cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Cdc20 Proteins: Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae: A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.ras-GRF1: A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is expressed primarily in neuronal tissue and may be specific for the Ha-ras homolog of the RAS PROTEINS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Protamine Kinase: An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Apc8 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc7, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc8 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.F-Box Proteins: A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Maturation-Promoting Factor: Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Apc6 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc7, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc6 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes: A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cdh1 Proteins: Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Chaperonins: A family of multisubunit protein complexes that form into large cylindrical structures which bind to and encapsulate non-native proteins. Chaperonins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to enhance the efficiency of PROTEIN FOLDING reactions and thereby help proteins reach their functional conformation. The family of chaperonins is split into GROUP I CHAPERONINS, and GROUP II CHAPERONINS, with each group having its own repertoire of protein subunits and subcellular preferences.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Origin Recognition Complex: The origin recognition complex is a multi-subunit DNA-binding protein that initiates DNA REPLICATION in eukaryotes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein, Neuronal: A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Mad2 Proteins: Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.ras GTPase-Activating Proteins: PROTEINS that specifically activate the GTP-phosphohydrolase activity of RAS PROTEINS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Starfish: Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein: WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).14-3-3 Proteins: A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.United StatesTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Telomere-Binding Proteins: Proteins that specifically bind to TELOMERES. Proteins in this class include those that perform functions such as telomere capping, telomere maintenance and telomere stabilization.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.SKP Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases: A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It is also found in tightly-bound trimeric complex with MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 4 and MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 6.GTP Phosphohydrolase Activators: Agents and factors that activate GTP phosphohydrolase activity.rho-Specific Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors: A subcategory of guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors that are specific for RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 4: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It is also found in tightly-bound trimeric complex with MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 6 and MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 7.Ubiquitins: A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Dual-Specificity Phosphatases: A sub-class of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain an additional phosphatase activity which cleaves phosphate ester bonds on SERINE or THREONINE residues that are located on the same protein.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors: Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins: A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES whose members act in the mechanism of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by STEROID RECEPTORS.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Securin: Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Prometaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It contains a NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNAL which may provide targeting of the protein complex and an extended N-terminus which is rich in SERINE residues.Replication Origin: A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Septins: A family of GTP-binding proteins that were initially identified in YEASTS where they were shown to initiate the process of septation and bud formation. Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act as cytoskeletal elements that play important roles in CYTOKINESIS, cytoskeletal reorganization, BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, and membrane dynamics.M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. Rho GTPases in turn control many aspects of cell behavior through the regulation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Hydroxyurea: An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Genes, Suppressor: Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored. For example, amber suppressors cancel the effect of an AMBER NONSENSE MUTATION.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Profilins: A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Checkpoint Kinase 2: Enzyme activated in response to DNA DAMAGE involved in cell cycle arrest. The gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 22 at position 12.1. In humans it is encoded by the CHEK2 gene.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Kinetin: A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesSeparase: Separase is a caspase-like cysteine protease, which plays a central role in triggering ANAPHASE by cleaving the SCC1/RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. Cohesin holds the sister CHROMATIDS together during METAPHASE and its cleavage results in chromosome segregation.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Cullin Proteins: A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.PhosphoproteinsImmunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phosphothreonine: The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mos: Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.

Cdc20 associates with the kinase aurora2/Aik. (1/319)

Cdc20/fizzy family proteins are involved in activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, which catalyzes the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of cell cycle regulatory proteins such as anaphase inhibitors and mitotic cyclins, leading to chromosome segregation and exit from mitosis. Previous work has shown that human Cdc20 (hCdc20/p55CDC) associates with one or more kinases. We report here that Cdc20-associated myelin basic protein kinase activity peaks sharply in early M phase (embryonic cells) or in G2 phase (somatic cells). In HeLa cells, Cdc20 is associated with the kinase aurora2/Aik. Aurora2/Aik is a member of the aurora/Ipl1 family of kinases that, like Cdc20, previously has been shown to be localized at mitotic spindle poles and is involved in regulating chromosome segregation and maintaining genomic stability. The demonstration that Cdc20 is associated with aurora2/Aik suggests that some function of Cdc20 is carried out or regulated through its association with aurora2/Aik.  (+info)

Identification of frequent impairment of the mitotic checkpoint and molecular analysis of the mitotic checkpoint genes, hsMAD2 and p55CDC, in human lung cancers. (2/319)

The mitotic checkpoint is thought to be essential for ensuring accurate chromosome segregation by implementing mitotic delay in response to a spindle defect. To date, however, very little data has become available on the defects of the mitotic checkpoint in human cancer cells. In the present study, impaired mitotic checkpoint was found in four (44%) of nine human lung cancer cell lines. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of frequent impairment of the mitotic checkpoint in this leading cause of cancer deaths. As an initial step towards elucidation of the underlying mechanism, we further undertook a search for mutations in a key component of the mitotic checkpoint, known as hsMAD2, and its immediate downstream molecule, p55CDC. No such mutations were found, however, in either 21 lung cancer cell lines or 25 primary lung cancer cases, although we could identify silent polymorphisms and the transcribed and processed hsMAD2 pseudogene that was subsequently mapped at 14q21-q23. The present observations appear to warrant further investigations, such as search for alterations in other components, to better understand the molecular pathogenesis of this fatal disease, and warn against potential misinterpretation when performing mutational analyses for other cancer types based on cDNA templates.  (+info)

Regulation of APC activity by phosphorylation and regulatory factors. (3/319)

Ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of Cut2/Pds1 and Cyclin B is required for sister chromatid separation and exit from mitosis, respectively. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC) specifically ubiquitinates Cut2/Pds1 at metaphase-anaphase transition, and ubiquitinates Cyclin B in late mitosis and G1 phase. However, the exact regulatory mechanism of substrate-specific activation of mammalian APC with the right timing remains to be elucidated. We found that not only the binding of the activators Cdc20 and Cdh1 and the inhibitor Mad2 to APC, but also the phosphorylation of Cdc20 and Cdh1 by Cdc2-Cyclin B and that of APC by Polo-like kinase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase, regulate APC activity. The cooperation of the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and the regulatory factors in regulation of APC activity may thus control the precise progression of mitosis.  (+info)

Expression of the CDH1-associated form of the anaphase-promoting complex in postmitotic neurons. (4/319)

The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC) is a tightly cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin-protein ligase that targets cyclin B and other destruction box-containing proteins for proteolysis at the end of mitosis and in G1. Recent work has shown that activation of the APC in mitosis depends on CDC20, whereas APC is maintained active in G1 via association with the CDC20-related protein CDH1. Here we show that the mitotic activator CDC20 is the only component of the APC ubiquitination pathway whose expression is restricted to proliferating cells, whereas the APC and CDH1 are also expressed in several mammalian tissues that predominantly contain differentiated cells, such as adult brain. Immunocytochemical analyses of cultured rat hippocampal neurons and of mouse and human brain sections indicate that the APC and CDH1 are ubiquitously expressed in the nuclei of postmitotic terminally differentiated neurons. The APC purified from brain contains all core subunits known from proliferating cells and is tightly associated with CDH1. Purified brain APC(CDH1) has a high cyclin B ubiquitination activity that depends less on the destruction box than on the activity of mitotic APC(CDC20). On the basis of these results, we propose that the functions of APC(CDH1) are not restricted to controlling cell-cycle progression but may include the ubiquitination of yet unidentified substrates in differentiated cells.  (+info)

Mitotic regulators govern progress through steps in the centrosome duplication cycle. (5/319)

Centrosome duplication is marked by discrete changes in centriole structure that occur in lockstep with cell cycle transitions. We show that mitotic regulators govern steps in centriole replication in Drosophila embryos. Cdc25(string), the expression of which initiates mitosis, is required for completion of daughter centriole assembly. Cdc20(fizzy), which is required for the metaphase-anaphase transition, is required for timely disengagement of mother and daughter centrioles. Stabilization of mitotic cyclins, which prevents exit from mitosis, blocks assembly of new daughter centrioles. Common regulation of the nuclear and centrosome cycles by mitotic regulators may ensure precise duplication of the centrosome.  (+info)

Cdc20 protein contains a destruction-box but, unlike Clb2, its proteolysisis not acutely dependent on the activity of anaphase-promoting complex. (6/319)

Both chromosome segregation and the final exit from mitosis require a ubiquitin-protein ligase called anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome. This multiprotein complex ubiquitinates various substrates, such as the anaphase inhibitor Pds1 and mitotic cyclins, and thus targets them for proteolysis by the 26S proteasome. The ubiquitination by APC is dependent on the presence of a destruction-box sequence in the N-terminus of target proteins. Recent reports have strongly suggested that Cdc20, a WD40 repeat-containing protein required for nuclear division in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is essential for the APC-mediated proteolysis. To understand the function of CDC20, we have studied its regulation in some detail. The expression of the CDC20 gene is cell-cycle regulated such that it is transcribed only during late S phase and mitosis. Although the protein is unstable to some extent through out the cell cycle, its degradation is particularly enhanced in G1. Cdc20 contains a destruction box sequence which, when mutated or deleted, stabilizes it considerably in G1. Surprisingly, we find that while the inactivation of APC subunits Cdc16, Cdc23 or Cdc27 results in stabilization of the mitotic cyclin Clb2 in G1, the proteolytic destruction of Cdc20 remains largely unaffected. This suggests the existence of proteolytic mechanisms in G1 that can degrade destruction-box containing proteins, such as Cdc20, in an APC-independent manner.  (+info)

MAD3 encodes a novel component of the spindle checkpoint which interacts with Bub3p, Cdc20p, and Mad2p. (7/319)

We show that MAD3 encodes a novel 58-kD nuclear protein which is not essential for viability, but is an integral component of the spindle checkpoint in budding yeast. Sequence analysis reveals two regions of Mad3p that are 46 and 47% identical to sequences in the NH(2)-terminal region of the budding yeast Bub1 protein kinase. Bub1p is known to bind Bub3p (Roberts et al. 1994) and we use two-hybrid assays and coimmunoprecipitation experiments to show that Mad3p can also bind to Bub3p. In addition, we find that Mad3p interacts with Mad2p and the cell cycle regulator Cdc20p. We show that the two regions of homology between Mad3p and Bub1p are crucial for these interactions and identify loss of function mutations within each domain of Mad3p. We discuss roles for Mad3p and its interactions with other spindle checkpoint proteins and with Cdc20p, the target of the checkpoint.  (+info)

The KEN box: an APC recognition signal distinct from the D box targeted by Cdh1. (8/319)

The ordered progression through the cell cycle depends on regulating the abundance of several proteins through ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Degradation is precisely timed and specific. One key component of the degradation system, the anaphase promoting complex (APC), is a ubiquitin protein ligase. It is activated both during mitosis and late in mitosis/G(1), by the WD repeat proteins Cdc20 and Cdh1, respectively. These activators target distinct sets of substrates. Cdc20-APC requires a well-defined destruction box (D box), whereas Cdh1-APC confers a different and as yet unidentified specificity. We have determined the sequence specificity for Cdh1-APC using two assays, ubiquitination in a completely defined and purified system and degradation promoted by Cdh1-APC in Xenopus extracts. Cdc20 is itself a Cdh1-APC substrate. Vertebrate Cdc20 lacks a D box and therefore is recognized by Cdh1-APC through a different sequence. By analysis of Cdc20 as a substrate, we have identified a new recognition signal. This signal, composed of K-E-N, serves as a general targeting signal for Cdh1-APC. Like the D box, it is transposable to other proteins. Using the KEN box as a template, we have identified cell cycle genes Nek2 and B99 as additional Cdh1-APC substrates. Mutation in the KEN box stabilizes all three proteins against ubiquitination and degradation.  (+info)

The Anaphase promoting complex/ cyclosome (APC/C) is a 1.2 MDa multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that encodes broad substrate-specificity via its two co-activators Cdc20 and Cdh1 and three principal degrons: the D-box, KEN box and ABBA motif. The regulation of mitotic exit is tightly controlled by the expression and degradation of these two co-activators through stages of the cell cycle. The upregulation of Cdc20 is associated with many cancers including pancreatic, breast and cervical cancers and hepatocellular carcinomas. However, to date, no specific inhibitors of the APC/CCdc20 exist in the clinic. Only two APC/C specific compounds have been discovered: TAME/pro-TAME, which disrupts the C-terminal IR tail of Cdc20 binding to APC3, and Apcin, which disrupts substrate D-box degron binding to Cdc20. Recent studies have highlighted the need for a combination strategy to achieve full inhibition of the APC/CCdc20. We propose a new approach involving the design of constrained peptides to inhibit ...
BACKGROUND: The aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) are characterised by a high proliferation rate. The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and its co-activators Cdc20 and Cdh1 represent an important checkpoint in mitosis. Here, the role of the APC/C and its co-activators is examined in DLBCL and MCL.. METHODS: The expression and prognostic value of Cdc20 and Cdh1 was investigated using GEP data and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, the therapeutic potential of APC/C targeting was evaluated using the small-molecule inhibitor proTAME and the underlying mechanisms of action were investigated by western blot.. RESULTS: We demonstrated that Cdc20 is highly expressed in DLBCL and aggressive MCL, correlating with a poor prognosis in DLBCL. ProTAME induced a prolonged metaphase, resulting in accumulation of the APC/C-Cdc20 substrate cyclin B1, inactivation/degradation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and caspase-dependent apoptosis. In ...
The anaphase‐promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that, together with either one of its regulatory co‐activators, Cdc20 or Cdh1, targets multiple mitotic regulators for proteasomal degradation. These include cyclin B1, securin and geminin, making APC/CCdc20 a major factor in directing cell division, sister chromatid separation and DNA replication licensing (Clijsters et al., 2013; Peters, 2006; Pines, 2011). Several questions remain about how the activity of APC/CCdc20 is controlled in mitosis. Phosphorylation of the APC/C by mitotic kinases at the end of prophase leads to an increased affinity for Cdc20 (Kramer et al., 2000; Yudkovsky et al., 2000). The formation of the complex between the APC/C and co‐activator probably induces a conformational change that activates the APC/C (Dube et al., 2005; Kimata et al., 2008), perhaps by facilitating the recruitment of the E2 enzyme UbcH10 (Chang et al., 2014; Van Voorhis and Morgan, 2014). Cdc20 also acts as an APC/C ...
S. Mosalaganti, J. Keller, A. Altenfeld, M. Winzker, P. Rombaut, M. Saur, A. Petrovic, A. Wehenkel, S. Wohlgemuth, F. Müller, S. Maffini, T. Bange, F. Herzog, H. Waldmann, S. Raunser, A. Musacchio: Structure of the RZZ complex and molecular basis of its interaction with Spindly. J Cell Biol. 2017, 216:961-981.. A. C. Faesen, M. Thanasoula, S. Maffini, C. Breit, F. Müller, S. van Gerwen, T. Bange, A. Musacchio: Basis of catalytic assembly of the mitotic checkpoint complex. Nature. 2017, 542:498-502.. D. Pan, K. Klare, A. Petrovic, A. Take, K. Walstein, P. Singh, A. Rondelet, A.W. Bird, A. Musacchio: CDK-regulated dimerization of M18BP1 on a Mis18 hexamer is necessary for CENP-A loading. Elife. 2017 6. pii: e23352.. A. Petrovic, J. Keller, Y. Liu, K. Overlack, J. John, Y. Dimitrova, S. Jenni, S. van Gerwen, P. Stege, S. Wohlgemuth, P. Rombaut, F. Herzog, S.C. Harrison, I. Vetter, A. Musacchio: Structure of the MIS12 complex and molecular basis of its interaction with CENP-C at human ...
Well-timed protein degradation is a common event in the cell cycle, known to drive mitotic entry (G2/M) as well as the metaphase-to-anaphase transition (Teixeira and Reed, 2013; Bassermann et al., 2014). A frequent general question in these and other cell cycle processes is what defines the functional time window of an E3 ligase. In principle, either the activity of the E3 ligase may itself be regulated, or the substrate binding to the E3 ligase may depend on third-party factors such as kinases or scaffolding proteins. Mitosis provides a remarkable example of how an E3 ligase can be dynamically regulated, in this case to tightly coordinate the status of kinetochore-microtubule attachments with the onset of chromosome separation. It is long known that the metaphase-to-anaphase transition is driven by the E3 ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C; see Cullin-RING and APC/C E3 ligases text box), activated by its subunit CDC20 (Teixeira and Reed, 2013; Bassermann et al., 2014). High ...
Cells depleted of Plk or cdc5-1 protein arrest at multiple points of M phase. (A) Growth of cdc5Δ mutant conditionally rescued by expressing either GAL1-HA-EGF
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Childs, Ken I_KEN/0002 -- Discover Life
I logged on to this site after following a link from CDC. I was curious about CD and considering a change from LL. After reading the ridiculous opinions of...
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Know Can Do! Put Your Know-How Into Action - читать онлайн бесплатно без регистрации, Ken Blanchard. Электронная библиотека КучаКниг.
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an ubiquitin ligase that functions during mitosis. Here we identify the transcriptional regulator, transcriptional intermediary factor 1γ, TIF1γ, as an APC/C-interacting protein that regulates APC/C function. TIF1γ is not a substrate for APC/C-dependent ubiquitylation but instead, associates specifically with the APC/C holoenzyme and Cdc20 to affect APC/C activity and progression through mitosis. RNA interference studies indicate that TIF1γ knockdown results in a specific reduction in APC/C ubiquitin ligase activity, the stabilization of APC/C substrates, and an increase in the time taken for cells to progress through mitosis from nuclear envelope breakdown to anaphase. TIF1γ knockdown cells are also characterized by the inappropriate presence of cyclin A at metaphase, and an increase in the number of cells that fail to undergo metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Expression of a small interfering RNA-resistant TIF1γ species relieves the ...
We found that APCCdh1 is inactivated during S phase, and its complete inactivation requires Clb5p. Both Ase1p and Cdc20p were degraded in late G1-arrested cells containing high levels of G1 CDK activity. Cdh1p was required for the degradation of both substrates. We also found that a fraction of Cdh1p was bound to the APC/C in late G1-arrested cells. Further, the S phase cyclin Clb5p was required for the normal timing of APCCdh1 inactivation. Thus, in a normal cell cycle the additive activities of G1 and S phase CDKs inactivate APCCdh1. These findings have two implications for the design of the yeast cell cycle. First, the key role for Clb5p in APCCdh1 inactivation suggests that Clb5p has an important role in enabling the expression of mitotic cyclins. This function was previously ascribed entirely to G1 cyclins. Second, because Clb5p is degraded by APCCdc20 our finding that yeast Cdc20p is an APCCdh1 substrate suggests that high APCCdh1 activity throughout G1 may help ensure that Clb5p can ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Active Cdc42 ELISA Activation Assay - colorimetric format offers a sensitive and accurate dection of active Cdc42 GTPase. Additional assays for small GTPases including Rho, Ras, Cdc42, Rac, Ral, Arf also available in pull-down and G-LISA formats.
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Information on what to do if you have been exposed to TB, and links for patients and health care providers. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Organ Nakli Merkezi, Tüp Bebek Merkezi, Havacılık Tıp Merkezi, Uyku bozuklukları Merkezi, Sigarayı bıraktırma merkezi, Poliklinik Hizmetleri ile 295 yataklı Başkent Üniversitesi Hastanesinde ve hastaneye bağlı, 90 yataklı Ayaş Fizik Tedavi ve Rehabilitasyon Merkezi ve 65 yataklı Yapracık Psiko-Sosyal Rehabilitasyon Merkezi gibi kuruluşları ile hizmetinizde..
Ad Age Editor Ken Wheaton writes that pharmaceutical marketers might end up on the wrong end of regulation if they dont rein in their excesses.
In a political twist on the old George Carlin routine, the Center for Disease Control says the Trump administration has forbidden them from using 7 words.
摘 要:胚胎干细胞的生长、增殖、分化和形状改变等过程受微环境、机械力等多种因素的影响。胚胎干细胞能够感知微小机械力刺激,并将其转化成生物化学信号,进而通过F-肌动蛋白、肌球蛋白-II、Cdc42、Rho和Src等产生一系列分子水平的应答反应,最终导致基因差异表达。胚胎干细胞应答外力基本过程的研究对于胚胎早期发育和分化机制研究、克隆和再生药物的研制与开发等均有重要意义。该文就机械力对胚胎干细胞结构、形态和分化的影响及其潜在机制等进行论述 ...
Just in time for World Breastfeeding Week (yes, there is one), the CDC has released a report (.pdf) showing that only a small percentage of U.S. hospitals - 4 …. ...
CDC27 is a core component of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase, whose oscillatory activity is responsible for the metaphase-to-anaphase transition and mitotic exit. Here, in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells (NMuMG), CDC27 expression is controlled posttranscriptionally through the RNA binding protein poly(rC) binding protein 1 (PCBP1)/heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (HNRNP E1). shRNA-mediated knockdown of HNRNP E1 abrogates translational silencing of the Cdc27 transcript, resulting in constitutive expression of CDC27. Dysregulated expression of CDC27 leads to premature activation of the G2-M-APC/C-CDC20 complex, resulting in the aberrant degradation of FZR1/CDH1, a cofactor of the G1 and late G2-M-APC/C and a substrate normally reserved for the SCF-βTRCP ligase. Loss of CDH1 expression and of APC/C-CDH1 activity, upon constitutive expression of CDC27, results in mitotic aberrations and aneuploidy in NMuMG cells. ...
Entry into anaphase and proteolysis of B-type cyclins depend on a complex containing the tetratricopeptide repeat proteins Cdc16p, Cdc23p, and Cdc27p. This particle, called the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome, functions as a cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin-protein ligase. Two additional subunits of the budding yeast APC were identified: The largest subunit, encoded by the APC1 gene, is conserved between fungi and vertebrates and shows similarity to BIMEp from Aspergillus nidulans. A small heat-inducible subunit is encoded by the CDC26 gene. The yeast APC is a 36S particle that contains at least seven different proteins. ...
KT localization analysis of an extensive hSpindly mutant library consisting of truncation, insertion, deletion, and substitution constructs showed that both the coiled-coil domain II and the C terminus of hSpindly are required for KT localization (Figs. 1 and 2). Although Barisic et al. (2010) has previously shown that the 293-605-aa fragment of hSpindly did not localize to KTs, we found that this specific deletion (N3 construct) does not impair KT localization of hSpindly (Fig. 1). This discrepancy could be the result of overexpression, differences in fusion tags, or the sensitivity of the two assays. Overexpression of coiled-coil proteins often results in aggregation, which can lead to mislocalization of the protein, resulting in a false negative. Immunostaining with anti-FLAG antibody to analyze KT localization by Barisic et al. (2010) compared with GFP fusion constructs may influence the detection sensitivity and our assay is maximized for sensitivity with vinblastine treatment. Barisic et ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Considerable evidence indicates that a polo-like kinase (PLK) plays an important role in cell cycle regulation. PLK is also required for bipolar spindle formation, activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, and cytokinesis. Recent work led to the identification of a PLKK that is thought to be responsible for activation of PLK. Recent work has shown that PLKK is in turn activated by phosphorylation at three sites (Ser482, Ser486 and Ser490). Thus activation of PLK is thought to involve a kinase cascade involving the phosphorylation of Ser482,486,490 in PLKK ...
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CDC2L2 - CDC2L2 (GFP-tagged) - Human cell division cycle 2-like 2 (PITSLRE proteins) (CDC2L2), transcript variant 6 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Complete information for CDC37 gene (Protein Coding), Cell Division Cycle 37, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Thermo Scientific™ Sino Biological™ CDC42 Recombinant Human Protein, GST Tag 5 x 50ug Thermo Scientific™ Sino Biological™ CDC42...
CDC37 - Cdc37 - Mouse, 4 unique 29mer shRNA constructs in retroviral GFP vector shRNA available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
For more than 60 years, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been a leader in the fight against malaria since successfully eliminating it in the United States. Building on that success, CDC experts continue to develop and evaluate ...
Cdc6, 0.5 ml. The replication licensing system acts to ensure that no section of the genome is replicated more than once in a single cell cycle.
The CDC says a fresh rise in the polio-like acute flaccid myelitis is puzzling, but some doctors say its no mystery. They blame a virus called EV-D68.
MedWorm checks thousands of medical RSS feeds each day and categorizes them for easy access. Here you can read summaries of all the latest updates from CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
By Dan Olmsted and Mark Blaxill Two years after dozens of children became paralyzed following baffling respiratory illnesses, the CDC says it has received a
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The Author. In a world of informational overload, an informational guide is only as good as its author. As such, it is a worthwhile endeavor to help you understand the brain behind this particular guide.. Diseaseless is a product of Ken Drew. Kens background was punctuated with illnesses of all manner, from simple colds and flu to more serious diseases.. By the time he was 40, Kens appearance resembled that of a 60 year old man. Due to constant illness, Ken wasnt able to look after his family because he couldnt work.. Ken decided that enough was enough and he decided to take matters of his health in his own hands. Through some grueling research and hundreds of trials, he finally came up with a series of treatment options that could not only clear many illnesses but also prevent them.. Ken decided to compile these treatment options into one digital guide called Diseaseless. Everything in the guide has been used and tested by him. He managed to revitalize his health and rid his body of all ...
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The number of teenagers who are drinking and driving has dropped by 54% in the past two decades, according to a new report released Tuesday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
By Jacquie Eubanks BSN, RN According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there is currently widespread or regional flu activity in every
Accurate chromosomal segregation is monitored by the mitotic checkpoint, and an increased rate of chromosomal missegregation leads to chromosomal instability (CIN). Here, we demonstrate that the HBV X protein (HBx) binds BubR1, a component of the mitotic checkpoint complex and co-localizes with BubR1 at the kinetochores. HBx binding to BubR1 attenuates the association between BubR1 and CDC20, an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and induces slippage of mitotic arrest in the presence of microtubule poisons. In addition, HBx binding to BubR1 results in the accumulation of lagging chromosomes and chromosome bridges. In contrast, a C-terminally truncated HBx mutant (HBx(1-100)) fails to bind BubR1 and does not cause aberrant chromosomal segregation. This provides a novel mechanism for dysregulation of the mitotic checkpoint by a viral pathogen linking it to the accumulation of chromosomal instability in HBV-associated hepatocarcinogenesis.. ...
Author: Schmidt, A. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2005-02-15; Keywords: cell cycle; anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome; Xenopus; polo-like kinase; cytostatic factor; mitotic exit; Title: Xenopus polo-like kinase Plx1 regulates XErp1, a novel inhibitor of APC/C activity
As a result of checkpoint activation, a signalling cascade is initiated and a number of complexes between the checkpoint components are formed. This leads to the inhibition of the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC), which is the ubiquitin ligase responsible for targeting mitotic proteins: securing and cyclin B for degradation by the 26S proteasome. The complexes formed include the MCC, or Mitotic Checkpoint Complex, which in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) consists of Mad2, Mad3 checkpoint proteins together with the APC activator, Slp1 (the Cdc20 homologue). The MCC has been shown to bind and inhibit the APC in HeLa cells. In my PhD I focused on the interactions between the MCC and the APC, in particular on Mad3 protein. Mad3 is a conserved checkpoint component, homologous to human BubR1. It carries 2 putative KEN boxes, motifs, which typically target proteins for degradation (like D-boxes). We mutated both KEN boxes in S. pombe Mad3 and show that they are essential for Mad3 checkpoint ...
Claeys, Hannes et al "DELLA Signaling Mediates Stress-Induced Cell Differentiation in Arabidopsis Leaves through Modulation of Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Activity." Plant Physiology 159.2 (2012): 739-747. Web. 22 Jan. 2018. ...
The mitotic checkpoint protein Bub3 is involved with the essential spindle checkpoint pathway which operates during early embryogenesis. Bub3 is…
The CDC cant find CFS much less XMRV. The CDC studies chronic unwellness not CFS. They plan to analyze their findings in 2011. Here are their...
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The CDC gets it wrong again - the sun doesnt cause melanoma Last year, I reported on the incompetent way the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) handed the
Expression of CDC34 (E2-CDC34, UBC3, UBE2R1) in duodenum tissue. Antibody staining with HPA002382, CAB005109 and CAB047311 in immunohistochemistry.
KENT CITY, Michigan. -- Emergency crews responded to a minor ammonia leak on a farm Tuesday at 3509 18-Mile road in Kent City. According to the Kent County Sheriffs department the leak was reported shortly before 10:30 in the morning.
Thesis lecture: Mitosis exit regulation by Cdc5 and PP2A-Cdc55. By Yolanda Moyano Rodriguez. Directed by Dr. Ethel Queralt. 28/11/2019 at 10:30 am. Campus del Mar (UPF). Room 61.310-12. ...
Cdc42 and Rac1 have distinct but overlapping binding sites on PICK1.Upper panel: GST pulldowns were carried out using purified his6flagCdc42 or his6mycRac1 and
Health News) A report published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has revealed that U.S. cancer rates have, once again, shown a significant increase in recent years after a steady decline since the 1990s. The report … Read More ...
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Here is the best resource for homework help with STA 2500 : Statistical Analysis at Kent State. Find STA2500 study guides, notes, and practice tests from Kent
Afters months of waiting, I have finally been able to get my act together enough to post the answers to questions you posed to |a href=http://www.science.oregonstate.edu/~kentad/|Dr. Adam Kent|/a|. If you remember back to |a href=http://bigthink.com/ideas/24029|the beginning of the fall|/a|, Dr. Kent and his colleagues published a paper in |em|Nature Geosciences|/em| about the |a href=http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v3/n9/abs/ngeo924.html|nature of magma mixing|/a| and ...
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Ken Danylchuk, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
So Ken Ham wont debate Aron Ra and PZ Myers because... reasons! He complained that the debate invitation was rude, but look how rude he was to Bill Nye...
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On the evening of October 14, 2017, Lesley Rebeca Parrott passed away surrounded by family. She was born January 9, 1989, in Kent, WA to Craig and Anna (Wright) Parrott.
Continuing a trend that emerged late last month, flu activity remains high across the United States but there are reports that the number of infections may be l
This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
CIDRAP News) Ð The Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention (CDC) is much better prepared to deal with a terroristattack now than it was a year ago, before Sep 11 and the subsequent anthraxattacks, CDC officials said this week. ...
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The Centers for Disease Control is trying to track down around 100 people who may have overlapped with the infected MERS patient at two hospitals.
Références EFSA. Références CDC. ONEHEALTH_NL 21/12/11 Risk Profile Humaan Schmallenbergvirus. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN. CIRAD. OIE 15/05/13 OIE technical meeting. 1.
In eukaryotic cells, accurate chromosome segregation requires the spindle assembly checkpoint, a surveillance system monitoring kinetochore attachment to microtubules of the mitotic spindle (Lara-Gonzalez et al., 2012; Musacchio, 2015). The spindle checkpoint kinase MPS1 binds to unattached kinetochores and phosphorylates kinetochore proteins, thus directing the accumulation of spindle checkpoint proteins of the MAD and BUB families (Musacchio, 2015; Ciliberto and Hauf, 2017). A subset of the MAD and BUB proteins then assemble into the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC; Musacchio, 2015). The mitotic checkpoint complex then diffuses away from the kinetochore to inhibit the ubiquitin E3 ligase anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), thus preventing mitotic exit (Sivakumar and Gorbsky, 2015). The two crucial targets ubiquitylated by the APC/C to promote mitotic exit are securin, the inhibitor of separase, and most important for this work, cyclin B, the activating subunit of a cyclin-dependent ...
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a ubiquitin ligase with essential functions in mitosis, meiosis, and G1 phase of the cell cycle. APC/C recognizes substrates via coactivator proteins such as Cdh1, and bound substrates are ubiquitinated by E2 enzymes that interact with a hetero-dimer of the RING subunit Apc11 and the cullin Apc2. We have obtained three-dimensional (3D) models of human and Xenopus APC/C by angular reconstitution and random conical tilt (RCT) analyses of negatively stained cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) preparations, have determined the masses of these particles by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and have mapped the locations of Cdh1 and Apc2. These proteins are located on the same side of the asymmetric APC/C, implying that this is where substrates are ubiquitinated. We have further identified a large flexible domain in APC/C that adopts a different orientation upon Cdh1 binding. Cdh1 may thus activate APC/C both by recruiting substrates ...
The in vivo and in vitro observations reported here provide a biochemical clue as to how MAD2 executes the mitotic checkpoint. The in vivo association data suggests that a complex including MAD2 and the cyclosome is formed during mitotic checkpoint activation and dissociates once the checkpoint is satisfied. In vitro, the consequence of forcing this interaction by the addition of exogenous MAD2 was to inhibit the cyclin B ubiquitination by the cyclosome and is likely to affect the ubiquitination and degradation of other noncyclin substrates involved in the metaphase-anaphase transition (31-33). Interestingly, it has been shown recently in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe that MAD2 behaves genetically as a negative regulator of the cyclosome and that overexpression leads to mitotic arrest (36) in support of the model being proposed here.. The biochemical mechanism that promotes the interaction of MAD2 with the cyclosome during checkpoint activation is unknown, but may rely on the ...
Drawing on their earlier research, the authors found that curcumin specifically binds to and crosslinks to a protein that is involved in cell-cycle regulation. It is known as a checkpoint protein, she said, because it blocks the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes make proper attachments to the spindle. The mitotic checkpoint, or spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), is the major cell-cycle control mechanism that delays the onset of anaphase during mitosis. One of the primary regulators of the SAC is the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C ...
The anaphase promoting complex is a highly conserved E3 ligase complex that mediates the destruction of key regulatory proteins during both mitotic and meiotic divisions. In order to maintain ploidy, this destruction must occur after the regulatory proteins have executed their function. Thus, the regulation of APC/C activity itself is critical for maintaining ploidy during all types of cell divisions. During mitotic cell division, two conserved activator proteins called Cdc20 and Cdh1 are required for both APC/C activation and substrate selection. However, significantly less is known about how these proteins regulate APC/C activity during the specialized meiotic nuclear divisions. In addition, both budding yeast and flies utilize a third meiosis-specific activator. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this meiosis-specific activator is called Ama1. This review summarizes our knowledge of how Cdc20 and Ama1 coordinate APC/C activity to regulate the meiotic nuclear divisions in yeast.
The anaphase promoting complex is a highly conserved E3 ligase complex that mediates the destruction of key regulatory proteins during both mitotic and meiotic divisions. In order to maintain ploidy, this destruction must occur after the regulatory proteins have executed their function. Thus, the regulation of APC/C activity itself is critical for maintaining ploidy during all types of cell divisions. During mitotic cell division, two conserved activator proteins called Cdc20 and Cdh1 are required for both APC/C activation and substrate selection. However, significantly less is known about how these proteins regulate APC/C activity during the specialized meiotic nuclear divisions. In addition, both budding yeast and flies utilize a third meiosis-specific activator. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this meiosis-specific activator is called Ama1. This review summarizes our knowledge of how Cdc20 and Ama1 coordinate APC/C activity to regulate the meiotic nuclear divisions in yeast.
Chromosomal instability has long been recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Cancer progresses as cells override the intrinsic system of checks and balances that normally prevents them from dividing in the presence of a damaged or aneuploid genome. Chromosomal instability is described as increased chromosome missegregation and often results in aneuploidy or the condition of having too many or too few chromosomes. Under normal physiologic conditions, cell-cycle traverse is carefully controlled by sequential posttranslational modifications, especially E3 ligase-mediated ubiquitination (1, 2). The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a major E3 ligase complex that promotes the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, and its activation is inhibited until surveillance mechanisms within the cell sense proper metaphase alignment and bipolar spindle attachment of chromosomes (2, 3). Activation of the APC/C occurs via interaction with a cofactor that confers specificity to the complex, either FZR1/CDH1 ...
When the APC complex was inhibited by siRNA of APC3, the level of BubR1 remained constant for 60 min after nocodazole release in the presence of CHX, whereas it declined in control cells (Figure 8B). This result was corroborated by the finding from live‐cell assay for proteolysis that depleting APC3 expression abrogated the degradation of BubR1, and concomitantly cells did not enter anaphase for more than 5 h (Supplementary Figure 12 and Supplementary movie 7). When we compared the timing of BubR1 degradation with the degradation of other players in mitosis, such as Cdc20, Cyclin B, Plk1, and Aurora A, we found that BubR1 degradation began before that of Cyclin B (Supplementary Figure 13).. Next, we tested whether Cdc20 was responsible for BubR1 degradation during mitosis. To prevent the cells from exiting mitosis before the analysis began, HeLa cells were transfected with an expression construct to force moderate expression of Cyclin B. siRNA for GFP, Cdc20, or Cdh1 was simultaneously ...
UbcH3 plays an essential role in the progression of cells from the G1 to S phase of the cell division cycle. One pathway (requiring Cdc34) initiates DNA replication by degrading a CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) inhibitor. The second pathway, involves the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) which initiates chromosome egregation and exit from mitosis by degrading anaphase inhibitors and mitotic cyclins ...
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... is a member of the CDC25 family of phosphatases. CDC25A is required for progression from G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle. It activates the cyclin-dependent kinase CDC2 by removing two phosphate groups. CDC25A is specifically degraded in response to DNA damage, which prevents cells with chromosomal abnormalities from progressing through cell division. CDC25A is an oncogene, although its exact role in oncogenesis has not been demonstrated. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a ubiquitin ligase involved in regulation of the cell cycle through ubiquitination-dependent substrate proteolysis. Many viral proteins have been shown to interact with the APC/C, derailing cell cyc
Expression of CDC14A (cdc14, Cdc14A1, Cdc14A2, DFNB105) in tonsil tissue. Antibody staining with HPA023783 in immunohistochemistry.
Complete information for CDC14BL gene (Pseudogene), CDC14 Cell Division Cycle 14 C-Like, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
1GQP: Implications for the Ubiquitination Reaction of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex from the Crystal Structure of the Doc1/Apc10 Subunit.
... Ken was a chef before a motorbike crash turned his life upside down Ken was a chef before a motorbike crash turned his life upside down in 2001.Ken suffered horrific injuries, including muscle spasticity. It stopped my chefing career and I was lost because Id
News Flash: Here we go again folks. Flu season is here and the CDC is spreading nothing but fear and Bullshit again. Officials at the CDC claim that the flu season has started early and it could be as bad as the 2003-2004 season that resulted in 48,000 deaths. On average, about 24,000 Americans die…
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U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has determined that sixty-five percent of those with cancer now survive five years or more after diagnosis.
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A new report from the CDC has found that adults between ages 20 and 39 were the most likely group at about 45 percent, but then consumption was shown to decrease with age.
The CDC estimates that so far this season there have been at least 13 million flu illnesses, 120,000 hospitalizations and 6,600 deaths from flu.
The CDC estimates that so far this season there have been at least 13 million flu illnesses, 120,000 hospitalizations and 6,600 deaths from flu.
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The CDC has confirmed that at least 107 cases of measles spread across 21 states and the District of Columbia have been reported just in the first half of 2018.
After more extensive serology tests, the CDC has confirmed that the Illinois man initially believed to be infected with MERS is actually virus-free.
By Martin Hewitt Dr Brian Hooker claims that the CDC suppressed findings of a higher risk of autism in Afro-American boys receiving MMR at 24 and 36 months, a claim based on the concerns of Dr Bill Thompson, co-author breaking...
Lala Kent has always been candid about her struggles with substance abuse, but last month she opened up about her struggle with alcoholism -what shes doing about it. Five months ago, I came to the realization that I am an alcoholic, and I am now a friend of Bill W., Kent said on Instagram. In an interview with
Here is the best resource for homework help with BSCI 10120 : BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS at Kent State. Find BSCI10120 study guides, notes, and practice tests
With a ton of new cast members being introduced in the final season of Glee, its no surprise that theres also going to be some amazing guest stars -- and that includes Jennifer Coolidge and Ken Jeong, and HollywoodLife.com can exclusively tell you when youll see them.
This protein is similar to xenopus early mitotic inhibitor-1 (Emi1), which is a mitotic regulator that interacts with Cdc20 and ... F-box only protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FBXO5 gene. This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein ... and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this ... The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of the ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box ...
Fang G, Yu H, Kirschner MW (1998). "The checkpoint protein MAD2 and the mitotic regulator CDC20 form a ternary complex with the ... Fang G, Yu H, Kirschner MW (June 1998). "The checkpoint protein MAD2 and the mitotic regulator CDC20 form a ternary complex ... Mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAD2L1 gene. MAD2L1 is a ... "Structure of the Mad2 spindle assembly checkpoint protein and its interaction with Cdc20". Nat. Struct. Biol. 7 (3): 224-9. doi ...
"Activation of the human anaphase-promoting complex by proteins of the CDC20/Fizzy family". Current Biology. 8 (22): 1207-10. ... a protein domain important for protein-protein interaction. This protein was shown to interact with mitotic checkpoint proteins ... Cell division cycle protein 27 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDC27 gene. The protein encoded by this ... This protein is a component of anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which is composed of eight protein subunits and highly ...
1999). "Activation of the human anaphase-promoting complex by proteins of the CDC20/Fizzy family". Curr. Biol. 8 (22): 1207-S4 ... Fizzy-related protein homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FZR1 gene. FZR1 has been shown to interact with ... "Direct binding of CDC20 protein family members activates the anaphase-promoting complex in mitosis and G1". Mol Cell. 2 (2): ... "Activation of the human anaphase-promoting complex by proteins of the CDC20/Fizzy family". Curr. Biol. ENGLAND. 8 (22): 1207-S4 ...
Involved in regulation of mitotic checkpoint protein complex via phosphorylation of CDC20 and MAD2L1. Plays an active role in ... a novel centrosomal coiled-coil protein and candidate substrate of the cell cycle-regulated protein kinase Nek2". J. Cell Biol ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase Nek2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NEK2 gene. NEK2 has been shown to interact ... Protein kinase which is involved in the control of centrosome separation and bipolar spindle formation in mitotic cells and ...
Amon's team demonstrated that CDC20 is the target protein in the spindle checkpoint during mitosis. Amon's more recent work has ... As a Whitehead Fellow, her team discovered that CDC20 plays a crucial role in cell division. Her Whitehead team identified an ... As a student under Nasmyth, Amon demonstrated that CDC28 protein kinase is not required for the metaphase to anaphase ... Vistinin, Rosella; Prinz, Susanne; Amon, Angelika (1997). "CDC20 and CDH1: A Family of Substrate-Specific Activators of APC- ...
Cyclin-A1 interacts with: CDC20, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, E2F1, GNB2L1, GPS2, MYBL2, and Retinoblastoma protein. GRCh38: ... Cyclin-A1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNA1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... Wang H, Shao N, Ding QM, Cui J, Reddy ES, Rao VN (1997). "BRCA1 proteins are transported to the nucleus in the absence of serum ... This cyclin was found to bind to important cell cycle regulators, such as Rb family proteins, transcription factor E2F1, and ...
Fang G, Yu H & Kirschner MW (1998). "Direct binding of CDC20 protein family members activates the anaphase-promoting complex in ... Mitotic checkpoint protein BUB3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BUB3 gene. Bub3 is a protein involved with the ... The complex of proteins which regulate the cell arrest are BUB1, BUB2, BUB3 (this protein), Mad1, Mad2, Mad3 and MPS1. At ... 2002). "Centromere proteins Cenpa, Cenpb, and Bub3 interact with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 protein and are poly(ADP-ribosyl ...
The N-terminal region mediates binding of Hs-BUB1 to the mitotic kinetochore protein blinkin (a protein also commonly referred ... Tang Z, Shu H, Oncel D, Chen S, Yu H (Nov 2004). "Phosphorylation of Cdc20 by Bub1 provides a catalytic mechanism for APC/C ... Bub1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase first identified in genetic screens of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The protein is bound ... The protein kinase Bub1 possesses versatile and distinct functions during the cell cycle, mainly in the SAC and chromosome ...
"Speriolin is a novel spermatogenic cell-specific centrosomal protein associated with the seventh WD motif of Cdc20". The ... Sclerostin domain-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SOSTDC1 gene. This gene is a member of the ... This protein functions as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist. Specifically, it directly associates with BMPs, ... a bone morphogenetic protein antagonist abundantly expressed in the kidney". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ...
Destruction of Clb5 and Clb6 is usually mediated by APC-Cdc20. Studies have also shown that cells lacking Clb5 and Clb6 have ... Clb5, in particular, has unique hydrophobic section of amino acids that allows specific interactions with proteins in the pre- ... During S-phase, Clb5 and Clb6 are simultaneously expressed with other genes encoding proteins required for individual DNA ... These gene regulatory proteins control G1/S genes, and their negative regulation assists in shutting off expression of G1 ...
"The anaphase inhibitor Pds1 binds to the APC/C-associated protein Cdc20 in a destruction box-dependent manner". Current Biology ... Securin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PTTG1 gene. The encoded protein is a homolog of yeast securin proteins, ... Pei L (Jan 1999). "Pituitary tumor-transforming gene protein associates with ribosomal protein S10 and a novel human homologue ... "Pituitary tumor-transforming gene protein associates with ribosomal protein S10 and a novel human homologue of DnaJ in ...
BubR1 and Bub3 can also form complexes with Cdc20, but it remains to be seen if these proteins facilitate Cdc20 binding to Open ... Mad2 uses the same site to bind either Mad1 or Cdc20 and, thus, can only bind one of the two proteins at a time. Since ... Binding partners of Mad2 include either Cdc20 or Mad1. Mad1 and Cdc20 bind Mad2 in an identical fashion. ... APCCdc20 is a ubiquitin-protein ligase that tags the protein, securin, for destruction. Securin destruction liberates and ...
The encoded protein is required for proper protein ubiquitination function of APC/C and for the interaction of APC/C with ... ANAPC7 has been shown to interact with ANAPC1, ANAPC4, CDC27 and CDC20. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000196510 - Ensembl, ... Gmachl M, Gieffers C, Podtelejnikov AV, Mann M, Peters JM (August 2000). "The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme ... 2000). "The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase- ...
This protein and two other APC complex proteins, CDC23 and CDC27, contain a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR), a protein domain ... CDC16 has been shown to interact with CDC27 and CDC20. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000130177 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ... This gene encodes a component protein of the APC complex, which is composed of eight proteins and functions as a protein ... Cell division cycle protein 16 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDC16 gene. ...
... proteins including Mad and Bub inhibit APC-Cdc20 to delay entry into anaphase and B-type cyclin degradations. In addition, when ... APC in association with Cdc20 (APC-Cdc20) ubiquitinates and targets mitotic cyclins (Clb2) for degradation at initial phase. ... Cdc20 and Cdh1, which are the activators of APC, recruit substrates such as securin and B-type cyclins(Clb) for ubiquitination ... This allows for the transcription of S phase genes encoding for proteins that amplify the G1 to S phase switch. Many different ...
... proteins including Mad and Bub inhibit APC-Cdc20 to delay entry into anaphase and B-type cyclin degradations. In addition, when ... APC in association with Cdc20 (APC-Cdc20) ubiquitinates and targets mitotic cyclins (Clb2) for degradation at initial phase. ... Cdc20 and Cdh1, which are the activators of APC, recruit substrates such as securin and B-type cyclins(Clb) for ubiquitination ... feedback loop is initiated from APC-Cdc20-dependent degradation of Cdk1-Clb2 and release of Cdc14 from nucleolar protein Net1/ ...
CDC20 and the SAC proteins concentrate at the kinetochores before attachment to the spindle assembly. These proteins keep the ... In human cells, binding of BUBR1 to CDC20 requires prior binding of MAD2 to CDC20, so it is possible that the MAD2-CDC20 ... Phosphorylated Spc105 is then able to recruit the downstream signaling proteins Bub1 and 3; Mad 1,2, and 3; and Cdc20. ... Securin is recognized only if Cdc20, the activator subunit, is bound to the APC/C core. When securin, Cdc20, and E2 are all ...
It is hypothesized that spindle checkpoint proteins that inhibit APC/CCdc20 only associate with a subset of the Cdc20 ... Cdc20 can still be phosphorylated and bind to APC/C, but bound Emi1 blocks Cdc20's interaction with APC targets. Emi1 ... These TPR subunits, Cdc16, Cdc27, Cdc23, and Apc5, mainly provide scaffolding and support to mediate other protein-protein ... there is still much to learn about how proteins are targeted by the APC/C. Once bound to APC/C, Cdc20 and Cdh1 serve as D and ...
This second c-MAD2 is transferred to Cdc20 with yet unknown mechanism and forms Cdc20-c-Mad2 complex. This complex is an ... Mad1 is a non-essential protein in yeast which has a function in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). This checkpoint ... show that Mad1 functions such as to slow down the rate of Mad2-Cdc20 complex formation and therefore acts as a competitive ... In vivo, Mad1 acts as a competitive inhibitor of the Mad2-Cdc20 complex. Mad1 is phosphorylated by Mps1 which then leads ...
Mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAD1L1 gene. MAD1L1 is also ... Sironi L, Melixetian M, Faretta M, Prosperini E, Helin K, Musacchio A (November 2001). "Mad2 binding to Mad1 and Cdc20, rather ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ... Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. MAD1L1 has been shown to interact with: ...
The protein has been localized to the kinetochore and plays a role in the inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/ ... BUB1B has been shown to interact with: AP2B1, BRCA2 BUB3, CDC20, HDAC1, MAD2L1, and SNCG. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Kaplan KB, Burds AA, Swedlow JR, Bekir SS, Sorger PK, Näthke IS (2001). "A role for the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein in ... Mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine-protein kinase BUB1 beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BUB1B gene. This ...
Two F-box-protein-bound SCF complexes (SCF-Skp2 and SCF-β-TrCP), are most well studied among over 70 F-box proteins identified ... controls the metaphase-anaphase transition when bound to its substrate-specific activating subunit Cdc20:[citation needed] this ... The TIR1 F-box protein acts as an auxin receptor and directly links reception of auxin to degradation of the Aux/IAA proteins. ... Instead, F-box affinity for protein substrates is regulated through cdk/cyclin mediated phosphorylation of target proteins.[ ...
At this moment, the checkpoint proteins that bind to and inhibit Cdc20 (Mad1-Mad2 and BubR1), release Cdc20, which binds and ... and the spindle checkpoint proteins (such as Mad1, Mad2, BubR1 and Cdc20). These proteins assemble on the kinetochore in high ... KNL/KBP proteins (kinetochore-null/KNL-binding protein), MIS proteins and CENP-F. Together with the constitutive components, ... Other proteins in the kinetochore attach it to the microtubules (MTs) of the mitotic spindle. There are also motor proteins, ...
Yao YL, Yang WM (October 2003). "The metastasis-associated proteins 1 and 2 form distinct protein complexes with histone ... Histone deacetylase 2 has been shown to interact with: Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related, BUB3, CDC20, CDH1, CHD3, CHD4, ... This protein also forms transcriptional repressor complexes by associating with many different proteins, including YY1, a ... Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2, PHF21A, PPP1R8, RBBP4, RCOR1, RELA, Retinoblastoma protein, SAP30, SIN3A, SMARCA5, SNW1, ...
The virus consists of four nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins.[12] The structural proteins are the capsid and ... "CDC. 20 September 2016. Archived from the original on 18 September 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2016.. ... monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 ... a nonstructural protein that degrades RBP1 and turns off the host cell's ability to transcribe DNA.[51] NS2 interferes with the ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Mad1/Cdc20-bound-Mad2 binding protein (IPR009511). Short name: MAD1/Cdc20-bound-Mad2-bd ... This entry represents Mad1 and Cdc20-bound-Mad2 binding proteins that are involved in the cell-cycle surveillance mechanism ...
Activation of the human anaphase-promoting complex by proteins of the CDC20/Fizzy family.. Kramer ER1, Gieffers C, Hölzl G, ... Human orthologs of these proteins--hCDC20/p55CDC [12] and hCDH1--have recently been found to associate with APC in a cell-cycle ... that ubiquitinates regulatory proteins such as anaphase inhibitors and mitotic cyclins [1-4]. Genetic experiments have ... The temporally distinct association of hCDC20 and hCDH1 with APC suggests that these proteins are, respectively, mitosis- ...
Is regulated by MAD2L1: in metaphase the MAD2L1-CDC20-APC/C ternary complex is inactive and in anaphase the CDC20-APC/C binary ... The CDC20-APC/C complex positively regulates the formation of synaptic vesicle clustering at active zone to the presynaptic ... CDC20-APC/C-induced degradation of NEUROD2 induces presynaptic differentiation. ... This protein is involved in the pathway protein ubiquitination, which is part of Protein modification.. View all proteins of ...
... one against the CDC20 protein, and the other against the BUB1B protein for use in in situ Proximity Ligation Assay. See ... This protein protein interaction antibody pair set comes with two antibodies to detect the protein-protein interaction, ... This protein protein interaction antibody pair set comes with two antibodies to detect the protein-protein interaction, one ... Protein protein interaction immunofluorescence result.. Representative image of Proximity Ligation Assay of protein-protein ...
The APC/C is activated by two cofactors, Cdc20 and Cdh1. Destruction of pre-anaphase substrates is Cdc20-dependent. Cdc20 is ... 2000). Mitotic regulation of the APC activator proteins CDC20 and CDH1. Mol. Biol. Cell 11, 1555-1569. ... Cdc20 is required for the post-anaphase, KEN-dependent degradation of centromere protein F ... Cdc20 is required for the post-anaphase, KEN-dependent degradation of centromere protein F ...
Cdc20 Mediated Degradation Of Cell Cycle Proteins Prior To Satisfation Of The Cell Cycle Checkpoint Pathway Products by ... APC:Cdc20 Mediated Degradation Of Cell Cycle Proteins Prior To Satisfation Of The Cell Cycle Checkpoint Pathway ... APC:Cdc20 Mediated Degradation Of Cell Cycle Proteins Prior To Satisfation Of The Cell Cycle Checkpoint Pathway ... Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein (Slc11a1) Antibody. * Complement C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein 3 ( ...
APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins (Bos taurus) APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins (Canis ... APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins (Gallus gallus) APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins (Mus ... APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins (Sus scrofa) APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins (Xenopus ... APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins (Danio rerio) APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins ( ...
Protein Purification and Crystallization.. Human Cdc20 proteins were expressed in insect cells and purified with affinity and ... We thus made additional Cdc20 truncation mutants Cdc20ΔN70 and Cdc20ΔN80, obtained crystals of Cdc20ΔN80 that diffracted to 2.0 ... D) Quantification of the binding between GST-BubR1N and Cdc20 WT and mutant proteins. Columns of Cdc20 mutants with less than ... Cdc20ΔN60). Cdc20ΔN60 contained all known functional motifs of Cdc20 (3), including the C box, the KEN box, and the Mad2- ...
These different conformational changes inhibit specific RB-protein interactions. CDH1, CDC20 homologue 1; CDK, cyclin-dependent ... a , Schematic depiction of the F box protein S phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) recognizing phosphorylated p27. Binding ... a , Model of active and complexes with E2F and an L-X-C-X-E peptide (Protein Data Bank (PDB) codes: 2QDJ, 1GUX, 1N4M and 2AZE ... Molecular mechanisms underlying RB protein function.. Dick FA1, Rubin SM.. Author information. 1. London Regional Cancer ...
Securin mutants may reveal when Cdh1 replaces Cdc20 in mitosis. Currently, APC/CCdc20 is thought to ubiquitinate proteins with ... Direct binding of CDC20 protein family members activates the anaphase-promoting complex in mitosis and G1. Mol Cell. 2:163-171. ... cyan fluorescent protein; D-box, destruction box; FP, fluorescent protein; GFP, green fluorescent protein; YFP, yellow ... The anaphase inhibitor Pds1 binds to the APC/C-associated protein Cdc20 in a destruction box-dependent manner. Curr. Biol. 11: ...
Inhibits the FZR1- and probably CDC20-mediated activation of the anaphase promoting complex APC thereby regulating progression ... Adapter protein able to interact with different proteins and involved in different biological processes. Mediates the ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q9UI95. A0A024R4I4. F7DNN5. H9EQN4. H2PY08. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q9UI95. A0A024R4I4. F7DNN5. H9EQN4. H2PY08. ...
The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the ... Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins. R-HSA-176412 Phosphorylation of the APC/C. R-HSA-179409 APC-Cdc20 mediated ... This protein is involved in the pathway protein ubiquitination, which is part of Protein modification.. View all proteins of ... Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins. R-HSA-176412 Phosphorylation of the APC/C. R-HSA-179409 APC-Cdc20 mediated ...
View protein in InterPro. IPR033010. Cdc20/Fizzy. IPR015943. WD40/YVTN_repeat-like_dom_sf. IPR001680. WD40_repeat. IPR019775. ... View protein in InterPro. IPR033010. Cdc20/Fizzy. IPR015943. WD40/YVTN_repeat-like_dom_sf. IPR001680. WD40_repeat. IPR019775. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q86Y33. F7GV06. G3RQG4. H2QQW6. A0A0D9RVI3. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex. Associates with the APC/C in late mitosis, in replacement of CDC20, and activates the APC/ ... Through the regulation of RBBP8/CtIP protein turnover, may play a role in DNA damage response, favoring DNA double-strand ... This protein is involved in the pathway protein ubiquitination, which is part of Protein modification.. View all proteins of ... View protein in InterPro. IPR024977. Apc4_WD40_dom. IPR033010. Cdc20/Fizzy. IPR015943. WD40/YVTN_repeat-like_dom_sf. IPR001680. ...
Cell division cycle protein 20 homolog. A, B. 431. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CDC20. ... The mitotic APC/C activator, the cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) protein, directly interacts with APC/C degrons--th ... ... APC/C(Cdc20) is the target of the spindle checkpoint. Checkpoint inhibition of APC/C(Cdc20) requires the binding of a BubR1 KEN ... The mitotic APC/C activator, the cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) protein, directly interacts with APC/C degrons--the destruction ...
cdc20Δ PGAL-CDC20::TRP1 (CUY1348) was grown to mid-log phase in galactose medium. The culture was shifted to glucose medium for ... This indicates that benomyl sensitivity results from a low quantity of protein rather than from a protein that is inactive at ... Several mitotic proteins are subject to cell-cycle regulation involving ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. However, the ... 1976 A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein- ...
Activator protein that regulates the ubiquitin ligase activity and substrate specificity of the anaphase promoting complex/ ... View protein in InterPro. IPR033010 Cdc20/Fizzy. IPR015943 WD40/YVTN_repeat-like_dom_sf. IPR001680 WD40_repeat. IPR019775 WD40_ ... This protein is involved in the pathway protein ubiquitination, which is part of Protein modification.. View all proteins of ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
Interacts with CDC20. Efficient DNA-binding and transcription activation require dimerization with another bHLH protein (By ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR011598 ...
The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the ... Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins. R-HSA-176412 Phosphorylation of the APC/C. R-HSA-179409 APC-Cdc20 mediated ... This protein is involved in the pathway protein ubiquitination, which is part of Protein modification.. View all proteins of ... Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins. R-HSA-176412 Phosphorylation of the APC/C. R-HSA-179409 APC-Cdc20 mediated ...
APC, anaphase-promoting complex; C, cytokinesis; Cdc20, cell-division cycle protein 20; Cdh1, Cdc20 homologue-1; K, ... d) At E14.5 eGFP staining co-localizes with brain lipid-binding protein (BLBP; red), a known marker for RG cells in the VZ ( ... a) Schemes of subcellular localization of the eGFP-anillin fusion protein during the cell cycle and of the CAG-eGFP-anillin ... Here we overcome these limitations by generating an in vivo reporter system using the scaffolding protein anillin fused to ...
Protein Coding), DNA Polymerase Epsilon, Catalytic Subunit, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... Protein details for POLE Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. Q07864-DPOE1_HUMAN. Recommended name:. DNA polymerase ... Protein Expression for POLE Gene. See protein expression from ProteomicsDB, MOPED, PaxDb, and MaxQB ... Search Origene for Purified Proteins, MassSpec and Protein Over-expression Lysates for POLE ...
... drives degradation of cell cycle regulators in cycling cells by associating with the coactivators Cdc20 and Cdh1. Although a ... Remarkably, Cdc20 and the proteasome 20S core α2 subunit are recruited to the Hsp70 promoter in a heat shock-inducible manner. ... Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome Participates in the Acute Response to Protein-Damaging Stress Mol Cell Biol. 2010 Dec;30( ... The interaction between HSF2 and the APC/C subunit Cdc27 and coactivator Cdc20 is enhanced by moderate heat stress, and the ...
... and allow mitosis to proceed through anaphase by binding MAD2L1 after it has become dissociated from the MAD2L1-CDC20 complex. ... and allow mitosis to proceed through anaphase by binding MAD2L1 after it has become dissociated from the MAD2L1-CDC20 complex. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q9DCX1. Q15013-3. H2R790. G3RQP3. UPI0005F3FCED. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q9DCX1. Q5I0J2. Q3U0U3. Q5DU48. UPI000A319200. ...
Interacts with CDC20 (By similarity). Interacts with CEP68; degradation of CEP68 in early mitosis leads to removal of CDK5RAP2 ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR012943 ...
CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism * Cdc20 Proteins / physiology * Cdh1 Proteins / metabolism * Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism ... At the first meiotic division, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome associated with Cdc20 (APC/CCdc20) activates separase and ... APC/C associated with the Cdh1 protein (APC/CCdh1) delays the increase in Cdk1 activity, leading to germinal vesicle breakdown ...
  • These different conformational changes inhibit specific RB-protein interactions. (nih.gov)
  • In the controlled case (C, D), both variants fully inhibit APC:Cdc20 before attachment and both show fast switching recovery for high k−7 values. (nih.gov)
  • The wee1 and cdc25 genes encode proteins that inhibit and activate Cdc2, respectively, in dosage-dependent pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Mad2 was shown to inhibit the activity of the APC by direct physical interaction in a ternary complex with Cdc20. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of its overexpression in mad , bub , and mps1 mutants suggests that the Bub1 and Mps1 kinases act together at an early step in the checkpoint pathway, upstream of all the other Bub and Mad proteins ( Farr and Hoyt, 1998 ). (rupress.org)
  • Upon activation of the SAC Bub1 directly phosphorylates APC/C's coactivator Cdc20. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bub1 generally protects sister chromatide cohesion by enhancing Shugoshin protein (Sgo1) localization to the centromeric region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human orthologs of these proteins--hCDC20/p55CDC and hCDH1--have recently been found to associate with APC in a cell-cycle-dependent manner [13, (nih.gov)
  • Regulates centrosome separation (essential for the formation of bipolar spindles and high-fidelity chromosome separation) by phosphorylating centrosomal proteins such as CROCC, CEP250 and NINL, resulting in their displacement from the centrosomes. (uniprot.org)
  • Her research group recently created haploid yeast cells containing extra copies of chromosomes and discovered that these aneuploid strains elicit phenotypes independent of the identity of the additional chromosome such as defects in cell cycle progression, increased energy demands, and interference with protein biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is bound to kinetochores and plays a key role in the establishment of the mitotic spindle checkpoint and chromosome congression. (wikipedia.org)
  • This corona is formed by a dynamic network of resident and temporary proteins implicated in the spindle checkpoint, in MTs anchoring and in the regulation of chromosome behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDC20 appears to act as a regulatory protein interacting with several other proteins at multiple points in the cell cycle. (abnova.com)
  • High-resolution microscopy in embryonic heart and brain tissues of enhanced green fluorescent protein-anillin transgenic mice allows live monitoring of cell division and quantitation of cell cycle kinetics. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the enhanced green fluorescent protein-anillin system enables monitoring and measurement of cell division in vivo and markedly simplifies in vitro analysis in fixed cells. (nih.gov)
  • a ) Schemes of subcellular localization of the eGFP-anillin fusion protein during the cell cycle and of the CAG-eGFP-anillin fusion construct: Anillin is fused to the C terminus of eGFP and its expression is under control of the CAG promoter. (nih.gov)
  • Note that there are additional groups showing time series of other cell cycle regulation proteins by the same authors in the Library. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Cdc20, along with a handful of other Cdc proteins, was discovered in the early 1970s when Hartwell and colleagues made cell-division cycle mutants that failed to complete major events in the cell cycle in the yeast strain S. cerevisiae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mcl-1 is an anti-apoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family that is essential for the survival of multiple cell lineages and that is highly amplified in human cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • All three proteins are stable throughout the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a Whitehead Fellow, her team discovered that CDC20 plays a crucial role in cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • WD40-repeat proteins are a large family found in all eukaryotes and are implicated in a variety of functions ranging from signal transduction and transcription regulation to cell cycle control, autophagy and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with metastasis-associated protein-2 MTA2, it deacetylates p53 and modulates its effect on cell growth and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)