An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A serine-threonine protein kinase that, when activated by DNA, phosphorylates several DNA-binding protein substrates including the TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and a variety of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The phosphoric acid ester of serine.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.
A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent PROETIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. They are ubiquitously expressed in adult and embryonic mammalian tissues, and their functions are tightly related to the early stages of eukaryotic programmed cell death.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
Compounds of four rings containing a nitrogen. They are biosynthesized from reticuline via rearrangement of scoulerine. They are similar to BENZYLISOQUINOLINES. Members include chelerythrine and sanguinarine.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A regulatory calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that specifically phosphorylates CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 1; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 2; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 4; and PROTEIN KINASE B. It is a monomeric enzyme that is encoded by at least two different genes.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for a subset of P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES that includes MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 12; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 13; and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 14.
Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 48 and 54 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A 38-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase that is abundantly expressed in a broad variety of cell types. It is involved in the regulation of cellular stress responses as well as the control of proliferation and survival of many cell types. The kinase activity of the enzyme is inhibited by the pyridinyl-imidazole compound SB 203580.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Compounds or factors that act on a specific enzyme to increase its activity.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
A 110-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that is activated in response to cellular stress and by GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS-mediated pathways.
A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
An imidazole derivative which is a metabolite of the antineoplastic agents BIC and DIC. By itself, or as the ribonucleotide, it is used as a condensation agent in the preparation of nucleosides and nucleotides. Compounded with orotic acid, it is used to treat liver diseases.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and PHOSPHORYLASE B to ADP and PHOSPHORYLASE A.
A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.

C-myc overexpression and p53 loss cooperate to promote genomic instability. (1/2147)

p53 monitors genomic integrity at the G1 and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints. Cells lacking p53 may show gene amplification as well as the polyploidy or aneuploidy typical of many tumors. The pathways through which this develops, however, are not well defined. We demonstrate here that the combination of p53 inactivation and c-myc overexpression in diploid cells markedly accelerates the spontaneous development of tetraploidy. This is not seen with either N-myc or L-myc. Tetraploidy is accompanied by significantly higher levels of cyclin B and its associated cdc2 kinase activity. Mitotic spindle poisons accelerate the appearance of tetraploidy in cells either lacking functional p53 or overexpressing c-myc whereas the combination is additive. Restoration of p53 function in cells overexpressing c-myc causing rapid apoptosis, indicating that cells yet to become tetraploid have nonetheless suffered irreversible genomic and/or mitotic spindle damage. In the face of normal p53 function, such damage would either be repaired or trigger apoptotis. We propose that loss of p53 and overexpression of c-myc permits the emergence and survival of cells with increasingly severe damage and the eventual development of tetraploidy.  (+info)

Sequential PKC- and Cdc2-mediated phosphorylation events elicit zebrafish nuclear envelope disassembly. (2/2147)

Molecular markers of the zebrafish inner nuclear membrane (NEP55) and nuclear lamina (L68) were identified, partially characterized and used to demonstrate that disassembly of the zebrafish nuclear envelope requires sequential phosphorylation events by first PKC, then Cdc2 kinase. NEP55 and L68 are immunologically and functionally related to human LAP2beta and lamin B, respectively. Exposure of zebrafish nuclei to meiotic cytosol elicits rapid phosphorylation of NEP55 and L68, and disassembly of both proteins. L68 phosphorylation is completely inhibited by simultaneous inhibition of Cdc2 and PKC and only partially blocked by inhibition of either kinase. NEP55 phosphorylation is completely prevented by inhibition or immunodepletion of cytosolic Cdc2. Inhibition of cAMP-dependent kinase, MEK or CaM kinase II does not affect NEP55 or L68 phosphorylation. In vitro, nuclear envelope disassembly requires phosphorylation of NEP55 and L68 by both mammalian PKC and Cdc2. Inhibition of either kinase is sufficient to abolish NE disassembly. Furthermore, novel two-step phosphorylation assays in cytosol and in vitro indicate that PKC-mediated phosphorylation of L68 prior to Cdc2-mediated phosphorylation of L68 and NEP55 is essential to elicit nuclear envelope breakdown. Phosphorylation elicited by Cdc2 prior to PKC prevents nuclear envelope disassembly even though NEP55 is phosphorylated. The results indicate that sequential phosphorylation events elicited by PKC, followed by Cdc2, are required for zebrafish nuclear disassembly. They also argue that phosphorylation of inner nuclear membrane integral proteins is not sufficient to promote nuclear envelope breakdown, and suggest a multiple-level regulation of disassembly of nuclear envelope components during meiosis and at mitosis.  (+info)

Involvement of p21 in the PKC-induced regulation of the G2/M cell cycle transition. (3/2147)

Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibits cell cycle progression at the G1/S and G2/M transitions. We found that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced upregulation of p21, not only in MCF-7 cells arrested in the G1 phase as previously shown, but also in cells delayed in the G2 phase. This increase in p21 in cells accumulated in the G1 and G2/M phases of the cell cycle after PMA treatment was inhibited by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. This indicates that PKC activity is required for PMA-induced p21 upregulation and cell cycle arrest in the G1 and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. To further assess the role of p21 in the PKC-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest independently of its G1 arrest, we used aphidicolin-synchronised MCF-7 cells. Our results show that, in parallel with the inhibition of cdc2 activity, PMA addition enhanced the associations between p21 and either cyclin B or cdc2. Furthermore, we found that after PMA treatment p21 was able to associate with the active Tyr-15 dephosphorylated form of cdc2, but this complex was devoid of kinase activity indicating that p21 may play a role in inhibition of cdc2 induced by PMA. Taken together, these observations provide evidence that p21 is involved in integrating the PKC signaling pathway to the cell cycle machinery at the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint.  (+info)

p53 regulates a G2 checkpoint through cyclin B1. (4/2147)

The p53 tumor suppressor controls multiple cell cycle checkpoints regulating the mammalian response to DNA damage. To identify the mechanism by which p53 regulates G2, we have derived a human ovarian cell that undergoes p53-dependent G2 arrest at 32 degrees C. We have found that p53 prevents G2/M transition by decreasing intracellular levels of cyclin B1 protein and attenuating the activity of the cyclin B1 promoter. Cyclin B1 is the regulatory subunit of the cdc2 kinase and is a protein required for mitotic initiation. The ability of p53 to control mitotic initiation by regulating intracellular cyclin B1 levels suggests that the cyclin B-dependent G2 checkpoint has a role in preventing neoplastic transformation.  (+info)

Mutations at phosphorylation sites of Xenopus microtubule-associated protein 4 affect its microtubule-binding ability and chromosome movement during mitosis. (5/2147)

Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) bind to and stabilize microtubules (MTs) both in vitro and in vivo and are thought to regulate MT dynamics during the cell cycle. It is known that p220, a major MAP of Xenopus, is phosphorylated by p34(cdc2) kinase as well as MAP kinase in mitotic cells, and that the phosphorylated p220 loses its MT-binding and -stabilizing abilities in vitro. We cloned a full-length cDNA encoding p220, which identified p220 as a Xenopus homologue of MAP4 (XMAP4). To examine the physiological relevance of XMAP4 phosphorylation in vivo, Xenopus A6 cells were transfected with cDNAs encoding wild-type or various XMAP4 mutants fused with a green fluorescent protein. Mutations of serine and threonine residues at p34(cdc2) kinase-specific phosphorylation sites to alanine interfered with mitosis-associated reduction in MT affinity of XMAP4, and their overexpression affected chromosome movement during anaphase A. These findings indicated that phosphorylation of XMAP4 (probably by p34(cdc2) kinase) is responsible for the decrease in its MT-binding and -stabilizing abilities during mitosis, which are important for chromosome movement during anaphase A.  (+info)

Antisense expression of the CK2 alpha-subunit gene in Arabidopsis. Effects on light-regulated gene expression and plant growth. (6/2147)

The protein kinase CK2 (formerly casein kinase II) is thought to be involved in light-regulated gene expression in plants because of its ability to phosphorylate transcription factors that bind to the promoter regions of light-regulated genes in vitro. To address this possibility in vivo and to learn more about the potential physiological roles of CK2 in plants, we transformed Arabidopsis with an antisense construct of the CK2 alpha-subunit gene and investigated both morphological and molecular phenotypes. Antisense transformants had a smaller adult leaf size and showed increased expression of chs in darkness and of cab and rbcS after red-light treatment. The latter molecular phenotype implied that CK2 might serve as one of several negative and quantitative effectors in light-regulated gene expression. The possible mechanism of CK2 action and its involvement in the phytochrome signal transduction pathway are discussed.  (+info)

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation and activation of human Cdc25-C at the G2/M phase transition in HeLa cells. (7/2147)

The human tyrosine phosphatase (p54(cdc25-c)) is activated by phosphorylation at mitosis entry. The phosphorylated p54(cdc25-c) in turn activates the p34-cyclin B protein kinase and triggers mitosis. Although the active p34-cyclin B protein kinase can itself phosphorylate and activate p54(cdc25-c), we have investigated the possibility that other kinases may initially trigger the phosphorylation and activation of p54(cdc25-c). We have examined the effects of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase II) on p54(cdc25-c). Our in vitro experiments show that CaM kinase II can phosphorylate p54(cdc25-c) and increase its phosphatase activity by 2.5-3-fold. Treatment of a synchronous population of HeLa cells with KN-93 (a water-soluble inhibitor of CaM kinase II) or the microinjection of AC3-I (a specific peptide inhibitor of CaM kinase II) results in a cell cycle block in G2 phase. In the KN-93-arrested cells, p54(cdc25-c) is not phosphorylated, p34(cdc2) remains tyrosine phosphorylated, and there is no increase in histone H1 kinase activity. Our data suggest that a calcium-calmodulin-dependent step may be involved in the initial activation of p54(cdc25-c).  (+info)

cdk1- and cdk2-mediated phosphorylation of MyoD Ser200 in growing C2 myoblasts: role in modulating MyoD half-life and myogenic activity. (8/2147)

We have examined the role of protein phosphorylation in the modulation of the key muscle-specific transcription factor MyoD. We show that MyoD is highly phosphorylated in growing myoblasts and undergoes substantial dephosphorylation during differentiation. MyoD can be efficiently phosphorylated in vitro by either purified cdk1-cyclin B or cdk1 and cdk2 immunoprecipitated from proliferative myoblasts. Comparative two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide mapping combined with site-directed mutagenesis revealed that cdk1 and cdk2 phosphorylate MyoD on serine 200 in proliferative myoblasts. In addition, when the seven proline-directed sites in MyoD were individually mutated, only substitution of serine 200 to a nonphosphorylatable alanine (MyoD-Ala200) abolished the slower-migrating hyperphosphorylated form of MyoD, seen either in vitro after phosphorylation by cdk1-cyclin B or in vivo following overexpression in 10T1/2 cells. The MyoD-Ala200 mutant displayed activity threefold higher than that of wild-type MyoD in transactivation of an E-box-dependent reporter gene and promoted markedly enhanced myogenic conversion and fusion of 10T1/2 fibroblasts into muscle cells. In addition, the half-life of MyoD-Ala200 protein was longer than that of wild-type MyoD, substantiating a role of Ser200 phosphorylation in regulating MyoD turnover in proliferative myoblasts. Taken together, our data show that direct phosphorylation of MyoD Ser200 by cdk1 and cdk2 plays an integral role in compromising MyoD activity during myoblast proliferation.  (+info)

CDK2_HUMAN] Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in the control of the cell cycle; essential for meiosis, but dispensable for mitosis. Phosphorylates CTNNB1, USP37, p53/TP53, NPM1, CDK7, RB1, BRCA2, MYC, NPAT, EZH2. Interacts with cyclins A, B1, B3, D, or E. Triggers duplication of centrosomes and DNA. Acts at the G1-S transition to promote the E2F transcriptional program and the initiation of DNA synthesis, and modulates G2 progression; controls the timing of entry into mitosis/meiosis by controlling the subsequent activation of cyclin B/CDK1 by phosphorylation, and coordinates the activation of cyclin B/CDK1 at the centrosome and in the nucleus. Crucial role in orchestrating a fine balance between cellular proliferation, cell death, and DNA repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Activity of CDK2 is maximal during S phase and G2; activated by interaction with cyclin E during the early stages of DNA synthesis to permit G1-S transition, and subsequently activated by cyclin A2 (cyclin ...
CDC25A is a member of the CDC25 family of phosphatases. CDC25A is required for progression from G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle. It activates the cyclin-dependent kinase CDC2 by removing two phosphate groups. CDC25A is specifically degraded in response to DNA damage, which prevents cells with chromosomal abnormalities from progressing through cell division. CDC25A is an oncogene, although its exact role in oncogenesis has not been demonstrated. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Thesis lecture: Mitosis exit regulation by Cdc5 and PP2A-Cdc55. By Yolanda Moyano Rodriguez. Directed by Dr. Ethel Queralt. 28/11/2019 at 10:30 am. Campus del Mar (UPF). Room 61.310-12. ...
Background In represents the weights for input edges from node to node at any time +?1 represents the next time point. the basin size of the largest attractor remained unchanged (Number ?(Figure4D).4D). Consequently, the em C. elegans /em early embryonic cell cycles network possessed a high homeostatic stability because the basin size of the largest attractor would not change significantly under perturbations [23]. Such high robustness of the em C. elegans /em early embryonic cell cycle network was due to the topological structure (nodes and edges) of the regulatory network. Open in a separate window Number 4 The histogram of the relative changes of basin size. The switch of the largest attractors basin size under several network perturbations: (A) deletion, (B) addition, (C) switching and (D) average of A to C. The histogram is definitely RepSox reversible enzyme inhibition generated in the em C. elegans /em network and 1000 same size arbitrary systems. P may be the possibility of em B /em / ...
This gene encodes a member of the p34Cdc2 protein kinase family. p34Cdc2 kinase family members are known to be essential for eukaryotic cell cycle control. This gene is in close proximity to CDC2L2, a nearly identical gene in the same chromosomal region. The gene loci including this gene, CDC2L2, as well as metalloprotease MMP21/22, consist of two identical, tandemly linked genomic regions which are thought to be a part of the larger region that has been duplicated. This gene and CDC2L2 were shown to be deleted or altered frequently in neuroblastoma with amplified MYCN genes. The protein kinase encoded by this gene could be cleaved by caspases and was demonstrated to play roles in cell apoptosis. Several alternatively spliced variants of this gene have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Ribociclib D6 (LEE011 D6) is a deuterium labeled Ribociclib. Ribociclib is a highly specific CDK4/6 inhibitor with IC50 values of 10 nM and 39 nM, respectively, and is over 1,000-fold less potent against the cyclin B/CDK1 complex. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
References for Abcams Recombinant Human CDC42 protein (ab87713). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Cells depleted of Plk or cdc5-1 protein arrest at multiple points of M phase. (A) Growth of cdc5Δ mutant conditionally rescued by expressing either GAL1-HA-EGF
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Protein phosphatase which antagonizes mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase CDC28, the inactivation of which is essential for exit from mitosis. To access its substrates, is released from nucleolar sequestration during mitosis. Plays an essential in coordinating the nuclear division cycle with cytokinesis through the cytokinesis checkpoint. Involved in chromosome segregation, where it is required for meiosis I spindle dissambly as well as for establishing two consecutive chromosome segregation phases. Allows damaged actomyosin rings to be maintained to facilitate completion of cell division in response to minor perturbation of the cell division machinery. Inhibits transcription of ribosomal genes (rDNA) during anaphase and controls segregation of nucleolus by facilitating condensin targeting to rDNA chromatin in anaphase. Dephosphorylates SIC1, a CDC28 inhibitor, and SWI5, a transcription factor for SIC1, and induces degradation of mitotic cyclins, likely by dephosphorylating the activator of mitotic cyclin
Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a ubiquitously expressed phosphoprotein involved in many cellular processes. Phosphorylation is considered the major regulatory mechanism of the NPM protein, associated with diverse cellular events. In this study, we characterized the phosphorylation status of several physiological phosphorylation sites of NPM, especially the newly confirmed
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Bongki Cho, Hyo Min Cho, Hyun Jung Kim, Jaehoon Jeong, Sang Ki Park, Eun Mi Hwang, Jae-Yong Park, Woon Ryoung Kim, Hyun Kim, Woong Sun].
The past decade of cell cycle investigations has identified many roads not taken. The kinase that drives mitosis can be modulated by cyclins, by activating phosphorylation, by inhibitory phosphorylation and by binding of inhibitors, but one of these regulatory options controls the transition from G2 …
Dephosphorylation of the Cdc2 kinase by the Cdc25 tyrosine phosphatase is the universally conserved trigger for mitotic entry. Cdc25 is also the point of convergence for checkpoint signaling pathways which monitor the ...
Dr Arjun Srinivasan, the associate director of the CDC, said that the misuse and overuse of antibiotics have rendered them powerless to fight continuously evolving infections like MRSA.
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Linux - Extract files. Mark the .x86 (or .x86_64 for 64 bit) as executable and type ./Mitosis.x86 or ./Mitosis.x86_64 in terminal. This hasnt be tested on all distros and you may be missing libraries youll need to install ...
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Just in time for World Breastfeeding Week (yes, there is one), the CDC has released a report (.pdf) showing that only a small percentage of U.S. hospitals - 4 …. ...
COVID-19: Keep you and your loved ones safe. Visit the CDC Guidance for Older Adults, or call 1-833-MY-Senior for resources in your area. ...
유사 분열(有絲分裂, mitosis)은 진핵생물의 세포 주기에서 염색체의 복제와 세포 분열을 통해 하나의 모세포가 두개의 딸세포로 나뉘는 과정이다.[1] 이 과정을 통해 동일한 유전체를 가진 세포가 복제된다. 무성 생식을 하는 단세포 생물의 경우엔 유사 분열이 곧 생식 과정이기도 하다. 유사(有絲) 분열이란 말은 분열 과정에서 염색체가 방추체와 이어지는 실 모양의 미세소관과 연결되기 때문에 붙여졌다. 유사 분열은 분열이 일어나지 않는 간기, 염색체가 복제되고 분열이 준비되는 전기, 복제된 염색체가 방추체와 연결되는 전중기, 방추체와 연결된 염색체가 도열하여 분리과정을 거치는 중기, 복제된 염색체가 분리되어 양 쪽 방추사로 각각 끌려가는 후기, 새로운 세포 핵이 형성되는 말기의 순서로 이루어진다. 유사 분열이 끝나면 하나였던 세포는 두 ...
Fertilization of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs results in resumption of meiosis and a decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities; the decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity precedes the decrease in MAP kinase activity. Cycloheximide treatment of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs also results in resumption of meiosis but bypasses the fertilization-induced Ca2+ transient. However, it is not known if cycloheximide treatment results in the same temporal changes in cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that are intimately associated with resumption of meiosis. We report that cycloheximide-treated mouse eggs manifest similar temporal changes in the decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that occur following fertilization, although cortical granule exocytosis is not stimulated. The decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity, however, does not seem to be required for the decrease in MAP kinase activity, since the decrease in MAP kinase activity ...
Cardiomyocytes cease to divide shortly after birth and an irreversible cell cycle arrest is evident accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase activities. To get a better understanding of the cardiac cell cycle and its regulation, the effect of functional recovery of the mitosis-promoting factor (MPF) consisting of cyclin B1 and the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc2 was assessed in primary cultures of postmitotic ventricular adult rat cardiomyocytes ( ARC). Gene transfer into ARC was achieved using the adenovirus-enhanced transferrinfection system that was characterized by the absence of cytotoxic events. Simultaneous ectopic expression of wild-type versions of cyclin B1 and Cdc2 was sufficient to induce MPF activity. Reestablished MPF resulted in a mitotic phenotype, marked by an abnormal condensation of the nuclei, histone H3 phosphorylation and variable degree of decay of the contractile apparatus. Although a complete cell division was not observed, the results provided ...
Fission yeast cell division is initiated by the cdc2/cdc13-cyclin protein kinase which in its catalytically active state comprises the mitotic inducer. During interphase the cdc2/cyclin complex is assembled in an inactive state that requires cdc25+ gene function for M-phase activation. The cdc25+ product, a 76 kd phosphoprotein, is shown to oscillate in abundance during the cell cycle, reaching a peak at G2/M, and to be sensitive to nitrogen starvation. The level of cdc25 is subject to feedback regulation involving both cdc25 and cdc2.. ...
We show that in fission yeast the mitotic B type cyclin Cdc13/Cdc2 kinase associates with replication origins in vivo. This association is dependent on the origin recognition complex (ORC), is established as chromosomes are replicated, and is maintained during G2 and early mitosis. Cells expressing …
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The CDC gets it wrong again - the sun doesnt cause melanoma Last year, I reported on the incompetent way the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) handed the
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Why do we need to learn about mitosis? To fully understand cancer, we must first learn about mitosis. Mitosis is when cells replicate their DNA and divide. Cancer occurs when this process goes terribly wrong. To introduce mitosis, we watched this video and connected mitosis to the real world ...
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has determined that sixty-five percent of those with cancer now survive five years or more after diagnosis.
Antibiotic resistance is the ability of bacteria to resist the e ects of drug treatment. Simply put, germs continue to multiply because the drugs cannot kill them. For more than 30 years, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has ...
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摘 要:胚胎干细胞的生长、增殖、分化和形状改变等过程受微环境、机械力等多种因素的影响。胚胎干细胞能够感知微小机械力刺激,并将其转化成生物化学信号,进而通过F-肌动蛋白、肌球蛋白-II、Cdc42、Rho和Src等产生一系列分子水平的应答反应,最终导致基因差异表达。胚胎干细胞应答外力基本过程的研究对于胚胎早期发育和分化机制研究、克隆和再生药物的研制与开发等均有重要意义。该文就机械力对胚胎干细胞结构、形态和分化的影响及其潜在机制等进行论述 ...
O95819 (MAP4K4) , Q5VT25 (CDC42BPA) , P41279 (MAP3K8) , Q04759 (PRKCQ) , O75116 (ROCK2) , Q13464 (ROCK1) , Q5S007 (LRRK2) , P25098 (GRK2) , P17612 (PRKACA) , Q9Y5S2 (CDC42BPB) , O94804 (STK10 ...
In a political twist on the old George Carlin routine, the Center for Disease Control says the Trump administration has forbidden them from using 7 words.
Continuing a trend that emerged late last month, flu activity remains high across the United States but there are reports that the number of infections may be l
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Sexually transmitted diseases are on the rise all across the U.S, according to the CDC. But which states are being hit the hardest?
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... PCTAIRE protein kinase 3". Meyerson M, Enders GH, Wu CL, et al. (1992). "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases ... two members of a novel cdc2/CDC28-related protein kinase gene family". Oncogene. 7 (11): 2249-58. PMID 1437147. "Entrez Gene: ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PCTAIRE-3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCTK3 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... Palmer KJ, Konkel JE, Stephens DJ (2005). "PCTAIRE protein kinases interact directly with the COPII complex and modulate ...
... PCTAIRE protein kinase 2". Meyerson M, Enders GH, Wu CL, et al. (1992). "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cdc2/cdkx subfamily of the ser/thr family of protein kinases. It has similarity ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PCTAIRE-2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCTK2 gene. ... 2007). "Proteomics analysis of protein kinases by target class-selective prefractionation and tandem mass spectrometry". Mol. ...
This gene encodes a member of the CDC2-like (or LAMMER) family of dual specificity protein kinases. In the cell nucleus, the ... Johnson KW, Smith KA (1991). "Molecular cloning of a novel human cdc2/CDC28-like protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (6): 3402- ... Colwill K, Feng LL, Yeakley JM, Gish GD, Cáceres JF, Pawson T, Fu XD (1996). "SRPK1 and Clk/Sty protein kinases show distinct ... Dual specificity protein kinase CLK1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CLK1 gene. ...
2006). "A Cdc2-related protein kinase hPFTAIRE1 from human brain interacting with 14-3-3 proteins". Cell Res. 16 (6): 539-47. ... "A novel cdc2-related protein kinase expressed in the nervous system". J Neurochem. 69 (1): 348-64. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1997 ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PFTAIRE-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PFTK1 gene. PFTK1 has been shown to ... "Entrez Gene: PFTK1 PFTAIRE protein kinase 1". Yang, Tao; Gao Yan-Kun; Chen Jiang-Ye (Jul 2002). "KIAA0202, a human septin ...
"The Wee1 protein kinase regulates T14 phosphorylation of fission yeast Cdc2". Mol Biol Cell. 6 (4): 371-85. doi:10.1091/mbc.6.4 ... The corresponding proteins are Wee1-like protein kinase and Wee1-like protein kinase 2 which act on the human Cdk1 homologue ... Wee1-like protein kinase Cell cycle β-transducin repeat-containing protein 1/2 (β-TrCP1/2) F-box protein-containing SKP1/Cul1/F ... The M-phase kinases Polo-like kinase (Plk1) and Cdc2 phosphorylate two serine residues in Wee1A which are recognized by SCFβ- ...
"A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases." The EMBO Journal 11.8 (1992): 2909. Whyte, Peter, Nicola M. Williamson, and E ... Meyerson, M (1992). "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases". EMBO J. 11: 2909-17. PMC 556772 . PMID 1639063. Whyte, P ... Among Harlow's discoveries was the demonstration that the retinoblastoma protein interacts with viral transforming proteins, ... "The retinoblastoma protein is phosphorylated during specific phases of the cell cycle." Cell 58.6 (1989): 1097-1105. van den ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cdc2/cdkx subfamily of the ser/thr family of protein kinases. It may play a ... "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases". EMBO J. 11 (8): 2909-17. PMC 556772 . PMID 1639063. Knight JC, Renwick PJ, ... two members of a novel cdc2/CDC28-related protein kinase gene family". Oncogene. 7 (11): 2249-58. PMID 1437147. "Entrez Gene: ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PCTAIRE-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCTK1 gene. ...
Walworth, N.; Davey, S.; Beach, D. (1993). "Fission yeast chkl protein kinase links the rad checkpoint pathway to cdc2". Nature ... Accumulation of cyclin B increases the activity of the cyclin dependent kinase cdc2 as cells prepare to enter mitosis. Cdc2 ... The cell cycle is driven by proteins called cyclin dependent kinases that associate with cyclin regulatory proteins at ... Early signaling proteins in the checkpoint pathway are members of a family of phosphotidylinositol 3-kinases, rad3 in yeast and ...
This gene product is a member of a large family of CDC2-related serine/threonine protein kinases. It accumulates primarily in ... "Entrez Gene: CDKL2 cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 (CDC2-related kinase)". Human CDKL2 genome location and CDKL2 gene details ... "Molecular cloning of the epidermal growth factor-stimulated protein kinase p56 KKIAMRE". Oncogene. 13 (12): 2563-74. PMID ... Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDKL2 gene. ...
Pathan NI, Geahlen RL, Harrison ML (Nov 1996). "The protein-tyrosine kinase Lck associates with and is phosphorylated by Cdc2 ... microtubule-associated protein kinase, GTPase-activating protein, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase". Molecular and Cellular ... Tyrosine-protein kinase Lyn is a protein that in humans is encoded in humans by the LYN gene. Lyn is a member of the Src family ... "Activation of Src-like protein-tyrosine kinase Lyn and its association with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase upon B-cell antigen ...
Ko TK, Kelly E, Pines J (Oct 2001). "CrkRS: a novel conserved Cdc2-related protein kinase that colocalises with SC35 speckles ... CDK12 cyclin-dependent kinase 12 is a protein kinase that in humans is encoded by the CDK12 gene. This enzyme is a member of ... 2007). "Proteomics analysis of protein kinases by target class-selective prefractionation and tandem mass spectrometry". Mol. ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 5 (6): 355-64. doi: ...
The encoded protein may also be a substrate of neuronal CDC2-like kinase. A magnetic resonance imaging study has demonstrated a ... CDK5RAP2 is homologous to the Drosophila protein centrosomin (cnn). Neuronal CDC2-like kinase, which is involved in the ... Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2003). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ... CDK5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDK5RAP2 gene. Multiple transcript ...
1999). "Association with Cdc2 and inhibition of Cdc2/Cyclin B1 kinase activity by the p53-regulated protein Gadd45". Oncogene. ... "Association with Cdc2 and inhibition of Cdc2/Cyclin B1 kinase activity by the p53-regulated protein Gadd45". Oncogene. 18 (18 ... Vairapandi M, Balliet AG, Hoffman B, Liebermann DA (September 2002). "GADD45b and GADD45g are cdc2/cyclinB1 kinase inhibitors ... 2000). "The GADD45 inhibition of Cdc2 kinase correlates with GADD45-mediated growth suppression". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (22): ...
"Association with Cdc2 and inhibition of Cdc2/Cyclin B1 kinase activity by the p53-regulated protein Gadd45". Oncogene. 18 (18 ... Vairapandi M, Balliet AG, Hoffman B, Liebermann DA (September 2002). "GADD45b and GADD45g are cdc2/cyclinB1 kinase inhibitors ... G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNB1 gene. Cyclin B1 is a regulatory protein ... "G2 delay induced by nitrogen mustard in human cells affects cyclin A/cdk2 and cyclin B1/cdc2-kinase complexes differently". J. ...
Agarwal-Mawal A, Paudel HK (2001). "Neuronal Cdc2-like protein kinase (Cdk5/p25) is associated with protein phosphatase 1 and ... positive regulation of protein kinase activity. • regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • ... cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 activator activity. • lipid binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cyclin-dependent ... The protein encoded by this gene is a neuron-specific activator of CDK5 kinase. It associates with CDK5 to form an active ...
"Cdc2 kinase directly phosphorylates the cis-Golgi matrix protein GM130 and is required for Golgi fragmentation in mitosis". ... The golgins are a family of proteins, of which the protein encoded by this gene is a member, that are localized to the Golgi. ... "The vesicle docking protein p115 binds GM130, a cis-Golgi matrix protein, in a mitotically regulated manner". Cell. 89 (3): 445 ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
... protein kinases CDC2 and CDC7. MCM2 has been shown to interact with: AKAP8, Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase, MCM3 ... "Protein kinase A-anchoring protein AKAP95 interacts with MCM2, a regulator of DNA replication". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (29): 26750- ... A role for cdc2 kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (27): 17095-101. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.27.17095. PMID 9642275. Jiang W, McDonald D, ... The hexameric protein complex formed by MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) and may be ...
The kinase complex is able to phosphorylate CDK2 and CDC2 kinases, thus functions as a CDK-activating kinase (CAK). This cyclin ... Cyclin-H is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNH gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin forms a complex with CDK7 kinase and ring finger protein MAT1. ... Drapkin R, Le Roy G, Cho H, Akoulitchev S, Reinberg D (Jun 1996). "Human cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase exists in ...
The phosphorylation of this protein by CDC2 kinase reduces the DNA helicase activity and chromatin binding of the MCM complex. ... A role for cdc2 kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (27): 17095-101. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.27.17095. PMID 9642275. You Z, Komamura Y, ... This gene is mapped to a region on the chromosome 8 head-to-head next to the PRKDC/DNA-PK, a DNA-activated protein kinase ... The hexameric protein complex formed by MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) and may be ...
"The cdc2-related protein p40MO15 is the catalytic subunit of a protein kinase that can activate p33cdk2 and p34cdc2". EMBO ... Nebreda, A.R.; Hunt, T. (1993). "The c-mos proto-oncogene protein kinase turns on and maintains the activity of MAP kinase, but ... He and others subsequently showed that cyclins bind and activate a family of protein kinases, now called the cyclin-dependent ... of protein synthesis is mediated by reversible phosphorylation of initiation factor eIF-2 by two distinct protein kinases and ...
"The C-terminal domain of the Cdc2 inhibitory kinase Myt1 interacts with Cdc2 complexes and is required for inhibition of G(2)/M ... Messenger MM, Saulnier RB, Gilchrist AD, Diamond P, Gorbsky GJ, Litchfield DW (Jun 2002). "Interactions between protein kinase ... "The C-terminal domain of the Cdc2 inhibitory kinase Myt1 interacts with Cdc2 complexes and is required for inhibition of G(2)/M ... The enzyme binds to a subset of proteins and thus plays a role as a post phosphorylation control in regulating protein function ...
This kinase preferentially phosphorylates and inactivates cell division cycle 2 protein (CDC2), and thus negatively regulates ... Protein kinases AKT1/PKB and PLK (Polo-like kinase) have been shown to phosphorylate and regulate the activity of this kinase. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. ... 1999). "The C-terminal domain of the Cdc2 inhibitory kinase Myt1 interacts with Cdc2 complexes and is required for inhibition ...
... s, when bound with the dependent kinases, such as the p34/cdc2/cdk1 protein, form the maturation-promoting factor. MPFs ... Protein cyclin A governs this process by keeping the process going until the errors are eliminated. In normal cells, persistent ... is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk ... These phosphorylated proteins, in turn, are responsible for specific events during cycle division such as microtubule formation ...
"Phosphorylation by cdc2 kinase modulates DNA binding activity of high mobility group I nonhistone chromatin protein". The ... High-mobility group protein HMG-I/HMG-Y is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HMGA1 gene. This gene encodes a non- ... "Identification of sites on chromosomal protein HMG-I phosphorylated by casein kinase II". FEBS Letters. 257 (1): 101-4. doi: ... HMGB and HMGN proteins. HMGA1-GFP fusion proteins are highly dynamic in vivo (determined using FRAP analysis), but in contrast ...
Wee1 protein is a tyrosine kinase that normally phosphorylates the Cdc2 cell cycle regulatory protein (the homolog of CDK1 in ... The protein kinase Cdr2 (which negatively regulates Wee1) and the Cdr2-related kinase Cdr1 (which directly phosphorylates and ... The cell polarity protein kinase Pom1, a member of the dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase (DYRK) family ... The protein mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates translation and cell division.[12] Nutrient availability ...
"Architecture of high mobility group protein I-C.DNA complex and its perturbation upon phosphorylation by Cdc2 kinase". J. Biol ... This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the non-histone chromosomal high-mobility group (HMG) protein family. HMG proteins ... ERCC1 protein expression is reduced or absent in 84% to 100% of human colorectal cancers. ERCC1 protein expression was also ... stress in part through the modulation of basal and DNA damage-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase ...
"Identification of phosphorylation sites on glial fibrillary acidic protein for cdc2 kinase and Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent ... Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... "Microtubule-associated protein/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase (p110mark). A novel protein kinase that regulates tau- ... The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinases family, and to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ...
"Mitotic reorganization of the intermediate filament protein nestin involves phosphorylation by cdc2 kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ... Nestin (protein) has been shown to interact with Cyclin-dependent kinase 5. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000132688 - ... Nestin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NES gene. Nestin (acronym for neuroectodermal stem cell marker) is a type ... These intermediate filament proteins are expressed mostly in nerve cells where they are implicated in the radial growth of the ...
The N-terminal region of the protein binds CDC2 to form a complex showing reduced H1 histone kinase activity, indicating a role ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase LATS1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the LATS1 gene. It has been associated with the ... The protein encoded by this gene is a putative serine/threonine kinase that localizes to the mitotic apparatus and complexes ... with cell cycle controller CDC2 kinase in early mitosis. The protein is phosphorylated in a cell-cycle dependent manner, with ...
... pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex that is important for cell cycle G1 phase progression. The ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/ ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is highly similar to the gene ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ...
S6 kinase, protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C, Cdc2, and/or a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; b) moves to bind ... ALOX5 binds with the F actin-binding protein, coactin-like protein. Based on in vitro studies, this protein binding serves to ... Upon cell stimulation, ALOX5: a) may be phosphorylated on serine 663, 523, and/or 271 by Mitogen-activated protein kinases, ... This chemotactic factor stimulation concurrently causes the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) which in ...
cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • protein kinase inhibitor activity. • protein kinase binding. • ... protein binding. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • ... protein stabilization. • positive regulation of cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity. • regulation of transcription from ... This article is about the p21Cip1 protein. For the p21/ras protein, see Ras (protein). For other uses, see P21 (disambiguation) ...
... cyclin-dependent kinases, and other cell cycle proteins. The phases follow one another in strict order and there are " ... Generation of pressure is dependent on formin-mediated F-actin nucleation[71] and Rho kinase (ROCK)-mediated myosin II ... Motor proteins then push the centrosomes along these microtubules to opposite sides of the cell. Although centrosomes help ... Volume 15 of Protein Reviews. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media. p. 15. ISBN 9781461405146.. ...
B irradiation-induced G2 cell cycle arrest in human keratinocytes by inhibitory phosphorylation of the cdc2 cell cycle kinase ... The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is often used in genetics as a marker. Many substances, such as proteins, have significant ... Many enzymes and proteins involved in modern mitosis and meiosis are similar to repair enzymes, and are believed to be evolved ... The evolution of early reproductive proteins and enzymes is attributed in modern models of evolutionary theory to ultraviolet ...
... a hyaluronan-binding protein that regulates ras signaling, correlates with overexpression of mitogen-activated protein kinase ... "Oligosaccharides of hyaluronan induce angiogenesis through distinct CD44 and RHAMM-mediated signalling pathways involving Cdc2 ... It forms links with several protein kinases associated with cell locomotion, for example, extracellular signal-regulated ... MAP kinase (MAPK), pp60(c-src), and the downstream targets of Rho kinase (ROK).[22] RHAMM can also cooperate with CD44 to ...
mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase binding. • protein binding. • thioesterase binding. • protein kinase binding. • ... Joberty G, Petersen C, Gao L, Macara IG (August 2000). "The cell-polarity protein Par6 links Par3 and atypical protein kinase C ... "Protein Data Bank in Europe. EMBL-EBI. Retrieved 2016-04-22.. *^ "CDC42 (cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25kDa))" ... "The MAP kinase kinase kinase MLK2 co-localizes with activated JNK along microtubules and associates with kinesin superfamily ...
"Amphiphysin 1 binds the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 5 regulatory subunit p35 and is phosphorylated by cdk5 and cdc2". The ... a protein similar to the yeast proteins, Rvs167 and Rvs161". FEBS Letters. 351 (1): 73-9. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(94)00826-4. ... Chen-Hwang MC, Chen HR, Elzinga M, Hwang YW (May 2002). "Dynamin is a minibrain kinase/dual specificity Yak1-related kinase 1A ... protein binding. • phospholipid binding. Cellular component. • actin cytoskeleton. • cytoplasm. • cell junction. • synapse. • ...
Wee1 protein is a tyrosine kinase that normally phosphorylates the Cdc2 cell cycle regulatory protein (the homolog of CDK1 in ... The protein kinase Cdr2 (which negatively regulates Wee1) and the Cdr2-related kinase Cdr1 (which directly phosphorylates and ... The cell polarity protein kinase Pom1, a member of the dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase (DYRK) family ... which includes upstream lipid kinase PI3K and the downstream serine/threonine protein kinase Akt, which is able to activate ...
CDK抑制因子(英语:Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein). *INK4a/ARF(p14arf/p16、p15、p18、p19) ... Cdc2. *Cdc25(英语:Cdc25). *Cdc42(英语:CDC42). *细胞凋亡易感蛋白(英语:Cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein) ... Cyclin-dependent protein kinases: key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle. BioEssays. June 1995, 17 (6): 471-80. PMID ... 周期蛋白依赖性激酶
... a process regulated by phosphorylation of the lamins by protein kinases such as the CDC2 protein kinase.[63] Towards the end of ... Observations that myxobacteria are motile, can form multicellular complexes, and possess kinases and G proteins similar to ... Both structures serve to mediate binding to nuclear transport proteins.[5]. Most proteins, ribosomal subunits, and some DNAs ... The nuclear lamina is composed mostly of lamin proteins. Like all proteins, lamins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and later ...
negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle. • ... regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • oligodendrocyte differentiation. • negative ... CDKN2C, INK4C, p18, p18-INK4C, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2C. ... CDKN2C‏ (Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2C) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين CDKN2C في الإنسان.[1][2][3] ...
... by BCL-2 family proteins". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1762 (2): 191-201. doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2005.07.002. PMID 16055309.. Unknown ... CDK-activating kinase. CDK inhibitor. *INK4a/ARF (p14arf/p16, p15, p18, p19) ... "Sequential degradation of proteins from the nuclear envelope during apoptosis". Journal of Cell Science. 114 (20): 3643-53. ... "Predominant suppression of apoptosome by inhibitor of apoptosis protein in non-small cell lung cancer H460 cells: therapeutic ...
Finally, the Akt protein kinase promotes cell survival through two pathways. Akt phosphorylates and inhibits Bas (a Bcl-2 ... Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein.[95] Some ... The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... these inhibitory proteins target retinoblastoma tumor-suppressing proteins.[74] These tumor-suppressing proteins regulate the ...
de 2000). «p12(DOC-1) is a novel cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein». Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 20 (17): 6300- ... Esta quinasa es muy similar a los productos génicos de S. cerevisiae cdc28, y S. pombe cdc2. Es una subunidad catalítica del ... de 1993). «The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases». Cell (UNITED STATES) 75 ... de 2000). «Dephosphorylation of human cyclin-dependent kinases by protein phosphatase type 2C alpha and beta 2 isoforms». J. ...
... a hyaluronan-binding protein that regulates ras signaling, correlates with overexpression of mitogen-activated protein kinase ... "Oligosaccharides of hyaluronan induce angiogenesis through distinct CD44 and RHAMM-mediated signalling pathways involving Cdc2 ... It forms links with several protein kinases associated with cell locomotion, for example, extracellular signal-regulated ... protein kinase (ERK), p125fak, and pp60c-src.[19][20][21] During fetal development, the migration path through which neural ...
kinase activity. • protein binding. • RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain kinase activity. • ATP binding. • protein ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK8 and cyclin C associate ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ...
Protein[edit]. Figure 1: A basic schematic of Polδ function at the DNA replication fork. The Polδ complex (p125, p66, p50 and ... POLD1 depleted cells are sensitive to inhibition of DNA damage checkpoint kinases ATR and CHK1.[97] In S. pombe, HR mechanisms ... POLD1, CDC2, CRCS10, MDPL, POLD, polymerase (DNA) delta 1, catalytic subunit, DNA polymerase delta 1, catalytic subunit. ... Protein name in human Homo sapiens Mus musculus Saccharomyces cerevisiae Schizosaccharomyces pombe ...
Booher RN, Holman PS, Fattaey A (1997). "Human Myt1 is a cell cycle-regulated kinase that inhibits Cdc2 but not Cdk2 activity ... 1994). "Activation of p34cdc2 protein kinase by microinjection of human cdc25C into mammalian cells. Requirement for prior ... The encoded protein is a tyrosine phosphatase and belongs to the Cdc25 phosphatase family. It directs dephosphorylation of ... Kino T, Chrousos GP (2004). "Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 accessory protein Vpr: a causative agent of the AIDS-related ...
"A C-terminal protein-binding domain in the retinoblastoma protein regulates nuclear c-Abl tyrosine kinase in the cell cycle". ... The DNA-binding activity of the ubiquitously expressed ABL1 tyrosine kinase is regulated by CDC2-mediated phosphorylation, ... "Cytoskeletal protein PSTPIP1 directs the PEST-type protein tyrosine phosphatase to the c-Abl kinase to mediate Abl ... Cao C, Leng Y, Li C, Kufe D (April 2003). "Functional interaction between the c-Abl and Arg protein-tyrosine kinases in the ...
2003). "Beacon interacts with cdc2/cdc28-like kinases". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 304 (1): 125-9. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X( ... Ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) are thought to be reversible modulators of protein function rather than protein degraders like ... Ubiquitin-like protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UBL5 gene. It has been shown that in C. elegans ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ...
"A global protein kinase and phosphatase interaction network in yeast". Science. 328: 1043-1046. doi:10.1126/science.1176495. ... but promotes the inactivation of Cdc2 by down-regulating Cdc25 phosphatase. Cdc14 of Candida albicans is also involved in ... a well-studied cyclin-dependent protein kinase. Cdc14 antagonizes Cdk1 by stimulating proteolysis of its cyclin partner (cyclin ... "The structure of the cell cycle protein Cdc14 reveals a proline-directed protein phosphatase". EMBO J. 22: 3524-3535. doi: ...
The phosphorylation of the complex by CDC2 kinase reduces the helicase activity, suggesting a role in the regulation of DNA ... The hexameric protein complex formed by the MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) and may be ... MCM6 has been shown to interact with: CDC45-related protein, MCM2, MCM4, MCM7, ORC1L, ORC2L, ORC4L, and Replication protein A1 ... Holthoff HP, Hameister H, Knippers R (1997). "A novel human Mcm protein: homology to the yeast replication protein Mis5 and ...
... human CDC2 is capable of rescuing fission yeast carrying a cdc2 mutation. Cdk1 is comprised mostly by the bare protein kinase ... "Downregulation of the cdc2/cyclin B protein kinase activity by binding of p53 to p34(cdc2)". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 283 ... "Association with Cdc2 and inhibition of Cdc2/Cyclin B1 kinase activity by the p53-regulated protein Gadd45". Oncogene. 18 (18 ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that ...
CDC2-like (CLK) protein kinase inhibition as a novel targeted therapeutic strategy in prostate cancer ...
Cyclin Dependent Kinase 2. *Cdk2 Protein Kinase. *Cdc2-Related Protein Kinase. *Cdc2 Related Protein Kinase ... Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700]. *Proline-Directed Protein Kinases [D08.811.913.696.620.682. ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinases [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.646.500]. *Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.646. ... Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21. ...
dis2 serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1,,. PMID: 19592249 ,,-,,. 151. 159. ,,cdc2 cyclin-dependent protein kinase Cdk1/ ... slp1,,Cdc20 OX , securin can be degraded during interphase, whereas other destruction box proteins will remain stable. In cells ... apc11 APC ubiquitin protein-ligase E3 subunit ,,annotation complete,,24/4/2015,,. ...
protein coding gene. cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDC2-related kinase). Cpgi11523. 2. 32711999 to 32713870 1871. CpG island. CpG ...
Synonym: Cdc2-Related Kinase, Arginineserine-Rich, Crkrs, Division Cycle 2-Related Protein Kinase 7, Cdc2-Related Pr Kinase 7, ... Cell Division Protein Kinase 12, Hcdk12, Cdk12;. Ec: 2.7.11.22. Engineered: Yes. Organism_scientific: Homo Sapiens. Organism_ ... Molecule: Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 12. Chain: C, D. Fragment: Kinase Domain, Residues 715-1038. ... LPC: Ligand-Protein Contacts for 4UN0*CSU: Contacts of Structural Units for 4UN0*Structure Factors (1243 Kb)*Retrieve 4UN0 in ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CDC2-like protein kinase (CLK) family. This protein kinase can interact with ... CDC like kinase 4. Cytological Location 5q35.3. Brief Description CDC like kinase 4. Description ... a highly conserved ubiquitin-like protein, may interact with and regulate the activity of this kinase. Multiple alternatively ... SummaryFunctionGenomicsProteinsSNPsDiseaseHomologyInteractionsExpressionGene OntologyOther ...
Regulation of microtubule dynamics by cdc2 protein kinase in cell-free extracts of Xenopus eggs. ... Microtubule-associated-protein (MAP) kinase activated by nerve growth factor and epidermal growth factor in PC12 cells. ... Regulation of a major microtubule-associated protein by MPF and MAP kinase. scientific article ... Regulation of a major microtubule-associated protein by MPF and MAP kinase. (English) ...
Connolly, T., Caligiuri, M., Beach, D. (June 1997) The Cdc2 protein kinase controls Cdc10/Sct1 complex formation. Molecular ...
... we found that dephosphorylation of the Dsn1 kinetochore protein in metaphase requires Cdc14. These data suggest that there is a ... CDC2 Protein Kinase, Cell Cycle Proteins, Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone, Kinetochores, Mitosis, Phosphorylation, Protein ... Cdc14-dependent dephosphorylation of a kinetochore protein prior to anaphase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ... Cdc14-dependent dephosphorylation of a kinetochore protein prior to anaphase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ...
reported the same kinase as brain proline-directed protein kinase due to its functional similarity to cdc2 in the bovine brain ... The atypical cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is considered as a neuron-specific kinase that plays important roles in lots of ... The atypical cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is considered as a neuron-specific kinase that plays important roles in lots of ... Translation of the 987 bp CDK5 transcript yields a 33 kDa protein that phosphorylates target proteins on serine and threonine ...
Cyclin B1 is the regulatory subunit of the cdc2 kinase and is a protein required for mitotic initiation. The ability of p53 to ... wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary ... We have found that p53 prevents G2/M transition by decreasing intracellular levels of cyclin B1 protein and attenuating the ... knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound ...
The CDC2/Cdk1 protein is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is a catalytic subunit of the highly ... CDC2/Cdk1: Cell division control protein 2/Cyclin-dependent protein kinase 1); GH: growth hormone; JAK2: Janus kinase 2; MDBK: ... prevented by inhibitors of protein kinase G and CDC2/Cdk1 kinases, suggesting that these kinases are required for GH mediation ... CDC2/Cdk1 and phosphor-CDC2/Cdk1. Panel A: Temporal changes of phospho-CDC2/Cdk1 (p-(Y15)-CDC2/Cdk1 and total CDC2/Cdk1 after ...
DNA-dependent protein kinase activity. molecular function. IDA[15790808] GO:0004674. protein serine/threonine kinase activity. ... The Cdc2-cyclin B kinase is pivotal in regulating this transition. During G2 phase, Cdc2 is maintained in an inactive state by ... ATRIP is a protein that interacts with ATR and is a substrate for its kinase activity. ATRIP is required for ATR function, and ... gene mapped protein and protein mapped gene are also shown in the network. If the mapped gene or protein is not from literature ...
CDC2 / Anti-Cell-division-cycle kinase 2 antibody. * DML1/2 / Anti-DEMETER-LIKE1/2 protein antibody ... Western Blot Box is designed specially for protein SDS page gel or blot staining, washing and incubation. ... This antibody specifically recognizes the 6X His-Tag at C-terminal or N-terminal of recombinant proteins, which can be used to ...
CDC2 / Anti-Cell-division-cycle kinase 2 antibody. * DML1/2 / Anti-DEMETER-LIKE1/2 protein antibody ... 2 is thylakoid membrane protein from an Arabidopsis mutant with low accumulation of PSI containing 0.5 μg of chlorophyll. ... 1 is thylakoid membrane protein from WT of Arabidopsis thalianacontaining 0.5 μg of chlorophyll. ... This antibody specifically recognizes the 6X His-Tag at C-terminal or N-terminal of recombinant proteins, which can be used to ...
... a motif for protein-protein interaction (Axton et al., 1994). Pan gu is a serine-threonine protein kinase (Fenger et al., 2000 ... Temporal order of S phase and mitosis in fission yeast is determined by the state of the p34cdc2 mitotic B cyclin complex. Cell ... that the three proteins control a single process (Renault et al., 2003) and the finding that Pan gu is a protein kinase (Fenger ... PAN GU: a protein kinase that inhibits s phase and promotes mitosis in early Drosophila development. Development ...
... casein kinase II, PKA and PKC. Quality confirmed by NMR & HPLC. See customer reviews, validations & product citations. ... TDZD-8 shows no inhibition of PKA, PKC, Cdk-1/cyclin B or CK-II in kinase assays. [1] TDZD-8 specifically induces cell death of ... The impact of GSK3β inhibitor TDZD-8 (10 μM) on the GSK3β phosphorylation (A), the protein expression (B) and mRNA level (C) of ... CHIR-99021 shows greater than 500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 versus its closest homologs Cdc2 and ERK2. CHIR-99021 is a potent ...
Ribosomal S6 kinase p90rsk and mRNA cap-binding protein eIF4E phosphorylations correlate with MAP kinase activation during ... A link between MAP kinase and p34(cdc2)/cyclin B during oocyte maturation: p90(rsk) phosphorylates and inactivates the p34(cdc2 ... A p90(rsk) mutant constitutively interacting with MAP kinase uncouples MAP kinase from p34(cdc2)/cyclin B activation in Xenopus ... A MAP kinase docking site is required for phosphorylation and activation of p90(rsk)/MAPKAP kinase-1. Gavin AC, Nebreda AR. ...
... a specific MAP kinase kinase (MEK1/2) inhibitor, blocked the ERK1/2 activation by icaritin and abolished the icaritin-induced ... Icaritin treatment also induced expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax with a concomitant decrease of Bcl-2 expression. ... cdc2 and cdc25C. Icaritin at concentrations of 4 5 ?M, however, induced apoptotic cell death characterized by the accumulation ... In addition, icaritin also induced a sustained phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in these breast ...
... phase-promoting factors related to cdc2 kinase and cyclin B for mitosis. Therefore, the effect of DMFTC on the M phase arrest ... Total proteins were obtained, and 100 μg/mL of protein was separated using 10% SDS-PAGE and transferred onto a nitrocellulose ... 5. Effect of DMFTC on the p53/p21-dependent cell cycle regulatory proteins. Western blotting analysis of phosphorylated p53 and ... Effect of DMFTC on p53-dependent cell cycle regulatory protein levels. We also analyzed the effect of DMFTC on the expression ...
"Amphiphysin 1 binds the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 5 regulatory subunit p35 and is phosphorylated by cdk5 and cdc2." J Biol ... "The bromodomain protein Brd4 insulates chromatin from DNA damage signalling." Nature 498, no. 7453 (June 13, 2013): 246-50. ... "Endocytosis proteins and cancer: a potential link?" Trends Cell Biol 8, no. 8 (August 1998): 299-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/ ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 3; AltName: Full=Germinal center kinase-related protein kinase; Short=GLK ... and threonine-specific cdc2-inhibitory kinase; AltName: Full=Myt1 kinase. ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4; AltName: Full=HPK/GCK-like kinase HGK; AltName: Full=MAPK/ERK kinase ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3; AltName: Full=MAPK/ERK kinase kinase 3; Short=MEK kinase 3; Short=MEKK 3. ...
However, cdc2/p58 at conditions that caused a similar effect to cdc2/p62 on phosphorylation of histone H1 (dpm/micrograms of ... The small difference between the two proteins suggests a highly similar interaction of these proteins with the MP, which has ... SRC tyrosine kinase inhibitor, m475271, suppresses subcutaneous growth and production of lung metastasis via inhibition of ... Proteins that have an EH domain can carry out a variety of crucial cellular functions ranging from regulation of the actin ...
We encode prior knowledge like transcriptional regulation, protein interactions or metabolic pathways in a weighted directed ... and the cyclin dependent kinase P34-cdc2[27].. Applying KEGG pathway enrichment, we found the cell cycle, with DNA replication ... We link these variables using prior knowledge e.g. in the form of a transcription factor or protein-protein interaction (PPI) ... First, it induces hepatocytes to produce acute phase proteins upon infection-associated in inflammation. These proteins include ...
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that mediates the addition of phosphate molecules onto serine ... 000-fold less activity against Cdc2 and CDK2/4. ... 9-ING-41 is a glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor. T14613. BIP ... TDZD-8 is an inhibitor of GSK-3β, with an IC50 of 2 μM; minimal inhibitory effect observed on CDK1, casein kinase II, PKA and ... TDZD-8 is an inhibitor of GSK-3β, with an IC50 of 2 μM; minimal inhibitory effect observed on CDK1, casein kinase II, PKA and ...
It activates the cyclin-dependent kinase CDC2 by removing two phosphate groups. CDC25A is specifically degraded in response to ... Constituents: 50% Glycerol, 0.01M PBS, PH 7.4 >95%, Protein G purified ...
Actopaxin is Phosphorylated During Mitosis and is a Substrate for Cyclin B1/cdc2 Kinase The Biochemical Journal. Apr, 2002 , ... The Adaptor Protein Paxillin is Essential for Normal Development in the Mouse and is a Critical Transducer of Fibronectin ... The Integrin-linked Kinase Regulates Cell Morphology and Motility in a Rho-associated Kinase-dependent Manner The Journal of ... Src and FAK Kinases Cooperate to Phosphorylate Paxillin Kinase Linker, Stimulate Its Focal Adhesion Localization, and Regulate ...
PS1 interacts with several protein partners, including the neural plakophilin-related armadillo protein (NPRAP or δ-catenin). ... The CDC2 AGC haplotype derived from SNPs in introns 3 (rs2448347), 5 (rs2456772), and 7 (rs1871447) showed a protective effect ... Genetic Variation in the Tau Kinases Pathway May Modify the Risk and Age at Onset of Alzheimers Disease ... Although this protein has been genetically implicated in Alzheimers disease pathogenesis, studies of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in ...
em , 2003). These are selective for many related kinases like Cdc2 and boost GS activity and blood sugar uptake in cell-based ... proteins kinase A, MAPK, GSK3 (Hamann em et al. /em , 2007). Although many powerful inhibitors owned by different chemical ... Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a constitutively performing multi-functional serine threonine kinase is involved with ... Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a constitutively performing multi-functional serine threonine. Posted on December 19, 2018. ...
Aurora Kinase. *Cdc2-like Kinase (CLK). *Checkpoint Kinase (Chk). *Cyclin-dependent Kinase (CDK) ... Protein Arginine Deiminase (PAD). *Protein Phosphatase/PTP. *Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase (PDK). *Renin ... ML-9 (Free Base) is a selective and potent inhibitor of Akt kinase, inhibits myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) and stromal ... does not inhibit myosin light chain kinase, inhibits contraction of the cleavage furrow without disrupting mitosis or ...