Cryptosporidium parvum: A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.Cryptosporidium: A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Coccidia: A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.Granulomatous Disease, Chronic: A defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by mutations in the CYBB gene, the condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, or NCF4 gene mutations, the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Theileria parva: A protozoan parasite that is the etiologic agent of East Coast fever (THEILERIASIS). Transmission is by ticks of the Physicephalus and Hyalomma genera.Theileria annulata: A protozoan parasite causing tropical theileriasis in cattle. It is transmitted by ticks of the Hyalomma genus.Theileria: A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.Theileriasis: Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Apicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.ArchivesProteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Pentanoic AcidsComputational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes: A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Receptor, trkA: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor: A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 8: A CYCLIN C dependent kinase that is an important component of the mediator complex. The enzyme is activated by its interaction with CYCLIN C and plays a role in transcriptional regulation by phosphorylating RNA POLYMERASE II.Cyclin E: A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Mice, Neurologic Mutants: Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Neocortex: The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.Genes, Switch: Genes that cause the epigenotype (i.e., the interrelated developmental pathways through which the adult organism is realized) to switch to an alternate cell lineage-related pathway. Switch complexes control the expression of normal functional development as well as oncogenic transformation.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).

C-myc overexpression and p53 loss cooperate to promote genomic instability. (1/2147)

p53 monitors genomic integrity at the G1 and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints. Cells lacking p53 may show gene amplification as well as the polyploidy or aneuploidy typical of many tumors. The pathways through which this develops, however, are not well defined. We demonstrate here that the combination of p53 inactivation and c-myc overexpression in diploid cells markedly accelerates the spontaneous development of tetraploidy. This is not seen with either N-myc or L-myc. Tetraploidy is accompanied by significantly higher levels of cyclin B and its associated cdc2 kinase activity. Mitotic spindle poisons accelerate the appearance of tetraploidy in cells either lacking functional p53 or overexpressing c-myc whereas the combination is additive. Restoration of p53 function in cells overexpressing c-myc causing rapid apoptosis, indicating that cells yet to become tetraploid have nonetheless suffered irreversible genomic and/or mitotic spindle damage. In the face of normal p53 function, such damage would either be repaired or trigger apoptotis. We propose that loss of p53 and overexpression of c-myc permits the emergence and survival of cells with increasingly severe damage and the eventual development of tetraploidy.  (+info)

Sequential PKC- and Cdc2-mediated phosphorylation events elicit zebrafish nuclear envelope disassembly. (2/2147)

Molecular markers of the zebrafish inner nuclear membrane (NEP55) and nuclear lamina (L68) were identified, partially characterized and used to demonstrate that disassembly of the zebrafish nuclear envelope requires sequential phosphorylation events by first PKC, then Cdc2 kinase. NEP55 and L68 are immunologically and functionally related to human LAP2beta and lamin B, respectively. Exposure of zebrafish nuclei to meiotic cytosol elicits rapid phosphorylation of NEP55 and L68, and disassembly of both proteins. L68 phosphorylation is completely inhibited by simultaneous inhibition of Cdc2 and PKC and only partially blocked by inhibition of either kinase. NEP55 phosphorylation is completely prevented by inhibition or immunodepletion of cytosolic Cdc2. Inhibition of cAMP-dependent kinase, MEK or CaM kinase II does not affect NEP55 or L68 phosphorylation. In vitro, nuclear envelope disassembly requires phosphorylation of NEP55 and L68 by both mammalian PKC and Cdc2. Inhibition of either kinase is sufficient to abolish NE disassembly. Furthermore, novel two-step phosphorylation assays in cytosol and in vitro indicate that PKC-mediated phosphorylation of L68 prior to Cdc2-mediated phosphorylation of L68 and NEP55 is essential to elicit nuclear envelope breakdown. Phosphorylation elicited by Cdc2 prior to PKC prevents nuclear envelope disassembly even though NEP55 is phosphorylated. The results indicate that sequential phosphorylation events elicited by PKC, followed by Cdc2, are required for zebrafish nuclear disassembly. They also argue that phosphorylation of inner nuclear membrane integral proteins is not sufficient to promote nuclear envelope breakdown, and suggest a multiple-level regulation of disassembly of nuclear envelope components during meiosis and at mitosis.  (+info)

Involvement of p21 in the PKC-induced regulation of the G2/M cell cycle transition. (3/2147)

Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibits cell cycle progression at the G1/S and G2/M transitions. We found that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced upregulation of p21, not only in MCF-7 cells arrested in the G1 phase as previously shown, but also in cells delayed in the G2 phase. This increase in p21 in cells accumulated in the G1 and G2/M phases of the cell cycle after PMA treatment was inhibited by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. This indicates that PKC activity is required for PMA-induced p21 upregulation and cell cycle arrest in the G1 and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. To further assess the role of p21 in the PKC-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest independently of its G1 arrest, we used aphidicolin-synchronised MCF-7 cells. Our results show that, in parallel with the inhibition of cdc2 activity, PMA addition enhanced the associations between p21 and either cyclin B or cdc2. Furthermore, we found that after PMA treatment p21 was able to associate with the active Tyr-15 dephosphorylated form of cdc2, but this complex was devoid of kinase activity indicating that p21 may play a role in inhibition of cdc2 induced by PMA. Taken together, these observations provide evidence that p21 is involved in integrating the PKC signaling pathway to the cell cycle machinery at the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint.  (+info)

p53 regulates a G2 checkpoint through cyclin B1. (4/2147)

The p53 tumor suppressor controls multiple cell cycle checkpoints regulating the mammalian response to DNA damage. To identify the mechanism by which p53 regulates G2, we have derived a human ovarian cell that undergoes p53-dependent G2 arrest at 32 degrees C. We have found that p53 prevents G2/M transition by decreasing intracellular levels of cyclin B1 protein and attenuating the activity of the cyclin B1 promoter. Cyclin B1 is the regulatory subunit of the cdc2 kinase and is a protein required for mitotic initiation. The ability of p53 to control mitotic initiation by regulating intracellular cyclin B1 levels suggests that the cyclin B-dependent G2 checkpoint has a role in preventing neoplastic transformation.  (+info)

Mutations at phosphorylation sites of Xenopus microtubule-associated protein 4 affect its microtubule-binding ability and chromosome movement during mitosis. (5/2147)

Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) bind to and stabilize microtubules (MTs) both in vitro and in vivo and are thought to regulate MT dynamics during the cell cycle. It is known that p220, a major MAP of Xenopus, is phosphorylated by p34(cdc2) kinase as well as MAP kinase in mitotic cells, and that the phosphorylated p220 loses its MT-binding and -stabilizing abilities in vitro. We cloned a full-length cDNA encoding p220, which identified p220 as a Xenopus homologue of MAP4 (XMAP4). To examine the physiological relevance of XMAP4 phosphorylation in vivo, Xenopus A6 cells were transfected with cDNAs encoding wild-type or various XMAP4 mutants fused with a green fluorescent protein. Mutations of serine and threonine residues at p34(cdc2) kinase-specific phosphorylation sites to alanine interfered with mitosis-associated reduction in MT affinity of XMAP4, and their overexpression affected chromosome movement during anaphase A. These findings indicated that phosphorylation of XMAP4 (probably by p34(cdc2) kinase) is responsible for the decrease in its MT-binding and -stabilizing abilities during mitosis, which are important for chromosome movement during anaphase A.  (+info)

Antisense expression of the CK2 alpha-subunit gene in Arabidopsis. Effects on light-regulated gene expression and plant growth. (6/2147)

The protein kinase CK2 (formerly casein kinase II) is thought to be involved in light-regulated gene expression in plants because of its ability to phosphorylate transcription factors that bind to the promoter regions of light-regulated genes in vitro. To address this possibility in vivo and to learn more about the potential physiological roles of CK2 in plants, we transformed Arabidopsis with an antisense construct of the CK2 alpha-subunit gene and investigated both morphological and molecular phenotypes. Antisense transformants had a smaller adult leaf size and showed increased expression of chs in darkness and of cab and rbcS after red-light treatment. The latter molecular phenotype implied that CK2 might serve as one of several negative and quantitative effectors in light-regulated gene expression. The possible mechanism of CK2 action and its involvement in the phytochrome signal transduction pathway are discussed.  (+info)

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation and activation of human Cdc25-C at the G2/M phase transition in HeLa cells. (7/2147)

The human tyrosine phosphatase (p54(cdc25-c)) is activated by phosphorylation at mitosis entry. The phosphorylated p54(cdc25-c) in turn activates the p34-cyclin B protein kinase and triggers mitosis. Although the active p34-cyclin B protein kinase can itself phosphorylate and activate p54(cdc25-c), we have investigated the possibility that other kinases may initially trigger the phosphorylation and activation of p54(cdc25-c). We have examined the effects of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase II) on p54(cdc25-c). Our in vitro experiments show that CaM kinase II can phosphorylate p54(cdc25-c) and increase its phosphatase activity by 2.5-3-fold. Treatment of a synchronous population of HeLa cells with KN-93 (a water-soluble inhibitor of CaM kinase II) or the microinjection of AC3-I (a specific peptide inhibitor of CaM kinase II) results in a cell cycle block in G2 phase. In the KN-93-arrested cells, p54(cdc25-c) is not phosphorylated, p34(cdc2) remains tyrosine phosphorylated, and there is no increase in histone H1 kinase activity. Our data suggest that a calcium-calmodulin-dependent step may be involved in the initial activation of p54(cdc25-c).  (+info)

cdk1- and cdk2-mediated phosphorylation of MyoD Ser200 in growing C2 myoblasts: role in modulating MyoD half-life and myogenic activity. (8/2147)

We have examined the role of protein phosphorylation in the modulation of the key muscle-specific transcription factor MyoD. We show that MyoD is highly phosphorylated in growing myoblasts and undergoes substantial dephosphorylation during differentiation. MyoD can be efficiently phosphorylated in vitro by either purified cdk1-cyclin B or cdk1 and cdk2 immunoprecipitated from proliferative myoblasts. Comparative two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide mapping combined with site-directed mutagenesis revealed that cdk1 and cdk2 phosphorylate MyoD on serine 200 in proliferative myoblasts. In addition, when the seven proline-directed sites in MyoD were individually mutated, only substitution of serine 200 to a nonphosphorylatable alanine (MyoD-Ala200) abolished the slower-migrating hyperphosphorylated form of MyoD, seen either in vitro after phosphorylation by cdk1-cyclin B or in vivo following overexpression in 10T1/2 cells. The MyoD-Ala200 mutant displayed activity threefold higher than that of wild-type MyoD in transactivation of an E-box-dependent reporter gene and promoted markedly enhanced myogenic conversion and fusion of 10T1/2 fibroblasts into muscle cells. In addition, the half-life of MyoD-Ala200 protein was longer than that of wild-type MyoD, substantiating a role of Ser200 phosphorylation in regulating MyoD turnover in proliferative myoblasts. Taken together, our data show that direct phosphorylation of MyoD Ser200 by cdk1 and cdk2 plays an integral role in compromising MyoD activity during myoblast proliferation.  (+info)

*Cyclin-dependent kinase 10

... a human novel CDC2-related protein kinase". Oncogene. 9 (7): 2097-103. PMID 8208557. Brambilla R, Draetta G (Oct 1994). " ... "Entrez Gene: CDK10 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDC2-like) 10". Kasten M, Giordano A (Apr 2001). "Cdk10, a Cdc2-related kinase, ... Cell division protein kinase 10 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK10 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... "Chromosomal mapping of members of the cdc2 family of protein kinases, cdk3, cdk6, PISSLRE, and PITALRE, and a cdk inhibitor, ...

*Ed Harlow

"A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases." The EMBO Journal 11.8 (1992): 2909. Whyte, Peter, Nicola M. Williamson, and E ... Meyerson, M (1992). "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases". EMBO J. 11: 2909-17. PMC 556772 . PMID 1639063. Whyte, P ... Among Harlow's discoveries was the demonstration that the retinoblastoma protein interacts with viral transforming proteins, ... "The retinoblastoma protein is phosphorylated during specific phases of the cell cycle." Cell 58.6 (1989): 1097-1105. van den ...

*Cyclin-dependent kinase 5

"A cdc2-related kinase PSSALRE/cdk5 is homologous with the 30 kDa subunit of tau protein kinase II, a proline-directed protein ... Cell division protein kinase 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases". The EMBO Journal. 11 (8): 2909-17. PMC 556772 . PMID 1639063. Patrick GN, ... membrane-associated neuronal kinase, cyclin-dependent kinase 5/p35-regulated kinase". The Journal of Neuroscience. 23 (12): ...

*Cyclin-dependent kinase 3

1995). "Chromosomal mapping of members of the cdc2 family of protein kinases, cdk3, cdk6, PISSLRE, and PITALRE, and a cdk ... "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases". EMBO J. 11 (8): 2909-17. PMC 556772 . PMID 1639063. "Entrez Gene: CDK3 cyclin- ... Cell division protein kinase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK3 gene. CDK3 complements cdc28 mutants of ... Meikrantz W, Schlegel R (1996). "Suppression of apoptosis by dominant negative mutants of cyclin-dependent protein kinases". J ...

*PCTK3

... PCTAIRE protein kinase 3". Meyerson M, Enders GH, Wu CL, et al. (1992). "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases ... two members of a novel cdc2/CDC28-related protein kinase gene family". Oncogene. 7 (11): 2249-58. PMID 1437147. "Entrez Gene: ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PCTAIRE-3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCTK3 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... Palmer KJ, Konkel JE, Stephens DJ (2005). "PCTAIRE protein kinases interact directly with the COPII complex and modulate ...

*PCTK2

... PCTAIRE protein kinase 2". Meyerson M, Enders GH, Wu CL, et al. (1992). "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cdc2/cdkx subfamily of the ser/thr family of protein kinases. It has similarity ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PCTAIRE-2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCTK2 gene. ... 2007). "Proteomics analysis of protein kinases by target class-selective prefractionation and tandem mass spectrometry". Mol. ...

*CLK1

This gene encodes a member of the CDC2-like (or LAMMER) family of dual specificity protein kinases. In the cell nucleus, the ... Johnson KW, Smith KA (1991). "Molecular cloning of a novel human cdc2/CDC28-like protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (6): 3402- ... Colwill K, Feng LL, Yeakley JM, Gish GD, Cáceres JF, Pawson T, Fu XD (1996). "SRPK1 and Clk/Sty protein kinases show distinct ... Dual specificity protein kinase CLK1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CLK1 gene. ...

*PFTK1

2006). "A Cdc2-related protein kinase hPFTAIRE1 from human brain interacting with 14-3-3 proteins". Cell Res. 16 (6): 539-47. ... "A novel cdc2-related protein kinase expressed in the nervous system". J Neurochem. 69 (1): 348-64. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1997 ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PFTAIRE-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PFTK1 gene. PFTK1 has been shown to ... "Entrez Gene: PFTK1 PFTAIRE protein kinase 1". Yang, Tao; Gao Yan-Kun; Chen Jiang-Ye (Jul 2002). "KIAA0202, a human septin ...

*CDK12

Ko TK, Kelly E, Pines J (Oct 2001). "CrkRS: a novel conserved Cdc2-related protein kinase that colocalises with SC35 speckles ... CDK12 cyclin-dependent kinase 12 is a protein kinase that in humans is encoded by the CDK12 gene. This enzyme is a member of ... 2007). "Proteomics analysis of protein kinases by target class-selective prefractionation and tandem mass spectrometry". Mol. ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 5 (6): 355-64. doi: ...

*Cyclin-dependent kinase 6

"Chromosomal mapping of members of the cdc2 family of protein kinases, cdk3, cdk6, PISSLRE, and PITALRE, and a cdk inhibitor, ... It is regulated by cyclins, more specifically by Cyclin D proteins and Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins. The protein ... This kinase is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex, important for the G1 phase progression and G1/S transition of ... "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases". The EMBO Journal. 11 (8): 2909-17. PMC 556772 . PMID 1639063. "Entrez Gene: ...

*PCTK1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cdc2/cdkx subfamily of the ser/thr family of protein kinases. It may play a ... "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases". EMBO J. 11 (8): 2909-17. PMC 556772 . PMID 1639063. Knight JC, Renwick PJ, ... two members of a novel cdc2/CDC28-related protein kinase gene family". Oncogene. 7 (11): 2249-58. PMID 1437147. "Entrez Gene: ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PCTAIRE-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCTK1 gene. ...

*Wee1

"The Wee1 protein kinase regulates T14 phosphorylation of fission yeast Cdc2". Mol Biol Cell. 6 (4): 371-85. doi:10.1091/mbc.6.4 ... The corresponding proteins are Wee1-like protein kinase and Wee1-like protein kinase 2 which act on the human Cdk1 homologue ... Wee1-like protein kinase Cell cycle β-transducin repeat-containing protein 1/2 (β-TrCP1/2) F-box protein-containing SKP1/Cul1/F ... The M-phase kinases Polo-like kinase (Plk1) and Cdc2 phosphorylate two serine residues in Wee1A which are recognized by SCFβ- ...

*G2-M DNA damage checkpoint

Walworth, N.; Davey, S.; Beach, D. (1993). "Fission yeast chkl protein kinase links the rad checkpoint pathway to cdc2". Nature ... Accumulation of cyclin B increases the activity of the cyclin dependent kinase cdc2 as cells prepare to enter mitosis. Cdc2 ... The cell cycle is driven by proteins called cyclin dependent kinases that associate with cyclin regulatory proteins at ... Early signaling proteins in the checkpoint pathway are members of a family of phosphotidylinositol 3-kinases, rad3 in yeast and ...

*MCM2

... protein kinases CDC2 and CDC7. MCM2 has been shown to interact with: AKAP8, Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase, MCM3 ... "Protein kinase A-anchoring protein AKAP95 interacts with MCM2, a regulator of DNA replication". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (29): 26750- ... A role for cdc2 kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (27): 17095-101. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.27.17095. PMID 9642275. Jiang W, McDonald D, ... The hexameric protein complex formed by MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) and may be ...

*CDKL2

This gene product is a member of a large family of CDC2-related serine/threonine protein kinases. It accumulates primarily in ... "Entrez Gene: CDKL2 cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 (CDC2-related kinase)". Human CDKL2 genome location and CDKL2 gene details ... "Molecular cloning of the epidermal growth factor-stimulated protein kinase p56 KKIAMRE". Oncogene. 13 (12): 2563-74. PMID ... Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDKL2 gene. ...

*Cyclin dependent kinase like 1

This gene product is a member of a large family of CDC2-related serine/threonine protein kinases. It accumulates primarily in ... Cyclin dependent kinase like 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDKL1 gene. ... Cyclin dependent kinase like 1". Retrieved 2016-06-07. Rose JE, Behm FM, Drgon T, Johnson C, Uhl GR (2010). "Personalized ...

*CDK5R2

Agarwal-Mawal A, Paudel HK (2001). "Neuronal Cdc2-like protein kinase (Cdk5/p25) is associated with protein phosphatase 1 and ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activator 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK5R2 gene. The protein encoded by this ... It associates with CDK5 to form an active kinase. This protein and neuron-specific CDK5 activator CDK5R1/p39NCK5A both share ... 2004). "Regulation of type 1 protein phosphatase/inhibitor-2 complex by glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in intact cells". J. ...

*RPS6KA3

Paudel HK (November 1997). "Phosphorylation by neuronal cdc2-like protein kinase promotes dimerization of Tau protein in vitro ... This gene encodes a member of the RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) family of serine/threonine kinases. This kinase contains 2 non- ... "Sequential phosphorylation of Tau by glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and protein kinase A at Thr212 and Ser214 generates the ... Ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kDa, polypeptide 3, also known as RPS6KA3, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RPS6KA3 ...

*Cyclin-dependent kinase 1

... human CDC2 is capable of rescuing fission yeast carrying a cdc2 mutation. Cdk1 is comprised mostly by the bare protein kinase ... "Downregulation of the cdc2/cyclin B protein kinase activity by binding of p53 to p34(cdc2)". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 283 ... "Association with Cdc2 and inhibition of Cdc2/Cyclin B1 kinase activity by the p53-regulated protein Gadd45". Oncogene. 18 (18 ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that ...

*LYN

Pathan NI, Geahlen RL, Harrison ML (Nov 1996). "The protein-tyrosine kinase Lck associates with and is phosphorylated by Cdc2 ... microtubule-associated protein kinase, GTPase-activating protein, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase". Molecular and Cellular ... Tyrosine-protein kinase Lyn is a protein that in humans is encoded in humans by the LYN gene. Lyn is a member of the Src family ... "Activation of Src-like protein-tyrosine kinase Lyn and its association with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase upon B-cell antigen ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... cdc2 protein kinase MeSH D12.776.167.200.067.500 - cdc28 protein kinase, s cerevisiae MeSH D12.776.167.200.067.875 - cyclin- ... dependent kinase 5 MeSH D12.776.167.200.067.900 - cyclin-dependent kinase 9 MeSH D12.776.167.200.580.500 - cdc2 protein kinase ... RNA-binding protein EWS MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.250 - lymphocyte specific protein tyrosine kinase p56(lck) MeSH D12.776. ... wnt1 protein MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.978 - wnt2 protein MeSH D12.776.624.776.355.100 - cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p15 ...

*PPP1R2

Agarwal-Mawal A, Paudel HK (2001). "Neuronal Cdc2-like protein kinase (Cdk5/p25) is associated with protein phosphatase 1 and ... Wang H, Brautigan DL (2003). "A novel transmembrane Ser/Thr kinase complexes with protein phosphatase-1 and inhibitor-2". J. ... 2004). "Regulation of type 1 protein phosphatase/inhibitor-2 complex by glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in intact cells". J. ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ...

*Cell nucleus

... a process regulated by phosphorylation of the lamins by protein kinases such as the CDC2 protein kinase. Towards the end of the ... The PML protein is the key organizer of these domains that recruits an ever-growing number of proteins, whose only common known ... Observations that myxobacteria are motile, can form multicellular complexes, and possess kinases and G proteins similar to ... The nuclear lamina is composed mostly of lamin proteins. Like all proteins, lamins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and later ...

*Wee1-like protein kinase

This protein catalyzes the inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of CDC2/cyclin B kinase, and appears to coordinate the ... This gene encodes a nuclear protein, which is a tyrosine kinase belonging to the Ser/Thr family of protein kinases. ... Wee1-like protein kinase has been shown to interact with YWHAB and PIN1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000166483 - Ensembl ... Booher RN, Holman PS, Fattaey A (1997). "Human Myt1 is a cell cycle-regulated kinase that inhibits Cdc2 but not Cdk2 activity ...

*Replication protein A2

... in the p34 subunit of human single-stranded DNA-binding protein phosphorylated by DNA-dependent protein kinase and Cdc2 kinase ... Single-stranded binding protein Replication protein A Replication protein A1 Replication protein A3 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... Replication protein A 32 kDa subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPA2 gene. RPA2 has been shown to interact ... Dutta A, Stillman B (Jun 1992). "cdc2 family kinases phosphorylate a human cell DNA replication factor, RPA, and activate DNA ...

*CDC25C

Booher RN, Holman PS, Fattaey A (1997). "Human Myt1 is a cell cycle-regulated kinase that inhibits Cdc2 but not Cdk2 activity ... 1994). "Activation of p34cdc2 protein kinase by microinjection of human cdc25C into mammalian cells. Requirement for prior ... The encoded protein is a tyrosine phosphatase and belongs to the Cdc25 phosphatase family. It directs dephosphorylation of ... Kino T, Chrousos GP (2004). "Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 accessory protein Vpr: a causative agent of the AIDS-related ...
... is a member of the CDC25 family of phosphatases. CDC25A is required for progression from G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle. It activates the cyclin-dependent kinase CDC2 by removing two phosphate groups. CDC25A is specifically degraded in response to DNA damage, which prevents cells with chromosomal abnormalities from progressing through cell division. CDC25A is an oncogene, although its exact role in oncogenesis has not been demonstrated. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Thesis lecture: Mitosis exit regulation by Cdc5 and PP2A-Cdc55. By Yolanda Moyano Rodriguez. Directed by Dr. Ethel Queralt. 28/11/2019 at 10:30 am. Campus del Mar (UPF). Room 61.310-12. ...
Background In represents the weights for input edges from node to node at any time +?1 represents the next time point. the basin size of the largest attractor remained unchanged (Number ?(Figure4D).4D). Consequently, the em C. elegans /em early embryonic cell cycles network possessed a high homeostatic stability because the basin size of the largest attractor would not change significantly under perturbations [23]. Such high robustness of the em C. elegans /em early embryonic cell cycle network was due to the topological structure (nodes and edges) of the regulatory network. Open in a separate window Number 4 The histogram of the relative changes of basin size. The switch of the largest attractors basin size under several network perturbations: (A) deletion, (B) addition, (C) switching and (D) average of A to C. The histogram is definitely RepSox reversible enzyme inhibition generated in the em C. elegans /em network and 1000 same size arbitrary systems. P may be the possibility of em B /em / ...
This gene encodes a member of the p34Cdc2 protein kinase family. p34Cdc2 kinase family members are known to be essential for eukaryotic cell cycle control. This gene is in close proximity to CDC2L2, a nearly identical gene in the same chromosomal region. The gene loci including this gene, CDC2L2, as well as metalloprotease MMP21/22, consist of two identical, tandemly linked genomic regions which are thought to be a part of the larger region that has been duplicated. This gene and CDC2L2 were shown to be deleted or altered frequently in neuroblastoma with amplified MYCN genes. The protein kinase encoded by this gene could be cleaved by caspases and was demonstrated to play roles in cell apoptosis. Several alternatively spliced variants of this gene have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
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Cells depleted of Plk or cdc5-1 protein arrest at multiple points of M phase. (A) Growth of cdc5Δ mutant conditionally rescued by expressing either GAL1-HA-EGF
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Protein phosphatase which antagonizes mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase CDC28, the inactivation of which is essential for exit from mitosis. To access its substrates, is released from nucleolar sequestration during mitosis. Plays an essential in coordinating the nuclear division cycle with cytokinesis through the cytokinesis checkpoint. Involved in chromosome segregation, where it is required for meiosis I spindle dissambly as well as for establishing two consecutive chromosome segregation phases. Allows damaged actomyosin rings to be maintained to facilitate completion of cell division in response to minor perturbation of the cell division machinery. Inhibits transcription of ribosomal genes (rDNA) during anaphase and controls segregation of nucleolus by facilitating condensin targeting to rDNA chromatin in anaphase. Dephosphorylates SIC1, a CDC28 inhibitor, and SWI5, a transcription factor for SIC1, and induces degradation of mitotic cyclins, likely by dephosphorylating the activator of mitotic cyclin
Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a ubiquitously expressed phosphoprotein involved in many cellular processes. Phosphorylation is considered the major regulatory mechanism of the NPM protein, associated with diverse cellular events. In this study, we characterized the phosphorylation status of several physiological phosphorylation sites of NPM, especially the newly confirmed
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Dephosphorylation of the Cdc2 kinase by the Cdc25 tyrosine phosphatase is the universally conserved trigger for mitotic entry. Cdc25 is also the point of convergence for checkpoint signaling pathways which monitor the ...
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Linux - Extract files. Mark the .x86 (or .x86_64 for 64 bit) as executable and type ./Mitosis.x86 or ./Mitosis.x86_64 in terminal. This hasnt be tested on all distros and you may be missing libraries youll need to install ...
Fertilization of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs results in resumption of meiosis and a decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities; the decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity precedes the decrease in MAP kinase activity. Cycloheximide treatment of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs also results in resumption of meiosis but bypasses the fertilization-induced Ca2+ transient. However, it is not known if cycloheximide treatment results in the same temporal changes in cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that are intimately associated with resumption of meiosis. We report that cycloheximide-treated mouse eggs manifest similar temporal changes in the decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that occur following fertilization, although cortical granule exocytosis is not stimulated. The decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity, however, does not seem to be required for the decrease in MAP kinase activity, since the decrease in MAP kinase activity ...
Cardiomyocytes cease to divide shortly after birth and an irreversible cell cycle arrest is evident accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase activities. To get a better understanding of the cardiac cell cycle and its regulation, the effect of functional recovery of the mitosis-promoting factor (MPF) consisting of cyclin B1 and the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc2 was assessed in primary cultures of postmitotic ventricular adult rat cardiomyocytes ( ARC). Gene transfer into ARC was achieved using the adenovirus-enhanced transferrinfection system that was characterized by the absence of cytotoxic events. Simultaneous ectopic expression of wild-type versions of cyclin B1 and Cdc2 was sufficient to induce MPF activity. Reestablished MPF resulted in a mitotic phenotype, marked by an abnormal condensation of the nuclei, histone H3 phosphorylation and variable degree of decay of the contractile apparatus. Although a complete cell division was not observed, the results provided ...
Fission yeast cell division is initiated by the cdc2/cdc13-cyclin protein kinase which in its catalytically active state comprises the mitotic inducer. During interphase the cdc2/cyclin complex is assembled in an inactive state that requires cdc25+ gene function for M-phase activation. The cdc25+ product, a 76 kd phosphoprotein, is shown to oscillate in abundance during the cell cycle, reaching a peak at G2/M, and to be sensitive to nitrogen starvation. The level of cdc25 is subject to feedback regulation involving both cdc25 and cdc2.. ...
Complete information for CDC37 gene (Protein Coding), Cell Division Cycle 37, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Why do we need to learn about mitosis? To fully understand cancer, we must first learn about mitosis. Mitosis is when cells replicate their DNA and divide. Cancer occurs when this process goes terribly wrong. To introduce mitosis, we watched this video and connected mitosis to the "real world ...
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摘 要:胚胎干细胞的生长、增殖、分化和形状改变等过程受微环境、机械力等多种因素的影响。胚胎干细胞能够感知微小机械力刺激,并将其转化成生物化学信号,进而通过F-肌动蛋白、肌球蛋白-II、Cdc42、Rho和Src等产生一系列分子水平的应答反应,最终导致基因差异表达。胚胎干细胞应答外力基本过程的研究对于胚胎早期发育和分化机制研究、克隆和再生药物的研制与开发等均有重要意义。该文就机械力对胚胎干细胞结构、形态和分化的影响及其潜在机制等进行论述 ...
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The activation of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C requires the phosphorylation of multiple subunits. Because depletion or inactivation of the Xenopus Polo-like kinase 1 (Plx1) in meiotically arrested egg extracts blocks APC/C-dependent degradation of cyclin B ( 5), many investigators have tried to directly link the activities of Plk1 and APC/C. Although Plk1 is able to phosphorylate subunits of the APC/C in vitro, this phosphorylation contributes only marginally to its activation ( 6). In contrast, cyclin B/Cdk1 seems to have a major role in the phosphorylation and activation of the APC/C, thereby triggering its own inactivation at the end of mitosis ( 7).. Although Plk1 can contribute synergistically to the cyclin B/Cdk1-mediated activation of the APC/C ( 6), this observation is not sufficient to explain the crucial role of Plk1/Plx1 in the activation of the APC/C. Intriguing insights have come from studies of the cytostatic factor (CSF) in Xenopus oocytes, where CSF activity prevents parthogenetic ...
Yeast Cdc7 protein kinase and Dbf4 protein are both required for the initiation of DNA replication at the G1/S phase boundary of the mitotic cell cycle. Cdc7 kinase function is stage-specific in the cell cycle, but total Cdc7 protein levels remained unchanged. Therefore, regulation of Cdc7 function appears to be the result of posttranslational modification. In this study, we have attempted to elucidate the mechanism responsible for achieving this specific execution point of Cdc7. Cdc7 kinase activity was shown to be maximal at the G1/S boundary by using either cultures synchronized with alpha factor or Cdc- mutants or with inhibitors of DNA synthesis or mitosis. Therefore, Cdc7 kinase is regulated by a posttranslational mechanism that ensures maximal Cdc7 activity at the G1/S boundary, which is consistent with Cdc7 function in the cell cycle. This cell cycle-dependent regulation could be the result of association with the Dbf4 protein. In this study, the Dbf4 protein was shown to be required for ...
Protein kinase A (PKA) play a critical role in maintaining the meiotic arrest. However, the steps downstream of PKA remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the regulation of meiotic resumption by PKA/Cdc25B pathway in mouse oocytes. Injection of mRNA coding for Cdc25b-S321A had a more potent maturation-inducing ability than Cdc25b-WT. When co-injected with PKA inhibitor, Cdc25B-WT had similar activities with Cdc25B-S321A. Meanwhile, the phosphorylation of Cdc25B-S321 was detected in germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes by Western blotting with a phospho-Ser321-specific antibody and the band disappeared when oocytes reenter into the meiotic cell cycle. Furthermore, Cdc25B-WT translocated to the nucleus shortly before GV breakdown (GVBD), whereas phosphorylated Cdc25B-S321 expressed exclusively in the cytoplasm and the signal could not be detected in GVBD oocytes. Taken together, these data indicate that Cdc25B-Serine321 is the potential PKA target and Cdc25B subcellular localization determines
The experiments in the previous section established that in CDC14-CFP MOB1-YFP cells, Cdc14p was released from the nucleolus and Mob1p bound to SPBs at the same time (Fig. 5 D). We did not observe any cells (n , 200) in which Mob1p was already at SPBs while Cdc14p was still in the nucleolus. In fact, ∼5% of early anaphase cells showed Cdc14p, but not Mob1p, at SPBs (unpublished data). This observation suggests that Cdc14p dissociates from Net1p shortly before Tem1p activation. In turn, this implies that MEN activity is not essential for the initial release of Cdc14p from the nucleolus. If this is the case, then the initial release of Cdc14p from the nucleolus should still occur in cells where the MEN is defective. To test this possibility, the resident nucleolar protein Net1p, which forms a complex with Cdc14p (Shou et al., 1999; Visintin et al., 1999), was fused to CFP in wild-type, cdc5-10, cdc15-1, and dbf2-2 cells that contained CDC14-YFP. We then monitored the localization of Cdc14p-YFP ...
Serine-proline or threonine-proline is minimally required for Cdk-dependent phosphorylation (Errico, 2010), and we see that Ascl1 undergoes cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation in Xenopus egg extracts on these sites (Fig. 1; supplementary material Fig. S2); a mutant in which SP sites have been mutated to alanine-proline shows a dramatic reduction in phosphorylation.. To determine whether Ascl1 can indeed act as a target for Cdks, we incubated Ascl1 protein with active recombinant cyclin/Cdk proteins. When wild-type Ascl1 was incubated with CyclinA/Cdk2, its migration on SDS-PAGE was significantly retarded, and a smear of slower-migrating Ascl1 protein indicates phosphorylation on more than one site (supplementary material Fig. S3). S-A Ascl1 in this assay shows markedly reduced retardation compared with wild-type Ascl1, demonstrating that phosphorylation of Ascl1 occurs on SP sites. It is interesting to note that in vitro when incubated with purified kinases, some phosphorylation of S-A Ascl1 ...
Wee1 acts as a negative regulator of entry into mitosis (G2 to M transition) by protecting the nucleus from cytoplasmically activated cyclin B1-complexed CDK1 before the onset of mitosis. The activity of wee1 increases during the S and G2 phases, and decreases in M phase when it is hyperphosphorylated. A correlated decrease in wee1 protein level occurs at M/G1 phase, probably due to its degradation. Wee1 specifically phosphorylates and inactivates cyclin B1-complexed CDK1 reaching a maximum during G2 phase and a minimum as cells enter M phase. The phosphorylation of cyclin B1-CDK1 occurs exclusively on Tyr-15 and phosphorylation of monomeric CDK1 does not occur ...
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Cdc42 and Rac1 have distinct but overlapping binding sites on PICK1.Upper panel: GST pulldowns were carried out using purified his6flagCdc42 or his6mycRac1 and
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The number of teenagers who are drinking and driving has dropped by 54% in the past two decades, according to a new report released Tuesday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The Centers for Disease Control is trying to track down around 100 people who may have overlapped with the infected MERS patient at two hospitals.
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In yeasts and animals, premature entry into mitosis is prevented by the inhibitory phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) by WEE1 kinase, and, at mitosis, WEE1 protein is removed through the action of the 26S proteasome. Although in higher plants WEE1 function has been confirmed in the DNA replication checkpoint, Arabidopsis wee1 insertion mutants grow normally, and a role for the protein in the G2/M transition during an unperturbed plant cell cycle is yet to be confirmed. Here data are presented showing that the inhibitory effect of WEE1 on CDK activity in tobacco BY-2 cell cultures is cell cycle regulated independently of the DNA replication checkpoint: it is high during S-phase but drops as cells traverse G2 and enter mitosis. To investigate this mechanism further, a yeast two-hybrid screen was undertaken to identify proteins interacting with Arabidopsis WEE1. Three F-box proteins and a subunit of the proteasome complex were identified, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation ...
It is well established that the kinase activity of the p34cdc2 cyclinB complex known as MPF regulates commitment to mitosis (Ohi and Gould, 1999). Once MPF has been activated, polo, aurora and NIMA‐related kinases (Nrks) control most of the physical events of mitosis and cytokinesis (Nigg, 2001).. In interphase, Wee1 and related protein kinases phosphorylate and inhibit the p34cdc2 catalytic subunit of MPF. This inhibitory phosphate is removed by the phosphatase Cdc25. The balance between Wee1‐ and Cdc25‐related activities controls mitotic commitment (Ohi and Gould, 1999). An initial trigger level of MPF promotes further activation of Cdc25 to drive commitment to mitosis (Hoffmann et al., 1993), so that the activity of the bulk of Cdc25 is actually dependent upon p34cdc2 activity (Kovelman and Russell, 1996). While direct phosphorylation of Cdc25 by MPF does contribute to positive feedback loop activation of Cdc25 (Izumi and Maller, 1993), the loop still exists in Xenopus extracts from ...
The dramatic events of chromosome segregation and cell division are initiated by the activity of Cdk1 (Morgan, 2006). Activation of Cdk1 requires binding of mitotic cyclins, which are synthesized anew each cell cycle and accumulate gradually during G2/M. Cdk1 activation is delayed by the Wee1 kinase, which phosphorylates and inhibits Cdk1 (Russell and Nurse, 1987; Gould and Nurse, 1989). The Cdc25 phosphatase promotes entry into mitosis by removing the inhibitory phosphorylation placed on Cdk1 by Wee1 (Russell and Nurse, 1986; Dunphy and Kumagai, 1991; Gautier et al., 1991; Kumagai and Dunphy, 1991; Strausfeld et al., 1991).. In yeast cells, inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1 has been proposed to mediate a checkpoint that delays entry into mitosis until sufficient growth has occurred (Nurse, 1975; Fantes and Nurse, 1977; Rupes, 2002;Kellogg, 2003). Wee1 mutant cells enter mitosis prematurely and become abnormally small, whereas Cdc25 mutant cells undergo delayed entry into mitosis and become ...
Expression of CDC5L (CDC5, CEF1, hCDC5, PCDC5RP) in cerebellum tissue. Antibody staining with HPA006302, HPA011361 and CAB012275 in immunohistochemistry.
CDC - Blogs - The Topic Is Cancer - Lewis Story: Throat Cancer Changed His World - Perspectives on a variety of cancer-related topics, hosted by CDC
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The H1N1 virus, also known as swine flu, may have killed as many as 17,000 Americans, according to new estimates by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta.
Listen to audio from the whistleblower HERE. WATCHUNG, NJ--(Marketwired - August 18, 2014) - A top research scientist working for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) played a key role in helping Dr. Brian Hooker of the Focus...
The CDC estimates that so far this season there have been at least 13 million flu illnesses, 120,000 hospitalizations and 6,600 deaths from flu.
The CDC estimates that so far this season there have been at least 13 million flu illnesses, 120,000 hospitalizations and 6,600 deaths from flu.
After more extensive serology tests, the CDC has confirmed that the Illinois man initially believed to be infected with MERS is actually virus-free.
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This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
CIDRAP News) Ð The Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention (CDC) is much better prepared to deal with a terroristattack now than it was a year ago, before Sep 11 and the subsequent anthraxattacks, CDC officials said this week. ...
Mik is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Mik is available on the Drugs.com website.
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A recent study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that 3.2 million girls between the ages of 14 and 19 in the US are infected with at least one sexually transmitted disease.
Hey i know this question has been asked before but i am meeting my CDC fri and starting CD sat and i just wanted opinion on the whole SS, SS+ thing. i...
Références EFSA. Références CDC. ONEHEALTH_NL 21/12/11 Risk Profile Humaan Schmallenbergvirus. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN. CIRAD. OIE 15/05/13 OIE technical meeting. 1.
Guess it was just one of those days for Dan Hawkins on Monday. He has them occasionally, days when he decides to be a little more forthcoming and straightforward than usual.
The smooth progression of the eukaryotic cell cycle relies on the periodic activation of members of a family of cell cycle kinases by regulatory proteins called cyclins. Outside of the cell cycle, cyclin homologs play important roles in regulating the assembly of transcription complexes; distant structural relatives of the conserved cyclin core or box can also function as general transcription factors (like TFIIB) or survive embedded in the chain of the tumor suppressor, retinoblastoma protein. The present work attempts the prediction of the canonical secondary, supersecondary, and tertiary fold of the minimal cyclin box domain using a combination of techniques that make use of the evolutionary information captured in a multiple alignment of homolog sequences. A tandem set of closely packed, helical modules are predicted to form the cyclin box domain.
The central role of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in cell cycle regulation makes them a promising target for studying inhibitory molecules that can modify the degree of cell proliferation. The discovery of specific inhibitors of CDKs such as polyhydroxylated flavones has opened the way to investigation and design of antimitotic compounds. A novel flavone, (-)-cis-5,7-dihydroxyphenyl-8-[4-(3-hydroxy-1-methyl)piperidinyl] -4H-1-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride hemihydrate (L868276), is a potent inhibitor of CDKs. A chlorinated form, flavopiridol, is currently in phase I clinical trials as a drug against breast tumors. We determined the crystal structure of a complex between CDK2 and L868276 at 2.33 angstroms resolution and refined to an Rfactor 20.3%. The aromatic portion of the inhibitor binds to the adenine-binding pocket of CDK2, and the position of the phenyl group of the inhibitor enables the inhibitor to make contacts with the enzyme not observed in the ATP complex structure. The analysis of ...
[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (p33 Protein Kinase or cdc2-Related Protein Kinase or EC 2.7.11.22) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 report by Global Markets Direct. Global Markets Directs, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (p33 Protein...
Regulation of Cdk1 by inhibitory phosphorylation is critical for cell survival and for the developmental regulation of cell proliferation. Previously, we have demonstrated that Drosophila Wee1 serves an essential role in a pre-mitotic checkpoint that operates during the rapid S/M nuclear divisions of early embryogenesis (Price et al., 2000; Stumpff et al., 2004). The cell cycle timing defects observed in these mutants are consistent with the proposal that Wee1 serves a conserved role in protecting nuclei from cytoplasmically activated Cdk1 (Heald et al., 1993). In the present report, we demonstrate that Myt1 serves distinct cell cycle regulatory functions, required for the fidelity of specific stages of development.. Overexpression studies in several systems suggest that Myt1 can influence the timing of G2/M transitions (Cornwell et al., 2002; Price et al., 2002; Wells et al., 1999). Loss-of-function studies now demonstrate that Myt1 serves distinct Cdk1 regulatory functions that are essential ...
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protein kinase complex, protein kinase activity, positive regulation of MAP kinase activity, positive regulation of protein autophosphorylation, protein phosphorylation, regulation of cell cycle G2/M phase transition, regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade
Mouse anti Human Cdk6 antibody, clone DCS-83 recognizes the human cyclin dependent kinase 6, also known as Cdk6 or Serine/threonine-protei
Looking for online definition of CDC2 or what CDC2 stands for? CDC2 is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
We have shown that the immediate response of cells upon addition of CHK1i to gemcitabine at lower, synergistic concentrations is not premature S-phase mitotic entry. Instead, cells experience prolonged interphase with enhanced DNA damage and replication stress, reminiscent of the nucleus-wide replication catastrophe when ATR signaling is perturbed (30). A fraction of these cells enter mitosis, often with disastrous consequences. While this in principle suggests G2 abrogation, given the global mitotic CDK1 suppression and substantial delay in mitotic entry as well as the low concentrations of the agents used, the data are also compatible with the notion of G2 checkpoint adaptation. It has been shown that G2 adaptation can occur in human cells and is possible following pharmacologic concentrations of genotoxic agents (31, 32). Taken together, as opposed to blatant checkpoint abrogation, our study illustrates a "foot-in-the-door" phenomenon (Fig. 6B). This model proposes that premature S-phase ...
Nucleolin is a ubiquitous multifunctional protein involved in preribosome assembly and associated with both nucleolar chromatin in interphase and nucleolar organizer regions on metaphasic chromosomes in mitosis. Extensive nucleolin phosphorylation by a casein kinase (CKII) occurs on serine in growing cells. Here we report that while CKII phosphorylation is achieved in interphase, threonine phosphorylation occurs during mitosis. We provide evidence that this type of in vivo phosphorylation involves a mammalian homolog of the cell cycle control Cdc2 kinase. In vitro M-phase H1 kinase from starfish oocytes phosphorylated threonines in a TPXK motif present nine times in the amino-terminal part of the protein. The same sites which matched the p34cdc2 consensus phosphorylation sequence were used in vivo during mitosis. We propose that successive Cdc2 and CKII phosphorylation could modulate nucleolin function in controlling cell cycle-dependent nucleolar function and organization. Our results, along ...
The product of the X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy gene is a protein called emerin, which is localized to the nuclear membrane. We have expressed full-length recombinant human emerin in an in vitro coupled reticulocyte system; it has a molecular mass of 34 kDa, inserts into microsomes in a type II orientation, and does not exhibit any N-linked glycosylation or cleavage event. Affinity-purified human emerin antiserum cross-reacts with the in vitro-expressed emerin and with a 34 kDa band present in a wide range of human tissue samples. Expression and subcellular distribution of emerin were studied in lymphoblastoid cell lines established from four patients with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy containing different mutations in the emerin gene. Emerin protein was detected in two of these patients by immunoblotting. In striking contrast to wild-type emerin, which was localized to the nuclear fraction and was insoluble in non-ionic detergents and high salt, emerin from these two patients ...
Definition of cdc28 protein kinase, s cerevisiae in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of cdc28 protein kinase, s cerevisiae. What does cdc28 protein kinase, s cerevisiae mean? Information and translations of cdc28 protein kinase, s cerevisiae in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.

PF3D7 0417800 - Cdc2-related protein kinase 1 - Plasmodium falciparum (isolate 3D7) - PF3D7 0417800 gene & proteinPF3D7 0417800 - Cdc2-related protein kinase 1 - Plasmodium falciparum (isolate 3D7) - PF3D7 0417800 gene & protein

... protein phosphorylation, regulation of gene expression, regulation of mitotic cell cycle ... View protein in PROSITE. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 hit. ... View protein in InterPro. IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... Cdc2-related protein kinase 1Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8I1Q9/

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (p33 Protein Kinase or cdc2-Related Protein Kinase or EC 2.7.11.22) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 :...Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (p33 Protein Kinase or cdc2-Related Protein Kinase or EC 2.7.11.22) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 :...

... p33 Protein Kinase or cdc2-Related Protein Kinase or EC 2.7.11.22) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 report by Global Markets Direct. ... Global Markets Directs, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (p33 Protein... ... 65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 ( ... p33 Protein Kinase or cdc2-Related Protein Kinase or EC 2.7.11.22) *The report reviews Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (p33 Protein ...
more infohttp://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/648588-cyclin-dependent-kinase-2-p33-protein-kinase-or-cdc2-related-protein-kinase-or-ec-271122-pipeline-review-h1-2016.html

cgd5 2510 - Cdc2-like CDK2/CDC28 like protein kinase - Cryptosporidium parvum (strain Iowa II) - cgd5 2510 gene & proteincgd5 2510 - Cdc2-like CDK2/CDC28 like protein kinase - Cryptosporidium parvum (strain Iowa II) - cgd5 2510 gene & protein

View protein in PROSITE. PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 ... View protein in InterPro. IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271 ... View protein in InterPro. IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q5CRJ8

Neuronal cdc2-like kinase: a cdc2-related protein kinase with predominantly neuronal expression.Neuronal cdc2-like kinase: a cdc2-related protein kinase with predominantly neuronal expression.

... Academic Article * Authors ... We call this kinase neuronal cdc2-like kinase (nclk) because, in contrast to either cdk1 or cdk2, nclk is expressed at high ... there exists a family of protein kinases structurally and functionally related to the yeast cell cycle regulatory kinase cdc2 [ ... 58, 1365-1371] that cdk1 kinase, but not other structurally defined protein kinases, could phosphorylate the repeated Lys-Ser- ...
more infohttp://vivo.mblwhoilibrary.org/display/publication44370

Isolation and Characterization of A Cdc2-Related Protein Kinase 3 (CRK3) from a Sudanese Strain of Leishmania DonovaniIsolation and Characterization of A Cdc2-Related Protein Kinase 3 (CRK3) from a Sudanese Strain of Leishmania Donovani

Cyclin-dependent kinases; (cdc2) are key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle. A number of cdc2- related kinase (CRK) genes ... Isolation and Characterization of A Cdc2-Related Protein Kinase 3 (CRK3) from a Sudanese Strain of Leishmania Donovani. Login ... Isolation and Characterization of A Cdc2-Related Protein Kinase 3 (CRK3) from a Sudanese Strain of Leishmania Donovani. Show ... Isolation and Characterization of A Cdc2-Related Protein Kinase 3 (CRK3) from a Sudanese Strain of Leishmania Donovani. ...
more infohttp://khartoumspace.uofk.edu/handle/123456789/17156

Paper Chase | HMSPaper Chase | HMS

A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases. EMBO J. Meyerson M, Enders GH, Wu CL, Su LK, Gorka C, Nelson C, Harlow E, Tsai ... Rapamycin-induced inhibition of the 70-kilodalton S6 protein kinase. Science. Price DJ, Grove JR, Calvo V, Avruch J, Bierer BE. ... A human transmembrane protein-tyrosine-phosphatase, PTP zeta, is expressed in brain and has an N-terminal receptor domain ... Protein targeting via the constitutive-like secretory pathway in isolated pancreatic islets: passive sorting in the immature ...
more infohttps://hms.harvard.edu/research/paper-chase?&pci=1147

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Membrane-associated tyrosine- and threonine-specific cdc2-inhibitory kinase -...RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Membrane-associated tyrosine- and threonine-specific cdc2-inhibitory kinase -...

The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Interacts with CDC2-CCNB1 complex. Can also interact with PIN1 when phosphorylated by CDC2-CCNB1. UniProt ... Membrane-associated tyrosine- and threonine-specific cdc2-inhibitory kinase - Q99640 (PMYT1_HUMAN) ... ATP + L-threonyl-[protein] = ADP + H+ + O-phospho-L-threonyl-[protein] UniProt ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/D3DUA4

The transforming parasite Theileria co-opts host cell mitotic and central spindles to persist in continuously dividing cells.  ...The transforming parasite Theileria co-opts host cell mitotic and central spindles to persist in continuously dividing cells. ...

CDC2 Protein Kinase. Grant support. *GR075820MA/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. * ... As part of this process, the schizont recruits a host cell mitotic kinase, Polo-like kinase 1, and we established that parasite ... including Polo-like kinase 1, one of the pivotal mitotic kinases, to ensure its own persistence and survival. ... Plk1 kinase domain (myc-KDom), Polo-box domain (myc-PBD, wild type), or H538A/K540A mutant PBD (myc-PBD H538A/K540A) and ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20927361?dopt=Abstract

RCSB PDB - ATU Ligand Summary PageRCSB PDB - ATU Ligand Summary Page

The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... CDC2 Protein Kinase. *Cyclin B. *Heterocyclic Compounds. *Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring. Drug Targets. Name. Sequence Search. ... Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta. MSGRPRTTSFAESCKPVQQPSAFGSMKVSRDKDGSKVTTVVATPGQGPDR.... unknown. Cyclin-dependent-like kinase 5 ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/ligand/ATU

CrkRS | Journal of Cell ScienceCrkRS | Journal of Cell Science

Several protein kinases have been isolated that are most closely related in their kinase domain sequence to cdc2, the major ... The protein kinase domain of CrkRS is 89% identical to the 46 kDa CHED protein kinase, but outside the kinase domains the two ... The SRPK and Clk/Sty protein kinase families regulate the localisation of RS proteins. The SRPK1 protein kinase is specific for ... We have isolated and characterised a novel human protein kinase, Cdc2-related kinase with an arginine/serine-rich (RS) domain ( ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/114/14/2591

Selective augmentation of histone H1 phosphorylation sites by interaction of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and cdc2-kinase:...Selective augmentation of histone H1 phosphorylation sites by interaction of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and cdc2-kinase:...

... polymerase and cdc2-kinase: comparison with protein kinase C., International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 8, no. 6, pp ... polymerase and cdc2-kinase: comparison with protein kinase C. International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2001 dec.;8(6):691- ... polymerase and cdc2-kinase: comparison with protein kinase C. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 8(6), 691-693. ... polymerase and cdc2-kinase : comparison with protein kinase C. In: International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2001 ; Vol. 8, ...
more infohttps://hungary.pure.elsevier.com/hu/publications/selective-augmentation-of-histone-h1-phosphorylation-sites-by-int

Srs2 plays a critical role in reversible G2 arrest upon chronic and low doses of UV irradiation via two distinct homologous...Srs2 plays a critical role in reversible G2 arrest upon chronic and low doses of UV irradiation via two distinct homologous...

0/Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins; 125481-05-2/HPR5 protein, S cerevisiae; EC 2.7.11.22/CDC2 Protein Kinase; EC 3.6.1 ... CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism. DNA Helicases / genetics, metabolism*. DNA Repair. DNA Replication. DNA, Fungal / genetics, ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / genetics, metabolism*. Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins / metabolism. Ultraviolet ... 0/Antigens, Nuclear; 0/DNA, Fungal; 0/DNA, Single-Stranded; 0/DNA-Binding Proteins; 0/POL30 protein, S cerevisiae; 0/ ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Srs2-plays-critical-role-in/20713444.html

Overexpression of Akt inhibits NGF-induced growth arrest and neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells.Overexpression of Akt inhibits NGF-induced growth arrest and neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells.

EC 2.7.11.1/Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1/Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.22/CDC2 Protein Kinase ... Protein Kinase Inhibitors. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases*. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics, physiology*. Proto-Oncogene ... CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism. Cell Differentiation / physiology*. Cell Division. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. ... 0/Cdkn1a protein, rat; 0/Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0/Cyclins; 0/Enzyme Inhibitors; 0/Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0/ ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Overexpression-Akt-inhibits-NGF-induced/11112692.html

Recombinant Human CDK2 + CCNE1 protein (ab85836) | AbcamRecombinant Human CDK2 + CCNE1 protein (ab85836) | Abcam

CCNE1 protein. Ab85836 is a full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated in WB… ... Cdc2 related protein kinase. *Cdk 2. *CDK2. *Cell division kinase 2. *Cell division protein kinase 2 ... CDK2 is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S ... pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, whose activity is restricted to the G1-S ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-cdk2-ccne1-protein-ab85836.html

CDK2 [p Thr160] Antibody (NB100-92496): Novus BiologicalsCDK2 [p Thr160] Antibody (NB100-92496): Novus Biologicals

cdc2-related protein kinase. *CDK2. *cell devision kinase 2. *Cell division protein kinase 2 ... carried out by Cdk-activating kinase 1. The kinase associated phosphatase (KAP) is a human dual specificity protein phosphatase ... Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post ... EZH1 is part of the Polycomb-group family of proteins, which are responsible for remodeling chromatin in genes and modulating ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/cdk2-antibody_nb100-92496

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5-Deficient Mice Demonstrate Novel Developmental Arrest in Cerebral Cortex | Journal of NeuroscienceCyclin-Dependent Kinase 5-Deficient Mice Demonstrate Novel Developmental Arrest in Cerebral Cortex | Journal of Neuroscience

1992) Neuronal cdc2-like kinase: a cdc-related protein kinase with predominately neuronal expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89 ... 1994) Neuronal cdc2-like kinase is a complex of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and a novel brain-specific regulatory subunit. Nature ... 1992) A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases. EMBO J 11:2909-2917. ... 1992) Brain proline-directed protein kinase is a neurofilament kinase which displays high sequence homology to p34cdc2. J Biol ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/18/16/6370?ijkey=b68f7f83b5164f13f8a3773b75bb13b0652ae3d1&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Genome-Scale MicroRNA and Small Interfering RNA Screens Identify Small RNA Modulators of TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis Pathway |...Genome-Scale MicroRNA and Small Interfering RNA Screens Identify Small RNA Modulators of TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis Pathway |...

A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases. EMBO J 1992; 11: 2909-17. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase pathways as targets for cancer treatment. J Clin Oncol 2006; 24: 1770-83. ... Three separate siRNAs targeting CDK1/CDC2, CDK2, CDK3, CDK4, CDK5, CDK6, CDK7, CDK8, or CDK9 were transfected in MDA-MB-453 ... Additionally, non-protein-coding gene-regulatory elements may also influence these signaling pathways, and screening for these ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/67/22/10782?ijkey=e0bf2cc376d210b31ea4aa9c4ea4aad5a6cfc272&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

CDC2L5CDC2L5

CDC2-related protein kinase 5; CDC2L; CDC2L5; CHED; cell division cycle 2-like 5 (cholinesterase-related cell division ... cell division cycle 2-like protein kinase 5; cell division protein kinase 13; cholinesterase-related cell division controller; ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase family. Members of this ... cyclin-dependent kinase 13 (CDC2L5). Target Class. Kinase. Family. CMGC. Official Symbol. CDK13. Entrez Gene ID. 8621. Species ...
more infohttps://www.discoverx.com/target-data-sheets/kinase/cdc2l5

Recombinant human CDK2 + CCNA1 protein (ab105205) | AbcamRecombinant human CDK2 + CCNA1 protein (ab105205) | Abcam

CCNA1 protein. Ab105205 is an active full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated in… ... It binds both CDK2 and CDC2 kinases, which give two distinct kinase activities, one appearing in S phase, the other in G2, and ... CDK2 is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S ... pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, whose activity is restricted to the G1-S ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-cdk2-ccna1-protein-ab105205.html

CDK3 Gene - GeneCards | CDK3 Protein | CDK3 AntibodyCDK3 Gene - GeneCards | CDK3 Protein | CDK3 Antibody

Protein Coding), Cyclin Dependent Kinase 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CDC2/CDKX subfamily. ... Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CDC2/CDKX subfamily. ... protein serine/threonine kinase activity. IEA. --. GO:0004693. cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. IBA, ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CDK3&sg_prom=2

Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Cell division protein kinase 19 (HMDBP01484)Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Cell division protein kinase 19 (HMDBP01484)

CDC2-related protein kinase 6. *Cell division cycle 2-like protein kinase 6 ... Showing Protein Cell division protein kinase 19 (HMDBP01484). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene propertiesProtein ... Protein Sequence. ,Cell division protein kinase 19 MDYDFKAKLAAERERVEDLFEYEGCKVGRGTYGHVYKARRKDGKDEKEYALKQIEGTGIS ... Daub H, Olsen JV, Bairlein M, Gnad F, Oppermann FS, Korner R, Greff Z, Keri G, Stemmann O, Mann M: Kinase-selective enrichment ...
more infohttps://hmdb.ca/proteins/HMDBP01484

CDK5 | SpringerLinkCDK5 | SpringerLink

Neuronal CDC2-like kinase; PSSALRE kinase Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a proline-directed serine/threonine-protein... ... AW048668; CDC2-related kinase 6; Crk6; Cyclin-dependent kinase 5; NCLK; ... AW048668; CDC2-related kinase 6; Crk6; Cyclin-dependent kinase 5; NCLK; Neuronal CDC2-like kinase; PSSALRE kinase ... Neuronal cdc2-like kinase: a cdc2-related protein kinase with predominantly neuronal expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_101554

Antidiabetic actions of a non-agonist PPARγ ligand blocking Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation | NatureAntidiabetic actions of a non-agonist PPARγ ligand blocking Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation | Nature

PITALRE, a nuclear CDC2-related protein kinase that phosphorylates the retinoblastoma protein in vitro. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. ... We are grateful for support from S. Novick for assistance in the HDX studies and from R. D. Garcia-Ordonez in protein ... Distinct properties and advantages of a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated protein γ selective modulator. Mol. Endocrinol. ... A two-stage differential hydrogen deuterium exchange method for the rapid characterization of protein/ligand interactions. J. ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/nature10383?error=cookies_not_supported&code=8b133e2a-fa31-462d-bd5d-4400b7a0a575

Frontiers | An ICA with reference approach in identification of genetic variation and associated brain networks | Frontiers in...Frontiers | An ICA with reference approach in identification of genetic variation and associated brain networks | Frontiers in...

Lazzaro, M. A., Albert, P. R., and Julien, J. P. (1997). A novel cdc2-related protein kinase expressed in the nervous system. J ... CDK14 encodes the cdc2-related protein kinase, PFTAIRE, that is expressed in post-mitotic neuronal cells both in the brain and ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnhum.2012.00021/full

Go to Hierarchy of S-phase-promoting factors: yeast Dbf4-Cdc7 kinase requires prior S-phase cyclin-dependent kinase activation.Go to Hierarchy of S-phase-promoting factors: yeast Dbf4-Cdc7 kinase requires prior S-phase cyclin-dependent kinase activation.

Protein Kinases; Cell Cycle Proteins/*metabolism; *DNA-Binding Proteins; Carrier Proteins/metabolism; CDC2 Protein Kinase/ ... followed by their activation by two S-T protein kinases, an S-phase cyclin-dependent kinase (S-CDK) and a homologue of yeast ... Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*metabolism; Cell Cycle; *Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins; ... Hierarchy of S-phase-promoting factors: yeast Dbf4-Cdc7 kinase requires prior S-phase cyclin-dependent kinase activation. ...
more infohttp://www.igmm.cnrs.fr/publication/hierarchy-of-s-phase-promoting-factors-yeast-dbf4-cdc7-kinase-requires-prior-s-phase-cyclin-dependent-kinase-activation/
  • 58, 1365-that cdk1 kinase, but not other structurally defined protein kinases, could phosphorylate the repeated Lys-Ser-Pro (KSP) motifs found in mammalian high and middle molecular mass neurofilament subunits in vitro, but the precise molecular nature of the endogenous neuronal KSP kinase has remained undefined. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • 2000). The 110 kDa isoform localises to nuclear speckles and binds to the RNPS1 RNA binding protein (Loyer et al. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we show that SRPK2 binds and phosphorylates acinus, an SR protein essential for RNA splicing, and redistributes it from the nuclear speckles to the nucleoplasm, resulting in cyclin A1 but not A2 up-regulation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Removal of the spacer in SRPK1 has little effect on the kinase activity, but triggers the nuclear translocation of kinases and consequently induces aggregation of splicing factors in the nucleus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, cell cycle signal induces nuclear translocation of the kinases at the G 2 -M boundary, indicating that SRPKs play a role in cell cycle progression ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Asada A, Yamamoto N, Gohda M, Saito T, Hayashi N, Hisanaga S. Myristoylation of p39 and p35 is a determinant of cytoplasmic or nuclear localization of active cycline-dependent kinase 5 complexes. (springer.com)
  • 1993 ). p35 (CDK5R1) was then characterized as a regulatory subunit of CDK5 to activate its kinase activity, with subsequent identification of its isoform p39 (CDK5R2) (Tsai et al. (springer.com)
  • This protein associates with and is regulated by the regulatory subunits of the complex including cyclin A or E, CDK inhibitor p21Cip1 (CDKN1A) and p27Kip1 (CDKN1B). (abcam.com)
  • section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. (uniprot.org)
  • Cdc45p, a protein needed for initiation, binds tightly to chromatin only after S-CDK activation (L. Zou and B. Stillman, Science 280:593-596, 1998). (cnrs.fr)
  • Following the identification of the cdc2 kinase as a major element controlling entry of cells into mitosis, it is important to define the physiological target range of this enzyme. (unibas.ch)
  • Here, we demonstrate that two major nucleolar proteins, nucleolin and NO38, are highly phosphorylated during mitosis. (unibas.ch)
  • Importantly, the two nucleolar proteins are also phosphorylated by highly purified starfish cdc2 kinase in vitro, on sites that correspond to those observed specifically during mitosis in vivo. (unibas.ch)
  • The molecular interactions between PARP I, cdc2-kinase, PKC and histone H1 were determined with the aid of the common phosphate acceptor function of histone H1 to both kinases. (elsevier.com)
  • Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors. (novusbio.com)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • A human transmembrane protein-tyrosine-phosphatase, PTP zeta, is expressed in brain and has an N-terminal receptor domain homologous to carbonic anhydrases. (harvard.edu)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • Notice: statistical significance is estimated under the assumption that the equivalent of one entire reading frame in the query sequence codes for protein and that significant alignments will involve only coding reading frames. (upenn.edu)
  • Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest. (uniprot.org)
  • The figure depicts only the CMGC branch of a larger tree constructed (by J. Packer, Abbott Laboratories) from a Hidden Markov Model-derived alignment of all protein kinases in the P. falciparum genome. (asmscience.org)
  • Additionally, non-protein-coding gene-regulatory elements may also influence these signaling pathways, and screening for these is also highly amenable to high-throughput methods. (aacrjournals.org)