A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A sub-class of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain an additional phosphatase activity which cleaves phosphate ester bonds on SERINE or THREONINE residues that are located on the same protein.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)
A Src-homology domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase found in the CYTOSOL of hematopoietic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by dephosphorylating signaling proteins that are activated or inactivated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that occur in the CYTOPLASM. Many of the proteins in this category play a role in intracellular signal transduction.
An enzyme that deactivates glycogen phosphorylase a by releasing inorganic phosphate and phosphorylase b, the inactive form. EC 3.1.3.17.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain multiple extracellular immunoglobulin G-like domains and fibronectin type III-like domains. An additional memprin-A5-mu domain is found on some members of this subclass.
A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
Compounds of the general formula R-O-R arranged in a ring or crown formation.
A phosphomonoesterase involved in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidates with the formation of diacylglycerols and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.4.
A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain and multiple extracellular fibronectin III-like domains.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain short highly glycosylated extracellular domains and two active cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase domains.
A subcategory of phosphohydrolases that are specific for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. They play a role in the inactivation of the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES and is primarily localized to the CYTOSOL.
Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that is closely-related to PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, NON-RECEPTOR TYPE 1. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for this phosphatase results in the production at two gene products, one of which includes a C-terminal nuclear localization domain that may be involved in the transport of the protein to the CELL NUCLEUS. Although initially referred to as T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase the expression of this subtype occurs widely.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain SH2 type SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many of the proteins in this class are recruited to specific cellular targets such as a cell surface receptor complexes via their SH2 domain.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A lipid phosphatase that acts on phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate to regulate various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. It modulates CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL MIGRATION; and APOPTOSIS. Mutations in PTEN are associated with COWDEN DISEASE and PROTEUS SYNDROME as well as NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphorylated, inactive glycogen synthase D to active dephosphoglycogen synthase I. EC 3.1.3.42.
Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal catalytic domain and a large C-terminal domain that is enriched in PROLINE, GLUTAMIC ACID, SERINE, and THREONINE residues (PEST sequences). The phosphatase subtype is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in the regulation of a variety of biological processes such as CELL MOVEMENT; CYTOKINESIS; focal adhesion disassembly; and LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular fibronectin III-like domain along with a carbonic anhydrase-like domain.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
(Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide))-phosphate phosphohydrolase. A mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic removal of a phosphate on a specific seryl hydroxyl group of pyruvate dehydrogenase, reactivating the enzyme complex. EC 3.1.3.43.
A toxic compound, isolated from the Spanish fly or blistering beetle (Lytta (Cantharis) vesicatoria) and other insects. It is a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A). This compound can produce severe skin inflammation, and is extremely toxic if ingested orally.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that are bound to the cell membrane. They contain cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase domains and extracellular protein domains that may play a role in cell-cell interactions by interacting with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components. They are considered receptor-like proteins in that they appear to lack specific ligands.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing one or more PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. Expression of this phosphatase subtype has been observed in BONE MARROW; fetal LIVER; LYMPH NODES; and T LYMPHOCYTES.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing five different PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. In addition to playing a role as a regulator of the FAS RECEPTOR activity this subtype interacts via its PDZ and FERM domains with a variety of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PROTEINS and CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl phosphates to nitrophenols. At acid pH it is probably ACID PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.2); at alkaline pH it is probably ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.1). EC 3.1.3.41.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is expressed primarily in neuronal tissue and may be specific for the Ha-ras homolog of the RAS PROTEINS.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain a short extracellular domain, a cytosolic kinase-interaction domain, and single protein tyrosine kinase domain.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A genetic metabolic disorder resulting from serum and bone alkaline phosphatase deficiency leading to hypercalcemia, ethanolamine phosphatemia, and ethanolamine phosphaturia. Clinical manifestations include severe skeletal defects resembling vitamin D-resistant rickets, failure of the calvarium to calcify, dyspnea, cyanosis, vomiting, constipation, renal calcinosis, failure to thrive, disorders of movement, beading of the costochondral junction, and rachitic bone changes. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal PROLINE-rich domain. The phosphatase subtype is predominantly expressed in LYMPHOCYTES and plays a key role in the inhibition of downstream T-LYMPHOCYTE activation. Polymorphisms in the gene that encodes this phosphatase subtype are associated with a variety of AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular RDGS-adhesion recognition motif and a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The phosphoric acid ester of serine.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The active form of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that is derived from the phosphorylation of PHOSPHORYLASE B. Phosphorylase a is deactivated via hydrolysis of phosphoserine by PHOSPHORYLASE PHOSPHATASE to form PHOSPHORYLASE B.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.

Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530. (1/759)

Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases.  (+info)

Function of WW domains as phosphoserine- or phosphothreonine-binding modules. (2/759)

Protein-interacting modules help determine the specificity of signal transduction events, and protein phosphorylation can modulate the assembly of such modules into specific signaling complexes. Although phosphotyrosine-binding modules have been well-characterized, phosphoserine- or phosphothreonine-binding modules have not been described. WW domains are small protein modules found in various proteins that participate in cell signaling or regulation. WW domains of the essential mitotic prolyl isomerase Pin1 and the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 bound to phosphoproteins, including physiological substrates of enzymes, in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The Pin1 WW domain functioned as a phosphoserine- or phosphothreonine-binding module, with properties similar to those of SRC homology 2 domains. Phosphoserine- or phosphothreonine-binding activity was required for Pin1 to interact with its substrates in vitro and to perform its essential function in vivo.  (+info)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue conjugates with strong selective antitumor activity. (3/759)

Conjugation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues GnRH-III, MI-1544, and MI-1892 through lysyl side chains and a tetrapeptide spacer, Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly (X) to a copolymer, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-co-maleic acid) (P) caused increased antiproliferative activity toward MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast, PC3 and LNCaP prostate, and Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell lines in culture and against tumor development by xenografts of the breast cancer cells in immunodeficient mice. MCF-7 cells treated with P-X-1544 and P-X-1892 displayed characteristic signs of apoptosis, including vacuoles in the cytoplasm, rounding up, apoptotic bodies, bleb formation, and DNA fragmentation. Conjugates, but not free peptides, inhibited cdc25 phosphatase and caused accumulation of Ishikawa and PC3 cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle after 24 h at lower doses and in the G1 and G2 phases after 48 h. Since P-X-peptides appear to be internalized, the increased cytotoxicity of the conjugates is attributed to protection of peptides from proteolysis, enhanced interaction of the peptides with the GnRH receptors, and/or internalization of P-X-peptide receptor complexes so that P can exert toxic effects inside, possibly by inhibiting enzymes involved in the cell cycle. The additional specificity of P-X-peptides compared with free peptides for direct antiproliferative effects on the cancer cells but not for interactions in the pituitary indicates the therapeutic potential of the conjugates.  (+info)

Involvement of Chk1 kinase in prophase I arrest of Xenopus oocytes. (4/759)

Chk1 kinase, a DNA damage/replication G2 checkpoint kinase, has recently been shown to phosphorylate and inhibit Cdc25C, a Cdc2 Tyr-15 phosphatase, thereby directly linking the G2 checkpoint to negative regulation of Cdc2. Immature Xenopus oocytes are arrested naturally at the first meiotic prophase (prophase I) or the late G2 phase, with sustained Cdc2 Tyr-15 phosphorylation. Here we have cloned a Xenopus homolog of Chk1, determined its developmental expression, and examined its possible role in prophase I arrest of oocytes. Xenopus Chk1 protein is expressed at approximately constant levels throughout oocyte maturation and early embryogenesis. Overexpression of wild-type Chk1 in oocytes prevents the release from prophase I arrest by progesterone. Conversely, specific inhibition of endogenous Chk1 either by overexpression of a dominant-negative Chk1 mutant or by injection of a neutralizing anti-Chk1 antibody facilitates prophase I release by progesterone. Moreover, when ectopically expressed in oocytes, a Chk1-nonphosphorylatable Cdc25C mutant alone can induce prophase I release much more efficiently than wild-type Cdc25C; if endogenous Chk1 function is inhibited, however, even wild-type Cdc25C can induce the release very efficiently. These results suggest strongly that Chk1 is involved in physiological prophase I arrest of Xenopus oocytes via the direct phosphorylation and inhibition of Cdc25C. We discuss the possibility that Chk1 might function either as a G2 checkpoint kinase or as an ordinary cell cycle regulator in prophase-I-arrested oocytes.  (+info)

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation and activation of human Cdc25-C at the G2/M phase transition in HeLa cells. (5/759)

The human tyrosine phosphatase (p54(cdc25-c)) is activated by phosphorylation at mitosis entry. The phosphorylated p54(cdc25-c) in turn activates the p34-cyclin B protein kinase and triggers mitosis. Although the active p34-cyclin B protein kinase can itself phosphorylate and activate p54(cdc25-c), we have investigated the possibility that other kinases may initially trigger the phosphorylation and activation of p54(cdc25-c). We have examined the effects of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase II) on p54(cdc25-c). Our in vitro experiments show that CaM kinase II can phosphorylate p54(cdc25-c) and increase its phosphatase activity by 2.5-3-fold. Treatment of a synchronous population of HeLa cells with KN-93 (a water-soluble inhibitor of CaM kinase II) or the microinjection of AC3-I (a specific peptide inhibitor of CaM kinase II) results in a cell cycle block in G2 phase. In the KN-93-arrested cells, p54(cdc25-c) is not phosphorylated, p34(cdc2) remains tyrosine phosphorylated, and there is no increase in histone H1 kinase activity. Our data suggest that a calcium-calmodulin-dependent step may be involved in the initial activation of p54(cdc25-c).  (+info)

Nucleo-cytoplasmic interactions that control nuclear envelope breakdown and entry into mitosis in the sea urchin zygote. (6/759)

In sea urchin zygotes and mammalian cells nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB) is not driven simply by a rise in cytoplasmic cyclin dependent kinase 1-cyclin B (Cdk1-B) activity; the checkpoint monitoring DNA synthesis can prevent NEB in the face of mitotic levels of Cdk1-B. Using sea urchin zygotes we investigated whether this checkpoint prevents NEB by restricting import of regulatory proteins into the nucleus. We find that cyclin B1-GFP accumulates in nuclei that cannot complete DNA synthesis and do not break down. Thus, this checkpoint limits NEB downstream of both the cytoplasmic activation and nuclear accumulation of Cdk1-B1. In separate experiments we fertilize sea urchin eggs with sperm whose DNA has been covalently cross-linked to inhibit replication. When the pronuclei fuse, the resulting zygote nucleus does not break down for >180 minutes (equivalent to three cell cycles), even though Cdk1-B activity rises to greater than mitotic levels. If pronuclear fusion is prevented, then the female pronucleus breaks down at the normal time (average 68 minutes) and the male pronucleus with cross-linked DNA breaks down 16 minutes later. This male pronucleus has a functional checkpoint because it does not break down for >120 minutes if the female pronucleus is removed just prior to NEB. These results reveal the existence of an activity released by the female pronucleus upon its breakdown, that overrides the checkpoint in the male pronucleus and induces NEB. Microinjecting wheat germ agglutinin into binucleate zygotes reveals that this activity involves molecules that must be actively translocated into the male pronucleus.  (+info)

Cis-regulatory elements of the mitotic regulator, string/Cdc25. (7/759)

Mitosis in most Drosophila cells is triggered by brief bursts of transcription of string (stg), a Cdc25-type phosphatase that activates the mitotic kinase, Cdk1 (Cdc2). To understand how string transcription is regulated, we analyzed the expression of string-lacZ reporter genes covering approximately 40 kb of the string locus. We also tested protein coding fragments of the string locus of 6 kb to 31.6 kb for their ability to complement loss of string function in embryos and imaginal discs. A plethora of cis-acting elements spread over >30 kb control string transcription in different cells and tissue types. Regulatory elements specific to subsets of epidermal cells, mesoderm, trachea and nurse cells were identified, but the majority of the string locus appears to be devoted to controlling cell proliferation during neurogenesis. Consistent with this, compact promotor-proximal sequences are sufficient for string function during imaginal disc growth, but additional distal elements are required for the development of neural structures in the eye, wing, leg and notum. We suggest that, during evolution, cell-type-specific control elements were acquired by a simple growth-regulated promoter as a means of coordinating cell division with developmental processes, particularly neurogenesis.  (+info)

Cdc25 inhibited in vivo and in vitro by checkpoint kinases Cds1 and Chk1. (8/759)

In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the protein kinase Cds1 is activated by the S-M replication checkpoint that prevents mitosis when DNA is incompletely replicated. Cds1 is proposed to regulate Wee1 and Mik1, two tyrosine kinases that inhibit the mitotic kinase Cdc2. Here, we present evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies, which indicates that Cds1 also inhibits Cdc25, the phosphatase that activates Cdc2. In an in vivo assay that measures the rate at which Cdc25 catalyzes mitosis, Cds1 contributed to a mitotic delay imposed by the S-M replication checkpoint. Cds1 also inhibited Cdc25-dependent activation of Cdc2 in vitro. Chk1, a protein kinase that is required for the G2-M damage checkpoint that prevents mitosis while DNA is being repaired, also inhibited Cdc25 in the in vitro assay. In vitro, Cds1 and Chk1 phosphorylated Cdc25 predominantly on serine-99. The Cdc25 alanine-99 mutation partially impaired the S-M replication and G2-M damage checkpoints in vivo. Thus, Cds1 and Chk1 seem to act in different checkpoint responses to regulate Cdc25 by similar mechanisms.  (+info)

Lymphocytes depend on external signals from cytokines for survival and proliferation. Here we have examined the mechanisms by which IL-3 and IL-7 induce proliferation of lymphoid cell lines and primary lymphocytes and find that this pathway differs from that of better-studied factors that induce growth of mesenchymal cells. Rather than inducing synthesis of cyclins, these cytokines appear to protect lymphocytes from a stress response. Withdrawal of IL-3 or IL-7 induced cell cycle arrest through activation of a stress kinase, p38 MAPK, which occurred in the first few hours after cytokine withdrawal. p38 MAPK then directly phosphorylated the phosphatase Cdc25A at S75 and S123, targeting the phosphatase for degradation. Because Cdc25A is required to remove an inhibitory phosphate (Y15) from Cdk2, the latter kinase was inactive, failed to phosphorylate Rb and the cells arrested at the G1-S boundary. We show that inhibiting either component of this pathway, blocking p38 MAPK activity or expressing a ...
The checkpoint protein MAD2 and the mitotic regulator CDC20 form a ternary complex with the anaphase-promoting complex to control anaphase ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human CDC42 protein (ab87713). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Cdc7 Kinase protein (ab125594). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Complete information for CDC37 gene (Protein Coding), Cell Division Cycle 37, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Distributed via the CDC Health Alert NetworkMay 25, 2018, 1130 ET (11:30 AM ET)CDC HAN-00410The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is providing information on: 1) the current status of a multistate outbreak of coagulopathy from exposure ...
Cdc42-His Protein: constituitively active C6101-A Constitutively active form. The constitutively active form of human Cdc42 protein contains a glutamine to leuc
Cells depleted of Plk or cdc5-1 protein arrest at multiple points of M phase. (A) Growth of cdc5Δ mutant conditionally rescued by expressing either GAL1-HA-EGF
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Homo sapiens cell division cycle 2-like 1 (PITSLRE proteins) (CDC2L1), transcript variant 4, mRNA. (H00000984-R09) - Products - Abnova
Dr Arjun Srinivasan, the associate director of the CDC, said that the misuse and overuse of antibiotics have rendered them powerless to fight continuously evolving infections like MRSA.
I logged on to this site after following a link from CDC. I was curious about CD and considering a change from LL. After reading the ridiculous opinions of...
a class=explain href=http://www.cdc.gov/emailupdates/,What's this?,/a, ,label,,span class=tp-sr-only,Submit Button,/span, ,input class=button submit name=commit type=submit value=Submit /,,/label ...
This is by far the craziest most uncertain time I have ever experienced in my lifetime and to make things worse the FACTS keep changing
2/20/16: Johnny Oduya takes a high shot at the Bruins net and Antoine Roussel gets his stick on the puck, deflecting it into the twine
When I hit the big four oh, I found that my body started to fall apart one piece at a time. My warranty had expired and there was No Extended Warranty available! This is the story of my struggle to keep it all together using spare parts and baling twine.. ...
Just in time for World Breastfeeding Week (yes, there is one), the CDC has released a report (.pdf) showing that only a small percentage of U.S. hospitals - 4 …. ...
COVID-19: Keep you and your loved ones safe. Visit the CDC Guidance for Older Adults, or call 1-833-MY-Senior for resources in your area. ...
Protein kinase A (PKA) play a critical role in maintaining the meiotic arrest. However, the steps downstream of PKA remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the regulation of meiotic resumption by PKA/Cdc25B pathway in mouse oocytes. Injection of mRNA coding for Cdc25b-S321A had a more potent maturation-inducing ability than Cdc25b-WT. When co-injected with PKA inhibitor, Cdc25B-WT had similar activities with Cdc25B-S321A. Meanwhile, the phosphorylation of Cdc25B-S321 was detected in germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes by Western blotting with a phospho-Ser321-specific antibody and the band disappeared when oocytes reenter into the meiotic cell cycle. Furthermore, Cdc25B-WT translocated to the nucleus shortly before GV breakdown (GVBD), whereas phosphorylated Cdc25B-S321 expressed exclusively in the cytoplasm and the signal could not be detected in GVBD oocytes. Taken together, these data indicate that Cdc25B-Serine321 is the potential PKA target and Cdc25B subcellular localization determines
Falck et al. have made progress in defining the molecular mechanism underlying the S-phase checkpoint activated by ionizing radiation (IR). IR caused rapid, transient degradation of the phosphatase Cdc25A (which dephosphorylates and activates cyclin-dependent kinase 2) in mammalian cells by a mechanism dependent on the catalytic activity and the ability of the kinase Chk2 to interact with and phosphorylate Cdc25A. Furthermore, the degradation of Cdc25A in response to IR occurred in cells with normal and mutated versions of the tumor suppressor p53, confirming the independence of this S-phase checkpoint on the p53 pathway. However, in cells from patients with ataxia telangiectasia with mutations in the ATM gene, Cdc25A persisted after IR, and the cells exhibited radioresistant DNA synthesis. Thus, IR appears to activate a pathway from ATM to Chk2, which then phosphorylates Cdc25A leading to its destruction and a transient block in the progress of the S phase of the cell cycle. J. Falck, N. ...
It is well established that the kinase activity of the p34cdc2 cyclinB complex known as MPF regulates commitment to mitosis (Ohi and Gould, 1999). Once MPF has been activated, polo, aurora and NIMA‐related kinases (Nrks) control most of the physical events of mitosis and cytokinesis (Nigg, 2001).. In interphase, Wee1 and related protein kinases phosphorylate and inhibit the p34cdc2 catalytic subunit of MPF. This inhibitory phosphate is removed by the phosphatase Cdc25. The balance between Wee1‐ and Cdc25‐related activities controls mitotic commitment (Ohi and Gould, 1999). An initial trigger level of MPF promotes further activation of Cdc25 to drive commitment to mitosis (Hoffmann et al., 1993), so that the activity of the bulk of Cdc25 is actually dependent upon p34cdc2 activity (Kovelman and Russell, 1996). While direct phosphorylation of Cdc25 by MPF does contribute to positive feedback loop activation of Cdc25 (Izumi and Maller, 1993), the loop still exists in Xenopus extracts from ...
The experiments in the previous section established that in CDC14-CFP MOB1-YFP cells, Cdc14p was released from the nucleolus and Mob1p bound to SPBs at the same time (Fig. 5 D). We did not observe any cells (n , 200) in which Mob1p was already at SPBs while Cdc14p was still in the nucleolus. In fact, ∼5% of early anaphase cells showed Cdc14p, but not Mob1p, at SPBs (unpublished data). This observation suggests that Cdc14p dissociates from Net1p shortly before Tem1p activation. In turn, this implies that MEN activity is not essential for the initial release of Cdc14p from the nucleolus. If this is the case, then the initial release of Cdc14p from the nucleolus should still occur in cells where the MEN is defective. To test this possibility, the resident nucleolar protein Net1p, which forms a complex with Cdc14p (Shou et al., 1999; Visintin et al., 1999), was fused to CFP in wild-type, cdc5-10, cdc15-1, and dbf2-2 cells that contained CDC14-YFP. We then monitored the localization of Cdc14p-YFP ...
14mm Blue Abattoir Twine/Rope Polypropylene twines are the twines used regularly within the abattoir industry and its associated trades. It is predominantly used for the hanging and transporting of...
Calcium signalling is a ubiquitous process in plants and other organisms. Transporters at the plasma and vacuolar (tonoplast) membranes control entry and exit…
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Complete information for CDC14BL gene (Pseudogene), CDC14 Cell Division Cycle 14 C-Like, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
This morning wearable giant Fitbit announced that it will be acquiring healthcare coaching platform Twine Health for an undisclosed sum. The acquisition takes Fitbit more solidly into the healthcare space than it has been up until now. The Twine platform aims to help users manage chronic conditions like diabetes and hypertension by using artificial intelligence technology and creating a way for... ...
Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human CDC14A protein. CDC14A (NP_003663.2, 1 a.a. ~ 594 a.a) full-length human protein. (H00008556-B02P) - Products - Abnova
The CDC gets it wrong again - the sun doesnt cause melanoma Last year, I reported on the incompetent way the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) handed the
Having trouble viewing this email? View it as a Web page. You are subscribed to CDC News: Immunization-related MMWRs email subscription service. This message serves to inform you that one or more MMWRs have recently been added to the MMWR page and are now available. The CDC has reached over 1.3 million subscribers. Thank you…
For more than 60 years, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been a leader in the fight against malaria since successfully eliminating it in the United States. Building on that success, CDC experts continue to develop and evaluate ...
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Dephosphorylation of the Cdc2 kinase by the Cdc25 tyrosine phosphatase is the universally conserved trigger for mitotic entry. Cdc25 is also the point of convergence for checkpoint signaling pathways which monitor the ...
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has determined that sixty-five percent of those with cancer now survive five years or more after diagnosis.
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The H1N1 virus, also known as swine flu, may have killed as many as 17,000 Americans, according to new estimates by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta.
The CDC says a fresh rise in the polio-like acute flaccid myelitis is puzzling, but some doctors say its no mystery. They blame a virus called EV-D68.
Heavy-gauge wire frame supports a spool holding 100 of twine. Easily clips over 2.5 to 4.0 mm greenhouse wire. Concurrently releases twine while sliding down the ...
摘 要:胚胎干细胞的生长、增殖、分化和形状改变等过程受微环境、机械力等多种因素的影响。胚胎干细胞能够感知微小机械力刺激,并将其转化成生物化学信号,进而通过F-肌动蛋白、肌球蛋白-II、Cdc42、Rho和Src等产生一系列分子水平的应答反应,最终导致基因差异表达。胚胎干细胞应答外力基本过程的研究对于胚胎早期发育和分化机制研究、克隆和再生药物的研制与开发等均有重要意义。该文就机械力对胚胎干细胞结构、形态和分化的影响及其潜在机制等进行论述 ...
O95819 (MAP4K4) , Q5VT25 (CDC42BPA) , P41279 (MAP3K8) , Q04759 (PRKCQ) , O75116 (ROCK2) , Q13464 (ROCK1) , Q5S007 (LRRK2) , P25098 (GRK2) , P17612 (PRKACA) , Q9Y5S2 (CDC42BPB) , O94804 (STK10 ...
In a political twist on the old George Carlin routine, the Center for Disease Control says the Trump administration has forbidden them from using 7 words.
Continuing a trend that emerged late last month, flu activity remains high across the United States but there are reports that the number of infections may be l
Kevan Millers shot from the blue line is stopped by Cam Ward, but David Backes slams the rebound into the twine to knot the score at 2
When I hit the big four oh, I found that my body started to fall apart one piece at a time. My warranty had expired and there was No Extended Warranty available! This is the story of my struggle to keep it all together using spare parts and baling twine.. ...
Hey i know this question has been asked before but i am meeting my CDC fri and starting CD sat and i just wanted opinion on the whole SS, SS+ thing. i...
Sexually transmitted diseases are on the rise all across the U.S, according to the CDC. But which states are being hit the hardest?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential roles for checkpoint kinases in DNA damage-dependent degradation of the Cdc25A protein phosphatase. AU - Jin, Jianping. AU - Cambronne, Xiaolu. AU - Ye, Xin. AU - Livingstone, Mark. AU - Harper, J. Wade. PY - 2008/7/11. Y1 - 2008/7/11. N2 - In response to DNA damage, cells activate a signaling pathway that promotes cell cycle arrest and degradation of the cell cycle regulator Cdc25A. Cdc25A degradation occurs via the SCFβ-TRCP pathway and phosphorylation of Ser-76. Previous work indicates that the checkpoint kinase Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is capable of phosphorylating Ser-76 in Cdc25A, thereby promoting its degradation. In contrast, other experiments involving overexpression of dominant Chk2 mutant proteins point to a role for Chk2 in Cdc25A degradation. However, loss-of-function studies that implicate Chk2 in Cdc25A turnover are lacking, and there is no evidence that Chk2 is capable of phosphorylating Ser-76 in Cdc25A despite the finding that Chk1 and Chk2 ...
A major challenge confronting the developing embryo is that of generating the appropriate numbers and distinct classes of neurons essential for constructing functional neuronal circuits. This involves tight coordination between proliferation, specification and differentiation during the course of neurogenesis. The developing spinal cord is a pertinent model with which to dissect the crosstalk that exists between these different programs, because we have a good understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing spinal neurons specification and differentiation (Dessaud et al., 2008).. The spinal cord develops from a caudal stem zone containing a pool of undifferentiated neural progenitors performing only proliferative divisions, one progenitor generating two daughter progenitor cells (PP) (Akai et al., 2005). Neural progenitors exiting the stem zone to contribute to the formation of the neural tube become subjected to morphogens, including Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which controls their specification, ...
Fission yeast cell division is initiated by the cdc2/cdc13-cyclin protein kinase which in its catalytically active state comprises the mitotic inducer. During interphase the cdc2/cyclin complex is assembled in an inactive state that requires cdc25+ gene function for M-phase activation. The cdc25+ product, a 76 kd phosphoprotein, is shown to oscillate in abundance during the cell cycle, reaching a peak at G2/M, and to be sensitive to nitrogen starvation. The level of cdc25 is subject to feedback regulation involving both cdc25 and cdc2.. ...
The substrates of this kinase include transcription regulator ATF2, MEF2C, and MAX, cell cycle regulator CDC25B, and tumor suppressor p53, which suggest the roles of this kinase in stress related transcription and cell cycle regulation, as well as in genotoxic stress response ...
The substrates of this kinase include transcription regulator ATF2, MEF2C, and MAX, cell cycle regulator CDC25B, and tumor suppressor p53, which suggest the roles of this kinase in stress related transcription and cell cycle regulation, as well as in genotoxic stress response ...
cdc25 controls the activity of the cyclin-p34cdc2 complex by regulating the state of tyrosine phosphorylation of p34cdc2. Drosophila cdc25 protein from two different expression systems activates inactive cyclin-p34cdc2 and induces M phase in Xenopus oocytes and egg extracts. We find that the cdc25 s …
CDC25A is a member of the CDC25 family of phosphatases. CDC25A is required for progression from G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle. It activates the cyclin-dependent kinase CDC2 by removing two phosphate groups. CDC25A is specifically degraded in response to DNA damage, which prevents cells with chromosomal abnormalities from progressing through cell division. CDC25A is an oncogene, although its exact role in oncogenesis has not been demonstrated. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The Cdc25 dual-specificity phosphatases control progression through the eukaryotic cell division cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinases. Cdc25 A regulates entry into S-phase by dephosphorylating Cdk2, it cooperates with activated oncogenes in inducing transformation and is overexpressed in sev …
This gene encodes a member of the p34Cdc2 protein kinase family. p34Cdc2 kinase family members are known to be essential for eukaryotic cell cycle control. This gene is in close proximity to CDC2L2, a nearly identical gene in the same chromosomal region. The gene loci including this gene, CDC2L2, as well as metalloprotease MMP21/22, consist of two identical, tandemly linked genomic regions which are thought to be a part of the larger region that has been duplicated. This gene and CDC2L2 were shown to be deleted or altered frequently in neuroblastoma with amplified MYCN genes. The protein kinase encoded by this gene could be cleaved by caspases and was demonstrated to play roles in cell apoptosis. Several alternatively spliced variants of this gene have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
CDC7 - CDC7 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human cell division cycle 7 homolog (S. cerevisiae) (CDC7), transcript variant 3 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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Thermo Scientific™ Sino Biological™ CDC42 Recombinant Human Protein, GST Tag 5 x 50ug Thermo Scientific™ Sino Biological™ CDC42...
Active Cdc42 ELISA Activation Assay - colorimetric format offers a sensitive and accurate dection of active Cdc42 GTPase. Additional assays for small GTPases including Rho, Ras, Cdc42, Rac, Ral, Arf also available in pull-down and G-LISA formats.
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Expression of CDC34 (E2-CDC34, UBC3, UBE2R1) in duodenum tissue. Antibody staining with HPA002382, CAB005109 and CAB047311 in immunohistochemistry.
You searched for: Creator Centers for Disease Control (U.S.) Remove constraint Creator: Centers for Disease Control (U.S.) Creator CDC Remove constraint Creator: CDC Format Text Remove constraint Format: Text Subject Disease Transmission, Infectious Remove constraint Subject: Disease Transmission, Infectious ...
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Looking for the definition of CDC? Find out what is the full meaning of CDC on Abbreviations.com! Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is one option -- get in to view more @ The Webs largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
The CDC cant find CFS much less XMRV. The CDC studies chronic unwellness not CFS. They plan to analyze their findings in 2011. Here are their...
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Value Set of codes that specify the administered vaccines. The values are maintained by the US Centers of Disease Control.. The code system is maintained by the CDC, and may be found at URL; https://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystem.action?id=2.1. ...
We have to do better folks... CDC Report Claims Half Of All Black Women Have Herpes An eye-opening CDC study has found yet another widespread epidemic that is targeting the African-American Community.
The CDC Content Syndication site at https://tools.cdc.gov/syndication/ allows you to import content from CDC websites directly into your own website or application. These services are provided free of charge from CDC. The data shown in this table represent the weekly top page views from CDC.gov offered by syndication ...
Cdc6, 0.5 ml. The replication licensing system acts to ensure that no section of the genome is replicated more than once in a single cell cycle.
The latest Threat Report from the Centers for Disease Control is a scary one. In its Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013, the CDC estimates that at least 2 million people become infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and at least 23,000 people die each year as a direct result of these infections.
CDC42EP3 兔多克隆抗体(ab93594)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Cdc42 and Rac1 have distinct but overlapping binding sites on PICK1.Upper panel: GST pulldowns were carried out using purified his6flagCdc42 or his6mycRac1 and
Listen to audio from the whistleblower HERE. WATCHUNG, NJ--(Marketwired - August 18, 2014) - A top research scientist working for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) played a key role in helping Dr. Brian Hooker of the Focus...
In the movie Contagion an airborne, rapidly-evolving virus threatens society and life as we know it. Doctors at the CDC have plans to deal with such a global health threat.
The CDC estimates that so far this season there have been at least 13 million flu illnesses, 120,000 hospitalizations and 6,600 deaths from flu.
The CDC estimates that so far this season there have been at least 13 million flu illnesses, 120,000 hospitalizations and 6,600 deaths from flu.
By Dan Olmsted and Mark Blaxill Two years after dozens of children became paralyzed following baffling respiratory illnesses, the CDC says it has received a
Article: SOME QUESTIONS FOR CANCER RESEARCHERS AND THE CDC, WHAT IF CANCER IS NOT A DISEASE? - a look at the corrupt paradigm of the drug and medical arts/sciences industries, locking us into Dark Ages approach to healing, with greed as the major motivating force, and how to undo it starting with a paradigm-busting look at the way in which cancer is viewed and treated.
Health News) A report published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has revealed that U.S. cancer rates have, once again, shown a significant increase in recent years after a steady decline since the 1990s. The report … Read More ...
It interacts with CDC25 phosphatases, RAF1 and IRS1 proteins, suggesting its role in diverse biochemical activities related to ... "14-3-3 proteins associate with cdc25 phosphatases". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (17): 7892-6. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.17.7892 ... "14-3-3 proteins associate with cdc25 phosphatases". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (17): 7892-6. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.17.7892 ... "Specific interaction between 14-3-3 isoforms and the human CDC25B phosphatase". Oncogene. 19 (10): 1257-65. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ...
The encoded protein is a tyrosine phosphatase and belongs to the Cdc25 phosphatase family. It directs dephosphorylation of ... Nilsson I, Hoffmann I (2000). "Cell cycle regulation by the Cdc25 phosphatase family". Progress in Cell Cycle Research. 4: 107- ... Galaktionov K, Beach D (1992). "Specific activation of cdc25 tyrosine phosphatases by B-type cyclins: evidence for multiple ... Draetta G, Eckstein J (1997). "Cdc25 protein phosphatases in cell proliferation". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1332 (2): M53-63. doi ...
Draetta G, Eckstein J (1997). "Cdc25 protein phosphatases in cell proliferation". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1332 (2): M53-63. doi ... Wee1, conserved among all eukaryotes phosphorylates Tyr15, whereas members of the Cdc25 family are phosphatases, counteracting ... Gyuris J, Golemis E, Chertkov H, Brent R (November 1993). "Cdi1, a human G1 and S phase protein phosphatase that associates ... Hannon GJ, Casso D, Beach D (March 1994). "KAP: a dual specificity phosphatase that interacts with cyclin-dependent kinases". ...
... is a member of the CDC25 family of dual-specificity phosphatases. Dual-specificity protein phosphatases remove phosphate ... Huang TS, Shu CH, Yang WK, Whang-Peng J (Jul 1997). "Activation of CDC 25 phosphatase and CDC 2 kinase involved in GL331- ... Huang TS, Shu CH, Yang WK, Whang-Peng J (1997). "Activation of CDC 25 phosphatase and CDC 2 kinase involved in GL331-induced ... Conklin DS, Galaktionov K, Beach D (Aug 1995). "14-3-3 proteins associate with cdc25 phosphatases". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. ...
M-phase inducer phosphatase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDC25B gene. CDC25B is a member of the CDC25 family ... Hofmann K, Bucher P, Kajava AV (1998). "A model of Cdc25 phosphatase catalytic domain and Cdk-interaction surface based on the ... Conklin DS, Galaktionov K, Beach D (1995). "14-3-3 proteins associate with cdc25 phosphatases". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... 1995). "CDC25 phosphatases as potential human oncogenes". Science. 269 (5230): 1575-7. Bibcode:1995Sci...269.1575G. doi:10.1126 ...
The encoded protein has been shown to interact with RAF1 and CDC25 phosphatases, suggesting that it may play a role in linking ... Conklin DS, Galaktionov K, Beach D (August 1995). "14-3-3 proteins associate with cdc25 phosphatases". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U ... "Specific interaction between 14-3-3 isoforms and the human CDC25B phosphatase". Oncogene. 19 (10): 1257-65. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ... "Serine phosphorylation-dependent association of the band 4.1-related protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTPH1 with 14-3-3beta protein ...
... myosin phosphatase (MYPT), cardiac muscle troponin T (TnTc), etc. The retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and Cdc25 phosphatase were ... Huang TS, Shu CH, Yang WK, Whang-Peng J (July 1997). "Activation of CDC 25 phosphatase and CDC 2 kinase involved in GL331- ... Conklin DS, Galaktionov K, Beach D (August 1995). "14-3-3 proteins associate with cdc25 phosphatases". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U ... Galaktionov K, Jessus C, Beach D (May 1995). "Raf1 interaction with Cdc25 phosphatase ties mitogenic signal transduction to ...
ISBN 978-0-12-324719-3. "Presentation on CDC25 PHOSPHATASES: A Potential Target for Novel Anticancer Agents". Archived from the ... Synthetic inhibitors of Cdc25 could also be useful for the arrest of cell cycle and therefore be useful as antineoplastic and ... cdc25 or cdc20. Cyclins form the regulatory subunits and CDKs the catalytic subunits of an activated heterodimer; cyclins have ...
Phosphatases from the Cdc25 family dephosphorylate both the threonine and the tyrosine. A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ( ... Various kinases and phosphatases regulate their phosphorylation state. One of the kinases that place the tyrosine phosphate is ...
String/cdc25 is a phosphatase that stimulates mitotic cyclin-CDK complex activity. Upregulation of S-phase CDK activity is ... CDK activity is accomplished via transcriptional activation of Cdh/fzr and repression of the G2-M regulator string/cdc25. Cdh/ ...
... a germ line specific Cdc25 phosphatase that regulates meiotic entry; and demonstrated the roles of PP1 and PP2A protein ... phosphatases as negative mitotic regulators. His contribution to science in Scotland was recognised by his election to Fellow ...
The complex is activated by dephosphorylation by the phosphatase Cdc25. Cdc25 is always present in the cell but must be ... Galaktionov K, Beach D (1991). "Specific activation of cdc25 tyrosine phosphatases by B-type cyclins: evidence for multiple ... Zheng XF, Ruderman JV (1993). "Functional analysis of the P box, a domain in cyclin B required for the activation of Cdc25". ... Active Cdk1 is also capable of phosphorylating and activating Cdc25 and thus promote its own activation, resulting in a ...
Once activated, CHK2 phosphorylates downstream targets including CDC25 phosphatases, responsible for dephosphorylating and ... CHK2's inhibition of the CDC25 phosphatases prevents entry of the cell into mitosis. Furthermore, the CHK2 protein interacts ... "A human homologue of the checkpoint kinase Cds1 directly inhibits Cdc25 phosphatase". Current Biology. 9 (1): 1-10. doi:10.1016 ... "The physical association and phosphorylation of Cdc25C protein phosphatase by Prk". Oncogene. 18 (44): 6029-36. doi:10.1038/sj. ...
When cells have reached sufficient size during G2, the phosphatase Cdc25 removes the inhibitory phosphorylation, and thus ... A balance of Wee1 and Cdc25 activity with changes in cell size is coordinated by the mitotic entry control system. It has been ...
"Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel dual specificity phosphatase, LMW-DSP2, that lacks the cdc25 homology domain ... Pettiford SM, Herbst R (February 2000). "The MAP-kinase ERK2 is a specific substrate of the protein tyrosine phosphatase HePTP ... "Dual-specificity phosphatase 1 ubiquitination in extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated control of growth in human ... 1 and ERK2 are authentic substrates for the dual-specificity protein-tyrosine phosphatase VHR. A novel role in down-regulating ...
2001). "Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel dual specificity phosphatase, LMW-DSP2, that lacks the cdc25 homology ... 2007). "Crystal structure of human dual specificity phosphatase, JNK stimulatory phosphatase-1, at 1.5 A resolution". Proteins ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel dual specificity phosphatase, LMW-DSP2, that lacks the cdc25 homology domain ... Dual specificity protein phosphatase 22 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DUSP22 gene. DUSP22 has been shown to ...
... including Cdc25 phosphatase catalytic domain. non-catalytic domains of eukaryotic dual-specificity MAPK-phosphatases non- ... This domain is found as a single copy in other proteins, including phosphatases and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases. CDC25A; ... catalytic domains of yeast PTP-type MAPK-phosphatases non-catalytic domains of yeast Ubp4, Ubp5, Ubp7 non-catalytic domains of ...
2001). „Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel dual specificity phosphatase, LMW-DSP2, that lacks the cdc25 homology ... Pettiford, S M; Herbst R (2000). „The MAP-kinase ERK2 is a specific substrate of the protein tyrosine phosphatase HePTP". ... 2008). „Dual-specificity phosphatase 1 ubiquitination in extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated control of growth in ... 1999). „Inhibition of T cell signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinase-targeted hematopoietic tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP ...
"Discovery and biological evaluation of a new family of potent inhibitors of the dual specificity protein phosphatase Cdc25." J ...
... is activated by Cdc25, a protein phosphatase. As mitosis starts, the nuclear envelope disintegrates, chromosomes condense and ... Cdk1 and Cdc25 off, Wee1 on) and a second stable steady state in M phase (Cdk1 and Cdc25 active, Wee1 off). However, Wee1 is ... Cdc25 Cell biology Cell cycle Cell cycle checkpoint Cell cycle mathematical model Mitosis Spindle checkpoint Morgan D. (2006), ... At later phase, downregulation of Cdk1 and activation of Cdc14, a Cdh1-activating phosphatase, promotes formation of APC in ...
"Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel dual specificity phosphatase, LMW-DSP2, that lacks the cdc25 homology domain ... Tanoue T, Moriguchi T, Nishida E (July 1999). "Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel dual specificity phosphatase, ... for ERK2/p38alpha and JNK map kinases mediate catalytic activation and substrate selectivity of map kinase phosphatase-1". J. ...
At the G2/M transition, Cdk1 is activated by Cdc25 through dephosphorylation of Tyr15. At the same time, Wee1 is inactivated ... It is inactivated by phosphorylation through Wee1 and activated by the phosphatase Cdc25C. Cdc25C in turn is activated by Polo ... Also, the active MPF will promote its own activity by activating Cdc25 and inactivating Wee1, creating a positive feedback loop ... Cdc25 homologue). Nim1/Cdr1 homologue in S. cerevisiae, Hsl1, together with its related kinases Gin4 and Kcc4 localize Swe1 to ...
... but promotes the inactivation of Cdc2 by down-regulating Cdc25 phosphatase. Cdc14 of Candida albicans is also involved in ... Human Cdc14 phosphatases are not essential for viability and do not regulate mitotic exit. Ph.D. thesis, Weill Medical College ... It is possible that Cdc14 acts as a phosphatase on all Clb-Cdk1 targets, acting to reverse the effects of the mitotic cyclins. ... Cdc14 was later shown to encode a protein phosphatase. Cdc14 is dual-specificity, which means it has serine/threonine and ...
CyclinB-Cdc2 activates the phosphatase Cdc25 which in turn deactivates the CyclinB-Cdc2 inhibitors, Wee1 and Myt1. Cdc25 ... Absence of Cdc25 arrests cells in G2, but still allows activation of the G2-M checkpoint, implicating that both the activation ... The increase in the amount of Wee1 and the decrease in the amount of Cdc25 contributes to the increase in the cyclin B ... Inactivation of both Wee1 and Cdc25 abolishes the G2-M DNA damage checkpoint. Absence of Wee1 or removal of the tyrosine-15 ...
... and phosphatases (such as Cdc25). Once the CDKs are active, they phosphorylate other proteins to change their activity, which ... These kinases, in conjunction with phosphatases, play a major role in protein and enzyme regulation as well as signalling in ... nor with phosphatases, which remove phosphate groups (dephosphorylation). The phosphorylation state of a molecule, whether it ... protein kinase Cell signaling Cyclin-dependent kinase G protein-coupled receptor Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase Phosphatase ...
... of Myt 1 and Wee 1 decrease substantially which allows for the dephosphorylation activity of phosphatases in the Cdc 25 family ... This hyperphosphorylation activates Cdc25 and inhibits Myt 1 and Wee 1. The activation of Cdc25 causes an increase in its ... This dephosphorylation of inhibitory sites is done by the Cdc25 family. In vertebrates, the Cdc25 enzymes are Cdc25A which ... and Cdc25 lies in a positive feedback loop with Cdk 1. To regulate these three proteins, Cdk 1 hyperphosphorylates the N- ...
... pTyr-specific phosphatases dual specificity phosphatases (dTyr and dSer/dThr) Cdc25 phosphatases (dTyr and/or dThr) LMW (low ... "The crystal structure of human receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa phosphatase domain 1". Protein Sci. 15 (6): 1500-5. ... Tyrosine-specific protein phosphatases (PTPase; EC) catalyse the removal of a phosphate group attached to a tyrosine residue, ... Wang WQ, Sun JP, Zhang ZY (2003). "An overview of the protein tyrosine phosphatase superfamily". Curr Top Med Chem. 3 (7): 739- ...
The effects of Wee1 and Myt1 are counteracted by phosphatases in the cdc25 family, which remove the inhibitory phosphates on ... DNA damage is detected by the kinases ATM and ATR, which activate Chk1, an inhibitory kinase of Cdc25. Chk1 inhibits Cdc25 ... The other equilibrium corresponds to M-phase and is characterized by high activity of Cyclin-B1/CDK1 and Cdc25, and low Wee1 ... It is thought that the simultaneous transport of cdc25 and cyclin-B1/CDK1 into the nucleus amplify the switch-like nature of ...
... and Cdc25 is a phosphatase that dephosphorylates Cdk1 to promote mitotic entry. Plk1 binds to phosphorylated Cdc25 through its ... Thus Plks can phosphorylate Cdc25 and thereby regulate Cdc25 and indirectly Cdk1. A study shows that phosphorylation of a ... Plks are controlled at the level of protein synthesis and degradation, by the action of upstream kinases and phosphatases, and ... EMBO J. 17, 1336-1349 (1998). Kumagai, A. & Dunphy, W. G. Purification and molecular cloning of Plx1, a Cdc25-regulatory kinase ...
When cells have reached sufficient size during G2, the phosphatase Cdc25 removes the inhibitory phosphorylation, and thus ... A balance of Wee1 and Cdc25 activity with changes in cell size is coordinated by the mitotic entry control system. It has been ...
protein tyrosine phosphatase: Receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase. *Sh2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase ...
protein tyrosine phosphatase activity. • phosphatase activity. • phosphoprotein phosphatase activity. • hydrolase activity. • ... non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine phosphatase activity. • acid phosphatase activity. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • ... It functions as an acid phosphatase and a protein tyrosine phosphatase by hydrolyzing protein tyrosine phosphate to protein ... ACP1, HAAP, LMW-PTP, acid phosphatase 1, soluble, LMWPTP, acid phosphatase 1. ...
CDK는 인산화 상태에 따라 활성이 달라지므로 다른 인산화효소(e.g. CDK 활성화 인산화효소)와 인산분해효소(e.g. Cdc25)의 조절을 받는다.[11] CDK가 활성화되면 다른 단백질을 인산화하여 활성을 조절하여 ... 인산화효소는 무기 인산기를 받개에 부가하는 반응을 매개하는 가인산분해효소(phosphorylase)나, 인산기를 제거하는 반응을 매개하는 인산가수분해효소(phosphatase)와 구분하여야 한다. 단백질, 지질 또는 탄수화물은 ...
phosphatase activity. • phosphoprotein phosphatase activity. • hydrolase activity. • protein tyrosine phosphatase activity. ... Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 18 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTPN18 gene.[5][6] ... PTPN18, BDP1, PTP-HSCF, protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 18. External IDs. MGI: 108410 HomoloGene: 74971 ... 2007). "A bioinformatics analysis of protein tyrosine phosphatases in humans". DNA Res. 12 (2): 79-89. doi:10.1093/dnares/12.2. ...
... which is activated by Cdc25 to generate MPF. Because Cdc25 itself is also activated by MPF, the conversion of preMPF to active ... Novak and Tyson predict that unreplicated DNA interferes with M-phase initiation by activating the phosphatases that oppose MPF ... This prediction suggests a possible role for regulated serine/threonine protein phosphatases in cell cycle control. At the time ... but includes additional reactions such as that of Wee1 and Cdc25. The result is a non-linear dynamic system with a similar S- ...
An additional function of Plk1 is to activate Cdc25 through phosphorylation. The compound effect of Wee1 degradation and Cdc25 ... which in turn phosphorylate the phosphatase Cdc25A, thus marking it for ubiquitination and degradation. As Cdc25A activates the ... The Plk1-Cdc2-cdc25 complex then initiates a positive feedback loop which serves to further activate Cdc2, and in conjunction ... Chk1/2 phosphorylate cdc25 which, in addition to being inhibited, is also sequestered in the cytoplasm by the 14-3-3 proteins. ...
Crenshaw DG, Yang J, Means AR, Kornbluth S (Aug 1998). "The mitotic peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, Pin1, interacts with Cdc25 and ... Rudrabhatla, P.; Albers, W.; Pant, H. C. (2009-11-25). "Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase 1 Regulates Protein Phosphatase 2A-Mediated ... The precise effects of Pin1 depend upon the system: Pin1 accelerates dephosphorylation of Cdc25 and Tau, but protects ...
Through targeting Cdc25, cell cycle arrest can occur at multiple time points including the G1/S transition, S phase and G2/M ... "The physical association and phosphorylation of Cdc25C protein phosphatase by Prk". Oncogene. 18 (44): 6029-36. doi:10.1038/sj. ... Furthermore, Chk1 can target Cdc25 indirectly through phosphorylating Nek11. WEE1 kinase and PLK1 are also targeted by Chk1 to ... In response to DNA damage, Chk1 primarily phosphorylates Cdc25 which results in its proteasomal degradation. The degradation ...
Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell ... through a pathway involving regulatory and catalytic subunits of PP2A and acting on both Wee1 and Cdc25". Virology. 287 (2): ... "A PP2A phosphatase high density interaction network identifies a novel striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase complex ... Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 56 kDa regulatory subunit alpha isoform is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ...
Protein phosphatase 2 (formerly named type 2A) is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases and is implicated in the negative ... through a pathway involving regulatory and catalytic subunits of PP2A and acting on both Wee1 and Cdc25". Virology. 287 (2): ... Lubert EJ, Hong Y, Sarge KD (2001). "Interaction between protein phosphatase 5 and the A subunit of protein phosphatase 2A: ... Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B'' subunit alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ...
Dual specificity protein phosphatase 7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DUSP7 gene. Dual-specificity phosphatases ... MKPs contain a highly conserved C-terminal catalytic domain and an N-terminal Cdc25-like (CH2) domain. MAPK activation cascades ... a novel cytosolic protein-tyrosine phosphatase that exemplifies a new class of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase". J ... 2003). "Dual-specificity phosphatase Pyst2-L is constitutively highly expressed in myeloid leukemia and other malignant cells ...
"General Information: Community acquired MRSA". CDC. 25 March 2016. Latha T, Anil Bhat, Manjunatha Hande, Chiranjay Mukhopadyay ... and phosphatase (a pink color) tests are all done. For staphylococcal food poisoning, phage typing can be performed to ...
Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell ... through a pathway involving regulatory and catalytic subunits of PP2A and acting on both Wee1 and Cdc25". Virology. 287 (2): ... "A PP2A phosphatase high density interaction network identifies a novel striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase complex ... "Dephosphorylation of CDK9 by protein phosphatase 2A and protein phosphatase-1 in Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription". ...
... cerevisiae Cdc25 gene product. Genetic analysis indicated that CDC25 is essential for activation of RAS proteins. In Drosophila ... Hadari YR, Kouhara H, Lax I, Schlessinger J (July 1998). "Binding of Shp2 tyrosine phosphatase to FRS2 is essential for ... contains a domain that shows sequence similarity with the catalytic domain of Cdc25. Sos may act as a positive regulator of RAS ... encoding the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, cause Noonan syndrome". Nat. Genet. 29 (4): 465-8. doi:10.1038/ng772. PMID ...
Cdc25C phosphatase is present in the cytoplasm and in late G2 phase it is translocated into the nucleus by signaling such as ... MPF and its activator Cdc25, in the nucleus generates efficient activation of the MPF and produces switch-like, ultrasensitive ... The MAPKK is at a concentration above the KΜ for its specific phosphatase and MAPK is at a concentration above the KΜ for MAPKK ... Under these conditions, small changes in the ratio of kinase to phosphatase activity can dramatically change the number of ...
Cdc25 phosphatase synonyms, Cdc25 phosphatase pronunciation, Cdc25 phosphatase translation, English dictionary definition of ... Cdc25 phosphatase. n. Any of numerous enzymes that catalyze the removal of phosphate groups by hydrolysis of phosphate ester ... Cdc25 phosphatase - definition of Cdc25 phosphatase by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Cdc25+phosphatase ... phosphatase. (redirected from Cdc25 phosphatase). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. phos·pha·tase. (fŏs′fə-tās ...
Cdc25 cell-cycle phosphatase as a target of c-myc.. Galaktionov K1, Chen X, Beach D. ...
Cdc25 A regulates entry into S-phase by dephosphorylating Cdk2, it cooperates with activated oncogenes in inducing ... The Cdc25 dual-specificity phosphatases control progression through the eukaryotic cell division cycle by activating cyclin- ... Dual mode of degradation of Cdc25 A phosphatase EMBO J. 2002 Sep 16;21(18):4875-84. doi: 10.1093/emboj/cdf491. ... The Cdc25 dual-specificity phosphatases control progression through the eukaryotic cell division cycle by activating cyclin- ...
Drosophila cdc25 protein from two different expression systems activates inactive cyclin-p34cdc2 and induces M phase in Xenopus ... cdc25 controls the activity of the cyclin-p34cdc2 complex by regulating the state of tyrosine phosphorylation of p34cdc2. ... cdc25 itself is a very specific protein tyrosine phosphatase. Bacterially expressed cdc25 directly dephosphorylates bacterially ... cdc25 is a specific tyrosine phosphatase that directly activates p34cdc2 Cell. 1991 Oct 4;67(1):197-211. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674 ...
cdc25 Cell Cycle-activating Phosphatases and c-myc Expression in Human Non-Hodgkins Lymphomas. Silvia Hernández, Luis ... cdc25 Cell Cycle-activating Phosphatases and c-myc Expression in Human Non-Hodgkins Lymphomas ... cdc25 Cell Cycle-activating Phosphatases and c-myc Expression in Human Non-Hodgkins Lymphomas ... cdc25 Cell Cycle-activating Phosphatases and c-myc Expression in Human Non-Hodgkins Lymphomas ...
... laevis Cdc25 is high in mitosis and low in interphase, whereas the activity of the phosphatases that dephosphorylate Cdc25 is ... Regulation of Mih1/Cdc25 by protein phosphatase 2A and casein kinase 1. Gayatri Pal, Maria T.Z. Paraz, Douglas R. Kellogg ... Cdc25 is also thought to be regulated by 14-3-3 proteins and protein phosphatases (PPs). Phosphorylation of X. laevis Cdc25C at ... Dephosphorylation of cdc25-C by a type-2A protein phosphatase: specific regulation during the cell cycle in Xenopus egg ...
BioAssay record AID 51730 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of Cell division cycle 25 (Cdc25) phosphatase.
Cdc25 phosphatases are postulated to have critical roles in controlling cell cycle phase transition, and Cdc25 phosphatases ... Important members of the dual specificity phosphatase family are the Cdc25 phosphatases, which control cell cycle progression ... 1996) Cdc25 cell-cycle phosphatase as a target of c-myc. Nature (Lond) 382:511-517. ... Because the Cdc25 phosphatase family has a central role in controlling cell cycle progression, we evaluated the effects of NSC ...
cdc25-22 (TE282) (A and B) and cdc25-22 mik1 − (TE938) (C and D) cells were transformed with pREP81-cdc25 +(WT) or pREP81-cdc25 ... A and B) cdc25-22(TE282) (A) and cdc25-22 mik1 − (TE938) (B) cells were transformed with pREP81-cdc25 + (WT), pREP81-cdc25(3A ... Association between Cdc25 and 14-3-3 proteins in vitro and in vivo. (A) Cdc25-WT (lane 1), Cdc25-3A (lane 2), and Cdc25-9A ( ... cdc25 +,cdc25-3A, and cdc25-9A were expressed to similar levels and fully rescued the cell cycle arrest of cdc25-22at the ...
CDC25 phosphatases, Melanoma, Virtual Screening. Settori scientifico-disciplinari del MIUR:. Area 03 - Scienze chimiche , CHIM/ ... Cerchia, Carmen (2016) IDENTIFICATION OF NOVEL INHIBITORS OF CDC25 PHOSPHATASES AS NEW ANTI-MELANOMA AGENTS BY LIGAND- AND ... IDENTIFICATION OF NOVEL INHIBITORS OF CDC25 PHOSPHATASES AS NEW ANTI-MELANOMA AGENTS BY LIGAND- AND STRUCTURE-BASED VIRTUAL ... Cell division cycle 25 (CDC25) proteins are highly conserved dual specificity phosphatases that regulate the proper advancement ...
Calbiochem The CDC25 Phosphatase Inhibitor I, BN82002, also referenced under CAS 396073-89-5, controls the biological activity ... of CDC25 Phosphatase. This small molecule/inhibitor is primarily used for Phosphorylation & Dephosphorylation applications. - ... CDC25 Phosphatase Inhibitor I, BN82002 - CAS 396073-89-5 - Calbiochem. 217691 Sigma-AldrichCDC25 Phosphatase Inhibitor I, ... The CDC25 Phosphatase Inhibitor I, BN82002, also referenced under CAS 396073-89-5, controls the biological activity of CDC25 ...
... cdc25 Phosphatases--antagonists & inhibitors; cdc25 Phosphatases--metabolism. ... The Cdc25 dual specificity phosphatases have central roles in coordinating cellular signaling processes and cell proliferation ... Discovery and biological evaluation of a new family of potent inhibitors of the dual specificity protein phosphatase Cdc25 ... Discovery and biological evaluation of a new family of potent inhibitors of the dual specificity protein phosphatase Cdc25. ...
NSC 95397 is a potent and selective irreversible inhibitor of Cdc25 dual specificity phosphatases that displays 125 - 180-fold ... selectivity over VH1-related dual-specificity phosphatase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b. Learn More ...
NSC 95397 是一种有效选择性的 Cdc25 双特异性磷酸酶抑制剂,对 Cdc25A、Cdc25B 以及 Cdc25C 的 Ki 值分别为 32、96、40 nM,对人亚型 Cdc25A、人亚型 Cdc25C、Cdc25B 的 IC50 值分别为 ... NSC 95397 is a potent and selective Cdc25 dual specificity phosphatase inhibitor with Ki values of 32, 96, and 40 nM for Cdc25A ... Identification of a potent and selective pharmacophore for Cdc25 dual specificity phosphatase inhibitors. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 ... Identification of a potent and selective pharmacophore for
Conklin, D. S., Galaktionov, K., Beach, D. (1995) 14-3-3 proteins associate with cdc25 phosphatases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, ... The cdc25 phosphatases play key roles in cell cycle progression by activating cyclin-dependent kinases. Two members of the 14-3 ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism Signal Transduction Spodoptera Transfection Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase cdc25 Phosphatase. ... 14-3-3 protein does not, however, affect the phosphatase activity of cdc25A. Raf-1, which is known to bind 14-3-3 proteins, has ...
Boudolf V, Inze D, De Veylder L (2006) What if higher plants lack a CDC25 phosphatase? Trends Plant Sci 11: 474-479. ... Bleeker PM, Hakvoort HW, Bliek M, Souer E, Schat H (2006) Enhanced arsenate reduction by a CDC25-like tyrosine phosphatase ... Of specific interest are the lack of cell division cycle (CDC) phosphatases CDC25 and CDC14, and the seeming adaptation of ... Mg2+-dependent phosphoprotein phosphatase, and protein tyrosine phosphatase families, there are novel protein phosphatases, ...
NSC 663284 (DA3003-1), Cdc25 inhibitor (ab144408) Description:. Potent, cell-permeable, irreversible non-selective Cdc25 ... Cantharidin, Protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1, PP2A) inhibitor (ab120967) Specific References (1) ... bpV(pic), Protein phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTP) and PTEN inhibitor (ab141437) Specific References (1) ... RWJ-60475 (AM)3, CD45 tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor (ab141729) Specific References (1) ...
Phosphatase Cancer BN82002 是 CDC25 phosphatase 家族的有效,选择性和不可逆的泛抑制剂。 BN82002 抑制 CDC25A,CDC25B2,CDC25B3,CDC25C CDC25A 和 25C-cat 的 ... NSC 95397 是一种有效选择性的 Cdc25 双特异性磷酸酶抑制剂 (Cdc25A、Cdc25B 以及 Cdc25C 的 Ki 值分别为 32、96、40 nM,人亚型 Cdc25A、人亚型 Cdc25C 以及 Cdc25B 的 IC50 值分别为 ... 细胞可渗透的且不可逆的 Cdc25 dual specificity phosphatase 抑制剂,Cdc25B2 的 IC50 为 0.21 μM。NSC 663284 表现出与 Cdc25A,Cdc25B2 和 Cdc25C 的混合竞争动力
Cdc25 dual specificity phosphatases. library of sulfonylated aminothiazoles as inhibitors. + overall Gold fitness function. ... A. Lavecchia, S. Cosconati, V. Limongelli, and E. Novellino, "Modeling of Cdc25B dual specifity protein phosphatase inhibitors ...
It interacts with CDC25 phosphatases, RAF1 and IRS1 proteins, suggesting its role in diverse biochemical activities related to ... "14-3-3 proteins associate with cdc25 phosphatases". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (17): 7892-6. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.17.7892 ... "14-3-3 proteins associate with cdc25 phosphatases". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (17): 7892-6. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.17.7892 ... "Specific interaction between 14-3-3 isoforms and the human CDC25B phosphatase". Oncogene. 19 (10): 1257-65. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ...
Cdc25. M-phase inducer phosphatase 0.0 mol. G2K. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 ; G2/mitotic-specific cyclin cdc13 0.0 mol. ... Cdc25B*kc*MPF/(Cdc25B+Kmc)-Cdc25*kcr/(Cdc25+Kmcr). Cdc25B*kc*MPF/(Cdc25B+Kmc)-Cdc25*kcr/(Cdc25+Kmcr). kc = 1.0; Kmcr = 0.1; Kmc ...
2) dual specificity phosphatases (dTyr and dSer/dThr). *(3) Cdc25 phosphatases (dTyr and/or dThr) ... Dual specificity phosphatase, catalytic domain (IPR000340). Short name: Dual-sp_phosphatase_cat-dom ... The crystal structure of human receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa phosphatase domain 1.. Protein Sci. 15 1500-5 2006 ... This entry represents dual specificity protein-tyrosine phosphatases. Ser/Thr and Tyr dual specificity phosphatases are a group ...
The phosphatase PP2A:B55δ is assumed to oppose the effects of MPF on Gwl, Wee1, Cdc25, and APC/C, but not on Cdc20. ... C) Time courses of Cdc25-P and Wee1. As the extract enters mitosis, both Cdc25 and Wee1 are phosphorylated. Compare with figure ... Role for regulated phosphatase activity in generating mitotic oscillations in Xenopus cell-free extracts.. Zhang T1, Tyson JJ, ... Wee1 and MPF inhibit each other whereas Cdc25 and MPF activate each other. In addition, MPF activates Greatwall kinase (Gwl); ...
Boutros, R., Dozier, C., and Ducommun, B. (2006). The when and where of Cdc25 phosphatases. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18, 185-191. ... Rudolph, J. (2007). Cdc25 phosphatases: structure, specificity, and mechanism. Biochemistry 46, 3595-3604. ... Kristjánsdóttir, K., and Rudolph, J. (2004). Cdc25 phosphatases and cancer. Chem. Biol. 11, 1043-1051. ... Karlsson-Rosenthal, C., and Millar, J. B. (2006). Cdc25: mechanisms of checkpoint inhibition and recovery. Trends Cell Biol. 16 ...
cdc25 Phosphatases. *Endometrium. *ETV5. *Estrogen Receptors. *Messenger RNA. *MSH6. *Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer ...
cdc25 Phosphatases. *Vitamin E. *Unfolded Protein Response. *p53 Protein. *p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases ... Wild-type p53-inducible phosphatase-1 (WIP1) encoded by PPM1D, is activated, gained/amplified in a range of TP53 wild-type ... Chemical Inhibition of Wild-Type p53-Induced Phosphatase 1 (WIP1/PPM1D) by GSK2830371 Potentiates the Sensitivity to MDM2 ...
... and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). Cpd 5 is a selective inhibitor of cdc25 phosphatases, which belong to members of PTPs ... and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). Cpd 5 is a selective inhibitor of cdc25 phosphatases, which belong to members of PTPs ... and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). Cpd 5 is a selective inhibitor of cdc25 phosphatases, which belong to members of PTPs ... and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). Cpd 5 is a selective inhibitor of cdc25 phosphatases, which belong to members of PTPs ...
Studies of Starfish Protein Kinase C Isoforms and Cdc25 Protein Phosphatase. Studies of Starfish Protein Kinase C Isoforms and ... ヒトデ・プロテインキナーゼCアイソフォームおよびCdc25プロテインホスファターゼに関する研
CDC25. PPP1R60. 5q31.2. CENPE centromere protein E. KIF10, PPP1R61. 4q24. CEP192 centrosomal protein 192. PPP1R62, FLJ10352, ... protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3D. PPP1R6. 20q13.33. PPP1R3E protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3E. FLJ00089. ... protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 7. sds22. 2q37.3. PPP1R8 protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 8. ard-1, NIPP-1, ... protein phosphatase 1 regulatory inhibitor subunit 1A. 12q13.2. PPP1R1B protein phosphatase 1 regulatory inhibitor subunit 1B. ...
Draetta, G., and Eckstein, J. (1997). Cdc25 protein phosphatases in cell proliferation. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1332, M53-M63. ... cell cycle arrest would be via reduction of PLK1 levels and phosphorylation resulting in decreased phosphorylation of Cdc25. In ...
  • The low expression rate of CDC25A in infertile men is the result of the reduction of spermatogenic cycles in the seminiferous tubules and shows that the CDC25 phosphatase contributes to the hyperphosphorylation of M-phase promoting factor (MPF) and CDC25 that are important to complete the meiosis (24). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • cdc25A, cdc25B , and cdc25C are a family of human phosphatases that activate the cyclin-dependent kinases at different points of the cell cycle. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To determine the role of cdc25 genes in the pathogenesis of human lymphomas and their possible correlation with c- myc deregulation, we have analyzed the expression of cdc25A, cdc25B , and cdc25C and c- myc genes in a series of 63 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and 8 nonneoplastic lymphoid tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Two members of the 14-3-3 protein family have been isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen designed to identify proteins that interact with the human cdc25A and cdc25B phosphatases. (cshl.edu)
  • 14-3-3 protein does not, however, affect the phosphatase activity of cdc25A. (cshl.edu)
  • Raf-1, which is known to bind 14-3-3 proteins, has recently been shown to associate with cdc25A and to stimulate its phosphatase activity. (cshl.edu)
  • The Cdc25 enzymes Cdc25A-C are known to control the transitions from G1 to S phase and G2 to M phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDC25A is a member of the CDC25 family of phosphatases. (genecards.org)
  • Cdc25 is a dual specificity phosphatase with three isoforms in mammalian cells - Cdc25A, B and C. Cdc25 activates cdk complexes that drive the cell cycle. (genecards.org)
  • This phenomenon was accompanied by down-regulation of CDC25A, a phosphatase regulating progression of cell cycle through S-phase, and PKR-dependent hyper-phosphorylation of eIF2α, an inhibitor of CDC25 translation. (portlandpress.com)
  • Potent and selective irreversible inhibitor of Cdc25 dual specificity phosphatases (K i values are 32, 96 and 40 nM for inhibition of Cdc25A, -B and -C respectively). (tocris.com)
  • Rather, we observe that in lymphocyte cell lines dependent on interleukin-3 or interleukin-7, or primary lymphocytes dependent on interleukin 7, the phosphatase Cdc25A is the critical mediator of proliferation. (rupress.org)
  • Activation of Cdks, through dephosphorylation of T14 and Y15, is mediated by members of the phosphatase family, Cdc25A, B, and C ( Nilsson and Hoffmann, 2000 ). (rupress.org)
  • Checkpoint activation in cdc25a mutants occurs despite the absence of increased DNA damage, highlighting the role of Cdc25 proteins to balance constitutive ATM activity during early embryonic development. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chen MS, Ryan CE and Piwnica-Worms H: Chk1 kinase negatively regulates mitotic function of Cdc25A phosphatase through 14-3-3 binding. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • CDC25A is member of the CDC25 gene family. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Human cells responded to ultraviolet light or ionizing radiation by rapid, ubiquitin- and proteasome-dependent protein degradation of Cdc25A, a phosphatase that is required for progression from G 1 to S phase of the cell cycle. (sciencemag.org)
  • Because inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of the mitotic kinase Cdk1 due to inactivation of the Cdc25C phosphatase underlies the G 2 -M checkpoint ( 5 ), we examined the role of Cdc25 family members, of which at least Cdc25A is essential for entry into S phase (6), in checkpoint control of the G 1 -S transition. (sciencemag.org)
  • G ) Effect of UV on Cdc25A in human diploid fibroblasts (IMR-90) exposed to UV (15 J/m 2 ) and assayed by immunoblotting and phosphatase assays 2 hours after irradiation. (sciencemag.org)
  • M-phase inducer phosphatase 1 (CDC25A) belongs to the CDC25 family of phosphatases. (prospecbio.com)
  • Cdc25A is a phosphatase normally activated during cell division in proliferating cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • At this time we have examined 18 compounds and discovered a Cdc25 phosphatase inhibitor, called 1f, that selectively inhibits Cdc25A,B, and C, has antiproliferative activity against and causes a G1 block in MDA-MB-231 cells. (dtic.mil)
  • CDC25A: A Rebel Within the CDC25 Phosphatases Family? (eurekaselect.com)
  • The Cdc25 dual-specificity phosphatases control progression through the eukaryotic cell division cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinases. (nih.gov)
  • Cell division cycle 25 (CDC25) proteins are highly conserved dual specificity phosphatases that regulate the proper advancement of the cell cycle by activation of CDK/cyclin complexes. (unina.it)
  • The Cdc25 dual specificity phosphatases have central roles in coordinating cellular signaling processes and cell proliferation, but potent and selective inhibitors are lacking. (pitt.edu)
  • NSC 95397 is a potent and selective irreversible inhibitor of Cdc25 dual specificity phosphatases that displays 125 - 180-fold selectivity over VH1-related dual-specificity phosphatase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b. (emmx.com)
  • Its catalytic signature (C[X] 5 R) defined the large protein Tyr phosphatase (PTP) superfamily ( Table I ), which now, in addition to the Tyr specific enzymes, includes enzymes that specifically dephosphorylate Ser or Thr as well as Tyr (the dual specificity phosphatases [DSPs]), mRNA, and phosphoinositides. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Ser/Thr and Tyr dual specificity phosphatases are a group of enzymes with both Ser/Thr ( EC:3.1.3.16 ) and tyrosine specific protein phosphatase ( EC:3.1.3.48 ) activity able to remove both the serine/threonine or tyrosine-bound phosphate group from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Dual-specificity phosphatases are considered a sub-class of protein tyrosine phosphatases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exception among eukaryotes may be plants, as the purported plant Cdc25s have characteristics, (such as the use of cations for catalysis), that are more akin to serine/threonine phosphatases than dual-specificity phosphatases, raising doubts as to their authenticity as Cdc25 phosphatases. (wikipedia.org)
  • ِ E _ y f iDSP/DUSP Fdual specificity phosphatases j ł BCDC25 ́A T C N ˑ L i [ [ iCDK Fcyclin-dependent kinase j ̂? (cosmobio.co.jp)
  • One family, the dual specificity phosphatases (DSPs) acts on both phosphotyrosine and phosphoserine/threonine residues. (abnova.com)
  • Here, we investigate the cell division cycle 25 (Cdc25) dual specificity phosphatases as potential upstream regulators of ischemic neuronal death and Cdk4 activation. (jneurosci.org)
  • The CDC25 Phosphatase Inhibitor I, BN82002, also referenced under CAS 396073-89-5, controls the biological activity of CDC25 Phosphatase. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Alkaline phosphatase inhibitor. (abcam.com)
  • Cpd 5 is a selective inhibitor of cdc25 phosphatases, which belong to members of PTPs and regulate cell proliferation by controlling cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks). (elsevier.com)
  • Involvement of Akt in mitochondria-dependent apoptosis induced by a cdc25 phosphatase inhibitor naphthoquinone analog. (curehunter.com)
  • We show that a pharmacologic inhibitor of Cdc25 family members (A, B & C) protects mouse primary neurons from hypoxia-induced delayed death. (jneurosci.org)
  • Bacterially expressed cdc25 directly dephosphorylates bacterially expressed p34cdc2 on Tyr-15 in a minimal system devoid of eukaryotic cell components, but does not dephosphorylate other tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins at appreciable rates. (nih.gov)
  • This is accomplished in part by maintaining the Cdc25 phosphatase in a phosphorylated form that binds 14-3-3 proteins. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we generated a mutant of fission yeast Cdc25 that is severely impaired in its ability to bind 14-3-3 proteins. (asm.org)
  • Nuclear exclusion of wild-type Cdc25 was observed upon overproduction of Rad 24, one of the two fission yeast 14-3-3 proteins, indicating that one function of Rad 24 is to keep Cdc25 out of the nucleus. (asm.org)
  • The Arabidopsis proteins, in combination with previously published data, provide a complete inventory of known types of protein phosphatases in this organism. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of these proteins reveals a pattern of evolution where a diverse set of protein phosphatases was present early in the history of eukaryotes, and the division of plant and animal evolution resulted in two distinct sets of protein phosphatases. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In addition, there is a dramatic increase in proteins containing RNA polymerase C-terminal domain phosphatase-like catalytic domains in the higher plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Expression analysis of Arabidopsis phosphatase genes differentially amplified in plants (specifically the C-terminal domain phosphatase-like phosphatases) shows patterns of tissue-specific expression with a statistically significant number of correlated genes encoding putative signal transduction proteins. (plantphysiol.org)
  • We present evidence that indicates that cdc25 and 14-3-3 proteins physically interact both in vitro and in vivo. (cshl.edu)
  • It interacts with CDC25 phosphatases, RAF1 and IRS1 proteins, suggesting its role in diverse biochemical activities related to signal transduction, such as cell division and regulation of insulin sensitivity . (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins may also have inactive phosphatase domains, and dependent on the domain composition this loss of catalytic activity has different effects on protein function. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • By removing inhibitory phosphate residues from target cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), Cdc25 proteins control entry into and progression through various phases of the cell cycle, including mitosis and S ("Synthesis") phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although some progress has been made in developing potent and selective inhibitors for Cdc25 family of proteins, there is scope for development of novel therapeutic strategies to target them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes in the expression of cdc25 phosphatases, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and bcl-2 family proteins were detected using Western blot analysis. (elsevier.com)
  • Cpd 5 was thus found to effectively inhibit the proliferation of human renal cancer cells while also inducing apoptosis by inhibiting cdc25 phosphatases and modulating bcl-2 family proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • PPP1R subunits (also known as PP1-interacting proteins, or PIPs) direct the substrate specificity of protein phosphatase 1 catalytic (PPP1C) subunits. (genenames.org)
  • Recent investigations have suggested new targets of interest including additional kinases, phosphatases and other mitotic regulators such as microtubule motor proteins (kinesins). (springer.com)
  • CDK activity is regulated in a complex manner, including phosphorylation/dephosphorylation by specific kinases/phosphatases and association with regulatory proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • DNA damage or DNA replication blocks induce phosphorylation of Cdc25 A and its subsequent degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. (nih.gov)
  • cdc25 controls the activity of the cyclin-p34cdc2 complex by regulating the state of tyrosine phosphorylation of p34cdc2. (nih.gov)
  • The Cdc25 phosphatase promotes entry into mitosis by removing cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) inhibitory phosphorylation. (rupress.org)
  • A full understanding of Cdk1 inhibitory phosphorylation will require elucidation of the mechanisms that regulate Wee1 and Cdc25. (rupress.org)
  • In turn, the phosphorylation by M-Cdk (a complex of Cdk1 and cyclin B) activates Cdc25. (wikipedia.org)
  • This phosphorylation creates a binding site for 14-3-3 protein and inhibits the phosphatase. (abcam.com)
  • In uninfected cells the G 2 /M transition is regulated by cyclin kinase complex containing cdc2 and, initially, cyclin A, followed by cyclin B. cdc2 is downregulated through phosphorylation by wee-1 and myt-1 and upregulated by cdc-25C phosphatase. (asm.org)
  • At mitosis, maintaining a low level of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-B55 activity is essential for CDK substrates to achieve the correct level of phosphorylation. (mdpi.com)
  • When cells have reached sufficient size during G2, the phosphatase Cdc25 removes the inhibitory phosphorylation, and thus activates Cdc2 to allow mitotic entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • We propose that MPL1 is a novel phosphatase essential for proper regulation of ERK2 phosphorylation and optimal motility during development. (asm.org)
  • In mammalian systems, several phosphatases are known to decrease MAPK phosphorylation and activity. (asm.org)
  • Even though an antagonistic Arabidopsis thaliana WEE1 kinase has been cloned and tyrosine phosphorylation of its CDKs has been demonstrated, no valid candidate for a CDC25 protein has been reported in higher plants. (ugent.be)
  • The latter phosphorylation maintains the CDC2/cyclin B complex in an inactive state until the onset of M phase, when these sites are dephosphorylated by the phosphatase CDC25 [ 8 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Identification of a Potent and Selective Pharmacophore for Cdc25 Dual Specificity Phosphatase Inhibitors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Firstly, in order to expand our understanding of structure-activity relationships within the 6-xanthone class of CDC25 inhibitors, we identified a series of structural analogs of compound 11 by ligand-based chemoinformatic approach. (unina.it)
  • Taken together, our data emphasize that CDC25 could be considered as a possible oncotarget in melanoma cells and that the designed compounds represent small molecule CDC25 inhibitors that merit to be further evaluated as chemotherapeutic agents for melanoma, likely in combination with other therapeutic compounds. (unina.it)
  • A large number of potent small-molecule Cdc25 Inhibitors have been identified that bind to the active site and belong to various chemical classes, including natural products, lipophilic acids, quinonoids, electrophiles, sulfonylated aminothiazoles and phosphate bioisosteres. (wikipedia.org)
  • New Cdc25B tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors, Nocardiones A and B, produced by Nocardia sp. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Casein kinase 1 is responsible for most of the hyperphosphorylation of Mih1, whereas protein phosphatase 2A associated with Cdc55 dephosphorylates Mih1. (rupress.org)
  • Collectively, these observations suggest that Mih1 regulation is achieved by a balance of opposing kinase and phosphatase activities. (rupress.org)
  • A second possibility is that the feedback loop is initiated by a triggering kinase that activates Cdc25 to generate a small amount of active Cdk1. (rupress.org)
  • NSC 95397 inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells through MKP-1 and ERK1/2 pathway [2] . (medchemexpress.cn)
  • Ten years after the cloning of the first Tyr kinase, the first Tyr phosphatase was purified and then cloned. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein kinase binding and protein tyrosine phosphatase activity . (genecards.org)
  • Here we show that the functional human ortholog of Greatwall protein kinase (Gwl) is the microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase-like protein, MAST-L. This kinase promotes mitotic entry and maintenance in human cells by inhibiting protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a phosphatase that dephosphorylates cyclin B-Cdc2 substrates. (pnas.org)
  • However, it has been recently demonstrated that the main role of this kinase is not the regulation of cyclin B-Cdc2 activity but the inhibition of PP2A, the phosphatase that de-phosphorylates cyclin B-Cdc2 substrates ( 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • The kinase-associated phosphatase (KAP) is a human dual-specificity protein phosphatase that was identified as a Cdc2- or Cdk2-interacting protein by a yeast two-hybrid screening, yet the biological significance of these interactions remains elusive. (asm.org)
  • Further studies demonstrated that kinase-associated phosphatase (KAP) binds to Cdk2 and dephosphorylates Thr160 when the associated cyclin subunit is degraded or dissociated ( 2 , 42 ). (asm.org)
  • Protein phosphatases undo the post-translational modifications of kinase-signaling networks, but phosphatase activation in cells is difficult to measure and interpret. (mcponline.org)
  • Inactivation of the Cdc25 phosphatase by the stress-activated Srk1 kinase in fission yeast. (uio.no)
  • Histone H3 as a novel substrate for MAP kinase phosphatase-1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is a nuclear, dual-specificity phosphatase that has been shown to dephosphorylate MAP kinases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 promotes neovascularization and angiogenic gene expression. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Deficiency of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 results in iNOS-mediated hypotension in response to low-dose endotoxin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The protein has a tyrosine-phosphatase activity and stimulates the kinase activity of Arabidopsis CDKs. (ugent.be)
  • M-phase inducer phosphatase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDC25C gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine protein phosphatase which functions as a dosage-dependent inducer of mitotic progression. (genecards.org)
  • abstract = "Protein phosphatases have been classified into two basic types, namely protein serine/threonine phosphatase (PP), and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). (elsevier.com)
  • The cdc25 phosphatases play key roles in cell cycle progression by activating cyclin-dependent kinases. (cshl.edu)
  • Cdc25 is involved in the DNA damage checkpoints and is known as a key mediator of cell cycle progression. (genecards.org)
  • It is a tyrosine protein phosphatase required for progression of the cell cycle. (abcam.com)
  • One target of ATM and CHKs is the Cdc25 phosphatase, which facilitates cell-cycle progression by removing inhibitory phosphates from cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent work has highlighted that regulating the phosphatases that revert CDK phosphorylations is as important as regulating the CDKs for cell cycle progression. (mdpi.com)
  • How does this phosphatase impinge on mitotic exit progression? (uio.no)
  • The abnormal expression of CDC25B phosphatases detected in a number of tumors implies that their dysregulation is involved in malignant transformation. (springer.com)
  • Cytoplasmic accumulation of cdc25b phosphatase in mitosis triggers centrosomal microtubule nucleation in hela cells. (springer.com)
  • Conformational flexibility of the complete catalytic domain of Cdc25B phosphatase has been demonstrated. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • CDKs and polo-like kinases increase Cdc25 phosphatase activity thus contributing to an amplification loop that ensures the faithful activation of CDKs during cell cycle transitions (Powers et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although current textbook explanations of cell-cycle control in eukaryotes emphasize the periodic activation of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs), recent experimental observations suggest a significant role for the periodic activation and inactivation of a CDK-counteracting protein phosphatase 2A with a B55δ subunit (PP2A:B55δ), during mitotic cycles in frog-egg extracts and early embryos. (nih.gov)
  • Cdc25 activates cyclin dependent kinases by removing phosphate from residues in the Cdk active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinases and phosphatases as therapeutic targets in cancer. (springer.com)
  • We illustrate the generality of the method by developing specific phosphatase-activity assays for the three canonical mitogen-activated protein phospho-kinases: ERK, JNK, and p38. (mcponline.org)
  • Phosphatases (PPases) 1 reset post-translational modifications by kinases and thus help to sculpt the phosphoproteome ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Major efforts are devoted to studying the CHK1 and CHK2 protein kinases and the CDC25 family of protein phosphatases. (mdanderson.org)
  • Members of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase superfamily cooperate with protein kinases to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. (abnova.com)
  • The dual-specificity CDC25 phosphatases are critical positive regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (ugent.be)
  • The phosphatase PP2A:B55δ is assumed to oppose the effects of MPF on Gwl, Wee1, Cdc25, and APC/C, but not on Cdc20. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this review is to shed light on the role of four different phosphatases (PTEN, PP2A, CDC25 and DUSP1) in five different solid tumors (breast cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and ovarian cancer), in order to better understand the most frequent and aggressive primary cancer of the central nervous system, glioblastoma. (biochemj.org)
  • Specifically, recent evidence indicates that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is responsible for dephosphorylation of cyclin B-Cdc2 substrates and that the regulation of this dephosphorylation is required in mitotic entry and exit ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Role for the PP2A/B56 Phosphatase in Regulating 14-3-3 Release from Cdc25 to Control Mitosis. (prospecbio.com)
  • Drosophila cdc25 protein from two different expression systems activates inactive cyclin-p34cdc2 and induces M phase in Xenopus oocytes and egg extracts. (nih.gov)
  • These observations have led to the idea of a positive feedback loop in which mitotic Cdk1 directly activates Cdc25. (rupress.org)
  • Because CDC25 activates CDC2 by dephosphorylation of the tyrosine 15 and threonine 14 residues, inactivation of CDC25 results in G 2 -M arrest through inactivation of the cyclin B1/CDC2 complex. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Inactive single domain phosphatases can still specifically bind substrates, and protect again dephosphorylation, while the inactive domains of tandem phosphatases can be further subdivided into two classes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cdk activity can be reactivated after dephosphorylation by Cdc25. (wikipedia.org)
  • Total phosphatase extracts from cells are then added to trigger a solid-phase dephosphorylation reaction. (mcponline.org)
  • An exception is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has four distinct Cdc25 genes (Cdc-25.1 to Cdc-25.4). (wikipedia.org)
  • and down-regulation of SPP1, CDC25 phosphatases , and of genes involved in chromosome segregation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CDC25 genes are cell cycle-activating phosphatases that remove the inhibitory phosphates of threonine and tyrosine residues at the ATP-binding sites of CDK ( 8 , 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We identify a CDC25-related protein (Arath;CDC25) of A. thaliana, constituted by a sole catalytic domain. (ugent.be)
  • Endoreplication requires downregulation of mitotic A-type and B-type cyclins, as well as the Drosophila CDC25 homolog String and other factors that promote mitosis, coupled with the upregulation of CDH1/FZR. (genetics.org)
  • The most potent was 6-chloro-7-(2-morpholin-4-ylethylamino)quinoline-5,8-dione (NSC 663284), which was 20- and 450-fold more selective against Cdc25B2 as compared with VHR or PTP1B phosphatases, respectively. (pitt.edu)
  • These findings indicate that 14-3-3 binding to Cdc25 is required for fission yeast cells to arrest their cell cycle in response to DNA damage and replication blocks. (asm.org)
  • Nuclear accumulation of wild-type Cdc25 was observed when fission yeast cells were treated with leptomycin B, indicating that Cdc25 is actively exported from the nucleus. (asm.org)
  • More specifically, we focus on the study of mitotic exit and the involvement of protein phosphatases in this transition, using the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model organism ( relevant background information ). (uio.no)
  • In addition to the major serine/threonine-specific phosphoprotein phosphatase, Mg 2+ -dependent phosphoprotein phosphatase, and protein tyrosine phosphatase families, there are novel protein phosphatases, including enzymes with aspartic acid-based catalysis and subfamilies of protein tyrosine phosphatases, whose evolutionary history and representation in plants is poorly characterized. (plantphysiol.org)
  • To learn more about the mechanisms that regulate entry into mitosis, we have characterized the function and regulation of Mih1, the budding yeast homologue of Cdc25. (rupress.org)
  • Dual specificity protein phosphatases (DSPs) regulate mitogenic signal transduction and control the cell cycle. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Phosphatases and cancer have been related for many years now, as these enzymes regulate key cellular functions, including cell survival, migration, differentiation and proliferation. (biochemj.org)
  • What phosphatase(s) regulate cdk inactivation and exit from mitosis? (uio.no)
  • Therefore, cdc25 is a specific protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates tyrosine and possibly threonine residues on p34cdc2 and regulates MPF activation. (nih.gov)
  • Protein phosphatases were originally identified as enzymes responsible for dephosphorylating Ser and Thr residues on enzymes involved in mammalian glycogen metabolism. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Cdc25 enzymes are well conserved through evolution, and have been isolated from fungi such as yeasts as well as all metazoans examined to date, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) consist of a large family of enzymes known to play important roles in controlling virtually all aspects of cellular processes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An overview of the protein tyrosine phosphatase superfamily. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Its tertiary structure was obtained by NMR spectroscopy and confirms that Arath;CDC25 belongs structurally to the classical CDC25 superfamily with a central five-stranded beta-sheet surrounded by helices. (ugent.be)
  • We conclude that despite sequence divergence, Arath;CDC25 is structurally and functionally an isoform of the CDC25 superfamily, which is conserved in yeast and in plants, including Arabidopsis and rice. (ugent.be)
  • A shallow active site pocket in VHR allows for the hydrolysis of phosphorylated serine, threonine, or tyrosine protein residues, whereas the deeper active site of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) restricts substrate specificity to only phosphotyrosine. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Adaptation of ERK2 is thus likely mediated by a phosphatase that can dephosphorylate phosphates from both threonine 176 and tyrosine 178 residues. (asm.org)
  • Here we have investigated the regulation of Cdc25 A in the cell cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Protein tyrosine phosphatases: mechanisms of catalysis and regulation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • When applied to cytokine-induced signaling, the assays revealed complex and dynamic regulation of phosphatases suggesting cross-communication and a means for cellular memory. (mcponline.org)
  • Moreover, SCF (Skp1/Cullin/F-box) inactivation using an interfering Cul1 mutant accumulates and stabilizes Cdc25 A. The presence of Cul1 and Skp1 in Cdc25 A immunocomplexes suggests a direct involvement of SCF in Cdc25 A degradation during interphase. (nih.gov)
  • What brings about the activation/inactivation of the phosphatase(s) so that it displays switch-like behaviour? (uio.no)
  • MAPK phosphatase-1 represents a novel anti-inflammatory target of glucocorticoids in the human endothelium. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we report the design of a quantitative and high-throughput assay platform for monitoring cellular phosphatase activity toward specific phosphoprotein targets. (mcponline.org)
  • In addition, mutations in the putative catalytic site abolish the in vivo activity of cdc25 and its phosphatase activity in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Displays ~20-fold greater selectivity for CDC25 phosphatases over CD45 tyrosine phosphatase. (merckmillipore.com)
  • The Cdc25 family appears to have expanded in relation to the complexity of the cell-cycle and life-cycle of higher animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein is a tyrosine phosphatase and belongs to the Cdc25 phosphatase family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Belongs to the MPI phosphatase family. (abcam.com)
  • Chk1 exerts its checkpoint mechanism on the cell cycle, in part, by regulating the cdc25 family of phosphatases. (cellsignal.com)
  • Cdc25 is a universally conserved protein phosphatase that promotes mitotic entry by dephosphorylating Cdc2 on Tyr 15/Thr 14, thereby activating Cdc2 ( 11 , 17 , 28 , 53 , 55 ). (asm.org)
  • Upon mitotic entry, these are removed by the Cdc25 phosphatase ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • A balance of Wee1 and Cdc25 activity with changes in cell size is coordinated by the mitotic entry control system. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it has been difficult to clearly demonstrate that Wee1 and Cdc25 play a direct role in the control of cell growth because mutants may indirectly cause cell size defects by allowing more or less time to grow. (rupress.org)
  • A Cdk-interacting protein called KAP/Cdi1 was first identified as a novel G 1 - and S-phase dual-specificity phosphatase that associates with Cdk2 and/or Cdc2 ( 22 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • The pure form of this compound and two other compounds which selectively inhibit Cdc25 phosphatases have been made and also demonstrate an equal if not better inhibition of Cdc25 phosphatases as their combinatorial form. (dtic.mil)
  • Role for regulated phosphatase activity in generating mitotic oscillations in Xenopus cell-free extracts. (nih.gov)
  • After stopping the reaction, phosphoprotein levels are quantified by ELISA with a phospho-specific antibody, and the loss of phospho-specific immunoreactivity is used as the readout of phosphatase activity. (mcponline.org)
  • Samples were immunoblotted or assayed for phosphatase activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • We propose that a dual mechanism of regulated degradation allows for fine tuning of Cdc25 A abundance in response to cell environment. (nih.gov)
  • This entry represents dual specificity protein-tyrosine phosphatases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cdc25 is a dual-specificity phosphatase first isolated from the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a cell cycle defective mutant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Displays 125 - 180-fold selectivity over VH1-related dual-specificity phosphatase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b. (tocris.com)
  • Dual specificity phosphatase 1 knockout mice show enhanced susceptibility to anaphylaxis but are sensitive to glucocorticoids. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A small CDC25 dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphatase isoform in Arabidopsis thaliana . (ugent.be)