end of essential CDC42 gene which encodes a ... unlikely to encode a protein; not conserved in closely related Saccharomyces species; partially overlaps the essential gene ...
... protein binding,chromatin binding,ATPase activity,GTP binding,GTPase activity,ATP binding DNA replication preinitiation complex ... cerevisiae regulatory subunit, Rpn7p; Rpn5p is an essential protein cullin deneddylation,ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic ... Dubious open reading frame unlikely to encode a functional protein; overlaps 5 end of essential CDC42 gene which encodes a ... unlikely to encode a protein; not conserved in closely related Saccharomyces species; partially overlaps the essential gene ...
GDP-bound) and an active (GTP-bound) state. ... Cdc42, RAC, and Rho are well known to mediate a large variety ... Stoichiometry of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Lysine Methylation: Insights Into Non-Histone Protein Lysine Methyltransferase ... GDP-bound) and an active (GTP-bound) state. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) stimulate the exchange of GDP for GTP to ... Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of Central Carbon and Amino-Acid Metabolism in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Under Multiple ...
  • Das M, Wiley DJ, Chen X, Shah K, Verde F. The conserved NDR kinase Orb6 controls polarized cell growth by spatial regulation of the small GTPase Cdc42. (harvard.edu)
  • In addition to their roles in organizing the actin cytoskeleton, members of the Rho family of GTP-binding proteins have recently been implicated in a plethora of other functions, including the activation of kinase cascades and transcription factors, and the control of endocytosis and secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Kinase-dead PKCλ and -ζ constructs acted as dominant negatives and restored stress fibers in cells expressing the activated V12 Cdc42 mutant, indicating that Cdc42-dependent loss of stress fibers requires aPKCs. (asm.org)
  • Kinase-dead PKCλ and -ζ and dominant-negative N17 Cdc42 also blocked Ras-induced loss of stress fibers, suggesting that this pathway may also be important for Ras-dependent cytoskeletal changes. (asm.org)
  • Rho family GTP-binding proteins also stimulate other signaling pathways that are important in both normal cellular function and transformation, including cell cycle progression, activation of the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways, and regulation of transcription. (asm.org)
  • PKCs and Rho family GTP-binding proteins both have effects on the actin cytoskeleton, the activation of p70 S6 kinase, the JNK pathway, and the fos and NF-κβ promoters ( 44 ). (asm.org)
  • Additional observations lead us to suggest that Cdc42p collaborates with the SH3-domain protein Bem1p to facilitate signal transduction, possibly by providing a cell surface scaffold that aids in the local concentration of signaling kinases, thus promoting activation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade by Ste20p. (asm.org)
  • In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , cells of the a and α mating types secrete pheromones that bind to G-protein-coupled receptors on the surfaces of cells of the opposite mating type, initiating a signaling cascade in which the βγ subunits of the G protein promote the activation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • This process appears to involve the binding of at least two proteins, the upstream kinase Ste20p and the scaffold protein Ste5p, to the liberated Gβγ subunits ( 11 , 25 , 40 , 51 ). (asm.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which acts as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • This protein kinase lies upstream of MAP kinases and stimulates the enzymatic activity of MAP kinases upon. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine kinase and is part of some signal transduction cascades, including the ERK and JNK kinase pathways as well as the NF-kappa-B pathway. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • This proto-oncogene belongs to the RAF subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and maybe involved in cell growth and development. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Functional analysis of the interaction between the small GTP binding protein Cdc42 and the Ste20 protein kinase in yeast. (nih.gov)
  • STE20 encodes a protein kinase related to mammalian p65Pak which functions in several signal transduction pathways in yeast, including those involved in pseudohyphal and invasive growth, as well as mating. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, these alleles were able to fully activate the MAP kinase pathway triggered by mating pheromones in vivo, suggesting that binding of Cdc42 and Ste20 was not required to activate Ste20. (nih.gov)
  • In budding yeast, Cdc42 regulates polarity and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling in part through the PAK-family kinase Ste20. (umassmed.edu)
  • Cdc42 regulation of kinase activity and signaling by the yeast p21-act" by Rachel E. Lamson, Matthew J. Winters et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinase Ste20 is a member of the p21-activated kinase (PAK) family with several functions, including pheromone-responsive signal transduction. (umassmed.edu)
  • While PAKs are usually activated by small G proteins and Ste20 binds Cdc42, the role of Cdc42-Ste20 binding has been controversial, largely because Ste20 lacking its entire Cdc42-binding (CRIB) domain retains kinase activity and pheromone response. (umassmed.edu)
  • We also found that Ste20 kinase activity is stimulated by GTP-bound Cdc42 in vivo and this effect is blocked by the CRIB point mutations. (umassmed.edu)
  • Moreover, the Ste20 CRIB and kinase domains bind each other, and mutations that disrupt this interaction cause hyperactive kinase activity and bypass the requirement for Cdc42 binding. (umassmed.edu)
  • These observations demonstrate that the Ste20 CRIB domain is autoinhibitory and that this negative effect is antagonized by Cdc42 to promote Ste20 kinase activity and signaling. (umassmed.edu)
  • While necessary for pheromone signaling, the role of the Cdc42-Ste20 interaction does not require regulation by pheromone or the pheromone-activated G beta gamma complex, because the CRIB point mutations also disrupt signaling by activated forms of the kinase cascade scaffold protein Ste5. (umassmed.edu)
  • and Pryciak, Peter M., "Cdc42 regulation of kinase activity and signaling by the yeast p21-activated kinase Ste20" (2002). (umassmed.edu)
  • Liu Y, Xiao H, Tian Y, Nekrasova T, Hao X, Lee HJ, Suh N, Yang CS, Minden A. The pak4 protein kinase plays a key role in cell survival and tumorigenesis in athymic mice. (umassmed.edu)
  • Activates the protein kinase C (PKC1) MAP kinase cascade, the beta-1,3-glucan synthase (FKS1), the formin BNI1, the exocyst component SEC3 and the transcription factor SKN7. (uniprot.org)
  • What does cdc28 protein kinase, s cerevisiae mean? (definitions.net)
  • Here are all the possible meanings and translations of the word cdc28 protein kinase, s cerevisiae . (definitions.net)
  • A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE. (definitions.net)
  • Are we missing a good definition for cdc28 protein kinase, s cerevisiae ? (definitions.net)
  • Cla4p, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc42p-activated kinase involved in cytokinesis, is activated at mitosis. (mendeley.com)
  • GIN4 encodes a protein with strong homology to the Snflp serine/threonine kinase. (mendeley.com)
  • Cla4p kinase was activated in vivo by the GTP-bound form of Cdc42p. (mendeley.com)
  • Deletion of the Cla4p Cdc42-binding domain increased kinase activity nearly threefold, but the mutant only weakly rescued cla4 function in vivo. (mendeley.com)
  • Deletion of the Cdc42-binding domain also altered the cell cycle regulation of kinase activity. (mendeley.com)
  • Interaction with the SH3 domain protein Bem1 regulates signaling by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae p21-activated kinase Ste20. (umassmed.edu)
  • Activated RhoA has recently been reported to interact directly with several protein kinases, p120 PKN, p150 ROK alpha and -beta, p160 ROCK, and p164 Rho kinase. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Amano M, Mukai H, Ono Y, Chihara K, Matsui T, Hamajima Y, Okawa K, Iwamatsu A, Kaibuchi K. Identification of a putative target for Rho as the serine-threonine kinase protein kinase N. Science. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cdc42 and PAK-mediated signaling leads to Jun kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Debant A, Serra-Pagès C, Seipel K, O'Brien S, Tang M, Park SH, Streuli M. The multidomain protein Trio binds the LAR transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase, contains a protein kinase domain, and has separate rac-specific and rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor domains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Activation of the MAP kinase pathway by the protein kinase raf. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The small GTP-binding protein Rho binds to and activates a 160 kDa Ser/Thr protein kinase homologous to myotonic dystrophy kinase. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1996 ). The multidomain protein Trio binds the LAR transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase, contains a protein kinase domain, andhas separate rac-specific and rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor domains. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, PcCdc42 protein was also shown to bind to the downstream PCSte20 kinase partner in the presence (but not the absence) of GTP. (elsevier.com)
  • These data indicate that Pc possesses a Cdc42 gene expressing an active G protein, which binds the downstream regulatory kinase PcSte20, important in Pc life cycle regulation. (elsevier.com)
  • Limper, Andrew H. / Characterization of the PcCdc42 small G protein from Pneumocystis carinii, which interacts with the PcSte20 life cycle regulatory kinase . (elsevier.com)
  • They act upstream of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway and are thought to monitor the state of the cell surface and relay the information to Pkc1p. (sdbonline.org)
  • Protein kinase C is mostly regulated by the small GTPase Rho1p in vivo. (sdbonline.org)
  • Pkc1p activates a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade, named the PKC pathway, consisting of Bck1p, Mkk1p/Mkk2p, and the MAP kinase Mpk1p. (sdbonline.org)
  • The protein Slg1 is linked to the PKC pathway by the finding that this MAP kinase cascade is activated by heat stress via Slg1p. (sdbonline.org)
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the phosphatidylinositol kinase homolog Tor2 controls the cell-cycle-dependent organization of the actin cytoskeleton by activating the small GTPase Rho1 via the exchange factor Rom2. (sdbonline.org)
  • Four Rho1 effectors are known: protein kinase C 1 (Pkc1), the formin-family protein Bni1, the glucan synthase Fks and the signaling protein Skn7. (sdbonline.org)
  • Furthermore, overexpression of the Pkc1-controlled mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase Mpk1 suppresses the actin defect of tor2ts and rho1-2ts mutants. (sdbonline.org)
  • D.E.H. Afar and O.N. Witte , Characterization of Breakdown Cluster Region Kinase and SH2-Binding Activities. (elsevier.com)
  • Ste20 and Cla4, a pair of p21-activated kinase (PAK) 1 homologues, may be effectors in polarization pathways regulated by Cdc42. (rupress.org)
  • The RLIP76 N-terminus binds ARNO to regulate PI 3-kinase, Arf6 and Rac signaling, cell spreading and migration. (jefferson.edu)
  • Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK, or mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK]) regulatory cascades in fungi turn on transcription factors that control developmental processes, stress responses, and cell wall integrity. (asm.org)
  • This kinase is most homologous to the Sterile 20 (Ste20) family of protein kinases. (embopress.org)
  • Of the members of this family, GCK and MSST1 are most similar to NIK in that they bind neither Cdc42 nor Rac and contain an N‐terminal kinase domain with a putative C‐terminal regulatory domain. (embopress.org)
  • Transient overexpression of NIK specifically activates the stress‐activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway. (embopress.org)
  • Studies over the past several years have elucidated the mechanism whereby SH2 domain‐containing proteins without catalytic activity, such as Grb2‐ and p85‐associated PI3 kinase, regulate signal transduction pathways. (embopress.org)
  • Ste20p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to the Ste20p/p65 PAK family of protein kinases which are highly conserved from yeast to man and regulate conserved mitogen‐activated protein kinase pathways. (embopress.org)
  • The mating response of the haploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a genetically tractable model system to study a G‐protein regulated mitogen‐activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade. (embopress.org)
  • The β and γ subunits of the G‐protein then activate a MAP kinase cascade consisting of Ste7p (a MAP kinase kinase or MEK homolog), Ste11p (a MEK kinase homolog) and the partially redundant MAP kinase homologs Fus3p and Kss1p ( Herskowitz, 1995 ). (embopress.org)
  • The Drosophila gene mushroom bodies tiny ( mbt ) encodes a putative p21-activated kinase (PAK), a family of proteins that has been implicated in a multitude of cellular processes including regulation of the cytoskeleton, cell polarisation, control of MAPK signalling cascades and apoptosis. (biologists.org)
  • A structure-function analysis of the Mbt protein in vitro and in vivo revealed that the Mbt kinase domain and the GTPase binding domain, which specifically interacts with GTP-loaded Cdc42, are important for Mbt function. (biologists.org)
  • Besides regulation of kinase activity, another important function of Cdc42 is to recruit Mbt to adherens junctions. (biologists.org)
  • All PAK proteins share a C-terminal kinase domain and a N-terminal binding domain for proteins of the Rho family of small GTPases (p21-binding domain, PBD). (biologists.org)
  • cAMP (Cyclic 3, 5-Adenosine Monophosphate)-dependent Protein Kinase, commonly known as PKA (Protein Kinase-A), is a second messenger-dependent enzyme that has been implicated in a wide range of. (qiagen.com)
  • PKR (Protein Kinase-R) is a 68-kDa serine-threonine kinase that appears to play a primary role in mediating the antiviral activities of infected cells. (qiagen.com)
  • PKA (Protein Kinase-A) is a second messenger-dependent enzyme that has been implicated in a wide range of cellular processes, including transcription, metabolism, cell cycle progression and. (qiagen.com)
  • PKC (Protein Kinase-C) is a cyclic nucleotide-independent enzyme that phosphorylates serine and threonine residues in many target proteins. (qiagen.com)
  • Ras-mediated activation of DH-PH-Sos did not require activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase but it was dependent on activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • In yeast, activated TORC1 propagates nutrient signals mainly through the AGC protein kinase Sch9 and Tap42, a regulator of type 2A (and type 2A-like) protein phosphatases, to favor anabolic processes and inhibit catabolic processes and stress response programs ( 3 , 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Au Yong JY, Wang YM, Wang Y (2016) The Nim1 kinase Gin4 has distinct domains crucial for septin assembly, phospholipid binding and mitotic exit. (springer.com)
  • Both the Rho family of low-molecular-weight GTP-binding proteins and protein kinases C (PKCs) mediate responses to a variety of extracellular and intracellular signals. (asm.org)
  • A number of direct targets have been identified, including protein serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases, a protein phosphatase, lipid kinases, and adapter proteins. (asm.org)
  • Protein kinases C (PKCs) regulate many of the same pathways regulated by Rho family GTP binding proteins. (asm.org)
  • Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Here we exploit the Gateway® cloning technology for rapid construction of over-expression vectors and improved homologous integration efficiency of a Z. tritici Δku70 strain to build a pilot over-expression library encompassing 32 genes encoding putative DNA binding proteins, GTPases or kinases. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Cla4p is homologous to mammalian p21-activated kinases (PAKs) (kinases activated by the rho-class GTPase Rac or Cdc42). (mendeley.com)
  • Like Ras, the Rho proteins (which include Rho, Rac, and CDC42) interact directly with protein kinases, which are likely to serve as downstream effector targets of the activated GTPase. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, unlike the previously described Rho-binding kinases, which are Rho specific, p140 associates with Rac as well as Rho. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • E. Manser, T. Leung, and L. Lim , Purification and Assay of Kinases That Interact with Rac/Cdc42. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings indicate that the C‐terminal domain of these proteins encodes a new protein domain family and suggests that this domain couples these kinases to the SAPK pathway, possibly by interacting with MEKK1 or related kinases. (embopress.org)
  • In particular, septin-associated protein kinases couple cell cycle progression with cellular morphogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review summarizes what we currently understand about how the action of septin-associated protein kinases and their substrates control information flow to drive the cell cycle into and out of mitosis, to regulate bud growth, and especially to direct timely and efficient execution of cytokinesis and cell abscission. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, and importantly, the activities of certain septin-associated protein kinases also regulate the state of organization of the septins themselves, creating a complex feedback loop. (frontiersin.org)
  • In particular, as discussed here, septin-based structures recruit, and thereby localize (and, in some cases, regulate the activity of) a multiplicity of protein kinases that integrate multiple inputs into signaling pathways and ultimately initiate ensuing biological responses (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Members of the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases have emerged as key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton, and furthermore, through their interaction with multiple target proteins, they ensure coordinated control of other cellular activities such as gene transcription and adhesion. (sciencemag.org)
  • Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 control the assembly and organization of the actin cytoskeleton. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although the effects of Rho GTPases on the organization of the actin cytoskeleton are perhaps still best characterized in fibroblasts, there is now compelling evidence of a similar role for these proteins in all eukaryotic cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Integrates signals from different cell surface sensors, and activates a set of effectors, regulating processes including beta-glucan synthesis at the site of wall remodeling, gene expression related to cell wall biogenesis, organization of the actin cytoskeleton, and protein- and secretory vesicle-targeting to the growth site. (uniprot.org)
  • Hall A. Small GTP-binding proteins and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • During the cell cycle of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the actin cytoskeleton and cell surface growth are polarized, mediating bud emergence, bud growth, and cytokinesis. (rupress.org)
  • Loss of PAK function in G1 depolarized the cortical actin cytoskeleton and blocked bud emergence, but allowed isotropic growth and led to defects in septin assembly, indicating that PAKs are effectors of the Rho-guanosine triphosphatase Cdc42. (rupress.org)
  • Cla4-green fluorescent protein localized to sites where the cortical actin cytoskeleton and cell surface growth are polarized, independently of an intact actin cytoskeleton. (rupress.org)
  • The Rho family of GTP-binding proteins has been implicated in the regulation of various cellular functions including actin cytoskeleton-dependent morphological change. (embl.de)
  • Localisation of PAK proteins to distinct cellular compartments appears to be an important mechanism to control their function in the reorganisation of the cytoskeleton. (biologists.org)
  • Prior to bud emergence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , cells polarize the actin cytoskeleton toward the future bud site and assemble a septin ring at that site. (rupress.org)
  • In its active state, Cdc42 then binds effectors to activate signaling pathways, organize the cytoskeleton and promote polarized exocytosis. (biologists.com)
  • The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and WASP-family verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE) family proteins are fundamental actin-cytoskeleton reorganizers found throughout the eukaryotes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a previous work we showed that T. borchii Cdc42 is involved in the polarized growth and that it has a fundamental role in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) family of proteins share similar domain structure, and are involved in transduction of signals from receptors on the cell surface to the actin cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling is terminated by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), which stimulate GTP hydrolysis and conversion of the proteins to the GDP-bound form. (asm.org)
  • Thus, in activating the hydrolysis of GTP, Rgd1p negatively regulates the action of these two Rho proteins. (sdbonline.org)
  • A.J. Self and A. Hall , Measurement of Intrinsic Nucleotide Exchange and GTP Hydrolysis Rates. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we present an analysis of cdc42 mutants that display specific defects in septin organization, which identifies an important role for GTP hydrolysis by Cdc42p in the assembly of the septin ring. (rupress.org)
  • The mutants show defects in basal or stimulated GTP hydrolysis, and the septin misorganization is suppressed by overexpression of a Cdc42p GTPase-activating protein (GAP). (rupress.org)
  • Other mutants known to affect GTP hydrolysis by Cdc42p also caused septin misorganization, as did deletion of Cdc42p GAPs. (rupress.org)
  • Excess accumulation of GTP-Cdc42p due to a defect in GTP hydrolysis by the septin-specific alleles might cause unphysiological activation of effectors, interfering with septin assembly. (rupress.org)
  • Exchange of GDP for GTP is promoted by guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs), whereas GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) promote GTP hydrolysis. (biologists.com)
  • It is likely that a nickel ion is loaded to an extra metal binding site at the dimeric interface of GTP-bound HypB and transferred to the hydrogenase upon GTP hydrolysis. (jove.com)
  • FtsZ polymerization has been extensively studied in vitro using basic methods including light scattering, sedimentation, GTP hydrolysis assays and electron microscopy. (jove.com)
  • An improved GTPase assay protocol is described that allows testing of GTP hydrolysis over time using various conditions in a 96-well plate setup, with standardized incubation times that abolish variation in color development in the phosphate detection reaction. (jove.com)
  • This activates Rab proteins by inhibiting GTP hydrolysis. (sciencemag.org)
  • This process is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) which promote the exchange of bound GDP for free GTP, GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) which increase GTP hydrolysis activity, and GDP dissociation inhibitors which inhibit the dissociation of the nucleotide from the GTPase. (wikidoc.org)
  • Currently we study the mechanisms of nucleotide binding and hydrolysis in yeast septins in vitro and aim at translating our results to human septins. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Inactivation of Rab through GTP hydrolysis is accelerated by the GTPase-activating protein. (plantcell.org)
  • GTPase-activating protein (GAP) promoting GTP hydrolysis on RHOA, CDC42 and RAC1 small GTPases. (genecards.org)
  • In contrast, mutationally activated Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases potently activate JNK without affecting MAPK, and oncogenic guanine nucleotide exchange factors for these Rho-like proteins selectively stimulate JNK activity. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, expression of inhibitory molecules for Rho-related GTPases and dominant negative mutants of Rac1 and Cdc42 block JNK activation by oncogenic exchange factors or after induction by inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, there is significant cross-talk between GTPases of the Ras and Rho subfamilies: Ras can activate Rac (hence Ras induces lamellipodia), Cdc42 can activate Rac [hence filopodia are intimately associated with lamellipodia (Fig. 1 G)], and Rac can activate Rho (although in fibroblasts, this is a weak and delayed response) ( 2 , 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Quiescent, serum-starved Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts (-) contain very few organized actin filaments ( A ) or vinculin-containing integrin adhesion complexes ( B ). The effects of Rho, Rac, or Cdc42 activation in these cells can be observed in several different ways such as with the addition of extracellular growth factors, microinjection of activated GTPases, or microinjection of guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) exchange factors. (sciencemag.org)
  • The Ras GTPase-activating-protein-related human protein IQGAP2 harbors a potential actin binding domain and interacts with calmodulin and Rho family GTPases. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Burbelo PD, Drechsel D, Hall A. A conserved binding motif defines numerous candidate target proteins for both Cdc42 and Rac GTPases. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Additional assays with purified PcCdc42 protein demonstrated GTP binding and intrinsic GTPase activity, which was partially but significantly suppressed by Clostridium difficile toxin B, characteristic of Cdc42 GTPases. (elsevier.com)
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the Rho family of GTPases is thought to have a central role in the polarized growth process. (sdbonline.org)
  • These small GTPases function as binary switches, which are turned on and off by binding to GTP or GDP, respectively. (sdbonline.org)
  • Small GTPases are regulated by GAPs (GTPase-activating proteins), GEFs (GDP-GTP exchange factors), and a GDP dissociation inhibitor (de Bettignies, 2001). (sdbonline.org)
  • Previously, we have shown that Msb3p and Msb4p genetically interact with Cdc42p and display a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity toward a number of Rab GTPases in vitro. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • P. Aspenstrim and M.F. Olson , Yeast Two-Hybrid System to Detect Protein(Protein Interactions with Rho GTPases. (elsevier.com)
  • Heterotrimeric Gi proteins link Hedgehog signaling to activation of Rho small GTPases to promote fibroblast migration. (jefferson.edu)
  • Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho/Rac/Cdc42-like GTPases Also called Dbl-homologous (DH) domain. (embl.de)
  • The Rho family GTPases Rho, Rac and CDC42 regulate a diverse array of cellular processes. (embl.de)
  • It does not share significant sequence homology with other subtypes of small G-protein GEF motifs such as the Cdc25 domain and the Sec7 domain, which specifically interact with Ras and ARF family small GTPases, respectively, nor with other Rho protein interactive motifs, indicating that the Dbl family proteins are evolutionarily unique. (embl.de)
  • Cell polarization relies on small GTPases, such as Cdc42, which can break symmetry through self-organizing principles, and landmarks that define the axis of polarity. (biologists.com)
  • The septins were only discovered in the 1970s and represent a class of GTP binding cytoskeletal proteins sharing structural features of the Ras family of GTPases. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Rab GTPases are localized on organelle membranes in a specific manner and act as molecular switches by cycling between the GDP-bound and the GTP-bound states. (plantcell.org)
  • Rho GTPases are small proteins present in all eukaryotic cells, from yeast to mammals, with a function in actin organization and morphogenetic processes. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Rho GTPases deciphering the evolutionary history of a complex protein family. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The small GTP-binding proteins Rac1 and Cdc42 regulate the activity of the JNK/SAPK signaling pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, these findings strongly support a critical role for Rac1 and Cdc42 in controlling the JNK signaling pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Sharma M, Urano F, Jaeschke A. Cdc42 and Rac1 are major contributors to the saturated fatty acid-stimulated JNK pathway in hepatocytes. (umassmed.edu)
  • Finally, expression of a Rho Binding Domain that specifically binds RhoG(GTP) led to the complete abolition of TrioD1 signaling, which strongly supports Rac1 not being activated by TrioD1 in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • 1997 ). Huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) binds to a Trio-like polypeptide, with a rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor domain. (biologists.org)
  • In SP thymocytes, deficiency of Mst1 and Mst2 abolished sphingosine-1 phosphate- and CCL21-induced Mob1 phosphorylation, Rac1 and RhoA GTP charging, and subsequent cell migration. (rupress.org)
  • When phosphorylated by Mst1 or Mst2, Mob1 binds and activates the Rac1 guanyl nucleotide exchanger Dock8, which is abundant in the thymus. (rupress.org)
  • In addition to their roles in cell polarity, these proteins have been proposed to play roles in signal transduction in response to mating pheromones ( 46 , 47 , 53 ). (asm.org)
  • The Rho-type GTPase Cdc42 is a central regulator of eukaryotic cell polarity and signal transduction. (umassmed.edu)
  • A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. (uchicago.edu)
  • These domains are critical for regulating signal transduction pathways, and function by mediating protein-protein or protein-lipid interactions. (embopress.org)
  • The 14-3-3s are a family of regulatory proteins that is present in all eukaryotes and involved in protein interactions mediating signal transduction pathways. (qiagen.com)
  • In regards to cell polarization, the major current foci are the roles of cortical marker proteins and of a GTPase-based signal-transduction cascade in the selection of the polarization axes (as defined by the bud sites). (stanford.edu)
  • The Rho family of small GTP-binding proteins plays a central role in regulating actin polymerization, the formation of cellular structures dependent on actin, and transformation by some oncogenes ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • CDC42 encodes a highly conserved GTPase of the Rho family that is best known for its role in regulating cell polarity and actin organization. (asm.org)
  • More recently, activation of Cdc42, a third member of the Rho subfamily, was shown to induce actin-rich surface protrusions called filopodia (Fig. 1 G) ( 3 , 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. (harvard.edu)
  • The mammalian G protein rhoC is ADP-ribosylated by Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 and affects actin microfilaments in Vero cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1989 ). The mammalian G protein rhoC is ADP-ribosylated by Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 and affects actin microfilaments in Vero cells. (biologists.org)
  • Previous studies have revealed genetic interactions between RGD1 and the SLG1 and MID2 genes, encoding two putative sensors for cell integrity signaling, and VRP1 encoding an actin and myosin interacting protein involved in polarized growth. (sdbonline.org)
  • Polarized growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is thought to occur by the transport of post-Golgi vesicles along actin cables to the daughter cell, and the subsequent fusion of the vesicles with the plasma membrane. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Interestingly, the GAP activity of Msb3p and Msb4p was also required for efficient polarization of the actin patches and for the suppression of the actin-organization defects in cdc42 mutants. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cdc42 localizes to the incipient bud site where actin patches cluster and cables orient late in G1. (rupress.org)
  • Conditional mutations that inactivate Cdc42 or its guanine nucleotide exchange factor Cdc24 result in a failure to polarize actin patches and cables to the incipient bud site. (rupress.org)
  • Small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho-family have been shown to be involved in the regulation of actin polarization as well as other processes. (yeastgenome.org)
  • The AgCDC42 and AgCDC24 genes can both complement conditional mutations in the S. cerevisiae CDC42 and CDC24 genes and both proteins are required for the establishment of actin polarization in A. gossypii germ cells. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Local activation of the essential rho-related GTPase Cdc42 is critical for the initiation of actin polarization. (rupress.org)
  • The Actin family is a diverse and evolutionarily ancient group of proteins that provide the supportive framework to the three-dimensional structure of eukaryotic cells. (qiagen.com)
  • This protein could regulate actin polymerization through its direct binding to Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP), which subsequently activates Arp2/3 complex. (nih.gov)
  • In performing its roles in actin polarization and transcriptional activation, GTP-Cdc42p is thought to function by activating and/or recruiting effectors to the site of polarization. (rupress.org)
  • The genes for the actin-interacting proteins cofilin and profilin are also induced. (stanford.edu)
  • Figure 1.1 Boi proteins as hubs of polarized secretion and actin filament nucleation in polar growth of yeast cells (figure from Glomb et al. (uni-ulm.de)
  • These proteins, directly or indirectly, associate with the small GTPase CDC42, known to regulate formation of actin filaments, and the cytoskeletal organising complex, Arp2/3 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The WASp family proteins includes WASp, N-WASp, SCAR/WAVE, WHAMM and WASH the five of them share a C- terminal VCA (verprolin, central, acidic) domain where they interact with actin nucleating complex (ARP2/3) and they differ in their terminal domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • [9] Cooperative binding of CDC42 and PIP2 relieve the autoinhibition of N-WASp, causing Arp2/3 to carry out actin polymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fission yeast, microtubules deliver the Tea1-Tea4 complex to mark cell poles for growth, but how this complex activates Cdc42 is unknown. (biologists.com)
  • This exposes a domain near the WASp C-terminus that binds to and activates the Arp2/3 complex . (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) whose transcript undergoes complex, regulated alternative splicing, giving rise to several mRNA species. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the dickkopf family. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein that acts as an antagonist of the Wnt signaling pathway. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The binding of Pc trophic forms to alveolar epithelial cells is a central feature of infection, inducing the expression and activation of Pc-Ste20, a gene participating in mating, proliferation, and pseudohyphal growth. (elsevier.com)
  • Regulation of THI4 (MOL1), a thiamine-biosynthetic gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (naver.com)
  • The Schizosaccharomyces pombe mam2 gene encodes a putative pheromone receptor which has a significant homology with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ste2 protein. (asmscience.org)
  • The nonessential RGD1 gene encodes a Rho-GTPase activating protein for the Rho3 and Rho4 proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (sdbonline.org)
  • During the sequencing of the genome of S. cerevisiae , a new gene encoding a protein with a Rho-GAP homology domain was identified. (sdbonline.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a small GTPase of the Rho-subfamily, which regulates signaling pathways that control diverse cellular functions including cell morphology, migration, endocytosis and cell cycle progression. (nih.gov)
  • Human DNA sequence from clone RP1-224A6 on chromosome 1p35.1-36.23 Contains the 3' UTR of the ELA3A gene for elastase 3A (pancreatic (protease E)), three novel genes, the CDC42 gene for cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25kDa), the 3' end of the WNT4 gene for wingless-type MMTV integration site family (member 4) and a CpG island. (embl.de)
  • Homo sapiens cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25kDa) (CDC42) gene, complete cds. (embl.de)
  • De Virgilio C, DeMarini DJ, Pringle JR (1996) SPR28, a sixth member of the septin gene family in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is expressed specifically in sporulating cells. (springer.com)
  • WASp is the founding member of a gene family which also includes the broadly expressed N-WASP (neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein), SCAR . (wikipedia.org)
  • ARHGAP32 (Rho GTPase Activating Protein 32) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include GTPase activator activity and phosphatidylinositol binding . (genecards.org)
  • Since a potential role of Rho-proteins has not been studied so far in filamentous fungi we isolated and characterized the Ashbya gossypii homologs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC42 , CDC24 , RHO1 , and RHO3 genes. (yeastgenome.org)
  • The same phenotype is seen in C. albicans mutants in which the homologs ( CST20 , HST7 , and CPH1 ) of the S. cerevisiae STE20 , STE7 , and STE12 genes are disrupted. (asm.org)
  • In S. cerevisiae , the products of these genes function as part of a MAPK cascade required for mating and invasiveness of haploid cells and for pseudohyphal development of diploid cells. (asm.org)
  • Multiple genes encoding proteins of the ubiquitin-proteasome system are among those induced by LatB, resulting in rapid degradation of IDA5 (but not NAP1). (stanford.edu)
  • Recently, a large number of genes encoding GTP-binding proteins and the proteins that interact with these molecular switches have been cloned and expressed. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • In this project we apply shRNA mediated knock down of candidate genes, immunofluorescence- and live cell microscopy as well as in vitro assays using purified proteins. (uni-ulm.de)
  • We also identify functionally important BR domains in two other yeast Cdc42 effectors, Gic1 and Gic2, suggesting that cooperation between protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions is a prevalent mechanism during Cdc42-regulated signaling and perhaps for other dynamic localization events at the cell cortex. (umassmed.edu)
  • Takahashi, Satoe and Pryciak, Peter M., "Identification of novel membrane-binding domains in multiple yeast Cdc42 effectors" (2007). (umassmed.edu)
  • D. Diekmann and A. Hall, In Vitro Binding Assay for Interactions of Rho and Rac with GTPase-Activating Proteins and Effectors. (elsevier.com)
  • Whether Ste20 and Cla4 are effectors of Cdc42 that control cell polarity in G1 or other phases of the cell cycle remains unclear. (rupress.org)
  • Cdc42 is believed to signal through multiple effectors that preferentially interact with GTP-bound Cdc42. (rupress.org)
  • These results suggest that a single GTPase, Cdc42p, can act either as a ras -like GTP-dependent "switch" to turn on effectors or as an EF-Tu-like "assembly factor" using the GTPase cycle to assemble a macromolecular structure. (rupress.org)
  • GEFs, GAPs, GDIs and effectors: taking a closer (3D) look at the regulation of Ras-related GTP-binding proteins. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Temperature-sensitive cdc42 and cdc24 mutants have defects in α-factor-stimulated transcription of FUS1 and in maintaining G 1 arrest at the restrictive temperature ( 46 , 53 ). (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, the polarity defect exhibited by temperature-sensitive cdc24 and cdc42 mutants triggers the morphogenesis checkpoint to delay the cells in G 2 with abundant G 1 cyclins ( 26 ), a state known to render cells unresponsive to α-factor ( 34 ). (asm.org)
  • Indeed, the transcriptional induction of FUS1 was found to be quite normal in cdc24 and cdc42 mutants that were first arrested in G 1 by deprivation of G 1 cyclins ( 35 ), raising the question of whether Cdc24p and Cdc42p play any role at all in α-factor signaling. (asm.org)
  • Genetic evidence for a functional interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC24 and CDC42. (naver.com)
  • Overexpression of Msb3p or Msb4p suppresses cdc24- Ts and cdc42- Ts mutants, although the mechanism underlying this suppression is not clear. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We found that the polarisome components Spa2, Pea2, and Bni1 and the Cdc42 regulators Cdc24 and Bem3 control the timing and frequency of projection formation. (rupress.org)
  • This protein possesses both a domain belonging to the CDC25 family and one belonging to the CDC24 family. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Activated by the guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) ROM1, ROM2 and TUS1, and inactivated by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) BAG7, BEM2, LRG1, and SAC7, and the Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor RDI1. (uniprot.org)
  • The CRAL-TRIO domain is found in GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and a family of hydrophobic ligand binding proteins, including the yeast SEC14 protein and mammalian retinaldehyde- and alpha-tocopherol-binding proteins. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The mechanistic details of how amino acids modulate the configuration of the Rag or Gtr heterodimers are still a matter of debate, but likely involve both specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). (sciencemag.org)
  • However, recent studies of the yeast pheromone response pathway suggested that prior results with temperature-sensitive cdc42 mutants were misleading and that Cdc42p and the Cdc42p-PAK interaction are not involved in signaling. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, the ste20 Δ CRIB allele, previously used to disrupt the Cdc42p-Ste20p interaction, behaved as an activated allele, largely bypassing the signaling defect of the cdc42 mutants. (asm.org)
  • In addition, an interaction was detected by two-hybrid analysis between Gβ and Cdc24p ( 53 ), and Cdc42p-GTP was shown to bind to and activate Ste20p ( 46 ). (asm.org)
  • Parallel results were observed for filamentation pathway signaling, suggesting that the requirement for Cdc42-Ste20 interaction is not qualitatively different between the mating and filamentation pathways. (umassmed.edu)
  • Moreover, the interaction of p140 with Rho in vitro is nucleotide independent, whereas the interaction with Rac is completely GTP dependent. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • MEKK1 and NIK also associate in cells and this interaction is mediated by regulatory domains on both proteins. (embopress.org)
  • A low speed sedimentation assay is introduced that allows the study of the interaction of FtsZ with proteins that bundle or tubulate FtsZ polymers. (jove.com)
  • As such, the methods can be used for studies of the interaction of FtsZ with regulatory proteins or the testing of antibacterial drugs which may affect FtsZ polymerization. (jove.com)
  • also known as an Ena-VASP homology 1, EVH1) domain, which functions as a protein-protein interaction domain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We investigate the formation, composition and function of protein interaction networks that drive polarity establishment, polar growth and cytokinesis in vivo . (uni-ulm.de)
  • Atkins BD, Yoshida S, Pellman D. Symmetry breaking: scaffold plays matchmaker for polarity signaling proteins. (harvard.edu)
  • To clarify this issue, we have identified and characterized novel viable pheromone-resistant cdc42 alleles that retain the ability to perform polarity-related functions. (asm.org)
  • Wendland J and Philippsen P (2001) Cell polarity and hyphal morphogenesis are controlled by multiple rho-protein modules in the filamentous ascomycete Ashbya gossypii. (yeastgenome.org)
  • In vitro Reconstitution of a Membrane Switch Mechanism for the Polarity Protein LGL. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grows asymmetrically by "budding", a seemingly simple process that requires sophisticated mechanisms that coordinate membrane traffic, cell polarity and cell cycle progression. (upenn.edu)
  • Due to it's ease in manipulation, we employ the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism to study establishment and maintenance of cellular polarity. (uni-ulm.de)
  • MLK3 regulates bone development downstream of the faciogenital dysplasia protein FGD1 in mice. (umassmed.edu)
  • Calero M, Whittaker G, Collins R. Yop1p, the yeast homolog of the polyposis locus protein 1, interacts with Yip1p and negatively regulates cell growth. (labome.org)
  • Regulates the activity of BUD1 together with BUD2 which is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) of BUD1. (string-db.org)
  • Cdc42 regulates multiple membrane traffic events in fission yeast. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These results indicate that Cdc42 and Rac use different pathways to regulate stress fibers. (asm.org)
  • In total, our observations indicate that Cdc42 converts Ste20 to an active form, while pathway stimuli regulate the ability of this active Ste20 to trigger signaling through a particular pathway. (umassmed.edu)
  • In active state binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses. (nih.gov)
  • They regulate cellular processes as diverse as protein biosynthesis and intracellular membrane trafficking. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • It is not clear how the activity of Ste20 is regulated in response to these different signals in vivo, but it has been demonstrated recently that binding of the small GTP binding protein Cdc42 is able to activate Ste20 in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that Ste20 functionally interacts with Cdc42 in a GTP-dependent manner in vivo: Ste20 mutants that can no longer bind Cdc42 were unable to restore growth of ste20 cla4 mutant cells. (nih.gov)
  • Wild-type Ste20 protein was visualized as a crescent at emerging buds during vegetative growth and at shmoo tips in cells arrested with alpha-factor. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, a Ste20 mutant protein unable to bind Cdc42 was found diffusely throughout the cytoplasm, suggesting that Cdc42 is required to localize Ste20 properly in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Activation of Ste20 requires a Cdc42/Rac interactive binding (CRIB) domain, which mediates its recruitment to membrane-associated Cdc42. (umassmed.edu)
  • instead, direct membrane binding by Ste20 is also required. (umassmed.edu)
  • Here we show that, unlike CRIB deletion, point mutations in the Ste20 CRIB domain that disrupt Cdc42 binding also disrupt pheromone signaling. (umassmed.edu)
  • In related fungi, Ste20 proteins are generally activated by immediate upstream small G proteins of the Cdc42-like family. (elsevier.com)
  • Plasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between an active GTP-bound and an inactive GDP-bound state. (nih.gov)
  • Cdc42 cycles between an active GTP-bound state and an inactive GDP-bound state. (wikidoc.org)
  • CEK1 encodes a Candida albicans MAPK homolog (Cek1p), isolated by its ability to interfere with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MAPK mating pathway. (asm.org)
  • Alongside this expansion is proposed functions has been the identification of multiple target proteins that interact directly with Rho, Rac or Cdc42. (nih.gov)
  • Recent efforts have focused on identifying the immediate effector molecules that interact with the activated GTP-binding proteins. (asm.org)
  • CLASPs, such as CLASP1, are nonmotor microtubule-associated proteins that interact with CLIPs (e.g. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Buffer conditions influence both the polymerization properties of FtsZ, and the ability of FtsZ to interact with regulatory proteins. (jove.com)
  • Bud5 from yeast, that may interact with the ras-like protein RSR1/BUD1. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Surprisingly, TbRhoGDI appeared not to interact with S. cerevisiae Cdc42, precluding the use of yeast as a surrogate model for functional studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The presence of a number of different motifs suggests they are regulated by a number of different stimuli , and interact with multiple proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, pull-down experiments demonstrate that Rho4 can interact with exocyst subunits, such as Sec8 and Exo70, and septin proteins, such as Spn3. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Use of bimolecular fluorescence complementation to study in vivo interactions between Cdc42p and Rdi1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (harvard.edu)
  • Mutation of the Cdc42p residue Val36 or Tyr40 caused defects in pheromone signaling and in the localization of the Ste20p PAK in vivo and affected binding to the Ste20p Cdc42p-Rac interactive binding (CRIB) domain in vitro. (asm.org)
  • These findings led to the hypothesis that Gβγ activated Cdc24p, causing GTP loading of Cdc42p and consequent activation of Ste20p, as an important part of the pheromone signaling pathway. (asm.org)
  • BLASTP analysis demonstrated greater than 80% homology with other fungal Cdc42p proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • J. Posada, P.J. Miller, J. McCullough, M. Ziman, and D.I. Johnson , Genetic and Biochemical Analysis of Cdc42p Function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe . (elsevier.com)
  • Ste20p fulfills multiple roles in pheromone signaling, morphological switching and vegetative growth and binds Cdc42p, a Rho‐like small GTP binding protein required for polarized morphogenesis. (embopress.org)
  • We have analyzed the functional consequences of mutations that prevent binding of Cdc42p to Ste20p. (embopress.org)
  • The complete amino‐terminal, non‐catalytic half of Ste20p, including the conserved Cdc42p binding domain, was dispensable for heterotrimeric G‐protein‐mediated pheromone signaling. (embopress.org)
  • However, the Cdc42p binding domain was necessary for filamentous growth in response to nitrogen starvation and for an essential function that Ste20p shares with its isoform Cla4p during vegetative growth. (embopress.org)
  • Moreover, the Cdc42p binding domain was required for cell-cell adhesion during conjugation. (embopress.org)
  • Subcellular localization of wild‐type and mutant Ste20p fused to green fluorescent protein showed that the Cdc42p binding domain is needed to direct localization of Ste20p to regions of polarized growth. (embopress.org)
  • Their activation is controlled by guanine exchange factors (GEF) that catalyze their binding to GTP. (biologists.org)
  • This short region, termed the basic-rich (BR) domain, can target green fluorescent protein to the plasma membrane in vivo and binds PIP(2)-containing liposomes in vitro. (umassmed.edu)
  • This protein, called Rgd1p (for related GAP domain), was shown in vitro to be a GTPase activating protein for the Rho3 and Rho4 proteins. (sdbonline.org)
  • FtsZ polymerizes into long filaments in the presence of GTP in vitro , and polymerization is regulated by several accessory proteins. (jove.com)
  • However, GEF activity of Dbl toward Rho as measured by in vitro GDP binding assays remained unaffected following Gbetagamma binding, suggesting that additional signals may be required for the regulation of Dbl. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITPs) can bind specifically and transfer a single phosphatidylinositol (PI) molecule between phospholipid membranes in an ATP-independent manner in vitro. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • In COS-1 cells, the DH domain of Sos stimulated guanine nucleotide exchange on Rac but not Cdc42 in vitro and in vivo. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • We found that only one guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), named VPS9a, can activate all Rab5 members to GTP-bound forms in vitro in spite of their diverged structures. (plantcell.org)
  • The GTP-bound form interacts with its specific target and performs its cell functions. (sdbonline.org)
  • [9] WASp interacting protein (WIP) interacts with WASp N-terminal domain (WH1) preventing it from degradation and stabilising its auto-inhibitory conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most signals transmitted by Rho family members depend on the association of effector proteins with the GTP-bound form of Rac, Rho, or Cdc42. (asm.org)
  • Nevertheless, phospholipid specificity is not essential in vivo, because the BR domain can be replaced with several heterologous lipid-binding domains of varying lipid preferences. (umassmed.edu)
  • Evans E, Sugawara N, Haber J, Alani E. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2 mismatch repair protein localizes to recombination intermediates in vivo. (labome.org)
  • These proteins form a complex in vivo as in many other eukaryotes. (genetics.org)
  • The structure suggests that the PI-binding ability may play an important role in the in vivo function of PITPs. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • rhoA GTP-Binding Protein" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "rhoA GTP-Binding Protein" by people in this website by year, and whether "rhoA GTP-Binding Protein" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uchicago.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "rhoA GTP-Binding Protein" by people in Profiles. (uchicago.edu)
  • The first step in their activation is the catalysis of GTP exchange for GDP by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). (asm.org)
  • Activation of Rho proteins through release of bound GDP and subsequent binding of GTP, is catalysed by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) in the Dbl family. (embl.de)
  • Like other Ras-family members, Sec4p cycles between an inactive GDP- and active GTP-bound state. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Expression of activated Cdc42 results in the translocation of PKCλ from the nucleus into the cytosol, and Cdc42 and PKCλ colocalize at the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm. (asm.org)
  • Slg1p and Mid2p are both plasma membrane proteins with partial overlapping functions. (sdbonline.org)
  • Cell polarization involves the vectorial delivery of lipids, proteins, and extracellular matrix or cell wall components to specific locations on the plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
  • Unlike target-soluble NSF attachment protein receptor proteins (t-SNAREs) that are evenly distributed along the plasma membrane, the exocyst is specifically localized at sites of active secretion. (genetics.org)
  • Following growth factor stimulation, binding of SH2 domains of Grb2 to the autophosphorylated receptor localizes Sos adjacent to Ras in the plasma membrane, thereby enabling Sos to activate Ras. (embopress.org)
  • Septins were first identified as temperature-sensitive (Ts) * cdc mutants in S. cerevisiae ( Hartwell, 1971 ) and are required for localized chitin deposition, bud site selection, cell cycle control, and plasma membrane compartmentalization in addition to cytokinesis. (rupress.org)
  • Exocytosis is a basic cell biological process mediated by transport, docking, and fusion of secretory vesicles carrying proteins and lipids to the plasma membrane. (upenn.edu)
  • Also through exocytosis, membrane proteins and lipids can be incorporated into specific domains of plasma membrane for cell surface expansion, cell growth, morphogenesis, and cell migration. (upenn.edu)
  • [9] CDC42 and PIP2 localize the N-WASp-Arp2/3 complex to the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In regards to cytokinesis, the major current foci are the roles of the septin proteins and the interactions among the actomyosin contractile ring, the enzymes of extracellular-matrix (cell-wall) synthesis, and proteins that appear to be involved in plasma-membrane reorganization. (stanford.edu)
  • However, the recessive and dose-sensitive genetic behavior of the septin-specific cdc42 mutants is inconsistent with the septin defect stemming from a dominant interference of this type. (rupress.org)
  • double mutants are nearly dead, it has been hypothesized that these proteins contribute to parallel pathways. (stanford.edu)
  • Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-ARA7 and ARA6-GFP were diffused in cytosol like GDP-fixed mutants of Rab5 in vps9a-1 , indicating that both types of GTPase are regulated by VPS9a. (plantcell.org)
  • The proteins encoded by members of the Dbl family share a common domain, presented in this entry, of about 200 residues (designated the Dbl homology or DH domain) that has been shown to encode a GEF activity specific for a number of Rho family members. (embl.de)
  • In contrast, WAVE subfamily proteins are characterized by the presence of the WHD/SHD domain (WAVE homology domain/SCAR homology domain), which is located at the amino terminus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic and functional analyses have allowed the identification of five Rho members in yeast: Cdc42 and Rho1 to Rho4. (sdbonline.org)
  • GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for RHO1 and RHO2. (string-db.org)
  • Secretory overexpression of Bacillus thermocatenulatus lipase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using combinatorial library strategy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Expression of activated Cdc42 leads to a loss of stress fibers, as does overexpression of either the wild type or an activated form of PKCλ. (asm.org)
  • Overexpression of the GTP-fixed form of ARA7 suppressed the vps9a-2 mutation, but overexpression of ARA6 had no apparent effects. (plantcell.org)
  • Control of the yeast bud-site assembly GTPase Cdc42. (uniprot.org)
  • 1993 ). Human Sos1: a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras that binds to GRB2. (biologists.org)
  • E. Porfiri and J.F. Hancock , Stimulation of Nucleotide Exchange on Ras- and Rho-Related Proteins by Small GTP-Binding Protein GDP Dissociation Stimulator. (elsevier.com)
  • Chahdi A, Sorokin A, Dunn MJ, Landry Y. The Rac/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor beta1Pix enhances mastoparan-activated Gi-dependent pathway in mast cells. (jefferson.edu)
  • The guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Dbl targets Rho family proteins thereby stimulating their GDP/GTP exchange, and thus is believed to be involved in receptor-mediated regulation of the proteins. (embl.de)
  • The Cdc42 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor Gef1 and the GTPase-activating protein Rga4 are required for Tea4-PP1-dependent ectopic growth. (biologists.com)
  • Activation of Rab is mediated by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), which stimulates the release of GDP, allowing GTP to bind. (plantcell.org)
  • They are the principal components in an interconnected intracellular "highway" by which all manner cellular cargo may be shuttled via a bustling network of molecular motor proteins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • 1997 ). Inhibition of oncogenic and activated wild-type ras-p21 protein-induced oocyte maturation by peptides from the ras-binding domain of the raf-p74 protein, identified from molecular dynamics calculations. (biologists.org)
  • 14-3-3 proteins function as molecular scaffolds by modulating the conformation of their binding partners. (qiagen.com)
  • A series of molecular signals within the cell that are mediated by the Cdc42 protein switching to a GTP-bound active state. (cathdb.info)
  • Molecular and cell biological studies have identified a wide array of regulatory molecules that bind to the WASP and WAVE proteins and give them diversified roles in distinct cellular locations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A Molecular Grammar Governing the Driving Forces for Phase Separation of Prion-like RNA Binding Proteins. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • It is a secreted protein with two cysteine rich regions and is involved in embryonic development through its inhibition of the WNT signaling pathway. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Explore and order pathway-specific siRNAs, real-time PCR assays, or optimized protein expression vectors. (qiagen.com)
  • Interestingly, the marker proteins appear to be delivered to polarized sites in the cell surface by an unconventional arm of the secretory pathway. (stanford.edu)
  • Spoilage potential and brewing ability of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae variety diastaticus yeast isolates by genetic, phenotypic and physiological characterization. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Wanat J, Singh N, Alani E. The effect of genetic background on the function of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mlh1 alleles that correspond to HNPCC missense mutations. (labome.org)
  • Genetic studies using model organisms have also improved our understanding of how the WASP- and WAVE-family proteins act to shape complex tissue architectures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Septins were discovered in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and still today yeast serves as a prime model organism for research on septins due to its ease of genetic manipulation and the limited number of different septin subunits. (uni-ulm.de)
  • This improved efficiency should greatly facilitate a variety of genetic and cell-biological studies in Chlamydomonas and also enable new applications such as expression-based screens and large-scale production of foreign proteins. (stanford.edu)
  • Budding yeast ( S. cerevisiae ) has served as a path-finding model eukaryote in which to explore the structure, function, and regulation of septins and septin-associated proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • We aim at understanding the mechanisms of septin filament formation and nucleotide binding by combining biochemical assays, structural biology and cell biology. (uni-ulm.de)
  • In budding yeast, this symmetry-breaking polarization depends on a scaffold protein called Bem1p. (nih.gov)
  • We favor a model in which PCNA acts as a scaffold for consecutive protein-protein interactions that allow for the coordination of MMR steps. (labome.org)
  • One function of these structures that has been well-documented in studies conducted in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is to serve as a scaffold that recruits regulatory proteins, which dictate the spatial and temporal control of certain aspects of the cell division cycle. (frontiersin.org)
  • Other functions of WASP depend on its activity as a scaffold protein for assembly of effective signalling complexes downstream of antigen receptor or integrin engagement. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammalian cells, the activation of Rab5 is regulated by several distinct GEF proteins: Rabex-5, RIN, Rme-6, ALS2, and ANKRD27. (plantcell.org)
  • We propose a role for Mbt as a downstream effector of Cdc42 in photoreceptor cell morphogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • Type 1 protein phosphatase is required for maintenance of cell wall integrity, morphogenesis and cell cycle progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The encoded protein contains a high mobility group-box DNA binding domain and participates in the regulation of cell. (antibodies-online.com)
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , cell division is achieved by budding, which is controlled by Cdc42 ( Chant and Pringle 1991 ). (rupress.org)
  • In parallel, the inactivation of MID2 , the other putative sensor for cell integrity signaling in S. cerevisiae , exacerbates the specific phenotype of the rgd1 Delta mutant with an increase in dead cells at late exponential phase in minimal medium. (sdbonline.org)
  • In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , polarized cell growth is thought to occur in a hierarchal manner. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Nck, an adaptor protein composed of one SH2 and three SH3 domains, is a common target for a variety of cell surface receptors. (embopress.org)
  • These short polypeptides bind to cell type‐specific receptors and thereby trigger the activation of a heterotrimeric G‐protein that is common to both cell types (for a review, see Herskowitz, 1995 ). (embopress.org)
  • We found that polarisome components and the cell fusion proteins Fus1 and Fus2 are important for the termination of projection growth. (rupress.org)
  • The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae initiates polarized growth from the cell surface at several stages of its life cycle and is a useful organism for understanding the regulation of polarized growth events. (rupress.org)
  • The mutant phenotype of mbt is characterised by fewer neurones in the brain and the eye, indicating a role of the protein in cell proliferation, differentiation or survival. (biologists.org)
  • Mediates CDC42-dependent cell migration. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that ectopic targeting of Tea4 to cell sides promotes the local activation of Cdc42 and cell growth. (biologists.com)
  • Homo sapiens cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25kDa), mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:3497 IMAGE:3626647), complete cds. (embl.de)
  • Homo sapiens cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25kDa) (CDC42), transcript variant 3, mRNA. (embl.de)
  • During bacterial cell division, the essential protein FtsZ assembles in the middle of the cell to form the so-called Z-ring. (jove.com)
  • S. cerevisiae'']] (yeast) as a mediator of [[cell division]], and is now known to influence a variety of signaling events and cellular processes in a variety of organisms from yeast to mammals. (wikidoc.org)
  • Here, we show the association of Dbl with G protein betagamma subunits (Gbetagamma) in transient co-expression and cell-free systems. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Under the control of these signaling proteins, the exocyst coordinates with cytoskeletons in processes such as cytokinesis, ciliogeneisis, and cell migration. (upenn.edu)
  • Cell biology depends on the interactions of macromolecules, such as protein-DNA, protein-protein or protein-nucleotide interactions. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Alternates between an inactive form bound to GDP and an active form bound to GTP. (uniprot.org)
  • Like all members of the Ras superfamily, the Rho proteins cycle between active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound conformational states. (embl.de)
  • Cellular Cdc42 dynamically cycles between the inactive GDP-bound form and the active GTP-bound form. (rupress.org)
  • In the inactive state, WASp exists in an autoinhibited conformation with sequences near its C-terminus binding to a region near its N-terminus . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of CDC42 and PIP2, N-WASp is in an inactive, locked conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved adaptor and scaffolding proteins expressed in all eukaryotic cells. (qiagen.com)
  • Autophagy is a vital conserved recycling process where eukaryotic cells remove unwanted proteins and organelles via lysosomal degradation and in turn, generate nutrients for the cells. (springer.com)
  • Substitution of K148A abolished GTP-dependent dimerization of AfHypB, but had no significant effect on the guanine nucleotide binding and on the intrinsic GTPase activity. (jove.com)
  • Activated Rho leads to the formation of stress fibers, and activated Cdc42 causes filopodia to form ( 17 , 28 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • Williams E, Bsat N, Bonnefoy N, Butler C, Fox T. Alteration of a novel dispensable mitochondrial ribosomal small-subunit protein, Rsm28p, allows translation of defective COX2 mRNAs. (labome.org)
  • We conclude that Rsm28p is a dispensable small-subunit mitochondrial ribosomal protein previously undetected in systematic investigations of these ribosomes, with a positive role in translation of several mitochondrial mRNAs. (labome.org)
  • GDP-GTP exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTPase BUD1/RSR1. (string-db.org)
  • These results suggest that Ste20p is regulated in different developmental pathways by different mechanisms which involve heterotrimeric and small GTP binding proteins. (embopress.org)
  • Homo sapiens small GTP binding protein CDC42 (CDC42) mRNA, complete cds. (embl.de)
  • Its sequence domains include a P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase and a small GTP-binding protein domain. (wikidoc.org)
  • Cdc42, together with Rac and Rho, belongs to the Rho family of small GTP binding proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Under normal cellular physiological conditions, the concentration of GTP is higher than that of GDP, favoring the replacement of GDP by GTP in association with the GTPase. (cathdb.info)
  • The domain is named after cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) and TRIO guanine exchange factor. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Phase separation of a yeast prion protein promotes cellular fitness. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Wiesenberger G, Costanzo M, Fox T. Analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial COX3 mRNA 5' untranslated leader: translational activation and mRNA processing. (labome.org)
  • 1997 ). Minimal Ras-binding domain of Raf1 can be used as an activation-specific probe for Ras. (biologists.org)
  • Gef1 is recruited to ectopic Tea4 and Dis2 locations to promote Cdc42 activation. (biologists.com)
  • Thus, a Tea4-PP1 landmark promotes local Cdc42 activation and growth both through Cdc42 GEF recruitment and by creating a local trough in a Cdc42 GAP. (biologists.com)
  • The Son of Sevenless (Sos) proteins control receptor-mediated activation of Ras by catalyzing the exchange of guanosine diphosphate for guanosine triphosphate on Ras. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Several families of regulatory proteins control their activation cycle and subcellular localization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparison of the domain structures of the WASP and WAVE family proteins from different species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An amino-terminal portion conserved among a subset of Dbl family proteins is sufficient for the binding of Gbetagamma. (embl-heidelberg.de)