A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is expressed primarily in neuronal tissue and may be specific for the Ha-ras homolog of the RAS PROTEINS.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc7, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc8 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc7, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc6 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A family of multisubunit protein complexes that form into large cylindrical structures which bind to and encapsulate non-native proteins. Chaperonins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to enhance the efficiency of PROTEIN FOLDING reactions and thereby help proteins reach their functional conformation. The family of chaperonins is split into GROUP I CHAPERONINS, and GROUP II CHAPERONINS, with each group having its own repertoire of protein subunits and subcellular preferences.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The origin recognition complex is a multi-subunit DNA-binding protein that initiates DNA REPLICATION in eukaryotes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
PROTEINS that specifically activate the GTP-phosphohydrolase activity of RAS PROTEINS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Proteins that specifically bind to TELOMERES. Proteins in this class include those that perform functions such as telomere capping, telomere maintenance and telomere stabilization.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It is also found in tightly-bound trimeric complex with MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 4 and MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 6.
Agents and factors that activate GTP phosphohydrolase activity.
A subcategory of guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors that are specific for RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It is also found in tightly-bound trimeric complex with MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 6 and MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 7.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A sub-class of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain an additional phosphatase activity which cleaves phosphate ester bonds on SERINE or THREONINE residues that are located on the same protein.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES whose members act in the mechanism of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by STEROID RECEPTORS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It contains a NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNAL which may provide targeting of the protein complex and an extended N-terminus which is rich in SERINE residues.
A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A family of GTP-binding proteins that were initially identified in YEASTS where they were shown to initiate the process of septation and bud formation. Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act as cytoskeletal elements that play important roles in CYTOKINESIS, cytoskeletal reorganization, BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, and membrane dynamics.
The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.
Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. Rho GTPases in turn control many aspects of cell behavior through the regulation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored. For example, amber suppressors cancel the effect of an AMBER NONSENSE MUTATION.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Enzyme activated in response to DNA DAMAGE involved in cell cycle arrest. The gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 22 at position 12.1. In humans it is encoded by the CHEK2 gene.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Separase is a caspase-like cysteine protease, which plays a central role in triggering ANAPHASE by cleaving the SCC1/RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. Cohesin holds the sister CHROMATIDS together during METAPHASE and its cleavage results in chromosome segregation.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.

Cdc20 associates with the kinase aurora2/Aik. (1/319)

Cdc20/fizzy family proteins are involved in activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, which catalyzes the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of cell cycle regulatory proteins such as anaphase inhibitors and mitotic cyclins, leading to chromosome segregation and exit from mitosis. Previous work has shown that human Cdc20 (hCdc20/p55CDC) associates with one or more kinases. We report here that Cdc20-associated myelin basic protein kinase activity peaks sharply in early M phase (embryonic cells) or in G2 phase (somatic cells). In HeLa cells, Cdc20 is associated with the kinase aurora2/Aik. Aurora2/Aik is a member of the aurora/Ipl1 family of kinases that, like Cdc20, previously has been shown to be localized at mitotic spindle poles and is involved in regulating chromosome segregation and maintaining genomic stability. The demonstration that Cdc20 is associated with aurora2/Aik suggests that some function of Cdc20 is carried out or regulated through its association with aurora2/Aik.  (+info)

Identification of frequent impairment of the mitotic checkpoint and molecular analysis of the mitotic checkpoint genes, hsMAD2 and p55CDC, in human lung cancers. (2/319)

The mitotic checkpoint is thought to be essential for ensuring accurate chromosome segregation by implementing mitotic delay in response to a spindle defect. To date, however, very little data has become available on the defects of the mitotic checkpoint in human cancer cells. In the present study, impaired mitotic checkpoint was found in four (44%) of nine human lung cancer cell lines. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of frequent impairment of the mitotic checkpoint in this leading cause of cancer deaths. As an initial step towards elucidation of the underlying mechanism, we further undertook a search for mutations in a key component of the mitotic checkpoint, known as hsMAD2, and its immediate downstream molecule, p55CDC. No such mutations were found, however, in either 21 lung cancer cell lines or 25 primary lung cancer cases, although we could identify silent polymorphisms and the transcribed and processed hsMAD2 pseudogene that was subsequently mapped at 14q21-q23. The present observations appear to warrant further investigations, such as search for alterations in other components, to better understand the molecular pathogenesis of this fatal disease, and warn against potential misinterpretation when performing mutational analyses for other cancer types based on cDNA templates.  (+info)

Regulation of APC activity by phosphorylation and regulatory factors. (3/319)

Ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of Cut2/Pds1 and Cyclin B is required for sister chromatid separation and exit from mitosis, respectively. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC) specifically ubiquitinates Cut2/Pds1 at metaphase-anaphase transition, and ubiquitinates Cyclin B in late mitosis and G1 phase. However, the exact regulatory mechanism of substrate-specific activation of mammalian APC with the right timing remains to be elucidated. We found that not only the binding of the activators Cdc20 and Cdh1 and the inhibitor Mad2 to APC, but also the phosphorylation of Cdc20 and Cdh1 by Cdc2-Cyclin B and that of APC by Polo-like kinase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase, regulate APC activity. The cooperation of the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and the regulatory factors in regulation of APC activity may thus control the precise progression of mitosis.  (+info)

Expression of the CDH1-associated form of the anaphase-promoting complex in postmitotic neurons. (4/319)

The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC) is a tightly cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin-protein ligase that targets cyclin B and other destruction box-containing proteins for proteolysis at the end of mitosis and in G1. Recent work has shown that activation of the APC in mitosis depends on CDC20, whereas APC is maintained active in G1 via association with the CDC20-related protein CDH1. Here we show that the mitotic activator CDC20 is the only component of the APC ubiquitination pathway whose expression is restricted to proliferating cells, whereas the APC and CDH1 are also expressed in several mammalian tissues that predominantly contain differentiated cells, such as adult brain. Immunocytochemical analyses of cultured rat hippocampal neurons and of mouse and human brain sections indicate that the APC and CDH1 are ubiquitously expressed in the nuclei of postmitotic terminally differentiated neurons. The APC purified from brain contains all core subunits known from proliferating cells and is tightly associated with CDH1. Purified brain APC(CDH1) has a high cyclin B ubiquitination activity that depends less on the destruction box than on the activity of mitotic APC(CDC20). On the basis of these results, we propose that the functions of APC(CDH1) are not restricted to controlling cell-cycle progression but may include the ubiquitination of yet unidentified substrates in differentiated cells.  (+info)

Mitotic regulators govern progress through steps in the centrosome duplication cycle. (5/319)

Centrosome duplication is marked by discrete changes in centriole structure that occur in lockstep with cell cycle transitions. We show that mitotic regulators govern steps in centriole replication in Drosophila embryos. Cdc25(string), the expression of which initiates mitosis, is required for completion of daughter centriole assembly. Cdc20(fizzy), which is required for the metaphase-anaphase transition, is required for timely disengagement of mother and daughter centrioles. Stabilization of mitotic cyclins, which prevents exit from mitosis, blocks assembly of new daughter centrioles. Common regulation of the nuclear and centrosome cycles by mitotic regulators may ensure precise duplication of the centrosome.  (+info)

Cdc20 protein contains a destruction-box but, unlike Clb2, its proteolysisis not acutely dependent on the activity of anaphase-promoting complex. (6/319)

Both chromosome segregation and the final exit from mitosis require a ubiquitin-protein ligase called anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome. This multiprotein complex ubiquitinates various substrates, such as the anaphase inhibitor Pds1 and mitotic cyclins, and thus targets them for proteolysis by the 26S proteasome. The ubiquitination by APC is dependent on the presence of a destruction-box sequence in the N-terminus of target proteins. Recent reports have strongly suggested that Cdc20, a WD40 repeat-containing protein required for nuclear division in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is essential for the APC-mediated proteolysis. To understand the function of CDC20, we have studied its regulation in some detail. The expression of the CDC20 gene is cell-cycle regulated such that it is transcribed only during late S phase and mitosis. Although the protein is unstable to some extent through out the cell cycle, its degradation is particularly enhanced in G1. Cdc20 contains a destruction box sequence which, when mutated or deleted, stabilizes it considerably in G1. Surprisingly, we find that while the inactivation of APC subunits Cdc16, Cdc23 or Cdc27 results in stabilization of the mitotic cyclin Clb2 in G1, the proteolytic destruction of Cdc20 remains largely unaffected. This suggests the existence of proteolytic mechanisms in G1 that can degrade destruction-box containing proteins, such as Cdc20, in an APC-independent manner.  (+info)

MAD3 encodes a novel component of the spindle checkpoint which interacts with Bub3p, Cdc20p, and Mad2p. (7/319)

We show that MAD3 encodes a novel 58-kD nuclear protein which is not essential for viability, but is an integral component of the spindle checkpoint in budding yeast. Sequence analysis reveals two regions of Mad3p that are 46 and 47% identical to sequences in the NH(2)-terminal region of the budding yeast Bub1 protein kinase. Bub1p is known to bind Bub3p (Roberts et al. 1994) and we use two-hybrid assays and coimmunoprecipitation experiments to show that Mad3p can also bind to Bub3p. In addition, we find that Mad3p interacts with Mad2p and the cell cycle regulator Cdc20p. We show that the two regions of homology between Mad3p and Bub1p are crucial for these interactions and identify loss of function mutations within each domain of Mad3p. We discuss roles for Mad3p and its interactions with other spindle checkpoint proteins and with Cdc20p, the target of the checkpoint.  (+info)

The KEN box: an APC recognition signal distinct from the D box targeted by Cdh1. (8/319)

The ordered progression through the cell cycle depends on regulating the abundance of several proteins through ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Degradation is precisely timed and specific. One key component of the degradation system, the anaphase promoting complex (APC), is a ubiquitin protein ligase. It is activated both during mitosis and late in mitosis/G(1), by the WD repeat proteins Cdc20 and Cdh1, respectively. These activators target distinct sets of substrates. Cdc20-APC requires a well-defined destruction box (D box), whereas Cdh1-APC confers a different and as yet unidentified specificity. We have determined the sequence specificity for Cdh1-APC using two assays, ubiquitination in a completely defined and purified system and degradation promoted by Cdh1-APC in Xenopus extracts. Cdc20 is itself a Cdh1-APC substrate. Vertebrate Cdc20 lacks a D box and therefore is recognized by Cdh1-APC through a different sequence. By analysis of Cdc20 as a substrate, we have identified a new recognition signal. This signal, composed of K-E-N, serves as a general targeting signal for Cdh1-APC. Like the D box, it is transposable to other proteins. Using the KEN box as a template, we have identified cell cycle genes Nek2 and B99 as additional Cdh1-APC substrates. Mutation in the KEN box stabilizes all three proteins against ubiquitination and degradation.  (+info)

The Anaphase promoting complex/ cyclosome (APC/C) is a 1.2 MDa multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that encodes broad substrate-specificity via its two co-activators Cdc20 and Cdh1 and three principal degrons: the D-box, KEN box and ABBA motif. The regulation of mitotic exit is tightly controlled by the expression and degradation of these two co-activators through stages of the cell cycle. The upregulation of Cdc20 is associated with many cancers including pancreatic, breast and cervical cancers and hepatocellular carcinomas. However, to date, no specific inhibitors of the APC/CCdc20 exist in the clinic. Only two APC/C specific compounds have been discovered: TAME/pro-TAME, which disrupts the C-terminal IR tail of Cdc20 binding to APC3, and Apcin, which disrupts substrate D-box degron binding to Cdc20. Recent studies have highlighted the need for a combination strategy to achieve full inhibition of the APC/CCdc20. We propose a new approach involving the design of constrained peptides to inhibit ...
BACKGROUND: The aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) are characterised by a high proliferation rate. The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and its co-activators Cdc20 and Cdh1 represent an important checkpoint in mitosis. Here, the role of the APC/C and its co-activators is examined in DLBCL and MCL.. METHODS: The expression and prognostic value of Cdc20 and Cdh1 was investigated using GEP data and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, the therapeutic potential of APC/C targeting was evaluated using the small-molecule inhibitor proTAME and the underlying mechanisms of action were investigated by western blot.. RESULTS: We demonstrated that Cdc20 is highly expressed in DLBCL and aggressive MCL, correlating with a poor prognosis in DLBCL. ProTAME induced a prolonged metaphase, resulting in accumulation of the APC/C-Cdc20 substrate cyclin B1, inactivation/degradation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and caspase-dependent apoptosis. In ...
The anaphase‐promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that, together with either one of its regulatory co‐activators, Cdc20 or Cdh1, targets multiple mitotic regulators for proteasomal degradation. These include cyclin B1, securin and geminin, making APC/CCdc20 a major factor in directing cell division, sister chromatid separation and DNA replication licensing (Clijsters et al., 2013; Peters, 2006; Pines, 2011). Several questions remain about how the activity of APC/CCdc20 is controlled in mitosis. Phosphorylation of the APC/C by mitotic kinases at the end of prophase leads to an increased affinity for Cdc20 (Kramer et al., 2000; Yudkovsky et al., 2000). The formation of the complex between the APC/C and co‐activator probably induces a conformational change that activates the APC/C (Dube et al., 2005; Kimata et al., 2008), perhaps by facilitating the recruitment of the E2 enzyme UbcH10 (Chang et al., 2014; Van Voorhis and Morgan, 2014). Cdc20 also acts as an APC/C ...
S. Mosalaganti, J. Keller, A. Altenfeld, M. Winzker, P. Rombaut, M. Saur, A. Petrovic, A. Wehenkel, S. Wohlgemuth, F. Müller, S. Maffini, T. Bange, F. Herzog, H. Waldmann, S. Raunser, A. Musacchio: Structure of the RZZ complex and molecular basis of its interaction with Spindly. J Cell Biol. 2017, 216:961-981.. A. C. Faesen, M. Thanasoula, S. Maffini, C. Breit, F. Müller, S. van Gerwen, T. Bange, A. Musacchio: Basis of catalytic assembly of the mitotic checkpoint complex. Nature. 2017, 542:498-502.. D. Pan, K. Klare, A. Petrovic, A. Take, K. Walstein, P. Singh, A. Rondelet, A.W. Bird, A. Musacchio: CDK-regulated dimerization of M18BP1 on a Mis18 hexamer is necessary for CENP-A loading. Elife. 2017 6. pii: e23352.. A. Petrovic, J. Keller, Y. Liu, K. Overlack, J. John, Y. Dimitrova, S. Jenni, S. van Gerwen, P. Stege, S. Wohlgemuth, P. Rombaut, F. Herzog, S.C. Harrison, I. Vetter, A. Musacchio: Structure of the MIS12 complex and molecular basis of its interaction with CENP-C at human ...
Growing roles for chromatin as a sign storage and integration platform. and assays, we demonstrate that mutations from Broxyquinoline the LXPKXLF theme abrogate polyubiquitylation of PHF8 from the APC. APC substrates are cell routine regulators typically, and in keeping with this, the increased loss of PHF8 qualified prospects to long term G2 stage and faulty mitosis. Furthermore, we offer proof that PHF8 takes on an Broxyquinoline important part in transcriptional activation of crucial G2/M genes during G2 stage. Taken collectively, these findings claim that PHF8 can be controlled by APCcdc20 and takes on an important part in the G2/M changeover. Intro Proper cell department involves Broxyquinoline a coordinated series of occasions thats needed for genomic integrity highly. Failure from the cell to effectively regulate various stages from the cell routine qualified prospects to DNA harm, genomic instability, and, eventually, tumor (1). Histone adjustments are essential players in this ...
Well-timed protein degradation is a common event in the cell cycle, known to drive mitotic entry (G2/M) as well as the metaphase-to-anaphase transition (Teixeira and Reed, 2013; Bassermann et al., 2014). A frequent general question in these and other cell cycle processes is what defines the functional time window of an E3 ligase. In principle, either the activity of the E3 ligase may itself be regulated, or the substrate binding to the E3 ligase may depend on third-party factors such as kinases or scaffolding proteins. Mitosis provides a remarkable example of how an E3 ligase can be dynamically regulated, in this case to tightly coordinate the status of kinetochore-microtubule attachments with the onset of chromosome separation. It is long known that the metaphase-to-anaphase transition is driven by the E3 ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C; see Cullin-RING and APC/C E3 ligases text box), activated by its subunit CDC20 (Teixeira and Reed, 2013; Bassermann et al., 2014). High ...
p,The AAA+ family ATPase TRIP13 is a key regulator of meiotic recombination and the spindle assembly checkpoint, acting on signaling proteins of the conserved HORMA domain family. Here we present the structure of the Caenorhabditis elegans TRIP13 ortholog PCH-2, revealing a new family of AAA+ ATPase protein remodelers. PCH-2 possesses a substrate-recognition domain related to those of the protein remodelers NSF and p97, while its overall hexameric architecture and likely structural mechanism bear close similarities to the bacterial protein unfoldase ClpX. We find that TRIP13, aided by the adapter protein p31(comet), converts the HORMA-family spindle checkpoint protein MAD2 from a signaling-active closed conformer to an inactive open conformer. We propose that TRIP13 and p31(comet) collaborate to inactivate the spindle assembly checkpoint through MAD2 conformational conversion and disassembly of mitotic checkpoint complexes. A parallel HORMA protein disassembly activity likely underlies ...
Cells depleted of Plk or cdc5-1 protein arrest at multiple points of M phase. (A) Growth of cdc5Δ mutant conditionally rescued by expressing either GAL1-HA-EGF
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Childs, Ken I_KEN/0002 -- Discover Life
I logged on to this site after following a link from CDC. I was curious about CD and considering a change from LL. After reading the ridiculous opinions of...
a class=explain href=http://www.cdc.gov/emailupdates/,What's this?,/a, ,label,,span class=tp-sr-only,Submit Button,/span, ,input class=button submit name=commit type=submit value=Submit /,,/label ...
Know Can Do! Put Your Know-How Into Action - читать онлайн бесплатно без регистрации, Ken Blanchard. Электронная библиотека КучаКниг.
Explore the Bedgebury National Pinetum in Goudhurst - what to see, visiting information, and nearby historic places to explore. We love Kent Heritage!
This is by far the craziest most uncertain time I have ever experienced in my lifetime and to make things worse the FACTS keep changing
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an ubiquitin ligase that functions during mitosis. Here we identify the transcriptional regulator, transcriptional intermediary factor 1γ, TIF1γ, as an APC/C-interacting protein that regulates APC/C function. TIF1γ is not a substrate for APC/C-dependent ubiquitylation but instead, associates specifically with the APC/C holoenzyme and Cdc20 to affect APC/C activity and progression through mitosis. RNA interference studies indicate that TIF1γ knockdown results in a specific reduction in APC/C ubiquitin ligase activity, the stabilization of APC/C substrates, and an increase in the time taken for cells to progress through mitosis from nuclear envelope breakdown to anaphase. TIF1γ knockdown cells are also characterized by the inappropriate presence of cyclin A at metaphase, and an increase in the number of cells that fail to undergo metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Expression of a small interfering RNA-resistant TIF1γ species relieves the ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
We found that APCCdh1 is inactivated during S phase, and its complete inactivation requires Clb5p. Both Ase1p and Cdc20p were degraded in late G1-arrested cells containing high levels of G1 CDK activity. Cdh1p was required for the degradation of both substrates. We also found that a fraction of Cdh1p was bound to the APC/C in late G1-arrested cells. Further, the S phase cyclin Clb5p was required for the normal timing of APCCdh1 inactivation. Thus, in a normal cell cycle the additive activities of G1 and S phase CDKs inactivate APCCdh1. These findings have two implications for the design of the yeast cell cycle. First, the key role for Clb5p in APCCdh1 inactivation suggests that Clb5p has an important role in enabling the expression of mitotic cyclins. This function was previously ascribed entirely to G1 cyclins. Second, because Clb5p is degraded by APCCdc20 our finding that yeast Cdc20p is an APCCdh1 substrate suggests that high APCCdh1 activity throughout G1 may help ensure that Clb5p can ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Active Cdc42 ELISA Activation Assay - colorimetric format offers a sensitive and accurate dection of active Cdc42 GTPase. Additional assays for small GTPases including Rho, Ras, Cdc42, Rac, Ral, Arf also available in pull-down and G-LISA formats.
The CDC A-Z Index is a navigational and informational tool that makes the CDC.gov website easier to use. It helps you quickly find and retrieve specific information.
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Dr Arjun Srinivasan, the associate director of the CDC, said that the misuse and overuse of antibiotics have rendered them powerless to fight continuously evolving infections like MRSA.
Organ Nakli Merkezi, Tüp Bebek Merkezi, Havacılık Tıp Merkezi, Uyku bozuklukları Merkezi, Sigarayı bıraktırma merkezi, Poliklinik Hizmetleri ile 295 yataklı Başkent Üniversitesi Hastanesinde ve hastaneye bağlı, 90 yataklı Ayaş Fizik Tedavi ve Rehabilitasyon Merkezi ve 65 yataklı Yapracık Psiko-Sosyal Rehabilitasyon Merkezi gibi kuruluşları ile hizmetinizde..
Ad Age Editor Ken Wheaton writes that pharmaceutical marketers might end up on the wrong end of regulation if they dont rein in their excesses.
In a political twist on the old George Carlin routine, the Center for Disease Control says the Trump administration has forbidden them from using 7 words.
摘 要:胚胎干细胞的生长、增殖、分化和形状改变等过程受微环境、机械力等多种因素的影响。胚胎干细胞能够感知微小机械力刺激,并将其转化成生物化学信号,进而通过F-肌动蛋白、肌球蛋白-II、Cdc42、Rho和Src等产生一系列分子水平的应答反应,最终导致基因差异表达。胚胎干细胞应答外力基本过程的研究对于胚胎早期发育和分化机制研究、克隆和再生药物的研制与开发等均有重要意义。该文就机械力对胚胎干细胞结构、形态和分化的影响及其潜在机制等进行论述 ...
Just in time for World Breastfeeding Week (yes, there is one), the CDC has released a report (.pdf) showing that only a small percentage of U.S. hospitals - 4 …. ...
COVID-19: Keep you and your loved ones safe. Visit the CDC Guidance for Older Adults, or call 1-833-MY-Senior for resources in your area. ...
Sexually transmitted diseases are on the rise all across the U.S, according to the CDC. But which states are being hit the hardest?
CDC27 is a core component of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase, whose oscillatory activity is responsible for the metaphase-to-anaphase transition and mitotic exit. Here, in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells (NMuMG), CDC27 expression is controlled posttranscriptionally through the RNA binding protein poly(rC) binding protein 1 (PCBP1)/heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (HNRNP E1). shRNA-mediated knockdown of HNRNP E1 abrogates translational silencing of the Cdc27 transcript, resulting in constitutive expression of CDC27. Dysregulated expression of CDC27 leads to premature activation of the G2-M-APC/C-CDC20 complex, resulting in the aberrant degradation of FZR1/CDH1, a cofactor of the G1 and late G2-M-APC/C and a substrate normally reserved for the SCF-βTRCP ligase. Loss of CDH1 expression and of APC/C-CDH1 activity, upon constitutive expression of CDC27, results in mitotic aberrations and aneuploidy in NMuMG cells. ...
Entry into anaphase and proteolysis of B-type cyclins depend on a complex containing the tetratricopeptide repeat proteins Cdc16p, Cdc23p, and Cdc27p. This particle, called the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome, functions as a cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin-protein ligase. Two additional subunits of the budding yeast APC were identified: The largest subunit, encoded by the APC1 gene, is conserved between fungi and vertebrates and shows similarity to BIMEp from Aspergillus nidulans. A small heat-inducible subunit is encoded by the CDC26 gene. The yeast APC is a 36S particle that contains at least seven different proteins. ...
LOCUS NP_001131136 537 aa linear PRI 20-JUN-2020 DEFINITION anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7 isoform b [Homo sapiens]. ACCESSION NP_001131136 VERSION NP_001131136.1 DBSOURCE REFSEQ: accession NM_001137664.1 KEYWORDS RefSeq. SOURCE Homo sapiens (human) ORGANISM Homo sapiens Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo. REFERENCE 1 (residues 1 to 537) AUTHORS Wild T, Budzowska M, Hellmuth S, Eibes S, Karemore G, Barisic M, Stemmann O and Choudhary C. TITLE Deletion of APC7 or APC16 Allows Proliferation of Human Cells without the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint JOURNAL Cell Rep 25 (9), 2317-2328 (2018) PUBMED 30485802 REMARK GeneRIF: the contribution of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome subunits APC7 and APC16 to APC/C composition and function in human cells. REFERENCE 2 (residues 1 to 537) AUTHORS Boldt K, van Reeuwijk J, Lu Q, Koutroumpas K, Nguyen TM, Texier Y, van Beersum SE, ...
KT localization analysis of an extensive hSpindly mutant library consisting of truncation, insertion, deletion, and substitution constructs showed that both the coiled-coil domain II and the C terminus of hSpindly are required for KT localization (Figs. 1 and 2). Although Barisic et al. (2010) has previously shown that the 293-605-aa fragment of hSpindly did not localize to KTs, we found that this specific deletion (N3 construct) does not impair KT localization of hSpindly (Fig. 1). This discrepancy could be the result of overexpression, differences in fusion tags, or the sensitivity of the two assays. Overexpression of coiled-coil proteins often results in aggregation, which can lead to mislocalization of the protein, resulting in a false negative. Immunostaining with anti-FLAG antibody to analyze KT localization by Barisic et al. (2010) compared with GFP fusion constructs may influence the detection sensitivity and our assay is maximized for sensitivity with vinblastine treatment. Barisic et ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Considerable evidence indicates that a polo-like kinase (PLK) plays an important role in cell cycle regulation. PLK is also required for bipolar spindle formation, activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, and cytokinesis. Recent work led to the identification of a PLKK that is thought to be responsible for activation of PLK. Recent work has shown that PLKK is in turn activated by phosphorylation at three sites (Ser482, Ser486 and Ser490). Thus activation of PLK is thought to involve a kinase cascade involving the phosphorylation of Ser482,486,490 in PLKK ...
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Promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) associates with cadherin 1 (CDH1), acting as a ubiquitin ligase to down-regulate GA . The APC/C DH1 complicated targets
Distributed via the CDC Health Alert NetworkMay 25, 2018, 1130 ET (11:30 AM ET)CDC HAN-00410The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is providing information on: 1) the current status of a multistate outbreak of coagulopathy from exposure ...
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Cdc6, 0.5 ml. The replication licensing system acts to ensure that no section of the genome is replicated more than once in a single cell cycle.
The CDC says a fresh rise in the polio-like acute flaccid myelitis is puzzling, but some doctors say its no mystery. They blame a virus called EV-D68.
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By Dan Olmsted and Mark Blaxill Two years after dozens of children became paralyzed following baffling respiratory illnesses, the CDC says it has received a
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O95819 (MAP4K4) , Q5VT25 (CDC42BPA) , P41279 (MAP3K8) , Q04759 (PRKCQ) , O75116 (ROCK2) , Q13464 (ROCK1) , Q5S007 (LRRK2) , P25098 (GRK2) , P17612 (PRKACA) , Q9Y5S2 (CDC42BPB) , O94804 (STK10 ...
The number of teenagers who are drinking and driving has dropped by 54% in the past two decades, according to a new report released Tuesday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
By Jacquie Eubanks BSN, RN According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there is currently widespread or regional flu activity in every
"Activation of the human anaphase-promoting complex by proteins of the CDC20/Fizzy family". Current Biology. 8 (22): 1207-10. ... a protein domain important for protein-protein interaction. This protein was shown to interact with mitotic checkpoint proteins ... Cell division cycle protein 27 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDC27 gene. The protein encoded by this ... This protein is a component of anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which is composed of eight protein subunits and highly ...
Fang G, Yu H, Kirschner MW (August 1998). "Direct binding of CDC20 protein family members activates the anaphase-promoting ... Fizzy-related protein homolog, also known as hCDH1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FZR1 gene. FZR1 has been ... "Activation of the human anaphase-promoting complex by proteins of the CDC20/Fizzy family". Current Biology. 8 (22): 1207-S4. ... "Activation of the human anaphase-promoting complex by proteins of the CDC20/Fizzy family". Current Biology. 8 (22): 1207-10. ...
Amon's team demonstrated that CDC20 is the target protein in the spindle checkpoint during mitosis. Amon's more recent work has ... More specifically, she demonstrated that CDC28 protein kinase is not required for the metaphase to anaphase transition and CLB2 ... Vistinin, Rosella; Prinz, Susanne; Amon, Angelika (1997). "CDC20 and CDH1: A Family of Substrate-Specific Activators of APC- ... and interference with protein biosynthesis. Amon has also examined trisomy in the mouse as a model of mammalian cell growth and ...
Fang G, Yu H, Kirschner MW (1998). "The checkpoint protein MAD2 and the mitotic regulator CDC20 form a ternary complex with the ... Fang G, Yu H, Kirschner MW (June 1998). "The checkpoint protein MAD2 and the mitotic regulator CDC20 form a ternary complex ... Mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAD2L1 gene. MAD2L1 is a ... "Structure of the Mad2 spindle assembly checkpoint protein and its interaction with Cdc20". Nat. Struct. Biol. 7 (3): 224-9. doi ...
"Speriolin is a novel spermatogenic cell-specific centrosomal protein associated with the seventh WD motif of Cdc20". The ... Sclerostin domain-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SOSTDC1 gene. This gene is a member of the ... This protein functions as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist. Specifically, it directly associates with BMPs, ... a bone morphogenetic protein antagonist abundantly expressed in the kidney". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ...
The APC is activated by CDC20, a protein that is silenced by the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). Of interest in relation to ... TRIP13/PCH2 also functions as a kinetochore protein that interacts with the silencing protein p31-Comet. Meiosis in mammalian ... "Protein-protein interaction panel using mouse full-length cDNAs". Genome Research. 11 (10): 1758-65. doi:10.1101/gr.180101. PMC ... Evidence shows that TRIP13/PCH2 uses p31-Comet as an adaptor protein to convert C-Mad2 into O-Mad2. However, the connection ...
Involved in regulation of mitotic checkpoint protein complex via phosphorylation of CDC20 and MAD2L1. Plays an active role in ... a novel centrosomal coiled-coil protein and candidate substrate of the cell cycle-regulated protein kinase Nek2". J. Cell Biol ... a cell-cycle-regulated protein kinase localized to centrosomes, is complexed to protein phosphatase 1". Biochem. J. 349 (Pt 2 ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase Nek2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NEK2 gene. NEK2 has been shown to interact ...
It is hypothesized that spindle checkpoint proteins that inhibit APC/CCdc20 only associate with a subset of the Cdc20 ... Cdc20 can still be phosphorylated and bind to APC/C, but bound Emi1 blocks Cdc20's interaction with APC targets. Emi1 ... These TPR subunits, Cdc16, Cdc27, Cdc23, and Apc5, mainly provide scaffolding and support to mediate other protein-protein ... Cdc20 and Cdh1 are the two activators of particular importance to the cell cycle. These proteins target the APC/C to specific ...
Cyclin-A1 interacts with: CDC20, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, E2F1, GNB2L1, GPS2, MYBL2, and Retinoblastoma protein. GRCh38: ... Cyclin-A1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNA1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... Wang H, Shao N, Ding QM, Cui J, Reddy ES, Rao VN (1997). "BRCA1 proteins are transported to the nucleus in the absence of serum ... This cyclin was found to bind to important cell cycle regulators, such as Rb family proteins, transcription factor E2F1, and ...
Fang G, Yu H, Kirschner MW (August 1998). "Direct binding of CDC20 protein family members activates the anaphase-promoting ... Mitotic checkpoint protein BUB3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BUB3 gene. Bub3 is a protein involved with the ... The complex of proteins which regulate the cell arrest are BUB1, BUB2, BUB3 (this protein), Mad1, Mad2, Mad3 and MPS1. At ... a protein kinase). When the SAC is activated, the production of the Bub3-Cdc20 complex is activated. After kinetochore ...
"The anaphase inhibitor Pds1 binds to the APC/C-associated protein Cdc20 in a destruction box-dependent manner". Current Biology ... Securin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PTTG1 gene. The encoded protein is a homolog of yeast securin proteins, ... Pei L (Jan 1999). "Pituitary tumor-transforming gene protein associates with ribosomal protein S10 and a novel human homologue ... "Pituitary tumor-transforming gene protein associates with ribosomal protein S10 and a novel human homologue of DnaJ in ...
Destruction of Clb5 and Clb6 is usually mediated by APC-Cdc20. Studies have also shown that cells lacking Clb5 and Clb6 have ... Clb5, in particular, has unique hydrophobic section of amino acids that allows specific interactions with proteins in the pre- ... During S-phase, Clb5 and Clb6 are simultaneously expressed with other genes encoding proteins required for individual DNA ... These gene regulatory proteins control G1/S genes, and their negative regulation assists in shutting off expression of G1 ...
The N-terminal region mediates binding of Hs-BUB1 to the mitotic kinetochore protein blinkin (a protein also commonly referred ... Tang Z, Shu H, Oncel D, Chen S, Yu H (Nov 2004). "Phosphorylation of Cdc20 by Bub1 provides a catalytic mechanism for APC/C ... Bub1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase first identified in genetic screens of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The protein is bound ... The protein kinase Bub1 possesses versatile and distinct functions during the cell cycle, mainly in the SAC and chromosome ...
BubR1 and Bub3 can also form complexes with Cdc20, but it remains to be seen if these proteins facilitate Cdc20 binding to Open ... Mad2 uses the same site to bind either Mad1 or Cdc20 and, thus, can only bind one of the two proteins at a time. Since ... Binding partners of Mad2 include either Cdc20 or Mad1. Mad1 and Cdc20 bind Mad2 in an identical fashion. ... APCCdc20 is a ubiquitin-protein ligase that tags the protein, securin, for destruction. Securin destruction liberates and ...
The encoded protein is required for proper protein ubiquitination function of APC/C and for the interaction of APC/C with ... ANAPC7 has been shown to interact with ANAPC1, ANAPC4, CDC27 and CDC20. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000196510 - Ensembl, ... Gmachl M, Gieffers C, Podtelejnikov AV, Mann M, Peters JM (August 2000). "The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme ... 2000). "The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase- ...
CDC20 and the SAC proteins concentrate at the kinetochores before attachment to the spindle assembly. These proteins keep the ... In human cells, binding of BUBR1 to CDC20 requires prior binding of MAD2 to CDC20, so it is possible that the MAD2-CDC20 ... Phosphorylated Spc105 is then able to recruit the downstream signaling proteins Bub1 and 3; Mad 1,2, and 3; and Cdc20. ... Securin is recognized only if Cdc20, the activator subunit, is bound to the APC/C core. When securin, Cdc20, and E2 are all ...
This protein and two other APC complex proteins, CDC23 and CDC27, contain a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR), a protein domain ... CDC16 has been shown to interact with CDC27 and CDC20. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000130177 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ... This gene encodes a component protein of the APC complex, which is composed of eight proteins and functions as a protein ... Cell division cycle protein 16 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDC16 gene. ...
This protein is similar to xenopus early mitotic inhibitor-1 (Emi1), which is a mitotic regulator that interacts with Cdc20 and ... F-box only protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FBXO5 gene. This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein ... and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this ... The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of the ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box ...
... proteins including Mad and Bub inhibit APC-Cdc20 to delay entry into anaphase and B-type cyclin degradations. In addition, when ... APC in association with Cdc20 (APC-Cdc20) ubiquitinates and targets mitotic cyclins (Clb2) for degradation at initial phase. ... Cdc20 and Cdh1, which are the activators of APC, recruit substrates such as securin and B-type cyclins(Clb) for ubiquitination ... This allows for the transcription of S phase genes encoding for proteins that amplify the G1 to S phase switch. Many different ...
... proteins including Mad and Bub inhibit APC-Cdc20 to delay entry into anaphase and B-type cyclin degradations. In addition, when ... APC in association with Cdc20 (APC-Cdc20) ubiquitinates and targets mitotic cyclins (Clb2) for degradation at initial phase. ... Cdc20 and Cdh1, which are the activators of APC, recruit substrates such as securin and B-type cyclins(Clb) for ubiquitination ... feedback loop is initiated from APC-Cdc20-dependent degradation of Cdk1-Clb2 and release of Cdc14 from nucleolar protein Net1/ ...
At this moment, the checkpoint proteins that bind to and inhibit Cdc20 (Mad1-Mad2 and BubR1), release Cdc20, which binds and ... and the spindle checkpoint proteins (such as Mad1, Mad2, BubR1 and Cdc20). These proteins assemble on the kinetochore in high ... KNL/KBP proteins (kinetochore-null/KNL-binding protein), MIS proteins and CENP-F. Together with the constitutive components, ... Other proteins in the kinetochore adhere it to the microtubules (MTs) of the mitotic spindle. There are also motor proteins, ...
In all 277 proteins were identified to contain them. Human genes encoding proteins containing this domain include: AAAS, AAMP, ... AHI1, AMBRA1, APAF1, ARPC1A, ARPC1B, ATG16L1, BOP1, BRWD1, BRWD2, BRWD3, BTRC, BUB3, C6orf11, CDC20, CDC40, CDRT1, CHAF1B, ... Neer EJ, Schmidt CJ, Nambudripad R, Smith TF (September 1994). "The ancient regulatory-protein family of WD-repeat proteins". ... The underlying common function of all WD40-repeat proteins is coordinating multi-protein complex assemblies, where the ...
... exotoxins secreted by bacteria Cell-division cycle in biology cdc20 cdc25 Cdc42, cell-division cycle protein Complement- ...
... which is activated by Fizzy-Cdc20 family proteins, is a cell cycle ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) that degrades mitotic cyclins ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK1, also known as polo-like kinase 1 (PLK-1) or serine/threonine-protein kinase 13 (STPK13), ... The homologous motor protein in Drosophila is the pavarotti gene product (PAR). Studies have shown that the loss of PLK1 ... Plk1 localizes to the central region of the spindle in late mitosis and associates with kinesin-like protein CHO1/MKLP1. ...
Securin is a protein which inhibits a protease known as separase. The destruction of securin unleashes separase which then ... Interphase Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Telophase Cytoskeleton Anaphase I Anaphase II Cdc20 "Chromosome condensation through ... Microtubules attach to the midpoint of chromosomes (the centromere) via protein complexes (kinetochores). The attached ... and by motor proteins such as dyneins or kinesins. Anaphase accounts for approximately 1% of the cell cycle's duration. It ...
HDAC2 is broadly regulated by protein kinase 2 (CK2) and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), but biochemical analysis suggests its ... Histone deacetylase 2 has been shown to interact with: Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related, BUB3, CDC20, CDH1, CHD3, CHD4, ... Yao YL, Yang WM (October 2003). "The metastasis-associated proteins 1 and 2 form distinct protein complexes with histone ... This protein also forms transcriptional repressor complexes by associating with many different proteins, including YY1, a ...
... along with APC/C's activator protein, Cdh1. This is a result of TPX2 being bound directly by Cdh1, and not Cdc20 or any other ... Targeting protein for Xklp2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TPX2 gene. It is one of the many spindle assembly ... Yan L, Li S, Xu C, Zhao X, Hao B, Li H, Qiao B (December 2013). "Target protein for Xklp2 (TPX2), a microtubule-related protein ... When bound to microtubules, TPX2 recruits a plus-end directed motor protein, Xlp2, a protein that is required in early mitosis ...
The protein has been localized to the kinetochore and plays a role in the inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/ ... BUB1B has been shown to interact with: AP2B1, BRCA2 BUB3, CDC20, HDAC1, MAD2L1, and SNCG. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Kaplan KB, Burds AA, Swedlow JR, Bekir SS, Sorger PK, Näthke IS (2001). "A role for the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein in ... Mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine-protein kinase BUB1 beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BUB1B gene. This ...
... appears to act as a regulatory protein interacting with many other proteins at multiple points in the cell cycle. It is ... CDC20 is a protein related to the beta subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. Near its C-terminus it contains seven WD40 repeats ... CDC20, along with a handful of other Cdc proteins, was discovered in the early 1970s when Hartwell and colleagues made cell- ... The cell division cycle protein 20 homolog is an essential regulator of cell division that is encoded by the CDC20 gene in ...
Mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAD1L1 gene. MAD1L1 is also ... Sironi L, Melixetian M, Faretta M, Prosperini E, Helin K, Musacchio A (November 2001). "Mad2 binding to Mad1 and Cdc20, rather ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ... Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. MAD1L1 has been shown to interact with: ...
... which code for proteins with antiviral properties.[51] EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by ... "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 20 October 2014. Archived from the original on 22 October 2014. Retrieved 22 ... which are then translated into structural and nonstructural proteins. The most abundant protein produced is the nucleoprotein, ... EBOV replication overwhelms protein synthesis of infected cells and the host immune defences. The GP forms a trimeric complex, ...
The virus consists of four nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins.[12] The structural proteins are the capsid and ... "CDC. 20 September 2016. Archived from the original on 18 September 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2016.. ... monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 ... a nonstructural protein that degrades RBP1 and turns off the host cell's ability to transcribe DNA.[51] NS2 interferes with the ...
CDK抑制因子(英语:Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein). *INK4a/ARF(p14arf/p16、p15、p18、p19) ... "細胞分裂週期(For "cell division cycle")")跟隨著一個鑑定數字,cdc25(英语:cdc25)或cdc20(英语:cdc20)。 ... Cyclin-dependent protein kinases: key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle. BioEssays. June 1995, 17 (6): 471-80. PMID ... 细胞凋亡易
"CDC. 20 October 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2018.. *^ Canadian Paediatric Society. "Vitamin D". Caring for Kids. Retrieved 15 ... It has an optimal balance of fat, sugar, water, and protein that is needed for a baby's growth and development.[24] ... Early in a nursing session, the breasts produce foremilk, a thinner milk containing many proteins and vitamins. If the baby ... "Breastfeeding: Data: Report Card 2012: Outcome Indicators - DNPAO - CDC". 20 August 2018. Archived from the original on 7 July ...
The E6/E7 proteins inactivate two tumor suppressor proteins, p53 (inactivated by E6) and pRb (inactivated by E7).[14] The viral ... "CDC. 20 October 2016. Archived from the original on 23 March 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2017.. ... E6 produces a protein (also called E6) that binds to and inactivates a protein in the host cell called p53. Normally, p53 acts ... E6 also has a close relationship with the cellular protein E6-associated protein (E6-AP), which is involved in the ubiquitin ...
Two families of genes, the cip/kip (CDK interacting protein/Kinase inhibitory protein) family and the INK4a/ARF (Inhibitor of ... cdc25 or cdc20. Cyclins form the regulatory subunits and CDKs the catalytic subunits of an activated heterodimer; cyclins have ... Originally, a green fluorescent protein, mAG, was fused to hGem(1/110) and an orange fluorescent protein (mKO2) was fused to ... Norbury C (1995). "Cdk2 protein kinase (vertebrates)". In Hardie DG, Hanks S (eds.). Protein kinase factsBook. Boston: Academic ...
The key components of this ring are the filamentous protein actin and the motor protein myosin II. The contractile ring ... Cytokinesis happens only after APC binds with CDC20. This allows for the separation of chromosomes and myosin to work ... microtubule-bundling protein required for cytokinesis 1) and MKLP1 (a kinesin motor protein). Originally inhibited by CDK1- ... Another protein, septin, has also been speculated to serve as a structural scaffold on which the cytokinesis apparatus is ...
Among these target proteins are TACC, a microtubule-associated protein that stabilizes centrosomal microtubules and Kinesin 5, ... Farruggio DC, Townsley FM, Ruderman JV (1999). "Cdc20 associates with the kinase aurora2/Aik". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 ... protein with ch-TOG and GAS41/NuBI1 suggests multiple TACC1-containing protein complexes in human cells". Biochem. J. 363 (Pt 1 ... The MOS protein accumulates until it exceeds a threshold and then transduces the phosphorylation cascade in the map kinase ...
"Transmission Nipah Virus (NiV)". CDC. 20 March 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2018. "Diagnosis Nipah Virus (NiV)". CDC. 20 March 2014. ... A subunit vaccine using the Hendra G protein was found to produce cross-protective antibodies against both henipavirus and ... "Nipah Virus (NiV) - Treatment". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 20 March 2014. "Nipah yet to be confirmed, 86 ... "Prevention Nipah Virus (NiV)". CDC. 20 March 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2018. CNN, Manveena Suri (22 May 2018). "10 confirmed dead ...
The virus consists of four nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins. The structural proteins are the capsid and two ... "2016 provisional data for the United States". CDC. 20 September 2016. Archived from the original on 18 September 2016. ... monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 ... October 2010). "Chikungunya virus nonstructural protein 2 inhibits type I/II interferon-stimulated JAK-STAT signaling". Journal ...
Cdc48 modifies proteins structurally involved in these processes and also some ubiquitinated proteins which are thus targeted ... APC/CCDH1 targets CDC20 for proteolysis, resulting in a cellular switch from APC/CCDC20 to APC/CCDH1 activity. The ... a protein that mechanically employs its ATPase activity to alter target protein conformation. Cdc48 is necessary for spindle ... The active, CDC20-bound APC (APC/CCDC20) targets mitotic cyclins for degradation starting in anaphase. Experimental addition of ...
SMC1β, REC8 and STAG3 proteins are meiosis specific cohesins. The STAG3 protein appears to be essential for female meiosis. A ... The anaphase promoting complex associated to Cdc20 (APC/C-cdc20) marks Securin (anaphase inhibitor) for degradation by the ... Several proteins aid in the loading process. For example, Scc2 and Scc4 are both required for cohesin to load in budding yeast ... The SMC proteins are found in prokaryotes and have been conserved through evolution. The coils of SMC1 and SMC3 are conserved ...
There are no traces of egg proteins in the final product, so it is safe for people with egg allergies. Prior to the H1N1/09 ... "The Nasal-Spray Flu Vaccine (Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine [LAIV])". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 20 ... This vaccine mainly contains the killed virus but might also contain tiny amounts of egg protein and the antibiotics, ... and the broken capsule segments and released proteins are concentrated by centrifugation. The final preparation is suspended in ...
... in search of proteins". Trends in Microbiology. 18 (3): 109-16. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2009.12.005. PMC 2931330. PMID 20060722. ... CDC). 20 June 2011. Archived from the original on 4 August 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011. "Global tuberculosis report 2013". ...
CDC4 and CDC20, an activator of APC, interact genetically. Cdc4 recruits several other substrates than Sic1 to the SCF core ... This results in proteins that differ only at their N-termini. Cdc4 protein interacts with Cdc34, an ubiquitin-conjugating ... Cdc4 (cell division control protein 4) is a substrate recognition component of the SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) ubiquitin ... Thus, Sic1 protein degradation is necessary to enter S-phase. SCF (Cdc4) complex's regulatory function concerning S-phase entry ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Mad1/Cdc20-bound-Mad2 binding protein (IPR009511). Short name: MAD1/Cdc20-bound-Mad2-bd ... This entry represents Mad1 and Cdc20-bound-Mad2 binding proteins that are involved in the cell-cycle surveillance mechanism ...
Activation of the human anaphase-promoting complex by proteins of the CDC20/Fizzy family.. Kramer ER1, Gieffers C, Hölzl G, ... Human orthologs of these proteins--hCDC20/p55CDC [12] and hCDH1--have recently been found to associate with APC in a cell-cycle ... that ubiquitinates regulatory proteins such as anaphase inhibitors and mitotic cyclins [1-4]. Genetic experiments have ... The temporally distinct association of hCDC20 and hCDH1 with APC suggests that these proteins are, respectively, mitosis- ...
Is regulated by MAD2L1: in metaphase the MAD2L1-CDC20-APC/C ternary complex is inactive and in anaphase the CDC20-APC/C binary ... The CDC20-APC/C complex positively regulates the formation of synaptic vesicle clustering at active zone to the presynaptic ... CDC20-APC/C-induced degradation of NEUROD2 induces presynaptic differentiation. ... This protein is involved in the pathway protein ubiquitination, which is part of Protein modification.. View all proteins of ...
... one against the CDC20 protein, and the other against the BUB1B protein for use in in situ Proximity Ligation Assay. See ... This protein protein interaction antibody pair set comes with two antibodies to detect the protein-protein interaction, ... This protein protein interaction antibody pair set comes with two antibodies to detect the protein-protein interaction, one ... Protein protein interaction immunofluorescence result.. Representative image of Proximity Ligation Assay of protein-protein ...
The Cdc20 (Fzy)/Cdh1-related protein, Cort, cooperates with Fzy in cyclin destruction and anaphase progression in meiosis I and ... The Cdc20 (Fzy)/Cdh1-related protein, Cort, cooperates with Fzy in cyclin destruction and anaphase progression in meiosis I and ... The Cdc20 (Fzy)/Cdh1-related protein, Cort, cooperates with Fzy in cyclin destruction and anaphase progression in meiosis I and ... The Cdc20 (Fzy)/Cdh1-related protein, Cort, cooperates with Fzy in cyclin destruction and anaphase progression in meiosis I and ...
The APC/C is activated by two cofactors, Cdc20 and Cdh1. Destruction of pre-anaphase substrates is Cdc20-dependent. Cdc20 is ... 2000). Mitotic regulation of the APC activator proteins CDC20 and CDH1. Mol. Biol. Cell 11, 1555-1569. ... Cdc20 is required for the post-anaphase, KEN-dependent degradation of centromere protein F ... Cdc20 is required for the post-anaphase, KEN-dependent degradation of centromere protein F ...
Cdc20 Mediated Degradation Of Cell Cycle Proteins Prior To Satisfation Of The Cell Cycle Checkpoint Pathway Products by ... APC:Cdc20 Mediated Degradation Of Cell Cycle Proteins Prior To Satisfation Of The Cell Cycle Checkpoint Pathway ... APC:Cdc20 Mediated Degradation Of Cell Cycle Proteins Prior To Satisfation Of The Cell Cycle Checkpoint Pathway ... Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein (Slc11a1) Antibody. * Complement C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein 3 ( ...
Protein Purification and Crystallization.. Human Cdc20 proteins were expressed in insect cells and purified with affinity and ... We thus made additional Cdc20 truncation mutants Cdc20ΔN70 and Cdc20ΔN80, obtained crystals of Cdc20ΔN80 that diffracted to 2.0 ... D) Quantification of the binding between GST-BubR1N and Cdc20 WT and mutant proteins. Columns of Cdc20 mutants with less than ... Cdc20ΔN60). Cdc20ΔN60 contained all known functional motifs of Cdc20 (3), including the C box, the KEN box, and the Mad2- ...
APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins (Bos taurus) APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins (Canis ... APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins (Gallus gallus) APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins (Mus ... APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins (Sus scrofa) APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins (Xenopus ... APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins (Danio rerio) APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins ( ...
Securin mutants may reveal when Cdh1 replaces Cdc20 in mitosis. Currently, APC/CCdc20 is thought to ubiquitinate proteins with ... Direct binding of CDC20 protein family members activates the anaphase-promoting complex in mitosis and G1. Mol Cell. 2:163-171. ... cyan fluorescent protein; D-box, destruction box; FP, fluorescent protein; GFP, green fluorescent protein; YFP, yellow ... The anaphase inhibitor Pds1 binds to the APC/C-associated protein Cdc20 in a destruction box-dependent manner. Curr. Biol. 11: ...
Cell division cycle protein 20 homolog. A, B. 431. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CDC20. ... The mitotic APC/C activator, the cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) protein, directly interacts with APC/C degrons--th ... ... APC/C(Cdc20) is the target of the spindle checkpoint. Checkpoint inhibition of APC/C(Cdc20) requires the binding of a BubR1 KEN ... The mitotic APC/C activator, the cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) protein, directly interacts with APC/C degrons--the destruction ...
Mouse monoclonal Cdc20 antibody [BA8] validated for WB, ELISA, Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Referenced in 3 publications. ... Synthesis is initiated at G1/S, protein level peaks in M phase and protein is abruptly degraded at M/G1 transition. ... In metaphase the MAD2L1-CDC20-APC/C ternary complex is inactive and in anaphase the CDC20-APC/C binary complex is active in ... The cells were then incubated in 1x PBS / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3M glycine to block non-specific protein-protein ...
APC, anaphase-promoting complex; C, cytokinesis; Cdc20, cell-division cycle protein 20; Cdh1, Cdc20 homologue-1; K, ... d) At E14.5 eGFP staining co-localizes with brain lipid-binding protein (BLBP; red), a known marker for RG cells in the VZ ( ... a) Schemes of subcellular localization of the eGFP-anillin fusion protein during the cell cycle and of the CAG-eGFP-anillin ... Here we overcome these limitations by generating an in vivo reporter system using the scaffolding protein anillin fused to ...
MCM proteins; Coxonet al. 1992; Forsburg and Nurse 1994); cdc20+ (polymerase epsilon; DUrso and Nurse 1997); and cdc22+, ... truncated proteins indicates that either the C terminus stabilizes the rest of the protein or that Cdc24p is part of a protein ... 141-kD deduced protein with 56% similarity and 33% identity to budding yeast ScDna2p over the length of the proteins (Altschul ... and suggested the presence of introns within the protein coding region of the cdc24+ gene. To identify the protein coding ...
Cdc20 Proteins / metabolism * Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics * Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism * Cell Cycle Proteins / ... Strikingly, combining TRIP13 depletion with elimination of APC15-dependent Cdc20 ubiquitination/degradation results in a ... or mitosis to be disassembled by TRIP13-catalyzed removal of Mad2 or APC15-driven ubiquitination/degradation of its Cdc20 ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Cdc20 Antibody (AR12) [DyLight 405LS]. Validated: WB, ELISA, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, IP. Tested ... Cdc20 Antibody (AR12) [DyLight 405LS] Summary. Immunogen. Urea-denatured His6 Cdc20 human recombinant protein ... Reviews for Cdc20 Antibody (NBP2-34552V3) (0) There are no reviews for Cdc20 Antibody (NBP2-34552V3). By submitting a review ... The Cdc2 protein kinase (p34Cdc2) exhibits protein kinase activity in vitro and exists in a complex with both cyclin B and a ...
cdc20Δ PGAL-CDC20::TRP1 (CUY1348) was grown to mid-log phase in galactose medium. The culture was shifted to glucose medium for ... This indicates that benomyl sensitivity results from a low quantity of protein rather than from a protein that is inactive at ... Several mitotic proteins are subject to cell-cycle regulation involving ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. However, the ... 1976 A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein- ...
Metabolism of proteins (Homo sapiens) * * Post-translational protein modification (Homo sapiens) * Deubiquitination (Homo ... USP44 deubiquitinates CDC20 (Homo sapiens) * USP44:CDC20 [nucleoplasm] (Homo sapiens) * CDC20 [nucleoplasm] (Homo sapiens) ... Emi1:Cdc20/Cdh1 complex [nucleoplasm] (Homo sapiens) * Cdc20/Cdh1 [nucleoplasm] (Homo sapiens) * CDC20 [nucleoplasm] (Homo ... Emi1:Cdc20/Cdh1 complex [nucleoplasm] (Homo sapiens) * Cdc20/Cdh1 [nucleoplasm] (Homo sapiens) * CDC20 [nucleoplasm] (Homo ...
Cell division cycle protein 20 homolog; Uncharacterized protein Aliases:. Not Available. RefSeq:. XM_001090604 XM_002801504 XM_ ... PrimePCR™ SYBR® Green Assay: CDC20, Rhesus Monkey. print Real-time PCR primer assay designed for SYBR® Green gene expression ... PrimePCR™ PreAmp for SYBR® Green Assay: CDC20, Rhesus Monkey Reaction: 400 reactions Gene-specific PCR primers for the unbiased ... Home , Life Science Research , Products , PCR Amplification , PrimePCR™ PCR Primers, Assays, and Arrays , Gene: CDC20, Rhesus ...
Protein Coding), DNA Polymerase Epsilon, Catalytic Subunit, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... Protein details for POLE Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. Q07864-DPOE1_HUMAN. Recommended name:. DNA polymerase ... Protein Expression for POLE Gene. See protein expression from ProteomicsDB, MOPED, PaxDb, and MaxQB ... Search Origene for Purified Proteins, MassSpec and Protein Over-expression Lysates for POLE ...
Cdc20 Proteins * Cell Cycle Proteins * Macromolecular Substances * Recombinant Fusion Proteins * Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... Interestingly, the KEN-box mutated protein remains unstable in interphase and upon ionizing radiation exposure. Moreover, SCF ( ... and that a KEN-box motif in the N-terminus of the protein is required for its targeted degradation. ...
G) The same experiment with C-Mad2RQEA-Cdc20195-211 rather than with Mad2wt shows that this double point mutant protein is ... when CDC20 expression is maximal (Peters, 2002). For this, myc18-CDC20 MAD2 cells and myc18-CDC20 mad2Δ cells carrying the MAD2 ... G) The same experiment with C-Mad2RQEA-Cdc20195-211 rather than with Mad2wt shows that this double point mutant protein is ... The corresponding mutant proteins bind Mad1 normally, but their ability to bind Cdc20 is dramatically impaired in vivo. Our ...
The signaling cascade leading to checkpoint arrest depends on several protein kinases that are conserved from yeast to man. In ... The signaling cascade leading to checkpoint arrest depends on several protein kinases that are conserved from yeast to man. In ... Cell division in mitosis and meiosis is governed by evolutionary highly conserved protein kinases and phosphatases, controlling ... Cell division in mitosis and meiosis is governed by evolutionary highly conserved protein kinases and phosphatases, controlling ...
Ab165789 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA. Abcam provides free… ... Belongs to the WD repeat CDC20/Fizzy family.. Contains 7 WD repeats. ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ... The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) in 2010. Nucleic Acids Res. 38:D142-D148 (2010) . ...
Protein Coding), Mitotic Arrest Deficient 2 Like 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... Interacts with S.flexneri protein ipaB; prevents the interaction of MAD2L2 with FZR1 and CDC20 resulting in an activation of ... Protein Symbol:. Q9UI95-MD2L2_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2B. Protein Accession:. ... The encoded protein, which is similar to MAD2L1, is capable of interacting with ADAM9, ADAM15, REV1, and REV3 proteins. [ ...
2. add cdc20. 3. bind APC/C and cdc20 to activate APC/C. 4. Add proteins E1, E2 and UB. 5. Polyubiquinate cyclin B and degrade ... By association with cdc20. Cdc 20 recognizes specific amino acid sequences on M-cyclin and other target proteins. ... M-cdk leads to cdc20/APCC complex activity, which destroys M-cdk. When levels of M-cdk go down, do does cdc20/APCC activity, so ... Mad2 inhibits APC/C-cdc20 complex if not correct. Then, if all is correct, APC/C binds cdc20 to make polyubiguitylation of ...
Protein Intake Tied to Modest Survival Advantage in Breast CA * News HealthDay ... CDC: 20 Percent of U.S. Adults Have a Disability * News HealthDay Thrifty Phenotype Leads to Less Weight Loss in Obese ...
Cdc20 concentration versus time for the Dissociation variant (A, C) and the Convey variant (B, D) each in the uncontrolled (A, ... integrating 11 proteins and complexes. The model incorporates the perspectives of three central control pathways, namely Mad1/ ... The APC:Cdc20 concentration should be close to zero before attachment and should rise quickly after attachment. Spindle ... The APC:Cdc20 concentration should be close to zero before attachment and should rise quickly after attachment. Spindle ...
1998) Direct binding of CDC20 protein family members activates the anaphase-promoting complex in mitosis and G1. Mol Cell 2:163 ... 1998) Activation of the human anaphase-promoting complex by proteins of the CDC20/Fizzy family. Curr Biol 8:1207-1210. ... 2000) Mitotic regulation of the APC activator proteins CDC20 and CDH1. Mol Biol Cell 11:1555-1569. ... CDC20 and CDH1 (2, 3), as well as by protein modifications including phosphorylation (4, 5). The APC is the target of the ...
Goat Polyclonal Anti-F-box protein 43 Antibody. Validated: WB, Flow, ICC/IF. Tested Reactivity: Mouse, Rat, Human, and more. ... Home » F-box protein 43 » F-box protein 43 Antibodies » F-box protein 43 Antibody ... Blogs on F-box protein 43. There are no specific blogs for F-box protein 43, but you can read our latest blog posts. ... Additional F-box protein 43 Products. Array NB100-2455 * F-box protein 43 Antibodies ...
  • This proteolysis is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, with the E3 ligase being the anaphase-promoting complex, also known as the cyclosome (APC/C). The APC/C is regulated by two activators, namely Cdc20 and Cdh1. (biologists.org)
  • The current view is that prior to anaphase, the APC/C is activated by Cdc20, but that following anaphase, APC/C switches to Cdh1-dependent activation. (biologists.org)
  • The APC/C is activated by two cofactors, Cdc20 and Cdh1. (biologists.org)
  • However, once the spindle checkpoint has become satisfied and anaphase initiated, APC/C activation switches from Cdc20 to Cdh1 ( Peters, 2006 ). (biologists.org)
  • In anaphase, APC/C bound to the Cdc20 homolog Cdh1 (APC/C Cdh1 ) further mediate the ubiquitination of cyclin B1 and other mitotic regulators, resulting in their degradation and mitotic exit. (pnas.org)
  • Cdc20 and Cdh1 activate APC/C by contributing to substrate recognition, among other mechanisms ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • This destruction requires a KEN box in the NH 2 terminus of securin and may indicate the time in mitosis when ubiquitination switches from APC Cdc20 to APC Cdh1 . (rupress.org)
  • In vitro, APC/C Cdc20 recognizes proteins that contain a destruction box (D-box), a loosely conserved nine amino acid motif with the consensus RxxLxxxxN, whereas APC/C Cdh1 is able to recognize proteins with either a D-box or a KEN box ( Pfleger and Kirschner, 2000 ). (rupress.org)
  • We found that Cdc25 A degradation during mitotic exit and in early G(1) is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C)(Cdh1) ligase, and that a KEN-box motif in the N-terminus of the protein is required for its targeted degradation. (nih.gov)
  • A closely related protein, Cdc20homologue-1 (Cdh1) plays a complementary role in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • APC/C activity is dependent on CDC20 (and Cdh1), because CDC20 often binds the APC/C substrates directly. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, it is thought that CDC20 and Cdh1 (see below) are receptors for the KEN-box and D-box motifs on substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDC20-homologue 1 (Cdh1) plays a complementary role to CDC20 in cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activity of the APC is regulated by two cofactors, CDC20 and CDH1 ( 2 , 3 ), as well as by protein modifications including phosphorylation ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The anaphase‐promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that, together with either one of its regulatory co‐activators, Cdc20 or Cdh1, targets multiple mitotic regulators for proteasomal degradation. (biologists.org)
  • These complexes are targeted to specific substrates via interchangeable substrate recognition subunits, including F-box proteins for SCF and cell division cycle 20 (CDC20) and CDH1 for APC/C. These multisubunit E3s have a large number of substrates with oncogenic and tumour suppressive effects. (nature.com)
  • Genetic alterations to components of these E3 complexes that result in loss of function (such as FBW7, CDH1 and CDC20) or gain of function (such as SKP2 and β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP)) are implicated in the development of cancer. (nature.com)
  • 9 . A polynucleotide according to any one of claims 4 to 8 , wherein the target gene is Cdh1, p53 or CDC20. (google.com)
  • Two major regulators are cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20) and its homologue, CDC20 homologue 1 (CDH1), which activate the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) in mitosis, and facilitate degradation of mitotic APC/C substrates. (le.ac.uk)
  • However, the function of cell division cycle proteins that are also involved in this process, such as CDC20 and CDH1 is totally unknown. (le.ac.uk)
  • Here we examine the role of a putative CDC20/CDH1 in the rodent malaria Plasmodium berghei (Pb) using reverse genetics. (le.ac.uk)
  • Phylogenetic analysis identified a single putative Plasmodium CDC20/CDH1 homologue (termed CDC20 for simplicity) suggesting that Plasmodium APC/C has only one regulator. (le.ac.uk)
  • Sixty hours later whole-cell extracts were prepared, separated on 10% SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotted to detect CDH1 protein. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cdc20 (cell division cycle 20) and Cdh1 are the activating subunits of APC (anaphase-promoting complex), an E3-ubiquitin ligase that drives cells into anaphase by inducing degradation of cyclin B and the anaphase inhibitor securin. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The nuclear transport factors Rae1 and Nup98, which convert into mitotic checkpoint proteins in M-phase, further prevent chromosome missegregation by assembling into a complex with APC Cdh1 and delaying APC Cdh1 -mediated ubiquitination of securin. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The mammalian FZR1 protein (also known as CDH1), encoded by Fzr1 , is one of two well-established co-activators of the APC/C, which is an E3 ligase that regulates mitotic and meiotic progression through the ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of key sets of substrates ( Peters, 2006 ). (biologists.org)
  • These progenitors are unique to the second tracheal metamere as homologous cells from other segments, express fizzy-related (fzr) , the Drosophila homolog of CDH1 protein of the APC complex , and enter endocycle and do not contribute to adult trachea. (sdbonline.org)
  • Dysregulated expression of CDC27 leads to premature activation of the G 2 -M-APC/C-CDC20 complex, resulting in the aberrant degradation of FZR1/CDH1, a cofactor of the G 1 and late G 2 -M-APC/C and a substrate normally reserved for the SCF-βTRCP ligase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activation of the APC/C occurs via interaction with a cofactor that confers specificity to the complex, either FZR1/CDH1 during G 1 phase or CDC20 during mitosis ( 4-6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have shown that the activity of APC is regulated by a combination of phosphorylation of APC subunits and binding of regulatory co-factors, CDC20 and CDH1. (searlescholars.net)
  • We are investigating what controls the phosphorylation of APC and how the activities of CDC20 and CDH1 are regulated through the cell cycle. (searlescholars.net)
  • CDH1 and APC are expressed at high levels in post-mitotic, terminally differentiated neurons and APC activity in these cells is maintained by the associated CDH1 protein. (searlescholars.net)
  • The APC complex is inactivated by protein kinase A and is activated by CDC20 and Cdh1. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • CDC20-APC/C-induced degradation of NEUROD2 induces presynaptic differentiation. (uniprot.org)
  • By contrast, RNAi-mediated repression of APC/C subunits or Cdc20 does inhibit Cenp-F degradation. (biologists.org)
  • rather, our observations indicate that Cdc20 also contributes to post-anaphase activation of the APC/C. We also show that the post-anaphase, KEN-box-dependent degradation of Cenp-F requires it to be farnesylated, a post-translational modification usually linked to membrane association. (biologists.org)
  • Following phosphorylation of the APC/C core subunits by mitotic kinases, the activating protein, Cdc20 is recruited to the APC and promotes the multiubiquitination and subsequent degradation of the mitotic cyclins (Cyclin A and Cyclin B) as well as the protein securin which functions in sister chromatid cohesion. (reactome.org)
  • Timely degradation of these proteins is essential for sister chromatid separation and the proper timing of exit from mitosis (See Zachariae and Nasmyth, 1999). (reactome.org)
  • Strikingly, combining TRIP13 depletion with elimination of APC15-dependent Cdc20 ubiquitination/degradation results in a complete inability to exit mitosis, even when MCC assembly at unattached kinetochores is prevented. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, mitotic exit requires MCC produced either in interphase or mitosis to be disassembled by TRIP13-catalyzed removal of Mad2 or APC15-driven ubiquitination/degradation of its Cdc20 subunit. (nih.gov)
  • The unfolded and extended polypeptides are then allowed to enter the rings of the 20S proteasome, the proteolytic core that contains multiple peptidase activities for protein degradation. (genetics.org)
  • It has been suggested that deubiquitination enzymes, like the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, have diverse roles in regulation of protein degradation or modification. (genetics.org)
  • The APC/C is a large E3 ubiquitin ligase, which triggers the metaphase to anaphase transition by marking select proteins for degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These processes are dependent on both the APC/C and CDC20: When Cdks phosphorylate the APC/C, CDC20 can bind and activate it, allowing both the degradation of Cdks and the cleavage of cohesin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdk degradation brings about lower rates of APC/C phosphorylation and thus lower rates of CDC20 binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anaphase promoting complex (APC) controls the degradation of proteins during exit from mitosis and entry into S-phase. (pnas.org)
  • The brain-enriched transcription factor NeuroD2 was shown to be a possible target of Cdc20-APC-stimulated degradation. (sciencemag.org)
  • To prevent chromosome missegregation due to early degradation of cyclin B and securin, mitotic checkpoint protein complexes consisting of BubR1, Bub3 and Mad2 bind to and inhibit APC Cdc20 until all chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic spindle and aligned in the metaphase plate. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • This remodeling effect is mediated by the ubiquitination and degradation of XIAP (X-linked inhibitors of aptosis protein) by E6AP, which leads to activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of microtubules. (jneurosci.org)
  • Ubiquitination of Mcl-1, that targets it for proteasomal degradation, allows for rapid elimination of the protein and triggering of cell death, in response to various cellular events. (mdpi.com)
  • We selected most pathways anapc10 participated on our site, such as APC-Cdc20 mediated degradation of Nek2A, APC/C-mediated degradation of cell cycle proteins, APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of Cyclin B, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • During the normal cycle, Cdc20 is regulated both at the transcriptional level and by proteolytic degradation. (embopress.org)
  • Darieva et al , 2010 ), Cdc20 protein is subjected to proteolytic degradation throughout the cell cycle ( Prinz et al , 1998 ). (embopress.org)
  • APC/C Cdc20 has three roles in activating the MEN: cyclin degradation (1), activating the FEAR network (2), and triggering chromosome segregation (3). (elifesciences.org)
  • These multicatalytic proteinase complexes conduct the preponderance of intracellular protein degradation and dispense with DNA-damaging agents or other toxic compounds in cells. (g3journal.org)
  • Intracellular proteolysis not only is utilized for the degradation of mis-folded proteins, but also can control discrete biological transitions in the cell cycle, signal transduction and development. (searlescholars.net)
  • We found that UBC19 is able to complement fission yeast ( Schizosaccharomyces pombe ) UbcP4-140 mutant, indicating that the plant protein can functionally replace its yeast ortholog for protein degradation during mitosis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The correct progress through the cell cycle is thus under the control of successive events where protein activation alternates with protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway. (plantphysiol.org)
  • This phosphorylation regulates MCAK's stability and facilitates its recognition by the ubiquitin/proteasome dependent APC/C(Cdc20) pathway leading to its D-box dependent degradation in mitosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Identification of a MAD2-binding protein, CMT2, and its role in mitosis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The initiation of anaphase and exit from mitosis depend on the activation of the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex (APC) that ubiquitinates regulatory proteins such as anaphase inhibitors and mitotic cyclins [1-4]. (nih.gov)
  • The temporally distinct association of hCDC20 and hCDH1 with APC suggests that these proteins are, respectively, mitosis-specific and G1-specific activating subunits of APC. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, one key to understanding mitosis is to determine how the right protein is degraded at the right time. (rupress.org)
  • APC/C mediates ubiquitination of protein substrates including cyclin B1 and securin to drive the progression of mitosis. (rupress.org)
  • Cell division in mitosis and meiosis is governed by evolutionary highly conserved protein kinases and phosphatases, controlling the timely execution of key events such as nuclear envelope breakdown, spindle assembly, chromosome attachment to the spindle and chromosome segregation, and cell cycle exit. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nevertheless, Nek2A destruction crucially depended on Cdc20 binding to the APC/C. Third, in contrast to cyclin A, Nek2A was recruited to the APC/C before the start of mitosis. (biologists.org)
  • Several questions remain about how the activity of APC/C Cdc20 is controlled in mitosis. (biologists.org)
  • In our genetic approach to delete the endogenous cdc20 gene of P. berghei, we demonstrate that PbCDC20 plays a vital role in male gametogenesis, but is not essential for mitosis in the asexual blood stage. (le.ac.uk)
  • This excess Swe1p in cdc55 -null cells is the result of ectopic stabilization of this protein during G 2 and M, thereby accounting for the accumulation of Swe1p in mitosis-arrested cells. (asm.org)
  • In HeLa cells, CDC20 protein levels and CDC20-APC binding peak in mitosis and decrease drastically in early G1 phase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The NEK protein kinases are Never in mitosis A (NimA)-related kinases that belong to the NEK Serine/Threonine protein kinase family. (eu.org)
  • NimA was initially identified in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans as a serine/threonine protein kinase vital for entry into mitosis ( Oakley,1983 ). (eu.org)
  • and the overexpression of a dominant-negative form of this protein in transfected mammalian cells arrests the cells in mitosis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Furthermore, several proteins involved in spindle assembly checkpoint function and temporal regulation of mitosis have also been localized to the centrosomes and spindle poles, including Mad2, Bub2, and Bfa1 ( 11 - 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Direct binding of CDC20 protein family members activates the anaphase-promoting complex in mitosis and G1. (proteopedia.org)
  • The cell division cycle protein 20 homolog is an essential regulator of cell division that is encoded by the CDC20 gene in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell division cycle 20 (CDC20) homolog is an anaphase-promoting complex activator that is essential for cell division, but whether its expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is significant is unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression of mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2) and cell-division cycle 20 homolog (CDC20), the key spindle assembly checkpoint proteins, has not been studied in cervical carcinogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint that prevents the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. (genecards.org)
  • Mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAD2L1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers assumed that the CDC20-Mad2-BubR1 complex is short lived and that inactivation of the spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) passively releases CDC20 from its inhibitors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Luo X, Fang G, Coldiron M, Lin Y, Yu H, Kirschner MW, Wagner G. Structure of the Mad2 spindle assembly checkpoint protein and its interaction with Cdc20. (proteopedia.org)
  • Abnormal expression of the spindle assembly checkpoint proteins causes tumor cell aneuploidy, which has been reported in various malignancies. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Many proteins function together to control the spindle assembly checkpoint. (jove.com)
  • H. Müller, M.-L. Fogeron, V. Lehmann, H. Lehrach, B. M. H. Lange, A centrosome-independent role for γ-TuRC proteins in the spindle assembly checkpoint. (sciencemag.org)
  • Is regulated by MAD2L1: in metaphase the MAD2L1-CDC20-APC/C ternary complex is inactive and in anaphase the CDC20-APC/C binary complex is active in degrading substrates. (uniprot.org)
  • Destruction of pre-anaphase substrates is Cdc20-dependent. (biologists.org)
  • Ubp3 is a deubiquitination enzyme and a member of a large family of cysteine proteases that cleave ubiquitin moieties from protein substrates. (genetics.org)
  • A subset of kinase substrates are recognized by the S/T-Q cluster domain (SCD), which contains motifs of serine (S) or threonine (T) followed by a glutamine (Q). However, the full repertoire of proteins and pathways controlled by Tel1 and Mec1 is unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our study provides insights into how specific substrates are recruited to AAA+ ATPases through adaptor proteins and suggests a model of how translocation through the axial pore of AAA+ ATPases is coupled to protein remodelling. (proteopedia.org)
  • MAD2‐related meiotic HORMAD proteins are also TRIP13 substrates requiring disordered N‐termini for proper function in meiotic prophase. (embopress.org)
  • Autophosphorylation of Y209 and catalytic activity for substrates require Ssp2, a meiosis-specific protein that is translationally repressed until anaphase of MII. (jefferson.edu)
  • F-box proteins, as components of the Skp1-Cullin 1-F-box protein (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase, can specifically bind to substrates and regulate multiple tumor behaviors. (springer.com)
  • A large number of substrates for caspases have been identified and include structural proteins such as nuclear lamins, but also proteins involved in DNA repair, DNA damage signalling and genomic stability, such as polyADP‐ribose polymerase (PARP). (embopress.org)
  • The mitotic APC/C activator, the cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) protein, directly interacts with APC/C degrons--the destruction (D) and KEN boxes. (pnas.org)
  • At the metaphase-anaphase transition, APC/C in complex with its mitotic activator Cdc20 (APC/C Cdc20 ) ubiquitinates securin and cyclin B1, triggering their destruction to allow separase activation and cohesin cleavage. (pnas.org)
  • Improper microtubule attachment or chromosome misalignment on the spindle activates the formation of an inhibitory "supercomplex," consisting of the APC and a second complex, the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which consists of a kinase BubR1, an inhibitor MAD2, and the APC activator CDC20 ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, Cdk1 is essential for sustaining the expression of Cdc20, an activator of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) required for anaphase progression. (embopress.org)
  • The meiosis-specific Cdc20 family-member Ama1 promotes binding of the Ssp2 activator to the Smk1 MAP kinase. (jefferson.edu)
  • and Winter, Edward, "The meiosis-specific Cdc20 family-member Ama1 promotes binding of the Ssp2 activator to the Smk1 MAP kinase. (jefferson.edu)
  • Anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome and its activator (the fizzy and fizzy-related) proteins work together with ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (UBCs) (E2s). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Although the mechanism of the Dbox or KEN-box recognition via the activator proteins has been solved very recently (for review, see Vodermaier, 2001 ), the identity of the E2 and its function during APC-dependent ubiquitylation is still poorly understood. (plantphysiol.org)
  • This entry represents Mad1 and Cdc20-bound-Mad2 binding proteins that are involved in the cell-cycle surveillance mechanism called the spindle checkpoint [ PMID: 12456649 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A Mad1-Mad2 core complex recruits cytosolic Mad2 to kinetochores through Mad2 dimerisation and converts Mad2 to a conformer amenable to Cdc20 binding. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • p31comet inactivates the checkpoint by binding to Mad1- or Cdc20-bound Mad2 in such a way as to stop Mad2 activation and to promote the dissociation of the Mad2-Cdc20 complex [ PMID: 18022368 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • C-Mad2 forms when Mad2 binds its checkpoint target Cdc20 or its kinetochore receptor Mad1. (rupress.org)
  • The corresponding mutant proteins bind Mad1 normally, but their ability to bind Cdc20 is dramatically impaired in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • The model incorporates the perspectives of three central control pathways, namely Mad1/Mad2 induced Cdc20 sequestering based on the Template Model, MCC formation, and APC inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • Bub1 forms a complex with Mad1 and Bub3 that is crucial for preventing cell cycle progression into anaphase in the presence of spindle damage [ PMID: 12769845 ], while Mad3 is a component of the spindle-assembly complex consisting of Mad2, Mad3, Bub3 and Cdc20 [ PMID: 10704439 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Luo X, Tang Z, Rizo J, Yu H. The Mad2 spindle checkpoint protein undergoes similar major conformational changes upon binding to either Mad1 or Cdc20. (proteopedia.org)
  • In budding yeast, the SAC signalling network involves highly conserved proteins Mad1, Mad2, Mad3 (orthologues of human Mad1, Mad2 and BubR1, respectively), Bub1, Bub3 (orthologues of human Bub1 and Bub3), Mps1 (orthologue of human Mps1) and Ipl1 (orthologue of human aurora B kinase) ( Musacchio and Salmon, 2007 ). (embopress.org)
  • Phosphorylated Mad1 directly interacts with Cdc20. (elifesciences.org)
  • We have in vitro reconstituted checkpoint-dependent APC/C Cdc20 inhibition by MCC components, which requires a functional phospho-Bub1-Mad1 scaffold. (elifesciences.org)
  • Phosphorylated Mad1 CTD directly binds to the N-terminal region of Cdc20 and contributes to APC/C Cdc20 inhibition presumably through stimulating MCC assembly. (elifesciences.org)
  • POLE (DNA Polymerase Epsilon, Catalytic Subunit) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • MAD2L2 (Mitotic Arrest Deficient 2 Like 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • this phenotype could be traced back to the CDC20 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple different mechanisms inhibit Cdks in G1: Cdk inhibitor proteins are expressed, and cyclin gene expression is down-regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • UBE3A gene copy number variation and the resulting overexpression of the protein E6AP is directly linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). (jneurosci.org)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Copy number variation of the UBE3A gene and aberrant overexpression of the gene product E6AP protein is a common cause of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). (jneurosci.org)
  • CDC20 was identified using a cDNA microarray database containing gene expression profiles for PDAC tissues and cell lines and chronic pancreatitis and normal pancreas tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a result, ongoing work examines whether or how DPYD gene variation and protein expression can be used to predict 5-FU toxicity (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
  • The Oct-4 gene is highly active in stem cells and the promoter is bound by Oct-4, Sox2, and Nanog proteins. (cellsignal.com)
  • ChIP can be used to determine the specific order of recruitment of various proteins to a gene promoter or to 'measure' the relative amount of a particular histone modification across an entire gene locus (3,4). (cellsignal.com)
  • To correlate selected gene expression changes to the localization of respective proteins, we performed immunostainings of cultured neurospheres and of brain sections from adult mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • We identified the differentially expressed F-box protein-encoding genes in SqCLC by analyzing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases. (springer.com)
  • The protein has been localized to the kinetochore and plays a role in the inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), delaying the onset of anaphase and ensuring proper chromosome segregation. (abnova.com)
  • However, here we present an analysis of the kinetochore protein Cenp-F that is inconsistent with this notion. (biologists.org)
  • DNA replication and ultra structural analyses of cdc20 and map2 mutants showed similar blockage of nuclear division at the nuclear spindle/kinetochore stage. (le.ac.uk)
  • Required for the execution of the mitotic checkpoint which monitors the process of kinetochore-spindle attachment and inhibits the activity of the anaphase promoting complex by sequestering CDC20 until all chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate. (proteopedia.org)
  • These proteins assemble into complexes at the unattached kinetochore and inhibit anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) Cdc20 . (embopress.org)
  • Inhibition of APC/C Cdc20 delays anaphase onset until all kinetochores in a mitotic cell achieve proper kinetochore-microtubule attachment. (elifesciences.org)
  • The unattached kinetochore catalyzes a conformational change in Mad2, activating the protein. (jove.com)
  • To systematically inventory kinetochore diversity and to reconstruct its evolution, we determined orthologs of 70 kinetochore proteins in 90 phylogenetically diverse eukaryotes. (embopress.org)
  • These co‐evolutionary patterns improve our understanding of kinetochore function and evolution, which we illustrated with the RZZ complex, TRIP 13, the MCC , and some nuclear pore proteins. (embopress.org)
  • The majority of kinetochore proteins were present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). (embopress.org)
  • The diverse functions of various kinetochore proteins is elucidated by examining their co‐evolution. (embopress.org)
  • The human CDC20 is about 499 amino acids long, and contains at least four phosphorylation sites near the N-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • and ( iii ) the phosphorylation of CDC20 by BUB1 is also important for full inhibition of the APC by MAD2 ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Changes in global protein phosphorylation patterns in the Δcdc20 mutant parasites were largely different from those observed in the Δmap2 mutant. (le.ac.uk)
  • The interaction between Mule and Mcl-1 can be modulated by other Bcl-2 family proteins, while recognition of Mcl-1 by the other E3 ubiquitin-ligases and deubiquitinase is influenced by phosphorylation of specific residues in Mcl-1. (mdpi.com)
  • The APC3 protein can be modified by phosphorylation by cdk1-cyclin B. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • While phosphorylation of S621 does not directly affect its microtubule depolymerising activity, loss of Plk1 phosphorylation on S621 indirectly enhances its depolymerization activity in vivo by stabilizing MCAK, leading to an increased level of protein. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The D box of securin, but not its KEN box, is critical for securin ubiquitination by APC/C Cdc20 . (pnas.org)
  • SAC activation ( Diaz-Martinez and Yu, 2007 ) results in the inhibition of APC-Cdc20 by Mad2 and BubR1, and thus, the stabilization of securin and cyclin B1. (rupress.org)
  • The two main targets of the APC/C are the S/M cyclins and the protein securin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Securin is a protein that inhibits separase, which in turn inhibits cohesin, a protein that holds sister chromatids together. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inactive APC/C complex is unable to ubiquitinate and degrade the protein securin bound to the protease called separase. (jove.com)
  • The Cdc20-APC/C complexes are now activated and ubiquitinates securin to release an active separase. (jove.com)
  • These thiol proteases hydrolyze the amide bond between Gly76 of ubiquitin and a Lys residue of the substrate protein or preceding ubiquitin. (genetics.org)
  • much remains to be learned about how CDC20 binds its substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nek2 isoform A (Nek2A) is a presumed substrate of the anaphase‐promoting complex/cyclosome containing Cdc20 (APC/C Cdc20 ). (biologists.org)
  • potential Cdc28p substrate novel protein thought to be involved in cell cycle regulation. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Mad3 and an anaphase-promoting complex (APC) substrate, Hsl1, compete for Cdc20 binding in a D-box- and KEN-box-dependent manner [ PMID: 17369399 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • CDC20_HUMAN ] Required for full ubiquitin ligase activity of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and may confer substrate specificity upon the complex. (proteopedia.org)
  • The transfer of ubiquitin to the target protein substrate usually requires ubiquitin-ligase activity (E3). (plantphysiol.org)
  • The cohesin complexes are composed of protein subunits encoded by Smc1, Smc3, Scc1/Mcd1, and Scc3 and are thought to form a ring structure that encloses sister chromosomes ( Nasmyth, 2005 ). (rupress.org)
  • In order for CDC20 to bind the APC/C, specific APC/C subunits must be phosphorylated by Cdk1 (among other Cdks). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, deletion of pop1 or pop2, subunits of SCF ubiquitin ligase complexes, upregulated Rev1 protein levels. (nih.gov)
  • The protein is similar to AN11, a regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in petunia, and more distantly related to those of the β subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins, which suggests a role for TTG1 in signal transduction to downstream transcription factors. (plantcell.org)
  • CDC20 is a protein related to the beta subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • FUNCTION: 60S ribosomal protein L40: Component of the 60S subunit CC of the ribosome. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • SUBUNIT: Ribosomal protein L40 is part of the 60S ribosomal CC subunit. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • CDC55 encodes a Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit. (asm.org)
  • ANAPC10 is a core subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or cyclosome, a ubiquitin protein ligase that is;essential for progression through the cell cycle. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The APC3 protein comprises one subunit of the anaphase promoting complex including APC1-8, and other probable complex proteins APC9-11, Cdc26, Mnd2, Swm1. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Human orthologs of these proteins--hCDC20/p55CDC [12] and hCDH1--have recently been found to associate with APC in a cell-cycle-dependent manner [13,14]. (nih.gov)
  • An additional cell cycle-dependent protein kinase, termed p55cdc, exhibits a high degree of homology with the S. cerevisiae proteins Cdc20 and Cdc4. (novusbio.com)
  • The APC3 protein interacts with Rb, Mad2, p55CDC, BUBR1, as well as the APC complex proteins noted above. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • It's name stems from the observation that these proteins colocalise on condensing chromosomes during prophase, and are carried along to centromeres and to the equator of the mitotic spindle during metaphase. (sdbonline.org)
  • the DNA replication inhibitor called geminin ( McGarry and Kirschner, 1998 ), and the chromokinesin Xkid protein involved in chromosome alignment during metaphase ( Funabiki and Murray, 2000 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • The checkpoint is activated by kinetochores that are not attached to microtubules or are attached but not under tension and arrests cells at metaphase by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) and its coactivator Cdc20. (harvard.edu)
  • Results: To ask how the checkpoint components induce metaphase arrest, we constructed fusions of checkpoint proteins and expressed them in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to mimic possible protein interactions during checkpoint activation. (harvard.edu)
  • We found that expression of a Mad2-Mad3 protein fusion or noncovalently linked Mad2 and Mad3, but not the overexpression of the two separate proteins, induces metaphase arrest that is independent of functional kinetochores or other checkpoint proteins. (harvard.edu)
  • We further showed that artificially tethering Mad2 to Cdc20 also arrests cells in metaphase independently of other checkpoint components. (harvard.edu)
  • In addition, this protein functions in ubiquitin-dependent cyclin catabolism, metaphase/anaphase transition, and spindle elongation. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Thus, cyclin A, by its N‐terminus, binds a specific fraction of Cdc20 that cannot be blocked by Mad2 and BubR1. (biologists.org)
  • We have shown that the checkpoint protein MAD2 directly binds to CDC20 and together they form a ternary complex with APC. (searlescholars.net)
  • The MCC binds to and inhibits the Cdc20-APC/C complex. (jove.com)
  • The Cdc2 protein kinase (p34Cdc2) exhibits protein kinase activity in vitro and exists in a complex with both cyclin B and a protein homologous to p13SUC1. (novusbio.com)
  • The cell cycle is regulated by the S phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1)-cullin 1 (CUL1)-F-box protein (SCF) and anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) multisubunit RING finger E3s. (nature.com)
  • Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis in parasite lines with deletions of two kinase genes involved in male sexual development (map2 and cdpk4), showed a significant increase in cdc20 transcription in activated gametocytes. (le.ac.uk)
  • This represents the mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine-protein kinase Bub1. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Background: Testis-specific kinase 1 (TESK1) is a LIMK-related protein kinase originally identified to be expressed highly in testes and subsequently shown to be expressed in a wide variety of tissues and cell types (1-4). (cellsignal.com)
  • APC is phosphorylated, and thus activated, by protein kinases Cdk1/cyclin B and polo-like kinase (Plk). (scbt.com)
  • consisting of BubR1/Mad3, Bub3, Mad2, and Cdc20) anchors Cdc20 at a site on APC/C that is different from the site bound by free Cdc20, presumably blocking the productive engagement of the D box with Cdc20 and Apc10 ( 16 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • Active checkpoint signaling ultimately enhances the assembly of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) consisting of BubR1-Bub3, Mad2, and Cdc20, which inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome bound to Cdc20 (APC/C Cdc20 ) to delay anaphase onset. (elifesciences.org)
  • Genetic experiments have demonstrated that two related WD40-repeat proteins--called Cdc20p and Hct1p/Cdh1p in budding yeast and Fizzy and Fizzy-related in Drosophila--are essential for APC--dependent proteolysis [5-11]. (nih.gov)
  • to allow the protease Separase (Esp1 in budding yeast) to cleave cohesins, the proteins that hold the duplicated sister chromatids together. (elifesciences.org)
  • We have constructed and validated for the human (M)SAC mechanism an in silico dynamical model, integrating 11 proteins and complexes. (nih.gov)
  • Originating from the biochemical reactions for the underlying molecular processes, non-linear ordinary differential equations for the concentrations of 11 proteins and complexes of the (M)SAC are derived. (nih.gov)
  • Near its C-terminus it contains seven WD40 repeats, which are multiple short, structural motifs of around 40 amino acids that often play a role in binding with larger protein complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the point in the cell cycle when APC/C Cdc20 complexes are formed, however, the spindle checkpoint also becomes active and blocks Cdc20. (biologists.org)
  • This list also included high concentrations of proteins in the Mediator, spindle pole body/centrosome and actin cytoskeleton complexes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In eukaryotes, the initiation of DNA replication involves the ordered assembly on chromatin of pre‐replicative complexes (pre‐RCs), including the origin recognition complex (ORC), Cdc6, Cdt1 and the minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCMs). (embopress.org)
  • Many RING finger E3s have roles in processes that are central to the maintenance of genomic integrity and cellular homeostasis, such as the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), the SKP1-cullin 1-F-box protein (SCF) E3s, MDM2, BRCA1, Fanconi anaemia proteins, CBL proteins, von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor (VHL) and SIAH proteins. (nature.com)
  • APC, or cyclosome, accomplishes this progression through the ubiquitination of mitotic cyclins and other regulatory proteins that are targeted for destruction during cell division. (scbt.com)
  • The anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome is the ubiquitin-ligase that targets destruction box-containing proteins for proteolysis during the cell cycle. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Deubiquitinated by USP44, leading to stabilize the MAD2L1-CDC20-APC/C ternary complex, thereby preventing premature activation of the APC/C. (abcam.com)
  • In the PPI networks, MAD2L1 , AURKB , CCNB2 , CDC20, and WNT3A had higher degrees, and the first four genes might be involved in LAC through interaction. (hindawi.com)
  • In the controlled case (C, D), both variants fully inhibit APC:Cdc20 before attachment and both show fast switching recovery for high k−7 values. (nih.gov)
  • MCC diffuses from kinetochores to inhibit APC/C Cdc20 throughout the cell. (elifesciences.org)
  • Despite numerous studies, we still do not understand how the checkpoint proteins coordinate with each other to inhibit \(APC^{Cdc20}\) activity. (harvard.edu)
  • Conclusion: Our results suggest that Mad3 is required for the stable binding of Mad2 to Cdc20 in vivo, which is sufficient to inhibit APC activity and is the most downstream event in spindle checkpoint activation. (harvard.edu)
  • This protein protein interaction antibody pair set comes with two antibodies to detect the protein-protein interaction, one against the CDC20 protein, and the other against the BUB1B protein for use in in situ Proximity Ligation Assay . (abnova.com)
  • Representative image of Proximity Ligation Assay of protein-protein interactions between CDC20 and BUB1B. (abnova.com)
  • HeLa cells were stained with anti-CDC20 rabbit purified polyclonal antibody 1:1200 and anti-BUB1B mouse monoclonal antibody 1:50. (abnova.com)
  • Moreover, overexpression of BUB1B, CCNA2, CDC20, and CDK1 in tumor tissues was significantly associated with disease-free survival (DFS) in PDAC patients (Log rank P =0.00565, P =0.0357, P =0.00104, and P =0.00121, respectively). (bioscirep.org)
  • In conclusion, the up-regulation of BUB1B, CCNA2, CDC20, CDK1, and WEE1 in tumor tissues are associated with worse OS and DFS in PDAC and is correlated with advanced tumor stage and tumor development. (bioscirep.org)
  • BUB1B (AAH18739, 1 a.a. ~ 130 a.a) partial recombinant protein with GST tag. (abnova.com)
  • Antibody Reactive Against Recombinant Protein. (abnova.com)
  • In response to kinetochores not properly attached to the spindle microtubules, the spindle checkpoint inhibits APC/C Cdc20 using multiple mechanisms. (pnas.org)
  • Inhibits the FZR1- and probably CDC20-mediated activation of the anaphase promoting complex APC thereby regulating progression through the cell cycle. (genecards.org)
  • An analysis of protein-protein interactions in cross-talk pathways reveals CRKL as a novel prognostic marker in hepatocellular carcinoma. (abnova.com)
  • We also found a significant enrichment of proteins involved in telophase and cytokinesis, protein transport and endocytosis suggesting possible novel Tel1/Mec1 targets in these pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using a bioinformatic approach, we have generated a census of SCD-containing proteins that are involved not only in known DDR pathways but several other pathways under Tel1/Mec1 control suggesting new putative targets for these kinases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In both in the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a major role in cell death regulation by controlling the level, or the function, of many proteins of the core apoptotic machinery, notably the Bcl-2 family proteins [ 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • We believe that determining the mechanisms by which enzymes transfer Ubls will be of broad importance, much like studies of protein kinases have influenced our knowledge of signaling pathways and their roles in diseases. (stjude.org)
  • A Cdc20-APC ubiquitin signaling pathway regulates presynaptic differentiation. (uniprot.org)
  • section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein. (uniprot.org)
  • This protein is involved in the pathway protein ubiquitination, which is part of Protein modification. (uniprot.org)
  • View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway protein ubiquitination and in Protein modification . (uniprot.org)
  • Also, other proteins which involved in the same pathway with anapc10 were listed below. (creativebiomart.net)
  • In the case of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we review the only described work that genetically links the sporulation of this fungus to the production of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin through a shared G-protein signaling pathway. (asm.org)
  • A critical advance in this regard was the establishment of a G-protein-mediated growth pathway in Aspergillus nidulans that regulates both asexual sporulation and natural product biosynthesis ( 55 ). (asm.org)
  • γ-tubulin ring proteins are functionally and biochemically integrated into checkpoint control, together with two of the major players in this pathway, BubR1 and Cdc20. (sciencemag.org)
  • We also found that ubp3 Δ produces growth defects in combination with mutations in other genes that decrease protein stability. (genetics.org)
  • We determined whether suppression of the checkpoint genes Mad2 and BubR1 affects paclitaxel resistance and whether overexpression of Mad2 protein in checkpoint-defective cells enhances paclitaxel sensitivity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CtBP1 (C-terminal binding protein 1) was first recognized as a cellular factor that interacts with the C-terminal portion of adenovirus E1A, a protein involved in the transcriptional regulation of key cellular genes (1). (creativebiomart.net)
  • Comparative genome-wide analyses of untreated diploid cells lacking Blm10 and growing at steady state at defined growth rates revealed downregulation of numerous genes required for accurate chromosome structure, assembly and repair, and upregulation of a specific subset of genes encoding protein-folding chaperones. (g3journal.org)
  • In response to a variety of genotoxic stresses (DNA-damaging agents, UV damage, antimicrotubule agents, and hypoxia) or inappropriate proliferative signals (c-Myc, E2f-1, E1A, or Ras), p53 protein is stabilized and activated, allowing it to transactivate its target genes. (asm.org)
  • Although it has recently been shown that mammalian E2-C is regulated at the protein level during the cell cycle, not much is known concerning the expression of these genes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Western Blot: F-box protein 43 Antibody [NB100-2455] - Antibody at 0.3ug/ml. (novusbio.com)
  • Immunoblot with p53-specific antibody was preformed and the bands corresponding to p53 protein and a loading control are indicated. (sciencemag.org)
  • APC10 Antibody (B-1) is a high quality monoclonal APC10 antibody (also designated APC10 antibody) suitable for the detection of the APC10 protein of mouse, rat and human origin. (scbt.com)
  • Protein protein interaction immunofluorescence result. (abnova.com)
  • Each red dot represents the detection of protein-protein interaction complex. (abnova.com)
  • In this study, we report the generation and analysis of mice carrying a Cdc20 allele in which three residues critical for the interaction with Mad2 were mutated to alanine. (rupress.org)
  • However, the most important interaction of CDC20 is with the Anaphase Promoting Complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • F-box proteins interact with SKP1 through the F box, and they interact with ubiquitination targets through other protein interaction domains (Jin et al. (novusbio.com)
  • Mad3 contains a D-box and two KEN- boxes, which function together to mediate Cdc20-Mad3 interaction. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • TESK1 is involved in regulation of ERK signaling through its interaction with Spry2 (7) and regulation of cell spreading through its interaction with the focal adhesion protein actopaxin/α-parvin (5). (cellsignal.com)
  • Then, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using STRING and Cytoscape. (hindawi.com)
  • Then, the interrelationships between these DEGs were analyzed by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and module analysis. (hindawi.com)
  • Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of FBXO45 (S3A) and FBXO5 (S3B) in TCGA SqCLC database. (springer.com)
  • The checkpoint protein Mad2 (mitotic arrest deficient 2) adopts two conformations: open (O-Mad2) and closed (C-Mad2). (rupress.org)
  • Mechanism for remodelling of the cell cycle checkpoint protein MAD2 by the ATPase TRIP13. (proteopedia.org)
  • this regulation was dependent on the proteasome.Besides these effects during the cell cycle, we also observed upregulation of Rev1 protein upon DNA damage.This upregulation was abolished when rad3, a checkpoint protein, was deleted or when the Rev1 promoter was replaced with a constitutive promoter. (nih.gov)
  • This upregulation was abolished when rad3, a checkpoint protein, was deleted or when the Rev1 promoter was replaced with a constitutive promoter. (nih.gov)
  • Apparently, in cells, the spindle checkpoint primarily prevents Cdc20 from binding destruction motifs. (biologists.org)
  • Nek2A disappearance marks the prophase‐to‐prometaphase transition, when Cdc20, regardless of the spindle checkpoint, activates the APC/C. However, Mad2 depletion accelerated Nek2A destruction, showing that spindle checkpoint release further increases APC/C Cdc20 catalytic activity. (biologists.org)
  • Premature activation of the mitotic APC/C-CDC20 leads to missegregation of chromosomes and significantly contributes to chromosomal instability ( 7-9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mutations affecting these proteins may allow cells to proceed into anaphase prematurely, resulting in the segregation of chromosomes regardless of the completion of all the prerequisite steps. (jove.com)
  • Checkpoint inhibition of APC/C Cdc20 requires the binding of a BubR1 KEN box to Cdc20. (pnas.org)
  • Importantly, Cdc20 +/AAA mice developed spontaneous tumors at highly accelerated rates, indicating that the SAC-mediated inhibition of Cdc20 is an important tumor-suppressing mechanism. (rupress.org)
  • Y-box binding protein 1 is up-regulated in proliferative breast cancer and its inhibition deregulates the cell cycle. (nextbio.com)
  • Cell-cycle progression is governed by a series of essential regulatory proteins. (le.ac.uk)
  • Eukaryotic cell cycle progression requires the sequential differential regulation of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs). (asm.org)
  • Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a major serine/threonine phosphatase whose function has been implicated in a variety of cellular functions including DNA replication, cell cycle progression, RNA transcription, RNA splicing, and translation ( 60 ). (asm.org)
  • Centrosomal proteins are important for cell cycle progression, but their role does not require their presence in the centrosome itself. (sciencemag.org)
  • During the DNA damage response (DDR), the sensor kinases Tel1 and Mec1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ATM and ATR in human, phosphorylate multiple mediators which activate effector proteins to initiate cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transition from one phase of the cell cycle to another is accomplished through changes of activity of key regulatory proteins. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Ubiquitin is covalently ligated to target proteins by a multienzymatic system consisting of ubiquitin-activating (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating (E2), and ubiquitin-ligating (E3) enzymes. (genetics.org)
  • Cdc 20 recognizes specific amino acid sequences on M-cyclin and other target proteins. (brainscape.com)
  • When covalently bound, it is CC conjugated to target proteins via an isopeptide bond either as a CC monomer (monoubiquitin), a polymer linked via different Lys CC residues of the ubiquitin (polyubiquitin chains) or a linear CC polymer linked via the initiator Met of the ubiquitin (linear CC polyubiquitin chains). (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Ubiquitin is usually CC conjugated to Lys residues of target proteins, however, in rare CC cases, conjugation to Cys or Ser residues has been observed. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis requires three enzymes, a ubiquitin-activating enzyme, a conjugating enzyme, and a ligase, which act sequentially to transfer ubiquitin to target proteins. (searlescholars.net)
  • Additionally, TBK1-inhibited cells showed an increase in the colocalization of BUBR1 and Cdc20, with enhanced recruitment of BUBR1 to kinetochores. (aacrjournals.org)
  • TBK1 knockout cells not only showed aberrant mitotic structures and had elevated levels of SAC components including BUBR1 and Cdc20. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The CDC20-APC/C complex positively regulates the formation of synaptic vesicle clustering at active zone to the presynaptic membrane in postmitotic neurons. (uniprot.org)
  • NeuroD2 may act by promoting synthesis of Complexin II, a protein that regulates synaptic vesicle fusion. (sciencemag.org)
  • these proteins directly bind to APC and activate its cyclin ubiquitination activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which leads to the release of cytochrome c and other apoptogenic factors into the cytosol, is controlled by interactions between proteins of the Bcl-2 family [ 3 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • However, different Ubls alter the functions of their targets in different ways, such as by changing the target's subcellular localization, enzymatic activity, or interactions with other proteins or DNA. (stjude.org)
  • anapc10 has direct interactions with proteins and molecules. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Background: The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay is a powerful and versatile technique used for probing protein-DNA interactions within the natural chromatin context of the cell (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
  • This assay can be used to either identify multiple proteins associated with a specific region of the genome or to identify the many regions of the genome bound by a particular protein (3-6). (cellsignal.com)
  • In addition to histone proteins, the ChIP assay can be used to analyze binding of transcription factors and co-factors, DNA replication factors, and DNA repair proteins. (cellsignal.com)
  • In this retrospective study, we determined whether aberrant CDC20 expression can be used as a biomarker in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tumorigenesis and whether its expression reflects clinical progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aberrant CDC20 expression may play an important role in PDAC tumorigenesis and progression and may thus be useful as a marker of disease progression and prognosis and as a therapeutic target. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In eukaryotes, a family of protein kinases, known as cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) drive progression through the cell cycle. (elifesciences.org)
  • TBK1 physically interacts and phosphorylates centrosomal protein CEP170 and mitotic apparatus protein NuMA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The closest mammalian NimA homologue NEK2 is a core component of the human centrosome and its activity and expression peak in S and G2 phase, during which it interacts with and phosphorylates several centrosomal proteins. (eu.org)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • Here, we combine X‐ray crystallography and crosslinking mass spectrometry to outline how TRIP 13 recognizes MAD 2 with the help of the adapter protein p31 comet . (embopress.org)
  • APC/C Cdc20 is the molecular target of the spindle checkpoint, which prevents premature sister-chromatid separation and aneuploidy ( 3 , 12 ⇓ ⇓ - 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • This protein is required for core stability and functions as a multisubunit cell cycle ubiquitin ligase, and a regulator of sister chromatid separation by degrading securins. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The APC/CCdc20 protein complex has two main downstream targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • To identify all putative SCD-containing proteins, we analyzed the distribution of S/T-Q motifs within verified Tel1/Mec1 targets and arrived at a unifying SCD definition of at least 3 S/T-Q within a stretch of 50 residues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Post-translational covalent attachment of Ubls to protein targets is a primary eukaryotic regulatory mechanism. (stjude.org)
  • Ubls are attached to protein targets by a series of molecular handoffs involving an E1 activating enzyme, an E2 conjugating enzyme (or Ubc), an E3 ligase, and the target. (stjude.org)
  • As is the case for other events in the cell cycle, S phase in vegetative fission yeast cells requires a number of proteins that are highly conserved in all eukaryotes. (genetics.org)
  • Activation of the human anaphase-promoting complex by proteins of the CDC20/Fizzy family. (nih.gov)
  • Most of the kinetic constants are taken from literature, the remaining four unknown parameters are derived by an evolutionary optimization procedure for an objective function describing the dynamics of the APC:Cdc20 complex. (nih.gov)
  • M-cdk leads to cdc20/APCC complex activity, which destroys M-cdk. (brainscape.com)
  • The E3 ubiquitin ligase Cdc20-anaphase promoting complex (Cdc20-APC) has important roles in the control of the cell division cycle. (sciencemag.org)
  • Centromeric proteins include chromosomal passenger complex. (sdbonline.org)
  • Surprisingly, level of mitotic Cyclin B1 remained unchanged in spite of elevated levels of Cdc20 indicating a possible inactivation of Anaphase Promoting complex (APC/C). Also, percentage of Cyclin B1 positive cells was significantly high in mitotic cells enriched using double thymidine block in the presence of TBK1 inhibitor BX795 (R9+BX) and MRT67307 (R9+MRT) as compared to untreated mitotic cells (R9). (aacrjournals.org)
  • CDC20 [ 8 ] is a component of the mammalian cell-cycle mechanism that activates the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The target of this checkpoint is the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) and its coactivator Cdc20. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the TRIP13-p31(comet)-C-MAD2-CDC20 complex reveal that p31(comet) recruits C-MAD2 to a defined site on the TRIP13 hexameric ring, positioning the N terminus of C-MAD2 (MAD2(NT)) to insert into the axial pore of TRIP13 and distorting the TRIP13 ring to initiate remodelling. (proteopedia.org)
  • Cdc6 binding to chromatin is dependent on the origin recognition complex (ORC), and in turn it is necessary to recruit the minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCMs), which license the DNA for replication (reviewed in Kelly and Brown, 2000 ). (embopress.org)
  • The mutant Cdc20 protein (AAA-Cdc20) is no longer inhibited by Mad2 in response to SAC activation, leading to the dysfunction of SAC and aneuploidy. (rupress.org)
  • When CC polyubiquitin is free (unanchored-polyubiquitin), it also has CC distinct roles, such as in activation of protein kinases, and in CC signaling (By similarity). (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • This effect is mediated by the ubiquitination of XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of aptosis protein) by E6AP, subsequent activation of caspases, and the eventual cleavage of microtubules, leading to local degeneration and retraction at the tips of dendritic branches. (jneurosci.org)