An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A serine-threonine protein kinase that, when activated by DNA, phosphorylates several DNA-binding protein substrates including the TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and a variety of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The phosphoric acid ester of serine.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.
A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent PROETIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. They are ubiquitously expressed in adult and embryonic mammalian tissues, and their functions are tightly related to the early stages of eukaryotic programmed cell death.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
Compounds of four rings containing a nitrogen. They are biosynthesized from reticuline via rearrangement of scoulerine. They are similar to BENZYLISOQUINOLINES. Members include chelerythrine and sanguinarine.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A regulatory calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that specifically phosphorylates CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 1; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 2; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 4; and PROTEIN KINASE B. It is a monomeric enzyme that is encoded by at least two different genes.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for a subset of P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES that includes MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 12; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 13; and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 14.
Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 48 and 54 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A 38-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase that is abundantly expressed in a broad variety of cell types. It is involved in the regulation of cellular stress responses as well as the control of proliferation and survival of many cell types. The kinase activity of the enzyme is inhibited by the pyridinyl-imidazole compound SB 203580.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Compounds or factors that act on a specific enzyme to increase its activity.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
A 110-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that is activated in response to cellular stress and by GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS-mediated pathways.
A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
An imidazole derivative which is a metabolite of the antineoplastic agents BIC and DIC. By itself, or as the ribonucleotide, it is used as a condensation agent in the preparation of nucleosides and nucleotides. Compounded with orotic acid, it is used to treat liver diseases.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and PHOSPHORYLASE B to ADP and PHOSPHORYLASE A.
A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.

C-myc overexpression and p53 loss cooperate to promote genomic instability. (1/2147)

p53 monitors genomic integrity at the G1 and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints. Cells lacking p53 may show gene amplification as well as the polyploidy or aneuploidy typical of many tumors. The pathways through which this develops, however, are not well defined. We demonstrate here that the combination of p53 inactivation and c-myc overexpression in diploid cells markedly accelerates the spontaneous development of tetraploidy. This is not seen with either N-myc or L-myc. Tetraploidy is accompanied by significantly higher levels of cyclin B and its associated cdc2 kinase activity. Mitotic spindle poisons accelerate the appearance of tetraploidy in cells either lacking functional p53 or overexpressing c-myc whereas the combination is additive. Restoration of p53 function in cells overexpressing c-myc causing rapid apoptosis, indicating that cells yet to become tetraploid have nonetheless suffered irreversible genomic and/or mitotic spindle damage. In the face of normal p53 function, such damage would either be repaired or trigger apoptotis. We propose that loss of p53 and overexpression of c-myc permits the emergence and survival of cells with increasingly severe damage and the eventual development of tetraploidy.  (+info)

Sequential PKC- and Cdc2-mediated phosphorylation events elicit zebrafish nuclear envelope disassembly. (2/2147)

Molecular markers of the zebrafish inner nuclear membrane (NEP55) and nuclear lamina (L68) were identified, partially characterized and used to demonstrate that disassembly of the zebrafish nuclear envelope requires sequential phosphorylation events by first PKC, then Cdc2 kinase. NEP55 and L68 are immunologically and functionally related to human LAP2beta and lamin B, respectively. Exposure of zebrafish nuclei to meiotic cytosol elicits rapid phosphorylation of NEP55 and L68, and disassembly of both proteins. L68 phosphorylation is completely inhibited by simultaneous inhibition of Cdc2 and PKC and only partially blocked by inhibition of either kinase. NEP55 phosphorylation is completely prevented by inhibition or immunodepletion of cytosolic Cdc2. Inhibition of cAMP-dependent kinase, MEK or CaM kinase II does not affect NEP55 or L68 phosphorylation. In vitro, nuclear envelope disassembly requires phosphorylation of NEP55 and L68 by both mammalian PKC and Cdc2. Inhibition of either kinase is sufficient to abolish NE disassembly. Furthermore, novel two-step phosphorylation assays in cytosol and in vitro indicate that PKC-mediated phosphorylation of L68 prior to Cdc2-mediated phosphorylation of L68 and NEP55 is essential to elicit nuclear envelope breakdown. Phosphorylation elicited by Cdc2 prior to PKC prevents nuclear envelope disassembly even though NEP55 is phosphorylated. The results indicate that sequential phosphorylation events elicited by PKC, followed by Cdc2, are required for zebrafish nuclear disassembly. They also argue that phosphorylation of inner nuclear membrane integral proteins is not sufficient to promote nuclear envelope breakdown, and suggest a multiple-level regulation of disassembly of nuclear envelope components during meiosis and at mitosis.  (+info)

Involvement of p21 in the PKC-induced regulation of the G2/M cell cycle transition. (3/2147)

Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibits cell cycle progression at the G1/S and G2/M transitions. We found that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced upregulation of p21, not only in MCF-7 cells arrested in the G1 phase as previously shown, but also in cells delayed in the G2 phase. This increase in p21 in cells accumulated in the G1 and G2/M phases of the cell cycle after PMA treatment was inhibited by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. This indicates that PKC activity is required for PMA-induced p21 upregulation and cell cycle arrest in the G1 and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. To further assess the role of p21 in the PKC-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest independently of its G1 arrest, we used aphidicolin-synchronised MCF-7 cells. Our results show that, in parallel with the inhibition of cdc2 activity, PMA addition enhanced the associations between p21 and either cyclin B or cdc2. Furthermore, we found that after PMA treatment p21 was able to associate with the active Tyr-15 dephosphorylated form of cdc2, but this complex was devoid of kinase activity indicating that p21 may play a role in inhibition of cdc2 induced by PMA. Taken together, these observations provide evidence that p21 is involved in integrating the PKC signaling pathway to the cell cycle machinery at the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint.  (+info)

p53 regulates a G2 checkpoint through cyclin B1. (4/2147)

The p53 tumor suppressor controls multiple cell cycle checkpoints regulating the mammalian response to DNA damage. To identify the mechanism by which p53 regulates G2, we have derived a human ovarian cell that undergoes p53-dependent G2 arrest at 32 degrees C. We have found that p53 prevents G2/M transition by decreasing intracellular levels of cyclin B1 protein and attenuating the activity of the cyclin B1 promoter. Cyclin B1 is the regulatory subunit of the cdc2 kinase and is a protein required for mitotic initiation. The ability of p53 to control mitotic initiation by regulating intracellular cyclin B1 levels suggests that the cyclin B-dependent G2 checkpoint has a role in preventing neoplastic transformation.  (+info)

Mutations at phosphorylation sites of Xenopus microtubule-associated protein 4 affect its microtubule-binding ability and chromosome movement during mitosis. (5/2147)

Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) bind to and stabilize microtubules (MTs) both in vitro and in vivo and are thought to regulate MT dynamics during the cell cycle. It is known that p220, a major MAP of Xenopus, is phosphorylated by p34(cdc2) kinase as well as MAP kinase in mitotic cells, and that the phosphorylated p220 loses its MT-binding and -stabilizing abilities in vitro. We cloned a full-length cDNA encoding p220, which identified p220 as a Xenopus homologue of MAP4 (XMAP4). To examine the physiological relevance of XMAP4 phosphorylation in vivo, Xenopus A6 cells were transfected with cDNAs encoding wild-type or various XMAP4 mutants fused with a green fluorescent protein. Mutations of serine and threonine residues at p34(cdc2) kinase-specific phosphorylation sites to alanine interfered with mitosis-associated reduction in MT affinity of XMAP4, and their overexpression affected chromosome movement during anaphase A. These findings indicated that phosphorylation of XMAP4 (probably by p34(cdc2) kinase) is responsible for the decrease in its MT-binding and -stabilizing abilities during mitosis, which are important for chromosome movement during anaphase A.  (+info)

Antisense expression of the CK2 alpha-subunit gene in Arabidopsis. Effects on light-regulated gene expression and plant growth. (6/2147)

The protein kinase CK2 (formerly casein kinase II) is thought to be involved in light-regulated gene expression in plants because of its ability to phosphorylate transcription factors that bind to the promoter regions of light-regulated genes in vitro. To address this possibility in vivo and to learn more about the potential physiological roles of CK2 in plants, we transformed Arabidopsis with an antisense construct of the CK2 alpha-subunit gene and investigated both morphological and molecular phenotypes. Antisense transformants had a smaller adult leaf size and showed increased expression of chs in darkness and of cab and rbcS after red-light treatment. The latter molecular phenotype implied that CK2 might serve as one of several negative and quantitative effectors in light-regulated gene expression. The possible mechanism of CK2 action and its involvement in the phytochrome signal transduction pathway are discussed.  (+info)

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation and activation of human Cdc25-C at the G2/M phase transition in HeLa cells. (7/2147)

The human tyrosine phosphatase (p54(cdc25-c)) is activated by phosphorylation at mitosis entry. The phosphorylated p54(cdc25-c) in turn activates the p34-cyclin B protein kinase and triggers mitosis. Although the active p34-cyclin B protein kinase can itself phosphorylate and activate p54(cdc25-c), we have investigated the possibility that other kinases may initially trigger the phosphorylation and activation of p54(cdc25-c). We have examined the effects of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase II) on p54(cdc25-c). Our in vitro experiments show that CaM kinase II can phosphorylate p54(cdc25-c) and increase its phosphatase activity by 2.5-3-fold. Treatment of a synchronous population of HeLa cells with KN-93 (a water-soluble inhibitor of CaM kinase II) or the microinjection of AC3-I (a specific peptide inhibitor of CaM kinase II) results in a cell cycle block in G2 phase. In the KN-93-arrested cells, p54(cdc25-c) is not phosphorylated, p34(cdc2) remains tyrosine phosphorylated, and there is no increase in histone H1 kinase activity. Our data suggest that a calcium-calmodulin-dependent step may be involved in the initial activation of p54(cdc25-c).  (+info)

cdk1- and cdk2-mediated phosphorylation of MyoD Ser200 in growing C2 myoblasts: role in modulating MyoD half-life and myogenic activity. (8/2147)

We have examined the role of protein phosphorylation in the modulation of the key muscle-specific transcription factor MyoD. We show that MyoD is highly phosphorylated in growing myoblasts and undergoes substantial dephosphorylation during differentiation. MyoD can be efficiently phosphorylated in vitro by either purified cdk1-cyclin B or cdk1 and cdk2 immunoprecipitated from proliferative myoblasts. Comparative two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide mapping combined with site-directed mutagenesis revealed that cdk1 and cdk2 phosphorylate MyoD on serine 200 in proliferative myoblasts. In addition, when the seven proline-directed sites in MyoD were individually mutated, only substitution of serine 200 to a nonphosphorylatable alanine (MyoD-Ala200) abolished the slower-migrating hyperphosphorylated form of MyoD, seen either in vitro after phosphorylation by cdk1-cyclin B or in vivo following overexpression in 10T1/2 cells. The MyoD-Ala200 mutant displayed activity threefold higher than that of wild-type MyoD in transactivation of an E-box-dependent reporter gene and promoted markedly enhanced myogenic conversion and fusion of 10T1/2 fibroblasts into muscle cells. In addition, the half-life of MyoD-Ala200 protein was longer than that of wild-type MyoD, substantiating a role of Ser200 phosphorylation in regulating MyoD turnover in proliferative myoblasts. Taken together, our data show that direct phosphorylation of MyoD Ser200 by cdk1 and cdk2 plays an integral role in compromising MyoD activity during myoblast proliferation.  (+info)

CDK2_HUMAN] Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in the control of the cell cycle; essential for meiosis, but dispensable for mitosis. Phosphorylates CTNNB1, USP37, p53/TP53, NPM1, CDK7, RB1, BRCA2, MYC, NPAT, EZH2. Interacts with cyclins A, B1, B3, D, or E. Triggers duplication of centrosomes and DNA. Acts at the G1-S transition to promote the E2F transcriptional program and the initiation of DNA synthesis, and modulates G2 progression; controls the timing of entry into mitosis/meiosis by controlling the subsequent activation of cyclin B/CDK1 by phosphorylation, and coordinates the activation of cyclin B/CDK1 at the centrosome and in the nucleus. Crucial role in orchestrating a fine balance between cellular proliferation, cell death, and DNA repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Activity of CDK2 is maximal during S phase and G2; activated by interaction with cyclin E during the early stages of DNA synthesis to permit G1-S transition, and subsequently activated by cyclin A2 (cyclin ...
CDC25A is a member of the CDC25 family of phosphatases. CDC25A is required for progression from G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle. It activates the cyclin-dependent kinase CDC2 by removing two phosphate groups. CDC25A is specifically degraded in response to DNA damage, which prevents cells with chromosomal abnormalities from progressing through cell division. CDC25A is an oncogene, although its exact role in oncogenesis has not been demonstrated. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Thesis lecture: Mitosis exit regulation by Cdc5 and PP2A-Cdc55. By Yolanda Moyano Rodriguez. Directed by Dr. Ethel Queralt. 28/11/2019 at 10:30 am. Campus del Mar (UPF). Room 61.310-12. ...
Background In represents the weights for input edges from node to node at any time +?1 represents the next time point. the basin size of the largest attractor remained unchanged (Number ?(Figure4D).4D). Consequently, the em C. elegans /em early embryonic cell cycles network possessed a high homeostatic stability because the basin size of the largest attractor would not change significantly under perturbations [23]. Such high robustness of the em C. elegans /em early embryonic cell cycle network was due to the topological structure (nodes and edges) of the regulatory network. Open in a separate window Number 4 The histogram of the relative changes of basin size. The switch of the largest attractors basin size under several network perturbations: (A) deletion, (B) addition, (C) switching and (D) average of A to C. The histogram is definitely RepSox reversible enzyme inhibition generated in the em C. elegans /em network and 1000 same size arbitrary systems. P may be the possibility of em B /em / ...
This gene encodes a member of the p34Cdc2 protein kinase family. p34Cdc2 kinase family members are known to be essential for eukaryotic cell cycle control. This gene is in close proximity to CDC2L2, a nearly identical gene in the same chromosomal region. The gene loci including this gene, CDC2L2, as well as metalloprotease MMP21/22, consist of two identical, tandemly linked genomic regions which are thought to be a part of the larger region that has been duplicated. This gene and CDC2L2 were shown to be deleted or altered frequently in neuroblastoma with amplified MYCN genes. The protein kinase encoded by this gene could be cleaved by caspases and was demonstrated to play roles in cell apoptosis. Several alternatively spliced variants of this gene have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Ribociclib D6 (LEE011 D6) is a deuterium labeled Ribociclib. Ribociclib is a highly specific CDK4/6 inhibitor with IC50 values of 10 nM and 39 nM, respectively, and is over 1,000-fold less potent against the cyclin B/CDK1 complex. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
References for Abcams Recombinant Human CDC42 protein (ab87713). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Cells depleted of Plk or cdc5-1 protein arrest at multiple points of M phase. (A) Growth of cdc5Δ mutant conditionally rescued by expressing either GAL1-HA-EGF
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Protein phosphatase which antagonizes mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase CDC28, the inactivation of which is essential for exit from mitosis. To access its substrates, is released from nucleolar sequestration during mitosis. Plays an essential in coordinating the nuclear division cycle with cytokinesis through the cytokinesis checkpoint. Involved in chromosome segregation, where it is required for meiosis I spindle dissambly as well as for establishing two consecutive chromosome segregation phases. Allows damaged actomyosin rings to be maintained to facilitate completion of cell division in response to minor perturbation of the cell division machinery. Inhibits transcription of ribosomal genes (rDNA) during anaphase and controls segregation of nucleolus by facilitating condensin targeting to rDNA chromatin in anaphase. Dephosphorylates SIC1, a CDC28 inhibitor, and SWI5, a transcription factor for SIC1, and induces degradation of mitotic cyclins, likely by dephosphorylating the activator of mitotic cyclin
Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a ubiquitously expressed phosphoprotein involved in many cellular processes. Phosphorylation is considered the major regulatory mechanism of the NPM protein, associated with diverse cellular events. In this study, we characterized the phosphorylation status of several physiological phosphorylation sites of NPM, especially the newly confirmed
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Bongki Cho, Hyo Min Cho, Hyun Jung Kim, Jaehoon Jeong, Sang Ki Park, Eun Mi Hwang, Jae-Yong Park, Woon Ryoung Kim, Hyun Kim, Woong Sun].
The past decade of cell cycle investigations has identified many roads not taken. The kinase that drives mitosis can be modulated by cyclins, by activating phosphorylation, by inhibitory phosphorylation and by binding of inhibitors, but one of these regulatory options controls the transition from G2 …
Dephosphorylation of the Cdc2 kinase by the Cdc25 tyrosine phosphatase is the universally conserved trigger for mitotic entry. Cdc25 is also the point of convergence for checkpoint signaling pathways which monitor the ...
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Dr Arjun Srinivasan, the associate director of the CDC, said that the misuse and overuse of antibiotics have rendered them powerless to fight continuously evolving infections like MRSA.
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I logged on to this site after following a link from CDC. I was curious about CD and considering a change from LL. After reading the ridiculous opinions of...
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Linux - Extract files. Mark the .x86 (or .x86_64 for 64 bit) as executable and type ./Mitosis.x86 or ./Mitosis.x86_64 in terminal. This hasnt be tested on all distros and you may be missing libraries youll need to install ...
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Just in time for World Breastfeeding Week (yes, there is one), the CDC has released a report (.pdf) showing that only a small percentage of U.S. hospitals - 4 …. ...
COVID-19: Keep you and your loved ones safe. Visit the CDC Guidance for Older Adults, or call 1-833-MY-Senior for resources in your area. ...
유사 분열(有絲分裂, mitosis)은 진핵생물의 세포 주기에서 염색체의 복제와 세포 분열을 통해 하나의 모세포가 두개의 딸세포로 나뉘는 과정이다.[1] 이 과정을 통해 동일한 유전체를 가진 세포가 복제된다. 무성 생식을 하는 단세포 생물의 경우엔 유사 분열이 곧 생식 과정이기도 하다. 유사(有絲) 분열이란 말은 분열 과정에서 염색체가 방추체와 이어지는 실 모양의 미세소관과 연결되기 때문에 붙여졌다. 유사 분열은 분열이 일어나지 않는 간기, 염색체가 복제되고 분열이 준비되는 전기, 복제된 염색체가 방추체와 연결되는 전중기, 방추체와 연결된 염색체가 도열하여 분리과정을 거치는 중기, 복제된 염색체가 분리되어 양 쪽 방추사로 각각 끌려가는 후기, 새로운 세포 핵이 형성되는 말기의 순서로 이루어진다. 유사 분열이 끝나면 하나였던 세포는 두 ...
Fertilization of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs results in resumption of meiosis and a decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities; the decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity precedes the decrease in MAP kinase activity. Cycloheximide treatment of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs also results in resumption of meiosis but bypasses the fertilization-induced Ca2+ transient. However, it is not known if cycloheximide treatment results in the same temporal changes in cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that are intimately associated with resumption of meiosis. We report that cycloheximide-treated mouse eggs manifest similar temporal changes in the decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that occur following fertilization, although cortical granule exocytosis is not stimulated. The decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity, however, does not seem to be required for the decrease in MAP kinase activity, since the decrease in MAP kinase activity ...
Cardiomyocytes cease to divide shortly after birth and an irreversible cell cycle arrest is evident accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase activities. To get a better understanding of the cardiac cell cycle and its regulation, the effect of functional recovery of the mitosis-promoting factor (MPF) consisting of cyclin B1 and the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc2 was assessed in primary cultures of postmitotic ventricular adult rat cardiomyocytes ( ARC). Gene transfer into ARC was achieved using the adenovirus-enhanced transferrinfection system that was characterized by the absence of cytotoxic events. Simultaneous ectopic expression of wild-type versions of cyclin B1 and Cdc2 was sufficient to induce MPF activity. Reestablished MPF resulted in a mitotic phenotype, marked by an abnormal condensation of the nuclei, histone H3 phosphorylation and variable degree of decay of the contractile apparatus. Although a complete cell division was not observed, the results provided ...
Fission yeast cell division is initiated by the cdc2/cdc13-cyclin protein kinase which in its catalytically active state comprises the mitotic inducer. During interphase the cdc2/cyclin complex is assembled in an inactive state that requires cdc25+ gene function for M-phase activation. The cdc25+ product, a 76 kd phosphoprotein, is shown to oscillate in abundance during the cell cycle, reaching a peak at G2/M, and to be sensitive to nitrogen starvation. The level of cdc25 is subject to feedback regulation involving both cdc25 and cdc2.. ...
We show that in fission yeast the mitotic B type cyclin Cdc13/Cdc2 kinase associates with replication origins in vivo. This association is dependent on the origin recognition complex (ORC), is established as chromosomes are replicated, and is maintained during G2 and early mitosis. Cells expressing …
TY - JOUR. T1 - cdc25‐C is ACTIVATED BY PHOSPHORYLATION AT MITOSIS. AU - Hoffmann, Ingrid. AU - Clarke, Paul. AU - Karsenti, Eric. AU - Draetta, Giulio. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84987415571&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/0248-4900(92)90225-P. DO - 10.1016/0248-4900(92)90225-P. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:84987415571. VL - 76. SP - 213. JO - Molecular Biology of the Cell. JF - Molecular Biology of the Cell. SN - 1059-1524. IS - 2. ER - ...
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Why do we need to learn about mitosis? To fully understand cancer, we must first learn about mitosis. Mitosis is when cells replicate their DNA and divide. Cancer occurs when this process goes terribly wrong. To introduce mitosis, we watched this video and connected mitosis to the real world ...
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摘 要:胚胎干细胞的生长、增殖、分化和形状改变等过程受微环境、机械力等多种因素的影响。胚胎干细胞能够感知微小机械力刺激,并将其转化成生物化学信号,进而通过F-肌动蛋白、肌球蛋白-II、Cdc42、Rho和Src等产生一系列分子水平的应答反应,最终导致基因差异表达。胚胎干细胞应答外力基本过程的研究对于胚胎早期发育和分化机制研究、克隆和再生药物的研制与开发等均有重要意义。该文就机械力对胚胎干细胞结构、形态和分化的影响及其潜在机制等进行论述 ...
O95819 (MAP4K4) , Q5VT25 (CDC42BPA) , P41279 (MAP3K8) , Q04759 (PRKCQ) , O75116 (ROCK2) , Q13464 (ROCK1) , Q5S007 (LRRK2) , P25098 (GRK2) , P17612 (PRKACA) , Q9Y5S2 (CDC42BPB) , O94804 (STK10 ...
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Continuing a trend that emerged late last month, flu activity remains high across the United States but there are reports that the number of infections may be l
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... PCTAIRE protein kinase 3". Meyerson M, Enders GH, Wu CL, et al. (1992). "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases ... two members of a novel cdc2/CDC28-related protein kinase gene family". Oncogene. 7 (11): 2249-58. PMID 1437147. "Entrez Gene: ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PCTAIRE-3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCTK3 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... Palmer KJ, Konkel JE, Stephens DJ (2005). "PCTAIRE protein kinases interact directly with the COPII complex and modulate ...
... PCTAIRE protein kinase 2". Meyerson M, Enders GH, Wu CL, et al. (1992). "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cdc2/cdkx subfamily of the ser/thr family of protein kinases. It has similarity ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PCTAIRE-2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCTK2 gene. ... Hirose T, Tamaru T, Okumura N, Nagai K, Okada M (Dec 1997). "PCTAIRE 2, a Cdc2-related serine/threonine kinase, is ...
This gene encodes a member of the CDC2-like (or LAMMER) family of dual specificity protein kinases. In the cell nucleus, the ... Johnson KW, Smith KA (1991). "Molecular cloning of a novel human cdc2/CDC28-like protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (6): 3402- ... Colwill K, Feng LL, Yeakley JM, Gish GD, Cáceres JF, Pawson T, Fu XD (1996). "SRPK1 and Clk/Sty protein kinases show distinct ... Dual specificity protein kinase CLK1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CLK1 gene. ...
2006). "A Cdc2-related protein kinase hPFTAIRE1 from human brain interacting with 14-3-3 proteins". Cell Res. 16 (6): 539-47. ... Lazzaro MA, Albert PR, Julien JP (Jul 1997). "A novel cdc2-related protein kinase expressed in the nervous system". J Neurochem ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PFTAIRE-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PFTK1 gene. PFTK1 has been shown to ... "Entrez Gene: PFTK1 PFTAIRE protein kinase 1". Yang, Tao; Gao Yan-Kun; Chen Jiang-Ye (Jul 2002). "KIAA0202, a human septin ...
"The Wee1 protein kinase regulates T14 phosphorylation of fission yeast Cdc2". Mol Biol Cell. 6 (4): 371-85. doi:10.1091/mbc.6.4 ... The corresponding proteins are Wee1-like protein kinase and Wee1-like protein kinase 2 which act on the human Cdk1 homologue ... Wee1-like protein kinase Cell cycle β-transducin repeat-containing protein 1/2 (β-TrCP1/2) F-box protein-containing SKP1/Cul1/F ... The M-phase kinases Polo-like kinase (Plk1) and Cdc2 phosphorylate two serine residues in Wee1A which are recognized by SCFβ- ...
"A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases." The EMBO Journal 11.8 (1992): 2909. Whyte, Peter, Nicola M. Williamson, and E ... Meyerson, M (1992). "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases". EMBO J. 11: 2909-17. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1992.tb05360 ... Among Harlow's discoveries was the demonstration that the retinoblastoma protein interacts with viral transforming proteins, ... "The retinoblastoma protein is phosphorylated during specific phases of the cell cycle." Cell 58.6 (1989): 1097-1105. van den ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cdc2/cdkx subfamily of the ser/thr family of protein kinases. It may play a ... "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases". EMBO J. 11 (8): 2909-17. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1992.tb05360.x. PMC 556772. ... two members of a novel cdc2/CDC28-related protein kinase gene family". Oncogene. 7 (11): 2249-58. PMID 1437147. "Entrez Gene: ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PCTAIRE-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCTK1 gene. ...
This gene product is a member of a large family of CDC2-related serine/threonine protein kinases. It accumulates primarily in ... "Entrez Gene: CDKL2 cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 (CDC2-related kinase)". Human CDKL2 genome location and CDKL2 gene details ... Taglienti CA, Wysk M, Davis RJ (Feb 1997). "Molecular cloning of the epidermal growth factor-stimulated protein kinase p56 ... Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDKL2 gene. ...
Pathan NI, Geahlen RL, Harrison ML (Nov 1996). "The protein-tyrosine kinase Lck associates with and is phosphorylated by Cdc2 ... microtubule-associated protein kinase, GTPase-activating protein, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase". Molecular and Cellular ... Tyrosine-protein kinase Lyn is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LYN gene. Lyn is a member of the Src family of ... "Activation of Src-like protein-tyrosine kinase Lyn and its association with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase upon B-cell antigen ...
Ko TK, Kelly E, Pines J (Oct 2001). "CrkRS: a novel conserved Cdc2-related protein kinase that colocalises with SC35 speckles ... CDK12 cyclin-dependent kinase 12 is a protein kinase that in humans is encoded by the CDK12 gene. This enzyme is a member of ... 2007). "Proteomics analysis of protein kinases by target class-selective prefractionation and tandem mass spectrometry" (PDF). ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 5 (6): 355-64. doi: ...
Agarwal-Mawal A, Paudel HK (June 2001). "Neuronal Cdc2-like protein kinase (Cdk5/p25) is associated with protein phosphatase 1 ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activator 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK5R2 gene. The protein encoded by this ... It associates with CDK5 to form an active kinase. This protein and neuron-specific CDK5 activator CDK5R1/p39NCK5A both share ... cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activators p35 and p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ...
1999). "Association with Cdc2 and inhibition of Cdc2/Cyclin B1 kinase activity by the p53-regulated protein Gadd45". Oncogene. ... "Association with Cdc2 and inhibition of Cdc2/Cyclin B1 kinase activity by the p53-regulated protein Gadd45". Oncogene. 18 (18 ... Vairapandi M, Balliet AG, Hoffman B, Liebermann DA (September 2002). "GADD45b and GADD45g are cdc2/cyclinB1 kinase inhibitors ... 2000). "The GADD45 inhibition of Cdc2 kinase correlates with GADD45-mediated growth suppression". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (22): ...
"Association with Cdc2 and inhibition of Cdc2/Cyclin B1 kinase activity by the p53-regulated protein Gadd45". Oncogene. 18 (18 ... Vairapandi M, Balliet AG, Hoffman B, Liebermann DA (September 2002). "GADD45b and GADD45g are cdc2/cyclinB1 kinase inhibitors ... G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNB1 gene. Cyclin B1 is a regulatory protein ... "G2 delay induced by nitrogen mustard in human cells affects cyclin A/cdk2 and cyclin B1/cdc2-kinase complexes differently". J. ...
"Cdc2 kinase directly phosphorylates the cis-Golgi matrix protein GM130 and is required for Golgi fragmentation in mitosis". ... The golgins are a family of proteins, of which the protein encoded by this gene is a member, that are localized to the Golgi. ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ... This encoded protein has been postulated to play roles in the stacking of Golgi cisternae and in vesicular transport. Several ...
Walworth, N.; Davey, S.; Beach, D. (1993). "Fission yeast chkl protein kinase links the rad checkpoint pathway to cdc2". Nature ... The cell cycle is driven by proteins called cyclin dependent kinases that associate with cyclin regulatory proteins at ... These kinases act upstream of Cdc25 and Wee1, the direct regulators of the CyclinB-Cdc2 complex. Chk1 and Chk2 phosphorylate ... Many proteins involved in this positive feedback loop drive the activation of the CyclinB-Cdc2 complex because entry into ...
The kinase complex is able to phosphorylate CDK2 and CDC2 kinases, thus functions as a CDK-activating kinase (CAK). This cyclin ... Cyclin-H is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNH gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly ... This cyclin forms a complex with CDK7 kinase and ring finger protein MAT1. ... Drapkin R, Le Roy G, Cho H, Akoulitchev S, Reinberg D (Jun 1996). "Human cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase exists in ...
... protein kinases CDC2 and CDC7. MCM2 has been shown to interact with: AKAP8, Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase, MCM3 ... "Protein kinase A-anchoring protein AKAP95 interacts with MCM2, a regulator of DNA replication". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (29): 26750- ... A role for cdc2 kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (27): 17095-101. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.27.17095. PMID 9642275. Jiang W, McDonald D, ... The hexameric protein complex formed by MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) and may be ...
"Phosphorylation by cdc2 kinase modulates DNA binding activity of high mobility group I nonhistone chromatin protein". The ... High-mobility group protein HMG-I/HMG-Y is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HMGA1 gene.[5][6] ... "Identification of sites on chromosomal protein HMG-I phosphorylated by casein kinase II". FEBS Letters. 257 (1): 101-4. doi: ... "Functional interaction between the POU domain protein Tst-1/Oct-6 and the high-mobility-group protein HMG-I/Y". Molecular and ...
The phosphorylation of this protein by CDC2 kinase reduces the DNA helicase activity and chromatin binding of the MCM complex. ... A role for cdc2 kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (27): 17095-101. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.27.17095. PMID 9642275. You Z, Komamura Y, ... This gene is mapped to a region on the chromosome 8 head-to-head next to the PRKDC/DNA-PK, a DNA-activated protein kinase ... The hexameric protein complex formed by MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) and may be ...
"The C-terminal domain of the Cdc2 inhibitory kinase Myt1 interacts with Cdc2 complexes and is required for inhibition of G(2)/M ... Messenger MM, Saulnier RB, Gilchrist AD, Diamond P, Gorbsky GJ, Litchfield DW (Jun 2002). "Interactions between protein kinase ... "The C-terminal domain of the Cdc2 inhibitory kinase Myt1 interacts with Cdc2 complexes and is required for inhibition of G(2)/M ... The enzyme binds to a subset of proteins and thus plays a role as a post phosphorylation control in regulating protein function ...
"The cdc2-related protein p40MO15 is the catalytic subunit of a protein kinase that can activate p33cdk2 and p34cdc2". EMBO ... Nebreda, A.R.; Hunt, T. (1993). "The c-mos proto-oncogene protein kinase turns on and maintains the activity of MAP kinase, but ... He and others subsequently showed that cyclins bind and activate a family of protein kinases, now called the cyclin-dependent ... of protein synthesis is mediated by reversible phosphorylation of initiation factor eIF-2 by two distinct protein kinases and ...
Wee1 protein is a tyrosine kinase that normally phosphorylates the Cdc2 cell cycle regulatory protein (the homolog of CDK1 in ... The protein kinase Cdr2 (which negatively regulates Wee1) and the Cdr2-related kinase Cdr1 (which directly phosphorylates and ... The cell polarity protein kinase Pom1, a member of the dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase (DYRK) family ... The protein mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates translation and cell division.[12] Nutrient availability ...
... s, when bound with the dependent kinases, such as the p34/cdc2/cdk1 protein, form the maturation-promoting factor. MPFs ... Protein cyclin A governs this process by keeping the process going until the errors are eliminated. In normal cells, persistent ... is a family of proteins that controls the progression of a cell through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase ( ... These phosphorylated proteins, in turn, are responsible for specific events during cycle division such as microtubule formation ...
"Downregulation of the cdc2/cyclin B protein kinase activity by binding of p53 to p34(cdc2)". Biochemical and Biophysical ... "Regulatory interactions between the checkpoint kinase Chk1 and the proteins of the DNA-dependent protein kinase complex". The ... Phosphorylation of the N-terminal end of p53 by the above-mentioned protein kinases disrupts Mdm2-binding. Other proteins, such ... "The double-stranded RNA activated protein kinase PKR physically associates with the tumor suppressor p53 protein and ...
"Architecture of high mobility group protein I-C.DNA complex and its perturbation upon phosphorylation by Cdc2 kinase". J. Biol ... This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the non-histone chromosomal high-mobility group (HMG) protein family. HMG proteins ... ERCC1 protein expression is reduced or absent in 84% to 100% of human colorectal cancers. ERCC1 protein expression was also ... stress in part through the modulation of basal and DNA damage-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase ...
... cdc2 protein kinase MeSH D12.776.167.200.067.500 - cdc28 protein kinase, s cerevisiae MeSH D12.776.167.200.067.875 - cyclin- ... dependent kinase 5 MeSH D12.776.167.200.067.900 - cyclin-dependent kinase 9 MeSH D12.776.167.200.580.500 - cdc2 protein kinase ... RNA-binding protein EWS MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.250 - lymphocyte specific protein tyrosine kinase p56(lck) MeSH D12.776. ... wnt1 protein MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.978 - wnt2 protein MeSH D12.776.624.776.355.100 - cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p15 ...
"Mitotic reorganization of the intermediate filament protein nestin involves phosphorylation by cdc2 kinase". Journal of ... Nestin (protein) has been shown to interact with Cyclin-dependent kinase 5. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000132688 - ... Nestin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NES gene. Nestin (acronym for neuroepithelial stem cell protein) is a type ... These intermediate filament proteins are expressed mostly in nerve cells where they are implicated in the radial growth of the ...
... pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex that is important for cell cycle G1 phase progression. The ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/ ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is highly similar to the gene ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ...
S6 kinase, protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C, Cdc2, and/or a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; b) moves to bind ... ALOX5 binds with the F actin-binding protein, coactin-like protein. Based on in vitro studies, this protein binding serves to ... Upon cell stimulation, ALOX5: a) may be phosphorylated on serine 663, 523, and/or 271 by Mitogen-activated protein kinases, ... This chemotactic factor stimulation concurrently causes the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) which in ...
cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • protein kinase inhibitor activity. • protein kinase binding. • ... protein binding. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • ... protein stabilization. • positive regulation of cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity. • regulation of transcription from ... This article is about the p21Cip1 protein. For the p21/ras protein, see Ras (protein). For other uses, see P21 (disambiguation) ...
... cyclin-dependent kinases, and other cell cycle proteins. The phases follow one another in strict order and there are " ... Generation of pressure is dependent on formin-mediated F-actin nucleation[71] and Rho kinase (ROCK)-mediated myosin II ... Motor proteins then push the centrosomes along these microtubules to opposite sides of the cell. Although centrosomes help ... Volume 15 of Protein Reviews. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media. p. 15. ISBN 9781461405146.. ...
B irradiation-induced G2 cell cycle arrest in human keratinocytes by inhibitory phosphorylation of the cdc2 cell cycle kinase ... The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is often used in genetics as a marker. Many substances, such as proteins, have significant ... Many enzymes and proteins involved in modern mitosis and meiosis are similar to repair enzymes, and are believed to be evolved ... The evolution of early reproductive proteins and enzymes is attributed in modern models of evolutionary theory to ultraviolet ...
... a hyaluronan-binding protein that regulates ras signaling, correlates with overexpression of mitogen-activated protein kinase ... "Oligosaccharides of hyaluronan induce angiogenesis through distinct CD44 and RHAMM-mediated signalling pathways involving Cdc2 ... It forms links with several protein kinases associated with cell locomotion, for example, extracellular signal-regulated ... MAP kinase (MAPK), pp60(c-src), and the downstream targets of Rho kinase (ROK).[22] RHAMM can also cooperate with CD44 to ...
Finally, the Akt protein kinase promotes cell survival through two pathways. Akt phosphorylates and inhibits Bad (a Bcl-2 ... Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein.[104] Some ... The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... these inhibitory proteins target retinoblastoma tumor-suppressing proteins.[83] These tumor-suppressing proteins regulate the ...
mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase binding. • protein binding. • thioesterase binding. • protein kinase binding. • ... Joberty G, Petersen C, Gao L, Macara IG (August 2000). "The cell-polarity protein Par6 links Par3 and atypical protein kinase C ... "Protein Data Bank in Europe. EMBL-EBI. Retrieved 2016-04-22.. *^ "CDC42 (cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25kDa))" ... "The MAP kinase kinase kinase MLK2 co-localizes with activated JNK along microtubules and associates with kinesin superfamily ...
"Amphiphysin 1 binds the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 5 regulatory subunit p35 and is phosphorylated by cdk5 and cdc2". The ... a protein similar to the yeast proteins, Rvs167 and Rvs161". FEBS Letters. 351 (1): 73-9. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(94)00826-4. ... Chen-Hwang MC, Chen HR, Elzinga M, Hwang YW (May 2002). "Dynamin is a minibrain kinase/dual specificity Yak1-related kinase 1A ... protein binding. • phospholipid binding. Cellular component. • actin cytoskeleton. • cytoplasm. • cell junction. • synapse. • ...
Wee1 protein is a tyrosine kinase that normally phosphorylates the Cdc2 cell cycle regulatory protein (the homolog of CDK1 in ... The protein kinase Cdr2 (which negatively regulates Wee1) and the Cdr2-related kinase Cdr1 (which directly phosphorylates and ... The cell polarity protein kinase Pom1, a member of the dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase (DYRK) family ... which includes upstream lipid kinase PI3K and the downstream serine/threonine protein kinase Akt, which is able to activate ...
CDK抑制因子(英语:Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein). *INK4a/ARF(p14arf/p16、p15、p18、p19) ... Cdc2. *Cdc25(英语:Cdc25). *Cdc42(英语:CDC42). *细胞凋亡易感蛋白(英语:Cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein) ... Cyclin-dependent protein kinases: key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle. BioEssays. June 1995, 17 (6): 471-80. PMID ... 周期蛋白依赖性激酶
... a process regulated by phosphorylation of the lamins by protein kinases such as the CDC2 protein kinase.[63] Towards the end of ... Observations that myxobacteria are motile, can form multicellular complexes, and possess kinases and G proteins similar to ... Both structures serve to mediate binding to nuclear transport proteins.[5]. Most proteins, ribosomal subunits, and some DNAs ... The nuclear lamina is composed mostly of lamin proteins. Like all proteins, lamins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and later ...
negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle. • ... regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • oligodendrocyte differentiation. • negative ... CDKN2C, INK4C, p18, p18-INK4C, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2C. ... CDKN2C‏ (Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2C) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين CDKN2C في الإنسان.[1][2][3] ...
... by BCL-2 family proteins". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1762 (2): 191-201. doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2005.07.002. PMID 16055309.. Unknown ... CDK-activating kinase. CDK inhibitor. *INK4a/ARF (p14arf/p16, p15, p18, p19) ... "Sequential degradation of proteins from the nuclear envelope during apoptosis". Journal of Cell Science. 114 (20): 3643-53. ... "Predominant suppression of apoptosome by inhibitor of apoptosis protein in non-small cell lung cancer H460 cells: therapeutic ...
de 2000). «p12(DOC-1) is a novel cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein». Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 20 (17): 6300- ... Esta quinasa es muy similar a los productos génicos de S. cerevisiae cdc28, y S. pombe cdc2. Es una subunidad catalítica del ... de 1993). «The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases». Cell (UNITED STATES) 75 ... de 2000). «Dephosphorylation of human cyclin-dependent kinases by protein phosphatase type 2C alpha and beta 2 isoforms». J. ...
... a hyaluronan-binding protein that regulates ras signaling, correlates with overexpression of mitogen-activated protein kinase ... "Oligosaccharides of hyaluronan induce angiogenesis through distinct CD44 and RHAMM-mediated signalling pathways involving Cdc2 ... It forms links with several protein kinases associated with cell locomotion, for example, extracellular signal-regulated ... protein kinase (ERK), p125fak, and pp60c-src.[19][20][21] During fetal development, the migration path through which neural ...
kinase activity. • protein binding. • RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain kinase activity. • ATP binding. • protein ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK8 and cyclin C associate ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ...
Protein[edit]. Figure 1: A basic schematic of Polδ function at the DNA replication fork. The Polδ complex (p125, p66, p50 and ... POLD1 depleted cells are sensitive to inhibition of DNA damage checkpoint kinases ATR and CHK1.[97] In S. pombe, HR mechanisms ... POLD1, CDC2, CRCS10, MDPL, POLD, polymerase (DNA) delta 1, catalytic subunit, DNA polymerase delta 1, catalytic subunit. ... Protein name in human Homo sapiens Mus musculus Saccharomyces cerevisiae Schizosaccharomyces pombe ...
Booher RN, Holman PS, Fattaey A (1997). "Human Myt1 is a cell cycle-regulated kinase that inhibits Cdc2 but not Cdk2 activity ... 1994). "Activation of p34cdc2 protein kinase by microinjection of human cdc25C into mammalian cells. Requirement for prior ... The encoded protein is a tyrosine phosphatase and belongs to the Cdc25 phosphatase family. It directs dephosphorylation of ... Gould KL, Moreno S, Tonks NK, Nurse P (Feb 1991). "Complementation of the mitotic activator, p80cdc25, by a human protein- ...
Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL ... The DNA-binding activity of the ubiquitously expressed ABL1 tyrosine kinase is regulated by CDC2-mediated phosphorylation, ... "A C-terminal protein-binding domain in the retinoblastoma protein regulates nuclear c-Abl tyrosine kinase in the cell cycle". ... "Cytoskeletal protein PSTPIP1 directs the PEST-type protein tyrosine phosphatase to the c-Abl kinase to mediate Abl ...
2003). "Beacon interacts with cdc2/cdc28-like kinases". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 304 (1): 125-9. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X( ... Ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) are thought to be reversible modulators of protein function rather than protein degraders like ... Ubiquitin-like protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UBL5 gene. It has been shown that in C. elegans ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ...
"A global protein kinase and phosphatase interaction network in yeast". Science. 328 (5981): 1043-1046. Bibcode:2010Sci... ... but promotes the inactivation of Cdc2 by down-regulating Cdc25 phosphatase. Cdc14 of Candida albicans is also involved in ... a well-studied cyclin-dependent protein kinase. Cdc14 antagonizes Cdk1 by stimulating proteolysis of its cyclin partner (cyclin ... "The structure of the cell cycle protein Cdc14 reveals a proline-directed protein phosphatase". EMBO J. 22 (14): 3524-3535. doi: ...
The phosphorylation of the complex by CDC2 kinase reduces the helicase activity, suggesting a role in the regulation of DNA ... The hexameric protein complex formed by the MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) and may be ... MCM6 has been shown to interact with: CDC45-related protein, MCM2, MCM4, MCM7, ORC1L, ORC2L, ORC4L, and Replication protein A1 ... Holthoff HP, Hameister H, Knippers R (1997). "A novel human Mcm protein: homology to the yeast replication protein Mis5 and ...
... human CDC2 is capable of rescuing fission yeast carrying a cdc2 mutation. Cdk1 is comprised mostly by the bare protein kinase ... "Downregulation of the cdc2/cyclin B protein kinase activity by binding of p53 to p34(cdc2)". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 283 ... "Association with Cdc2 and inhibition of Cdc2/Cyclin B1 kinase activity by the p53-regulated protein Gadd45". Oncogene. 18 (18 ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Interacts with CDC2-CCNB1 complex. Can also interact with PIN1 when phosphorylated by CDC2-CCNB1. UniProt ... Membrane-associated tyrosine- and threonine-specific cdc2-inhibitory kinase - Q99640 (PMYT1_HUMAN) ... ATP + L-threonyl-[protein] = ADP + H+ + O-phospho-L-threonyl-[protein] UniProt ...
... protein phosphorylation, regulation of gene expression, regulation of mitotic cell cycle ... View protein in PROSITE. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 hit. ... View protein in InterPro. IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... Cdc2-related protein kinase 1Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ...
View protein in PROSITE. PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 ... View protein in InterPro. IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271 ... View protein in InterPro. IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271 ...
Here we identify a single serine (Ser-25) in GM130 as the key phosphorylated target and Cdc2 as the responsible kinase. MEK1, a ... of the Golgi apparatus can be largely explained by disruption of the interaction between GM130 and the vesicle-docking protein ... Cdc2 Kinase Directly Phosphorylates the cis-Golgi Matrix Protein GM130 and Is Required for Golgi Fragmentation in Mitosis Cell ... in GM130 as the key phosphorylated target and Cdc2 as the responsible kinase. MEK1, a component of the MAP kinase signaling ...
... polymerase and cdc2-kinase: Comparison with protein kinase C. *Authors: *P. I. Bauer ... polymerase and cdc2-kinase: Comparison with protein kinase C. International Journal of Molecular Medicine 8.6 (2001): 691-693. ... polymerase and cdc2-kinase: Comparison with protein kinase C. International Journal of Molecular Medicine 8, no. 6 (2001): 691 ... polymerase and cdc2-kinase: Comparison with protein kinase C. Int J Mol Med 8: 691-693, 2001 ...
... p33 Protein Kinase or cdc2-Related Protein Kinase or EC 2.7.11.22) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 report by Global Markets Direct. ... Global Markets Directs, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (p33 Protein... ... 65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 ( ... p33 Protein Kinase or cdc2-Related Protein Kinase or EC 2.7.11.22) *The report reviews Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (p33 Protein ...
"CDC2 Protein Kinase" by people in this website by year, and whether "CDC2 Protein Kinase" was a major or minor topic of these ... CDC2-CDC28 Kinases [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.646.500.500]. *CDC2 Protein Kinase [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.646.500.500.250 ... Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700]. *Proline-Directed Protein Kinases [D08.811.913.696.620.682. ... "CDC2 Protein Kinase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ...
... contains 1 protein kinase domain and belongs to the protein kinase superfamily, CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family, CDC2/CDKX ... CDC2 also is a cyclin-dependent kinase which displays CTD kinase activity and is required for RNA splicing. It has CTD kinase ... CDC2 is a catalytic subunit of the highly conserved protein kinase complex known as M-phase promoting factor (MPF), which is ... Protein short names CDK1; P34< CDC28A; CDC2; DKFZP686L20222; P34CDC2; MGC111195; CDC2A; CDC2> ...
... polymerase and cdc2-kinase: comparison with protein kinase C., International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 8, no. 6, pp ... polymerase and cdc2-kinase: comparison with protein kinase C. International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2001 dec.;8(6):691- ... polymerase and cdc2-kinase: comparison with protein kinase C. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 8(6), 691-693. ... polymerase and cdc2-kinase : comparison with protein kinase C. In: International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2001 ; Vol. 8, ...
However little is known about the proteins that interact with this putative kinase and contribute to its function in the cell. ... Cdk10 is a Cdc2-related kinase that may play a role in regulating the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. ... Cdk10 is a Cdc2-related kinase that may play a role in regulating the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. However little is known ... Cdk10, a Cdc2-related kinase, associates with the Ets2 transcription factor and modulates its transactivation activity Oncogene ...
... Academic Article * Authors ... We call this kinase neuronal cdc2-like kinase (nclk) because, in contrast to either cdk1 or cdk2, nclk is expressed at high ... there exists a family of protein kinases structurally and functionally related to the yeast cell cycle regulatory kinase cdc2 [ ... 58, 1365-1371] that cdk1 kinase, but not other structurally defined protein kinases, could phosphorylate the repeated Lys-Ser- ...
Identification of major nucleolar proteins as candidate mitotic substrates of cdc2 kinase. Cell, Vol. 60, H. 5. pp. 791-801. ... Importantly, the two nucleolar proteins are also phosphorylated by highly purified starfish cdc2 kinase in vitro, on sites that ... These results identify two novel candidate substrates for cdc2 kinase, and they implicate protein phosphorylation in ... Identification of major nucleolar proteins as candidate mitotic substrates of cdc2 kinase ...
Antibodies, Monoclonal Blotting, Western CDC2 Protein Kinase/*metabolism Cell Division Cells, Cultured Electrophoresis, Gel, ... The retinoblastoma protein physically associates with the human cdc2 kinase. Mol Cell Biol, 12 (3). pp. 971-80. ISSN 0270-7306 ... Since this associated kinase phosphorylates pRB at most of the sites used in vivo, these results suggest that this kinase is ... The associated kinase activity follows the pattern of phosphorylation seen for pRB in vivo. The associated kinase activity is ...
Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of mammalian protein phosphatase 1 by cdc2 kinase. / Kwon, Young Guen; Lee, Soo Young; ... Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of mammalian protein phosphatase 1 by cdc2 kinase. Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Dive into the research topics of Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of mammalian protein phosphatase 1 by cdc2 kinase. ... title = "Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of mammalian protein phosphatase 1 by cdc2 kinase", ...
A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases. EMBO J. Meyerson M, Enders GH, Wu CL, Su LK, Gorka C, Nelson C, Harlow E, Tsai ... Rapamycin-induced inhibition of the 70-kilodalton S6 protein kinase. Science. Price DJ, Grove JR, Calvo V, Avruch J, Bierer BE. ... A human transmembrane protein-tyrosine-phosphatase, PTP zeta, is expressed in brain and has an N-terminal receptor domain ... Protein targeting via the constitutive-like secretory pathway in isolated pancreatic islets: passive sorting in the immature ...
CDC2 Protein Kinase. Grant support. *GR075820MA/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. * ... As part of this process, the schizont recruits a host cell mitotic kinase, Polo-like kinase 1, and we established that parasite ... including Polo-like kinase 1, one of the pivotal mitotic kinases, to ensure its own persistence and survival. ... Plk1 kinase domain (myc-KDom), Polo-box domain (myc-PBD, wild type), or H538A/K540A mutant PBD (myc-PBD H538A/K540A) and ...
Dutta, A., Din, S., Brill, S. J., Stillman, B. (1991) Phosphorylation of replication protein A: A role for cdc2 kinase in G1/S ... Phosphorylation of replication protein A: A role for cdc2 kinase in G1/S regulation ... protein types , enzymes , kinase. bioinformatics , genomics and proteomics , genetics & nucleic acid processing , protein ... cyclin b phosphoamino acid phosphoprotein protein kinase cell cycle g1 phase cell cycle s phase cell division conference paper ...
Cyclin-dependent kinases; (cdc2) are key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle. A number of cdc2- related kinase (CRK) genes ... Isolation and Characterization of A Cdc2-Related Protein Kinase 3 (CRK3) from a Sudanese Strain of Leishmania Donovani. Login ... Isolation and Characterization of A Cdc2-Related Protein Kinase 3 (CRK3) from a Sudanese Strain of Leishmania Donovani. Show ... Isolation and Characterization of A Cdc2-Related Protein Kinase 3 (CRK3) from a Sudanese Strain of Leishmania Donovani. ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... CDC2 Protein Kinase. *Cyclin B. *Heterocyclic Compounds. *Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring. Drug Targets. Name. Sequence Search. ... Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta. MSGRPRTTSFAESCKPVQQPSAFGSMKVSRDKDGSKVTTVVATPGQGPDR.... unknown. Cyclin-dependent-like kinase 5 ...
Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of mutant alleles of the fission yeast cdc2 protein kinase gene: implications for cdc2+ ... Previously the cdc2+ gene has been cloned and has been shown to encode a 34 kDa phosphoprotein with in vitro protein kinase ... Analysis of these mutations has identified a number of regions within the cdc2 protein that are important for cdc2+ activity ... We have sequenced these alleles and find a variety of single amino acid substitutions mapping throughout the cdc2 protein. ...
Conservation of function and regulation within the cdc28/cdc2 protein-kinase family - characterization of the human cdc2hs ... Whereas the Cdc28 protein kinase of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays an essential role in cell cycle ... This transgenic yeast strain was able to perform the G1 functions attributed to the Cdc28 protein kinase, including the ability ... including the Cdc2Hs protein kinase of humans. To better understand these apparently disparate roles, we constructed a yeast ...
CDC2-related protein kinase 7 , cell division cycle 2-related protein kinase 7 , cell division protein kinase 12 , CDC2-related ... kinase 7 , CDC2-related kinase, arginine/serine-rich , protein kinase for splicing component , cyclin-dependent kinase 12 ... Target Cdc2-Related Kinase, Arginine/serine-Rich (CRKRS) * Cdc2-Related Kinase, Arginine/serine-Rich (CRKRS) ... Cdc2-Related Kinase, Arginine/serine-Rich (CRKRS) Antigen Profile Protein Summary human homolog may play a role in regulation ...
cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 2. Names. CDC28 protein kinase 2. CKS-2. CKS1(S. cerevisiae Cdc28/Cdc2 kinase ... CKS2 CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2 [Homo sapiens] CKS2 CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2 [Homo sapiens]. ... CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:2000 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000123975 ... Cyclin-dependent kinase-associated protein Cks2 is associated with bladder cancer progression. Chen R, et al. J Int Med Res, ...
Cdc2-like kinase 3; EphA2, ephrin receptor A2; LIMK, LIM domain-containing kinase; PKC, protein kinase C; PKD2, protein kinase ... receptor-interacting protein kinase 2; PAK4, p21-activated kinase 4; CaMK, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; MARK, ... 2, the protein kinases p38 and PAK4, which are known protein kinase targets of PP58 and purB, were retained by the respective ... Phosphoproteomics Analysis of Protein Kinases-. The efficient enrichment of 140 protein kinases from the vast majority of other ...
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CDC2/CDKX subfamily.. Contains 1 protein kinase ... CDK7 is the catalytic subunit of the CDK-activating kinase (CAK) complex, a serine-threonine kinase. CAK activates the cyclin- ... cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (MO15 homolog, Xenopus laevis, cdk-activating kinase) antibody ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ...
Ab104617 is an active full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated… ... Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CDC2/CDKX subfamily.. Contains 1 protein kinase ... Phosphorylation at Tyr-15 by WEE1 and WEE2 inhibits the protein kinase activity and acts as a negative regulator of entry into ... CSNK2 proteins/CKII, FZR1/CDH1, CDK7, CEBPB, CHAMP1, DMD/dystrophin, EEF1 proteins/EF-1, EZH2, KIF11/EG5, EGFR, FANCG, FOS, ...
We have identified six protein kinases that belong to the family of cdc2-related kinases in Caenorhabditis elegans. Results ... 1989) The cdc2 kinase is a nuclear protein that is essential for mitosis in mammalian cells. Cell 57, 393-401. ... This kinase, encoded by the ncc-1 gene, is closely related to human Cdk1/Cdc2, Cdk2 and Cdk3 and yeast CDC28/cdc2(+). We ... 1992) A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases. EMBO J 11, 2909-2917. ...
1993) Tau protein kinase II has similar characteristics to cdc2 kinases for phosphorylating neurofilament proteins. J Biol Chem ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) are the principal kinases targeting the head domain of NF- ... 1991) Phosphorylation of bovine neurofilament proteins by protein kinase FA (glycogen synthase kinase 3). J Biol Chem 266:8262- ... other proline-directed kinases are known to phosphorylate KSP repeats in NF proteins. These include cdc2-like kinases (Shetty ...
Progression through this cycle involves a large number of dedicated protein complexes and signaling pathways, and deregulation ... CDC2 Protein Kinase / genetics * CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism * Cell Cycle / genetics * Cell Cycle / physiology ... In particular, nuclear proteins and proteins involved in regulating metabolic processes have high phosphorylation site ... which was mediated by phosphorylation by ATM or ATR or DNA-dependent protein kinases. We determined site-specific stoichiometry ...
0/Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins; 125481-05-2/HPR5 protein, S cerevisiae; EC 2.7.11.22/CDC2 Protein Kinase; EC 3.6.1 ... CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism. DNA Helicases / genetics, metabolism*. DNA Repair. DNA Replication. DNA, Fungal / genetics, ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / genetics, metabolism*. Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins / metabolism. Ultraviolet ... 0/Antigens, Nuclear; 0/DNA, Fungal; 0/DNA, Single-Stranded; 0/DNA-Binding Proteins; 0/POL30 protein, S cerevisiae; 0/ ...
  • Acts as a negative regulator of entry into mitosis (G2 to M transition) by phosphorylation of the CDK1 kinase specifically when CDK1 is complexed to cyclins. (rcsb.org)
  • May be involved in phosphorylation of CDK1 on 'Tyr-15' to a lesser degree, however tyrosine kinase activity is unclear and may be indirect. (rcsb.org)
  • MEK1, a component of the MAP kinase signaling pathway recently implicated in mitotic Golgi fragmentation, was not required for GM130 phosphorylation or mitotic fragmentation either in vitro or in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Since the phosphorylation of histone H1 by PKC is a model reaction with no apparent physiologic consequences, the PARP I activated phosphorylation of histone H1 by cdc2-kinase, by contrast, reflects a physiologically meaningful regulation of the linker histone by a cyclin dependent kinase (cdc2-kinase). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The increased phosphorylation of histone H1 by cdc2-kinase following PARP I-histone H1 binding results in the appearance of new phosphorylated histone H1 polypeptides as measured by proteolytic digestion and re-electrophoresis of cdc2-kinase phosphorylated polypeptides, indicating a probable conformational change in histone H1, following PARP I binding. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Bauer, P. I., Buki, K. G., Kun, E.'Selective augmentation of histone H1 phosphorylation sites by interaction of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and cdc2-kinase: Comparison with protein kinase C'. International Journal of Molecular Medicine 8.6 (2001): 691-693. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of CDC2 also play important regulatory roles in cell cycle control. (novoprolabs.com)
  • The structural similarity of nclk to cdk1 kinase and its high level of expression in terminally differentiated neurons suggest that nclk may play a role in the phosphorylation of the neurofilament KSP repeats in vivo, a function distinct from cell cycle regulation. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • These results identify two novel candidate substrates for cdc2 kinase, and they implicate protein phosphorylation in controlling mitotic changes in nucleolar structure and activity. (unibas.ch)
  • The protein product (pRB) of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene functions as a negative regulator of cell proliferation, and its activity appears to be modulated by phosphorylation. (cshl.edu)
  • The associated kinase activity follows the pattern of phosphorylation seen for pRB in vivo. (cshl.edu)
  • The phosphorylation of T320 of PP-1 was reduced by the cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, olomoucine, and increased by the PP-1/PP-2A inhibitor, calyculin A. Immunofluorescence microscopy using phospho-T320 antibody indicated that in NIH 3T3 cells the phosphorylation of PP-1 began to increase from basal levels in prophase and to peak at metaphase. (elsevier.com)
  • These observations suggest that phosphorylation by cdc2 kinase in early to mid-mitosis and inhibition of PP- 1 activity is likely to contribute to the increased state of phosphorylation of proteins that is critical to the initiation of normal cell division. (elsevier.com)
  • Nairn, Angus C. / Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of mammalian protein phosphatase 1 by cdc2 kinase . (elsevier.com)
  • cyclin b phosphoamino acid phosphoprotein protein kinase cell cycle g1 phase cell cycle s phase cell division conference paper enzyme purification hela cell human human cell immunoblotting kidney cell nonhuman priority journal protein phosphorylation saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Cycle Cyclins DNA Replication DNA-Binding Proteins Fungal Proteins Interphase Models, Biological Phosphorylation Protein p34cdc2 S Phase Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. (cshl.edu)
  • This approach resulted in the direct purification of cell type-specific sets of expressed protein kinases, and more than 140 different members of this enzyme family could be detected by LC-MS/MS. Furthermore the enrichment technique combined with phosphopeptide fractionation led to the identification of more than 200 different phosphorylation sites on protein kinases, which often remain occluded in global phosphoproteome analysis. (mcponline.org)
  • As the phosphorylation states of protein kinases can provide a readout for the signaling activities within a cellular system, kinase-selective phosphoproteomics based on the procedures described here has the potential to become an important tool in signal transduction analysis. (mcponline.org)
  • The basic principle of reversible phosphorylation of proteins represents a fundamental regulatory mechanism of central importance to signal transmission in higher organisms. (mcponline.org)
  • In human cells, most protein phosphorylation events are catalyzed by the more than 500 members of the protein kinase superfamily of enzymes, also known as the human kinome ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Many members of the protein kinase superfamily are positively or negatively regulated by either interacting proteins or through specific phosphorylation events mediated by other protein kinases. (mcponline.org)
  • Upon transition to the active state, various protein kinases further undergo autophosphorylation reactions on specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues, which can stabilize their active conformations or lead to the generation of additional docking sites for phosphorylation-dependent protein-protein interactions ( 5 , 6 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Although only a fraction of all human protein kinases has been studied in mechanistic detail, extrapolation of available data suggests that autophosphorylation reactions and/or phosphorylation events by upstream kinases can provide a readout for the cellular activities of almost all members of the human protein kinase superfamily. (mcponline.org)
  • Even the largest dataset of 2002 phosphorylation sites reported in a study by Gygi and co-workers ( 8 ) included only 61 from protein kinases. (mcponline.org)
  • Consequently it appears that selective prefractionation strategies are required for the in-depth analysis of protein kinases and their cellular phosphorylation sites with currently available MS techniques. (mcponline.org)
  • CAK activates the cyclin-associated kinases CDK1, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 by threonine phosphorylation. (abcam.com)
  • In proliferating cells, CDK1-mediated FOXO1 phosphorylation at the G2-M phase represses FOXO1 interaction with 14-3-3 proteins and thereby promotes FOXO1 nuclear accumulation and transcription factor activity, leading to cell death of postmitotic neurons. (abcam.com)
  • Neurofilament function depends on the state of phosphorylation of the numerous serine/threonine residues in these proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • Most phosphorylation occurs in the lys-ser-pro (KSP) repeats in the C-terminal tail domains of NF-H and NF-M. In our previous study, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) was shown to phosphorylate specifically the KSPXK repeats in rat NF-H. Because 80% of the repeats are of the KSPXXXK type, it was of interest to determine which kinase phosphorylates these motifs. (jneurosci.org)
  • The MEK inhibitor PD 98059 also inhibited phosphorylation of NF-H, NF-M, and microtubule-associated protein (MAP) in primary rat hippocampal cells and caused a decrease in neurite outgrowth, suggesting that Erk1,2 may play an important role in neurite growth and branching. (jneurosci.org)
  • 1988 ) Activation of cdc2 protein kinase during mitosis in human cells: cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation and subunit rearrangement. (biologists.org)
  • We applied high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics to investigate the proteome and phosphoproteome of the human cell cycle on a global scale and quantified 6027 proteins and 20,443 unique phosphorylation sites and their dynamics. (nih.gov)
  • Co-regulated proteins and phosphorylation sites were grouped according to their cell cycle kinetics and compared to publicly available messenger RNA microarray data. (nih.gov)
  • Most detected phosphorylation sites and more than 20% of all quantified proteins showed substantial regulation, mainly in mitotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Kinase-motif analysis revealed global activation during S phase of the DNA damage response network, which was mediated by phosphorylation by ATM or ATR or DNA-dependent protein kinases. (nih.gov)
  • In particular, nuclear proteins and proteins involved in regulating metabolic processes have high phosphorylation site occupancy in mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • This suggests that these proteins may be inactivated by phosphorylation in mitotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK1)-dependent phosphorylation of Srs2 did not influence checkpoint-mediated G(2) arrest or maintenance in PRR-deficient cells but was critical for HR-dependent checkpoint recovery following release from CLUV exposure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1992 ). Later on, CDK5 demonstrated capability to induce the Alzheimer-like characteristics by phosphorylation of tau protein (Baumann et al. (springer.com)
  • Avraham E, Rott R, Liani E, Szargel R, Engelender S. Phosphorylation of Parkin by the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 at the linker region modulates its ubiquitin-ligase activity and aggregation. (springer.com)
  • Baumann K, Mandelkow E-M, Biernat J, Piwnica-Worms H, Mandelkow E. Abnormal Alzheimer-like phosphorylation of tau-protein by cyclin-dependent kinases cdk2 and cdk5. (springer.com)
  • For full activity, the cell cycle control protein Cdk2 requires phosphorylation of a conserved residue, Threonine 160, carried out by Cdk-activating kinase 1. (novusbio.com)
  • Elimination of cdc2 phosphorylation sites in the CDC2 5 phosphatase blocks initiation of M-phase. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 44) This may be associated with the activation of p53, downregulation of cyclin A and B1 expression, or the persistent inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc2 on Tyr15. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Using antibodies to specific phosphorylation sites on vimentin and GFAP catalyzed by various kinases, including cdc2 , CF, Rho, protein kinase C, and aurora-B, investigators have shown that the molecular alteration that causes failure of cytoplasmic cleavage in cultured multinucleated GCs is loss of aurora-B kinase function. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here, we report that the disruption of wat1 , a WD repeat-containing protein, leads to the phosphorylation of Chk1. (genetics.org)
  • The latter phosphorylation maintains the CDC2/cyclin B complex in an inactive state until the onset of M phase, when these sites are dephosphorylated by the phosphatase CDC25 [ 8 ]. (medsci.org)
  • 1991) "Protein Kinase C Substrate and Inhibitor Characteristics of Peptides Derived From the Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C Kinase Substrate (MARCKS) Protein Phosphorylation Site Domain" The Journal of Biological Chemistry266(22):14390-14398. (patentgenius.com)
  • The invention provides a method for determining an amino acid sequence motif for a phosphorylation site of a protein kinase. (patentgenius.com)
  • The invention also provides peptide substrates for protein kinase A, cell cycle control kinases, src family kinases, the EGF receptor and p92.sup.c-fps/fes based upon amino acid sequence motifs for the phosphorylation sites of these kinases. (patentgenius.com)
  • RT "Preferences for phosphorylation sites in the retinoblastoma protein RT of D-type cyclin-dependent kinases, Cdk4 and Cdk6, in vitro. (genome.jp)
  • 1.1 A Brief History of Protein Phosphorylation. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Interestingly, after time-course experiments, the earliest feature correlated with p25 expression was the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb). (biologists.org)
  • Indeed, this phosphorylation was observed 6 hours after p25 induction and was abolished in the presence of a Cdk5 inhibitor, roscovitine, which does not inhibit the usual Rb cyclin-D kinases Cdk4 and Cdk6. (biologists.org)
  • Cdk5 is a pro-directed phosphorylation kinase that belongs to the cyclin-dependent-protein-kinase family. (biologists.org)
  • In order to modulate H3 phosphorylation, root meristems of different plant species were treated with the protein phosphatase inhibitor cantharidin or with ice-water. (springer.com)
  • Giet R, Glover D (2001) Drosophila Aurora B kinase is required for histone H3 phosphorylation and condensing recruitment during chromosome condensation and to organize the central spindle during cytokineses. (springer.com)
  • 1995) Chromosome condensation induced by fostriecin does not require p34 cdc2 kinase activity and histoneH1 phosphorylation, but is associated with enhanced histone H2A and H3 phosphorylation. (springer.com)
  • FAK displays consensus sequences for phosphorylation by cell division cycle kinase-2-cyclin B, and might be a PP1 substrate. (biochemj.org)
  • The weel kinase phosphorylates only Y-15 residue of cdc2 kinase and T-14 phosphorylation is observed in a intact cell. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Honda, R.: 'Mouse p87 wee1 kinase is regulated by M-phase specific phosphorylation' Chromosome Res.3. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The fact that Mck1p is a dual-specificity protein kinase raises the possibility that phosphorylation has a regulatory function similar to those of other protein kinases. (asm.org)
  • Further, Mck1p directly interacts with and negatively regulates pyruvate kinase, a key glycolytic enzyme, likely by phosphorylation of Pyk1p ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Chan PK, Liu QR, Durban E. The major phosphorylation site of nucleophosmin (B23) is phosphorylated by a nuclear kinase II. (springer.com)
  • This kinase was shown to be responsible for the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma gene product (Rb). (jax.org)
  • Phosphorylation increases the intrinsic protein kinase activity of SpCds1 ( 29 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • The Cdc25 phosphatase promotes entry into mitosis by removing cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) inhibitory phosphorylation. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, there are no clearly defined molecular links between Cdk1 inhibitory phosphorylation and proteins known to be involved in the control of cell size or cell growth. (rupress.org)
  • In uninfected cells the G 2 /M transition is regulated by cyclin kinase complex containing cdc2 and, initially, cyclin A, followed by cyclin B. cdc2 is downregulated through phosphorylation by wee-1 and myt-1 and upregulated by cdc-25C phosphatase. (asm.org)
  • Further studies led to the observation that ICP0 and cyclin D3 colocalize in the infected cell nuclei and that ICP0 does not interfere with the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by cyclin D3-cdk4 complex. (asm.org)
  • The increased protein translation observed during cell cycle progression is associated with phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 5 and activation of translation factors, in particular, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF-4E). (ahajournals.org)
  • 7 mTOR, which can be blocked by the immunosuppressant rapamycin after the latter has formed a complex with the immunophilin FK-binding protein (FKBP), 8 possesses kinase activity that is required for p70 S6 kinase activation 9 and may also be directly involved in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 mTOR may sense nutrient availability within the cell and provide basal phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase, whereas PI 3-kinase may mediate subsequent mitogen-induced phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and p70 S6 kinase by PI 3-kinase and mTOR are critical events during the mitogenic stimulation of coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs) in vitro and in response to vascular injury in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cross-linking of ICAM-1 on T cells induces transient tyrosine phosphorylation and inactivation of cdc2 kinase. (jimmunol.org)
  • Signaling through ICAM-3 stimulates a number of T cell functions and involves phosphorylation of Fyn, Lck, CD45, and other proteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins was examined after cross-linking of ICAM-1. (jimmunol.org)
  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of the 34-kDa cdc2 protein kinase was induced transiently after stimulation of the leukemic T cell line, Molt-3, or peripheral blood T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Stimulation through ICAM-1 had no effect on constitutive presence of cdc2 or phosphorylation of cdc2 on threonine. (jimmunol.org)
  • cdc2 kinase activity was constitutive in peripheral blood T cells, and transient inhibition of kinase activity after ICAM-1 stimulation correlated kinetically with phosphorylation of cdc2 on tyrosine. (jimmunol.org)
  • CDK activity is regulated in a complex manner, including phosphorylation/dephosphorylation by specific kinases/phosphatases and association with regulatory proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • The phosphorylation of this protein by CDC2 kinase reduces the DNA helicase activity and chromatin binding of the MCM complex. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here we identify a single serine (Ser-25) in GM130 as the key phosphorylated target and Cdc2 as the responsible kinase. (nih.gov)
  • CDK7 is the catalytic subunit of the CDK-activating kinase (CAK) complex, a serine-threonine kinase. (abcam.com)
  • These proteins catalyze the attachment of phosphate groups to specific serine or threonine amino acids in a target protein. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This is a heterogeneous group of serine/threonine protein kinases that do not have an activating compound and are either non-specific or their specificity has not been analysed to date. (genome.jp)
  • We have isolated and characterised a novel human protein kinase, Cdc2-related kinase with an arginine/serine-rich (RS) domain (CrkRS), that is most closely related to the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family. (biologists.org)
  • Lastly, CHED (cholinesterase-related cell division controller) is a 418 amino acid serine/threonine kinase with 42% identity to human cdc2 (Lapidot-Lifson et al. (biologists.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 (Cdkl2) is a cdc2-related serine/threonine protein kinase that is postnatally expressed in various brain regions, including the cerebral cortex, entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsal thalamus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases (cdk) are serine/threonine protein kinases that play essential roles in the control of cell cycle progression by interacting with a variety of regulators and substrates ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recently, cdk3 was found to form a complex with cyclin C and phosphorylate the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) at serine 807/811, which is required for G 0 -G 1 transition ( 20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In response to DNA damage, Chk1, a serine/threonine kinase, is responsible for cell cycle arrest to prevent damaged cells from progressing through the cell cycle. (genetics.org)
  • Akt (also known as protein kinase B alpha) is a 60 kD serine/threonine specific kinase containing a pleckstrin domain. (biolegend.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is a family of serine/threonine kinases. (psu.edu)
  • It can interact with and phosphorylate the serine- and arginine-rich (SR) proteins, which are known to play an important role in the formation of spliceosomes, and thus is thought to be involved in the regulation of alternative splicing. (thermofisher.com)
  • Mitotic regulation of SEPT9 protein by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and Pin1 protein is important for the completion of cytokinesis. (sickkids.ca)
  • Drosophila Myt1 is a Cdk1 inhibitory kinase that regulates multiple aspects of cell cycle behavior during gametogenesis. (sickkids.ca)
  • CDC2, also known as CDK1, contains 1 protein kinase domain and belongs to the protein kinase superfamily, CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family, CDC2/CDKX subfamily. (novoprolabs.com)
  • The kinase activity of CDK1 is controlled by cyclin accumulation and destruction through the cell cycle. (novoprolabs.com)
  • Two members of cdc2 family, p34cdc2 (also named cdk1) and cdk2, have been identified in mammalian cells. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • cdk1 kinase regulates the progression from G2 to M phase, and cdk2 kinase has been proposed to regulate the progression from G1 to S phase. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • In this work, we have cloned and structurally characterized a third member of the cdc2 kinase family with 58% amino acid sequence identity to mouse cdk1 and 61% identity to human cdk2. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • We call this kinase neuronal cdc2-like kinase (nclk) because, in contrast to either cdk1 or cdk2, nclk is expressed at high levels in terminally differentiated neurons no longer in the cell cycle. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • 58, 1365-1371] that cdk1 kinase, but not other structurally defined protein kinases, could phosphorylate the repeated Lys-Ser-Pro (KSP) motifs found in mammalian high and middle molecular mass neurofilament subunits in vitro, but the precise molecular nature of the endogenous neuronal KSP kinase has remained undefined. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • CDK1/CDC2-cyclin-B controls pronuclear union in interphase fertilized eggs. (abcam.com)
  • Our results indicate that C. elegans uses multiple Cdks to regulate cell-cycle transitions and that ncc-1 is the C. elegans ortholog of Cdk1/Cdc2 in other metazoans, required for M phase in meiotic as well as mitotic cell cycles. (biologists.org)
  • We determined site-specific stoichiometry of more than 5000 sites and found that most of the up-regulated sites phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) or CDK2 were almost fully phosphorylated in mitotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • when it was confirmed vertebrates and mammalian members of the Cdc2 protein family also bind cyclins, Cdc2 became Cdk1, the first cyclin-dependent protein kinase. (scbt.com)
  • While NUSAP1 gene silencing downregulated the expression of genes associated with cell cycle progression in G2/M phase, cyclin D kinase (CDK1) and DLGAP5 arrested cells in G2/M phase and significantly inhibited the growth, migration, and invasion of MCF-7 cells. (medscimonit.com)
  • A second possibility is that the feedback loop is initiated by a triggering kinase that activates Cdc25 to generate a small amount of active Cdk1. (rupress.org)
  • Previously, we found that eIF4A interacts with cyclin-dependent kinase A (CDKA), the plant ortholog of mammalian CDK1. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In contrast, cdc2-kinase only phosphorylates histone H1, and the activation of this reaction by PARP I does not involve PARP I-cdc2-kinase binding only PARP I-histone H1 association. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Since this associated kinase phosphorylates pRB at most of the sites used in vivo, these results suggest that this kinase is one of the major regulators of pRB. (cshl.edu)
  • In vitro, our previous studies showed that cdc2 kinase phosphorylates Thr-320 (T320) in PP-1, and that this leads to inhibition of enzyme activity. (elsevier.com)
  • PITALRE, a nuclear CDC2-related protein kinase that phosphorylates the retinoblastoma protein in vitro . (nature.com)
  • The protein also associates with cyclin C and phosphorylates the retinoblastoma 1 protein to promote exit from G0. (genecards.org)
  • This latter result was clearly demonstrated by in vitro kinase assays showing that the p25-Cdk5 complex in our cell system phosphorylates Rb directly without the need for any intermediary kinase activity. (biologists.org)
  • The other kinase which phosphorylates T-14 of cdc2 kinase must exist. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Mitotic fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus can be largely explained by disruption of the interaction between GM130 and the vesicle-docking protein p115. (nih.gov)
  • We propose that Cdc2 is directly involved in mitotic Golgi fragmentation and that signaling via MEK1 is not required for this process. (nih.gov)
  • Mitotic cyclins stably associate with CDC2 and function as regulatory subunits. (novoprolabs.com)
  • A repeated motif (TPXKK) is identified as the likely mitotic phosphoacceptor site in nucleolin, in that a synthetic peptide mimicking this site functions as both a substrate and a competitive inhibitor of cdc2 kinase. (unibas.ch)
  • As part of this process, the schizont recruits a host cell mitotic kinase, Polo-like kinase 1, and we established that parasite association with host cell central spindles requires Polo-like kinase 1 catalytic activity. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings provide a striking example of how an intracellular eukaryotic pathogen that evolved ways to induce the uncontrolled proliferation of the cells it infects usurps the host cell mitotic machinery, including Polo-like kinase 1, one of the pivotal mitotic kinases, to ensure its own persistence and survival. (nih.gov)
  • 1996 ) Vanadate triggers the transition from chromosome condensation to decondensation in a mitotic mutant (tsTM13) inactivation of p34cdc2/H1 kinase and dephosphorylation of mitosis-specific histone H3. (biologists.org)
  • We have shown that some forms associate with NuMa, a key mitotic protein, and are components of the mitotic apparatus. (dana-farber.org)
  • For all of the apoptosis-inducing agents tested, the appearance of condensed chromatin was accompanied by 2- to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. (pnas.org)
  • The p34(cdc2) kinase copurifies with the mitotic apparatus and immunostaining indicates that the p34(cdc2) kinase is concentrated at the spindle poles, Models for the interaction of the p34(cdc2) kinase and the 77 kDa EMAP are presented. (ku.edu)
  • Cdc25 is a universally conserved protein phosphatase that promotes mitotic entry by dephosphorylating Cdc2 on Tyr 15/Thr 14, thereby activating Cdc2 ( 11 , 17 , 28 , 53 , 55 ). (asm.org)
  • To investigate this process, we reduced endoreduplication in transgenic maize endosperm by ectopically expressing a gene encoding a dominant negative mutant form of cyclin-dependent kinase A. This gene was regulated by the 27-kD γ-zein promoter, which restricted synthesis of the defective enzyme to the endoreduplication rather than the mitotic phase of endosperm development. (plantcell.org)
  • Mammalian neurofilament proteins, particularly midsized (NF-M) and heavy (NF-H) molecular weight neurofilament proteins, are highly phosphorylated in axons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neurofilaments (NFs) in the adult mammalian nervous system consist of three major subunits: low molecular weight neurofilament protein NF-L (68 kDa), NF-M (95 kDa), and NF-H (115 kDa) ( Liem, 1993 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The mammalian cell cycle control system is regulated by a group of protein kinases called cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The A.T-DNA-binding domain of mammalian high mobility group I chromosomal proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indentification of DIABLO, a mammalian protein that promotes apoptosis by binding to an antagonizing IAP proteins," Cell 102:43-53 (2000). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Draetta G, Beach D (1989) The mammalian cdc2 protein kinase: mechanisms of regulation during the cell cycle. (springer.com)
  • Danu induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) and inhibited the activation of protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. (dovepress.com)
  • An increase in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity is associated with vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and rapamycin, which blocks the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin, inhibits this proliferation in vitro and in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • p70 S6 kinase, a target of PI 3-kinase and the mammalian target of rapamycin, was rapidly activated on growth factor stimulation of quiescent coronary artery smooth muscle cells and after balloon injury of rat carotid arteries. (ahajournals.org)
  • The pathway consisting of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and of the p70/p85-kDa S6 kinases (p70 S6 kinase) appears to be crucial for the activation of these translation factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Because up to 35 different protein kinases could be identified by the combination of kinase inhibitor affinity chromatography and MS analysis, this type of chemical proteomics strategy might be useful for comprehensive approaches to cellular kinase biochemistry in case the coverage of protein kinases can be substantially increased ( 14 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Using a synthetic KSPXXXK peptide to screen for a specific kinase, we fractionated rat brain extracts by column chromatography and identified extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk2) activated by an upstream activator, the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase MAPKK (MEK), by Western blot analysis, sequence identification, and inhibition by a specific MEK inhibitor (PD 98059). (jneurosci.org)
  • 1986) "A Potent Synthetic Peptide Inhibitor of the cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase" The Journal of Biological Chemistry261(3):989-992. (patentgenius.com)
  • 1985) "An Active Twenty-Amino-Acid-Residue Peptide Derived From the Inhibitor Protein of the Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase" Biochem J. 231:655-661. (patentgenius.com)
  • 1.5 Comparison of Kinase Inhibitor Therapeutic Strategies. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Fig. 4: Greatwall kinase inhibitor (GKI-1) inhibited MASTL expression and altered functional characteristics in PC cell lines in vitro. (nature.com)
  • These compounds included a myristic acid analog known to interact with Src family kinases and an inhibitor of cyclin dependent kinase 2, demonstrating that high-throughput chemical screens combined with high-resolution behavioral assays provide a powerful approach for the discovery of novel cognitive modulators. (pnas.org)
  • Danusertib (Danu) is a pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases and a third-generation breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (Bcr-Abl) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of human breast cancer remain elusive. (dovepress.com)
  • The activity of this kinase is restricted to the G1-S phase, which is controlled by the regulatory subunits D-type cyclins and CDK inhibitor p16(INK4a). (jax.org)
  • CDC2 is a catalytic subunit of the highly conserved protein kinase complex known as M-phase promoting factor (MPF), which is essential for G1/S and G2/M phase transitions of eukaryotic cell cycle. (novoprolabs.com)
  • It has CTD kinase activity by hyperphosphorylating the C-terminal heptapeptide repeat domain (CTD) of the largest RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1, thereby acting as a key regulator of transcription elongation. (novoprolabs.com)
  • CKS2 protein binds to the catalytic subunit of the cyclin dependent kinases and is essential for their biological function. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of cyclin kinase subunit 2 in human breast cancer and its prognostic significance. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical and biological impact of cyclin-dependent kinase subunit 2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Oncogenic potential of cyclin kinase subunit-2 in cholangiocarcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • 1993 ). p35 (CDK5R1) was then characterized as a regulatory subunit of CDK5 to activate its kinase activity, with subsequent identification of its isoform p39 (CDK5R2) (Tsai et al. (springer.com)
  • It is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex that is important for cell cycle G1 phase progression. (jax.org)
  • The eIF4F complex is composed of eIF4E (the cap-binding subunit) and eIF4G (an adaptor protein), to which a variety of accessory proteins bind, including eIF4A, eIF4B, and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Following the identification of the cdc2 kinase as a major element controlling entry of cells into mitosis, it is important to define the physiological target range of this enzyme. (unibas.ch)
  • Here, we demonstrate that two major nucleolar proteins, nucleolin and NO38, are highly phosphorylated during mitosis. (unibas.ch)
  • Importantly, the two nucleolar proteins are also phosphorylated by highly purified starfish cdc2 kinase in vitro, on sites that correspond to those observed specifically during mitosis in vivo. (unibas.ch)
  • Recessive temperature-sensitive mutations in the cdc2 gene cause cell cycle arrest when shifted to the restrictive temperature, while a second class of mutations within the cdc2 gene causes a premature advancement into mitosis. (core.ac.uk)
  • Results from RNA interference experiments indicate that at least one of these kinases is required for cell-cycle progression during meiosis and mitosis. (biologists.org)
  • These findings suggest that at least one of the biochemical steps required for mitosis, activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases, is also an important event during apoptosis. (pnas.org)
  • In most organisms the DNA replication and damage checkpoints prevent entry into mitosis by maintaining Cdc2 in its tyrosine-phosphorylated (inhibited) form ( 4 , 21 , 50 , 51 ). (asm.org)
  • In higher eukaryotic organisms, the Wee1 and Myt1 protein kinases negatively regulate mitosis by phosphorylating Cdc2. (asm.org)
  • In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe , the Wee1 and Mik1 tyrosine kinases negatively regulate mitosis by phosphorylating Cdc2 on Tyr 15 ( 13 , 27 , 44 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • A major effort in cell cycle research has been to elucidate how checkpoint pathways interface with the cell cycle machinery to maintain Cdc2 in its inhibited form and hence to prevent entry into mitosis. (asm.org)
  • Entry into mitosis is governed by the activation of the Cdc2/Cdc13(cyclin B) protein kinase complex. (searlescholars.net)
  • Another gene product which plays an essential role in the entry into mitosis is the c-Myb-related Cdc5 protein. (searlescholars.net)
  • Global Markets Direct's, 'Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (p33 Protein Kinase or cdc2-Related Protein Kinase or EC 2.7.11.22) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016', provides in depth analysis on Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (p33 Protein Kinase or cdc2-Related Protein Kinase or EC 2.7.11.22) targeted pipeline therapeutics. (reportsnreports.com)
  • The report provides comprehensive information on the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (p33 Protein Kinase or cdc2-Related Protein Kinase or EC 2.7.11.22), targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (p33 Protein Kinase or cdc2-Related Protein Kinase or EC 2.7.11.22) targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects. (reportsnreports.com)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • Previously the cdc2+ gene has been cloned and has been shown to encode a 34 kDa phosphoprotein with in vitro protein kinase activity. (core.ac.uk)
  • Here we describe the cloning of 11 mutant alleles of the cdc2 gene using two simple methods, one of which is presented here for the first time. (core.ac.uk)
  • Here, we show that paternally expressed necdin represses E2F1-dependent cdc2 gene transcription and attenuates apoptosis of postmitotic neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • CDK4 was the only member of the cyclin-dependent kinase gene family that bore a unique function in apoptotic signal transduction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Additionally, non-protein-coding gene-regulatory elements may also influence these signaling pathways, and screening for these is also highly amenable to high-throughput methods. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase family. (genecards.org)
  • CDK3 (Cyclin Dependent Kinase 3) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity . (genecards.org)
  • Cell division protein kinase 10 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK10 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CDK subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CDK subfamily members are highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2, and are known to be essential for cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDK3+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CDK3 human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-mobility group protein HMG-I/HMG-Y is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HMGA1 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a non-histone chromatin protein involved in many cellular processes, including regulation of inducible gene transcription, DNA replication, heterochromatin organization, integration of retroviruses into chromosomes, and the metastatic progression of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activator 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK5R2 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a neuron-specific activator of CDK5 kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human alpha-synuclein protein is made of 140 amino acids, encoded by the SNCA gene. (biolegend.com)
  • During the past five years, we have focused on the structure, function, gene regulation, and molecular pathology of protein 4.1. (dana-farber.org)
  • Our laboratory has shown that many isoforms of protein 4.1 arise from a single protein 4.1R gene by tissue-specific alternative mRNA splicing pathways, a number of which we have characterized. (dana-farber.org)
  • We have previously cloned a functional cdc2 gene from Picea abies and found it to be part of a family of related sequences, largely consisting of pseudogenes. (deepdyve.com)
  • The early sepB + gene encodes an essential protein required for efficient chromosome segregation ( H arris and H amer 1995 ). (genetics.org)
  • The NPM1 gene encodes for nucleophosmin, a nucleolus-located shuttling protein that is involved in multiple cell functions, including regulation of ribosome biogenesis, control of centrosome duplication and preservation of ARF tumor suppressor integrity. (springer.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. (jax.org)
  • This protein is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28 and S. pombe cdc2. (jax.org)
  • Mutations in this gene as well as in its related proteins including D-type cyclins, p16(INK4a) and Rb were all found to be associated with tumorigenesis of a variety of cancers. (jax.org)
  • Then, we isolated the regulatory sequence of cdc2 gene by a ligation-mediated PCR and found E2F binding site at the position of nt -117 to -124 and the RB control elements at the positions of nt -106 to -112 and -156 to -165. (nii.ac.jp)
  • vi) The decrease in the levels of cyclins A and B, the increase in activity of cdc2, and the hyperphosphorylation of cdc-25C were mediated by U L 13 and α22/U S 1.5 gene products. (asm.org)
  • Inhibitors known to block the activity of cell cycle kinases cdk2 and cdc2 have been reported to reduce both α and β gene transcription, as well as reduce viral yields ( 41 , 42 ). (asm.org)
  • 1 2 3 Cellular proliferation involves changes not only in the level of gene transcription but also in the rate of protein translation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. (fishersci.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are essential for the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This gene is mapped to a region on the chromosome 8 head-to-head next to the PRKDC/DNA-PK, a DNA-activated protein kinase involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • There was little difference in the level of endosperm gene expression with high and low levels of endoreduplication, suggesting that this process may not enhance transcription of genes associated with starch and storage protein synthesis. (plantcell.org)
  • Cyclins, together with the p34 (cdc2) or cdk2 kinases , form the Maturation Promoting Factor. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This protein and neuron-specific CDK5 activator CDK5R1/p39NCK5A both share limited similarity to cyclins, and thus may define a distinct family of cyclin-dependent kinase activating proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • As malignant cells evolve, both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms commonly affect the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, causing overexpression of cyclins and loss of expression of cdk inhibitors. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, analyses of levels and subcellular localization of Cdk-related cyclins did not reveal any change following Cdk5 activation, arguing for a direct effect of Cdk5 activity on Rb protein. (biologists.org)
  • The activity of cdc2 was higher in infected cell lysates than those of corresponding proteins present in lysates of mock-infected cells even though cyclins A and B were not detectable in lysates of infected cells. (asm.org)
  • Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. (fishersci.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclins regulate with the help of different interacting proteins the progression through the eukaryotic cell cycle. (plantcell.org)
  • Although many cell cycle genes of plants have been identified in the last decade (for review, see Stals and Inzé, 2001 ), the correct number of CDKs, cyclins, and interacting proteins with a role in cell cycle control is unknown. (plantcell.org)
  • These events were associated with increases in the protein levels of cyclin B1, cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 1, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and p21 Cip1 in vivo and in vitro, whereas inhibition of the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway with either rapamycin or wortmannin blocked the upregulation of these cell cycle proteins, but not mRNA, and arrested the cells in vitro before S phase. (ahajournals.org)
  • These data suggest that cell cycle progression in vascular cells in vitro and in vivo depends on the integrity of the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway in allowing posttranscriptional accumulation of cell cycle proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • CDK7, CDK8 and CDK9) have been implicated in the regulation of transcription as protein kinases that phosphorylate the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II. (biologists.org)
  • The kinases that phosphorylate the RLC are regulated by distinct upstream signals, such as [Ca 2+ ] 4 /calmodulin and Rho family GTPases. (rupress.org)
  • We isolated mouse mytl kinase which phosphorylate both T-14 and Y-15 in vitro. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The kinase complex is able to phosphorylate CDK2 and CDC2 kinases, thus functions as a CDK-activating kinase (CAK). (fishersci.com)
  • Rapamycin-induced inhibition of the 70-kilodalton S6 protein kinase. (harvard.edu)
  • Inhibition of tau phosphorylating protein kinase cdk5 prevents β-amyloid-induced neuronal death. (springer.com)
  • Smac, a mitochondrial protein that promotes cytochrome c-dependent caspase activation by eliminating IAP inhibition," Cell 102:33-42 (2000). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1.5.2 Alternative Strategies for Kinase Inhibition. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase pathway rescues by 80% the initiation of pX-mediated apoptosis, whereas subsequent apoptotic events involve both pathways. (asm.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are activated by the binding to a cyclin and mediate the progression through the cell cycle. (abcam.com)
  • Cell cycle progression is dependent on the sequential activation of cyclindependent kinases (Cdks). (novusbio.com)
  • cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Central players are the cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks), which govern the initiation, progression, and completion of cell cycle events. (jci.org)
  • The crucial role of the cdks has prompted great interest in the development of specific kinase inhibitors that would be expected to block cell cycle progression and induce growth arrest. (jci.org)
  • Cell proliferation is controlled by a universally conserved molecular machinery in which the core key players are Ser/Thr kinases, known as cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (plantcell.org)
  • These antibodies have allowed us to detect a pRB-associated kinase that has been identified as the cell cycle-regulating kinase p34cdc2 or a closely related enzyme. (cshl.edu)
  • Engström, Peter 2004-10-06 00:00:00 The p34cdc2 protein and other cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDK) are important regulators of eukaryotic cell cycle progression. (deepdyve.com)
  • It is involved in regulation of MAP kinase activity, possibly leading to affect the response to estrogn inhibitors. (novoprolabs.com)
  • To address these limitations, we have developed a prefractionation strategy that uses a combination of immobilized low molecular weight inhibitors for the selective affinity capture of protein kinases. (mcponline.org)
  • To date, the only biochemical techniques permitting the efficient isolation of certain subfractions of the expressed kinome use immobilized low molecular weight kinase inhibitors as selective capture molecules for the affinity enrichment of their cellular target proteins ( 11 - 13 ). (mcponline.org)
  • 1976) "Synthetic Hexapeptide Substrates and Inhibitors of 3':5'-Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase" Proc. (patentgenius.com)
  • Burke, T. R. (1992) "Protein-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors" Drugs Fut. (patentgenius.com)
  • Thetext also describes existing and emerging kinase inhibitors,focusing mostly on small molecules but also alternative approacheslike therapeutic antibodies. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors and gemcitabine: new treatment options in pancreatic cancer? (nature.com)
  • Retinoblastoma (RB) family members, Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs)], there must be key differences between the reversible quiescence in cell culture and developmentally controlled robust cell cycle exit in vivo . (biologists.org)
  • Protein phosphatase 1 (PP-1) is known to be a critical component of eukaryotic cell cycle progression. (elsevier.com)
  • A human transmembrane protein-tyrosine-phosphatase, PTP zeta, is expressed in brain and has an N-terminal receptor domain homologous to carbonic anhydrases. (harvard.edu)
  • The kinase associated phosphatase (KAP) is a human dual specificity protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates Cdk2 on Threonine 160 in a cyclin dependent manner. (novusbio.com)
  • Protein phosphatase type 2A complex (PP2A) has been known as a tumor suppressor for over two decades, but it remains unclear exactly how it suppresses tumor growth. (biologists.org)
  • Immunofluorescence studies with protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) isoforms-specific antibodies detected PP1δ, but not α or γ1, at focal adhesions. (biochemj.org)
  • This is accomplished in part by maintaining the Cdc25 phosphatase in a phosphorylated form that binds 14-3-3 proteins. (asm.org)
  • Casein kinase 1 is responsible for most of the hyperphosphorylation of Mih1, whereas protein phosphatase 2A associated with Cdc55 dephosphorylates Mih1. (rupress.org)
  • Collectively, these observations suggest that Mih1 regulation is achieved by a balance of opposing kinase and phosphatase activities. (rupress.org)
  • These results suggest that endogenous necdin attenuates neuronal apoptosis by suppressing the E2F1-Cdc2 system. (jneurosci.org)
  • The PITSLRE kinase subfamily have been implicated in apoptosis (Beyaert et al. (biologists.org)
  • Expression of a murine homologue of the inhibitior of apoptosis protein is related to cell proliferation," Proc. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • IAP-family protein survivin inhibits caspase activity and apoptosis induced by Fas (CD95), Bax, caspases, and anticancer drugs," Cancer Research 58:5315-5320 (1998). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Stable overexpression of bcl-2 suppressed the apoptosis-inducing activity of all agents tested and reduced the amount of Cdc2 and Cdk2 in the nucleus, suggesting a possible mechanism by which bcl-2 inhibits the chromatin condensation characteristic of apoptosis. (pnas.org)
  • Activation of the cellular stress pathways (c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK] and p38 mitogen-activated protein [MAP] kinase) is linked to apoptosis. (asm.org)
  • Hepatitis B virus X protein (pX) activates p38 MAP kinase and JNK pathways and, in response to weak apoptotic signals, sensitizes hepatocytes to apoptosis. (asm.org)
  • Employing hepatocyte cell lines expressing pX, which was regulated by tetracycline, we investigated the mechanism of apoptosis by p38 MAP kinase and JNK pathway activation. (asm.org)
  • These results support the importance of the pX-dependent activation of both the p38 MAP kinase and JNK pathways in pX-mediated apoptosis and suggest that this mechanism of apoptosis occurs in vivo in response to weak apoptotic signals. (asm.org)
  • Apoptosis is regulated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) cellular stress pathways ( 47 , 76 ). (asm.org)
  • Evidence in support of JNK and p38 MAP kinase pathways in regulating apoptosis is derived from studies employing treatments simulating cellular stress. (asm.org)
  • However, despite reports of a role for the JNK and p38 MAP kinase in apoptosis and the demonstration that ASK-1 is upstream of both JNK and p38 MAP kinase pathways ( 37 , 78 ), whether both pathways are necessary for apoptosis remains unresolved. (asm.org)
  • Danu significantly decreased the expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra-large (Bcl-xl) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), but increased the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and promoted the cleavage of caspases 3 and 9. (dovepress.com)
  • Targeting different domains of gap junction protein to control malignant glioma Wang, Jun;Yang, Ze-Yu;Guo, Yu-Feng;Kuang, Jing-Ya;Bian, Xiu-Wu;Yu, Shi-Cang 2017-11-02 00:00:00 Abstract A rational treatment strategy for glioma, the most common primary central nervous system tumor, should focus on early invasive growth and resistance to current therapeutics. (deepdyve.com)
  • Abstract -Cell cycle progression represents a key event in vascular proliferative diseases, one that depends on an increased rate of protein synthesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Whereas the Cdc28 protein kinase of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays an essential role in cell cycle progression during the G1 interval, a function in the progression from the G2 interval into M phase has been inferred for its homologs, including the Cdc2Hs protein kinase of humans. (scripps.edu)
  • This transgenic yeast strain was able to perform the G1 functions attributed to the Cdc28 protein kinase, including the ability to grow and divide normally, to respond to environmental signals that induce G1 arrest, and to regulate the Cdc2Hs protein kinase appropriately in response to these signals. (scripps.edu)
  • Analysis of these mutations has identified a number of regions within the cdc2 protein that are important for cdc2+ activity and regulation. (core.ac.uk)
  • In this paper we report the cloning and characterisation of a Cdc2-related kinase, CrkRS, which may represent a novel kinase involved in the regulation of transcription and splicing. (biologists.org)
  • The heterogeneity of kinases involved in phospho-regulation provides a fundamental basis for the sequential biochemical reactions that underlie the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)-3, a member of the cdk family of kinases, plays a critical role in cell cycle regulation and is involved in G 0 -G 1 and G 1 -S cell cycle transitions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • a-synuclein may be involved in the regulation of dopamine release and transport and also may function to induce fibrillization of microtubule-associated protein tau. (biolegend.com)
  • RT "Bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced osteoblast differentiation RT requires Smad-mediated down-regulation of Cdk6. (genome.jp)
  • This book provides an overview of different protein kinases structure, function, regulation, and their role in cancer. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • 2.4 Protein Kinase Regulation. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • 2.4.4 Regulation by Other Domains and Partner Proteins. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • The exact function of this protein has not yet been determined, but it may play a role in mRNA processing and may be involved in regulation of hematopoiesis. (discoverx.com)
  • The function of 14-3-3 zeta protein remained to be elucidated in relationto the regulation of G2 to M phase transition through weel kinase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We hypothesized that these 2 molecules converge on a critical pathway of translational regulation that is essential for successful upregulation of cell cycle-regulatory proteins in activated smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • The molecular interactions between PARP I, cdc2-kinase, PKC and histone H1 were determined with the aid of the common phosphate acceptor function of histone H1 to both kinases. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The recombinant human CDC2/GST chimera consists of 522 amino acids and predicts a molecular mass of 60 kDa. (novoprolabs.com)
  • View detailed Cdc2 Substrate specifications, including Cdc2 Substrate CAS number, molecular weight, molecular formula and chemical structure, by clicking on the product name. (scbt.com)
  • Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors. (novusbio.com)
  • Molecular views of recombination proteins and their control. (psu.edu)
  • How these different kinases are targeted to their sites of action remains unresolved, in part due to our inability to follow these molecular events dynamically. (rupress.org)
  • 4 We hypothesized that in addition to the generalized increases in protein synthesis necessary for cell growth, there is a highly regulated increase in the translation of certain mRNA species, including those that encode cell cycle proteins, and we also hypothesized that the molecular machinery regulating this translation represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention. (ahajournals.org)
  • HMGA1-GFP fusion proteins are highly dynamic in vivo (determined using FRAP analysis), but in contrast also show nanomolar affinity to AT-rich DNA in vitro (determined biochemically), which might be explained due to the extensive post-transcriptional modifications in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently it has been shown that HMGA1 proteins, HMGA1a and HMGA1b, can cross-link DNA fibers in vitro and can induce chromatin clustering in vivo suggesting a structural role of HMGA1 proteins in heterochromatin organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinat 14-3-3 zeta was demonstrated to bind to weel kinase in vitro. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase-associated protein Cks2 is associated with bladder cancer progression. (nih.gov)
  • Progression through this cycle involves a large number of dedicated protein complexes and signaling pathways, and deregulation of this process is implicated in tumorigenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein, plays important roles not only in the development of the central nervous system and but also in the progression of glioma. (deepdyve.com)
  • Because casein kinase 1 is associated with sites of polar growth, it may regulate Mih1 as part of a signaling mechanism that links successful completion of growth-related events to cell cycle progression. (rupress.org)
  • A number of cdc2- related kinase (CRK) genes have been isolated from trypanosomatids. (uofk.edu)
  • E2F1 transcriptionally activates many proapoptotic genes including the cyclin-dependent protein kinase cell division cycle 2 (Cdc2). (jneurosci.org)
  • 1992). There are three human PCTAIRE genes, and the proteins are abundant in nerve cells (Gao et al. (biologists.org)
  • By inserting segments from a "library' of human DNA intoyeast cells lacking active cdc2 genes, the researchers isolated human genetic material that could substitute for cdc2 and initiate cell division in the cdc2 -deficient yeast cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Many genes whose expression is regulated by E2F family transcription factors, including CDK2, CCNE1, CDC6, CDC2 , MCM2, were significantly down-regulated at 24 hr post-IR. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • pX-mediated activation of p38 MAP kinase and JNK pathways is sustained, inducing the transcription of the death receptor family genes encoding Fas/FasL and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1)/TNF-α and the p53-regulated Bax and Noxa genes. (asm.org)
  • The cellular protein, HCF, required for transactivation of viral α genes is a cell cycle regulator ( 12 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Suppressor analyses of mutations in these genes have identified two components of a complex which is necessary for actin filament function and includes the actin related proteins arp2 and arp3. (searlescholars.net)
  • Hanks, S. K. (1988) "The Protein Kinase Family: Conserved Features and Deduced Phylogeny of the Catalytic Domains" Science 241:42-52. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2.3 Catalytic Activity of Protein Kinases. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. (pnas.org)
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology now offers a broad range of Cdc2 Substrates. (scbt.com)
  • Cdc2 Substrates offered by Santa Cruz affects Cdc2 and, in some cases, other cell cycle and Cdc2 p34-related cyclin dependent kinase related proteins. (scbt.com)
  • It has little secondary structure in solution but assumes distinct conformations when bound to substrates such as DNA or other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the method of the invention, a protein kinase is contacted with an oriented degenerate peptide library, peptides within the library which are substrates for the kinase are converted to phosphopeptides and the phosphopeptides are separated from non-phosphorylated peptides. (patentgenius.com)
  • Importantly, the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways are linked via the function of the protein Bid ( 80 , 81 ). (asm.org)
  • Genetic experiments argue against Mck1p functioning in the same control pathways as either Rme1p, which transmits cell-type signals, or Ime4p, another protein known to affect IME1 expression and thought to transmit both nutrient and cell type signals ( 21 , 28 ). (asm.org)
  • 11 It has been suggested that PI 3-kinase and mTOR act via independent and parallel pathways. (ahajournals.org)
  • The associated kinase activity is not seen in the G1 phase but appears in the S phase, and the levels continue to increase throughout the remainder of the cell cycle. (cshl.edu)
  • Using a new panel of anti-human pRB monoclonal antibodies, we have investigated the biochemical properties of this protein. (cshl.edu)
  • The invention SBPs can be employed in a variety of ways, for example, for the production of anti-SBP antibodies thereto, in therapeutic compositions and in bioassays methods employing such proteins and/or antibodies. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Whenever possible, the phospho protein-specific antibodies we offer are optimized to work for multiple applications, allowing for clone and product consistency across different experimental systems. (biolegend.com)
  • Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. (sickkids.ca)
  • The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated. (sickkids.ca)
  • CDC2 also is a cyclin-dependent kinase which displays CTD kinase activity and is required for RNA splicing. (novoprolabs.com)
  • Neuronal activity deprivation elevated the expression of both E2F1 and Cdc2 in primary CGNs prepared from mice at postnatal day 6, whereas the necdin levels remained unchanged. (jneurosci.org)
  • In chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, endogenous necdin was associated with the cdc2 promoter containing an E2F-binding site in activity-deprived CGNs. (jneurosci.org)
  • The levels of cdc2 mRNA, protein, and kinase activity were significantly higher in Ndn +m/−p CGNs than in wild-type CGNs under activity-deprived conditions. (jneurosci.org)
  • The alteration of protein activity by the attachment of phosphate groups occurs frequently in cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some of these proteins have been shown to resemble cdc2 further in requiring a cyclin partner for activity, and these proteins are called cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk). (biologists.org)
  • This evidence suggests that the Cdkl kinase family might be involved in behavioral modification, activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, and learning. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cdk4 kinase activity was shown to be required for proliferation of breast cancer cells and mammary tumorigenesis in cdk4-null mice ( 9 , 10 ) and kinase-deficient cyclin D1 knock-in mice ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • RT "Identification of G1 kinase activity for cdk6, a novel cyclin D RT partner. (genome.jp)
  • 14-3-3 zeta protein did not affect the activity of weel kinase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We have examined the expression, activity and localization of cyclin dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), during myogenesis. (cnrs.fr)
  • In murine C2 cells, both the protein level and kinase activity of cdk5 showed a marked increase during early myogenesis with a peak between 36 and 48 hours of differentiation, decreasing as myotubes fuse after 60 to 72 hours. (cnrs.fr)
  • v) cdc2 accumulating in infected cells exhibited kinase activity. (asm.org)
  • This effect appears to depend on its kinase activity, as kinase-defective mutant colorectal cancer cell lines have an exaggerated apoptotic response and reduced proliferative capacity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The MCM complex consisting of this protein and MCM2, 6 and 7 proteins possesses DNA helicase activity, and may act as a DNA unwinding enzyme. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Overexpression of a wild-type cyclin-dependent kinase A increased enzyme activity but had no effect on endoreduplication. (plantcell.org)
  • By contrast, ectopic expression of the defective enzyme lowered kinase activity and reduced by half the mean C-value and total DNA content of endosperm nuclei. (plantcell.org)
  • Expression cloning of a cDNA encoding a retinoblastoma-binding protein with E2F-like properties. (harvard.edu)
  • CDC2 is phosphorylated at Thr-14 and Tyr-15 in the ATP-binding G-loop by Wee1 or Myt1 kinase [ 7 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Publications] Honda,R.: '14-3-3protein binds to the carboxy half of mouse wee1 kinase' Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun.230. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2001) Human INCENP colocalises with the Aurora-B/AIRK2 kinase on chromosomes and is overexpression in tumour cells. (springer.com)
  • 10 Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) is another regulator involved in the activation of mTOR/p70 S6 kinase. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7 However, it has also been proposed that PI 3-kinase can act upstream from mTOR, thereby leading to activation of mTOR and p70 S6 kinase. (ahajournals.org)
  • Neuronal cdc2-like kinase: a cdc2-related protein kinase with predominantly neuronal expression. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • 1995 ). CDK5/p35 is the first example of a CDC2-like kinase with neuronal function. (springer.com)
  • Effects of chronic exposure to cocaine are regulated by the neuronal protein Cdk5. (springer.com)
  • It is primarily a neuronal protein, but can also be found in the neuroglial cells. (biolegend.com)
  • However, because protein kinases are usually of much lower abundance than their cellular substrate proteins, previous global phosphoproteome studies have resulted in the identification of rather small numbers of kinase-derived phosphopeptides ( 7 - 10 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Publications] Nagai,Y.: 'Ubiquitin-activating enzyme,E1, is phosphorylated in mammalidn cells by the protein kinase cdc2. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Recent studies have shown that there exists a family of protein kinases structurally and functionally related to the yeast cell cycle regulatory kinase cdc2 [Meyerson, M., Faha, B., Su, L.-K., Harlow, E. & Tsai, L.-H. (1991) Cold Spring Harbor Symp. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Several protein kinases have been isolated that are most closely related in their kinase domain sequence to cdc2, the major cell cycle kinase in fission yeast. (biologists.org)
  • The yeast counterparts of these censor proteins are Tel1/Mec1 and Tel1/Rad3 in budding yeast and fission yeast, respectively ( McGowan and Russell 2004 ). (genetics.org)
  • To identify proteins which bind to mouse weel kinase, the yeast ' two-hybrid'system was used with a mouse cDNA library. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In this study, we generated a mutant of fission yeast Cdc25 that is severely impaired in its ability to bind 14-3-3 proteins. (asm.org)
  • Nuclear exclusion of wild-type Cdc25 was observed upon overproduction of Rad 24, one of the two fission yeast 14-3-3 proteins, indicating that one function of Rad 24 is to keep Cdc25 out of the nucleus. (asm.org)
  • In fission yeast, the phosphoinositide 3-like kinase SpRad3 is a critical component of both the DNA replication and damage checkpoints. (asm.org)
  • Relatives of Cdc5 have now been identified in budding yeast and vertebrates and we are pursuing whether these proteins are functionally homologous. (searlescholars.net)
  • cdc2) are key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle. (uofk.edu)
  • Escherichia coli cytolethal distending toxin blocks the HeLa cell cycle at the G2/M transition by preventing cdc2 protein kinase dephosphorylation and activation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The mechanism of activation of CDC2-cyclin B has been investigated extensively for use in chemotherapy. (medsci.org)
  • This is defined as the transfer of phosphoryl groups [(PO3)2-] from one molecule to another, and serves as a transfer of energy that results in the activation, or deactivation of downstream proteins. (biolegend.com)
  • This kinase is ubiquitously expressed and translocates to the membrane upon activation. (biolegend.com)
  • Protein 4.1R Exon 16 3' Splice Site Activation Requires Coordination among TIA1, Pcbp1, and RBM39 during Terminal Erythropoiesis. (dana-farber.org)
  • 4.5.1 Activation and Known Mutations and Fusions of the JAKFamily of Tyrosine Kinases. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • 5.5 Protein Kinase C. 5.5.1 PKC Activation. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • INTRODUCTION DNAdamage response (DDR) is a series of signal transduction events triggered by DNA damage in cells =-=(1)-=-, including the recruitment and activation of proteins involved in DNA damage sensing, checkpoint signaling, chromatin remodeling and DNA repair. (psu.edu)
  • As the best characterized RLC kinase, MLCK is an ideal target for dynamic localization of activation state. (rupress.org)
  • We are examining biochemically some of the steps in the regulatory pathway of protein kinases which control the timing of Cdc2 activation. (searlescholars.net)
  • The CKS2 mRNA is found to be expressed in different patterns through the cell cycle in HeLa cells, which reflects specialized role for the encoded protein. (nih.gov)
  • Protein kinases constitute a large superfamily of enzymes with key regulatory functions in nearly all signal transmission processes of eukaryotic cells. (mcponline.org)
  • Furthermore, the populations of Cdc2-immunoreactive and apoptotic cells were increased in the cerebellum in vivo of Ndn +m/−p mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • 1999). A closely related protein kinase, PFTAIRE, is found in postnatal and adult nerve cells (Lazzaro et al. (biologists.org)
  • In the absence of wat1 , the cells exhibited a high level of nuclear fragmentation that resulted in the accumulation of Rad22 yellow fluorescent protein foci. (genetics.org)
  • Based on the results presented here, we hypothesize that ROS production in wat1 -null mutant cells generates DNA fragmentation that could trigger a checkpoint response and that, in the absence of checkpoint kinase Chk1, the cells exhibit severe growth defects leading to a synthetic lethal phenotype. (genetics.org)
  • In addition, AEAB induced the accumulation of G 2 /M-phase cells in cancer cell through the disassociation of CDC2/cyclin B1 complex. (medsci.org)
  • Moreover, as cells approach the state of terminal differentiation, there is a clear shift from the intranuclear localization of protein 4.1R to peripheral localization. (dana-farber.org)
  • RT "Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 inhibits proliferation of human mammary RT epithelial cells. (genome.jp)
  • The loss of wdb /PP2A function cooperates with aberrantly high Cyclin E protein levels, allowing cells to bypass a robust G0 late in development. (biologists.org)
  • Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer we have produced a novel biosensor allowing simultaneous determination of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) localization and its [Ca 2+ ] 4 /calmodulin-binding state in living cells. (rupress.org)
  • Recombinant full-length human CDKL2 was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-Terminal Glutathione-S-Transferase fusion protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • When both weel kinase and 14-3-3 zeta were transfected into COS-1 cells, they formed a complex in a cell. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Danu arrested MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in G 2 /M phase, accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and cyclin B1 and upregulation of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. (dovepress.com)
  • Furthermore, Danu significantly increased the expression levels of the membrane-bound microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II) and beclin 1 in breast cancer cells, two markers for autophagy. (dovepress.com)
  • Mutations cause crucial changes at the C-terminus of the NPM1 protein that are responsible for the aberrant nuclear export and accumulation of NPM1 mutants in the cytoplasm of leukemic cells. (springer.com)
  • Our recent research works brought about the following results : (1) Cdc2 mRNA transcript wasreadily detected in immature bone marrow cells and became undetectable accompanying with the cell cycle arrest which ocurred along wich differentiation : it was undetectable after the myelocyte/metamyelocyte stages in granulocytic differentiation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Peripheral blood resting cells including granulocytes, monocytes and T-lymphocytes did not express cdc2 mRNA transcripts. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cdc2 mRNA could be induced in T-lymphocytes when the cells re-entered the cell cycle in response to specific mitogens such as PHA.In contrast, cdc2 mRNA could not be induced in granulocytes and monocytes even after the culture with the appropriate stimulants such as LPS or CSFs. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We have examined the accumulation and activities of these proteins in cells infected with wild type and mutants of herpes simplex virus 1. (asm.org)
  • In addition, a fraction of cdc2 protein from infected cells exhibited altered electrophoretic mobility in denaturing gels. (asm.org)
  • These studies demonstrated that HSV requires the participation of cell cycle proteins in the course of its replication even though the virus replicates efficiently in both resting and dividing cells. (asm.org)
  • Here, we show that this interaction occurs only in proliferating cells where the two proteins coassociate with 5′-cap-binding protein complexes, eIF4F or the plant-specific eIFiso4F. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 1992). Individual Crk family members are often referred to by the one letter code of the amino acid sequence in the region corresponding to the `PSTAIRE' α-helix of cdc2 that interacts with the cyclin. (biologists.org)
  • 1992). CHED is also the closest relative to a protein kinase identified in mosquitos that have been subjected to stress. (biologists.org)
  • 1992) "Identification of Novel Peptide Antagonists for GPIIb/IIIa From a Conformationally Constrained Phage Peptide Library" Proteins: Structure, Function, and Genetics 14:509-515. (patentgenius.com)
  • Another protein known to regulate IME1 expression in response to nutritional signals is Mck1p, a dual-specificity protein kinase of the glycogen synthase kinase family ( 1 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • The fraction containing Erk2, as well as bacterially expressed Erk1 and Erk2, phosphorylated all types of KSP motifs in peptides (KSPXK, KSPXXK, KSPXXXK, and KSPXXXXK) derived from NF-M and NF-H. They also phosphorylated an expressed 24 KSPXXXK repeat NF-H polypeptide, an expressed NF-H as well as dephosphorylated native rat NF-H, and NF-M proteins with accompanying decreases in their respective electrophoretic mobilities. (jneurosci.org)
  • The sequence of weel kinase necessary for the binding was tested by two hybrid system expressing several lengthes of peptides of weel kinase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Insulin receptor kinase domain autophosphorylation regulates receptor enzymatic function. (harvard.edu)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulates PSD-95 ubiquitination in neurons. (springer.com)
  • 2000). The 110 kDa isoform localises to nuclear speckles and binds to the RNPS1 RNA binding protein (Loyer et al. (biologists.org)
  • Asada A, Yamamoto N, Gohda M, Saito T, Hayashi N, Hisanaga S. Myristoylation of p39 and p35 is a determinant of cytoplasmic or nuclear localization of active cycline-dependent kinase 5 complexes. (springer.com)
  • Through continuing analysis of these proteins and others which interact with them, we hope to learn more about the coordination of cell growth, nuclear division and cytokinesis. (searlescholars.net)
  • We have sequenced these alleles and find a variety of single amino acid substitutions mapping throughout the cdc2 protein. (core.ac.uk)
  • CrkRS is a 1490 amino acid protein, the largest CDK-related kinase so far isolated. (biologists.org)
  • The most common form of the protein, is the full 140 amino acid-long transcript. (biolegend.com)
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. (abcam.com)
  • 1.3 A Tour of the Human Protein Kinase Superfamily. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Interacts with CDC2- CCNB1 complex. (rcsb.org)
  • ICP22 interacts with a novel cell cycle-regulated protein, p78 ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • 1998 ) Cyclin-dependent kinase 5-deficient mice demonstrate novel developmental arrest in cerebral cortex. (biologists.org)
  • 1998). The PISSLRE kinase is a 39 kDa protein kinase that is most closely related to PITSLRE (50% identity). (biologists.org)