Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Saccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins: A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.beta-Fructofuranosidase: A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Genes, Suppressor: Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored. For example, amber suppressors cancel the effect of an AMBER NONSENSE MUTATION.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae: A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Cdc20 Proteins: Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Poly(A)-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Silent Information Regulator Proteins, Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A set of nuclear proteins in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE that are required for the transcriptional repression of the silent mating type loci. They mediate the formation of silenced CHROMATIN and repress both transcription and recombination at other loci as well. They are comprised of 4 non-homologous, interacting proteins, Sir1p, Sir2p, Sir3p, and Sir4p. Sir2p, an NAD-dependent HISTONE DEACETYLASE, is the founding member of the family of SIRTUINS.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Genes, Mating Type, Fungal: Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Kluyveromyces: An ascomycetous yeast of the fungal family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Spheroplasts: Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Ergosterol: A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Killer Factors, Yeast: Protein factors released from one species of YEAST that are selectively toxic to another species of yeast.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sirtuin 2: A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CYTOPLASM. It is a multifunctional enzyme that contains a NAD-dependent deacetylase activity that is specific for HISTONES and a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.XyloseTelomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Chitin Synthase: An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cathepsin A: A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC 3.4.12.1 and EC 3.4.21.13.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Organisms, Genetically Modified: Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Mannosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC 2.4.1.32, EC 2.4.1.48, EC 2.4.1.54, and EC 2.4.1.57.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.TrehaloseInositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Pichia: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Rad52 DNA Repair and Recombination Protein: A DNA-binding protein that mediates DNA REPAIR of double strand breaks, and HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Allantoin: A urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Tacrolimus Binding Proteins: A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Methyl Methanesulfonate: An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.GTP Cyclohydrolase: (GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC 3.5.4.16 (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC 3.5.4.25 (GTP cyclohydrolase II).Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Benomyl: A systemic agricultural fungicide used for control of certain fungal diseases of stone fruit.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Glycoside HydrolasesGuanine NucleotidesHeat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.ras-GRF1: A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is expressed primarily in neuronal tissue and may be specific for the Ha-ras homolog of the RAS PROTEINS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.

Cdc42: An essential Rho-type GTPase controlling eukaryotic cell polarity. (1/193)

Cdc42p is an essential GTPase that belongs to the Rho/Rac subfamily of Ras-like GTPases. These proteins act as molecular switches by responding to exogenous and/or endogenous signals and relaying those signals to activate downstream components of a biological pathway. The 11 current members of the Cdc42p family display between 75 and 100% amino acid identity and are functional as well as structural homologs. Cdc42p transduces signals to the actin cytoskeleton to initiate and maintain polarized gorwth and to mitogen-activated protein morphogenesis. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cdc42p plays an important role in multiple actin-dependent morphogenetic events such as bud emergence, mating-projection formation, and pseudohyphal growth. In mammalian cells, Cdc42p regulates a variety of actin-dependent events and induces the JNK/SAPK protein kinase cascade, which leads to the activation of transcription factors within the nucleus. Cdc42p mediates these processes through interactions with a myriad of downstream effectors, whose number and regulation we are just starting to understand. In addition, Cdc42p has been implicated in a number of human diseases through interactions with its regulators and downstream effectors. While much is known about Cdc42p structure and functional interactions, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which it transduces signals within the cell. Future research should focus on this question as well as on the detailed analysis of the interactions of Cdc42p with its regulators and downstream effectors.  (+info)

Multisite autophosphorylation of p21-activated protein kinase gamma-PAK as a function of activation. (2/193)

p21-activated protein kinase (PAK) is a family of serine/threonine kinases whose activity is stimulated by binding to small G-proteins such as Cdc42 and subsequent autophosphorylation. Focusing on the ubiquitous gamma-isoform of PAK in this study, baculovirus-infected insect cells were used to obtain recombinant gamma-PAK, while native gamma-PAK was isolated from rabbit reticulocytes. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of gamma-PAK followed by immunoblot analysis revealed a similar profile for native and recombinant gamma-PAK, both consisting of multiple protein spots. Following Cdc42-stimulated autophosphorylation, the two-dimensional profiles of native and recombinant gamma-PAK were characterized by a similar acidic shift, suggesting a common response to Cdc42. To understand the effect of differential phosphorylation on its activation status, gamma-PAK autophosphorylation was conducted in the presence or absence of activators such as Cdc42 and histone II-AS, followed by tryptic digestion and comparative two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping. The major phosphopeptides were subjected to a combination of manual and automated amino acid sequencing. Overall, eight autophosphorylation sites were identified in Cdc42-activated gamma-PAK, six of which are in common with those previously reported in alpha-PAK, while Ser-19 and Ser-165 appear to be uniquely phosphorylated in the gamma-form. Further, the phosphorylation of Ser-141, Ser-165, and Thr-402 was found to correlate with gamma-PAK activation.  (+info)

Inducible recruitment of Cdc42 or WASP to a cell-surface receptor triggers actin polymerization and filopodium formation. (3/193)

BACKGROUND: Cdc42, a GTP-binding protein of the Rho family, controls actin cytoskeletal organization and helps to generate actin-based protruding structures, such as filopodia. In vitro, Cdc42 regulates actin polymerization by facilitating the creation of free barbed ends - the more rapidly growing ends of actin filaments - and subsequent elongation at these ends. The Wiskott- Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, which has a pleckstrin-homology domain and a Cdc42/Rac-binding motif, has been implicated in cell signaling and cytoskeleton reorganization. We have investigated the consequences of local recruitment of activated Cdc42 or WASP to the plasma membrane. RESULTS: We used an activated Cdc42 protein that could be recruited to an engineered membrane receptor by adding rapamycin as a bridge, and added antibody-coupled beads to aggregate these receptors. Inducible recruitment of Cdc42 to clusters of receptors stimulated actin polymerization, resulting in the formation of membrane protrusions. Cdc42-induced protrusions were enriched in the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein VASP and the focal-adhesion-associated proteins zyxin and ezrin. The Cdc42 effector WASP could also induce the formation of protrusions, albeit of different morphology. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first demonstration that the local recruitment of activated Cdc42 or its downstream effector, WASP, to a membrane receptor in whole cells is sufficient to trigger actin polymerization that results in the formation of membrane protrusions. Our data suggest that Cdc42-induced actin-based protrusions result from the local and serial recruitment of cytoskeletal proteins including zyxin, VASP, and ezrin.  (+info)

Crosstalk between the Ras2p-controlled mitogen-activated protein kinase and cAMP pathways during invasive growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (4/193)

The two highly conserved RAS genes of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are redundant for viability. Here we show that haploid invasive growth development depends on RAS2 but not RAS1. Ras1p is not sufficiently expressed to induce invasive growth. Ras2p activates invasive growth using either of two downstream signaling pathways, the filamentation MAPK (Cdc42p/Ste20p/MAPK) cascade or the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (Cyr1p/cAMP/PKA) pathway. This signal branch point can be uncoupled in cells expressing Ras2p mutant proteins that carry amino acid substitutions in the adenylyl cyclase interaction domain and therefore activate invasive growth solely dependent on the MAPK cascade. Both Ras2p-controlled signaling pathways stimulate expression of the filamentation response element-driven reporter gene depending on the transcription factors Ste12p and Tec1p, indicating a crosstalk between the MAPK and the cAMP signaling pathways in haploid cells during invasive growth.  (+info)

The Cdc42p GTPase is involved in a G2/M morphogenetic checkpoint regulating the apical-isotropic switch and nuclear division in yeast. (5/193)

The Cdc42p GTPase is involved in the signal transduction cascades controlling bud emergence and polarized cell growth in S. cerevisiae. Cells expressing the cdc42(V44A) effector domain mutant allele displayed morphological defects of highly elongated and multielongated budded cells indicative of a defect in the apical-isotropic switch in bud growth. In addition, these cells contained one, two, or multiple nuclei indicative of a G2/M delay in nuclear division and also a defect in cytokinesis and/or cell separation. Actin and chitin were delocalized, and septin ring structure was aberrant and partially delocalized to the tips of elongated cdc42(V44A) cells; however, Cdc42(V44A)p localization was normal. Two-hybrid protein analyses showed that the V44A mutation interfered with Cdc42p's interactions with Cla4p, a p21(Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase (PAK)-like kinase, and the novel effectors Gic1p and Gic2p, but not with the Ste20p or Skm1p PAK-like kinases, the Bni1p formin, or the Iqg1p IQGAP homolog. Furthermore, the cdc42(V44A) morphological defects were suppressed by deletion of the Swe1p cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitory kinase and by overexpression of Cla4p, Ste20p, the Cdc12 septin protein, or the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Cdc24p. In sum, these results suggest that proper Cdc42p function is essential for timely progression through the apical-isotropic switch and G2/M transition and that Cdc42(V44A)p differentially interacts with a number of effectors and regulators.  (+info)

Rho family GTPases control entry of Shigella flexneri into epithelial cells but not intracellular motility. (6/193)

Shigella flexneri, an invasive bacterial pathogen, promotes formation of two cytoskeletal structures: the entry focus that mediates bacterial uptake into epithelial cells and the actin-comet tail that enables the bacteria to spread intracellularly. During the entry step, secretion of bacterial invasins causes a massive burst of subcortical actin polymerization leading the formation of localised membrane projections. Fusion of these membrane ruffles leads to bacterial internalization. Inside the cytoplasm, polar expression of the IcsA protein on the bacterial surface allows polymerization of actin filaments and their organization into an actin-comet tail leading to bacterial spread. The Rho family of small GTPases plays an essential role in the organization and regulation of cellular cytoskeletal structures (i.e. filopodia, lamellipodia, adherence plaques and intercellular junctions). We show here that induction of Shigella entry foci is controlled by the Cdc42, Rac and Rho GTPases, but not by RhoG. In contrast, actin-driven intracellular motility of Shigella does not require Rho GTPases. Therefore, Shigella appears to manipulate the epithelial cell cytoskeleton both by Rho GTPase-dependent and -independent processes.  (+info)

Identification of the stef gene that encodes a novel guanine nucleotide exchange factor specific for Rac1. (7/193)

The Rho family GTPases are involved in a variety of cellular events by changing the organization of actin cytoskeletal networks in response to extracellular signals. However, it is not clearly known how their activities are spatially and temporally regulated. Here we report the identification of a novel guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1, STEF, which is related in overall amino acid sequence and modular structure to mouse Tiam1 and Drosophila SIF proteins. STEF protein contains two pleckstrin homology domains, a PDZ domain and a Dbl homology domain. The in vitro assay showed that STEF protein specifically enhanced the dissociation of GDP from Rac1 but not that from either RhoA or Cdc42. Expression of a truncated STEF protein in culture cells induced membrane ruffling with altered actin localization, which implies that this protein also activates Rac1 in vivo. The stef transcript was observed in restricted parts of mice, including cartilaginous tissues and the cortical plate of the central nervous system during embryogenesis. These findings suggested that STEF protein participates in the control of cellular events in several developing tissues, possibly changing the actin cytoskeletal network by activating Rac1.  (+info)

Activation of Ste20 by Nef from human immunodeficiency virus induces cytoskeletal rearrangements and downstream effector functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (8/193)

The negative factor (Nef) from human and simian immunodeficiency viruses is important for the pathogenesis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Among other targets, it activates the Nef-associated kinase, which is related to the p21-activated kinase. In this study, we demonstrate that Nef activates Ste20, the homolog of p21-activated kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nef binds to the adaptor proteins Bem1 and Ste20 via its proline-rich (PXXP) and diarginine (RR) motifs, respectively. These interactions induce the mitogen-activated protein kinase and increase the rates of budding, sizes of cells, and patterns of mating projections. These effects of Nef depend on the small GTPase Cdc42 and guanine nucleotide exchange factor Cdc24. Thus, studies in S. cerevisiae identified specific interactions between Nef and cellular proteins and their associated signaling cascade.  (+info)

Abstract: We present three distinct examples where phaseless auxiliary-field Quantum Monte Carlo (ph-AFQMC) can be reliably performed with a single-determinant trial wavefunction with essential symmetry breaking. We first utilized essential time-reversal symmetry breaking with ph-AFQMC to compute the triplet-singlet energy gap in the TS12 set. We found statistically better performance of ph-AFQMC with complex-restricted orbitals than with spin-unrestricted orbitals. We then showed the utilization of essential spin symmetry breaking when computing the single-triplet gap of a known biradicaloid, C$_{36}$. ph-AFQMC with spin-unrestricted Hartree-Fock (ph-AFQMC+UHF) fails catastrophically even with spin-projection and predicts no biradicaloid character. With approximate Br{u}ckner orbitals obtained from regularized orbital-optimized second-order M{\o}ller-Plesset perturbation theory ($\kappa$-OOMP2), ph-AFQMC quantitatively captures strong biradicaloid character of C$_{36}$. Lastly, we applied ...
Winters MJ, Pryciak PM. Interaction with the SH3 domain protein Bem1 regulates signaling by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae p21-activated kinase Ste20. Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Mar; 25(6):2177-90 ...
The Higgs mechanism provides masses to vector bosons, but it does not completely break gauge symmetry (rather, it breaks the global part of it). This is obvious from the fact that gauge symmetry is often used to "eliminate" Goldstone bosons. In fact, Ive read on some other posts that at the quantum level, gauge symmetry is not a considered a symmetry (in the sense that it is not a symmetry of observables), but rather that it is some structural redundancy that physical theories have. Indeed, gauge symmetry breaking is a name more appropriate to the act of adding a gauge fixing term to the lagrangian. I have also read that it is a do-nothing transformation, in the sense that it acts trivially on states. Can someone show me an heuristic calculation showing that a gauge transformation is a do-nothing transformation (by this I mean define some gauge transformation on states and show that the state which is obtained is exactly the one we started from)? ...
Heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins (G proteins) determine tissue and cell polarity in a variety of organisms. In yeast, cells orient polarized growth toward the mating partner along a pheromone gradient by a mechanism that requires Far1p and Cdc24p. Far1p bound Gβγ and interacted with polarity establishment proteins, which organize the actin cytoskeleton. Cells containing mutated Far1p unable to bind Gβγ or polarity establishment proteins were defective for orienting growth toward their mating partner. In response to pheromones, Far1p moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Thus, Far1p functions as an adaptor that recruits polarity establishment proteins to the site of extracellular signaling marked by Gβγ to polarize assembly of the cytoskeleton in a morphogenetic gradient. ...
Some characteristic features of band structures, like the band degeneracy at high symmetry points or the existence of energy gaps, usually reflect the symmetry of the crystal or, more precisely, the symmetry of the wave vector group at the relevant points of the Brillouin zone. In this paper, we will illustrate this property by considering two-dimensional (2D)-hexagonal lattices characterized by a possible two-fold degenerate band at the K points with a linear dispersion (Dirac points). By combining scanning tunneling spectroscopy and angle-resolved photoemission, we study the electronic properties of a similar system: the Ag/Cu(111) interface reconstruction characterized by a hexagonal superlattice, and we show that the gap opening at the K points of the Brillouin zone of the reconstructed cell is due to the symmetry breaking of the wave vector group.
Abstract: In the extra U(1) superstring inspired model, we examine the electroweak and U(1)-prime symmetry breaking with the singlet and exotic quark D, D+{\c}along with the study of heavy Z-prime boson in accordance with the top quark mass region. For this, we have done the analysis of complete renormalization group equations (RGEs)pertaining to the anomaly free E-{\6}-Eta model of rank 5. The Z-prime is found to the order of TeV or above with allowed small Z-Zprime mixing angle, for which the large singlet VEV is required. This is done by considering the only non-universality of Yukawa couplings at GUT scale because these do not obey the E-{\6}relationship and also satisfies the unitarity constraints both at GUT and weak scale, where rest of the parameters, i.e., gaugino masses, tri-linear couplings, and soft supersymmetric breaking masses are kept universal at GUT scale with the gauge couplings unification. The large value of Yukawa couplings (order of 1) triggered the symmetry breaking ...
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Com o objetivo de retomar e aumentar a produtividade de seus serviços, bem como melhorar a eficiência de sua empresa, a Doutor Desentupid...
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficiency of antiplatelet (aspirin) therapy in vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (VED) patients with a high mean platelet volume. METHODS: A total of 184 patients diagnosed with VED between the ages of 18 and 76 were randomly divided into two groups and treated for 6 weeks [group 1: 120 patients (mean age 48.3), aspirin 100 mg/day; group 2: 64 patients (mean age 47.7), placebo 100 mg/day]. The changes from baseline to end point in erectile function scores on the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) and the number of patients who answered "yes" to questions 2 and 3 of the sexual encounter profile (SEP) were compared statistically ...
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Rho-type GTPase Cdc42 regulates polarized growth through its effectors, including the p21-activated kinases (PAKs) Ste20, Cla4, and Skm1. Previously, we demonstrated that Ste20 interacts with several proteins involved in sterol synthesis that are crucial for cell polarization. Under anaerobic conditions, sterols cannot be synthesized and need to be imported into cells. Here, we show that Ste20, Cla4, and Skm1 form a complex with Sut1, a transcriptional regulator that promotes sterol uptake. All three PAKs can translocate into the nucleus and down-regulate the expression of genes involved in sterol uptake, including the Sut1 targets AUS1 and DAN1 by a novel mechanism. Consistently, deletion of either STE20, CLA4, or SKM1 results in an increased sterol influx and PAK overexpression inhibits sterol uptake. For Ste20, we demonstrate that the down-regulation of gene expression requires nuclear localization and kinase activity of Ste20. Furthermore, the Ste20
We have developed a protocol to generate aggregates of mouse embryonic stem cells that display self-organization, symmetry breaking and ...
Casimir is a a joint graduate school between Leiden University and Delft University of Technology with focus on applied and fundamental physics. Casimir organizes courses for PhD students and also has a pre-phd track for MSc. students.
We have studied chiral symmetry breaking in the melt crystallization of 1,1-binaphthyl. We confirm that chiral symmetry breaking can be induced by stirring the melt as it crystallizes. We find an additional process of vapor crystallization to occur alongside the melt crystallization. This complicates the analysis of the enantiomorphism by introducing a further phenomenon: that of polymorphism. Crystallographic studies by X-ray diffraction reveal two polymorphs of 1,1-binaphthyl that are made up of two different conformers of each of the two enantiomeric forms of the molecule. Crystals from the melt are generally chiral tetragonal crystals (P42121) composed of (R)- or (S)-1,1-binaphthyl in a transoid conformer, while those from the vapor are racemic monoclinic crystals (C2/c) made up of the cisoid conformer of both (R)- and (S)-1,1-binaphthyl enantiomers. The main intermolecular interactions in all these crystals are weak aromatic CH/π hydrogen bonds, which are responsible for the ...
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I've lost the hardware for a crib from J.C. Penney. The only information I have is written on the plywood that - Baby Gear question
In immunolocalization experiments, we previously had shown that Cdc42p was not observed around the plasma or internal membranes and was only variably seen at the mother-bud neck region (43). The disparity between these patterns and GFP-Cdc42p targeting patterns described herein may be due to the nature of the anti-Cdc42p antibody used. The antibody was raised against a peptide sequence containing amino acids 165 to 181, a region adjacent to the membrane-targeting domain (42) and likely to be in close proximity to the plasma membrane, raising the possibility that steric hindrance interfered with efficient binding. An underestimation of Cdc42p membrane targeting may also be due to the immunolocalization protocol used, including the use of cell wall-digesting enzymes and sodium dodecyl sulfate, required for efficient Cdc42p visualization. These possibilities were supported by the observation that the GFP-Cdc42p immunolocalization pattern with anti-Cdc42p antibody was similar to that seen previously ...
We have studied the ultrafast changes of electronic states in bulk ZnO upon intense hard x-ray excitation from a free electron laser. By monitoring the transient anisotropy induced in an optical probe beam, we observe a delayed breaking of the initial c-plane symmetry of the crystal that lasts for several picoseconds. Interaction with the intense x-ray pulses modifies the electronic state filling in a manner inconsistent with a simple increase in electronic temperature. These results may indicate a way to use intense ultrashort x-ray pulses to investigate high-energy carrier dynamics and to control certain properties of solid-state materials. ...
Lecture 1 - The notions of aquantum phase, order, symmetry breaking. Evolution of quantum systems. The notion of a quantum phase transition, universality, dynamical ctitical exponent, types of phase transitions and level crossing ...
We report results of a search for supersymmetry (SUSY) with gauge-mediated symmetry breaking in di-photon events collected by the DO experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider in 2002-2006. In 1.1 fb(-1) of data, we find no significant excess beyond the background expected from the standard model and set the most stringent lower limits to date for a standard benchmark model on the lightest neutralino and chargino masses of 125 GeV and 229 GeV, respectively, at 95% confidence.. ...
my crib although it organic it is much safer than some of the other mattresses on the market its anti microbial mite proof and hypoallergenic which is crib bedding for girls crib bumpers mesh.. ...
We just put together our crib! (well.. the babys crib, I guess....) but noticed its dusty and smells like straight up factory! Can I use pinesol or...
Yet she hadnt ever climbed out of her crib, much to our surprise. Until yesterday. I went to get her out in the morning when she began hollering for me and when I walked in the room she said "Paisley do it" as she swung a little leg over the side of the crib. She quickly scaled the wall and dropped to her feet on the other side as I watched in amazement ...
Im looking for a convertible crib that doesnt break the bank! I love the Ti Amo Catania in white but its $299 plus the toddler rail is $60 and the conversion rails are around $120. Worth it so my LO (little one) has a bed thats easily convertible for a long time?? Or not? What are some brands of cribs youre looking at?!
1.5 Million Graco Strollers have been recalled! The recall includes certain models of strollers and travel systems made by Graco Childrens
This opening lecture lists some of the questions and issues propelling current research in Cell Biology and modelling in this field. I introduce basic features of eukaryotic cells that can crawl, and explain briefly the role of the actin cytoskeleton in cell motility. I also introduce the biochemical signalling that regulates the cytoskeleton and the concept of cell polarization. By simplifying the enormously complex signalling networks, and applying tools of mathematics (nonlinear dynamics, scaling, bifurcations), we can hope to get some understanding of a few of the basic mechanisms that areresponsible for symmetry breaking, robustness, pattern formation, self-assembly, and other cell-level phenomena ...
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IKEA - LEN, Crib fitted sheet, , Do you think it's a pain to make the bed? Then try a fitted sheet next time. Easy to pull over the mattress and secure for
Proxicast: Coax Extension Cables For Cellular 3G/4G/LTE & Wi-Fi Applications for Proxicast LAN-Cell and PocketPORT cellular 3G/4G Routers and other 3G routers, 4G routers and LTE routers.
We derive an unbiased information theoretic energy landscape for chromosomes at metaphase using a maximum entropy approach that accurately reproduces the details of the experimentally measured pairwise contact probabilities between genomic loci. Dynamical simulations using this landscape lead to cylindrical, helically twisted structures reflecting liquid crystalline order. These structures are similar to those arising from a generic ideal homogenized chromosome energy landscape. The helical twist can be either right or left handed so chiral symmetry is broken spontaneously. The ideal chromosome landscape when augmented by interactions like those leading to topologically associating domain formation in the interphase chromosome reproduces these behaviors. The phase diagram of this landscape shows that the helical fiber order and the cylindrical shape persist at temperatures above the onset of chiral symmetry breaking, which is limited by the topologically associating domain interaction strength ...
We experimentally demonstrate the realization of a parity-time (PT) symmetry breaking in optically coupled semiconductor lasers (SCLs). The two SCLs are identical except for a detuning between their optical emission frequencies. This detuning is analogous to the gain-loss parameter found in optical PT systems. To model the coupled SCLs, we employ the standard rate equations describing the electric field and carrier inversion of each SCL, and show that, under certain conditions, the rate equations reduce to the canonical, two-site PT- symmetric model. This model captures the global behavior of the laser intensity as the system parameters are varied. Overall, we find that this bulk system (coupled SCLs) provides an excellent test-bed to probe the characteristics of PT-breaking transitions, including the effects of time delay ...
SMSB processes yield a stochastic distribution of chiral signs between successive experiments or outcomes. This means that for a large number of experiments, or in a scenario of a large number of independent working reactors, as in the abiotic scenario of hydrothermal vents in the Hadean Ocean, the average over all the individual stochastic outputs must be the racemic mixture. However, a characteristic of SMSB bifurcations is that a very weak external chiral polarization can select one of the two degenerate chiral branches.20,21 Therefore, any weak chiral induction on the enantiomeric transition states, sufficiently weak so that it has no chemical relevance for common asymmetric synthesis, selects one of the two SMSB bifurcation branches deterministically for one of the two chiral signs. There are recent dramatic experimental examples of this for the Soai reaction.13 Thus, for example Fig. 5 shows a simulation for the deterministic effect of an extremely weak chiral polarization that converts ...
Takahashi T, Muneoka Y, Lohmann J, deHaro LM, Solleder G, Bosch TCG, David CN, Bode HR, Koizumi O, Shimizu H, Hatta M, Fujisawa T, Sugiyama T (1997) Systematic isolation of peptide signal molecules regulating development in hydra: Lwamide and PW families. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:1241-1246.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
In this thesis, simulations are performed to study the motion ofindividual cells in flow, focusing on the hydrodynamics of actively swimming cells likethe self-propelling microorganisms, and of passively advected objects like the red bloodcells. In particular, we develop numerical tools to address the locomotion ofmicroswimmers in viscoelastic fluids and complex geometries, as well as the motion ofdeformable capsules in micro-fluidic flows.. For the active movement, the squirmer is used as our model microswimmer. The finiteelement method is employed to study the influence of the viscoelasticity of fluid on theperformance of locomotion. A boundary element method is implemented to study swimmingcells inside a tube. For the passive counterpart, the deformable capsule is chosen as the modelcell. An accelerated boundary integral method code is developed to solve thefluid-structure interaction, and a global spectral method is incorporated to handle theevolving cell surface and its corresponding ...
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Emotions are difficult to interpret, particularly if you are existing in an epistemological vacuum where the theory of evolution and the evolutiona of organisms (and their nervous systems) isnt there to serve as an internal referent that allows you to recognize the essential polarity of the organism - that which is generative and symmetrical, and that which is dissipative and symmetry breaking. These terms come from the physics of thermodynamics, and the study of the physics of organisms, where symmetry (generative) dynamics exist side by side with dissipative (disequilibrated) dynamics, generally termed metabolism. In a certain sense, the gene-protein macro-molecular edifice that builds us into a real-physical structure can be considered the symmetry within us, whereas its tendency towards dissolution (heat loss) puts it into constant interaction with small metabolites, co-factors and the environment to keep itself alive ...
Abstract: Five years after their discovery, much of the interest in iron-pnictide materials remains in understanding not only their superconducting transition at nearly 60K, but also the nature of their normal state. In this context, a hotly debated topic is the origin of the tetragonal to orthorhombic transition, which either precedes or happens simultaneously to a magnetic instability, and persists even in the vicinities of the superconducting dome. Experiments have revealed that the anisotropies in this orthorhombic phase cannot be explained by the small lattice distortion alone, suggesting that the tetragonal symmetry breaking is driven by electronic degrees of freedom, dubbed nematic in analogy to the physics of liquid crystals. In this talk, I will present a consistent microscopic theoretical model for this nematic phase and explore its manifestations in a variety of macroscopic properties of the iron pnictides -- such as elastic, magnetic, and transport properties. The model is rooted on ...
The effect of load rate on the load-carrying capabilities of wood cribs is investigated in this Bureau of Mines study. The modulus of deformation (stiffness) of wood crib blocks has been shown to increase with increases in rates of load application, causing larger load reactions for increases in convergence rates. Since wood cribs are tested in the laboratory at convergence rates that are orders
RH Baby & Childs Cole Crib:A playful twist on the simple, A-shaped silhouette of the iconic American barn that inspired it, our crib is topped with triangular trusses supported by crisp corner beams. Crafted of wood and finished by hand, its rustic look is offset by the open geometric forms, lending it a lighter, more modern feel.
Your baby will spend a lot of time in the crib, and its your job to make sure its always a safe environment. Heres how to ensure the safety of your littlest sleeper.
MBAM, MSE shutdown, freezing and redirects! Ouch! - posted in Virus, Spyware, Malware Removal: My wifes D600 dell gets a regular scan with MBAM and has MSE ( only Av program) installed. Basics are XP Pro w/ SP3, Firefox, Thunderbird. She started complaining about freezing, sluggishness lately as well as losing emails , etc. Yesterday the MSE shutoff and would not start using the on screen dialog box. I tried to run a scan with MBAM but it wouldnt run either. Trying to go online I...
... cdc42 gtp-binding protein MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.300.400.700.060 --- cdc42 gtp-binding protein, saccharomyces cerevisiae MeSH ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunit, gi2 MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.300.200.100.300 --- gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gq-g11 ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, g12-g13 MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.300.200.100.200 --- gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gi ... ran gtp-binding protein MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.300.400.475 --- rap gtp-binding proteins MeSH D08.811.277.040.330.300.400.475. ...
... cdc42 gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.776.476.525.700.050.500 -- cdc42 gtp-binding protein in saccharomyces cerevisiae MeSH ... rac gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.776.476.525.700.100.100 -- rac1 gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.776.476.525.700.200 -- rhoa gtp- ... rab1 gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.776.476.525.400.050 -- rab2 gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.776.476.525.400.100 -- rab3 gtp- ... rab3a gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.776.476.525.400.150 -- rab4 gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.776.476.525.400.200 -- rab5 gtp- ...
This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to the CDC10 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The protein also shares ... Each of these similar proteins, including the yeast CDC10, contains a GTP-binding motif. The yeast CDC10 protein is a ... "Borg proteins control septin organization and are negatively regulated by Cdc42". Nature Cell Biology. 3 (10): 861-6. doi: ... "Functional analysis of a human homologue of the Drosophila actin binding protein anillin suggests a role in cytokinesis". The ...
eIF-2b regenerates the GTP-bound form of eIF-2 for an additional cycle in protein synthesis initiation, i.e., its binding to ... comprises approximately 500 amino acids and was first identified in the CDC25 protein in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... There are 11 identified DOCK family members divided into subfamilies based on their activation of Rac and Cdc42. DOCK family ... GTP generally binds in its place, as the cytosolic ratio of GTP is much higher than GDP at 10:1. The binding of GTP to the ...
... cdc42 gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.776.157.325.515.700.050.500 -- cdc42 gtp-binding protein, saccharomyces cerevisiae MeSH ... ran gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.776.157.325.515.475 -- rap gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.776.157.325.515.475.100 -- rap1 gtp- ... rab4 gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.776.157.325.515.400.200 -- rab5 gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.776.157.325.515.450 -- ral gtp ... gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, g12-g13 MeSH D12.776.157.325.332.100.200 -- gtp-binding protein alpha subunits, gi-go MeSH ...
The cooperative binding of CDC42 and PIP2 is thermodynamically favored; binding of one enhances binding of the other. CDC42 and ... Rajmohan R, Meng L, Yu S, Thanabalu T (April 2006). "WASP suppresses the growth defect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae las17Delta ... WASp and N-WASP are analogs, they contain an N-terminal EVH1 domain, a C-terminal VCA domain and central B and GBD (GTP binding ... "Cdc42-interacting protein 4 mediates binding of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein to microtubules". The Journal of ...
... cdc42 gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.644.360.525.700.050.500 --- cdc42 gtp-binding protein, saccharomyces cerevisiae MeSH D12.644 ... rab5 gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.644.360.525.450 --- ral gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.644.360.525.462 --- ran gtp-binding ... rab gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.644.360.525.400.025 --- rab1 gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.644.360.525.400.050 --- rab2 gtp- ... rac1 gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.644.360.525.700.200 --- rhoa gtp-binding protein MeSH D12.644.360.525.700.300 --- rhob gtp- ...
The cooperative binding of CDC42 and PIP2 is thermodynamically favored; binding of one enhances binding of the other.[9] CDC42 ... Rajmohan R, Meng L, Yu S, Thanabalu T (April 2006). "WASP suppresses the growth defect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae las17Delta ... WASp and N-WASP are analogs, they contain an N-terminal EVH1 domain, a C-terminal VCA domain and central B and GBD (GTP binding ... SH3 domain binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • actin binding. • protein kinase binding. • small GTPase ...

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