A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is expressed primarily in neuronal tissue and may be specific for the Ha-ras homolog of the RAS PROTEINS.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc7, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc8 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc7, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc6 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A family of multisubunit protein complexes that form into large cylindrical structures which bind to and encapsulate non-native proteins. Chaperonins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to enhance the efficiency of PROTEIN FOLDING reactions and thereby help proteins reach their functional conformation. The family of chaperonins is split into GROUP I CHAPERONINS, and GROUP II CHAPERONINS, with each group having its own repertoire of protein subunits and subcellular preferences.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The origin recognition complex is a multi-subunit DNA-binding protein that initiates DNA REPLICATION in eukaryotes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
PROTEINS that specifically activate the GTP-phosphohydrolase activity of RAS PROTEINS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Proteins that specifically bind to TELOMERES. Proteins in this class include those that perform functions such as telomere capping, telomere maintenance and telomere stabilization.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It is also found in tightly-bound trimeric complex with MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 4 and MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 6.
Agents and factors that activate GTP phosphohydrolase activity.
A subcategory of guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors that are specific for RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It is also found in tightly-bound trimeric complex with MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 6 and MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 7.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A sub-class of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain an additional phosphatase activity which cleaves phosphate ester bonds on SERINE or THREONINE residues that are located on the same protein.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES whose members act in the mechanism of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by STEROID RECEPTORS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It contains a NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNAL which may provide targeting of the protein complex and an extended N-terminus which is rich in SERINE residues.
A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A family of GTP-binding proteins that were initially identified in YEASTS where they were shown to initiate the process of septation and bud formation. Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act as cytoskeletal elements that play important roles in CYTOKINESIS, cytoskeletal reorganization, BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, and membrane dynamics.
The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.
Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. Rho GTPases in turn control many aspects of cell behavior through the regulation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored. For example, amber suppressors cancel the effect of an AMBER NONSENSE MUTATION.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Enzyme activated in response to DNA DAMAGE involved in cell cycle arrest. The gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 22 at position 12.1. In humans it is encoded by the CHEK2 gene.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Separase is a caspase-like cysteine protease, which plays a central role in triggering ANAPHASE by cleaving the SCC1/RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. Cohesin holds the sister CHROMATIDS together during METAPHASE and its cleavage results in chromosome segregation.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified with the addition of a phosphate group, usually on serine, threonine or tyrosine residues, which can play a role in their regulation, function, interaction with other molecules, and localization within the cell.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.

Cdc20 associates with the kinase aurora2/Aik. (1/319)

Cdc20/fizzy family proteins are involved in activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, which catalyzes the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of cell cycle regulatory proteins such as anaphase inhibitors and mitotic cyclins, leading to chromosome segregation and exit from mitosis. Previous work has shown that human Cdc20 (hCdc20/p55CDC) associates with one or more kinases. We report here that Cdc20-associated myelin basic protein kinase activity peaks sharply in early M phase (embryonic cells) or in G2 phase (somatic cells). In HeLa cells, Cdc20 is associated with the kinase aurora2/Aik. Aurora2/Aik is a member of the aurora/Ipl1 family of kinases that, like Cdc20, previously has been shown to be localized at mitotic spindle poles and is involved in regulating chromosome segregation and maintaining genomic stability. The demonstration that Cdc20 is associated with aurora2/Aik suggests that some function of Cdc20 is carried out or regulated through its association with aurora2/Aik.  (+info)

Identification of frequent impairment of the mitotic checkpoint and molecular analysis of the mitotic checkpoint genes, hsMAD2 and p55CDC, in human lung cancers. (2/319)

The mitotic checkpoint is thought to be essential for ensuring accurate chromosome segregation by implementing mitotic delay in response to a spindle defect. To date, however, very little data has become available on the defects of the mitotic checkpoint in human cancer cells. In the present study, impaired mitotic checkpoint was found in four (44%) of nine human lung cancer cell lines. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of frequent impairment of the mitotic checkpoint in this leading cause of cancer deaths. As an initial step towards elucidation of the underlying mechanism, we further undertook a search for mutations in a key component of the mitotic checkpoint, known as hsMAD2, and its immediate downstream molecule, p55CDC. No such mutations were found, however, in either 21 lung cancer cell lines or 25 primary lung cancer cases, although we could identify silent polymorphisms and the transcribed and processed hsMAD2 pseudogene that was subsequently mapped at 14q21-q23. The present observations appear to warrant further investigations, such as search for alterations in other components, to better understand the molecular pathogenesis of this fatal disease, and warn against potential misinterpretation when performing mutational analyses for other cancer types based on cDNA templates.  (+info)

Regulation of APC activity by phosphorylation and regulatory factors. (3/319)

Ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of Cut2/Pds1 and Cyclin B is required for sister chromatid separation and exit from mitosis, respectively. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC) specifically ubiquitinates Cut2/Pds1 at metaphase-anaphase transition, and ubiquitinates Cyclin B in late mitosis and G1 phase. However, the exact regulatory mechanism of substrate-specific activation of mammalian APC with the right timing remains to be elucidated. We found that not only the binding of the activators Cdc20 and Cdh1 and the inhibitor Mad2 to APC, but also the phosphorylation of Cdc20 and Cdh1 by Cdc2-Cyclin B and that of APC by Polo-like kinase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase, regulate APC activity. The cooperation of the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and the regulatory factors in regulation of APC activity may thus control the precise progression of mitosis.  (+info)

Expression of the CDH1-associated form of the anaphase-promoting complex in postmitotic neurons. (4/319)

The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC) is a tightly cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin-protein ligase that targets cyclin B and other destruction box-containing proteins for proteolysis at the end of mitosis and in G1. Recent work has shown that activation of the APC in mitosis depends on CDC20, whereas APC is maintained active in G1 via association with the CDC20-related protein CDH1. Here we show that the mitotic activator CDC20 is the only component of the APC ubiquitination pathway whose expression is restricted to proliferating cells, whereas the APC and CDH1 are also expressed in several mammalian tissues that predominantly contain differentiated cells, such as adult brain. Immunocytochemical analyses of cultured rat hippocampal neurons and of mouse and human brain sections indicate that the APC and CDH1 are ubiquitously expressed in the nuclei of postmitotic terminally differentiated neurons. The APC purified from brain contains all core subunits known from proliferating cells and is tightly associated with CDH1. Purified brain APC(CDH1) has a high cyclin B ubiquitination activity that depends less on the destruction box than on the activity of mitotic APC(CDC20). On the basis of these results, we propose that the functions of APC(CDH1) are not restricted to controlling cell-cycle progression but may include the ubiquitination of yet unidentified substrates in differentiated cells.  (+info)

Mitotic regulators govern progress through steps in the centrosome duplication cycle. (5/319)

Centrosome duplication is marked by discrete changes in centriole structure that occur in lockstep with cell cycle transitions. We show that mitotic regulators govern steps in centriole replication in Drosophila embryos. Cdc25(string), the expression of which initiates mitosis, is required for completion of daughter centriole assembly. Cdc20(fizzy), which is required for the metaphase-anaphase transition, is required for timely disengagement of mother and daughter centrioles. Stabilization of mitotic cyclins, which prevents exit from mitosis, blocks assembly of new daughter centrioles. Common regulation of the nuclear and centrosome cycles by mitotic regulators may ensure precise duplication of the centrosome.  (+info)

Cdc20 protein contains a destruction-box but, unlike Clb2, its proteolysisis not acutely dependent on the activity of anaphase-promoting complex. (6/319)

Both chromosome segregation and the final exit from mitosis require a ubiquitin-protein ligase called anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome. This multiprotein complex ubiquitinates various substrates, such as the anaphase inhibitor Pds1 and mitotic cyclins, and thus targets them for proteolysis by the 26S proteasome. The ubiquitination by APC is dependent on the presence of a destruction-box sequence in the N-terminus of target proteins. Recent reports have strongly suggested that Cdc20, a WD40 repeat-containing protein required for nuclear division in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is essential for the APC-mediated proteolysis. To understand the function of CDC20, we have studied its regulation in some detail. The expression of the CDC20 gene is cell-cycle regulated such that it is transcribed only during late S phase and mitosis. Although the protein is unstable to some extent through out the cell cycle, its degradation is particularly enhanced in G1. Cdc20 contains a destruction box sequence which, when mutated or deleted, stabilizes it considerably in G1. Surprisingly, we find that while the inactivation of APC subunits Cdc16, Cdc23 or Cdc27 results in stabilization of the mitotic cyclin Clb2 in G1, the proteolytic destruction of Cdc20 remains largely unaffected. This suggests the existence of proteolytic mechanisms in G1 that can degrade destruction-box containing proteins, such as Cdc20, in an APC-independent manner.  (+info)

MAD3 encodes a novel component of the spindle checkpoint which interacts with Bub3p, Cdc20p, and Mad2p. (7/319)

We show that MAD3 encodes a novel 58-kD nuclear protein which is not essential for viability, but is an integral component of the spindle checkpoint in budding yeast. Sequence analysis reveals two regions of Mad3p that are 46 and 47% identical to sequences in the NH(2)-terminal region of the budding yeast Bub1 protein kinase. Bub1p is known to bind Bub3p (Roberts et al. 1994) and we use two-hybrid assays and coimmunoprecipitation experiments to show that Mad3p can also bind to Bub3p. In addition, we find that Mad3p interacts with Mad2p and the cell cycle regulator Cdc20p. We show that the two regions of homology between Mad3p and Bub1p are crucial for these interactions and identify loss of function mutations within each domain of Mad3p. We discuss roles for Mad3p and its interactions with other spindle checkpoint proteins and with Cdc20p, the target of the checkpoint.  (+info)

The KEN box: an APC recognition signal distinct from the D box targeted by Cdh1. (8/319)

The ordered progression through the cell cycle depends on regulating the abundance of several proteins through ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Degradation is precisely timed and specific. One key component of the degradation system, the anaphase promoting complex (APC), is a ubiquitin protein ligase. It is activated both during mitosis and late in mitosis/G(1), by the WD repeat proteins Cdc20 and Cdh1, respectively. These activators target distinct sets of substrates. Cdc20-APC requires a well-defined destruction box (D box), whereas Cdh1-APC confers a different and as yet unidentified specificity. We have determined the sequence specificity for Cdh1-APC using two assays, ubiquitination in a completely defined and purified system and degradation promoted by Cdh1-APC in Xenopus extracts. Cdc20 is itself a Cdh1-APC substrate. Vertebrate Cdc20 lacks a D box and therefore is recognized by Cdh1-APC through a different sequence. By analysis of Cdc20 as a substrate, we have identified a new recognition signal. This signal, composed of K-E-N, serves as a general targeting signal for Cdh1-APC. Like the D box, it is transposable to other proteins. Using the KEN box as a template, we have identified cell cycle genes Nek2 and B99 as additional Cdh1-APC substrates. Mutation in the KEN box stabilizes all three proteins against ubiquitination and degradation.  (+info)

CDC25 phosphatases are a group of enzymes that play crucial roles in the regulation of the cell cycle, which is the series of events that cells undergo as they grow and divide. Specifically, CDC25 phosphatases function to remove inhibitory phosphates from certain cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), thereby activating them and allowing the cell cycle to progress.

There are three main types of CDC25 phosphatases in humans, known as CDC25A, CDC25B, and CDC25C. These enzymes are named after the original yeast homolog, called Cdc25, which was discovered to be essential for cell cycle progression.

CDC25 phosphatases are tightly regulated during the cell cycle, with their activity being controlled by various mechanisms such as phosphorylation, protein-protein interactions, and subcellular localization. Dysregulation of CDC25 phosphatases has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, where they can contribute to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Therefore, understanding the functions and regulation of CDC25 phosphatases is an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

CDC42 is a small GTP-binding protein that belongs to the Rho family of GTPases. It acts as a molecular switch, cycling between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state, and plays a critical role in regulating various cellular processes, including actin cytoskeleton organization, cell polarity, and membrane trafficking.

When CDC42 is activated by Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), it interacts with downstream effectors to modulate the assembly of actin filaments and the formation of membrane protrusions, such as lamellipodia and filopodia. These cellular structures are essential for cell migration, adhesion, and morphogenesis.

CDC42 also plays a role in intracellular signaling pathways that regulate gene expression, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of CDC42 has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and immune disorders.

In summary, CDC42 is a crucial GTP-binding protein involved in regulating multiple cellular processes, and its dysfunction can contribute to the development of several pathological conditions.

CDC2 protein kinase, also known as cell division cycle 2 or CDK1, is a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cell cycle. The cell cycle is the series of events that cells undergo as they grow, replicate their DNA, and divide into two daughter cells.

CDC2 protein kinase is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family, which are serine/threonine protein kinases that are activated by binding to regulatory subunits called cyclins. CDC2 protein kinase is primarily associated with the regulation of the G2 phase and the entry into mitosis, the stage of the cell cycle where nuclear and cytoplasmic division occur.

CDC2 protein kinase functions by phosphorylating various target proteins, which alters their activity and contributes to the coordination of the different events that occur during the cell cycle. The activity of CDC2 protein kinase is tightly regulated through a variety of mechanisms, including phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, as well as the binding and destruction of cyclin subunits.

Dysregulation of CDC2 protein kinase has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, where uncontrolled cell division can lead to the formation of tumors. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of CDC2 protein kinase is an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

CDC20 proteins are a type of regulatory protein that play a crucial role in the cell cycle, which is the process by which cells grow and divide. Specifically, CDC20 proteins are involved in the transition from metaphase to anaphase during mitosis, the phase of the cell cycle where chromosomes are separated and distributed to two daughter cells.

CDC20 proteins function as part of a larger complex called the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which targets specific proteins for degradation by the proteasome. During metaphase, CDC20 binds to the APC/C and helps to activate it, leading to the degradation of securin and cyclin B, two proteins that are essential for maintaining the proper attachment of chromosomes to the spindle apparatus.

Once these proteins are degraded, the sister chromatids can be separated and moved to opposite poles of the cell, allowing for the completion of mitosis and the formation of two genetically identical daughter cells. In addition to their role in mitosis, CDC20 proteins have also been implicated in other cellular processes, including meiosis, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis.

CDC28 protein kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) is a crucial cell cycle regulator, specifically a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK). It plays a pivotal role in controlling the G1 to S phase transition during the cell division cycle. CDC28 forms complexes with various cyclins, such as G1 cyclins CLN1, CLN2, and CLN3, and S phase cyclin CLB5, to regulate different stages of the cell cycle. The activity of CDC28 is tightly controlled through phosphorylation, dephosphorylation, and proteolysis of the cyclin subunits. Inhibition or mutation of CDC28 can lead to cell cycle arrest and various developmental defects in yeast.

Cell cycle proteins are a group of regulatory proteins that control the progression of the cell cycle, which is the series of events that take place in a eukaryotic cell leading to its division and duplication. These proteins can be classified into several categories based on their functions during different stages of the cell cycle.

The major groups of cell cycle proteins include:

1. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs): CDKs are serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate key transitions in the cell cycle. They require binding to a regulatory subunit called cyclin to become active. Different CDK-cyclin complexes are activated at different stages of the cell cycle.
2. Cyclins: Cyclins are a family of regulatory proteins that bind and activate CDKs. Their levels fluctuate throughout the cell cycle, with specific cyclins expressed during particular phases. For example, cyclin D is important for the G1 to S phase transition, while cyclin B is required for the G2 to M phase transition.
3. CDK inhibitors (CKIs): CKIs are regulatory proteins that bind to and inhibit CDKs, thereby preventing their activation. CKIs can be divided into two main families: the INK4 family and the Cip/Kip family. INK4 family members specifically inhibit CDK4 and CDK6, while Cip/Kip family members inhibit a broader range of CDKs.
4. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C): APC/C is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets specific proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. During the cell cycle, APC/C regulates the metaphase to anaphase transition and the exit from mitosis by targeting securin and cyclin B for degradation.
5. Other regulatory proteins: Several other proteins play crucial roles in regulating the cell cycle, such as p53, a transcription factor that responds to DNA damage and arrests the cell cycle, and the polo-like kinases (PLKs), which are involved in various aspects of mitosis.

Overall, cell cycle proteins work together to ensure the proper progression of the cell cycle, maintain genomic stability, and prevent uncontrolled cell growth, which can lead to cancer.

CDC42 is a small GTPase protein that is widely conserved in eukaryotic cells and plays a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes, including actin cytoskeleton organization, cell polarity, and membrane trafficking. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, CDC42 is an essential gene product that was initially identified due to its role in controlling the cell cycle.

CDC42 cycles between an active GTP-bound state and an inactive GDP-bound state. When CDC42 is bound to GTP, it can interact with downstream effectors to regulate various signaling pathways that control actin dynamics, membrane trafficking, and cell polarity. In contrast, when CDC42 is bound to GDP, it is inactive and cannot interact with its downstream effectors.

CDC42 has been implicated in a variety of human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of CDC42 is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

CDC2 and CDC28 are members of the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, which play crucial roles in the regulation of the cell cycle. These kinases were originally identified in yeast (CDC28) and humans (CDC2), but they are highly conserved across eukaryotes.

CDC2-CDC28 Kinases function as a part of larger complexes, often associated with cyclins, to control different phases of the cell cycle by phosphorylating specific substrates at key regulatory points. The activity of CDC2-CDC28 Kinases is tightly regulated through various mechanisms, including phosphorylation, dephosphorylation, and protein binding interactions.

During the G2 phase of the cell cycle, CDC2-CDC28 Kinases are inactivated by phosphorylation at specific residues (Tyr15 and Thr14). As the cell approaches mitosis, a family of phosphatases called Cdc25 removes these inhibitory phosphates, leading to activation of the kinase. Activated CDC2-CDC28 Kinases then initiate mitotic processes such as chromosome condensation and nuclear envelope breakdown.

In summary, CDC2-CDC28 Kinases are essential regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle, controlling various aspects of cell division through phosphorylation of specific substrates. Their activity is tightly regulated to ensure proper progression through the cell cycle and prevent uncontrolled cell growth, which can lead to diseases such as cancer.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there may be a slight mistake in your question. The abbreviation "cdc" is not typically associated with genetics or genes in the context of medical definitions.

If you meant to ask for a definition of "genes," here it is:

Genes are segments of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contain the instructions for the development, function, and reproduction of all living organisms. They are the basic units of heredity, passed down from one generation to the next. Genes encode specific proteins or RNA molecules that play critical roles in the structure, function, and regulation of the body's cells, tissues, and organs.

If you had a different term in mind, please let me know, and I will be happy to provide a definition for it!

Mitosis is a type of cell division in which the genetic material of a single cell, called the mother cell, is equally distributed into two identical daughter cells. It's a fundamental process that occurs in multicellular organisms for growth, maintenance, and repair, as well as in unicellular organisms for reproduction.

The process of mitosis can be broken down into several stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. During prophase, the chromosomes condense and become visible, and the nuclear envelope breaks down. In prometaphase, the nuclear membrane is completely disassembled, and the mitotic spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes at their centromeres.

During metaphase, the chromosomes align at the metaphase plate, an imaginary line equidistant from the two spindle poles. In anaphase, sister chromatids are pulled apart by the spindle fibers and move toward opposite poles of the cell. Finally, in telophase, new nuclear envelopes form around each set of chromosomes, and the chromosomes decondense and become less visible.

Mitosis is followed by cytokinesis, a process that divides the cytoplasm of the mother cell into two separate daughter cells. The result of mitosis and cytokinesis is two genetically identical cells, each with the same number and kind of chromosomes as the original parent cell.

Cyclin B is a type of cyclin protein that regulates the cell cycle, specifically the transition from G2 phase to mitosis (M phase) in eukaryotic cells. Cyclin B binds and activates cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), forming the complex known as M-phase promoting factor (MPF). This complex triggers the events leading to cell division, such as chromosome condensation, nuclear envelope breakdown, and spindle formation. The levels of cyclin B increase during the G2 phase and are degraded by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) at the onset of anaphase, allowing the cell cycle to progress into the next phase.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins are the proteins that are produced by the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This organism is a single-celled eukaryote that has been widely used as a model organism in scientific research for many years due to its relatively simple genetic makeup and its similarity to higher eukaryotic cells.

The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been fully sequenced, and it is estimated to contain approximately 6,000 genes that encode proteins. These proteins play a wide variety of roles in the cell, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, regulating gene expression, maintaining the structure of the cell, and responding to environmental stimuli.

Many Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins have human homologs and are involved in similar biological processes, making this organism a valuable tool for studying human disease. For example, many of the proteins involved in DNA replication, repair, and recombination in yeast have human counterparts that are associated with cancer and other diseases. By studying these proteins in yeast, researchers can gain insights into their function and regulation in humans, which may lead to new treatments for disease.

The cell cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication. It consists of four main phases: G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, and M phase.

During the G1 phase, the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for DNA replication. In the S phase, the cell's DNA is copied, resulting in two complete sets of chromosomes. During the G2 phase, the cell continues to grow and produces more proteins and organelles necessary for cell division.

The M phase is the final stage of the cell cycle and consists of mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division). Mitosis results in two genetically identical daughter nuclei, while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm and creates two separate daughter cells.

The cell cycle is regulated by various checkpoints that ensure the proper completion of each phase before progressing to the next. These checkpoints help prevent errors in DNA replication and division, which can lead to mutations and cancer.

Fungal proteins are a type of protein that is specifically produced and present in fungi, which are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds. These proteins play various roles in the growth, development, and survival of fungi. They can be involved in the structure and function of fungal cells, metabolism, pathogenesis, and other cellular processes. Some fungal proteins can also have important implications for human health, both in terms of their potential use as therapeutic targets and as allergens or toxins that can cause disease.

Fungal proteins can be classified into different categories based on their functions, such as enzymes, structural proteins, signaling proteins, and toxins. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in fungal cells, while structural proteins provide support and protection for the cell. Signaling proteins are involved in communication between cells and regulation of various cellular processes, and toxins are proteins that can cause harm to other organisms, including humans.

Understanding the structure and function of fungal proteins is important for developing new treatments for fungal infections, as well as for understanding the basic biology of fungi. Research on fungal proteins has led to the development of several antifungal drugs that target specific fungal enzymes or other proteins, providing effective treatment options for a range of fungal diseases. Additionally, further study of fungal proteins may reveal new targets for drug development and help improve our ability to diagnose and treat fungal infections.

"Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a scientific name used in the field of microbiology. It refers to a species of yeast that is commonly used in various industrial processes, such as baking and brewing. It's also widely used in scientific research due to its genetic tractability and eukaryotic cellular organization.

However, it does have some relevance to medical fields like medicine and nutrition. For example, certain strains of S. cerevisiae are used as probiotics, which can provide health benefits when consumed. They may help support gut health, enhance the immune system, and even assist in the digestion of certain nutrients.

In summary, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is a species of yeast with various industrial and potential medical applications.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Schizosaccharomyces" is not a medical term. It is a genus name in the field of microbiology and genetics, referring to a group of budding, tear-shaped yeasts that are widely used as model organisms in scientific research. The most well-known species within this genus is Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which has been extensively studied for its cell cycle regulation, DNA repair mechanisms, and other fundamental biological processes.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help.

Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes, also known as E3 ubiquitin ligases, are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the ubiquitination process. Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification where ubiquitin molecules are attached to specific target proteins, marking them for degradation by the proteasome or altering their function, localization, or interaction with other proteins.

The ubiquitination process involves three main steps:

1. Ubiquitin activation: Ubiquitin is activated by an E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme in an ATP-dependent reaction.
2. Ubiquitin conjugation: The activated ubiquitin is then transferred to an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme.
3. Ubiquitin ligation: Finally, the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme interacts with a specific E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which facilitates the transfer and ligation of ubiquitin to the target protein.

Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific substrate proteins, ensuring that ubiquitination occurs on the correct targets. They can be divided into three main categories based on their structural features and mechanisms of action:

1. Really Interesting New Gene (RING) finger E3 ligases: These E3 ligases contain a RING finger domain, which directly interacts with both the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and the substrate protein. They facilitate the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 to the target protein by bringing them into close proximity.
2. Homologous to E6-AP C terminus (HECT) E3 ligases: These E3 ligases contain a HECT domain, which interacts with the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and forms a thioester bond with ubiquitin before transferring it to the substrate protein.
3. RING-between-RING (RBR) E3 ligases: These E3 ligases contain both RING finger and HECT-like domains, which allow them to function similarly to both RING finger and HECT E3 ligases. They first form a thioester bond with ubiquitin using their RING1 domain before transferring it to the substrate protein via their RING2 domain.

Dysregulation of Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Understanding their mechanisms and functions can provide valuable insights into disease pathogenesis and potential therapeutic strategies.

The Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) is a large E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cell cycle. It is responsible for targeting specific proteins for degradation by the proteasome, which is a multi-subunit protein complex that mediates the controlled breakdown of ubiquitinated proteins.

During anaphase, the final stage of mitosis, the APC/C becomes active and triggers the degradation of several key regulatory proteins, including securin and cyclin B. The destruction of these proteins allows for the separation of chromosomes and the completion of cell division.

The APC/C is composed of multiple subunits, including a catalytic core that binds to ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and several coactivators that regulate its activity. The activation of the APC/C requires the binding of one of two coactivators, Cdc20 or CDH1, which recognize specific substrates for degradation.

Dysregulation of the APC/C has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate its activity is an important area of research with potential therapeutic implications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Schizosaccharomyces pombe proteins" is not a medical term or concept. Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a type of single-celled microorganism called a yeast, which is often used as a model organism in scientific research. Proteins are complex molecules that do most of the work in cells and are necessary for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

In the context of scientific research, "Schizosaccharomyces pombe proteins" would refer to the specific proteins found in or studied using this particular type of yeast. These proteins may have similarities to human proteins and can be used to help understand basic biological processes, as well as diseases that occur in humans. However, it is important to note that while research using model organisms like Schizosaccharomyces pombe has led to many important discoveries, the findings may not always translate directly to humans.

Ras-GRF1 is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a protein that plays a role in cell signaling pathways. Ras-GRF1 stands for "Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide releasing factor 1." It is a type of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that specifically activates the Ras family of small GTPases by promoting the exchange of GDP for GTP. This activation of Ras proteins is crucial for various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

Ras-GRF1 has been implicated in several physiological and pathological conditions, such as learning and memory, neurodevelopmental disorders, and cancers. Mutations or dysregulation of Ras-GRF1 have been associated with abnormalities in these processes. However, it is essential to note that the medical definition of a protein like Ras-GRF1 would typically be found within the context of biochemistry, cell biology, or molecular genetics rather than general clinical medicine.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

The G2 phase, also known as the "gap 2 phase," is a stage in the cell cycle that occurs after DNA replication (S phase) and before cell division (mitosis). During this phase, the cell prepares for mitosis by completing the synthesis of proteins and organelles needed for chromosome separation. The cell also checks for any errors or damage to the DNA before entering mitosis. This phase is a critical point in the cell cycle where proper regulation ensures the faithful transmission of genetic information from one generation of cells to the next. If significant DNA damage is detected during G2, the cell may undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis) instead of dividing.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases (PSTKs) are a type of protein kinase that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the hydroxyl side chains of serine or threonine residues on target proteins. This phosphorylation process plays a crucial role in various cellular signaling pathways, including regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. PSTKs are involved in many physiological and pathological processes, and their dysregulation has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) is a GTP-binding protein, which belongs to the Rho family of small GTPases. These proteins function as molecular switches that regulate various cellular processes such as actin cytoskeleton organization, gene expression, cell proliferation, and differentiation.

Rac1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state. When Rac1 is in its active form (GTP-bound), it interacts with various downstream effectors to modulate the actin cytoskeleton dynamics, cell adhesion, and motility. Activation of Rac1 has been implicated in several cellular responses, including cell migration, membrane ruffling, and filopodia formation.

Rac1 GTP-binding protein plays a crucial role in many physiological processes, such as embryonic development, angiogenesis, and wound healing. However, dysregulation of Rac1 activity has been associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer, inflammation, and neurological disorders.

Cyclin B1 is a type of cyclin protein that regulates the cell cycle, specifically the transition from G2 phase to mitosis (M phase) in eukaryotic cells. It forms a complex with and acts as a regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), also known as CDC2. During the G2 phase, Cyclin B1 levels accumulate and upon reaching a certain threshold, it binds to CDK1 to form the maturation promoting factor (MPF). The activation of MPF triggers the onset of mitosis by promoting nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, and other events required for cell division. After the completion of mitosis, Cyclin B1 is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, allowing the cell cycle to progress back into G1 phase.

Protein kinases are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in many cellular processes by adding phosphate groups to other proteins, a process known as phosphorylation. This modification can activate or deactivate the target protein's function, thereby regulating various signaling pathways within the cell. Protein kinases are essential for numerous biological functions, including metabolism, signal transduction, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Abnormal regulation of protein kinases has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

In the context of cell biology, "S phase" refers to the part of the cell cycle during which DNA replication occurs. The "S" stands for synthesis, reflecting the active DNA synthesis that takes place during this phase. It is preceded by G1 phase (gap 1) and followed by G2 phase (gap 2), with mitosis (M phase) being the final stage of the cell cycle.

During S phase, the cell's DNA content effectively doubles as each chromosome is replicated to ensure that the two resulting daughter cells will have the same genetic material as the parent cell. This process is carefully regulated and coordinated with other events in the cell cycle to maintain genomic stability.

Cyclins are a family of regulatory proteins that play a crucial role in the cell cycle, which is the series of events that take place as a cell grows, divides, and produces two daughter cells. They are called cyclins because their levels fluctuate or cycle during the different stages of the cell cycle.

Cyclins function as subunits of serine/threonine protein kinase complexes, forming an active enzyme that adds phosphate groups to other proteins, thereby modifying their activity. This post-translational modification is a critical mechanism for controlling various cellular processes, including the regulation of the cell cycle.

There are several types of cyclins (A, B, D, and E), each of which is active during specific phases of the cell cycle:

1. Cyclin D: Expressed in the G1 phase, it helps to initiate the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) that promote progression through the G1 restriction point.
2. Cyclin E: Active during late G1 and early S phases, it forms a complex with CDK2 to regulate the transition from G1 to S phase, where DNA replication occurs.
3. Cyclin A: Expressed in the S and G2 phases, it associates with both CDK2 and CDK1 to control the progression through the S and G2 phases and entry into mitosis (M phase).
4. Cyclin B: Active during late G2 and M phases, it partners with CDK1 to regulate the onset of mitosis by controlling the breakdown of the nuclear envelope, chromosome condensation, and spindle formation.

The activity of cyclins is tightly controlled through several mechanisms, including transcriptional regulation, protein degradation, and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events. Dysregulation of cyclin expression or function can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation, which are hallmarks of cancer.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including cytoskeletal reorganization, cell motility, and gene transcription. They are activated by binding to small GTPases of the Rho family, such as Cdc42 and Rac, which become active upon stimulation of various extracellular signals. Once activated, PAKs phosphorylate a range of downstream targets, leading to changes in cell behavior and function. Aberrant regulation of PAKs has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in regulating the cell cycle, transcription, and other cellular processes. They are activated by binding to cyclin proteins, which accumulate and degrade at specific stages of the cell cycle. The activation of CDKs leads to phosphorylation of various downstream target proteins, resulting in the promotion or inhibition of different cell cycle events. Dysregulation of CDKs has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, and they are considered important targets for drug development.

Rho GTP-binding proteins are a subfamily of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases, which function as molecular switches in various cellular signaling pathways. These proteins play crucial roles in regulating diverse cellular processes such as actin cytoskeleton dynamics, gene expression, cell cycle progression, and cell migration.

Rho GTP-binding proteins cycle between an active GTP-bound state and an inactive GDP-bound state. In the active state, they interact with various downstream effectors to regulate their respective cellular functions. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) activate Rho GTP-binding proteins by promoting the exchange of GDP for GTP, while GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) inactivate them by enhancing their intrinsic GTP hydrolysis activity.

There are several members of the Rho GTP-binding protein family, including RhoA, RhoB, RhoC, Rac1, Rac2, Rac3, Cdc42, and Rnd proteins, each with distinct functions and downstream effectors. Dysregulation of Rho GTP-binding proteins has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, and inflammatory diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Protamine Kinase" is not a widely recognized or established term in medical or biological sciences. Protamines are small, arginine-rich proteins found in the sperm cells of many organisms, and they play a crucial role in the packaging and protection of DNA during spermatogenesis.

Kinases, on the other hand, are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of phosphate groups from ATP to specific amino acids in proteins, thereby modulating their function, localization, or stability.

A search of scientific literature reveals only a few instances where "protamine kinase" is mentioned, usually in the context of potential regulatory mechanisms during sperm maturation or fertilization. However, there is no widely accepted or well-characterized enzyme known as "protamine kinase." Therefore, it would be challenging to provide a concise and accurate medical definition for this term.

Rac (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate) GTP-binding proteins are a subfamily of the Rho family of small GTPases, which function as molecular switches that regulate various cellular processes, including actin cytoskeleton organization, cell adhesion, and gene transcription.

Rac GTP-binding proteins cycle between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state. When Rac is in its active state, it interacts with downstream effectors to regulate various signaling pathways that control cell behavior. Activation of Rac promotes the formation of lamellipodia and membrane ruffles, which are important for cell migration and invasion.

Rac GTP-binding proteins have been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including embryonic development, immune function, and cancer. Dysregulation of Rac signaling has been associated with various diseases, such as inflammatory disorders, neurological disorders, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of Rac GTP-binding proteins is crucial for developing therapeutic strategies to target these diseases.

Fungal genes refer to the genetic material present in fungi, which are eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as larger organisms like mushrooms. The genetic material of fungi is composed of DNA, just like in other eukaryotes, and is organized into chromosomes located in the nucleus of the cell.

Fungal genes are segments of DNA that contain the information necessary to produce proteins and RNA molecules required for various cellular functions. These genes are transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, which are then translated into proteins by ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

Fungal genomes have been sequenced for many species, revealing a diverse range of genes that encode proteins involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, signaling, and regulation. Comparative genomic analyses have also provided insights into the evolutionary relationships among different fungal lineages and have helped to identify unique genetic features that distinguish fungi from other eukaryotes.

Understanding fungal genes and their functions is essential for advancing our knowledge of fungal biology, as well as for developing new strategies to control fungal pathogens that can cause diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

APC8 (Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome) subunit, also known as APC5 or CDC27, is a crucial component of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which is a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Specifically, APC8 is one of the essential subunits that make up the core structure of the APC/C and is involved in its recognition and binding to specific substrates.

APC/C targets various proteins for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome, thereby controlling different stages of mitosis and meiosis. During anaphase, APC/C-mediated degradation of securin and cyclin B leads to sister chromatid separation and exit from mitosis.

APC8 is a highly conserved protein found in many eukaryotes, including yeast, flies, and humans. Mutations in the gene encoding APC8 have been associated with various human diseases, such as cancer and developmental disorders.

DNA replication is the biological process by which DNA makes an identical copy of itself during cell division. It is a fundamental mechanism that allows genetic information to be passed down from one generation of cells to the next. During DNA replication, each strand of the double helix serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand. This results in the creation of two identical DNA molecules. The enzymes responsible for DNA replication include helicase, which unwinds the double helix, and polymerase, which adds nucleotides to the growing strands.

Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs) are a group of regulatory proteins that play a crucial role in the activation of GTPases, which are enzymes that regulate various cellular processes such as signal transduction, cytoskeleton reorganization, and vesicle trafficking.

GEFs function by promoting the exchange of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) for guanosine triphosphate (GTP) on GTPases. GTP is the active form of the GTPase, and its binding to the GTPase leads to a conformational change that activates the enzyme's function.

In the absence of GEFs, GTPases remain in their inactive GDP-bound state, and cellular signaling pathways are not activated. Therefore, GEFs play a critical role in regulating the activity of GTPases and ensuring proper signal transduction in cells.

There are many different GEFs that are specific to various GTPase families, including Ras, Rho, and Arf families. Dysregulation of GEFs has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Nuclear proteins are a category of proteins that are primarily found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. They play crucial roles in various nuclear functions, such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing. This group includes structural proteins like lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, and regulatory proteins, such as histones and transcription factors, that are involved in gene expression. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) often help target these proteins to the nucleus by interacting with importin proteins during active transport across the nuclear membrane.

F-box proteins are a family of proteins that are characterized by the presence of an F-box domain, which is a motif of about 40-50 amino acids. This domain is responsible for binding to Skp1, a component of the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. The F-box proteins serve as the substrate recognition subunit of this complex and are involved in targeting specific proteins for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome.

There are multiple types of F-box proteins, including FBXW (also known as β-TrCP), FBXL, and FBLX, each with different substrate specificities. These proteins play important roles in various cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation, signal transduction, and DNA damage response by controlling the stability of key regulatory proteins.

Abnormal regulation of F-box proteins has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, developmental disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Enzyme activation refers to the process by which an enzyme becomes biologically active and capable of carrying out its specific chemical or biological reaction. This is often achieved through various post-translational modifications, such as proteolytic cleavage, phosphorylation, or addition of cofactors or prosthetic groups to the enzyme molecule. These modifications can change the conformation or structure of the enzyme, exposing or creating a binding site for the substrate and allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

For example, in the case of proteolytic cleavage, an inactive precursor enzyme, known as a zymogen, is cleaved into its active form by a specific protease. This is seen in enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are initially produced in the pancreas as inactive precursors called trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen, respectively. Once they reach the small intestine, they are activated by enteropeptidase, a protease that cleaves a specific peptide bond, releasing the active enzyme.

Phosphorylation is another common mechanism of enzyme activation, where a phosphate group is added to a specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue on the enzyme by a protein kinase. This modification can alter the conformation of the enzyme and create a binding site for the substrate, allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

Enzyme activation is a crucial process in many biological pathways, as it allows for precise control over when and where specific reactions take place. It also provides a mechanism for regulating enzyme activity in response to various signals and stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or changes in the intracellular environment.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

GTP (Guanosine Triphosphate) Phosphohydrolases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP (Guanosine Diphosphate) and inorganic phosphate. This reaction plays a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, protein synthesis, and vesicle trafficking.

The human genome encodes several different types of GTP Phosphohydrolases, such as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), GTPase effectors, and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These enzymes share a common mechanism of action, in which they utilize the energy released from GTP hydrolysis to drive conformational changes that enable them to interact with downstream effector molecules and modulate their activity.

Dysregulation of GTP Phosphohydrolases has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of these enzymes is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these conditions.

Maturation-Promoting Factor (MPF) is not a medical term per se, but it is commonly used in the field of cell biology and cancer research. MPF refers to a complex of two proteins that play a crucial role in regulating the cell cycle, specifically during the transition from the G2 phase to mitosis (M phase).

MPF is composed of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK1) and a regulatory subunit called cyclin B. During the late G2 phase, the levels of cyclin B increase, which leads to the activation of CDK1. Once activated, MPF triggers a series of events that promote mitosis, including chromosome condensation, nuclear envelope breakdown, and spindle formation.

In summary, Maturation-Promoting Factor (MPF) is a protein complex made up of CDK1 and cyclin B, which regulates the transition from the G2 phase to mitosis during the cell cycle.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are a group of regulatory proteins that play a crucial role in the regulation of intracellular signaling pathways, particularly those involving GTP-binding proteins. GTPases are enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to guanosine diphosphate (GDP). This biochemical reaction is essential for the regulation of various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, vesicle trafficking, and cytoskeleton organization.

GAPs function as negative regulators of GTPases by accelerating the rate of GTP hydrolysis, thereby promoting the inactive GDP-bound state of the GTPase. By doing so, GAPs help terminate GTPase-mediated signaling events and ensure proper control of downstream cellular responses.

There are various families of GAPs, each with specificity towards particular GTPases. Some well-known GAP families include:

1. p50/RhoGAP: Regulates Rho GTPases involved in cytoskeleton organization and cell migration.
2. GIT (G protein-coupled receptor kinase interactor 1) family: Regulates Arf GTPases involved in vesicle trafficking and actin remodeling.
3. IQGAPs (IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating proteins): Regulate Rac and Cdc42 GTPases, which are involved in cell adhesion, migration, and cytoskeleton organization.

In summary, GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are regulatory proteins that accelerate the GTP hydrolysis of GTPases, thereby acting as negative regulators of various intracellular signaling pathways and ensuring proper control of downstream cellular responses.

Anaphase is a stage in the cell division process called mitosis, where sister chromatids (the two copies of each chromosome formed during DNA replication) separate at the centromeres and move toward opposite poles of the cell. This separation is facilitated by the attachment of microtubules from the spindle apparatus to the kinetochores, protein structures located on the centromeres of each sister chromatid. Anaphase is followed by telophase, during which the nuclear membrane reforms around each set of separated chromosomes, and cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells.

Phosphoprotein phosphatases (PPPs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in the regulation of various cellular processes by removing phosphate groups from serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues on proteins. Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification that regulates protein function, localization, and stability, and dephosphorylation by PPPs is essential for maintaining the balance of this regulation.

The PPP family includes several subfamilies, such as PP1, PP2A, PP2B (also known as calcineurin), PP4, PP5, and PP6. Each subfamily has distinct substrate specificities and regulatory mechanisms. For example, PP1 and PP2A are involved in the regulation of metabolism, signal transduction, and cell cycle progression, while PP2B is involved in immune response and calcium signaling.

Dysregulation of PPPs has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of PPPs is important for developing therapeutic strategies to target these diseases.

Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and signal transduction. PTPs function by removing phosphate groups from tyrosine residues on proteins, thereby counteracting the effects of tyrosine kinases, which add phosphate groups to tyrosine residues to activate proteins.

PTPs are classified into several subfamilies based on their structure and function, including classical PTPs, dual-specificity PTPs (DSPs), and low molecular weight PTPs (LMW-PTPs). Each subfamily has distinct substrate specificities and regulatory mechanisms.

Classical PTPs are further divided into receptor-like PTPs (RPTPs) and non-receptor PTPs (NRPTPs). RPTPs contain a transmembrane domain and extracellular regions that mediate cell-cell interactions, while NRPTPs are soluble enzymes located in the cytoplasm.

DSPs can dephosphorylate both tyrosine and serine/threonine residues on proteins and play a critical role in regulating various signaling pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.

LMW-PTPs are a group of small molecular weight PTPs that localize to different cellular compartments, such as the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and regulate various cellular processes, including protein folding and apoptosis.

Overall, PTPs play a critical role in maintaining the balance of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events in cells, and dysregulation of PTP activity has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

The G1 phase, or Gap 1 phase, is the first phase of the cell cycle, during which the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for subsequent steps leading to mitosis. During this phase, the cell also checks its growth and makes sure that it is large enough to proceed through the cell cycle. If the cell is not large enough, it will arrest in the G1 phase until it has grown sufficiently. The G1 phase is followed by the S phase, during which DNA replication occurs.

The spindle apparatus is a microtubule-based structure that plays a crucial role in the process of cell division, specifically during mitosis and meiosis. It consists of three main components:

1. The spindle poles: These are organized structures composed of microtubules and associated proteins that serve as the anchoring points for the spindle fibers. In animal cells, these poles are typically formed by centrosomes, while in plant cells, they form around nucleation sites called microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs).
2. The spindle fibers: These are dynamic arrays of microtubules that extend between the two spindle poles. They can be categorized into three types: kinetochore fibers, which connect to the kinetochores on chromosomes; astral fibers, which radiate from the spindle poles and help position the spindle within the cell; and interpolar fibers, which lie between the two spindle poles and contribute to their separation during anaphase.
3. Regulatory proteins: Various motor proteins, such as dynein and kinesin, as well as non-motor proteins like tubulin and septins, are involved in the assembly, maintenance, and dynamics of the spindle apparatus. These proteins help to generate forces that move chromosomes, position the spindle, and ultimately segregate genetic material between two daughter cells during cell division.

The spindle apparatus is essential for ensuring accurate chromosome separation and maintaining genomic stability during cell division. Dysfunction of the spindle apparatus can lead to various abnormalities, including aneuploidy (abnormal number of chromosomes) and chromosomal instability, which have been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer and developmental disorders.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

Gene expression regulation in fungi refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins and other functional gene products in response to various internal and external stimuli. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and adaptation of fungal cells to changing environmental conditions.

In fungi, gene expression is regulated at multiple levels, including transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational modifications. Key regulatory mechanisms include:

1. Transcription factors (TFs): These proteins bind to specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of target genes and either activate or repress their transcription. Fungi have a diverse array of TFs that respond to various signals, such as nutrient availability, stress, developmental cues, and quorum sensing.
2. Chromatin remodeling: The organization and compaction of DNA into chromatin can influence gene expression. Fungi utilize ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes and histone modifying enzymes to alter chromatin structure, thereby facilitating or inhibiting the access of transcriptional machinery to genes.
3. Non-coding RNAs: Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) play a role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in fungi. These sncRNAs can guide RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complexes to specific target loci, leading to the repression of gene expression through histone modifications and DNA methylation.
4. Alternative splicing: Fungi employ alternative splicing mechanisms to generate multiple mRNA isoforms from a single gene, thereby increasing proteome diversity. This process can be regulated by RNA-binding proteins that recognize specific sequence motifs in pre-mRNAs and promote or inhibit splicing events.
5. Protein stability and activity: Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, can influence their stability, localization, and activity. These PTMs play a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes, including signal transduction, stress response, and cell cycle progression.

Understanding the complex interplay between these regulatory mechanisms is essential for elucidating the molecular basis of fungal development, pathogenesis, and drug resistance. This knowledge can be harnessed to develop novel strategies for combating fungal infections and improving agricultural productivity.

The Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome (APC/C) is a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a crucial role in regulating the cell cycle. The APC/C complex targets specific proteins for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, thereby controlling various processes such as mitotic exit, chromosome segregation, and the G1 phase of the cell cycle.

APC6, also known as APC5 or CDC23, is one of the essential subunits of the APC/C complex. It is a conserved protein found in all eukaryotes and is required for the stability and activity of the APC/C complex. The APC6 subunit forms part of the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, which is responsible for binding other subunits and regulating the substrate specificity of the APC/C complex.

Therefore, the medical definition of 'APC6 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome' refers to a critical component of the APC/C complex that plays a crucial role in regulating the cell cycle by targeting specific proteins for degradation.

Fungal DNA refers to the genetic material present in fungi, which are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as larger organisms like mushrooms. The DNA of fungi, like that of all living organisms, is made up of nucleotides that are arranged in a double helix structure.

Fungal DNA contains the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of fungi. This includes the instructions for making proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of cells, as well as other important molecules such as enzymes and nucleic acids.

Studying fungal DNA can provide valuable insights into the biology and evolution of fungi, as well as their potential uses in medicine, agriculture, and industry. For example, researchers have used genetic engineering techniques to modify the DNA of fungi to produce drugs, biofuels, and other useful products. Additionally, understanding the genetic makeup of pathogenic fungi can help scientists develop new strategies for preventing and treating fungal infections.

Ubiquitin-protein ligases, also known as E3 ubiquitin ligases, are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the ubiquitination process. Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification where ubiquitin molecules are attached to specific target proteins, marking them for degradation by the proteasome or for other regulatory functions.

Ubiquitin-protein ligases catalyze the final step in this process by binding to both the ubiquitin protein and the target protein, facilitating the transfer of ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to the target protein. There are several different types of ubiquitin-protein ligases, each with their own specificity for particular target proteins and regulatory functions.

Ubiquitin-protein ligases have been implicated in various cellular processes such as protein degradation, DNA repair, signal transduction, and regulation of the cell cycle. Dysregulation of ubiquitination has been associated with several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory responses. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligases is an important area of research in biology and medicine.

Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (UBCs or E2 enzymes) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in the ubiquitination process, which is a post-translational modification of proteins. This process involves the covalent attachment of the protein ubiquitin to specific lysine residues on target proteins, ultimately leading to their degradation by the 26S proteasome.

Ubiquitination is a multi-step process that requires the coordinated action of three types of enzymes: E1 (ubiquitin-activating), E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating), and E3 (ubiquitin ligases). Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes are responsible for transferring ubiquitin from the E1 enzyme to the target protein, which is facilitated by an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The human genome encodes around 40 different UBCs, each with unique substrate specificities and functions in various cellular processes, such as protein degradation, DNA repair, and signal transduction.

Ubiquitination is a highly regulated process that can be reversed by the action of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), which remove ubiquitin molecules from target proteins. Dysregulation of the ubiquitination pathway has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory conditions.

Actin is a type of protein that forms part of the contractile apparatus in muscle cells, and is also found in various other cell types. It is a globular protein that polymerizes to form long filaments, which are important for many cellular processes such as cell division, cell motility, and the maintenance of cell shape. In muscle cells, actin filaments interact with another type of protein called myosin to enable muscle contraction. Actins can be further divided into different subtypes, including alpha-actin, beta-actin, and gamma-actin, which have distinct functions and expression patterns in the body.

GTP-binding proteins, also known as G proteins, are a family of molecular switches present in many organisms, including humans. They play a crucial role in signal transduction pathways, particularly those involved in cellular responses to external stimuli such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and sensory signals like light and odorants.

G proteins are composed of three subunits: α, β, and γ. The α-subunit binds GTP (guanosine triphosphate) and acts as the active component of the complex. When a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is activated by an external signal, it triggers a conformational change in the associated G protein, allowing the α-subunit to exchange GDP (guanosine diphosphate) for GTP. This activation leads to dissociation of the G protein complex into the GTP-bound α-subunit and the βγ-subunit pair. Both the α-GTP and βγ subunits can then interact with downstream effectors, such as enzymes or ion channels, to propagate and amplify the signal within the cell.

The intrinsic GTPase activity of the α-subunit eventually hydrolyzes the bound GTP to GDP, which leads to re-association of the α and βγ subunits and termination of the signal. This cycle of activation and inactivation makes G proteins versatile signaling elements that can respond quickly and precisely to changing environmental conditions.

Defects in G protein-mediated signaling pathways have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of GTP-binding proteins is essential for developing targeted therapeutic strategies.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Saccharomycetales is an order of fungi that are commonly known as "true yeasts." They are characterized by their single-celled growth and ability to reproduce through budding or fission. These organisms are widely distributed in nature and can be found in a variety of environments, including soil, water, and on the surfaces of plants and animals.

Many species of Saccharomycetales are used in industrial processes, such as the production of bread, beer, and wine. They are also used in biotechnology to produce various enzymes, vaccines, and other products. Some species of Saccharomycetales can cause diseases in humans and animals, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. These infections, known as candidiasis or thrush, can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, mouth, and genital area.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Cdh1 proteins are part of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which is a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Cdh1, specifically, is a regulatory subunit of the APC/C and is essential for the proper progression through the cell cycle.

Cdh1 binds to and activates the APC/C in late mitosis and early G1 phase, targeting specific proteins for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the proteasome. This helps to ensure that key events of the cell cycle, such as chromosome segregation and mitotic exit, occur in a timely and orderly fashion.

Cdh1 has been shown to regulate the degradation of several important cell cycle regulators, including cyclins A and B, securin, and aurora kinase A. By targeting these proteins for destruction, Cdh1 helps to prevent premature entry into mitosis and ensures that cells do not exit mitosis until all chromosomes have been properly aligned and segregated.

Mutations in the genes encoding Cdh1 and other components of the APC/C have been implicated in a variety of human cancers, highlighting the importance of this complex in maintaining genomic stability.

Cell polarity refers to the asymmetric distribution of membrane components, cytoskeleton, and organelles in a cell. This asymmetry is crucial for various cellular functions such as directed transport, cell division, and signal transduction. The plasma membrane of polarized cells exhibits distinct domains with unique protein and lipid compositions that define apical, basal, and lateral surfaces of the cell.

In epithelial cells, for example, the apical surface faces the lumen or external environment, while the basolateral surface interacts with other cells or the extracellular matrix. The establishment and maintenance of cell polarity are regulated by various factors including protein complexes, lipids, and small GTPases. Loss of cell polarity has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (CDK2) is a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cell cycle, which is the process by which cells grow and divide. CDK2 is activated when it binds to a regulatory subunit called a cyclin.

During the cell cycle, CDK2 helps to control the progression from the G1 phase to the S phase, where DNA replication occurs. Specifically, CDK2 phosphorylates various target proteins that are involved in the regulation of DNA replication and the initiation of mitosis, which is the process of cell division.

CDK2 activity is tightly regulated through a variety of mechanisms, including phosphorylation, dephosphorylation, and protein degradation. Dysregulation of CDK2 activity has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer. Therefore, CDK2 is an important target for the development of therapies aimed at treating these diseases.

RhoA (Ras Homolog Family Member A) is a small GTPase protein that acts as a molecular switch, cycling between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state. It plays a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes such as actin cytoskeleton organization, gene expression, cell cycle progression, and cell migration.

RhoA GTP-binding protein becomes activated when it binds to GTP, and this activation leads to the recruitment of downstream effectors that mediate its functions. The activity of RhoA is tightly regulated by several proteins, including guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that promote the exchange of GDP for GTP, GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) that stimulate the intrinsic GTPase activity of RhoA to hydrolyze GTP to GDP and return it to an inactive state, and guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) that sequester RhoA in the cytoplasm and prevent its association with the membrane.

Mutations or dysregulation of RhoA GTP-binding protein have been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

Chaperonins are a type of molecular chaperone found in cells that assist in the proper folding of other proteins. They are large, complex protein assemblies that form a protective cage-like structure around unfolded polypeptides, providing a protected environment for them to fold into their correct three-dimensional shape.

Chaperonins are classified into two groups: Group I chaperonins, which are found in bacteria and archaea, and Group II chaperonins, which are found in eukaryotes (including humans). Both types of chaperonins share a similar overall structure, consisting of two rings stacked on top of each other, with each ring containing multiple subunits.

Group I chaperonins, such as GroEL in bacteria, function by binding to unfolded proteins and encapsulating them within their central cavity. The chaperonin then undergoes a series of conformational changes that help to facilitate the folding of the encapsulated protein. Once folding is complete, the chaperonin releases the now-folded protein.

Group II chaperonins, such as TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC) in humans, function similarly but have a more complex mechanism of action. They not only assist in protein folding but also help to prevent protein aggregation and misfolding. Group II chaperonins are involved in various cellular processes, including protein quality control, protein trafficking, and the regulation of cell signaling pathways.

Defects in chaperonin function have been linked to several human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and cardiovascular disease.

"Xenopus" is not a medical term, but it is a genus of highly invasive aquatic frogs native to sub-Saharan Africa. They are often used in scientific research, particularly in developmental biology and genetics. The most commonly studied species is Xenopus laevis, also known as the African clawed frog.

In a medical context, Xenopus might be mentioned when discussing their use in research or as a model organism to study various biological processes or diseases.

Ligases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a covalent bond between two molecules, usually involving the joining of two nucleotides in a DNA or RNA strand. They play a crucial role in various biological processes such as DNA replication, repair, and recombination. In DNA ligases, the enzyme seals nicks or breaks in the phosphodiester backbone of the DNA molecule by catalyzing the formation of an ester bond between the 3'-hydroxyl group and the 5'-phosphate group of adjacent nucleotides. This process is essential for maintaining genomic integrity and stability.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

The Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) is a protein complex in eukaryotic cells that plays a crucial role in the initiation of DNA replication. It specifically recognizes and binds to the origins of replication, which are specific sequences on the DNA molecule where replication begins. The ORC serves as a platform for the assembly of additional proteins required for the initiation of DNA replication, including the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex. This whole process is highly regulated and essential for the accurate duplication of genetic material during cell division.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

Meiosis is a type of cell division that results in the formation of four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. It is a key process in sexual reproduction, where it generates gametes or sex cells (sperm and eggs).

The process of meiosis involves one round of DNA replication followed by two successive nuclear divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II. In meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair, form chiasma and exchange genetic material through crossing over, then separate from each other. In meiosis II, sister chromatids separate, leading to the formation of four haploid cells. This process ensures genetic diversity in offspring by shuffling and recombining genetic information during the formation of gametes.

Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP), Neuronal is not a well-defined medical term or concept. WASP is a protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics, primarily in hematopoietic cells. However, there are several WASP family proteins, including Neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (N-WASP), which is widely expressed and has been implicated in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in neurons.

Neuronal N-WASP (N-WASP, Neuronal) is a protein that belongs to the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein family and is primarily expressed in neurons. It plays an essential role in regulating actin cytoskeleton dynamics during synaptic plasticity, which is critical for learning and memory processes. N-WASP interacts with various proteins to control the formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) structures required for neuronal morphogenesis, including dendritic spine development and maintenance.

In summary, Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP), Neuronal is not a well-defined term, but Neuronal N-WASP refers to the protein that belongs to the WASP family and is primarily expressed in neurons, playing an essential role in regulating actin cytoskeleton dynamics during synaptic plasticity.

"Xenopus proteins" refer to the proteins that are expressed or isolated from the Xenopus species, which are primarily used as model organisms in biological and biomedical research. The most commonly used Xenopus species for research are the African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes and functions, and they serve as valuable tools to study different aspects of molecular biology, developmental biology, genetics, and biochemistry.

Some examples of Xenopus proteins that are widely studied include:

1. Xenopus Histones: These are the proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, which are the fundamental units of chromatin in eukaryotic cells. They play a significant role in gene regulation and epigenetic modifications.
2. Xenopus Cyclins and Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs): These proteins regulate the cell cycle and control cell division, differentiation, and apoptosis.
3. Xenopus Transcription factors: These proteins bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate gene expression during development and in response to various stimuli.
4. Xenopus Signaling molecules: These proteins are involved in intracellular signaling pathways that control various cellular processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, migration, and survival.
5. Xenopus Cytoskeletal proteins: These proteins provide structural support to the cells and regulate their shape, motility, and organization.
6. Xenopus Enzymes: These proteins catalyze various biochemical reactions in the cell, such as metabolic pathways, DNA replication, transcription, and translation.

Overall, Xenopus proteins are essential tools for understanding fundamental biological processes and have contributed significantly to our current knowledge of molecular biology, genetics, and developmental biology.

The Mad2 (Mitotic Arrest Deficient 2) proteins are a part of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which is a crucial surveillance mechanism that ensures accurate chromosome segregation during cell division. The primary function of Mad2 proteins is to prevent the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes have achieved proper attachment and tension on the mitotic spindle.

Mad2 proteins exist in two major conformational states: open (O-Mad2) and closed (C-Mad2). The transition between these two forms plays a critical role in the regulation of the SAC. In response to unattached kinetochores, Mad2 proteins bind to and inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), thereby preventing premature chromosome separation.

There are two main isoforms of Mad2 in humans: Mad2L1 (Mad2A) and Mad2L2 (Mad2B). While both isoforms share similar functions, they exhibit distinct biochemical properties and interact with other SAC components differently. Dysregulation of the Mad2 proteins has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Ras GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are a group of regulatory proteins that play an essential role in the intracellular signaling pathways associated with cell growth, differentiation, and survival. They function as negative regulators of Ras small GTPases, which are crucial components of many signal transduction cascades.

Ras GTPases cycle between an active GTP-bound state and an inactive GDP-bound state. Ras GAPs enhance the intrinsic GTPase activity of Ras proteins, promoting the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP and thereby switching off the signal transduction pathway. This conversion from the active to the inactive form of Ras helps maintain proper cellular function and prevent uncontrolled cell growth, which can lead to diseases such as cancer.

There are several families of Ras GAPs, including p120GAP, neurofibromin (NF1), and IQGAPs, among others. Each family has distinct structural features and functions, but they all share the ability to stimulate the GTPase activity of Ras proteins. Dysregulation or mutations in Ras GAPs can result in aberrant Ras signaling, contributing to various pathological conditions, including cancer and developmental disorders.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

Genetic suppression is a concept in genetics that refers to the phenomenon where the expression or function of one gene is reduced or silenced by another gene. This can occur through various mechanisms such as:

* Allelic exclusion: When only one allele (version) of a gene is expressed, while the other is suppressed.
* Epigenetic modifications: Chemical changes to the DNA or histone proteins that package DNA can result in the suppression of gene expression.
* RNA interference: Small RNAs can bind to and degrade specific mRNAs (messenger RNAs), preventing their translation into proteins.
* Transcriptional repression: Proteins called transcription factors can bind to DNA and prevent the recruitment of RNA polymerase, which is necessary for gene transcription.

Genetic suppression plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression and maintaining proper cellular function. It can also contribute to diseases such as cancer when genes that suppress tumor growth are suppressed themselves.

Cyclin A is a type of cyclin protein that regulates the progression of the cell cycle, particularly through the G1 and S phases. It forms a complex with and acts as a regulatory subunit for cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), specifically CDK2 and CDK1. The activation of Cyclin A-CDK complexes leads to phosphorylation of various target proteins, which in turn regulates DNA replication and the transition to mitosis.

Cyclin A levels rise during the late G1 phase and peak during the S phase, after which they decline rapidly during the G2 phase. Any abnormalities in Cyclin A regulation or expression can contribute to uncontrolled cell growth and cancer development.

Cytokinesis is the part of the cell division process (mitosis or meiosis) in which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell divides into two daughter cells. It usually begins after telophase, and it involves the constriction of a contractile ring composed of actin filaments and myosin motor proteins that forms at the equatorial plane of the cell. This results in the formation of a cleavage furrow, which deepens and eventually leads to the physical separation of the two daughter cells. Cytokinesis is essential for cell reproduction and growth in multicellular organisms, and its failure can lead to various developmental abnormalities or diseases.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Pseudopodia are temporary projections or extensions of the cytoplasm in certain types of cells, such as white blood cells (leukocytes) and some amoebas. They are used for locomotion and engulfing particles or other cells through a process called phagocytosis.

In simpler terms, pseudopodia are like "false feet" that some cells use to move around and interact with their environment. The term comes from the Greek words "pseudes," meaning false, and "podos," meaning foot.

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

A two-hybrid system technique is a type of genetic screening method used in molecular biology to identify protein-protein interactions within an organism, most commonly baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or Escherichia coli. The name "two-hybrid" refers to the fact that two separate proteins are being examined for their ability to interact with each other.

The technique is based on the modular nature of transcription factors, which typically consist of two distinct domains: a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and an activation domain (AD). In a two-hybrid system, one protein of interest is fused to the DBD, while the second protein of interest is fused to the AD. If the two proteins interact, the DBD and AD are brought in close proximity, allowing for transcriptional activation of a reporter gene that is linked to a specific promoter sequence recognized by the DBD.

The main components of a two-hybrid system include:

1. Bait protein (fused to the DNA-binding domain)
2. Prey protein (fused to the activation domain)
3. Reporter gene (transcribed upon interaction between bait and prey proteins)
4. Promoter sequence (recognized by the DBD when brought in proximity due to interaction)

The two-hybrid system technique has several advantages, including:

1. Ability to screen large libraries of potential interacting partners
2. High sensitivity for detecting weak or transient interactions
3. Applicability to various organisms and protein types
4. Potential for high-throughput analysis

However, there are also limitations to the technique, such as false positives (interactions that do not occur in vivo) and false negatives (lack of detection of true interactions). Additionally, the fusion proteins may not always fold or localize correctly, leading to potential artifacts. Despite these limitations, two-hybrid system techniques remain a valuable tool for studying protein-protein interactions and have contributed significantly to our understanding of various cellular processes.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

The cytoskeleton is a complex network of various protein filaments that provides structural support, shape, and stability to the cell. It plays a crucial role in maintaining cellular integrity, intracellular organization, and enabling cell movement. The cytoskeleton is composed of three major types of protein fibers: microfilaments (actin filaments), intermediate filaments, and microtubules. These filaments work together to provide mechanical support, participate in cell division, intracellular transport, and help maintain the cell's architecture. The dynamic nature of the cytoskeleton allows cells to adapt to changing environmental conditions and respond to various stimuli.

I believe you may be mistakenly using the term "starfish" to refer to a medical condition. If so, the correct term is likely " asterixis," which is a medical sign characterized by rapid, rhythmic flapping or tremulous movements of the hands when they are extended and the wrist is dorsiflexed (held with the back of the hand facing upwards). This is often seen in people with certain neurological conditions such as liver failure or certain types of poisoning.

However, if you are indeed referring to the marine animal commonly known as a "starfish," there isn't a specific medical definition for it. Starfish, also known as sea stars, are marine animals belonging to the class Asteroidea in the phylum Echinodermata. They have a distinctive shape with five or more arms radiating from a central disc, and they move slowly along the ocean floor using their tube feet. Some species of starfish have the ability to regenerate lost body parts, including entire limbs or even their central disc.

Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP) is a intracellular protein that plays a critical role in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization. It is encoded by the WAS gene, which is located on the X chromosome. WASP is primarily expressed in hematopoietic cells, including platelets, T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells.

WASP functions as a downstream effector of several signaling pathways that regulate actin dynamics, including the CDC42-MRCK pathway. When activated, WASP interacts with actin-related proteins (ARPs) and profilin to promote the nucleation and polymerization of actin filaments. This leads to changes in cell shape, motility, and cytoskeletal organization that are essential for various immune functions, such as T cell activation, antigen presentation, phagocytosis, and platelet aggregation.

Mutations in the WAS gene can lead to Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by microthrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, and increased risk of autoimmunity and lymphoma. The severity of the disease varies depending on the specific mutation and its impact on WASP function.

Interphase is a phase in the cell cycle during which the cell primarily performs its functions of growth and DNA replication. It is the longest phase of the cell cycle, consisting of G1 phase (during which the cell grows and prepares for DNA replication), S phase (during which DNA replication occurs), and G2 phase (during which the cell grows further and prepares for mitosis). During interphase, the chromosomes are in their relaxed, extended form and are not visible under the microscope. Interphase is followed by mitosis, during which the chromosomes condense and separate to form two genetically identical daughter cells.

14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved regulatory molecules found in eukaryotic cells. They are involved in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). These proteins bind to specific phosphoserine-containing motifs on their target proteins, thereby modulating their activity, localization, or stability. Dysregulation of 14-3-3 proteins has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and diabetes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Telomere-binding proteins are specialized proteins that bind to the telomeres, which are the repetitive DNA sequences found at the ends of chromosomes. These proteins play a crucial role in protecting the structural integrity and stability of chromosomes by preventing the degradation of telomeres during cell division and preventing the chromosomes from being recognized as damaged or broken.

One of the most well-known telomere-binding proteins is called TRF2 (telomeric repeat-binding factor 2), which helps to maintain the structure of the telomere "T-loop" and prevent the activation of DNA repair mechanisms that can lead to chromosomal instability. Another important telomere-binding protein is called POT1 (protection of telomeres 1), which specifically binds to the single-stranded overhang of the telomere and helps to regulate the activity of telomerase, an enzyme that adds DNA repeats to the ends of chromosomes during cell division.

Mutations in telomere-binding proteins have been linked to a variety of human diseases, including premature aging disorders, cancer, and bone marrow failure syndromes. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these proteins is an important area of research in molecular biology and genetics.

Nocodazole is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a pharmacological agent used in medical research and clinical settings. It's a synthetic chemical compound that belongs to the class of drugs known as microtubule inhibitors. Nocodazole works by binding to and disrupting the dynamic assembly and disassembly of microtubules, which are important components of the cell's cytoskeleton and play a critical role in cell division.

Nocodazole is primarily used in research settings as a tool for studying cell biology and mitosis, the process by which cells divide. It can be used to synchronize cells in the cell cycle or to induce mitotic arrest, making it useful for investigating various aspects of cell division and chromosome behavior.

In clinical settings, nocodazole has been used off-label as a component of some cancer treatment regimens, particularly in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Its ability to disrupt microtubules can interfere with the proliferation of cancer cells and enhance the effectiveness of certain anti-cancer drugs. However, its use is not widespread due to potential side effects and the availability of alternative treatments.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

A genetic complementation test is a laboratory procedure used in molecular genetics to determine whether two mutated genes can complement each other's function, indicating that they are located at different loci and represent separate alleles. This test involves introducing a normal or wild-type copy of one gene into a cell containing a mutant version of the same gene, and then observing whether the presence of the normal gene restores the normal function of the mutated gene. If the introduction of the normal gene results in the restoration of the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at different loci and can complement each other's function. However, if the introduction of the normal gene does not restore the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at the same locus and represent different alleles of the same gene. This test is commonly used to map genes and identify genetic interactions in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and animals.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

SKP (S-phase kinase associated protein) Cullin F-box protein ligases, also known as SCF complexes, are a type of E3 ubiquitin ligase that play a crucial role in the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of proteins. These complexes are composed of several subunits: SKP1, Cul1 (Cullin 1), Rbx1 (Ring-box 1), and an F-box protein. The F-box protein is a variable component that determines the substrate specificity of the SCF complex.

The ubiquitination process mediated by SCF complexes involves the sequential transfer of ubiquitin molecules to a target protein, leading to its degradation by the 26S proteasome. This pathway is essential for various cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation, signal transduction, and DNA damage response.

Dysregulation of SCF complexes has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders, making them potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) are a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in various cellular functions, including signal transduction, cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. They catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the tyrosine residues of proteins, thereby modifying their activity, localization, or interaction with other molecules.

PTKs can be divided into two main categories: receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs). RTKs are transmembrane proteins that become activated upon binding to specific ligands, such as growth factors or hormones. NRTKs, on the other hand, are intracellular enzymes that can be activated by various signals, including receptor-mediated signaling and intracellular messengers.

Dysregulation of PTK activity has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. Therefore, PTKs are important targets for drug development and therapy.

Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7 (MCM7) is a protein that is a part of the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex, which is involved in the initiation and regulation of DNA replication. The MCM complex is made up of several different proteins, including MCM2-7, and plays a crucial role in the cell cycle by ensuring that DNA replication occurs only once per cell cycle. MCM7 has helicase activity, which helps to unwind the DNA double helix during replication. Defects in MCM7 have been associated with certain types of cancer.

GTP (Guanosine Triphosphate) phosphohydrolase activators are substances or molecules that increase the activity or function of GTP phosphohydrolases. These enzymes play a crucial role in regulating intracellular signaling pathways, including those involved in cell growth, division, and motility.

GTP phosphohydrolases, also known as GTPases, hydrolyze GTP to GDP (Guanosine Diphosphate) and inorganic phosphate, which leads to a conformational change in the enzyme and its subsequent activation or deactivation.

GTP phosphohydrolase activators can modulate this hydrolysis process by binding to the GTPase and altering its activity. These activators may either promote or inhibit the hydrolysis of GTP, depending on the specific context and type of GTPase involved.

Examples of GTP phosphohydrolases include Ras, Rac, and Cdc42, which are critical regulators of various cellular processes, including signal transduction, cytoskeletal reorganization, and gene expression. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

In summary, GTP phosphohydrolase activators are molecules that regulate the activity of GTPases by modulating their GTP hydrolysis function, thereby influencing various cellular processes and disease states.

Rho-specific guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (RhoGDI) are a group of proteins that regulate the function of Rho GTPases, which are important signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes such as actin cytoskeleton regulation, gene expression, and cell cycle progression.

RhoGDIs bind to Rho GTPases in their inactive state, preventing them from interacting with guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that would activate them. By doing so, RhoGDIs help regulate the spatial and temporal activation of Rho GTPases, ensuring that they are activated only when and where needed in the cell.

RhoGDI proteins have been identified as potential targets for therapeutic intervention in various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and neurological disorders. Inhibitors of RhoGDI function have been shown to disrupt Rho GTPase signaling and may have therapeutic benefits in these conditions.

Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 4 (MCM4) is a protein that is a part of the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex, which is involved in the initiation and regulation of DNA replication. The MCM complex is made up of several different proteins, including MCM2-7, and helps to ensure that DNA replication occurs only once per cell cycle. MCM4 has helicase activity, which means it can unwind double-stranded DNA during the replication process. It also plays a role in the regulation of the cell cycle and is essential for cell survival. Defects in MCM4 have been associated with certain types of cancer.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that is present in most tissues in the body. It plays a critical role in regulating many important cellular processes, such as protein degradation and DNA repair. Ubiquitin can attach to other proteins in a process called ubiquitination, which can target the protein for degradation or modify its function.

Ubiquitination involves a series of enzymatic reactions that ultimately result in the attachment of ubiquitin molecules to specific lysine residues on the target protein. The addition of a single ubiquitin molecule is called monoubiquitination, while the addition of multiple ubiquitin molecules is called polyubiquitination.

Polyubiquitination can serve as a signal for proteasomal degradation, where the target protein is broken down into its component amino acids by the 26S proteasome complex. Monoubiquitination and other forms of ubiquitination can also regulate various cellular processes, such as endocytosis, DNA repair, and gene expression.

Dysregulation of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory conditions.

DNA damage refers to any alteration in the structure or composition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is the genetic material present in cells. DNA damage can result from various internal and external factors, including environmental exposures such as ultraviolet radiation, tobacco smoke, and certain chemicals, as well as normal cellular processes such as replication and oxidative metabolism.

Examples of DNA damage include base modifications, base deletions or insertions, single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, and crosslinks between the two strands of the DNA helix. These types of damage can lead to mutations, genomic instability, and chromosomal aberrations, which can contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging-related conditions.

The body has several mechanisms for repairing DNA damage, including base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, and double-strand break repair. However, if the damage is too extensive or the repair mechanisms are impaired, the cell may undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death) to prevent the propagation of potentially harmful mutations.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) are a group of enzymes that regulate various cellular processes by removing phosphate groups from specific proteins. They are called "dual-specificity" because they can remove phosphates from both tyrosine and serine/threonine residues on their target proteins, whereas most other protein phosphatases can only remove phosphates from one or the other.

DUSPs play important roles in regulating signal transduction pathways that are involved in various cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. They act as negative regulators of these pathways by dephosphorylating and inactivating key signaling molecules, including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs).

There are several subfamilies of DUSPs, each with distinct substrate specificities and cellular localizations. Some DUSPs are primarily cytoplasmic, while others are nuclear or associated with the plasma membrane. Dysregulation of DUSP activity has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of DUSPs is important for developing new therapeutic strategies for these diseases.

Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) is a nucleotide that plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, such as protein synthesis, signal transduction, and regulation of enzymatic activities. It serves as an energy currency, similar to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and undergoes hydrolysis to guanosine diphosphate (GDP) or guanosine monophosphate (GMP) to release energy required for these processes. GTP is also a precursor for the synthesis of other essential molecules, including RNA and certain signaling proteins. Additionally, it acts as a molecular switch in many intracellular signaling pathways by binding and activating specific GTPase proteins.

Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors (GDI) are a group of proteins that bind to and inhibit the dissociation of guanine nucleotides from small GTPases, which are important regulatory molecules involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, vesicle trafficking, and cytoskeleton organization.

GDI's function is to maintain these small GTPases in their inactive state by keeping them bound to guanine nucleotides, specifically GDP (guanosine diphosphate). By doing so, GDIs help regulate the activity of small GTPases and control their subcellular localization.

GDIs have been identified in various organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and mammals. In humans, there are two major types of GDIs: RhoGDI (also known as D4-GDI) and RacGDI (also known as GDI-α). These GDIs play crucial roles in regulating the activity of Rho family GTPases, which are involved in various cellular functions such as cell motility, membrane trafficking, and gene expression.

Overall, Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors are essential regulators of small GTPases, controlling their activity and localization to ensure proper cellular function.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

HSP90 (Heat Shock Protein 90) refers to a family of highly conserved molecular chaperones that are expressed in all eukaryotic cells. They play a crucial role in protein folding, assembly, and transport, thereby assisting in the maintenance of proper protein function and cellular homeostasis. HSP90 proteins are named for their increased expression during heat shock and other stress conditions, which helps protect cells by facilitating the refolding or degradation of misfolded proteins that can accumulate under these circumstances.

HSP90 chaperones are ATP-dependent and consist of multiple domains: a N-terminal nucleotide binding domain (NBD), a middle domain, and a C-terminal dimerization domain. They exist as homodimers and interact with a wide range of client proteins, including transcription factors, kinases, and steroid hormone receptors. By regulating the activity and stability of these client proteins, HSP90 chaperones contribute to various cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell cycle progression, and stress response. Dysregulation of HSP90 function has been implicated in numerous diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases, making it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.

Fluorescence microscopy is a type of microscopy that uses fluorescent dyes or proteins to highlight and visualize specific components within a sample. In this technique, the sample is illuminated with high-energy light, typically ultraviolet (UV) or blue light, which excites the fluorescent molecules causing them to emit lower-energy, longer-wavelength light, usually visible light in the form of various colors. This emitted light is then collected by the microscope and detected to produce an image.

Fluorescence microscopy has several advantages over traditional brightfield microscopy, including the ability to visualize specific structures or molecules within a complex sample, increased sensitivity, and the potential for quantitative analysis. It is widely used in various fields of biology and medicine, such as cell biology, neuroscience, and pathology, to study the structure, function, and interactions of cells and proteins.

There are several types of fluorescence microscopy techniques, including widefield fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, each with its own strengths and limitations. These techniques can provide valuable insights into the behavior of cells and proteins in health and disease.

Securin is not a medical term, but rather a biological concept related to cell division. It's a protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of chromosome separation during cell division (mitosis).

During mitosis, sister chromatids (identical copies of a chromosome) are held together by cohesin proteins until it's time for them to separate and move to opposite ends of the cell. Securin is one of the proteins that helps regulate this process. Specifically, securin inhibits an enzyme called separase, which is responsible for cleaving the cohesin rings that hold sister chromatids together.

Once the cell is ready to separate its chromosomes, a protease called separase is activated and degrades securin. This allows separase to cleave the cohesin rings, leading to the separation of sister chromatids and the continuation of mitosis. If securin function is disrupted, it can lead to errors in chromosome segregation, which can contribute to genomic instability and diseases like cancer.

Cytoskeletal proteins are a type of structural proteins that form the cytoskeleton, which is the internal framework of cells. The cytoskeleton provides shape, support, and structure to the cell, and plays important roles in cell division, intracellular transport, and maintenance of cell shape and integrity.

There are three main types of cytoskeletal proteins: actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. Actin filaments are thin, rod-like structures that are involved in muscle contraction, cell motility, and cell division. Intermediate filaments are thicker than actin filaments and provide structural support to the cell. Microtubules are hollow tubes that are involved in intracellular transport, cell division, and maintenance of cell shape.

Cytoskeletal proteins are composed of different subunits that polymerize to form filamentous structures. These proteins can be dynamically assembled and disassembled, allowing cells to change their shape and move. Mutations in cytoskeletal proteins have been linked to various human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and muscular dystrophies.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Prometaphase is a stage in the cell division process called mitosis, where the nuclear membrane has broken down and the chromosomes are now moved into the center of the cell, also known as the metaphase plate. This movement is facilitated by the mitotic spindle, which attaches to specialized structures on the chromosomes called kinetochores. The prometaphase stage follows prophase and precedes metaphase in the mitosis process. It's characterized by the beginning of chromosome separation and the reorganization of the cell for the upcoming division into two daughter cells.

Protein Phosphatase 2 (PP2A) is a type of serine/threonine protein phosphatase that plays a crucial role in the regulation of various cellular processes, including signal transduction, cell cycle progression, and metabolism. PP2A is a heterotrimeric enzyme composed of a catalytic subunit (C), a regulatory subunit A (A), and a variable regulatory subunit B (B). The different combinations of the B subunits confer specificity to PP2A, allowing it to regulate a diverse array of cellular targets.

PP2A is responsible for dephosphorylating many proteins that have been previously phosphorylated by protein kinases. This function is essential for maintaining the balance of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cells, which is necessary for proper protein function and cell signaling. Dysregulation of PP2A has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2 (MCM2) is a protein that is a part of the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex, which is involved in the initiation and regulation of DNA replication. MCM2 is specifically a helicase that helps to unwind the DNA double helix during replication. It is essential for the proper duplication of genetic material and cell division. Abnormalities in MCM2 function have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer.

A replication origin is a specific location in a DNA molecule where the process of DNA replication is initiated. It serves as the starting point for the synthesis of new strands of DNA during cell division. The origin of replication contains regulatory elements and sequences that are recognized by proteins, which then recruit and assemble the necessary enzymes to start the replication process. In eukaryotic cells, replication origins are often found in clusters, with multiple origins scattered throughout each chromosome.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

A precipitin test is a type of immunodiagnostic test used to detect and measure the presence of specific antibodies or antigens in a patient's serum. The test is based on the principle of antigen-antibody interaction, where the addition of an antigen to a solution containing its corresponding antibody results in the formation of an insoluble immune complex known as a precipitin.

In this test, a small amount of the patient's serum is added to a solution containing a known antigen or antibody. If the patient has antibodies or antigens that correspond to the added reagent, they will bind and form a visible precipitate. The size and density of the precipitate can be used to quantify the amount of antibody or antigen present in the sample.

Precipitin tests are commonly used in the diagnosis of various infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and allergies. They can also be used in forensic science to identify biological samples. However, they have largely been replaced by more modern immunological techniques such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and radioimmunoassays (RIAs).

Protein transport, in the context of cellular biology, refers to the process by which proteins are actively moved from one location to another within or between cells. This is a crucial mechanism for maintaining proper cell function and regulation.

Intracellular protein transport involves the movement of proteins within a single cell. Proteins can be transported across membranes (such as the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, or plasma membrane) via specialized transport systems like vesicles and transport channels.

Intercellular protein transport refers to the movement of proteins from one cell to another, often facilitated by exocytosis (release of proteins in vesicles) and endocytosis (uptake of extracellular substances via membrane-bound vesicles). This is essential for communication between cells, immune response, and other physiological processes.

It's important to note that any disruption in protein transport can lead to various diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, and metabolic conditions.

Septins are a group of GTP-binding proteins that play a crucial role in the organization of cell membranes and cytoskeleton. They are involved in various cellular processes, including cell division, polarity establishment, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. In mammalian cells, there are 13 different septin proteins that can assemble into hetero-oligomeric complexes to form higher-order structures such as filaments and rings. Septins have been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases.

M Phase cell cycle checkpoints are control mechanisms that ensure the proper completion of the M phase (mitosis or meiosis) of the cell cycle. These checkpoints verify that certain conditions are met before the cell proceeds to the next phase of the cell cycle, thus helping to maintain genomic stability and prevent errors such as chromosomal mutations or aneuploidy.

There are two main M Phase cell cycle checkpoints:

1. The G2/M Checkpoint: This checkpoint is activated at the end of the G2 phase and verifies that all DNA has been replicated accurately, and that there are no DNA damages or other issues that could interfere with mitosis. If any problems are detected, the cell cycle is halted until they can be resolved.
2. The Mitotic Spindle Checkpoint: This checkpoint ensures that all chromosomes have attached properly to the spindle apparatus and that they will be equally distributed to the two resulting daughter cells during mitosis. If any chromosomes are not properly attached or if there is an issue with the spindle apparatus, the cell cycle is paused until these problems are corrected.

These checkpoints play a crucial role in maintaining genomic stability and preventing the development of cancer and other diseases.

Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors (Rho-GEFs) are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in the regulation of intracellular signaling pathways. They function as molecular switches that activate Rho GTPases, which are important regulators of various cellular processes such as cytoskeleton reorganization, gene expression, cell cycle progression, and cell migration.

Rho-GEFs catalyze the exchange of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) for guanosine triphosphate (GTP) on Rho GTPases, leading to their activation. This process is tightly regulated and occurs in response to various extracellular signals, such as hormones, growth factors, and integrin-mediated adhesion. Once activated, Rho GTPases interact with downstream effectors to modulate cell behavior.

There are several families of Rho-GEFs, including the Dbl family, the Vav family, and the Trio family, among others. Each family has distinct structural features and regulatory mechanisms that allow for specificity in Rho GTPase activation and downstream signaling. Dysregulation of Rho-GEFs and Rho GTPases has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a group of enzymes involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. They facilitate the conjugation of these compounds with glutathione, a tripeptide consisting of cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine, which results in more water-soluble products that can be easily excreted from the body.

GSTs play a crucial role in protecting cells against oxidative stress and chemical injury by neutralizing reactive electrophilic species and peroxides. They are found in various tissues, including the liver, kidneys, lungs, and intestines, and are classified into several families based on their structure and function.

Abnormalities in GST activity have been associated with increased susceptibility to certain diseases, such as cancer, neurological disorders, and respiratory diseases. Therefore, GSTs have become a subject of interest in toxicology, pharmacology, and clinical research.

Hydroxyurea is an antimetabolite drug that is primarily used in the treatment of myeloproliferative disorders such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), essential thrombocythemia, and polycythemia vera. It works by interfering with the synthesis of DNA, which inhibits the growth of cancer cells.

In addition to its use in cancer therapy, hydroxyurea is also used off-label for the management of sickle cell disease. In this context, it helps to reduce the frequency and severity of painful vaso-occlusive crises by increasing the production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which decreases the formation of sickled red blood cells.

The medical definition of hydroxyurea is:

A hydantoin derivative and antimetabolite that inhibits ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase, thereby interfering with DNA synthesis. It has been used as an antineoplastic agent, particularly in the treatment of myeloproliferative disorders, and more recently for the management of sickle cell disease to reduce the frequency and severity of painful vaso-occlusive crises by increasing fetal hemoglobin production.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Metaphase is a phase in the cell division process (mitosis or meiosis) where the chromosomes align in the middle of the cell, also known as the metaphase plate or equatorial plane. During this stage, each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids attached to each other by a protein complex called the centromere. The spindle fibers from opposite poles of the cell attach to the centromeres of each chromosome, and through a process called congression, they align the chromosomes in the middle of the cell. This alignment allows for accurate segregation of genetic material during the subsequent anaphase stage.

A gene suppressor, also known as a tumor suppressor gene, is a type of gene that regulates cell growth and division by producing proteins to prevent uncontrolled cell proliferation. When these genes are mutated or deleted, they can lose their ability to regulate cell growth, leading to the development of cancer.

Tumor suppressor genes work to repair damaged DNA, regulate the cell cycle, and promote programmed cell death (apoptosis) when necessary. Some examples of tumor suppressor genes include TP53, BRCA1, and BRCA2. Mutations in these genes have been linked to an increased risk of developing various types of cancer, such as breast, ovarian, and colon cancer.

In contrast to oncogenes, which promote cell growth and division when mutated, tumor suppressor genes typically act to inhibit or slow down cell growth and division. Both types of genes play crucial roles in maintaining the proper functioning of cells and preventing the development of cancer.

Adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This reaction releases energy, which is used to drive various cellular processes such as muscle contraction, transport of ions across membranes, and synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids.

ATPases are classified into several types based on their structure, function, and mechanism of action. Some examples include:

1. P-type ATPases: These ATPases form a phosphorylated intermediate during the reaction cycle and are involved in the transport of ions across membranes, such as the sodium-potassium pump and calcium pumps.
2. F-type ATPases: These ATPases are found in mitochondria, chloroplasts, and bacteria, and are responsible for generating a proton gradient across the membrane, which is used to synthesize ATP.
3. V-type ATPases: These ATPases are found in vacuolar membranes and endomembranes, and are involved in acidification of intracellular compartments.
4. A-type ATPases: These ATPases are found in the plasma membrane and are involved in various functions such as cell signaling and ion transport.

Overall, ATPases play a crucial role in maintaining the energy balance of cells and regulating various physiological processes.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique used to introduce specific and targeted changes to a specific DNA sequence. This process involves creating a new variant of a gene or a specific region of interest within a DNA molecule by introducing a planned, deliberate change, or mutation, at a predetermined site within the DNA sequence.

The methodology typically involves the use of molecular tools such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, and/or ligases to introduce the desired mutation(s) into a plasmid or other vector containing the target DNA sequence. The resulting modified DNA molecule can then be used to transform host cells, allowing for the production of large quantities of the mutated gene or protein for further study.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a valuable tool in basic research, drug discovery, and biotechnology applications where specific changes to a DNA sequence are required to understand gene function, investigate protein structure/function relationships, or engineer novel biological properties into existing genes or proteins.

Profilins are a type of protein that play a role in the regulation of actin filaments, which are important components of the cytoskeleton in cells. They bind to both actin and to small G-proteins called profilin-binding proteins (PBPs), and help to control the assembly and disassembly of actin filaments. Profilins have been found to be involved in various cellular processes, including cell motility, cytokinesis, and intracellular transport. They also play a role in the immune response by regulating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the release of histamine from mast cells. Mutations in profilin genes have been associated with certain diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Serine is an amino acid, which is a building block of proteins. More specifically, it is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that the body can produce it from other compounds, and it does not need to be obtained through diet. Serine plays important roles in the body, such as contributing to the formation of the protective covering of nerve fibers (myelin sheath), helping to synthesize another amino acid called tryptophan, and taking part in the metabolism of fatty acids. It is also involved in the production of muscle tissues, the immune system, and the forming of cell structures. Serine can be found in various foods such as soy, eggs, cheese, meat, peanuts, lentils, and many others.

Checkpoint Kinase 2 (Chk2) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a crucial role in the DNA damage response and the regulation of the cell cycle. It is activated by various types of DNA damage, including double-strand breaks, and phosphorylates several downstream targets involved in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis. Chk2 is a key player in the G2/M checkpoint, which prevents cells with damaged DNA from entering mitosis and dividing. Mutations in the Chk2 gene have been associated with increased risk of cancer.

3T3 cells are a type of cell line that is commonly used in scientific research. The name "3T3" is derived from the fact that these cells were developed by treating mouse embryo cells with a chemical called trypsin and then culturing them in a flask at a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius.

Specifically, 3T3 cells are a type of fibroblast, which is a type of cell that is responsible for producing connective tissue in the body. They are often used in studies involving cell growth and proliferation, as well as in toxicity tests and drug screening assays.

One particularly well-known use of 3T3 cells is in the 3T3-L1 cell line, which is a subtype of 3T3 cells that can be differentiated into adipocytes (fat cells) under certain conditions. These cells are often used in studies of adipose tissue biology and obesity.

It's important to note that because 3T3 cells are a type of immortalized cell line, they do not always behave exactly the same way as primary cells (cells that are taken directly from a living organism). As such, researchers must be careful when interpreting results obtained using 3T3 cells and consider any potential limitations or artifacts that may arise due to their use.

Threonine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Its chemical formula is HO2CCH(NH2)CH(OH)CH3. Threonine plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including protein synthesis, immune function, and fat metabolism. It is particularly important for maintaining the structural integrity of proteins, as it is often found in their hydroxyl-containing regions. Foods rich in threonine include animal proteins such as meat, dairy products, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like lentils and soybeans.

Immunoblotting, also known as western blotting, is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology and immunogenetics to detect and quantify specific proteins in a complex mixture. This technique combines the electrophoretic separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis with their detection using antibodies that recognize specific epitopes (protein fragments) on the target protein.

The process involves several steps: first, the protein sample is separated based on size through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Next, the separated proteins are transferred onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric field. The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies.

After blocking, the membrane is incubated with a primary antibody that specifically recognizes the target protein. Following this, the membrane is washed to remove unbound primary antibodies and then incubated with a secondary antibody conjugated to an enzyme such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or alkaline phosphatase (AP). The enzyme catalyzes a colorimetric or chemiluminescent reaction that allows for the detection of the target protein.

Immunoblotting is widely used in research and clinical settings to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and disease biomarkers. It provides high specificity and sensitivity, making it a valuable tool for identifying and quantifying proteins in various biological samples.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Guanosine diphosphate (GDP) is a nucleotide that consists of a guanine base, a sugar molecule called ribose, and two phosphate groups. It is an ester of pyrophosphoric acid with the hydroxy group of the ribose sugar at the 5' position. GDP plays a crucial role as a secondary messenger in intracellular signaling pathways and also serves as an important intermediate in the synthesis of various biomolecules, such as proteins and polysaccharides.

In cells, GDP is formed from the hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by enzymes called GTPases, which convert GTP to GDP and release energy that can be used to power various cellular processes. The conversion of GDP back to GTP can be facilitated by nucleotide diphosphate kinases, allowing for the recycling of these nucleotides within the cell.

It is important to note that while guanosine diphosphate has a significant role in biochemical processes, it is not typically associated with medical conditions or diseases directly. However, understanding its function and regulation can provide valuable insights into various physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms.

Chromosomes in fungi are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, composed of DNA and proteins, present in the nucleus of a cell. Unlike humans and other eukaryotes that have a diploid number of chromosomes in their somatic cells, fungal chromosome numbers can vary widely between and within species.

Fungal chromosomes are typically smaller and fewer in number compared to those found in plants and animals. The chromosomal organization in fungi is also different from other eukaryotes. In many fungi, the chromosomes are condensed throughout the cell cycle, whereas in other eukaryotes, chromosomes are only condensed during cell division.

Fungi can have linear or circular chromosomes, depending on the species. For example, the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) has a set of 16 small circular chromosomes, while other fungi like Neurospora crassa (red bread mold) and Aspergillus nidulans (a filamentous fungus) have linear chromosomes.

Fungal chromosomes play an essential role in the growth, development, reproduction, and survival of fungi. They carry genetic information that determines various traits such as morphology, metabolism, pathogenicity, and resistance to environmental stresses. Advances in genomic technologies have facilitated the study of fungal chromosomes, leading to a better understanding of their structure, function, and evolution.

Pheromones are chemical signals that one organism releases into the environment that can affect the behavior or physiology of other organisms of the same species. They are primarily used for communication in animals, including insects and mammals. In humans, the existence and role of pheromones are still a subject of ongoing research and debate.

In a medical context, pheromones may be discussed in relation to certain medical conditions or treatments that involve olfactory (smell) stimuli, such as some forms of aromatherapy. However, it's important to note that the use of pheromones as a medical treatment is not widely accepted and more research is needed to establish their effectiveness and safety.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that play a crucial role in transmitting signals within cells, which ultimately lead to changes in cell behavior or function. These signals can originate from outside the cell (extracellular) or within the cell itself. Intracellular signaling molecules include various types of peptides and proteins, such as:

1. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): These are seven-transmembrane domain receptors that bind to extracellular signaling molecules like hormones, neurotransmitters, or chemokines. Upon activation, they initiate a cascade of intracellular signals through G proteins and secondary messengers.
2. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): These are transmembrane receptors that bind to growth factors, cytokines, or hormones. Activation of RTKs leads to autophosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues, creating binding sites for intracellular signaling proteins such as adapter proteins, phosphatases, and enzymes like Ras, PI3K, and Src family kinases.
3. Second messenger systems: Intracellular second messengers are small molecules that amplify and propagate signals within the cell. Examples include cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), diacylglycerol (DAG), inositol triphosphate (IP3), calcium ions (Ca2+), and nitric oxide (NO). These second messengers activate or inhibit various downstream effectors, leading to changes in cellular responses.
4. Signal transduction cascades: Intracellular signaling proteins often form complex networks of interacting molecules that relay signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. These cascades involve kinases (protein kinases A, B, C, etc.), phosphatases, and adapter proteins, which ultimately regulate gene expression, cell cycle progression, metabolism, and other cellular processes.
5. Ubiquitination and proteasome degradation: Intracellular signaling pathways can also control protein stability by modulating ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. E3 ubiquitin ligases recognize specific substrates and conjugate them with ubiquitin molecules, targeting them for proteasomal degradation. This process regulates the abundance of key signaling proteins and contributes to signal termination or amplification.

In summary, intracellular signaling pathways involve a complex network of interacting proteins that relay signals from the plasma membrane to various cellular compartments, ultimately regulating gene expression, metabolism, and other cellular processes. Dysregulation of these pathways can contribute to disease development and progression, making them attractive targets for therapeutic intervention.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that is present in all eukaryotic cells and plays a crucial role in the regulation of various cellular processes, such as protein degradation, DNA repair, and stress response. It is involved in marking proteins for destruction by attaching to them, a process known as ubiquitination. This modification can target proteins for degradation by the proteasome, a large protein complex that breaks down unneeded or damaged proteins in the cell. Ubiquitin also has other functions, such as regulating the localization and activity of certain proteins. The ability of ubiquitin to modify many different proteins and play a role in multiple cellular processes makes it an essential player in maintaining cellular homeostasis.

Mutagenesis is the process by which the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism is changed in a way that can alter its phenotype, or observable traits. These changes, known as mutations, can be caused by various factors such as chemicals, radiation, or viruses. Some mutations may have no effect on the organism, while others can cause harm, including diseases and cancer. Mutagenesis is a crucial area of study in genetics and molecular biology, with implications for understanding evolution, genetic disorders, and the development of new medical treatments.

Kinetin is a type of plant growth hormone, specifically a cytokinin. It plays a crucial role in cell division and differentiation, as well as promoting growth and delaying senescence (aging) in plants. Kinetin has also been studied for its potential use in various medical applications, including wound healing, tissue culture, and skin care products. However, it is primarily known for its role in plant biology.

Chromosomal proteins, non-histone, are a diverse group of proteins that are associated with chromatin, the complex of DNA and histone proteins, but do not have the characteristic structure of histones. These proteins play important roles in various nuclear processes such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, recombination, and chromosome condensation and segregation during cell division. They can be broadly classified into several categories based on their functions, including architectural proteins, enzymes, transcription factors, and structural proteins. Examples of non-histone chromosomal proteins include high mobility group (HMG) proteins, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), and condensins.

Adaptor proteins are a type of protein that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways by serving as a link between different components of the signaling complex. Specifically, "signal transducing adaptor proteins" refer to those adaptor proteins that are involved in signal transduction processes, where they help to transmit signals from the cell surface receptors to various intracellular effectors. These proteins typically contain modular domains that allow them to interact with multiple partners, thereby facilitating the formation of large signaling complexes and enabling the integration of signals from different pathways.

Signal transducing adaptor proteins can be classified into several families based on their structural features, including the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain, and the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain. These domains enable the adaptor proteins to recognize and bind to specific motifs on other signaling molecules, such as receptor tyrosine kinases, G protein-coupled receptors, and cytokine receptors.

One well-known example of a signal transducing adaptor protein is the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2), which contains an SH2 domain that binds to phosphotyrosine residues on activated receptor tyrosine kinases. Grb2 also contains an SH3 domain that interacts with proline-rich motifs on other signaling proteins, such as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor SOS. This interaction facilitates the activation of the Ras small GTPase and downstream signaling pathways involved in cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

Overall, signal transducing adaptor proteins play a critical role in regulating various cellular processes by modulating intracellular signaling pathways in response to extracellular stimuli. Dysregulation of these proteins has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and inflammatory disorders.

Separase is not a medical term itself, but it is a biological term used in the field of cell biology and genetics. Separase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the separation of chromosomes during cell division (mitosis and meiosis).

In more detail, separase is a protease enzyme that contributes to the breakdown of cohesin complexes, which are protein structures that hold sister chromatids together after DNA replication. Separase's function is essential for the proper separation of chromosomes during anaphase, the stage of mitosis where sister chromatids are pulled apart and moved to opposite poles of the cell.

While not a medical term per se, understanding separase and its role in cell division can help researchers better understand certain genetic disorders or diseases that may be caused by errors in cell division.

The nucleolus is a structure found within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells (cells that contain a true nucleus). It plays a central role in the production and assembly of ribosomes, which are complex molecular machines responsible for protein synthesis. The nucleolus is not a distinct organelle with a membrane surrounding it, but rather a condensed region within the nucleus where ribosomal biogenesis takes place.

The process of ribosome formation begins in the nucleolus with the transcription of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes into long precursor RNA molecules called rRNAs (ribosomal RNAs). Within the nucleolus, these rRNA molecules are cleaved, modified, and assembled together with ribosomal proteins to form small and large ribosomal subunits. Once formed, these subunits are transported through the nuclear pores to the cytoplasm, where they come together to form functional ribosomes that can engage in protein synthesis.

In addition to its role in ribosome biogenesis, the nucleolus has been implicated in other cellular processes such as stress response, cell cycle regulation, and aging. Changes in nucleolar structure and function have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Chromatin is the complex of DNA, RNA, and proteins that make up the chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. It is responsible for packaging the long DNA molecules into a more compact form that fits within the nucleus. Chromatin is made up of repeating units called nucleosomes, which consist of a histone protein octamer wrapped tightly by DNA. The structure of chromatin can be altered through chemical modifications to the histone proteins and DNA, which can influence gene expression and other cellular processes.

Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is not a medical term per se, but a scientific term used in the field of molecular biology. GFP is a protein that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light, particularly blue or ultraviolet light. It was originally discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria.

In medical and biological research, scientists often use recombinant DNA technology to introduce the gene for GFP into other organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals, including humans. This allows them to track the expression and localization of specific genes or proteins of interest in living cells, tissues, or even whole organisms.

The ability to visualize specific cellular structures or processes in real-time has proven invaluable for a wide range of research areas, from studying the development and function of organs and organ systems to understanding the mechanisms of diseases and the effects of therapeutic interventions.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Molecular chaperones are a group of proteins that assist in the proper folding and assembly of other protein molecules, helping them achieve their native conformation. They play a crucial role in preventing protein misfolding and aggregation, which can lead to the formation of toxic species associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. Molecular chaperones are also involved in protein transport across membranes, degradation of misfolded proteins, and protection of cells under stress conditions. Their function is generally non-catalytic and ATP-dependent, and they often interact with their client proteins in a transient manner.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a type of short, double-stranded RNA molecule that plays a role in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The RNAi pathway is a natural cellular process that regulates gene expression by targeting and destroying specific messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, thereby preventing the translation of those mRNAs into proteins.

SiRNAs are typically 20-25 base pairs in length and are generated from longer double-stranded RNA precursors called hairpin RNAs or dsRNAs by an enzyme called Dicer. Once generated, siRNAs associate with a protein complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which uses one strand of the siRNA (the guide strand) to recognize and bind to complementary sequences in the target mRNA. The RISC then cleaves the target mRNA, leading to its degradation and the inhibition of protein synthesis.

SiRNAs have emerged as a powerful tool for studying gene function and have shown promise as therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases, including viral infections, cancer, and genetic disorders. However, their use as therapeutics is still in the early stages of development, and there are challenges associated with delivering siRNAs to specific cells and tissues in the body.

'Drosophila proteins' refer to the proteins that are expressed in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. This organism is a widely used model system in genetics, developmental biology, and molecular biology research. The study of Drosophila proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes, including gene regulation, cell signaling, development, and aging.

Some examples of well-studied Drosophila proteins include:

1. HSP70 (Heat Shock Protein 70): A chaperone protein involved in protein folding and protection from stress conditions.
2. TUBULIN: A structural protein that forms microtubules, important for cell division and intracellular transport.
3. ACTIN: A cytoskeletal protein involved in muscle contraction, cell motility, and maintenance of cell shape.
4. BETA-GALACTOSIDASE (LACZ): A reporter protein often used to monitor gene expression patterns in transgenic flies.
5. ENDOGLIN: A protein involved in the development of blood vessels during embryogenesis.
6. P53: A tumor suppressor protein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer by regulating cell growth and division.
7. JUN-KINASE (JNK): A signaling protein involved in stress response, apoptosis, and developmental processes.
8. DECAPENTAPLEGIC (DPP): A member of the TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor Beta) superfamily, playing essential roles in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis.

These proteins are often studied using various techniques such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and structural biology to understand their functions, interactions, and regulation within the cell.

Medical Definition of "Multiprotein Complexes" :

Multiprotein complexes are large molecular assemblies composed of two or more proteins that interact with each other to carry out specific cellular functions. These complexes can range from relatively simple dimers or trimers to massive structures containing hundreds of individual protein subunits. They are formed through a process known as protein-protein interaction, which is mediated by specialized regions on the protein surface called domains or motifs.

Multiprotein complexes play critical roles in many cellular processes, including signal transduction, gene regulation, DNA replication and repair, protein folding and degradation, and intracellular transport. The formation of these complexes is often dynamic and regulated in response to various stimuli, allowing for precise control of their function.

Disruption of multiprotein complexes can lead to a variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. Therefore, understanding the structure, composition, and regulation of these complexes is an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit the expression of specific genes. This process is mediated by small RNA molecules, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), that bind to complementary sequences on messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, leading to their degradation or translation inhibition.

RNAi plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression and defending against foreign genetic elements, such as viruses and transposons. It has also emerged as an important tool for studying gene function and developing therapeutic strategies for various diseases, including cancer and viral infections.

Cullin proteins are a family of structurally related proteins that play a crucial role in the function of E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. These complexes are responsible for targeting specific cellular proteins for degradation by the proteasome, which is a key process in maintaining protein homeostasis within cells.

Cullin proteins act as scaffolds that bring together different components of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, including RING finger proteins and substrate receptors. There are several different cullin proteins identified in humans (CUL1, CUL2, CUL3, CUL4A, CUL4B, CUL5, and CUL7), each of which can form distinct E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes with unique substrate specificities.

The regulation of cullin proteins is critical for normal cellular function, and dysregulation of these proteins has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer. For example, mutations in CUL1 have been found in certain types of breast and ovarian cancers, while alterations in CUL3 have been linked to neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease.

Overall, cullin proteins are essential components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which plays a critical role in regulating protein turnover and maintaining cellular homeostasis.

Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified by the addition of a phosphate group (-PO3H2) onto specific amino acid residues, most commonly serine, threonine, or tyrosine. This process is known as phosphorylation and is mediated by enzymes called kinases. Phosphoproteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, metabolism, and gene expression. The addition or removal of a phosphate group can activate or inhibit the function of a protein, thereby serving as a switch to control its activity. Phosphoproteins can be detected and quantified using techniques such as Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunofluorescence.

Immunoprecipitation (IP) is a research technique used in molecular biology and immunology to isolate specific antigens or antibodies from a mixture. It involves the use of an antibody that recognizes and binds to a specific antigen, which is then precipitated out of solution using various methods, such as centrifugation or chemical cross-linking.

In this technique, an antibody is first incubated with a sample containing the antigen of interest. The antibody specifically binds to the antigen, forming an immune complex. This complex can then be captured by adding protein A or G agarose beads, which bind to the constant region of the antibody. The beads are then washed to remove any unbound proteins, leaving behind the precipitated antigen-antibody complex.

Immunoprecipitation is a powerful tool for studying protein-protein interactions, post-translational modifications, and signal transduction pathways. It can also be used to detect and quantify specific proteins in biological samples, such as cells or tissues, and to identify potential biomarkers of disease.

Cell extracts refer to the mixture of cellular components that result from disrupting or breaking open cells. The process of obtaining cell extracts is called cell lysis. Cell extracts can contain various types of molecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), carbohydrates, lipids, and metabolites, depending on the methods used for cell disruption and extraction.

Cell extracts are widely used in biochemical and molecular biology research to study various cellular processes and pathways. For example, cell extracts can be used to measure enzyme activities, analyze protein-protein interactions, characterize gene expression patterns, and investigate metabolic pathways. In some cases, specific cellular components can be purified from the cell extracts for further analysis or application, such as isolating pure proteins or nucleic acids.

It is important to note that the composition of cell extracts may vary depending on the type of cells, the growth conditions, and the methods used for cell disruption and extraction. Therefore, it is essential to optimize the experimental conditions to obtain representative and meaningful results from cell extract studies.

A lethal gene is a type of gene that causes the death of an organism or prevents it from surviving to maturity. This can occur when the gene contains a mutation that disrupts the function of a protein essential for the organism's survival. In some cases, the presence of two copies of a lethal gene (one inherited from each parent) can result in a condition that is incompatible with life, and the organism will not survive beyond embryonic development or shortly after birth.

Lethal genes can also contribute to genetic disorders, where the disruption of protein function caused by the mutation leads to progressive degeneration and ultimately death. In some cases, lethal genes may only cause harm when expressed in certain tissues or at specific stages of development, leading to a range of phenotypes from embryonic lethality to adult-onset disorders.

It's important to note that the term "lethal" is relative and can depend on various factors such as genetic background, environmental conditions, and the presence of modifier genes. Additionally, some lethal genes may be targeted for gene editing or other therapeutic interventions to prevent their harmful effects.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

Repressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein in molecular biology that suppress the transcription of specific genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) by binding to DNA. They function as part of gene regulation processes, often working in conjunction with an operator region and a promoter region within the DNA molecule. Repressor proteins can be activated or deactivated by various signals, allowing for precise control over gene expression in response to changing cellular conditions.

There are two main types of repressor proteins:

1. DNA-binding repressors: These directly bind to specific DNA sequences (operator regions) near the target gene and prevent RNA polymerase from transcribing the gene into mRNA.
2. Allosteric repressors: These bind to effector molecules, which then cause a conformational change in the repressor protein, enabling it to bind to DNA and inhibit transcription.

Repressor proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as development, metabolism, and stress response, by controlling gene expression patterns in cells.

Amino acid motifs are recurring patterns or sequences of amino acids in a protein molecule. These motifs can be identified through various sequence analysis techniques and often have functional or structural significance. They can be as short as two amino acids in length, but typically contain at least three to five residues.

Some common examples of amino acid motifs include:

1. Active site motifs: These are specific sequences of amino acids that form the active site of an enzyme and participate in catalyzing chemical reactions. For example, the catalytic triad in serine proteases consists of three residues (serine, histidine, and aspartate) that work together to hydrolyze peptide bonds.
2. Signal peptide motifs: These are sequences of amino acids that target proteins for secretion or localization to specific organelles within the cell. For example, a typical signal peptide consists of a positively charged n-region, a hydrophobic h-region, and a polar c-region that directs the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane for translocation.
3. Zinc finger motifs: These are structural domains that contain conserved sequences of amino acids that bind zinc ions and play important roles in DNA recognition and regulation of gene expression.
4. Transmembrane motifs: These are sequences of hydrophobic amino acids that span the lipid bilayer of cell membranes and anchor transmembrane proteins in place.
5. Phosphorylation sites: These are specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues that can be phosphorylated by protein kinases to regulate protein function.

Understanding amino acid motifs is important for predicting protein structure and function, as well as for identifying potential drug targets in disease-associated proteins.

Population surveillance in a public health and medical context refers to the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health-related data for a defined population over time. It aims to monitor the health status, identify emerging health threats or trends, and evaluate the impact of interventions within that population. This information is used to inform public health policy, prioritize healthcare resources, and guide disease prevention and control efforts. Population surveillance can involve various data sources, such as vital records, disease registries, surveys, and electronic health records.

Medical Definition:
Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are a diverse group of proteins that bind to microtubules, which are key components of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. MAPs play crucial roles in regulating microtubule dynamics and stability, as well as in mediating interactions between microtubules and other cellular structures. They can be classified into several categories based on their functions, including:

1. Microtubule stabilizers: These MAPs promote the assembly of microtubules and protect them from disassembly by enhancing their stability. Examples include tau proteins and MAP2.
2. Microtubule dynamics regulators: These MAPs modulate the rate of microtubule polymerization and depolymerization, allowing for dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton during cell division and other processes. Examples include stathmin and XMAP215.
3. Microtubule motor proteins: These MAPs use energy from ATP hydrolysis to move along microtubules, transporting various cargoes within the cell. Examples include kinesin and dynein.
4. Adapter proteins: These MAPs facilitate interactions between microtubules and other cellular structures, such as membranes, organelles, or signaling molecules. Examples include MAP4 and CLASPs.

Dysregulation of MAPs has been implicated in several diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (where tau proteins form abnormal aggregates called neurofibrillary tangles) and cancer (where altered microtubule dynamics can contribute to uncontrolled cell division).

"Xenopus laevis" is not a medical term itself, but it refers to a specific species of African clawed frog that is often used in scientific research, including biomedical and developmental studies. Therefore, its relevance to medicine comes from its role as a model organism in laboratories.

In a broader sense, Xenopus laevis has contributed significantly to various medical discoveries, such as the understanding of embryonic development, cell cycle regulation, and genetic research. For instance, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1963 to John R. B. Gurdon and Sir Michael J. Bishop for their discoveries concerning the genetic mechanisms of organism development using Xenopus laevis as a model system.

A centrosome is a microtubule-organizing center found in animal cells. It consists of two barrel-shaped structures called centrioles, which are surrounded by a protein matrix called the pericentriolar material. The centrosome plays a crucial role in organizing the microtubules that form the cell's cytoskeleton and help to shape the cell, as well as in separating the chromosomes during cell division.

During mitosis, the two centrioles of the centrosome separate and move to opposite poles of the cell, where they nucleate the formation of the spindle fibers that pull the chromosomes apart. The centrosome also helps to ensure that the genetic material is equally distributed between the two resulting daughter cells.

It's worth noting that while centrioles are present in many animal cells, they are not always present in all types of cells. For example, plant cells do not have centrioles or centrosomes, and instead rely on other mechanisms to organize their microtubules.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Cell movement, also known as cell motility, refers to the ability of cells to move independently and change their location within tissue or inside the body. This process is essential for various biological functions, including embryonic development, wound healing, immune responses, and cancer metastasis.

There are several types of cell movement, including:

1. **Crawling or mesenchymal migration:** Cells move by extending and retracting protrusions called pseudopodia or filopodia, which contain actin filaments. This type of movement is common in fibroblasts, immune cells, and cancer cells during tissue invasion and metastasis.
2. **Amoeboid migration:** Cells move by changing their shape and squeezing through tight spaces without forming protrusions. This type of movement is often observed in white blood cells (leukocytes) as they migrate through the body to fight infections.
3. **Pseudopodial extension:** Cells extend pseudopodia, which are temporary cytoplasmic projections containing actin filaments. These protrusions help the cell explore its environment and move forward.
4. **Bacterial flagellar motion:** Bacteria use a whip-like structure called a flagellum to propel themselves through their environment. The rotation of the flagellum is driven by a molecular motor in the bacterial cell membrane.
5. **Ciliary and ependymal movement:** Ciliated cells, such as those lining the respiratory tract and fallopian tubes, have hair-like structures called cilia that beat in coordinated waves to move fluids or mucus across the cell surface.

Cell movement is regulated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and adhesion molecules, which enable cells to respond to environmental cues and navigate through tissues.

Gene deletion is a type of mutation where a segment of DNA, containing one or more genes, is permanently lost or removed from a chromosome. This can occur due to various genetic mechanisms such as homologous recombination, non-homologous end joining, or other types of genomic rearrangements.

The deletion of a gene can have varying effects on the organism, depending on the function of the deleted gene and its importance for normal physiological processes. If the deleted gene is essential for survival, the deletion may result in embryonic lethality or developmental abnormalities. However, if the gene is non-essential or has redundant functions, the deletion may not have any noticeable effects on the organism's phenotype.

Gene deletions can also be used as a tool in genetic research to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes. For example, researchers may use gene deletion techniques to create genetically modified animal models to investigate the impact of gene deletion on disease progression or development.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Phosphothreonine is not a medical term per se, but rather a biochemical term that refers to a specific post-translational modification of the amino acid threonine. In this modification, a phosphate group is added to the hydroxyl side chain of threonine, which can affect the function and regulation of proteins in which it occurs.

In medical or clinical contexts, phosphothreonine may be mentioned in relation to various disease processes or signaling pathways that involve protein kinases, enzymes that add phosphate groups to specific amino acids (including threonine) in proteins. For example, abnormal regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases (enzymes that remove phosphate groups) can contribute to the development of cancer, neurological disorders, and other diseases.

MAP (Mitogen-Activated Protein) Kinase Kinase Kinases (MAP3K or MAPKKK) are a group of protein kinases that play a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction pathways, which regulate various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. They are called "kinases" because they catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to specific serine or threonine residues on their target proteins.

MAP3Ks function upstream of MAP Kinase Kinases (MKKs or MAP2K) and MAP Kinases (MPKs or MAPK) in the MAP kinase cascade. Upon activation by various extracellular signals, such as growth factors, cytokines, stress, and hormones, MAP3Ks phosphorylate and activate MKKs, which subsequently phosphorylate and activate MPKs. Activated MPKs then regulate the activity of downstream transcription factors and other target proteins to elicit appropriate cellular responses.

There are several subfamilies of MAP3Ks, including ASK, DLK, TAK, MEKK, MLK, and ZAK, among others. Each subfamily has distinct structural features and functions in different signaling pathways. Dysregulation of MAP kinase cascades, including MAP3Ks, has been implicated in various human diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders.

The proteasome endopeptidase complex is a large protein complex found in the cells of eukaryotic organisms, as well as in archaea and some bacteria. It plays a crucial role in the degradation of damaged or unneeded proteins through a process called proteolysis. The proteasome complex contains multiple subunits, including both regulatory and catalytic particles.

The catalytic core of the proteasome is composed of four stacked rings, each containing seven subunits, forming a structure known as the 20S core particle. Three of these rings are made up of beta-subunits that contain the proteolytic active sites, while the fourth ring consists of alpha-subunits that control access to the interior of the complex.

The regulatory particles, called 19S or 11S regulators, cap the ends of the 20S core particle and are responsible for recognizing, unfolding, and translocating targeted proteins into the catalytic chamber. The proteasome endopeptidase complex can cleave peptide bonds in various ways, including hydrolysis of ubiquitinated proteins, which is an essential mechanism for maintaining protein quality control and regulating numerous cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, signal transduction, and stress response.

In summary, the proteasome endopeptidase complex is a crucial intracellular machinery responsible for targeted protein degradation through proteolysis, contributing to various essential regulatory functions in cells.

An allele is a variant form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. Alleles are alternative forms of the same gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes.

Each person typically inherits two copies of each gene, one from each parent. If the two alleles are identical, a person is said to be homozygous for that trait. If the alleles are different, the person is heterozygous.

For example, the ABO blood group system has three alleles, A, B, and O, which determine a person's blood type. If a person inherits two A alleles, they will have type A blood; if they inherit one A and one B allele, they will have type AB blood; if they inherit two B alleles, they will have type B blood; and if they inherit two O alleles, they will have type O blood.

Alleles can also influence traits such as eye color, hair color, height, and other physical characteristics. Some alleles are dominant, meaning that only one copy of the allele is needed to express the trait, while others are recessive, meaning that two copies of the allele are needed to express the trait.

Microfilament proteins are a type of structural protein that form part of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. They are made up of actin monomers, which polymerize to form long, thin filaments. These filaments are involved in various cellular processes such as muscle contraction, cell division, and cell motility. Microfilament proteins also interact with other cytoskeletal components like intermediate filaments and microtubules to maintain the overall shape and integrity of the cell. Additionally, they play a crucial role in the formation of cell-cell junctions and cell-matrix adhesions, which are essential for tissue structure and function.

A telomere is a region of repetitive DNA sequences found at the end of chromosomes, which protects the genetic data from damage and degradation during cell division. Telomeres naturally shorten as cells divide, and when they become too short, the cell can no longer divide and becomes senescent or dies. This natural process is associated with aging and various age-related diseases. The length of telomeres can also be influenced by various genetic and environmental factors, including stress, diet, and lifestyle.

Hyphae (singular: hypha) are the long, branching filamentous structures of fungi that make up the mycelium. They are composed of an inner layer of cell wall materials and an outer layer of proteinaceous fibrils. Hyphae can be divided into several types based on their structure and function, including septate (with cross-walls) and coenocytic (without cross-walls) hyphae, as well as vegetative and reproductive hyphae. The ability of fungi to grow as hyphal networks allows them to explore and exploit their environment for resources, making hyphae critical to the ecology and survival of these organisms.

Yeasts are single-celled microorganisms that belong to the fungus kingdom. They are characterized by their ability to reproduce asexually through budding or fission, and they obtain nutrients by fermenting sugars and other organic compounds. Some species of yeast can cause infections in humans, known as candidiasis or "yeast infections." These infections can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, mouth, genitals, and internal organs. Common symptoms of a yeast infection may include itching, redness, irritation, and discharge. Yeast infections are typically treated with antifungal medications.

Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification process in which a ubiquitin protein is covalently attached to a target protein. This process plays a crucial role in regulating various cellular functions, including protein degradation, DNA repair, and signal transduction. The addition of ubiquitin can lead to different outcomes depending on the number and location of ubiquitin molecules attached to the target protein. Monoubiquitination (the attachment of a single ubiquitin molecule) or multiubiquitination (the attachment of multiple ubiquitin molecules) can mark proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome, while specific types of ubiquitination (e.g., K63-linked polyubiquitination) can serve as a signal for nonproteolytic functions such as endocytosis, autophagy, or DNA repair. Ubiquitination is a highly regulated process that involves the coordinated action of three enzymes: E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, and E3 ubiquitin ligase. Dysregulation of ubiquitination has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory conditions.

Ras proteins are a group of small GTPases that play crucial roles as regulators of intracellular signaling pathways in cells. They are involved in various cellular processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Ras proteins cycle between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state to transmit signals from membrane receptors to downstream effectors. Mutations in Ras genes can lead to constitutive activation of Ras proteins, which has been implicated in various human cancers and developmental disorders.

Microinjection is a medical technique that involves the use of a fine, precise needle to inject small amounts of liquid or chemicals into microscopic structures, cells, or tissues. This procedure is often used in research settings to introduce specific substances into individual cells for study purposes, such as introducing DNA or RNA into cell nuclei to manipulate gene expression.

In clinical settings, microinjections may be used in various medical and cosmetic procedures, including:

1. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI): A type of assisted reproductive technology where a single sperm is injected directly into an egg to increase the chances of fertilization during in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments.
2. Botulinum Toxin Injections: Microinjections of botulinum toxin (Botox, Dysport, or Xeomin) are used for cosmetic purposes to reduce wrinkles and fine lines by temporarily paralyzing the muscles responsible for their formation. They can also be used medically to treat various neuromuscular disorders, such as migraines, muscle spasticity, and excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis).
3. Drug Delivery: Microinjections may be used to deliver drugs directly into specific tissues or organs, bypassing the systemic circulation and potentially reducing side effects. This technique can be particularly useful in treating localized pain, delivering growth factors for tissue regeneration, or administering chemotherapy agents directly into tumors.
4. Gene Therapy: Microinjections of genetic material (DNA or RNA) can be used to introduce therapeutic genes into cells to treat various genetic disorders or diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, or cancer.

Overall, microinjection is a highly specialized and precise technique that allows for the targeted delivery of substances into small structures, cells, or tissues, with potential applications in research, medical diagnostics, and therapeutic interventions.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-mos are a type of serine/threonine protein kinase that play crucial roles in cell cycle regulation, particularly during the G2 phase and the transition to mitosis. The c-mos gene is a normal version of an oncogene, which can become cancer-causing when mutated or overexpressed. In its normal form, the c-mos protein is involved in controlling the progression of the cell cycle, meiosis, and also has been implicated in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. Dysregulation of c-mos proto-oncogene proteins can contribute to tumorigenesis and cancer development.

Microtubules are hollow, cylindrical structures composed of tubulin proteins in the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as maintaining cell shape, intracellular transport, and cell division (mitosis and meiosis). Microtubules are dynamic, undergoing continuous assembly and disassembly, which allows them to rapidly reorganize in response to cellular needs. They also form part of important cellular structures like centrioles, basal bodies, and cilia/flagella.

Proto-oncogene proteins are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and survival under physiological conditions.

When proto-oncogene proteins undergo mutations or aberrations in their expression levels, they can transform into oncogenic forms, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. These altered proteins are then referred to as oncogene products or oncoproteins. Oncogenic mutations can occur due to various factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and aging.

Examples of proto-oncogene proteins include:

1. Ras proteins: Involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Activating mutations in Ras genes are found in various human cancers.
2. Myc proteins: Regulate gene expression related to cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and metabolism. Overexpression of Myc proteins is associated with several types of cancer.
3. EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor): A transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Mutations or overexpression of EGFR are linked to various malignancies, such as lung cancer and glioblastoma.
4. Src family kinases: Intracellular tyrosine kinases that regulate signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Dysregulation of Src family kinases is implicated in several types of cancer.
5. Abl kinases: Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that regulate various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and stress responses. Aberrant activation of Abl kinases, as seen in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Understanding the roles of proto-oncogene proteins and their dysregulation in cancer development is essential for developing targeted cancer therapies that aim to inhibit or modulate these aberrant signaling pathways.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 3 (MCM3) is a protein that is a part of the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex, which is involved in the initiation and regulation of DNA replication. The MCM complex is made up of several different proteins, including MCM2-7, and helps to ensure that DNA replication occurs only once per cell cycle. MCM3 specifically plays a role in the loading and unloading of the MCM helicase onto DNA, helping to regulate the initiation of DNA replication. It is also involved in the cellular response to DNA damage and is considered a marker for actively proliferating cells.

Luminescent proteins are a type of protein that emit light through a chemical reaction, rather than by absorbing and re-emitting light like fluorescent proteins. This process is called bioluminescence. The light emitted by luminescent proteins is often used in scientific research as a way to visualize and track biological processes within cells and organisms.

One of the most well-known luminescent proteins is Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), which was originally isolated from jellyfish. However, GFP is actually a fluorescent protein, not a luminescent one. A true example of a luminescent protein is the enzyme luciferase, which is found in fireflies and other bioluminescent organisms. When luciferase reacts with its substrate, luciferin, it produces light through a process called oxidation.

Luminescent proteins have many applications in research, including as reporters for gene expression, as markers for protein-protein interactions, and as tools for studying the dynamics of cellular processes. They are also used in medical imaging and diagnostics, as well as in the development of new therapies.

Chromosome segregation is the process that occurs during cell division (mitosis or meiosis) where replicated chromosomes are separated and distributed equally into two daughter cells. Each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids, which are identical copies of genetic material. During chromosome segregation, these sister chromatids are pulled apart by a structure called the mitotic spindle and moved to opposite poles of the cell. This ensures that each new cell receives one copy of each chromosome, preserving the correct number and composition of chromosomes in the organism.

Rho Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitor alpha (RhoGDIα) is a protein that regulates the Rho family of small GTPases, which are important signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes such as actin cytoskeleton regulation, cell motility, and gene expression.

RhoGDIα functions by binding to and inhibiting the dissociation of GDP from Rho GTPases, thereby keeping them in an inactive state in the cytoplasm. When a signal is received, RhoGDIα releases the Rho GTPase, allowing it to exchange GDP for GTP and become activated. Once activated, the Rho GTPase can then interact with downstream effectors to carry out its functions.

RhoGDIα has been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, including cancer, inflammation, and neurological disorders.

Dominant genes refer to the alleles (versions of a gene) that are fully expressed in an individual's phenotype, even if only one copy of the gene is present. In dominant inheritance patterns, an individual needs only to receive one dominant allele from either parent to express the associated trait. This is in contrast to recessive genes, where both copies of the gene must be the recessive allele for the trait to be expressed. Dominant genes are represented by uppercase letters (e.g., 'A') and recessive genes by lowercase letters (e.g., 'a'). If an individual inherits one dominant allele (A) from either parent, they will express the dominant trait (A).

Tyrosine is an non-essential amino acid, which means that it can be synthesized by the human body from another amino acid called phenylalanine. Its name is derived from the Greek word "tyros," which means cheese, as it was first isolated from casein, a protein found in cheese.

Tyrosine plays a crucial role in the production of several important substances in the body, including neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, which are involved in various physiological processes, including mood regulation, stress response, and cognitive functions. It also serves as a precursor to melanin, the pigment responsible for skin, hair, and eye color.

In addition, tyrosine is involved in the structure of proteins and is essential for normal growth and development. Some individuals may require tyrosine supplementation if they have a genetic disorder that affects tyrosine metabolism or if they are phenylketonurics (PKU), who cannot metabolize phenylalanine, which can lead to elevated tyrosine levels in the blood. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any supplementation regimen.

Cyclin E is a type of cyclin protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cell cycle, particularly during the G1 phase and the transition to the S phase. It functions as a regulatory subunit of the Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) complex, which is responsible for promoting the progression of the cell cycle.

Cyclin E is synthesized during the late G1 phase of the cell cycle and accumulates to high levels until it forms a complex with CDK2. The Cyclin E-CDK2 complex then phosphorylates several target proteins, leading to the activation of various downstream pathways that promote DNA replication and cell cycle progression.

The regulation of Cyclin E expression and activity is tightly controlled through multiple mechanisms, including transcriptional regulation, protein stability, and proteasomal degradation. Dysregulation of Cyclin E has been implicated in various human cancers, including breast, ovarian, and lung cancer, due to its role in promoting uncontrolled cell proliferation and genomic instability.

Peptide mapping is a technique used in proteomics and analytical chemistry to analyze and identify the sequence and structure of peptides or proteins. This method involves breaking down a protein into smaller peptide fragments using enzymatic or chemical digestion, followed by separation and identification of these fragments through various analytical techniques such as liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS).

The resulting peptide map serves as a "fingerprint" of the protein, providing information about its sequence, modifications, and structure. Peptide mapping can be used for a variety of applications, including protein identification, characterization of post-translational modifications, and monitoring of protein degradation or cleavage.

In summary, peptide mapping is a powerful tool in proteomics that enables the analysis and identification of proteins and their modifications at the peptide level.

Post-translational protein processing refers to the modifications and changes that proteins undergo after their synthesis on ribosomes, which are complex molecular machines responsible for protein synthesis. These modifications occur through various biochemical processes and play a crucial role in determining the final structure, function, and stability of the protein.

The process begins with the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) into a linear polypeptide chain, which is then subjected to several post-translational modifications. These modifications can include:

1. Proteolytic cleavage: The removal of specific segments or domains from the polypeptide chain by proteases, resulting in the formation of mature, functional protein subunits.
2. Chemical modifications: Addition or modification of chemical groups to the side chains of amino acids, such as phosphorylation (addition of a phosphate group), glycosylation (addition of sugar moieties), methylation (addition of a methyl group), acetylation (addition of an acetyl group), and ubiquitination (addition of a ubiquitin protein).
3. Disulfide bond formation: The oxidation of specific cysteine residues within the polypeptide chain, leading to the formation of disulfide bonds between them. This process helps stabilize the three-dimensional structure of proteins, particularly in extracellular environments.
4. Folding and assembly: The acquisition of a specific three-dimensional conformation by the polypeptide chain, which is essential for its function. Chaperone proteins assist in this process to ensure proper folding and prevent aggregation.
5. Protein targeting: The directed transport of proteins to their appropriate cellular locations, such as the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, or plasma membrane. This is often facilitated by specific signal sequences within the protein that are recognized and bound by transport machinery.

Collectively, these post-translational modifications contribute to the functional diversity of proteins in living organisms, allowing them to perform a wide range of cellular processes, including signaling, catalysis, regulation, and structural support.

Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked recessive primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by the triad of microthrombocytopenia, eczema, and recurrent infections. It is caused by mutations in the WAS gene, which encodes the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp), a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton reorganization in hematopoietic cells.

The clinical features of WAS include:

1. Microthrombocytopenia: This is characterized by small platelet size and low platelet count, leading to an increased risk of bleeding.
2. Eczema: This is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that can cause itching, redness, and scaly patches on the skin.
3. Recurrent infections: Patients with WAS are susceptible to bacterial, viral, and fungal infections due to impaired immune function.

Other clinical manifestations of WAS may include autoimmune disorders, lymphoma, and inflammatory bowel disease. The severity of the disease can vary widely among patients, ranging from mild to severe. Treatment options for WAS include hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), gene therapy, and supportive care measures such as antibiotics, immunoglobulin replacement therapy, and platelet transfusions.

Kinetochores are specialized protein structures that form on the centromere region of a chromosome. They play a crucial role in the process of cell division, specifically during mitosis and meiosis. The primary function of kinetochores is to connect the chromosomes to the microtubules of the spindle apparatus, which is responsible for separating the sister chromatids during cell division. Through this connection, kinetochores facilitate the movement of chromosomes towards opposite poles of the cell during anaphase, ensuring equal distribution of genetic material to each resulting daughter cell.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Cytoplasm is the material within a eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) that lies between the nuclear membrane and the cell membrane. It is composed of an aqueous solution called cytosol, in which various organelles such as mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles are suspended. Cytoplasm also contains a variety of dissolved nutrients, metabolites, ions, and enzymes that are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, signaling, and transport. It is where most of the cell's metabolic activities take place, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of the cell.

The actin cytoskeleton is a complex, dynamic network of filamentous (threadlike) proteins that provides structural support and shape to cells, allows for cell movement and division, and plays a role in intracellular transport. Actin filaments are composed of actin monomers that polymerize to form long, thin fibers. These filaments can be organized into different structures, such as stress fibers, which provide tension and support, or lamellipodia and filopodia, which are involved in cell motility. The actin cytoskeleton is constantly remodeling in response to various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing for changes in cell shape and behavior.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, transformation, and apoptosis, in response to diverse stimuli such as mitogens, growth factors, hormones, cytokines, and environmental stresses. They are highly conserved across eukaryotes and consist of a three-tiered kinase module composed of MAPK kinase kinases (MAP3Ks), MAPK kinases (MKKs or MAP2Ks), and MAPKs.

Activation of MAPKs occurs through a sequential phosphorylation and activation cascade, where MAP3Ks phosphorylate and activate MKKs, which in turn phosphorylate and activate MAPKs at specific residues (Thr-X-Tyr or Ser-Pro motifs). Once activated, MAPKs can further phosphorylate and regulate various downstream targets, including transcription factors and other protein kinases.

There are four major groups of MAPKs in mammals: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3), p38 MAPKs (p38α/β/γ/δ), and ERK5/BMK1. Each group of MAPKs has distinct upstream activators, downstream targets, and cellular functions, allowing for a high degree of specificity in signal transduction and cellular responses. Dysregulation of MAPK signaling pathways has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory diseases.

Phosphoserine is not a medical term per se, but rather a biochemical term. It refers to a post-translationally modified amino acid called serine that has a phosphate group attached to its side chain. This modification plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including signal transduction and regulation of protein function. In medical contexts, abnormalities in the regulation of phosphorylation (the addition of a phosphate group) and dephosphorylation (the removal of a phosphate group) have been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer and neurological disorders.

Down-regulation is a process that occurs in response to various stimuli, where the number or sensitivity of cell surface receptors or the expression of specific genes is decreased. This process helps maintain homeostasis within cells and tissues by reducing the ability of cells to respond to certain signals or molecules.

In the context of cell surface receptors, down-regulation can occur through several mechanisms:

1. Receptor internalization: After binding to their ligands, receptors can be internalized into the cell through endocytosis. Once inside the cell, these receptors may be degraded or recycled back to the cell surface in smaller numbers.
2. Reduced receptor synthesis: Down-regulation can also occur at the transcriptional level, where the expression of genes encoding for specific receptors is decreased, leading to fewer receptors being produced.
3. Receptor desensitization: Prolonged exposure to a ligand can lead to a decrease in receptor sensitivity or affinity, making it more difficult for the cell to respond to the signal.

In the context of gene expression, down-regulation refers to the decreased transcription and/or stability of specific mRNAs, leading to reduced protein levels. This process can be induced by various factors, including microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation, histone modification, or DNA methylation.

Down-regulation is an essential mechanism in many physiological processes and can also contribute to the development of several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Minichromosome Maintenance (MCM) proteins are a group of highly conserved helicase proteins that play essential roles in the initiation and regulation of eukaryotic DNA replication. They are named after the discovery that they are associated with the minichromosomes of budding yeast.

In humans, there are six main MCM proteins (MCM2-7) that form a hexameric complex, which is loaded onto origins of replication during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This complex functions as a helicase, unwinding double-stranded DNA to create single-stranded templates for the replication machinery.

MCMs are also involved in the regulation of the DNA replication process, ensuring that it is initiated only once per cell cycle and that it proceeds in a controlled and efficient manner. Dysregulation of MCM proteins has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, where overexpression of these proteins can lead to genomic instability and increased rates of cell division.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Beta-transducin repeat-containing proteins (β-TrCP) are a group of proteins that are involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including protein degradation and signal transduction. They are named after their structural similarity to the beta subunit of transducin, a G protein that plays a role in visual signaling.

β-TrCP proteins contain multiple repeats of a specific motif known as a WD40 domain, which is involved in protein-protein interactions. They function as substrate recognition components of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which targets specific proteins for degradation by the proteasome.

One well-studied function of β-TrCP is its role in the regulation of the cell cycle and DNA damage response. It recognizes and binds to phosphorylated forms of certain proteins, leading to their ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. This helps to ensure proper progression through the cell cycle and prevents the accumulation of damaged or mutated proteins that could lead to cancer or other diseases.

Other functions of β-TrCP include regulating gene transcription, modulating immune responses, and controlling cell survival and death pathways. Dysregulation of β-TrCP has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory conditions.

Okadaic acid is a type of toxin that is produced by certain species of marine algae, including Dinophysis and Prorocentrum. It is a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, which are important enzymes that help regulate cellular processes in the body.

Okadaic acid can accumulate in shellfish that feed on these algae, and consumption of contaminated seafood can lead to a serious illness known as diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Symptoms of DSP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. In severe cases, it can also cause neurological symptoms such as dizziness, disorientation, and tingling or numbness in the lips, tongue, and fingers.

It is important to note that okadaic acid is not only a marine toxin but also used in scientific research as a tool to study the role of protein phosphatases in cellular processes. However, exposure to this compound should be avoided due to its toxic effects.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

An ovum is the female reproductive cell, or gamete, produced in the ovaries. It is also known as an egg cell and is released from the ovary during ovulation. When fertilized by a sperm, it becomes a zygote, which can develop into a fetus. The ovum contains half the genetic material necessary to create a new individual.

Phosphopeptides are short peptide sequences that contain one or more phosphorylated amino acid residues, most commonly serine, threonine, or tyrosine. Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification that plays a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes such as signal transduction, protein-protein interactions, enzyme activity, and protein degradation. The addition of a phosphate group to a peptide can alter its charge, conformation, stability, and interaction with other molecules, thereby modulating its function in the cell. Phosphopeptides are often generated by proteolytic digestion of phosphorylated proteins and are used as biomarkers or probes to study protein phosphorylation and signaling pathways in various biological systems.

Flow cytometry is a medical and research technique used to measure physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles, one cell at a time, as they flow in a fluid stream through a beam of light. The properties measured include:

* Cell size (light scatter)
* Cell internal complexity (granularity, also light scatter)
* Presence or absence of specific proteins or other molecules on the cell surface or inside the cell (using fluorescent antibodies or other fluorescent probes)

The technique is widely used in cell counting, cell sorting, protein engineering, biomarker discovery and monitoring disease progression, particularly in hematology, immunology, and cancer research.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

Cell surface extensions, also known as cellular processes or protrusions, are specialized structures that extend from the plasma membrane of a eukaryotic cell. These extensions include various types of projections such as cilia, flagella, and filopodia, as well as larger and more complex structures like lamellipodia and pseudopodia.

Cilia and flagella are hair-like structures that are involved in cell movement and the sensation of external stimuli. They are composed of a core of microtubules surrounded by the plasma membrane.

Filopodia are thin, finger-like protrusions that contain bundles of actin filaments and are involved in cell motility, sensing the environment, and establishing cell-cell contacts.

Lamellipodia are sheet-like extensions composed of a branched network of actin filaments and are involved in cell migration.

Pseudopodia are large, irregularly shaped protrusions that contain a mixture of actin filaments and other cytoskeletal elements, and are involved in phagocytosis and cell motility.

These cell surface extensions play important roles in various biological processes, including cell motility, sensing the environment, establishing cell-cell contacts, and the uptake of extracellular material.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

Morphogenesis is a term used in developmental biology and refers to the process by which cells give rise to tissues and organs with specific shapes, structures, and patterns during embryonic development. This process involves complex interactions between genes, cells, and the extracellular environment that result in the coordinated movement and differentiation of cells into specialized functional units.

Morphogenesis is a dynamic and highly regulated process that involves several mechanisms, including cell proliferation, death, migration, adhesion, and differentiation. These processes are controlled by genetic programs and signaling pathways that respond to environmental cues and regulate the behavior of individual cells within a developing tissue or organ.

The study of morphogenesis is important for understanding how complex biological structures form during development and how these processes can go awry in disease states such as cancer, birth defects, and degenerative disorders.

Monomeric GTP-binding proteins, also known as small GTPases, are a family of proteins that bind and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to guanosine diphosphate (GDP). These proteins function as molecular switches, cycling between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state. They play crucial roles in regulating various cellular processes such as signal transduction, vesicle trafficking, cytoskeleton organization, and cell cycle progression. Examples of monomeric GTP-binding proteins include Ras, Rho, Rab, and Ran families.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

The G2 phase cell cycle checkpoint is a point in the cell cycle, specifically in the G2 phase, where the cell checks for any DNA damage or other issues that may have occurred during the DNA synthesis phase (S phase) before proceeding to mitosis. This checkpoint serves as a quality control mechanism to ensure that the genetic material is accurately and completely replicated and that the cell is ready to divide. If DNA damage or other problems are detected, the cell cycle is halted at the G2 checkpoint until the issues can be resolved. If the damage is too severe or cannot be repaired, the cell may undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis) to prevent the propagation of potentially harmful mutations.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

NIH 3T3 cells are a type of mouse fibroblast cell line that was developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The "3T3" designation refers to the fact that these cells were derived from embryonic Swiss mouse tissue and were able to be passaged (i.e., subcultured) more than three times in tissue culture.

NIH 3T3 cells are widely used in scientific research, particularly in studies involving cell growth and differentiation, signal transduction, and gene expression. They have also been used as a model system for studying the effects of various chemicals and drugs on cell behavior. NIH 3T3 cells are known to be relatively easy to culture and maintain, and they have a stable, flat morphology that makes them well-suited for use in microscopy studies.

It is important to note that, as with any cell line, it is essential to verify the identity and authenticity of NIH 3T3 cells before using them in research, as contamination or misidentification can lead to erroneous results.

Actin-related protein 2 (ARP2) is a subunit of the Arp2/3 complex, which is a key regulator of actin dynamics and plays a crucial role in the formation of branched actin networks. The Arp2/3 complex is composed of seven subunits, including ARP2 and ARP3, which are structurally similar to actin and can form a heterodimer that acts as a nucleation site for new actin filaments.

ARP2 and the other subunits of the Arp2/3 complex are highly conserved across species and are involved in various cellular processes, such as cell motility, cytokinesis, endocytosis, and maintenance of cell shape. Mutations in genes encoding ARP2 or other subunits of the Arp2/3 complex have been associated with various human diseases, including neurological disorders and immunodeficiencies.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Aphidicolin is an antimicrotubule agent that is specifically a inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha. It is an antibiotic that is produced by the fungus Cephalosporium aphidicola and is used in research to study the cell cycle and DNA replication. In clinical medicine, it has been explored as a potential anticancer agent, although its use is not currently approved for this indication.

Phosphoric monoester hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoric monoesters into alcohol and phosphate. This class of enzymes includes several specific enzymes, such as phosphatases and nucleotidases, which play important roles in various biological processes, including metabolism, signal transduction, and regulation of cellular processes.

Phosphoric monoester hydrolases are classified under the EC number 3.1.3 by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB). The enzymes in this class share a common mechanism of action, which involves the nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus atom of the substrate by a serine or cysteine residue in the active site of the enzyme. This results in the formation of a covalent intermediate, which is then hydrolyzed to release the products.

Phosphoric monoester hydrolases are important therapeutic targets for the development of drugs that can modulate their activity. For example, inhibitors of phosphoric monoester hydrolases have been developed as potential treatments for various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases.

Cell compartmentation, also known as intracellular compartmentalization, refers to the organization of cells into distinct functional and spatial domains. This is achieved through the separation of cellular components and biochemical reactions into membrane-bound organelles or compartments. Each compartment has its unique chemical composition and environment, allowing for specific biochemical reactions to occur efficiently and effectively without interfering with other processes in the cell.

Some examples of membrane-bound organelles include the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and vacuoles. These organelles have specific functions, such as energy production (mitochondria), protein synthesis and folding (endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus), waste management (lysosomes), and lipid metabolism (peroxisomes).

Cell compartmentation is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis, regulating metabolic pathways, protecting the cell from potentially harmful substances, and enabling complex biochemical reactions to occur in a controlled manner. Dysfunction of cell compartmentation can lead to various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and metabolic disorders.

Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CAMKs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways. They are activated by the binding of calcium ions and calmodulin, a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein, to their regulatory domain.

Once activated, CAMKs phosphorylate specific serine or threonine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their activity, localization, or stability. This post-translational modification is essential for various cellular processes, including synaptic plasticity, gene expression, metabolism, and cell cycle regulation.

There are several subfamilies of CAMKs, including CaMKI, CaMKII, CaMKIII (also known as CaMKIV), and CaMK kinase (CaMKK). Each subfamily has distinct structural features, substrate specificity, and regulatory mechanisms. Dysregulation of CAMK signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders.

Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) are a diverse group of proteins that have the ability to bind calcium ions (Ca^2+^) with high affinity and specificity. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, and protection against oxidative stress.

The binding of calcium ions to these proteins induces conformational changes that can either activate or inhibit their functions. Some well-known CaBPs include calmodulin, troponin C, S100 proteins, and parvalbumins. These proteins are essential for maintaining calcium homeostasis within cells and for mediating the effects of calcium as a second messenger in various cellular signaling pathways.

Cyclin B2 is a type of cyclin protein that regulates the cell cycle, particularly at the G2 phase and the beginning of mitosis. It forms a complex with and acts as a regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), which plays a crucial role in the transition from G2 phase to mitosis. The expression and activity of Cyclin B2 are tightly regulated during the cell cycle, and its dysregulation can lead to abnormal cell division and contribute to the development of cancer.

Fungal spores are defined as the reproductive units of fungi that are produced by specialized structures called hyphae. These spores are typically single-celled and can exist in various shapes such as round, oval, or ellipsoidal. They are highly resistant to extreme environmental conditions like heat, cold, and dryness, which allows them to survive for long periods until they find a suitable environment to germinate and grow into a new fungal organism. Fungal spores can be found in the air, water, soil, and on various surfaces, making them easily dispersible and capable of causing infections in humans, animals, and plants.

Nucleic acid synthesis inhibitors are a class of antimicrobial, antiviral, or antitumor agents that block the synthesis of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) by interfering with enzymes involved in their replication. These drugs can target various stages of nucleic acid synthesis, including DNA transcription, replication, and repair, as well as RNA transcription and processing.

Examples of nucleic acid synthesis inhibitors include:

1. Antibiotics like quinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin), rifamycins (e.g., rifampin), and trimethoprim, which target bacterial DNA gyrase, RNA polymerase, or dihydrofolate reductase, respectively.
2. Antiviral drugs like reverse transcriptase inhibitors (e.g., zidovudine, lamivudine) and integrase strand transfer inhibitors (e.g., raltegravir), which target HIV replication by interfering with viral enzymes required for DNA synthesis.
3. Antitumor drugs like antimetabolites (e.g., methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil) and topoisomerase inhibitors (e.g., etoposide, doxorubicin), which interfere with DNA replication and repair in cancer cells.

These drugs have been widely used for treating various bacterial and viral infections, as well as cancers, due to their ability to selectively inhibit the growth of target cells without affecting normal cellular functions significantly. However, they may also cause side effects related to their mechanism of action or off-target effects on non-target cells.

Actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) is a complex of seven proteins that plays a crucial role in the regulation of actin dynamics within cells. The Arp2/3 complex is involved in the nucleation and branching of actin filaments, which are important for various cellular processes such as cell motility, cytokinesis, and vesicle trafficking.

Actin-related protein 3 (Arp3) is one of the subunits that make up the Arp2/3 complex. It is a conserved protein found in eukaryotic cells and is essential for the formation of new actin filaments. The Arp3 subunit, along with the Arp2 subunit, forms the structural core of the complex and is responsible for initiating the formation of new actin filaments by binding to existing filaments and creating a branch point.

The Arp2/3 complex is regulated by various proteins, including nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs), which activate the complex and promote actin polymerization. Dysregulation of the Arp2/3 complex has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Archaeal chromosomes refer to the genetic material present in Archaea, a domain of single-celled microorganisms. Like bacteria and eukaryotes, Archaea have their genetic material organized into a single circular chromosome, which is typically smaller than bacterial chromosomes. The archaeal chromosome contains all the genetic information necessary for the organism's survival, including genes coding for proteins, RNA molecules, and regulatory elements that control gene expression.

Archaeal chromosomes are structurally similar to bacterial chromosomes, with a histone-like protein called histone-like protein A (HLP) that helps compact the DNA into a more condensed form. However, archaeal chromosomes also share some features with eukaryotic chromosomes, such as the presence of nucleosome-like structures and the use of similar mechanisms for DNA replication and repair.

Overall, archaeal chromosomes are an important area of study in molecular biology, as they provide insights into the evolution and diversity of life on Earth.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Proteolysis is the biological process of breaking down proteins into smaller polypeptides or individual amino acids by the action of enzymes called proteases. This process is essential for various physiological functions, including digestion, protein catabolism, cell signaling, and regulation of numerous biological activities. Dysregulation of proteolysis can contribute to several pathological conditions, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory disorders.

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), also known as glitazones, are a class of drugs used in the management of type 2 diabetes. They function as insulin sensitizers, improving the body's response to insulin, particularly in muscle, fat, and liver tissues. This helps to lower blood sugar levels.

Examples of TZDs include pioglitazone (Actos) and rosiglitazone (Avandia). While effective at controlling blood sugar, these medications have been associated with serious side effects such as an increased risk of heart failure, fractures, and bladder cancer. Therefore, their use is typically reserved for patients who cannot achieve good glucose control with other medications and who do not have a history of heart failure or bladder cancer.

It's important to note that the medical community continues to evaluate and re-evaluate the risks and benefits of thiazolidinediones, and their use may change based on new research findings. As always, patients should consult with their healthcare providers for personalized medical advice regarding their diabetes treatment plan.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

Gene expression regulation, enzymologic refers to the biochemical processes and mechanisms that control the transcription and translation of specific genes into functional proteins or enzymes. This regulation is achieved through various enzymatic activities that can either activate or repress gene expression at different levels, such as chromatin remodeling, transcription factor activation, mRNA processing, and protein degradation.

Enzymologic regulation of gene expression involves the action of specific enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions involved in these processes. For example, histone-modifying enzymes can alter the structure of chromatin to make genes more or less accessible for transcription, while RNA polymerase and its associated factors are responsible for transcribing DNA into mRNA. Additionally, various enzymes are involved in post-transcriptional modifications of mRNA, such as splicing, capping, and tailing, which can affect the stability and translation of the transcript.

Overall, the enzymologic regulation of gene expression is a complex and dynamic process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment and maintain proper physiological function.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a type of nucleic acid that plays a crucial role in the process of gene expression. There are several types of RNA molecules, including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). These RNA molecules help to transcribe DNA into mRNA, which is then translated into proteins by the ribosomes.

Fungi are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as larger organisms like mushrooms. Like other eukaryotes, fungi contain DNA and RNA as part of their genetic material. The RNA in fungi is similar to the RNA found in other organisms, including humans, and plays a role in gene expression and protein synthesis.

A specific medical definition of "RNA, fungal" does not exist, as RNA is a fundamental component of all living organisms, including fungi. However, RNA can be used as a target for antifungal drugs, as certain enzymes involved in RNA synthesis and processing are unique to fungi and can be inhibited by these drugs. For example, the antifungal drug flucytosine is converted into a toxic metabolite that inhibits fungal RNA and DNA synthesis.

Subcellular fractions refer to the separation and collection of specific parts or components of a cell, including organelles, membranes, and other structures, through various laboratory techniques such as centrifugation and ultracentrifugation. These fractions can be used in further biochemical and molecular analyses to study the structure, function, and interactions of individual cellular components. Examples of subcellular fractions include nuclear extracts, mitochondrial fractions, microsomal fractions (membrane vesicles), and cytosolic fractions (cytoplasmic extracts).

Restriction mapping is a technique used in molecular biology to identify the location and arrangement of specific restriction endonuclease recognition sites within a DNA molecule. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that cut double-stranded DNA at specific sequences, producing fragments of various lengths. By digesting the DNA with different combinations of these enzymes and analyzing the resulting fragment sizes through techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis, researchers can generate a restriction map - a visual representation of the locations and distances between recognition sites on the DNA molecule. This information is crucial for various applications, including cloning, genome analysis, and genetic engineering.

Histones are highly alkaline proteins found in the chromatin of eukaryotic cells. They are rich in basic amino acid residues, such as arginine and lysine, which give them their positive charge. Histones play a crucial role in packaging DNA into a more compact structure within the nucleus by forming a complex with it called a nucleosome. Each nucleosome contains about 146 base pairs of DNA wrapped around an octamer of eight histone proteins (two each of H2A, H2B, H3, and H4). The N-terminal tails of these histones are subject to various post-translational modifications, such as methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation, which can influence chromatin structure and gene expression. Histone variants also exist, which can contribute to the regulation of specific genes and other nuclear processes.

A point mutation is a type of genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base (A, T, C, or G) in DNA is altered, deleted, or substituted with another nucleotide. Point mutations can have various effects on the organism, depending on the location of the mutation and whether it affects the function of any genes. Some point mutations may not have any noticeable effect, while others might lead to changes in the amino acids that make up proteins, potentially causing diseases or altering traits. Point mutations can occur spontaneously due to errors during DNA replication or be inherited from parents.

Macromolecular substances, also known as macromolecules, are large, complex molecules made up of repeating subunits called monomers. These substances are formed through polymerization, a process in which many small molecules combine to form a larger one. Macromolecular substances can be naturally occurring, such as proteins, DNA, and carbohydrates, or synthetic, such as plastics and synthetic fibers.

In the context of medicine, macromolecular substances are often used in the development of drugs and medical devices. For example, some drugs are designed to bind to specific macromolecules in the body, such as proteins or DNA, in order to alter their function and produce a therapeutic effect. Additionally, macromolecular substances may be used in the creation of medical implants, such as artificial joints and heart valves, due to their strength and durability.

It is important for healthcare professionals to have an understanding of macromolecular substances and how they function in the body, as this knowledge can inform the development and use of medical treatments.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures that exist in the nucleus of cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. They are composed of DNA and proteins, and are typically present in pairs in the nucleus, with one set inherited from each parent. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes come in different shapes and forms, including sex chromosomes (X and Y) that determine the biological sex of an individual. Changes or abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes can lead to genetic disorders and diseases.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Thiabendazole is a medication that belongs to the class of antiparasitic drugs. It works by inhibiting the growth of parasites, particularly roundworms, hookworms, and threadworms, in the body. Thiabendazole is used to treat a variety of infections caused by these parasites, including intestinal infections, skin infections, and eye infections. It may also be used to prevent certain parasitic infections in people who are at high risk.

Thiabendazole works by interfering with the metabolism of the parasite's cells, which ultimately leads to their death. The medication is available in both oral and topical forms, depending on the type of infection being treated. Thiabendazole is generally well-tolerated, but it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It may also interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting thiabendazole therapy.

It is important to note that Thiabendazole should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional and should not be used for self-treatment without proper medical advice.

S-phase kinase-associated proteins (Skp2) are a group of proteins that are associated with the S-phase kinase, which is a type of enzyme that helps to regulate the cell cycle. Specifically, Skp2 is involved in the ubiquitination and degradation of certain proteins that play a role in controlling the progression of the cell cycle.

Skp2 is a member of the F-box protein family, which are components of the Skp1-Cul1-F-box (SCF) complex, a type of E3 ubiquitin ligase. The SCF complex recognizes and binds to specific proteins, tagging them for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the proteasome.

One of the key targets of Skp2 is the tumor suppressor protein p27, which inhibits the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and helps to regulate the transition from the G1 phase to the S phase of the cell cycle. By targeting p27 for degradation, Skp2 promotes the progression of the cell cycle and has been implicated in the development of various types of cancer.

Overall, Skp2 plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle and has important implications for the development and treatment of various diseases, including cancer.

Oncogene proteins are derived from oncogenes, which are genes that have the potential to cause cancer. Normally, these genes help regulate cell growth and division, but when they become altered or mutated, they can become overactive and lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division, which is a hallmark of cancer. Oncogene proteins can contribute to tumor formation and progression by promoting processes such as cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Examples of oncogene proteins include HER2/neu, EGFR, and BCR-ABL.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Cell size refers to the volume or spatial dimensions of a cell, which can vary widely depending on the type and function of the cell. In general, eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus) tend to be larger than prokaryotic cells (cells without a true nucleus). The size of a cell is determined by various factors such as genetic makeup, the cell's role in the organism, and its environment.

The study of cell size and its relationship to cell function is an active area of research in biology, with implications for our understanding of cellular processes, evolution, and disease. For example, changes in cell size have been linked to various pathological conditions, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, measuring and analyzing cell size can provide valuable insights into the health and function of cells and tissues.

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 (CDK5) is a type of protein kinase that plays crucial roles in the regulation of various cellular processes, particularly in neurons. Unlike other cyclin-dependent kinases, CDK5 is activated by associating with regulatory subunits called cyclins, specifically cyclin I and cyclin D1, but not during the cell cycle.

CDK5 activity is primarily involved in the development and functioning of the nervous system, where it regulates neuronal migration, differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. It has been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and various neurodevelopmental conditions.

CDK5 activity is tightly regulated by phosphorylation and interacting partners. Dysregulation of CDK5 can lead to abnormal neuronal function and contribute to the pathogenesis of neurological disorders.

JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases are a subgroup of the Ser/Thr protein kinases that are activated by stress stimuli and play important roles in various cellular processes, including inflammation, apoptosis, and differentiation. They are involved in the regulation of gene expression through phosphorylation of transcription factors such as c-Jun. JNKs are activated by a variety of upstream kinases, including MAP2Ks (MKK4/SEK1 and MKK7), which are in turn activated by MAP3Ks (such as ASK1, MEKK1, MLKs, and TAK1). JNK signaling pathways have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory diseases.

Tumor suppressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein that helps control the cell cycle and prevent cells from dividing and growing in an uncontrolled manner. They work to inhibit tumor growth by preventing the formation of tumors or slowing down their progression. These proteins can repair damaged DNA, regulate gene expression, and initiate programmed cell death (apoptosis) if the damage is too severe for repair.

Mutations in tumor suppressor genes, which provide the code for these proteins, can lead to a decrease or loss of function in the resulting protein. This can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, leading to the formation of tumors and cancer. Examples of tumor suppressor proteins include p53, Rb (retinoblastoma), and BRCA1/2.

RhoB GTP-binding protein is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, which are involved in regulating various cellular processes such as actin cytoskeleton organization, gene expression, and cell cycle progression. Specifically, RhoB functions as a molecular switch that cycles between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state.

When RhoB is activated by GTP binding, it interacts with various downstream effectors to regulate the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, which is important for cell motility, adhesion, and membrane trafficking. RhoB has been implicated in several physiological processes, including angiogenesis, wound healing, and immune response.

RhoB is unique among the Rho GTPases because it can be localized to both the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments, allowing it to regulate various cellular processes in different subcellular locations. Dysregulation of RhoB has been associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Mimosine is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound that has been studied in the context of biomedical research. Mimosine is an alkaloid found in certain plants, including the mimosa tree (Leucaena leucocephala). It has been shown to have various biological activities, such as anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects on certain types of cells. However, it is not a term that is commonly used in medical diagnoses or treatments.

In terms of its chemical structure, mimosine is an amino acid that contains a pyrrolidone ring with a hydroxyl group at the 3-position and a carboxylic acid group at the 2-position. It can inhibit certain enzymes involved in DNA replication and repair, which may contribute to its anti-proliferative effects.

It's worth noting that mimosine has been studied for its potential therapeutic benefits, such as its ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. However, more research is needed to determine its safety and efficacy in humans before it can be considered a viable treatment option.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

A consensus sequence in genetics refers to the most common nucleotide (DNA or RNA) or amino acid at each position in a multiple sequence alignment. It is derived by comparing and analyzing several sequences of the same gene or protein from different individuals or organisms. The consensus sequence provides a general pattern or motif that is shared among these sequences and can be useful in identifying functional regions, conserved domains, or evolutionary relationships. However, it's important to note that not every sequence will exactly match the consensus sequence, as variations can occur naturally due to mutations or genetic differences among individuals.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-Vav are a family of intracellular signaling proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including hematopoiesis, cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. The c-Vav family consists of three members: Vav1, Vav2, and Vav3, which are expressed in different patterns across various tissues. They primarily function as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for the Rho family of small GTPases, such as Rac, Cdc42, and Ras.

Upon activation through receptor tyrosine kinases or other signaling pathways, c-Vav proteins become phosphorylated and activated, leading to their ability to exchange GDP for GTP on their target small GTPases. This activation results in the downstream regulation of various cellular responses, such as actin cytoskeleton reorganization, gene transcription, and cell cycle progression.

Dysregulation or overactivation of c-Vav proteins has been implicated in oncogenesis, as they can contribute to uncontrolled cell growth, survival, and migration, ultimately leading to the development of various types of cancer. For this reason, c-Vav proteins are considered proto-oncogene proteins, as their normal physiological functions are essential for proper cellular homeostasis, but their aberrant activation can promote tumorigenesis.

A conserved sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to a pattern of nucleotides (in DNA or RNA) or amino acids (in proteins) that has remained relatively unchanged over evolutionary time. These sequences are often functionally important and are highly conserved across different species, indicating strong selection pressure against changes in these regions.

In the case of protein-coding genes, the corresponding amino acid sequence is deduced from the DNA sequence through the genetic code. Conserved sequences in proteins may indicate structurally or functionally important regions, such as active sites or binding sites, that are critical for the protein's activity. Similarly, conserved non-coding sequences in DNA may represent regulatory elements that control gene expression.

Identifying conserved sequences can be useful for inferring evolutionary relationships between species and for predicting the function of unknown genes or proteins.

GTP-binding protein regulators, also known as G proteins or guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of regulatory proteins that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways. They function as molecular switches by binding to and hydrolyzing guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to guanosine diphosphate (GDP).

These regulators are composed of three subunits: α, β, and γ. The α-subunit contains the GTPase activity and can exist in two conformational states, one that is active when bound to GTP and another that is inactive when bound to GDP. When a signaling molecule, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, binds to a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) on the cell membrane, it activates the associated G protein by promoting the exchange of GDP for GTP on the α-subunit.

Once activated, the α-subunit dissociates from the βγ-subunits and interacts with downstream effectors to propagate the signal within the cell. The α-subunit then hydrolyzes the bound GTP to GDP, which inactivates it and allows it to reassociate with the βγ-subunits, thereby terminating the signal.

G protein regulators can be further classified into several subfamilies based on their sequence homology and functional characteristics, including:

1. Heterotrimeric G proteins (Gα, Gβ, and Gγ)
2. Small GTPases (Ras, Rho, Rab, Arf, and Ran)
3. Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins
4. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs)
5. G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs)

Dysregulation of GTP-binding protein regulators has been implicated in various human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, understanding their structure, function, and regulation is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these conditions.

Cyclic ethers are a type of organic compound that contain an ether functional group (-O-) within a cyclic (ring-shaped) structure. In a cyclic ether, one or more oxygen atoms are part of the ring, which can consist of various numbers of carbon atoms. The simplest example of a cyclic ether is oxirane, also known as ethylene oxide, which contains a three-membered ring with two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.

Cyclic ethers have diverse applications in the chemical industry, including their use as building blocks for the synthesis of other chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and materials. Some cyclic ethers, like tetrahydrofuran (THF), are common solvents due to their ability to dissolve a wide range of organic compounds. However, some cyclic ethers can be hazardous or toxic, so they must be handled with care during laboratory work and industrial processes.

Prophase is the first phase of mitosis, the process by which eukaryotic cells divide and reproduce. During prophase, the chromosomes condense and become visible. The nuclear envelope breaks down, allowing the spindle fibers to attach to the centromeres of each chromatid in the chromosome. This is a critical step in preparing for the separation of genetic material during cell division. Prophase is also marked by the movement of the centrosomes to opposite poles of the cell, forming the mitotic spindle.

Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, also known as CDKN1A or p21/WAF1/CIP1, is a protein that regulates the cell cycle. It inhibits the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which are enzymes that play crucial roles in controlling the progression of the cell cycle.

The binding of p21 to CDKs prevents the phosphorylation and activation of downstream targets, leading to cell cycle arrest. This protein is transcriptionally activated by tumor suppressor protein p53 in response to DNA damage or other stress signals, and it functions as an important mediator of p53-dependent growth arrest.

By inhibiting CDKs, p21 helps to ensure that cells do not proceed through the cell cycle until damaged DNA has been repaired, thereby preventing the propagation of potentially harmful mutations. Additionally, p21 has been implicated in other cellular processes such as apoptosis, differentiation, and senescence. Dysregulation of p21 has been associated with various human diseases, including cancer.

Growth charts are standardized tools used in pediatrics to plot and track the growth of children from birth to age 20. These charts typically plot a child's height, weight, head circumference (in infants), and body mass index (BMI) against established norms based on large population studies. The charts provide a visual representation of a child's growth pattern over time, allowing healthcare providers to assess if the child is growing properly. They are used to identify any deviations from normal growth patterns which may indicate underlying health issues. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) both provide standard growth charts for international and US use respectively.

Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is a protein that plays an essential role in the process of DNA replication and repair in eukaryotic cells. It functions as a cofactor for DNA polymerase delta, enhancing its activity during DNA synthesis. PCNA forms a sliding clamp around DNA, allowing it to move along the template and coordinate the actions of various enzymes involved in DNA metabolism.

PCNA is often used as a marker for cell proliferation because its levels increase in cells that are actively dividing or have been stimulated to enter the cell cycle. Immunostaining techniques can be used to detect PCNA and determine the proliferative status of tissues or cultures. In this context, 'proliferating' refers to the rapid multiplication of cells through cell division.

A sequence deletion in a genetic context refers to the removal or absence of one or more nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA or RNA) from a specific region in a DNA or RNA molecule. This type of mutation can lead to the loss of genetic information, potentially resulting in changes in the function or expression of a gene. If the deletion involves a critical portion of the gene, it can cause diseases, depending on the role of that gene in the body. The size of the deleted sequence can vary, ranging from a single nucleotide to a large segment of DNA.

Cyclin G is a type of protein that belongs to the cyclin family, which are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle. The human Cyclin G gene encodes two isoforms, Cyclin G1 and Cyclin G2, which share a similar structure but have different functions.

Cyclin G1 is known to play a role in the negative regulation of the cell cycle, particularly during the G1 phase. It interacts with several proteins, including CDKs (cyclin-dependent kinases), to regulate the activity of various transcription factors and other signaling pathways that control cell growth and division.

Cyclin G2, on the other hand, has been implicated in the regulation of DNA damage response and apoptosis (programmed cell death). It interacts with CDKs and other proteins to modulate the activity of various signaling pathways involved in these processes.

Overall, Cyclin G plays important roles in regulating cell cycle progression, DNA damage response, and apoptosis, and its dysregulation has been linked to several human diseases, including cancer.

Purines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that consist of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. They are fundamental components of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. In the body, purines can be synthesized endogenously or obtained through dietary sources such as meat, seafood, and certain vegetables.

Once purines are metabolized, they are broken down into uric acid, which is excreted by the kidneys. Elevated levels of uric acid in the body can lead to the formation of uric acid crystals, resulting in conditions such as gout or kidney stones. Therefore, maintaining a balanced intake of purine-rich foods and ensuring proper kidney function are essential for overall health.

Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 6 (MCM6) is a protein that is a part of the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex, which is essential for the initiation and regulation of eukaryotic DNA replication. The MCM complex is composed of six related proteins (MCM2-7) that form a helicase responsible for unwinding DNA at the replication fork.

MCM6 plays a crucial role in the formation of the pre-replicative complex, which assembles at the origins of replication during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. MCM6, along with other MCM proteins, is loaded onto the origin of replication in an inactive form. Upon entry into the S phase, CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) and DDK (DBF4-dependent kinase) phosphorylate MCM6 and other MCM components, activating the helicase activity and promoting DNA replication.

Mutations in MCM6 have been associated with certain genetic disorders, such as primordial dwarfism and Meier-Gorlin syndrome, which are characterized by growth retardation, developmental delays, and skeletal abnormalities.

A nonmammalian embryo refers to the developing organism in animals other than mammals, from the fertilized egg (zygote) stage until hatching or birth. In nonmammalian species, the developmental stages and terminology differ from those used in mammals. The term "embryo" is generally applied to the developing organism up until a specific stage of development that is characterized by the formation of major organs and structures. After this point, the developing organism is referred to as a "larva," "juvenile," or other species-specific terminology.

The study of nonmammalian embryos has played an important role in our understanding of developmental biology and evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). By comparing the developmental processes across different animal groups, researchers can gain insights into the evolutionary origins and diversification of body plans and structures. Additionally, nonmammalian embryos are often used as model systems for studying basic biological processes, such as cell division, gene regulation, and pattern formation.

Time-lapse imaging is a medical imaging technique where images are captured at regular intervals over a period of time and then played back at a faster rate to show the progression or changes that occur during that time frame. This technique is often used in various fields of medicine, including microbiology, pathology, and reproductive medicine. In microbiology, for example, time-lapse imaging can be used to observe bacterial growth or the movement of individual cells. In pathology, it might help track the development of a lesion or the response of a tumor to treatment. In reproductive medicine, time-lapse imaging is commonly employed in embryo culture during in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures to assess the development and quality of embryos before implantation.

Physiological feedback, also known as biofeedback, is a technique used to train an individual to become more aware of and gain voluntary control over certain physiological processes that are normally involuntary, such as heart rate, blood pressure, skin temperature, muscle tension, and brain activity. This is done by using specialized equipment to measure these processes and provide real-time feedback to the individual, allowing them to see the effects of their thoughts and actions on their body. Over time, with practice and reinforcement, the individual can learn to regulate these processes without the need for external feedback.

Physiological feedback has been found to be effective in treating a variety of medical conditions, including stress-related disorders, headaches, high blood pressure, chronic pain, and anxiety disorders. It is also used as a performance enhancement technique in sports and other activities that require focused attention and physical control.

E2F transcription factors are a family of proteins that play crucial roles in the regulation of the cell cycle, DNA repair, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). These factors bind to specific DNA sequences called E2F responsive elements, located in the promoter regions of target genes. They can act as either transcriptional activators or repressors, depending on which E2F family member is involved, the presence of co-factors, and the phase of the cell cycle.

The E2F family consists of eight members, divided into two groups based on their functions: activator E2Fs (E2F1, E2F2, and E2F3a) and repressor E2Fs (E2F3b, E2F4, E2F5, E2F6, and E2F7). Activator E2Fs promote the expression of genes required for cell cycle progression, DNA replication, and repair. Repressor E2Fs, on the other hand, inhibit the transcription of these same genes as well as genes involved in differentiation and apoptosis.

Dysregulation of E2F transcription factors has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer. Overexpression or hyperactivation of activator E2Fs can lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, while loss of function or inhibition of repressor E2Fs can result in impaired differentiation and increased susceptibility to malignancies. Therefore, understanding the roles and regulation of E2F transcription factors is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies against cancer and other diseases associated with cell cycle dysregulation.

Cell cycle checkpoints are control mechanisms that regulate the cell cycle and ensure the accurate and timely progression through different phases of the cell cycle. These checkpoints monitor specific cellular events, such as DNA replication and damage, chromosome separation, and proper attachment of the mitotic spindle to the chromosomes. If any of these events fail to occur properly or are delayed, the cell cycle checkpoints trigger a response that can halt the cell cycle until the problem is resolved. This helps to prevent cells with damaged or incomplete genomes from dividing and potentially becoming cancerous.

There are three main types of cell cycle checkpoints:

1. G1 Checkpoint: Also known as the restriction point, this checkpoint controls the transition from the G1 phase to the S phase of the cell cycle. It monitors the availability of nutrients, growth factors, and the integrity of the genome before allowing the cell to proceed into DNA replication.
2. G2 Checkpoint: This checkpoint regulates the transition from the G2 phase to the M phase of the cell cycle. It checks for completion of DNA replication and absence of DNA damage before allowing the cell to enter mitosis.
3. Mitotic (M) Checkpoint: Also known as the spindle assembly checkpoint, this checkpoint ensures that all chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic spindle before anaphase begins. It prevents the separation of sister chromatids until all kinetochores are correctly attached and tension is established between them.

Cell cycle checkpoints play a crucial role in maintaining genomic stability, preventing tumorigenesis, and ensuring proper cell division. Dysregulation of these checkpoints can lead to various diseases, including cancer.

The Actin-Related Protein 2-3 (Arp2/3) complex is a group of seven proteins that play a crucial role in the regulation of actin dynamics within cells. The complex is composed of two actin-related proteins, Arp2 and Arp3, as well as five other subunits (ARPC1-5).

The primary function of the Arp2/3 complex is to initiate the formation of new actin filaments by nucleating and branching off from existing ones. This process helps in various cellular processes such as cell motility, cytokinesis, and vesicle trafficking. The activation of the Arp2/3 complex is tightly regulated by various proteins, including nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs), which bind to and stimulate the complex to induce actin polymerization.

Dysregulation of the Arp2/3 complex has been implicated in several human diseases, such as cancer and neurological disorders, highlighting its importance in maintaining proper cellular functions.

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are a class of proteins that selectively interact with RNA molecules to form ribonucleoprotein complexes. These proteins play crucial roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, including pre-mRNA processing, mRNA stability, transport, localization, and translation. RBPs recognize specific RNA sequences or structures through their modular RNA-binding domains, which can be highly degenerate and allow for the recognition of a wide range of RNA targets. The interaction between RBPs and RNA is often dynamic and can be regulated by various post-translational modifications of the proteins or by environmental stimuli, allowing for fine-tuning of gene expression in response to changing cellular needs. Dysregulation of RBP function has been implicated in various human diseases, including neurological disorders and cancer.

Oogenesis is the biological process of formation and maturation of female gametes, or ova or egg cells, in the ovary. It begins during fetal development and continues throughout a woman's reproductive years. The process involves the division and differentiation of a germ cell (oogonium) into an immature ovum (oocyte), which then undergoes meiotic division to form a mature ovum capable of being fertilized by sperm.

The main steps in oogenesis include:

1. Multiplication phase: The oogonia divide mitotically to increase their number.
2. Growth phase: One of the oogonia becomes primary oocyte and starts to grow, accumulating nutrients and organelles required for future development.
3. First meiotic division: The primary oocyte undergoes an incomplete first meiotic division, resulting in two haploid cells - a secondary oocyte and a smaller cell called the first polar body. This division is arrested in prophase I until puberty.
4. Second meiotic division: At ovulation or just before fertilization, the secondary oocyte completes the second meiotic division, producing another small cell, the second polar body, and a mature ovum (egg) with 23 chromosomes.
5. Fertilization: The mature ovum can be fertilized by a sperm, restoring the normal diploid number of chromosomes in the resulting zygote.

Oogenesis is a complex and highly regulated process that involves various hormonal signals and cellular interactions to ensure proper development and maturation of female gametes for successful reproduction.

Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, which remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. A catalyst lowers the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, thereby allowing the reaction to proceed more quickly and efficiently. This can be particularly important in biological systems, where enzymes act as catalysts to speed up metabolic reactions that are essential for life.

SRC homology domains, often abbreviated as SH domains, are conserved protein modules that were first identified in the SRC family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases. These domains are involved in various intracellular signaling processes and mediate protein-protein interactions. There are several types of SH domains, including:

1. SH2 domain: This domain is approximately 100 amino acids long and binds to specific phosphotyrosine-containing motifs in other proteins, thereby mediating signal transduction.
2. SH3 domain: This domain is about 60 amino acids long and recognizes proline-rich sequences in target proteins, playing a role in protein-protein interactions and intracellular signaling.
3. SH1 domain: Also known as the tyrosine kinase catalytic domain, this region contains the active site responsible for transferring a phosphate group from ATP to specific tyrosine residues on target proteins.
4. SH4 domain: This domain is present in some SRC family members and serves as a membrane-targeting module by interacting with lipids or transmembrane proteins.

These SH domains allow SRC kinases and other proteins containing them to participate in complex signaling networks that regulate various cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, and migration.

A protein subunit refers to a distinct and independently folding polypeptide chain that makes up a larger protein complex. Proteins are often composed of multiple subunits, which can be identical or different, that come together to form the functional unit of the protein. These subunits can interact with each other through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and van der Waals forces, as well as covalent bonds like disulfide bridges. The arrangement and interaction of these subunits contribute to the overall structure and function of the protein.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Cell adhesion refers to the binding of cells to extracellular matrices or to other cells, a process that is fundamental to the development, function, and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Cell adhesion is mediated by various cell surface receptors, such as integrins, cadherins, and immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules (Ig-CAMs), which interact with specific ligands in the extracellular environment. These interactions lead to the formation of specialized junctions, such as tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes, that help to maintain tissue architecture and regulate various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Disruptions in cell adhesion can contribute to a variety of diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and degenerative disorders.

Staurosporine is an alkaloid compound that is derived from the bacterium Streptomyces staurosporeus. It is a potent and broad-spectrum protein kinase inhibitor, which means it can bind to and inhibit various types of protein kinases, including protein kinase C (PKC), cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and tyrosine kinases.

Protein kinases are enzymes that play a crucial role in cell signaling by adding phosphate groups to other proteins, thereby modulating their activity. The inhibition of protein kinases by staurosporine can disrupt these signaling pathways and lead to various biological effects, such as the induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death) and the inhibition of cell proliferation.

Staurosporine has been widely used in research as a tool to study the roles of protein kinases in various cellular processes and diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammation. However, its use as a therapeutic agent is limited due to its lack of specificity and high toxicity.

Tumor suppressor protein p53, also known as p53 or tumor protein p53, is a nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer development and maintaining genomic stability. It does so by regulating the cell cycle and acting as a transcription factor for various genes involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death), DNA repair, and cell senescence (permanent cell growth arrest).

In response to cellular stress, such as DNA damage or oncogene activation, p53 becomes activated and accumulates in the nucleus. Activated p53 can then bind to specific DNA sequences and promote the transcription of target genes that help prevent the proliferation of potentially cancerous cells. These targets include genes involved in cell cycle arrest (e.g., CDKN1A/p21), apoptosis (e.g., BAX, PUMA), and DNA repair (e.g., GADD45).

Mutations in the TP53 gene, which encodes p53, are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers. These mutations often lead to a loss or reduction of p53's tumor suppressive functions, allowing cancer cells to proliferate uncontrollably and evade apoptosis. As a result, p53 has been referred to as "the guardian of the genome" due to its essential role in preventing tumorigenesis.

A "cell line, transformed" is a type of cell culture that has undergone a stable genetic alteration, which confers the ability to grow indefinitely in vitro, outside of the organism from which it was derived. These cells have typically been immortalized through exposure to chemical or viral carcinogens, or by introducing specific oncogenes that disrupt normal cell growth regulation pathways.

Transformed cell lines are widely used in scientific research because they offer a consistent and renewable source of biological material for experimentation. They can be used to study various aspects of cell biology, including signal transduction, gene expression, drug discovery, and toxicity testing. However, it is important to note that transformed cells may not always behave identically to their normal counterparts, and results obtained using these cells should be validated in more physiologically relevant systems when possible.

... appears to act as a regulatory protein interacting with many other proteins at multiple points in the cell cycle. It is ... CDC20 is a protein related to the beta subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. Near its C-terminus it contains seven WD40 repeats ... CDC20, along with a handful of other Cdc proteins, was discovered in the early 1970s when Hartwell and colleagues made cell- ... The cell division cycle protein 20 homolog is an essential regulator of cell division that is encoded by the CDC20 gene in ...
Fang G, Yu H, Kirschner MW (1998). "The checkpoint protein MAD2 and the mitotic regulator CDC20 form a ternary complex with the ... Fang G, Yu H, Kirschner MW (June 1998). "The checkpoint protein MAD2 and the mitotic regulator CDC20 form a ternary complex ... Mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAD2L1 gene. MAD2L1 is a ... "Structure of the Mad2 spindle assembly checkpoint protein and its interaction with Cdc20". Nat. Struct. Biol. 7 (3): 224-9. doi ...
CDC4 and CDC20, an activator of APC, interact genetically. Cdc4 recruits several other substrates than Sic1 to the SCF core ... This results in proteins that differ only at their N-termini. Cdc4 protein interacts with Cdc34, an ubiquitin-conjugating ... Cdc4 (cell division control protein 4) is a substrate recognition component of the SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) ubiquitin ... Thus, Sic1 protein degradation is necessary to enter S-phase. SCF (Cdc4) complex's regulatory function concerning S-phase entry ...
"Activation of the human anaphase-promoting complex by proteins of the CDC20/Fizzy family". Current Biology. 8 (22): 1207-10. ... a protein domain important for protein-protein interaction. This protein was shown to interact with mitotic checkpoint proteins ... Cell division cycle protein 27 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDC27 gene. The protein encoded by this ... This protein is a component of anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which is composed of eight protein subunits and highly ...
Fang G, Yu H, Kirschner MW (August 1998). "Direct binding of CDC20 protein family members activates the anaphase-promoting ... Fizzy-related protein homolog, also known as hCDH1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FZR1 gene. FZR1 has been ... "Activation of the human anaphase-promoting complex by proteins of the CDC20/Fizzy family". Current Biology. 8 (22): 1207-S4. ... "Activation of the human anaphase-promoting complex by proteins of the CDC20/Fizzy family". Current Biology. 8 (22): 1207-10. ...
Involved in regulation of mitotic checkpoint protein complex via phosphorylation of CDC20 and MAD2L1. Plays an active role in ... a novel centrosomal coiled-coil protein and candidate substrate of the cell cycle-regulated protein kinase Nek2". J. Cell Biol ... a cell-cycle-regulated protein kinase localized to centrosomes, is complexed to protein phosphatase 1". Biochem. J. 349 (Pt 2 ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase Nek2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NEK2 gene. NEK2 has been shown to interact ...
Amon's team demonstrated that CDC20 is the target protein in the spindle checkpoint during mitosis. Amon's more recent work has ... More specifically, she demonstrated that CDC28 protein kinase is not required for the metaphase to anaphase transition and CLB2 ... Vistinin, Rosella; Prinz, Susanne; Amon, Angelika (1997). "CDC20 and CDH1: A Family of Substrate-Specific Activators of APC- ... and interference with protein biosynthesis. Amon has also examined trisomy in the mouse as a model of mammalian cell growth and ...
Cyclin-A1 interacts with: CDC20, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, E2F1, GNB2L1, GPS2, MYBL2, and Retinoblastoma protein. GRCh38: ... Cyclin-A1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNA1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... Wang H, Shao N, Ding QM, Cui J, Reddy ES, Rao VN (1997). "BRCA1 proteins are transported to the nucleus in the absence of serum ... This cyclin was found to bind to important cell cycle regulators, such as Rb family proteins, transcription factor E2F1, and ...
Fang G, Yu H, Kirschner MW (August 1998). "Direct binding of CDC20 protein family members activates the anaphase-promoting ... Mitotic checkpoint protein BUB3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BUB3 gene. Bub3 is a protein involved with the ... The complex of proteins which regulate the cell arrest are BUB1, BUB2, BUB3 (this protein), Mad1, Mad2, Mad3 and MPS1. At ... a protein kinase). When the SAC is activated, the production of the Bub3-Cdc20 complex is activated. After kinetochore ...
"Speriolin is a novel spermatogenic cell-specific centrosomal protein associated with the seventh WD motif of Cdc20". The ... Sclerostin domain-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SOSTDC1 gene. This gene is a member of the ... This protein functions as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist. Specifically, it directly associates with BMPs, ... a bone morphogenetic protein antagonist abundantly expressed in the kidney". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ...
The APC is activated by CDC20, a protein that is silenced by the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). Of interest in relation to ... TRIP13/PCH2 also functions as a kinetochore protein that interacts with the silencing protein p31-Comet. Meiosis in mammalian ... "Protein-protein interaction panel using mouse full-length cDNAs". Genome Research. 11 (10): 1758-65. doi:10.1101/gr.180101. PMC ... Evidence shows that TRIP13/PCH2 uses p31-Comet as an adaptor protein to convert C-Mad2 into O-Mad2. However, the connection ...
"The anaphase inhibitor Pds1 binds to the APC/C-associated protein Cdc20 in a destruction box-dependent manner". Current Biology ... Securin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PTTG1 gene. The encoded protein is a homolog of yeast securin proteins, ... Pei L (Jan 1999). "Pituitary tumor-transforming gene protein associates with ribosomal protein S10 and a novel human homologue ... "Pituitary tumor-transforming gene protein associates with ribosomal protein S10 and a novel human homologue of DnaJ in ...
It is hypothesized that spindle checkpoint proteins that inhibit APC/CCdc20 only associate with a subset of the Cdc20 ... Cdc20 can still be phosphorylated and bind to APC/C, but bound Emi1 blocks Cdc20's interaction with APC targets. Emi1 ... These TPR subunits, Cdc16, Cdc27, Cdc23, and Apc5, mainly provide scaffolding and support to mediate other protein-protein ... Cdc20 and Cdh1 are the two activators of particular importance to the cell cycle. These proteins target the APC/C to specific ...
The encoded protein is required for proper protein ubiquitination function of APC/C and for the interaction of APC/C with ... ANAPC7 has been shown to interact with ANAPC1, ANAPC4, CDC27 and CDC20. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000196510 - Ensembl, ... Gmachl M, Gieffers C, Podtelejnikov AV, Mann M, Peters JM (August 2000). "The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme ... 2000). "The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase- ...
A protein called hMAD2 can form an inactive trimer with APC and CDC20, forming the hMAD2-CDC-APC complex. Upon the ... coordinate the cellular localisation of proteins; activate and inactivate proteins; and modulate protein-protein interactions. ... coordinate the cellular localisation of proteins; activate and inactivate proteins; and modulate protein-protein interactions. ... Fang G, Yu H, Kirschner MW (June 1998). "The checkpoint protein MAD2 and the mitotic regulator CDC20 form a ternary complex ...
When STAU1 protein interacts with APC/C adapter proteins Cdc20 and Cdh1, proteasomal degradation is promoted in mitotic cells. ... Double-stranded RNA-binding protein Staufen homolog 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STAU1 gene. Staufen is a ... Monshausen M, Rehbein M, Richter D, Kindler S (2002). "The RNA-binding protein Staufen from rat brain interacts with protein ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ...
This protein and two other APC complex proteins, CDC23 and CDC27, contain a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR), a protein domain ... CDC16 has been shown to interact with CDC27 and CDC20. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000130177 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ... This gene encodes a component protein of the APC complex, which is composed of eight proteins and functions as a protein ... Cell division cycle protein 16 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDC16 gene. ...
BubR1 and Bub3 can also form complexes with Cdc20, but it remains to be seen if these proteins facilitate Cdc20 binding to Open ... Mad2 uses the same site to bind either Mad1 or Cdc20 and, thus, can only bind one of the two proteins at a time. Since ... Binding partners of Mad2 include either Cdc20 or Mad1. Mad1 and Cdc20 bind Mad2 in an identical fashion. ... APCCdc20 is a ubiquitin-protein ligase that tags the protein, securin, for destruction. Securin destruction liberates and ...
Destruction of Clb5 and Clb6 is usually mediated by APC-Cdc20. Studies have also shown that cells lacking Clb5 and Clb6 have ... Clb5, in particular, has unique hydrophobic section of amino acids that allows specific interactions with proteins in the pre- ... During S-phase, Clb5 and Clb6 are simultaneously expressed with other genes encoding proteins required for individual DNA ... These gene regulatory proteins control G1/S genes, and their negative regulation assists in shutting off expression of G1 ...
CDC20 and the SAC proteins concentrate at the kinetochores before attachment to the spindle assembly. These proteins keep the ... In human cells, binding of BUBR1 to CDC20 requires prior binding of MAD2 to CDC20, so it is possible that the MAD2-CDC20 ... Phosphorylated Spc105 is then able to recruit the downstream signaling proteins Bub1 and 3; Mad 1,2, and 3; and Cdc20. ... Securin is recognized only if Cdc20, the activator subunit, is bound to the APC/C core. When securin, Cdc20, and E2 are all ...
The N-terminal region mediates binding of Hs-BUB1 to the mitotic kinetochore protein blinkin (a protein also commonly referred ... Tang Z, Shu H, Oncel D, Chen S, Yu H (Nov 2004). "Phosphorylation of Cdc20 by Bub1 provides a catalytic mechanism for APC/C ... Bub1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase first identified in genetic screens of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The protein is bound ... The protein kinase Bub1 possesses versatile and distinct functions during the cell cycle, mainly in the SAC and chromosome ...
This protein is similar to xenopus early mitotic inhibitor-1 (Emi1), which is a mitotic regulator that interacts with Cdc20 and ... F-box only protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FBXO5 gene. This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein ... and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this ... The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of the ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box ...
... proteins including Mad and Bub inhibit APC-Cdc20 to delay entry into anaphase and B-type cyclin degradations. In addition, when ... APC in association with Cdc20 (APC-Cdc20) ubiquitinates and targets mitotic cyclins (Clb2) for degradation at initial phase. ... Cdc20 and Cdh1, which are the activators of APC, recruit substrates such as securin and B-type cyclins(Clb) for ubiquitination ... This allows for the transcription of S phase genes encoding for proteins that amplify the G1 to S phase switch. Many different ...
... proteins including Mad and Bub inhibit APC-Cdc20 to delay entry into anaphase and B-type cyclin degradations. In addition, when ... APC in association with Cdc20 (APC-Cdc20) ubiquitinates and targets mitotic cyclins (Clb2) for degradation at initial phase. ... Cdc20 and Cdh1, which are the activators of APC, recruit substrates such as securin and B-type cyclins(Clb) for ubiquitination ... feedback loop is initiated from APC-Cdc20-dependent degradation of Cdk1-Clb2 and release of Cdc14 from nucleolar protein Net1/ ...
This second c-MAD2 is transferred to Cdc20 with yet unknown mechanism and forms Cdc20-c-Mad2 complex. This complex is an ... Mad1 is a non-essential protein which in yeast has a function in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). This checkpoint ... show that Mad1 functions such as to slow down the rate of Mad2-Cdc20 complex formation and therefore acts as a competitive ... In vivo, Mad1 acts as a competitive inhibitor of the Mad2-Cdc20 complex. Mad1 is phosphorylated by Mps1 which then leads ...
This is usually achieved by mutations in the p53 protein or by loss of the chromosome region that contains the genetic code for ... Cdc20, BubR1, and Bub3 in humans. When the mitotic checkpoint complex is formed, it binds to the anaphase promoting complex and ... p53 acts to prevent the propagation of tumor cells and is considered a major tumor suppressor protein. p53 works by either ... Unattached kinetochores promote the formation of the mitotic checkpoint complex which is composed of four different proteins ...
Securin is a protein which inhibits a protease known as separase. The destruction of securin unleashes separase which then ... Interphase Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Telophase Cytoskeleton Anaphase I Anaphase II Cdc20 "Chromosome condensation through ... Microtubules attach to the midpoint of chromosomes (the centromere) via protein complexes (kinetochores). The attached ... and by motor proteins such as dyneins or kinesins. Anaphase accounts for approximately 1% of the cell cycle's duration. It ...
At this moment, the checkpoint proteins that bind to and inhibit Cdc20 (Mad1-Mad2 and BubR1), release Cdc20, which binds and ... and the spindle checkpoint proteins (such as Mad1, Mad2, BubR1 and Cdc20). These proteins assemble on the kinetochore in high ... KNL/KBP proteins (kinetochore-null/KNL-binding protein), MIS proteins and CENP-F. Together with the constitutive components, ... Other proteins in the kinetochore adhere it to the microtubules (MTs) of the mitotic spindle. There are also motor proteins, ...
HDAC2 is broadly regulated by protein kinase 2 (CK2) and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), but biochemical analysis suggests its ... Histone deacetylase 2 has been shown to interact with: Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related, BUB3, CDC20, CDH1, CHD3, CHD4, ... Yao YL, Yang WM (October 2003). "The metastasis-associated proteins 1 and 2 form distinct protein complexes with histone ... This protein also forms transcriptional repressor complexes by associating with many different proteins, including YY1, a ...
... exotoxins secreted by bacteria Cell-division cycle in biology cdc20 cdc25 Cdc42, cell-division cycle protein Complement- ...
Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins from Reactome. ...
Proteins, cDNA and ELISA Kits. We also illustrate the related signaling pathways covering most research areas so that you can ... CDC20. CDC20. Cell division cycle protein 20 homolog is a protein in humans that is encoded by CDC20 gene. Required for full ... CDC20 Proteins. CDC20 Proteins for Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c) (Bakers yeast) ... Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae APC/C activator protein CDC20 (CDC20), partial. Yeast. E.coli. Baculovirus. Mammalian cell ...
CDC20 appears to act as a regulatory protein interacting with many other proteins at multiple points in the cell cycle. It is ... CDC20 is a protein related to the beta subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. Near its C-terminus it contains seven WD40 repeats ... CDC20, along with a handful of other Cdc proteins, was discovered in the early 1970s when Hartwell and colleagues made cell- ... The cell division cycle protein 20 homolog is an essential regulator of cell division that is encoded by the CDC20 gene in ...
The small protein ubiquitin plays a vital role in virtually all aspects of cellular life. Among the diverse signaling outcomes ... Mitotic regulation of the APC activator proteins CDC20 and CDH1. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 2000;. 11. :1555-1569. ... F-box proteins rely on an F-box domain to interact with an adaptor protein termed Skp1, which bridges F-box proteins to Cul1 ( ... lead to diverse signaling outputs by altering protein-protein interactions, protein localization, enzyme activity, etc. This ...
Cdc20/Fizzy subfamily WD repeat protein. GO Process (0). GO Function (0) ... Search BioGRID for SARS-CoV-2 Protein Interactions , Download SARS-CoV-2 and Coronavirus-Related Interactions ...
Cell-division cycle protein 20 homologue (CDC20) is a key regulator of APC/C function in mitosis. The formation of the APC/ ... Protein biochemistry and membrane targeting including protein-protein interactions, protein-membrane interactions, protein ... It was suggested that RTN proteins form protein complexes with proteins in the PD plasma membrane and desmotubule to stabilize ... and can therefore give information on protein-protein interactions as well as the membrane topology of the tested protein. ...
2001) Cortex, a Drosophila gene required to complete oocyte meiosis, is a member of the Cdc20/fizzy protein family Genesis 29: ... 2007) The Cdc20 (Fzy)/Cdh1-related protein, Cort, cooperates with Fzy in cyclin destruction and anaphase progression in meiosis ... 2004) Drosophila Cup is an eIF4E-binding protein that functions in Smaug-mediated translational repression The EMBO Journal 23: ... 2008) The zinc-finger protein Zelda is a key activator of the early zygotic genome in Drosophila Nature 456:400-403. ...
5. APC/C(Cdc20) controls the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p21 in prometaphase. Mol Cell 2007 Aug 3;27(3):462-73. 6. The ... Characterization of PTEN protein showed that it is a phosphatase that acts on proteins and on 3-phosphorylated ... 4. Structural basis for ubiquitin-mediated dimerization and activation of the ubiquitin protein ligase Cbl-b. Mol Cell 2007 Aug ...
Centromere-associated protein-E (CENP-E) is an essential mitotic kinesin that is required for efficient, stable microtubule ... Protein expression and purification Cdc20, hBubR1, and BubR1 kinase-dead (K795R) in pFB-NHis10-HA vectors for baculovirus ... The checkpoint protein MAD2 and the mitotic regulator CDC20 form a ternary complex with the anaphase-promoting complex to ... The checkpoint protein MAD2 and the mitotic regulator CDC20 form a ternary complex with the anaphase-promoting complex to ...
... while the APC-cdc20 is activated to degrade its substrate proteins including cyclin B and securin (the red APC-cdc20 stands for ... 2.3.2. The roles of DNA replication initiation proteins in RNA transcription. It has been noticed that MCM proteins are ... It is likely that this subset of proteins, mostly the DNA replication licensing proteins including ORC1, ORC2, MCM5 and geminin ... Besides, DNA replication initiation proteins such as MCM proteins are involved in RNA transcription and might coordinate RNA ...
CDC20 Recombinant Protein (Human). RP006472 ABM 100 ug. Ask for price CDC20 Recombinant Protein (Human). ... Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike S1-Fc fusion protein. Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike S1-Fc fusion protein induced excessive ranges ... SOD2 protein is fused to a 20 amino acid His-Tag at N-terminus and purified by standard chromatography. ... The usage of recombinant hemagglutinin (HA), a key virus floor protein, as an antigen is a sexy candidate different method, due ...
For example, after PRPF8 depletion there is decreased expression of CDC20 and separase proteins (whose transcripts are enriched ... Structure of a multipartite protein-protein interaction domain in splicing factor prp8 and its link to retinitis pigmentosa. ... CDC20 and Separase), and alternative terminal exons (APC8). RT-PCR analysis of CDC20, Separase, and APC8 using the primers ... Enhancement of 3′ splice-site strength renders the CDC20 mini-gene resistant to PRPF8 depletion. a A mini-gene containing a ...
b-f) The protein expression levels of SNAI2, β-catenin, p-GSK-3β, and GSK-3β. meant . ... Hippo regulates growth and progenitor genes like Sox2, Snai2, Ccdn1, Cdc20, and l-Myc in cardiomyocytes. In livers ... The related proteins were isolated from the total proteins by polyacrylamide gel and then were transferred on the PVDF ... were added into the cells for the extraction of the total proteins, and the concentration of the total proteins was measured by ...
Silencing of ENKUR by shRNA in CD34+ derived megakaryocytes further confirm this association with CDC20 at both RNA and protein ... CXCL14 protein levels were elevated in mice after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. In vivo, CXCL14 blockade ... Impaired protein homeostasis, though well established in age-related disorders, has been linked in recent research with the ... Importantly, we identify a novel role in MPNs for enkurin (ENKUR), a calcium mediator protein, implicated originally only in ...
Molecular structure of human synaptonemal complex protein SYCE1. Dunne, O. M. & Davies, O. R., 1 Sept 2019, In: Chromosoma. 128 ... Defining the molecular basis of BubR1 kinetochore interactions and APC/C-CDC20 inhibition. DArcy, S., Davies, O. R., Blundell ... A molecular model for self-assembly of the synaptonemal complex protein SYCE3. Dunne, O. M. & Davies, O. R., 7 Jun 2019, In: ... Obtaining tertiary protein structures by the ab initio interpretation of small angle X-ray scattering data. Prior, C., Davies, ...
The centrosomal protein RAS association domain family protein 1A (RASSF1A)-binding protein 1 regulates mitotic progression by ... It also increased the extent of association between RASSF1A and Cdc20. Conversely depletion of RABP1 by RNA interference ... This protein, here redesignated RASSF1A-binding protein 1 (RABP1), contains two microtubule-associated protein domains, and its ... The protein RAS association domain family protein 1A (RASSF1A), which is encoded by a gene that is frequently silenced in many ...
BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3-like homodimer (mouse). ... Protein Ontology Hierarchy. (Note that the implicit relationship is is_a, whereas indicates derives_from relationship.). ...
Bub1b, Cdc20, Arid1A, Smarca5. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation with DAZL from UV-cross linked mouse testicular extracts ... DAZ family associated proteins. DAZ family proteins interact with several types of proteins including DAZ associated protein ( ... DAZ family proteins are central RNA binding proteins in this process. These proteins appear to be associated with common ... 2) DAZL proteins might interact with PUM2 protein, forming a stable complex able to inhibit mRNA translation. (3) DAZL proteins ...
2 IN MAD1 AND CDC20. COMPND MOL_ID: 1; COMPND 2 MOLECULE: MITOTIC SPINDLE ASSEMBLY CHECKPOINT PROTEIN MAD2A; COMPND 3 CHAIN: A ... MAD1-LIKE PROTEIN COMPND 13 1,MITOTIC CHECKPOINT MAD1 PROTEIN HOMOLOG,HMAD1,TAX-BINDING PROTEIN COMPND 14 181; COMPND 15 ... B, C, D; COMPND 4 SYNONYM: HSMAD2,MITOTIC ARREST DEFICIENT 2-LIKE PROTEIN 1,MAD2-LIKE COMPND 5 PROTEIN 1; COMPND 6 ENGINEERED: ... REMARK 3 PROTEIN ATOMS : 9300 REMARK 3 NUCLEIC ACID ATOMS : 0 REMARK 3 HETEROGEN ATOMS : 0 REMARK 3 SOLVENT ATOMS : 628 REMARK ...
APC/C-mediated degradation of cell cycle proteins (Bos taurus) * Conversion from APC/C:Cdc20 to APC/C:Cdh1 in late anaphase ( ... Protein localization (Bos taurus) * * Peroxisomal protein import (Bos taurus) * USP9X hydrolyzes Ub:PEX5L yielding PEX5L and ... G-protein mediated events (Bos taurus) * PLC beta mediated events (Bos taurus) * Ca-dependent events (Bos taurus) * CaM pathway ... Metabolism of proteins (Bos taurus) * * Peptide hormone metabolism (Bos taurus) * Metabolism of Angiotensinogen to Angiotensins ...
Cdc20/Fizzy subfamily WD repeat protein.... 0.04. OF. SPBC1198.12.1. No alias. fizzy-related protein Mfr1 [Source:PomBase;Acc: ... cell division control protein;WD domain, G-beta.... 0.03. OF. CAK37325. No alias. Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 4 WD40 ...
Protein Name. Uniprot ID. Gene Name Synonym. PDB Codes. 1. wr7. CDC20. Cell division cycle protein 20 homolog. Q12834. 4n14. ... F-box/WD repeat-containing protein 1A. Q9Y297. BTRCP FBW1A FBXW1A. 6m90. ... WD repeat-containing protein 5. P61964. BIG3. 6dak. ... Polycomb protein EED. O75530. 5gsa, 5wuk. 6. lqe. EED. Polycomb ... WD repeat-containing protein 5. P61964. BIG3. 6dai. 31. g1y. WDR5. ...
Target protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. In this network, nodes represent proteins, empty nodes represent proteins of ... The results of transcriptome analysis in our research revealed that genes related to the synthesis of cohesin like Cdc20, Pttg ... Target protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. In this network, nodes represent proteins, empty nodes represent proteins of ... Finally, the analysis data was imported into Cytoscape3.2.1 software to construct the protein-protein interaction network (PPI ...
... proteins, experimentally-verified interactions and signaling pathways involved in the innate immune response of humans, mice ... APC/C:Cdh1 mediated degradation of Cdc20 and other APC/C:Cdh1 targeted proteins in late mitosis/early G1 pathway ... Activation of APC/C and APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins pathway ... regulation of protein catabolic process GO:0042590 antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC ...
... provides insight on the genes and proteins that play a role in regulating Cln5-dependent processes, and sheds light on the ... while genes linked to protein and carbohydrate catabolism were affected during early development. We followed up this analysis ... while genes linked to protein and carbohydrate catabolism were affected during early development. We followed up this analysis ... During growth, genes associated with protein ubiquitination/deubiquitination, cell cycle progression, and proteasomal ...
Cdc20/Fzy and Cdh1/Fzr are substrate-specific APC/C activators. The level of mammalian Cdh1 is high in mitosis, but it is ... The unfolded protein response affects readthrough of premature termination codons. Oren, Yifat S; McClure, Michelle L; Rowe, ... Dynein arm proteins were either absent or mislocalized to the cytoplasm in airway epithelial cells from a primary ciliary ... The effect of highly potent ASO candidates on the splicing pattern, protein maturation and CFTR function was further analyzed ...
APC/C:Cdh1 mediated degradation of Cdc20 and other APC/C:Cdh1 targeted proteins in late mitosis/early G1 ... A database to provide information about the known and explored therapeutic protein and nucleic acid targets, the targeted ... The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY in 2016: towards curated quantitative interactions between 1300 protein targets and 6000 ...
... bound to Cell division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), and ends upon mitotic exit mediated by APC/C bound to CDC20 homolog 1 (CDH1). ... The cellular protein-protein interaction network that governs cellular proliferation (cell cycle) is highly complex. Here, we ... Progression through mitosis is driven by a complex set of protein-protein interaction reactions and their regulations that ... inclusion of synthesis and process-dependent degradation of mitotic proteins; and (4) inclusion of the APC/C, CDC20 and CDH1 ...
Anaphase-promoting complex that intertwine with fields like Immunoprecipitation, Activator, Cdc20 Proteins and Polo kinase. As ... and may sometimes address concerns connected to Drosophila Protein, Transcription and Protein turnover. His DNA replication ... The Cell cycle study combines topics in areas such as Ploidy, Mitosis, Drosophila Protein and Cell fate determination. His work ... Mei-S332, a Drosophila protein required for sister-chromatid cohesion, can localize to meiotic centromere regions. ...
His cdc20 and BUBR1 were expressed in a baculovirus system. Proteins Were Ni NTA affinity Tschromatographie using standard ... Next Downstream rts RTS RTS, other proteins How I k B kinase ? subtypes mTOR, a protein kinase C ? and several anti-apoptotic ... MicroRNAs bind to protein-coding small RNAs that regulate mRNAs and also seem important players in the regulation of DNA repair ... Ras proteins Are low molecular weight guanosine nucleotide binding GTPases that play an r Essential role in cell growth and ...
  • However, the most important interaction of CDC20 is with the Anaphase Promoting Complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The model starts at mitotic entry initiated by the activities of Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), transitions through Anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) bound to Cell division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), and ends upon mitotic exit mediated by APC/C bound to CDC20 homolog 1 (CDH1). (pharmafocusasia.com)
  • Anaphase-promoting complex that intertwine with fields like Immunoprecipitation, Activator, Cdc20 Proteins and Polo kinase. (research.com)
  • The Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase mediates degradation of cell cycle proteins during mitosis and G1. (biu.ac.il)
  • Blocks substrate-mediated Cdc20 loading onto the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). (tocris.com)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome is a multi-subunit E3 protein ubiquitin ligase that regulates important events in mitosis, such as the initiation of anaphase and exit from telophase. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC) is an unusuallycomplicated ubiquitin ligase, composed of 13 core subunits and either oftwo loosely associated regulatory subunits, Cdc20 and Cdh1. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • A closely related protein, Cdc20homologue-1 (Cdh1) plays a complementary role in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • APC/C activity is dependent on CDC20 (and Cdh1), because CDC20 often binds the APC/C substrates directly. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, it is thought that CDC20 and Cdh1 (see below) are receptors for the KEN-box and D-box motifs on substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDC20-homologue 1 (Cdh1) plays a complementary role to CDC20 in cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • and (4) inclusion of the APC/C, CDC20 and CDH1 interactions. (pharmafocusasia.com)
  • Cdc20/Fzy and Cdh1/ Fzr are substrate-specific APC/C activators. (biu.ac.il)
  • Progression through mitosis is driven by a complex set of protein-protein interaction reactions and their regulations that change over time. (pharmafocusasia.com)
  • The Cell cycle study combines topics in areas such as Ploidy, Mitosis, Drosophila Protein and Cell fate determination. (research.com)
  • It encodes a protein that prevents separin from promoting sister chromatid separation during mitosis [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Centromere-associated protein-E (CENP-E) is an essential mitotic kinesin that is required for efficient, stable microtubule capture at kinetochores. (rupress.org)
  • Recent breakthroughs have uncovered more and more DNA replication licensing machinery proteins (ORC, Cdc6, Cdt1, geminin, etc.) functioning in other cell cycle events, including centrosome replication, mitotic events, transcription and so on. (intechopen.com)
  • It includes syntheses and multiple mechanisms of degradations of the mitotic proteins. (pharmafocusasia.com)
  • We have developed a novel integrated computational model of human mitotic cell cycle for the purpose of understanding how the human mitotic protein-protein interaction network (Fig 1A) is altered during disease. (pharmafocusasia.com)
  • Mitotic cells lacking hMDC1 exhibit markedly reduced levels of APC/C activity characterized by reduced levels of Cdc20, and a failure of Cdc20 to bind the APC/C and CREB-binding protein. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cell division cycle protein 20 homolog is a protein in humans that is encoded by CDC20 gene. (cusabio.com)
  • CDC20 is a protein related to the beta subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • K can From a variety of extracellular Ren stimuli Ren Ren signals such as growth factors, ligands for G-protein-coupled receptors, cytokines, and vitamin D3, the p85 subunit of regulation at the plasma membrane, such as catalytic subunit recruit p110 PI P2 4 5 PI converts 3.4, 5 P3. (microrna1.com)
  • These genes, encoding for RNA binding proteins, contain a highly conserved RNA recognition motif and at least one DAZ repeat encoding for a 24 amino acids sequence able to bind other mRNA binding proteins. (ijbs.com)
  • During growth, genes associated with protein ubiquitination/deubiquitination, cell cycle progression, and proteasomal degradation were affected, while genes linked to protein and carbohydrate catabolism were affected during early development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Overall, this study reveals the impact of cln5 -deficiency on gene expression in D. discoideum , provides insight on the genes and proteins that play a role in regulating Cln5-dependent processes, and sheds light on the molecular mechanisms underlying CLN5 disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also show that human CDK targets are enriched for proteins that contain clustered consensus matches and, by searching human cell cycle genes, we predict several putative CDK targets, including the human orthologs of Schizosaccharomyces pombe CDC5 (CDC5L) and S. cerevisiae Cdc20p (CDC20). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conclusions: The Brg1 mutation affected expression of various genes in mice, such as HSP90ab1, Polr2e, Cdc20, and Polr2c. (edu.pl)
  • I am committed to interdisciplinary research, and an example of the successes gained from this approach is the project with Prof A Nabok (Engineering Sheffield Hallam University) using total internal reflection ellipsometry to quantify protein-membrane interactions on native plant membranes and human cell lines. (brookes.ac.uk)
  • Program access grant to the STFC Harwell Laser Facility 'The Plant Cell Initiative: Protein interactions in the higher plant secretory pathway' 2017-2021 (approximate value of £200K). (brookes.ac.uk)
  • The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY in 2016: towards curated quantitative interactions between 1300 protein targets and 6000 ligands. (idrblab.net)
  • In order to develop a synthetic auxin signaling complex that was free from the complexities of varying protein family interactions, Keiko Torii and co-workers from the University of Washington and Nagoya University employed a bump-and-hole strategy. (garnetcommunity.org.uk)
  • The penultimate paper is led by Richard Napier from the University of Warwick and determines the parameters that define the substrates of the AUX1 protein whilst the final paper includes Cyril Zipfel (TSL) as a co-author and uses systems biology approaches to characterise the interactions between leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs). (garnetcommunity.org.uk)
  • Multiple different mechanisms inhibit Cdks in G1: Cdk inhibitor proteins are expressed, and cyclin gene expression is down-regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • M2I-1 is a protein-protein interaction inhibitor targeting the binding of Mad2 to Cdc20, an essential proteinprotein interaction (PPI) within the SAC. (americanchemicalsuppliers.com)
  • In order for CDC20 to bind the APC/C, specific APC/C subunits must be phosphorylated by Cdk1 (among other Cdks). (wikipedia.org)
  • The activity of CDKs is controlled by their binding to coactivator subunits termed Cyclins, as well as by CDK inhibitory proteins termed CKIs. (intechopen.com)
  • much remains to be learned about how CDC20 binds its substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show that cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) consensus motifs are frequently clustered in CDK substrate proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • M-2420 is a fluorescent substrate for β-secretase sites containing Swedish mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP). (americanchemicalsuppliers.com)
  • M-2420 is a fluorogenic substrate containing β-secretase site of the Swedish mutation of amyloid precursor protein (APP). (americanchemicalsuppliers.com)
  • Ubiquitin ligases catalyse the transfer of ubiquitin from the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2), to the substrate protein. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • this phenotype could be traced back to the CDC20 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 219 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database. (innatedb.com)
  • Protein kinases are critical to cellular signalling and post-translational gene regulation, but their biological substrates are difficult to identify. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To demonstrate the utility of CompNet, we have compared a (time-series) human gene-expression dataset, post-infection by two strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , overlaid on the human protein-protein interaction network. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fragile X syndrome outcomes from the absence of the FMR1 gene product-Fragile X Psychological Retardation Protein (FMRP). (ncbcs.org)
  • Near its C-terminus it contains seven WD40 repeats, which are multiple short, structural motifs of around 40 amino acids that often play a role in binding with larger protein complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process is carried out by the human spliceosome machinery, in which over 300 proteins sequentially assemble with uridine-rich small nuclear RNA molecules (U snRNAs) to form distinct small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes (snRNPs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A synthetic peptide library for benchmarking crosslinking-mass spectrometry search engines for proteins and protein complexes. (imp.ac.at)
  • Shugoshin is a Mad1/Cdc20-like interactor of Mad2. (nature.com)
  • Securin is a protein that inhibits separase, which in turn inhibits cohesin, a protein that holds sister chromatids together. (wikipedia.org)
  • This phosphorylation occurs in the active site of the plexin GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain, which in turn inhibits endogenous GAP activity toward Ras/Rap family small GTP-binding proteins by recruiting the phospho-serine/threonine-binding protein 14-3-3ε. (stanford.edu)
  • The APC/C is a large E3 ubiquitin ligase, which triggers the metaphase to anaphase transition by marking select proteins for degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • We suggest therefore that hMDC1 functionally regulates the normal metaphase-to-anaphase transition by modulating the Cdc20-dependent activation of the APC/C. (ox.ac.uk)
  • I am a plant cell biologist and protein biochemist at Oxford Brookes University with expertise in the structure and function of the plant endoplasmic reticulum (ER), membrane proteins and auxin biosynthesis using biochemical techniques as well as high-resolution live cell imaging. (brookes.ac.uk)
  • Loss of proteostasis, in itself, is traced to dysregulated mechanisms in protein folding and intracellular calcium signaling at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (stanford.edu)
  • CDC20 appears to act as a regulatory protein interacting with many other proteins at multiple points in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDC20, along with a handful of other Cdc proteins, was discovered in the early 1970s when Hartwell and colleagues made cell-division cycle mutants that failed to complete major events in the cell cycle in the yeast strain S. cerevisiae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The precise regulations of pre-RC protein levels and assembly are effective ways to prevent reassembly of de novo MCM2-7 onto the replicated origins to re-license and re-replicate the genomic DNA in the subsequent phases of the same cell cycle ( Figure 1) . (intechopen.com)
  • It has shown that miR-429 could inhibit the development of colorectal cancer via targeting in large tumor suppressor kinase (LATS2), and decreased miR-429 could promote the expression of SRY-box transcription factor 2 (SOX2) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) to attenuate the neuronal injury induced by accumulation of amyloid β -protein [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Our data reveal consistent ENKUR downregulation at both RNA and protein levels across MPN patient specimens and experimental models, with a concomitant upregulation of a cell cycle marker, CDC20. (stanford.edu)
  • cell division control protein;WD domain, G-beta. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The cellular protein-protein interaction network that governs cellular proliferation (cell cycle) is highly complex. (pharmafocusasia.com)
  • Cell cycle consists of oscillating changes in protein concentrations and activities within the cell allowing for duplication of the host genome and eventual cell division. (pharmafocusasia.com)
  • Analysis of MCL1 protein and mRNA expression in PCa tissue and primary cell culture specimens of luminal and basal origin, respectively, reveals higher expression in cancerous tissue compared to benign origin. (oncotarget.com)
  • Within this network of PPI, we found that the heat shock protein 90 alpha (cytosolic), class B member 1 (HSP90ab1), the polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide E (Polr2e), the cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) and the polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide C (Polr2c) had higher connectivity degrees and may interact and influence each other. (edu.pl)
  • We show that the S1-Fc fusion protein is extraordinarily immunogenic, as evidenced by robust antibody titers noticed by day 7. (genoimmun.com)
  • However, like most CLN proteins, the association of CLN5 with a defined biological pathway is still under investigation. (frontiersin.org)
  • A database to provide information about the known and explored therapeutic protein and nucleic acid targets, the targeted disease, pathway information and the corresponding drugs directed at each of these targets. (idrblab.net)
  • Spermatogenesis produces haploid sperm capable of penetrating the oocyte, whereas oogenesis produces differentiated oocytes that are stockpiled with maternal nutrients, proteins, and mRNAs, and have outer layers that protect the embryo and enable fertilization. (elifesciences.org)
  • These proteins have a highly conserved RNA recognition motif (RRM) for binding target mRNAs and at least one characteristic sequence of 24 amino acids, which are termed as DAZ repeats [ 1 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Dazl can regulate the expression, transport and localization of target mRNAs of proteins which control the differentiation, growth and maturation of germ cells. (ijbs.com)
  • The human CDC20 is about 499 amino acids long, and contains at least four phosphorylation sites near the N-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdk degradation brings about lower rates of APC/C phosphorylation and thus lower rates of CDC20 binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein phosphorylation is one of the widely used posttranslational modifications that alter protein function in vivo. (stanford.edu)
  • We recently showed phosphorylation of Drosophila Plexin A by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and subsequent inhibition of plexin-mediated repulsive guidance. (stanford.edu)
  • instead of attempting to predict individual phosphorylation sites, we search for proteins that contain high densities of strong and weak consensus matches that are closely spaced in the primary amino acid sequence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The accumulation of both Cyclin and CKI proteins is tightly regulated at the level of transcription. (intechopen.com)
  • In addition, Cyclin and CKI proteins are controlled at the level of their destruction. (intechopen.com)
  • Fertilization also leads to changes in mRNA translation and protein stability, which support a period of development driven off of maternal stockpiles. (elifesciences.org)
  • The localization of DAZ family proteins suggests that they can regulate mRNA translation occurring in the cytoplasm. (ijbs.com)
  • ASO candidates showing significant exon skipping were assessed for their W1282X allele selectivity and the increase of CFTR protein maturation and function. (bvsalud.org)
  • In some invertebrate species, BOULE protein play a pivotal role in germline specification and a conserved regulatory role in meiosis. (ijbs.com)
  • Our data suggest that regulatory modules may exist in protein sequence as clusters of short sequence motifs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The APC, in conjunction with other enzymes, assembles multi-ubiquitin chains on a variety of regulatory proteins, thereby targeting them for proteolysis by the 26S proteasome. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • I took up a position at Oxford Brookes University in 2012 investigating the role of reticulon proteins in ER tubulation and viral trafficking in order to develop my international reputation in ER research and advanced imaging. (brookes.ac.uk)
  • MiRNAs are characterized by binding the 3 - UTR of special mRNA to regulate the expression of the related proteins [ 10 , 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These processes are dependent on both the APC/C and CDC20: When Cdks phosphorylate the APC/C, CDC20 can bind and activate it, allowing both the degradation of Cdks and the cleavage of cohesin. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show that it is possible to predict proteins that are likely to be targets of CDKs in S. cerevisiae by searching for proteins that contain clustered matches to the CDK consensus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protein kinases are ubiquitous components of cellular signalling networks [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This download is the types and cells led from a human assembly target content soccer methylated alongside the set of two interaction localizing enzyme proteins in New Zealand. (evakoch.com)
  • However, even after the biochemistry of the protein was eventually elucidated, the molecular role of CDC20 remained elusive until the discovery of the APC/C in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here I pursued my scientific interests in subcellular protein localisation, bioinformatics, and mathematical modelling. (brookes.ac.uk)
  • On this research, we examined the immunogenicity of CHO-expressed recombinant SARS-CoV-2 S1-Fc fusion protein in mice, rabbits, and monkeys as a possible candidate for a COVID-19 vaccine . (genoimmun.com)
  • Description: Candida Albicans (strain SC5314 / ATCC MYA-2876) Hsp90 co-chaperone Cdc37, recombinant protein. (genoimmun.com)
  • Acute loss of securin and SGO2, but not of either protein individually, resulted in separase deregulation associated with premature cohesin cleavage and cytotoxicity. (nature.com)
  • The small protein ubiquitin plays a vital role in virtually all aspects of cellular life. (intechopen.com)
  • The two main targets of the APC/C are the S/M cyclins and the protein securin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the low specificity of the CDK consensus, however, databases of protein sequences are expected to contain large numbers of matches by chance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, many of the matches in protein sequences are likely to be false-positive predictions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sturdy virus neutralizing exercise was noticed on day 14 in rabbits immunized with the S1-Fc fusion protein utilizing a pseudovirus neutralization assay. (genoimmun.com)
  • The APC/CCdc20 protein complex has two main downstream targets. (wikipedia.org)